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1

Comparison of Modic Changes in the Lumbar and Cervical Spine, in 3167 Patients with and without Spinal Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Context There are few comparisons of Modic changes (MCs) in the lumbar and cervical spine. Purpose Compare the prevalence of MCs in the lumbar and cervical spine, and determine how MC prevalence depends on spinal pain, age, disc degeneration, spinal level, and the presence or absence of kyphosis. Study Design Retrospective clinical survey. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were compared from five patient groups: 1. 1223 patients with low-back pain/radiculopathy only; 2. 1023 patients with neck pain/radiculopathy only; 3. 497 patients with concurrent low-back and neck symptoms; 4. 304 asymptomatic subjects with lumbar MRIs; and 5. 120 asymptomatic subjects with cervical MRIs. Results The prevalence of MCs was higher in those with spinal pain than in those without, both in the lumbar spine (21.0% vs 10.5%) and cervical spine (8.8% vs 3.3%). Type II MCs were most common and Type III were least common in all groups. The prevalence of lumbar MCs in people with back pain was little affected by the presence of concurrent neck pain, and the same was true for the prevalence of cervical MCs in people with neck pain with or without concurrent back pain. When symptomatic patients were reclassified into two groups (back pain, neck pain), the prevalence of lumbar MCs in people with back pain was greater than that of cervical MCs in people with neck pain. The prevalence of lumbar and cervical MCs increased with age, disc degeneration, (descending) spinal level, and increased kyphosis. Conclusions There is a significantly higher prevalence of MCs in patients with back and neck pain. The reported association with increased kyphosis (flat back) is novel. PMID:25506944

Jian, Chen; Mamuti, Maiwulanjiang; Jun-hui, Liu; Zhi, Shan; Chong-yan, Wang; Shunwu, Fan; Zhao, Fengdong

2014-01-01

2

The initial effects of a cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondylalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulative therapy is frequently used in the management of musculoskeletal pain. A frequently reported clinical feature of this treatment is the immediacy with which it appears to initiate improvement in pain and function. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, repeated measures design was employed to study the initial effects of a cervical spine treatment technique in a group of 15

Bill Vicenzino; David Collins; Anthony Wright

1996-01-01

3

Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

2013-01-01

4

Comparison of cervical spine stiffness in individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain and asymptomatic individuals.  

PubMed

Study Design Clinical measurement, cross-sectional. Objective To determine if spinal joint stiffness is different in individuals with nonspecific neck pain, and whether stiffness magnitude is associated with pain intensity and disability. Background Manual therapists commonly evaluate spinal joint stiffness in patients presenting with nonspecific neck pain. However, a relationship between stiffness and neck pain has not yet been demonstrated. Methods Spinal stiffness at C7 was objectively measured in participants with chronic nonspecific neck pain whose symptomatic spinal level was identified as C7 (n = 12) and in age- and sex-matched asymptomatic controls (n = 12). Stiffness (slope of the linear region of the force-displacement curve) was quantified using a device that applied 5 standardized mechanical force cycles to the C7 spinous process, while concurrently measuring displacement and resistance to movement. Stiffness was compared between groups using an independent t test. Spearman rho and Pearson r were used to determine the extent to which stiffness magnitude was associated with pain intensity (visual analog scale) and level of disability (Neck Disability Index), respectively, in the group with neck pain. Results Participants with nonspecific neck pain had greater spinal joint stiffness at C7 compared with asymptomatic individuals (mean difference, 1.78 N/mm; 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 3.27; P = .022). However, stiffness magnitude in the group with neck pain was not associated (P>.05) with pain intensity or level of disability. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that cervical spine stiffness may be greater in the presence of nonspecific neck pain. However, judgments regarding pain intensity and level of disability should not be inferred from examinations of spinal joint stiffness. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(3):162-169. Epub 27 Jan 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5711. PMID:25627153

Ingram, Lewis A; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Rivett, Darren A

2015-03-01

5

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the cervical spine in children is essential to avoid pitfalls, recognize normal variants and identify children at risk of developing cervical spine instability and undertake the appropriate treatment. PMID:19308585

El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

2008-01-01

6

Traumatic Disorders of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The child’s cervical spine often presents a diagnostic dilemma. The presence of cervical growth plates, lack of complete ossification,\\u000a unique developmental aspects, and hypermobility are causes of confusion in the interpretation of cervical radiographs in children\\u000a with neck pain or stiffness [1]. Cervical spine radiographs in children are notoriously difficult to interpret. Lack of familiarity\\u000a with normal growth and development

Robert N. Hensinger

7

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs\\u000a at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary\\u000a to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can

Ismat Ghanem; Samer El Hage; Rami Rachkidi; Khalil Kharrat; Fernand Dagher; Gabi Kreichati

2008-01-01

8

Finite element modeling of potential cervical spine pain sources in neutral position low speed rear impact.  

PubMed

The rate of soft tissue sprain/strain injuries to the cervical spine and associated cost continue to be significant; however, the physiological nature of this injury makes experimental tests challenging while aspects such as occupant position and musculature may contribute to significant variability in the current epidemiological data. Several theories have been proposed to identify the source of pain associated with whiplash. The goal of this study was to investigate three proposed sources of pain generation using a detailed numerical model in rear impact scenarios: distraction of the capsular ligaments; transverse nerve root compression through decrease of the intervertebral foramen space; and potential for damage to the disc based on the extent of rotation and annulus fibre strain. There was significant variability associated with experimental measures, where the range of motion data overlapped ultimate failure data. Average data values were used to evaluate the model, which was justified by the use of average mechanical properties within the model and previous studies demonstrating predicted response and failure of the tissues was comparable to average response values. The model predicted changes in dimension of the intervertebral foramen were independent of loading conditions, and were within measured physiological ranges for the impact severities considered. Disc response, measured using relative rotation between intervertebral bodies, was below values associated with catastrophic failure or avulsion but exceeded the average range of motion values. Annulus fibre strains exceeded a proposed threshold value at three levels for 10g impacts. Capsular ligament strain increased with increasing impact severity and the model predicted the potential for injury at impact severities from 4g to 15.4g, when the range of proposed distraction corresponding to sub-catastrophic failure was exceeded, in agreement with the typically reported values of 9-15g. This study used an enhanced neck finite element model with active musculature to investigate three potential sources of neck pain resulting from rear impact scenarios and identified capsular ligament strain and deformation of the disc as potential sources of neck pain in rear impact scenarios. PMID:23466282

Cronin, Duane S

2014-05-01

9

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V; Nadkarni, Trimurti D; Goel, Naina A

2014-04-01

10

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

2014-01-01

11

Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...

12

Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.  

PubMed

Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

2014-11-01

13

Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. METHODS: Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The

Laxmaiah Manchikanti; Mark V Boswell; Vijay Singh; Vidyasagar Pampati; Kim S Damron; Carla D Beyer

2004-01-01

14

Cervical spine injuries in American football.  

PubMed

American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of catastrophic injury is felt to be the result of changes in the rules in the mid-1970s that prohibited the use of the head as the initial contact point when blocking and tackling. Evaluation of patients with suspected cervical spine injury includes a complete neurological examination while on the field or the sidelines. Immobilization on a hard board may also be necessary. The decision to obtain radiographs can be made on the basis of the history and physical examination. Treatment depends on severity of diagnosed injury and can range from an individualized cervical spine rehabilitation programme for a 'stinger' to cervical spine decompression and fusion for more serious bony or ligamentous injury. Still under constant debate is the decision to return to play for the athlete. PMID:19691361

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

2009-01-01

15

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be ... exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree that physical activity is important for ...

16

Infections of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spinal infections are relatively rare, accounting for only 2–4% of all osteomyelitis infections, and are located preferentially\\u000a in the thoracic and lumbar segments. Although the cervical segment is the less common spine localization, cervical spinal\\u000a infections present the highest incidence of neurological involvement [6].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Recent advances in diagnosis and management — with the introduction of antibiotics and more aggressive surgery

Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Vincenzo Denaro

17

4:04 Circumferential reconstruction of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: A significant number of adults have pain, cosmetic deformity or neurologic injury related to cervical malalignment. The majority of such cases involve sagittal plane malalignment with loss of lordosis, kyphosis or double curve (swan-neck) deformity of the subaxial spine. A smaller number of patients have coronal plane malalignment or scoliosis in the subaxial spine or various anomalies

Michael Hajjar; David Cahill

2002-01-01

18

Use of cervical spine manipulation under anesthesia for management of cervical disk herniation, cervical radiculopathy, and associated cervicogenic headache syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate the benefits of cervical spine manipulation with the patient under anesthesia as an approach to treating a patient with chronic cervical disk herniation, associated cervical radiculopathy, and cervicogenic headache syndrome. Clinical Features: The patient had neck pain with radiating paresthesia into the right upper extremity and incapacitating headaches and had no response to 6 months of conservative

James Herzog

1999-01-01

19

Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 3: minor injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minor injuries of the cervical spine are essentially defined as injuries that do not involve a fracture. Archetypical of minor cervical injury is the whiplash injury. Among other reasons, neck pain after whiplash has been controversial because critics do not credit that an injury to the neck can occur in a whiplash accident. In pursuit of the injury mechanism, bioengineers

Nikolai Bogduk; Narayan Yoganandan

2001-01-01

20

Cervical spine injuries from motor vehicle accidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to delineate the critical regions of the human cervical spine and determine the mechanisms of injury in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The clinical data were gathered from patient records. Results indicated that while neck injuries in MVA are complex and can occur at any level of the cervical spine, the craniocervical junction (among fatalities)

N. Yoganandan; D. J. Maiman; F. A. Pintar

1989-01-01

21

Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

1997-01-01

22

Primary telangiectatic osteosarcoma of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Telangiectatic osteosarcoma (TOS) is one of the 8 subtypes of osteosarcoma that infrequently affects the spine. The radiopathological features of TOS overlap with those of more benign entities, most commonly the aneurysmal bone cyst), and therefore is a significant diagnostic challenge. It is a rare but well-described entity in the thoracolumbar and sacral spine, and to the authors' knowledge has not been previously reported in the cervical spine. The authors report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and torticollis. He underwent preoperative glue embolization followed by a staged subtotal C-5 spondylectomy and posterior fusion for a C-5 vertebral body lytic expansile lesion. Histopathological examination showed the lesion to be TOS. The surgery was followed by adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy with a favorable outcome at the 1-year follow-up. This report reiterates that TOS is an important differential diagnosis for aneurysmal bone cyst and giant-cell tumor of the spine, as its biological behavior and clinical outcome differ from those of these more benign lesions, which it mimics. PMID:22225487

Turel, Mazda K; Joseph, Vivek; Singh, Vandita; Moses, Vinu; Rajshekhar, Vedantam

2012-04-01

23

Imaging, clearance, and controversies in pediatric cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

Diagnosing cervical spine injury in children can be difficult because the clinical examination can be unreliable, and evidence-based consensus guidelines for cervical spine injury evaluation in children have not been established. However, the consequences of cervical spine injuries are significant. Therefore, practitioners should understand common patterns of cervical spine injury in children, the evidence and indications for cervical spine imaging, and which imaging modalities to use. Herein, we review the epidemiology and unique anatomical features of pediatric cervical spine injury. In addition, we will summarize current practice for clearance and imaging of the pediatric cervical spine in trauma. PMID:25469605

Tat, Sonny T; Mejia, Michelle J; Freishtat, Robert J

2014-12-01

24

Cervical spine trauma in the pediatric patient.  

PubMed

Injuries to the pediatric cervical spine occur infrequently. Numerous unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the pediatric spine render it much more flexible than the adult spine. These features give rise to significant differences in the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of pediatric cervical trauma compared with adults. Younger children more often suffer injury to the upper cervical spine with greater neurologic injury and fewer fractures. Once the child reaches the age of 10 years, he or she develops a more adult-type spine, and injuries are thus more similar to those seen in the adult population. The unique anatomic and biomechanical differences in the pediatric spine are discussed, along with the various common and unique injuries. PMID:17991586

Klimo, Paul; Ware, Marcus L; Gupta, Nalin; Brockmeyer, Douglas

2007-10-01

25

Trauma radiology: Part V. Imaging of acute cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injury constitutes a major cause of morbidity resulting from trauma. The consequences of a missed "significant" injury can be devastating for the patient and can create potential medical legal consequences for involved physicians. Multiple imaging modalities can be applied to imaging of the cervical spine after trauma, including radiography, computed tomography (CT), myelography, CT myelography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Controversy exists concerning the appropriate number of radiographic views required for the screening assessment of cervical spine injuries. CT clarifies uncertain radiological findings, identifies subtle fractures in patients with neck pain or with neurological deficits but with normal radiographs, determines details of injury, and assists in operative planning. MRI has virtually replaced myelography and CT myelography in evaluating the traumatized cervical spine. MRI is more accurate than CT with intrathecal contrast in delineating epidural pathology, ligament injury, soft-tissue edema, and cord parenchymal injury. Information derived from MRI guides appropriate management and has value in predicting injury outcome. We consider indications for and relative merits of these various diagnostic modalities, and we describe imaging features of major patterns of cervical spine injury. PMID:10155167

Mirvis, S E; Shanmuganathan, K

1995-01-01

26

Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 3: minor injuries.  

PubMed

Minor injuries of the cervical spine are essentially defined as injuries that do not involve a fracture. Archetypical of minor cervical injury is the whiplash injury. Among other reasons, neck pain after whiplash has been controversial because critics do not credit that an injury to the neck can occur in a whiplash accident. In pursuit of the injury mechanism, bioengineers have used mathematical modelling, cadaver studies, and human volunteers to study the kinematics of the neck under the conditions of whiplash. Particularly illuminating have been cinephotographic and cineradiographic studies of cadavers and of normal volunteers. They demonstrate that externally, the head and neck do not exceed normal physiological limits. However, the cervical spine undergoes a sigmoid deformation very early after impact. During this deformation, lower cervical segments undergo posterior rotation around an abnormally high axis of rotation, resulting in abnormal separation of the anterior elements of the cervical spine, and impaction of the zygapophysial joints. The demonstration of a mechanism for injury of the zygapophysial joints complements postmortem studies that reveal lesions in these joints, and clinical studies that have demonstrated that zygapophysial joint pain is the single most common basis for chronic neck pain after injury. PMID:11358613

Bogduk, N; Yoganandan, N

2001-05-01

27

Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

To our knowledge, quantitative studies on the significance of disorders of the upper cervical spine as a cause of vertigo\\u000a or impaired hearing do not exist. We examined the cervical spines of 67 patients who presented with symptoms of dizziness.\\u000a Prior to the orthopaedic examination, causes of vertigo relating to the field of ENT and neurology had been ruled out.

R. Galm; M. Rittmeister; E. Schmitt

1998-01-01

28

Dynamic analysis of pediatric cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to quantify the dynamic response of age-specific one, three and six year old human cervical spine structures, and to compare the responses with the skeletally mature adult cervical spine. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element modeling approach was used. Age-specific pediatric models were developed by incorporating their component-related developmental anatomy features. Eigen value and transient

S. Kumaresan; N. Yoganandan; F. A. Pintar; K. Reichert

1999-01-01

29

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

1982-08-01

30

Cervical spine vertebral and facet joint kinematics under whiplash.  

PubMed

Whiplash injuries sustained during a rear-end automobile collision have significant societal impact. The scientific literature on whiplash loading is both diverse and confusing. Definitive studies are lacking to describe the local mechanisms of injury that induce either acute or chronic pain symptoms. A methodology has been presented to quantify the kinematics of the cervical spine components by inducing controlled whiplash-type forces to intact human head-neck complexes. The localized facet joint kinematics and the overall segmental motions of the cervical spine are presented. It is anticipated that the use of this methodology will assist in a better delineation of the localized mechanisms of injury leading to whiplash pain. PMID:10412396

Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Klienberger, M

1998-04-01

31

Anesthetic Implications of Chronic Disease of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

nderstanding the anatomy of the cervical spine and its anatomical relationships to the airway has daily importance to the anesthesiologist. Particularly important considerations include the con- tribution of chronic abnormalities of the cervical spine to the \\

MICHAEL D. POPITZ

1998-01-01

32

Investigation of Motorcyclist Cervical Spine Trauma Using HUMOS Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With 16% of the total road user fatalities, motorcyclists represent the second largest group in France after car occupants. Regarding transport accidents, they count for a large proportion of the lower cervical spine trauma. According to different clinical studies, it is postulated that the cervical spine fragility areas are located on the upper and the lower cervical spine.Regarding motorcyclists crashes,

J. Sun; A. Rojas; P. Bertrand; Y. Petit; R. Kraenzler; P. J. Arnoux

2012-01-01

33

Occult ligamentous injury of the cervical spine associated with cervical spine fracture.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 20-year-old patient with a C5 cervical spine fracture and an undetected ligamentous lesion between C1 and C2. Cervical spine lesion protocols and the rates of lesions that are not diagnosed with standard evaluation protocols are reviewed, with particular emphasis on comatose patients. Dynamic studies during the surgical procedure for fixation of the fracture are recommended to increase the detection of ligamentous lesions. PMID:16459871

Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Casamitjana, José

2005-12-01

34

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What It Is Why It's Done Preparation Procedure What to Expect Getting the Results Risks Helping Your Child If ...

35

Traumatic cervical spinal cord injury with “negative” cervical spine CT scan  

PubMed Central

A 46-year-old man fell four steps, striking his neck and having associated neck pain and discomfort. He was evaluated at a local emergency department and reported no neurological deficit but focal mid cervical tenderness. Radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scan were “negative” for cervical spine fracture, dislocation or pre-vertebral soft tissue swelling. He was discharged home in a cervical collar with a scheduled outpatient follow-up. Over the proceeding hours neurologic deterioration occurred, including hand and lower limb weakness with the inability to urinate. The patient returned to the local emergency room and was transferred to a tertiary care hospital where examination revealed C5ASIAB deficits. Repeat high resolution CT scan of the cervical spine with reformatted images was unremarkable for osseous fractures except some loss of definition in the posterior cervical musculature. Emergency magnetic resonance imaging MRI revealed a subluxation of C5/6 right facet (not evident on CT) with disruption of the posterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum, and disc space with abnormal T2 weighted spinal cord hyperintense signal at C5/6. He underwent emergency C5–C6 anterior and posterior decompression and fusion. One week later an examination showed improved C5ASIAD. This case reveals the difficulty of assessing the cervical spine for instability and potential limitations of current management schemes. PMID:22389654

Kolli, Sreedhar; Schreiber, Adam; Harrop, James; Jallo, Jack

2010-01-01

36

Cervical Spine Injuries and the Return to Football  

PubMed Central

Background: The literature dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine injuries is considerable. Absent, however, are comprehensive criteria or guidelines for permitting or prohibiting return to collusion activities such as tackle football. Objective: The purpose of this report is to describe developmental and posttraumatic conditions of the cervical spine as presenting (1) no contraindication, (2) relative contraindication, or (3) an absolute contraindication to continued participation in tackle football and other contact activities. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: Analysis of data compiled from more than 1200 cervical spine injuries documented by the National Football Head and Neck Registry, in addition to a review of the limited published literature, plus an understanding of the recognized axial load injury mechanism and extensive anecdotal experience. Conclusion: The one overriding principle regarding the return to football or, for that matter, any collusion activity is that the individual be asymptomatic, pain-free, and neurologically intact and have full strength and full range of cervical motion. PMID:23015896

2009-01-01

37

Glycopyrrolate induced bilateral angle closure glaucoma after cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

To report a case of bilateral acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG) that occurred after cervical spine surgery with the use of glycopyrolate. A 59-year-old male who presented with severe bilateral bifrontal headache and eye pain that started 12 h postextubation from a cervical spine surgery. Neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg (4.5 mg) and glycopyrrolate 0.01 mg/kg (0.9 mg) were used as muscle relaxant reversals at the end of the surgery. Ophthalmic examination revealed he had bilateral AACG with plateau iris syndrome that was treated medically along with laser iridotomies. Thorough examination of anterior chamber should be performed preoperatively on all patients undergoing surgeries in the prone position and receiving mydriatic agents under general anesthesia. PMID:23741140

Jaroudi, Mahmoud; Fadi, Maalouf; Farah, Fadi; El Mollayess, Georges M

2013-01-01

38

Hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blankenship LD, Basford JR, Strommen JA, Andersen RJ. Hypoglossal nerve palsy from cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: 3 case reports. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:269-72. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involvement of the cervical spine is a well-known but perhaps underappreciated phenomenon. Neurologic complications of this involvement include pain, myelopathy, and cranial nerve (CN) palsies. However, hypoglossal nerve palsy (CN XII)

Lisa D. Blankenship; Jeffrey R. Basford; Jeffrey A. Strommen; Renee J. Andersen

2002-01-01

39

Biomechanics of the cervical spine 4: major injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents considerations regarding major cervical spine injury, including some concepts that are presently undergoing evaluation and clarification. Correlation of certain biomechanical parameters and clinical factors associated with the causation and occurrence of traumatic cervical spine injuries assists in clarifying the pathogenesis and treatment of this diverse group of injuries. Instability of the cervical column based on clinical and

Joseph F Cusick; Narayan Yoganandan

2002-01-01

40

Radiographic evaluation of cervical spine trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different imaging modalities are available for the diagnosis of cervical spine injuries. There is a controversial discussion\\u000a about whether plain radiography (PR), conventional tomography (CTO) or computed tomography (CT) should primarily be used.\\u000a PR and CTO are more often available and less costly than CT. Especially in second-care hospitals, CT is not always available.\\u000a The diagnostic work-up in these centres

C. M. Bach; I. E. Steingruber; S. Peer; R. Peer-Kühberger; W. Jaschke; M. Ogon

2001-01-01

41

[Surgical aspects of the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis].  

PubMed

Approximately 20% percent of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis show pathology in the cervical spine. The translational instability between axis and atlas might be painful and leads in the long term to myelopathic changes due to chronic traumatization of the myelon. Ongoing osseous resorption of the lateral masses of the atlas cause upward migration of the dens into the foramen magnum. In the subaxial cervical spine, the inflammatory process causes instability and deformity. Neck pain is the most common indication for surgery, but neurological symptoms with myelopathy or radicular deficits might be the primary cause for surgery. Neurophysiological investigation is suitable to obtain objective results. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial segment is the most common procedure for treatment of atlantoaxial instability. It is performed by screw fixation technique from a posterior approach. In case of severe occipitocervical dislocation, the fixation has to be extended to the occiput. Persistent dislocation or compression by the dislocated dens has to be treated by transoral decompression. In the subaxial spine, instabilities may be treated by posterior plate fixation with lateral mass screws or pedicle screws. Concomitant nar-rowing of the spinal canal should be approached by anterior decompression with corpectomy and/or posterior laminectomy. The timing of surgery in rheumatoid patients is crucial to obtain satisfactory clinical results. PMID:15375655

Grob, D

2004-10-01

42

Cervical Spine Loads and Intervertebral Motions During Whiplash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To quantify the dynamic loads and intervertebral motions throughout the cervical spine during simulated rear impacts.Methods. Using a biofidelic whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head and bench-top mini-sled, impacts were simulated at 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g horizontal accelerations of the T1 vertebra. Inverse dynamics was used to calculate the dynamic cervical spine

Paul C. Ivancic; Manohar M. Panjabi; Shigeki Ito

2006-01-01

43

78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments and...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

2013-06-17

44

Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 2. Cervical spine soft tissue responses and biomechanical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The responses and contributions of the soft tissue structures of the human neck are described with a focus on mathematical modeling. Spinal ligaments, intervertebral discs, zygapophysial joints, and uncovertebral joints of the cervical spine are included. Finite element modeling approaches have been emphasized. Representative data relevant to the development and execution of the model are discussed. A brief description

Narayan Yoganandan; Srirangam Kumaresan; Frank A Pintar

2001-01-01

45

How to image patients with spine pain.  

PubMed

Different radiological methods play an important role in the work-up of patients complaining of spine pain. Depending on the symptoms and the suspected underlying etiology different methods are selected. In the following presentation we briefly present the different radiological and magnetic resonance tomography methods that are at hand, give some guidance in which method to use, and present the typical imaging findings in some of the most common conditions that presents with spine pain. PMID:25048978

Siemund, R; Thurnher, M; Sundgren, P C

2015-05-01

46

From less to maximally invasiveness in cervical spine surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction Multilevel cervical myelopathy without surgical treatment is generally poor in the neurological deficit without surgical decompression. The two main surgical strategies used for the treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy are anterior decompression via anterior corpectomy or posterior decompression via laminctomy/laminoplasty. Presentation of case We present the case of a 62 year-old lady, harboring rheumatoid artritis (RA) with gait disturbances, pain, and weakness in both arms. A C5 and C6 somatectomy, C4–C7 discectomy and, instrumentation and fusion with telescopic distractor “piston like”, anterior plate and expandable screws were performed. Two days later the patient complained dysfagia, and a cervical X-ray showed hardware dislocation. So a C4 somatectomy, telescopic extension of the construct up to C3 with expandible screws was performed. After one week the patient complained again soft dysfagia. New cervical X-ray showed the pull out of the cranial screws (C3). So the third surgery “one stage combined” an anterior decompression with fusion along with posterior instrumentation, and fusion was performed. Discussion There is a considerable controversy over which surgical approach will receive the best clinical outcome for the minimum cost in the compressive cervical myelopathy. However, the most important factors in patient selection for a particular procedure are the clinical symptoms and the radiographic alignment of the spine. the goals of surgery for cervical multilevel stenosis include the restoration of height, alignment, and stability. Conclusion We stress the importance of a careful patients selection, and invocated still the importance for 360° cervical fixation. PMID:25734320

Visocchi, M.; Conforti, G.; Roselli, R.; La Rocca, G.; Spallone, A.

2015-01-01

47

Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

2014-01-01

48

Inertial loading of the human cervical spine.  

PubMed

While the majority of experimental cervical spine biomechanics research has been conducted using slowly applied forces and/or moments, or dynamically applied forces with contact, little research has been performed to delineate the biomechanics of the human neck under inertial "noncontact" type forces. This study was designed to develop a comprehensive methodology to induce these loads. A minisled pendulum experimental setup was designed to test specimens (such as human cadaver neck) at subfailure or failure levels under different loading modalities including flexion, extension, and lateral bending. The system allows acceleration/deceleration input with varying wave form shapes. The test setup dynamically records the input and output strength information such as forces, accelerations, moments, and angular velocities; it also has the flexibility to obtain the temporal overall and local kinematic data of the cervical spine components at every vertebral level. These data will permit a complete biomechanical structural analysis. In this paper, the feasibility of the methodology is demonstrated by subjecting a human cadaver head-neck complex with intact musculature and skin under inertial flexion and extension whiplash loading at two velocities. PMID:9285335

Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

1997-08-01

49

Management of Whiplash-Associated Disorder Addressing Thoracic and Cervical Spine Impairments: A Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: Clinical case report. Objectives: To describe a physical therapy program addressing impairments of the upper thoracic and cervical spine region for an individual with a whiplash-associated disorder. Background: A 32-year-old female with complaint of diffuse posterior cervical and upper thoracic region pain was evaluated 2 weeks following a motor vehicle accident. The patient reported that she was unable

Cuong Pho; Joe Godges

2004-01-01

50

Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability  

PubMed Central

The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

2014-01-01

51

Gout Initially Mimicking Rheumatoid Arthritis and Later Cervical Spine Involvement  

PubMed Central

Gout is clinically characterized by episodes of monoarthritis, but if not treated properly, it can lead to a chronic polyarthritis, which may eventually mimic rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present the case of a 59-year-old man, with a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of the large and small joints with later development of subcutaneous nodules, which was initially misdiagnosed as RA, being treated with prednisone and methotrexate for a long period of time. He complained of occipital pain and paresthesia in his left upper limb, and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of an expansive formation in the cervical spine with compression of the medulla. He was admitted for spinal decompressive surgery and the biopsy specimen demonstrated a gouty tophus. Chronic gout can mimic RA and rarely involves the axial skeleton, and thus its correct diagnosis and the implementation of adequate therapy can halt the development of such damaging complications. PMID:25574418

Nunes, Eduardo Araújo Santana; Rosseti, Adroaldo Guimarães; Ribeiro, Daniel Sá; Santiago, Mittermayer

2014-01-01

52

Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site\\u000a of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of\\u000a the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical

Francisco Mont’Alverne; Jean-Noel Vallée; Remy Guillevin; Evelyne Cormier; Betty Jean; Michelle Rose; José Guilherme Caldas; Jacques Chiras

2009-01-01

53

Vertebral Artery Injuries Following Chiropractic Cervical Spine Manipulation —Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients undergoing cervical spinal manipulations for nonneurologic diseases and with no previous neurologic signs or symptoms all developed significant neurologic deficits, one fatal, following manipulations of the cervical spine. Both the literature and the authors' series show that a number of patients have a prodrome prior to the onset of neurologic changes. There is no established therapy for the

Robert Raskind; Charles M. North

1990-01-01

54

Transoral approach to the cervical spine: report of four cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transoral approach to the upper cervical spine is an established but little used route, offering excellent access with good wound healing, to lesions of the bodies of the atlas, axis and upper part of the third cervical vertebra. The authors report four cases which demonstrate the value of the procedure.

SA OLaoire; DGT Thomas

1982-01-01

55

Localizing Value of Pain Distribution Patterns in Cervical Spondylosis  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective observational study. Purpose To investigate the value of pain distribution in localizing appropriate surgical levels in patients with cervical spondylosis. Overview of Literature Previous studies have investigated the value of pain drawings in its correlation with various features in degenerative spine diseases including surgical outcome, magnetic resonance imaging findings, discographic study, and psychogenic issues. However, there is no previous study on the value of pain drawings in identifying symptomatic levels for the surgery in cervical spondylosis. Methods The study collected data from patients with cervical spondylosis who underwent surgical treatment between August 2009 and July 2012. Pain diagrams drawn separately by each patient and physician were collected. Pain distribution patterns among various levels of surgery were analyzed by the chi-square test. Agreement between different pairs of data, including pain diagrams drawn by each patient and physician, intra-examiner agreement on interpretation of pain diagrams, inter-examiner agreement on interpretation of pain diagrams, interpretation of pain diagram by examiners and actual surgery, was analyzed by Kappa statistics. Results The study group consisted of 19 men and 28 women with an average age of 55.2 years. Average duration of symptoms was 16.8 months. There was no difference in the pain distribution pattern at any level of surgery. The agreement between pain diagram drawn by each patient and physician was moderate. Intra-examiner agreement was moderate. There was slight agreement of inter-examiners, examiners versus actual surgery. Conclusions Pain distribution pattern by itself has limited value in identifying surgical levels in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25901232

Montriwiwatnchai, Peerapong; Siwanuwatn, Rungsak; Khaoroptham, Surachai

2015-01-01

56

Cervical spine involvement in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis - MRI follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background To describe MRI and clinical findings in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with cervical spine involvement at onset and follow-up under therapy. Methods 13 patients with signs of cervical spine involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a median disease duration of 1.7 years were included in the study. Clinical records and MR images were retrospectively analyzed according to symptoms and findings concerning the cervical spine. Results At the onset of cervical spine involvement all patients showed limited range of motion, whereas only 5 of them complained of pain. In MR images joint hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, malalignment, ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction were found at 28, 32, 15, 2, 2 and 3 sites in 12 (93%), 13 (100%), 8 (62%), 2 (15%), 2 and 3 (20%) patients respectively. 3 of the 5 patients with pain (60%) showed ankylosis, erosions or narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction on MRI. At follow-up - after a median disease duration of cervical spine arthritis of 2.1 years and a variable duration of treatment with methotrexate (all patients) and biological agents (12 patients) - joint hyperintensity, enhancement and malalignment decreased to 15, 19 and 6 sites in 10 (77%), 11 (85%) and 3 (20%) patients respectively whereas ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction increased to 7, 6 and 4 sites in 3 (20%), 4 (31%) and 4 patients respectively. Pain was no longer reported, but 9 of 13 (69%) patients still had a limited range of motion with 6 of them (46%) showing skeletal changes on MRI. Conclusions This first MRI based follow-up study shows that cervical spine arthritis can follow a severe disease course in juvenile arthritis. While malalignments and inflammation sites decreased osseous changes with erosions, ankylosis, and narrowing of the spinal canal increased under treatment despite only minor subjective complaints. Therefore close MRI monitoring of these patients appears to be reasonable. PMID:24593886

2014-01-01

57

Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess after Chemoradiotherapy for Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Osteomyelitis of mandible as a delayed adverse event following radiation therapy has been widely reported; however, osteomyelitis of the cervical spine has rarely been reported. In this study, we reported our experience with a case of cervical spine osteomyelitis and epidural abscess after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. The case involved a 68-year old man who underwent radical CCRT after a diagnosis of stage IVb, T4bN2cM0 posterior hypopharyngeal wall carcinoma. At 7 months after completing the initial therapy, the patient complained of severe pain in the neck and both shoulders and reduced muscular strength in the extremities. A large defect was found on the mucosa of posterior hypopharyngeal wall. On cervical magnetic resonance imaging, cervical spine osteomyelitis and an epidural abscess were observed. Because antimicrobial therapy was not effective, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was administered. Abscess reduction and improvement of the mucosal defect were observed. Because cervical spine complications after CCRT can be fatal upon worsening, adequate attention must be given. PMID:24711945

Watanabe, Jun; Hashimoto, Shigehisa; Takahashi, Sugata

2014-01-01

58

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event discomfort. Long term neck problems are more likely when pain develops gradually or discomfort is recurrent over a period of time. Chronic neck pain is often triggered by prior injuries, especially if original

Virginia Tech

59

Dynamic response of human cervical spine ligaments.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the dynamic response of human cervical spine ligaments. Uniaxial tensile failure tests were conducted on anterior longitudinal ligament (AL) and ligamentum flavum (LF) structures. These ligaments were tested under in situ conditions by transecting all the elements except the one (AL or LF) under study. A fixture was designed to properly align the specimen to induce a uniaxial mode of loading. A six-axis load cell was placed at the distal end of the specimen. The proximal end of the specimen was attached to the piston of a specially designed electrohydraulic testing device. The biomechanical properties of the ligaments were determined at four different loading rates of 8.89, 25.0, 250.0 and 2500 mm/sec. The mechanical response indicated nonlinear and sigmoidal characteristics. The ultimate tensile failure load, stiffness, and energy-absorbing capacity at failure were found to increase with increasing loading rates for both the AL and LF. However, the distractions at failure did not indicate this tendency. While the ultimate tensile force and ultimate energy-absorbing capacity varied nonlinearly with the logarithm of the loading rate, the stiffness varied linearly. PMID:2588060

Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F; Butler, J; Reinartz, J; Sances, A; Larson, S J

1989-10-01

60

Biobehavioral pain profile in individuals with chronic spine pain.  

PubMed

Pain in the spine is the most frequently described pain problem in primary care, afflicting at least 54 million Americans. When spinal pain becomes chronic, the prognosis for recovery is poor, often leading to disability and reduced quality of life. Clinical treatment is inadequate, often focusing on physical pathology alone. To improve treatment outcomes for chronic pain as recommended by current guidelines, the Biobehavioral Pain Profile (BPP), which includes six pain response subscales, was developed to guide cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The purpose of this study was to describe the BPP in 100 individuals with chronic spine pain and examine the associations between the BPP and important clinical outcomes, including chronic pain, disability, and quality of life. Participants reported a high level of pain, a low quality of life, and a high level of disability despite receiving treatment with opioids. Scores on BPP subscales including evaluating loss of control, past and current experience, physiologic responsivity, and thoughts of disease progression were elevated, indicating a need for CBT. Five of the six BPP subscales had a significant association with quality of life, chronic pain, and disability with the thought of disease progression being a strong factor for most of the clinical outcome variables. By identifying BPP, clinicians can provide appropriate treatments to improve individuals' quality of life and prevent further disability. Further study using the BPP to guide CBT is needed. PMID:24602429

Matteliano, Deborah; Scherer, Yvonne Krall; Chang, Yu-Ping

2014-03-01

61

Quantifying cervical-spine curvature using Be?zier splines.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the distributions of cervical-spine curvature is needed for computational studies of cervical-spine injury in motor-vehicle crashes. Many methods of specifying spinal curvature have been proposed, but they often involve qualitative assessment or a large number of parameters. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative method of characterizing cervical-spine curvature using a small number of parameters. 180 sagittal X-rays of subjects seated in automotive posture with their necks in neutral, flexed, and extended postures were collected in the early 1970s. Subjects were selected to represent a range of statures and ages for each gender. X-rays were reanalyzed using advanced technology and statistical methods. Coordinates of the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies and dens were digitized. Be?zier splines were fit through the coordinates of these points. The interior control points that define the spline curvature were parameterized as a vector angle and length. By defining the length as a function of the angle, cervical-spine curvature was defined with just two parameters: superior and inferior Be?zier angles. A classification scheme was derived to sort each curvature by magnitude and type of curvature (lordosis versus S-shaped versus kyphosis; inferior or superior location). Cervical-spine curvature in an automotive seated posture varies with gender and age but not stature. Average values of superior and inferior Be?zier angles for cervical spines in flexion, neutral, and extension automotive postures are presented for each gender and age group. Use of Be?zier splines fit through posterior margins offers a quantitative method of characterizing cervical-spine curvature using two parameters: superior and inferior Be?zier angles. PMID:23387791

Klinich, Kathleen D; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

2012-11-01

62

Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders  

PubMed Central

Anaesthesiologists are often involved in the management of patients with cervical spine disorders. Airway management is often implicated in the deterioration of spinal cord function. Most evidence on neurological deterioration resulting from intubation is from case reports which suggest only association, but not causation. Most anaesthesiologists and surgeons probably believe that the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) during intubation is largely due to mechanical compression produced by movement of the cervical spine. But it is questionable that the small and brief deformations produced during intubation can produce SCI. Difficult intubation, more frequently encountered in patients with cervical spine disorders, is likely to produce greater movement of spine. Several alternative intubation techniques are shown to improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement but their role in limiting SCI is not studied. The current opinion is that most neurological injuries during anaesthesia are the result of prolonged deformation, impaired perfusion of the cord, or both. To prevent further neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and positioning for surgery are essential. The features that diagnose laryngoscopy induced SCI are myelopathy present on recovery, short period of unconsciousness, autonomic disturbances following laryngoscopy, cranio-cervical junction disease or gross instability below C3. It is difficult to accept or refute the claim that neurological deterioration was induced by intubation. Hence, a record of adequate care at laryngoscopy and also perioperative period are important in the event of later medico-legal proceedings. PMID:25624530

Durga, Padmaja; Sahu, Barada Prasad

2014-01-01

63

Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma  

PubMed Central

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized. PMID:25317310

Dabke, Harshad V.

2014-01-01

64

Biomechanics of Pediatric Cervical Spine: Compression, Flexion and Extension Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to develop three separate age-specific one, three, and six year old pediatric human cervical spine (C4-CS-C6) three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models and to quantify the biomechanical responses. The adult model was modified to create one, three, and six year old pediatric spines by incorporating the local geometrical and material characteristics of the developmental

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Wade M. Mueller

2000-01-01

65

Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults.  

PubMed

A number of new developments in cervical spine imaging have transpired since the introduction of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) scanners in 2004. An increasing body of evidence favors the use of multidetector CT as a stand-alone screening test for excluding cervical injuries in polytrauma patients with obtundation. A new grading scale that is based on CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, the cervical spine Subaxial Injury Classification and Scoring (SLIC) system, is gaining acceptance among spine surgeons. Radiographic measurements described for the evaluation of craniocervical distraction injuries are now being reevaluated with the use of multidetector CT. Although most patients with blunt trauma are now treated nonsurgically, evolution in the understanding of spinal stability, as well as the development of new surgical techniques and hardware, has driven management strategies that are increasingly favorable toward surgical intervention. It is therefore essential that radiologists recognize findings that distinguish injuries with ligamentous instability or a high likelihood of nonfusion that require surgical stabilization from those that are classically stable and can be treated with a collar or halo vest alone. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of cervical spine injuries, from the craniocervical junction through the subaxial spine, and present the most widely used grading systems for each injury type. PMID:25384284

Dreizin, David; Letzing, Michael; Sliker, Clint W; Chokshi, Falgun H; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mirvis, Stuart E; Quencer, Robert M; Munera, Felipe

2014-01-01

66

Finite element applications in human cervical spine modeling.  

PubMed

The authors present a comprehensive state-of-the-art and critical review of the finite element models of the human cervical spine. They also focused on the developments in model construction (geometry generation), constitutive law (material property) identification, loading and boundary condition details, and validation, the most important phase. A data base of available experimental sources is also provided, which can be used by the modeler for validating the finite element model. The potential developments in finite element modeling of the human cervical spine are discussed. PMID:8855470

Yoganandan, N; Kumaresan, S; Voo, L; Pintar, F A

1996-08-01

67

Successful Treatment of Severe Sympathetically Maintained Pain Following Anterior Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

Woo, Jae Hee

2014-01-01

68

Successful treatment of severe sympathetically maintained pain following anterior spine surgery.  

PubMed

Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

Woo, Jae Hee; Park, Hahck Soo

2014-07-01

69

Mechanisms of injury in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tolerance of the spine to fracture and ligamentous injury can be expressed in terms of the displacements and loads that are present at the onset of injury. For both normal physiological motions of the spine and abnormal conditions leading to injury, combinations of loads and displacements are present. It is hypothesized that combinations of extreme loads and displacements can

W. Thomas Edwards; Robert R. Crowell; Augustus A. White

1988-01-01

70

Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols for Missed Injuries  

PubMed Central

Introduction We wanted to compare 3 existing emergency medical services (EMS) immobilization protocols: the Prehospital Trauma Life Support (PHTLS, mechanism-based); the Domeier protocol (parallels the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study [NEXUS] criteria); and the Hankins’ criteria (immobilization for patients <12 or >65 years, those with altered consciousness, focal neurologic deficit, distracting injury, or midline or paraspinal tenderness).To determine the proportion of patients who would require cervical immobilization per protocol and the number of missed cervical spine injuries, had each protocol been followed with 100% compliance. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of patients ?18 years transported by EMS post-traumatic mechanism to an inner city emergency department. Demographic and clinical/historical data obtained by physicians were recorded prior to radiologic imaging. Medical record review ascertained cervical spine injuries. Both physicians and EMS were blinded to the objective of the study. Results Of 498 participants, 58% were male and mean age was 48 years. The following participants would have required cervical spine immobilization based on the respective protocol: PHTLS, 95.4% (95% CI: 93.1–96.9%); Domeier, 68.7% (95% CI: 64.5–72.6%); Hankins, 81.5% (95% CI: 77.9–84.7%). There were 18 cervical spine injuries: 12 vertebral fractures, 2 subluxations/dislocations and 4 spinal cord injuries. Compliance with each of the 3 protocols would have led to appropriate cervical spine immobilization of all injured patients. In practice, 2 injuries were missed when the PHTLS criteria were mis-applied. Conclusion Although physician-determined presence of cervical spine immobilization criteria cannot be generalized to the findings obtained by EMS personnel, our findings suggest that the mechanism-based PHTLS criteria may result in unnecessary cervical spine immobilization without apparent benefit to injured patients. PHTLS criteria may also be more difficult to implement due to the subjective interpretation of the severity of the mechanism, leading to non-compliance and missed injury. PMID:25035754

Hong, Rick; Meenan, Molly; Prince, Erin; Murphy, Ronald; Tambussi, Caitlin; Rohrbach, Rick; Baumann, Brigitte M

2014-01-01

71

Correlation between signs of temporomandibular (TMD) and cervical spine (CSD) disorders in asthmatic children.  

PubMed

Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders. This study was performed to evaluate and correlate TMD, CSD in asthmatic and non-asthmatic. Thirty asthmatic children (7.1 +/- 2.6 years old), 30 non-asthmatic predominantly mouth breathing children (Mouth Breathing Group - MBG) (8.80 +/- 1.61 years) and 30 non-asthmatic predominantly nasal breathing children (Nasal breathing Group - NBG) (9.00 +/- 1.64 years) participated in this study and they were submitted to clinical index to evaluate stomatognathic and cervical systems. Spearman correlation test and Chi-square were used. The level of significance was set at p < 0. 05. Significant frequency of palpatory tenderness of temporomandibular joint (TMJ), TMJ sounds, pain during cervical extension and rotation, palpatory tenderness of sternocleidomastoids and paravertabrae muscles and a severe reduction in cervical range of motion were observed in AG. Both AG and MBG groups demonstrated palpatory tenderness of posterior TMJ, medial and lateral pterygoid, and trapezius muscles when compared to NBG. Results showed a positive correlation between the severity of TMD and CSD signs in asthmatic children (r = 0.48). No child was considered normal to CSD and cervical mobility. The possible shortening of neck accessory muscles of respiration and mouth breathing could explain the relationship observed between TMD, CSD signs in asthmatic children and emphasize the importance of the assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine regions in asthmatic children. PMID:16161392

Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bertolli, Fabiana; Holtz, Amanda; Costa, Dirceu

2005-01-01

72

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine in Children: Spinal Incidental Findings in Pediatric Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods?We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results?Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion?MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

Ramadorai, Uma E.; Hire, Justin M.; DeVine, John G.

2014-01-01

73

Upright magnetic resonance imaging measurement of prevertebral soft tissue in the cervical spine of normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextAnteroposterior width of prevertebral soft tissues (PVSTs) in the cervical spine has long been considered a valuable radiographic measurement for evaluation of occult cervical spine pathology. These measurements, generally obtained from lateral radiographs of the cervical spine, have been used clinically as references for the evaluation of patients with traumatic, neoplastic, or other cervical spine disorders. Magnetic resonance imaging

Brian D. Stemper; Shu J. Tang; Narayan Yoganandan; Barry S. Shender; Raj D. Rao

2011-01-01

74

Cervical spine fractures and rear car seat restraints.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of potentially fatal cervical spine fractures in children who were inadequately restrained by malfunctioning car seat restraints are presented. Adequate parental maintenance of seat restraints and their readjustment when children change from wearing lightweight to thick, heavy clothing are imperative. PMID:3435162

Conry, B G; Hall, C M

1987-01-01

75

Changes in the cervical spine in Association Football players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three former players for the National Football Team of Norway were examined clinically and radiologically for degenerative changes in the cervical spine. Compared with men of the same age groups the onset of degeneration was 10-20 years earlier and the frequency of degeneration was significantly higher. Degenerative changes were not especially high in “headers”, but this group had a higher

O. Sortland; A. T. Tysvaer; O. V. Storli

1982-01-01

76

Rheumatoid arthritis: evaluation and surgical management of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextRheumatoid arthritis is a debilitating polyarthropathic degenerative condition. Eighty-six percent of patients with rheumatoid arthritis have cervical spine involvement. Often these lesions are clinically asymptomatic or symptoms are erroneously attributed to peripheral manifestation of the patient's rheumatoid disease. Because these lesions are common and missed diagnosis can result in death, early recognition is vital.

Francis H. Shen; Dino Samartzis; Louis G. Jenis; Howard S. An

2004-01-01

77

Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

2014-06-01

78

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma of the cervical spine in a child: A case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

The authors present a case of 15 years male child who presented with neck pain and progressive ascending quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lytic mass involving C5 and C6 vertebra with soft tissue extension. Surgical excision of mass done using anterior cervical approach. Postoperatively, patient showed improvement in spasticity and power. Histopathological examination of mass was suggestive of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). At 6 months follow–up, patient was improving without any evidence of recurrence. Only 12 cases of JXG of spine have been reported till date including only four cases involving the cervical spine and among these four cases only two were of pediatric age group.

Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Mehrotra, Anant; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Srivastava, Arun; Jaiswal, Sushila; Behari, Sanjay

2015-01-01

79

Spontaneous regression after extensive recurrence of a pediatric cervical spine aneurysmal bone cyst.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a pseudotumoral lesion. Complete resection prior to selective arterial embolization seems to be the treatment of choice for the more extensive and destructive lesions. In these cases maintaining stability of the cervical spine is critical. This can be very challenging in children and adolescents in whom the axial skeleton is still growing. In this case a young girl presented with a voluminous cervical aneurysmal bone cyst encaging both vertebral arteries and spinal cord. The lesion was treated with aggressive surgical resection, followed by cervical vertebral fusion with instrumentation. After nine months the patient referred no pain and no neurological deficit. MRI scans showed an extensive local recurrence. The family of the young girl refused any other therapy and any other followup. The patients returned to our attention after five years with no pain and neurological deficit. Cervical spine radiographs and MRI scans showed a complete regression of the extensive local recurrence. In the literature, the possibility of spontaneous regression of residual part or local recurrence is reported. The case of this young girl provided the chance to attend a spontaneous regression in an extensive recurrence of aneurismal bone cyst. PMID:24707421

Brembilla, Carlo; Lanterna, Luigi Andrea; Bosisio, Michela; Gritti, Paolo; Risso, Andrea; Signorelli, Antonio; Biroli, Francesco

2014-01-01

80

Cervical pain: A comparison of three pillows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare three pillows with regard to pain intensity, pain relief, quality of sleep, disability, and overall satisfaction in subjects with benign cervical pain. The three pillows evaluated were the subjects' usual pillow, a roll pillow, and a water-based pillow.Study Design: Subjects used their usual pillows for the first week of this 5-week randomized crossover design study. They were

Robert A. Lavin; Marco Pappagallo; Keith V. Kuhlemeier

1997-01-01

81

Visuo-proprioceptive interactions in degenerative cervical spine diseases requiring surgery.  

PubMed

Cervical proprioception plays a key role in postural control, but its specific contribution is controversial. Postural impairment was shown in whiplash injuries without demonstrating the sole involvement of the cervical spine. The consequences of degenerative cervical spine diseases are underreported in posture-related scientific literature in spite of their high prevalence. No report has focused on the two different mechanisms underlying cervicobrachial pain: herniated discs and spondylosis. This study aimed to evaluate postural control of two groups of patients with degenerative cervical spine diseases with or without optokinetic stimulation before and after surgical treatment. Seventeen patients with radiculopathy were recruited and divided into two groups according to the spondylotic or discal origin of the nerve compression. All patients and a control population of 31 healthy individuals underwent a static posturographic test with 12 recordings; the first four recordings with the head in 0° position: eyes closed, eyes open without optokinetic stimulation, with clockwise and counter clockwise optokinetic stimulations. These four sensorial situations were repeated with the head rotated 30° to the left and to the right. Patients repeated these 12 recordings 6weeks postoperatively. None of the patients reported vertigo or balance disorders before or after surgery. Prior to surgery, in the eyes closed condition, the herniated disc group was more stable than the spondylosis group. After surgery, the contribution of visual input to postural control in a dynamic visual environment was reduced in both cervical spine diseases whereas in a stable visual environment visual contribution was reduced only in the spondylosis group. The relative importance of visual and proprioceptive inputs to postural control varies according to the type of pathology and surgery tends to reduce visual contribution mostly in the spondylosis group. PMID:24120556

Freppel, S; Bisdorff, A; Colnat-Coulbois, S; Ceyte, H; Cian, C; Gauchard, G; Auque, J; Perrin, P

2013-01-01

82

Biomechanics of the cervical spine 4: major injuries.  

PubMed

This review presents considerations regarding major cervical spine injury, including some concepts that are presently undergoing evaluation and clarification. Correlation of certain biomechanical parameters and clinical factors associated with the causation and occurrence of traumatic cervical spine injuries assists in clarifying the pathogenesis and treatment of this diverse group of injuries. Instability of the cervical column based on clinical and mechanistic perspectives as well as the role of ligaments in determining instability is discussed. Patient variables such as pre-existing conditions (degenerative disease) and age that can influence the susceptibility or resistance to injury are reviewed. Radiological considerations of major injuries including dynamic films, CT and MRI are presented in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical trauma. Specific injury patterns of the cervical vertebral column are described including attention to the relative mechanisms of trauma. From a biomechanical perspective, quantification of injury tolerance is discussed in terms of external and human-related variables using laboratory-driven experimental models. This includes force vectors (type, magnitude, direction) responsible for injury causation, as well as potential influences of loading rate, gender, age, and type of injury. PMID:11779642

Cusick, Joseph F; Yoganandan, Narayan

2002-01-01

83

Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Associated with Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to present information regarding the diagnosis and emergent treatment of NPPE, and to review the previous literature regarding this serious complication. PMID:25558327

Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2014-01-01

84

Cervical spine disease in rheumatoid arthritis: incidence, manifestations, and therapy.  

PubMed

Cervical spine involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory arthropathies is common. While the radiographic features can be dramatic in untreated disease, patients may remain asymptomatic making treatment decisions challenging. Further, subtle clinical presentations can belie serious myelopathy because peripheral joint involvement can make interpreting the physical exam difficult. While new pharmacologic therapies have drastically reduced the morbidity of the widespread joint destruction that occurs in RA, patients remain at risk for symptomatic occipitocervical, atlantoaxial, or subaxial instability causing myelopathy, deformity, and premature death. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation of RA patients with cervical spine disease as well as the indications and outcomes of surgical treatment. PMID:25663179

Kim, Han Jo; Nemani, Venu M; Riew, K Daniel; Brasington, Richard

2015-02-01

85

Management of upper cervical spine injuries: a review.  

PubMed

Upper cervical spine injuries are commonly associated with trauma and require significant forces to produce. When these injuries occur they can have devastating functional consequences. The distinctive anatomy of the upper cervical spine leads injuries to occur in predictable patterns. Injuries can occur to the unique osseus structures or ligamentous connections. Common injuries include occipital condylar fractures, atlanto-occipital dislocation, fractures of the ring of C1, ligamentous injuries involving the ring of C1, and the three types of fractures of C2, pars fractures, odontoid fractures and C2 body fractures. We present these common injuries found in the occipital-atlantoaxial complex and their management based on the current and historical literature. PMID:23877268

Syre, P; Petrov, D; Malhotra, N R

2013-09-01

86

[Cervical spine osteochondroma presenting with torticollis and hemiparesis].  

PubMed

Osteochondromas are slow-growing benign bone tumors that are located frequently in the long bones. Approximately 1-4% of them occur in the spine. Solitary spinal osteochondromas may produce a wide variety of symptoms depending on their location and relationship to associated structures. We report a case of a 74-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with complaints of progressive left hemibody weakness and cervicalgia. Neurological examination disclosed mild left-sided hemiparesis and left torticollis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an expansive lesion affecting the left C3-C4 facet joint. The patient underwent a posterior C3 and C4 hemilaminectomy, complete excision of the lesion and instrumented posterior cervical fixation. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma. After surgery her symptoms improved progressively with no neurological sequels. PMID:24139102

Castro-Castro, Julián; Rodiño-Padín, Jon; Touceda-Bravo, Alberto; Castro-Bouzas, Daniel; Pinzón-Millán, Alfonso

2014-01-01

87

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma of the cervical spine: a case report.  

PubMed

Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare and aggressive bone tumor with poor prognosis. Primary DDCS of the mobile spine is extremely rare, particularly in the cervical spine. We herein describe a first case of cervical DDCS in an 81-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass. Radiographs showed an expansion of the cortical contour of the C2 lamina and a soft tissue mass with punctate calcification. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lobulated lesion expanding over the entire lamina and pedicles of C2 with the tumor protuberant to the adjacent soft tissue. A complete tumor resection was performed. Histologically, the majority of the tumor was a low-grade chondrosarcoma component. However, atypical spindle cells that had proliferated in a fascicular pattern with a collagenous stroma, mimicking fibrosarcoma, were focally observed without a transitional zone, and these features confirmed that the tumor was DDCS. PMID:23375124

Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Harimaya, Katsumi; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Kawaguchi, Kenichi; Okada, Seiji; Hayashida, Mitsumasa; Doi, Toshio; Sakamoto, Akio; Matsunobu, Tomoya; Oda, Yoshinao; Iwamoto, Yukihide

2013-01-01

88

Stroke following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the clinical course and neuroradiological findings of ten patients aged 27–46 years, with ischemic stroke secondary\\u000a to vertebral artery dissection (VAD; n = 8) or internal carotid artery dissection (CAD; n = 2), all following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. The following observations were made: (a) All patients\\u000a had uneventful medical histories, no or only mild vascular

Andreas Hufnagel; Alexander Hammers; Paul-Walter Schönle; Klaus-Dieter Böhm; Georg Leonhardt

1999-01-01

89

Finite element biomechanics of cervical spine interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomechanical responses of cervical discectomy coupled with fusion using five types of interbody fusion materials were determined. Titanium core, titanium cage, tricortical iliac crest, tantalum core, and tantalum cage fusion materials were used. Smith-Robinson and Bailey-Badgley procedures were analyzed. A validated three-dimensional anatomically accurate three-segment C4-C5-C6 finite element model of the spine was developed using close-up computed tomography images

Srirangak Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

1997-01-01

90

PROBABILISTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN LOWER CERVICAL SPINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic response of an anatomically accurate, three-dimensional, non-linear and experimentally validated finite element model of the human lower cervical spine is presented. Biological variability of the model input variables is accounted for by modeling these parameters as random variables. Efficient probabilistic methods are used to determine the effect of biological variability on the computed response of the non-linear finite

BEN H. THACKER; DANIEL P. NICOLELLA; SRIRANGAM KUMARESAN; NARAYAN YOGANANDAN; FRANK A. PINTAR

91

Finite element analysis of anterior cervical spine interbody fusion.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the external and the internal biomechanical responses of anterior cervical discectomy coupled with fusion. Five different types of interbody fusion materials were used: titanium core, titanium cage, tricortical iliac crest, tantalum core, and tantalum cage. Two different types of surgical procedures were analyzed: Smith-Robinson and Bailey-Badgley. A validated three-dimensional anatomically accurate finite element model of the human cervical spine was used in the study. The finite element model was exercised in compression, flexion, extension, and lateral bending for the intact case and for the two surgical procedures with five implant materials. The external response in terms of the stiffness and angular rotation, and the internal response in terms of the disc and the vertebral stresses were determined. The Smith-Robinson technique resulted in the highest increase in external response under all modes of loading for all implant materials. In contrast, the Bailey-Badgley technique produced a higher increase in the disc and the vertebral body stresses than the Smith-Robinson technique. As experimental human cadaver tests can only determine the external response of the non-fused spine simulating immediate post-operative structure, the present finite element studies assist in the understanding of biomechanics of interbody fusion by delineating the changes in the extrinsic and intrinsic characteristics of the cervical spine components due to surgery. PMID:9408574

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

1997-01-01

92

[Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine : Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].  

PubMed

A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

2015-04-01

93

Simple cervical spine traction using a halo vest apparatus: technical note  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA halo vest apparatus, commonly used for external immobilization and protection of the cervical spine, offers several advantages. We present here a simple, accurate, easy, and safe cervical traction technique using a halo vest apparatus.

Kazuhiko Kyoshima; Yukinari Kakizawa; Kazuo Tokushige

2003-01-01

94

Is there a difference in head posture and cervical spine movement in children with and without pediatric headache?  

PubMed

Pediatric headache is an increasingly reported phenomenon. Cervicogenic headache (CGH) is a subgroup of headache, but there is limited information about cervical spine physical examination signs in children with CGH. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was designed to investigate cervical spine physical examination signs including active range of motion (ROM), posture determined by the craniovertebral angle (CVA), and upper cervical ROM determined by the flexion-rotation test (FRT) in children aged between 6 and 12 years. An additional purpose was to determine the degree of pain provoked by the FRT. Thirty children (mean age 120.70 months [SD 15.14]) with features of CGH and 34 (mean age 125.38 months [13.14]) age-matched asymptomatic controls participated in the study. When compared to asymptomatic controls, symptomatic children had a significantly smaller CVA (p < 0.001), significantly less active ROM in all cardinal planes (p < 0.001), and significantly less ROM during the FRT (p < 0.001), especially towards the dominant headache side (p < 0.001). In addition, symptomatic subjects reported more pain during the FRT (p < 0.001) and there was a significant negative correlation (r = -0.758, p < 0.001) between the range recorded during the FRT towards the dominant headache side and FRT pain intensity score. This study found evidence of impaired function of the upper cervical spine in children with CGH and provides evidence of the clinical utility of the FRT when examining children with CGH. PMID:23708260

Budelmann, Kim; von Piekartz, Harry; Hall, Toby

2013-10-01

95

The Efficacy of the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer in Cervical Spine Immobilization of the Equipped Football Player  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer in controlling the cervical spine movements of a football player wearing shoulder pads and a helmet. Design and Setting: We used a 1-group, repeated-measures experimental design to radiographically assess cervical spine range of motion with and without the Rapid Form Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer. Two experimental conditions (with and without vacuum splint) were applied to 10 subjects in a repeated-measures design. Each subject was radiographed in cervical forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion under each experimental condition. Subjects: Ten healthy male subjects without a history of cervical spine pathology or abnormality volunteered for this study. Measurements: Cervical forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion range of motion were compared under both treatment conditions. Joint angles were determined by straightedge tangential lines drawn on the radiographs along the foramen magnum, inferior ring border of the atlas, and along the inferior tips of the 2nd through 7th vertebral bodies. The total range of motion was determined and compared with the treatment condition by multiple paired t tests. Results: The Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limited cervical spine range of motion in forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. The secondary statistical analysis for the effect size determined that each group had a large effect size, indicating that the power of the experimental or vacuum splint group was high. Conclusions: We found that the Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limited cervical spine range of motion in forward flexion, extension, and lateral flexion. The Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer can be easily placed on an injured, fully equipped football player and serves to limit cervical spine range of motion while the athlete is immobilized and transported. Future research should determine how the Cervical Vacuum Immobilizer limits range of motion with the athlete immobilized to the spine board. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558611

Ransone, Jack; Kersey, Robert; Walsh, Katie

2000-01-01

96

Strength and kinematic response of dynamic cervical spine injuries.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the biodynamic strength and localized kinematic response of the human cervical spine under axial loading applied to the head. Intact ligamentous fresh human cadaveric head-neck complexes were subjected to dynamic compressive forces with a custom-designed electrohydraulic testing device at varying rates. The structure included the effects of anterior and posterior cervical spine muscles with a system of pulleys, dead weights, and spring tension. Localized kinematic data were obtained from retroreflective targets placed on the bony landmarks of the specimen at every level of the spinal column. Input forces, accelerations, displacement, and output generalized force histories were recorded as a function of time with a digital data acquisition system at dynamic sampling rates in excess of 8,000 Hz. High-speed photography at 1,000-1,200 frames/sec also was used. Pathologic alterations to the head-neck complex were evaluated with conventional radiography, computed tomography, and cryomicrotomy. In all specimens, cervical spine injuries occurred as a result of impact. Compressive forces recorded at the distal end of the preparation indicated large-duration, short-magnitude pulses in contrast to short-duration, high-amplitude input waveforms at the head, suggesting decoupling characteristics of the head-neck system. Cervical vertebral body accelerations were consistently smaller than the accelerations recorded on the head. Kinematic data demonstrated temporal deformation characteristics as well as a plausible sequence of spinal deformations leading to injury, which were correlated with the pathoanatomic alterations documented with the post-test computed tomographic and sequential cryomicrotome sections. PMID:1801263

Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Sances, A; Reinartz, J; Larson, S J

1991-10-01

97

Helmet Fit and Cervical Spine Motion in Collegiate Men's Lacrosse Athletes Secured to a Spine Board  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. Objective: To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stabilization of the head in the spine-boarded athlete. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy collegiate men's lacrosse players. Intervention(s): Participants were asked to move their heads through 3 planes of motion after being secured to a spine board under 3 helmet conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Change in range of motion in the cervical spine was calculated for the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes for both head-to-thorax and helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 helmet conditions (properly fitted, improperly fitted, and no helmet). Results: Head-to-thorax range of motion with the properly fitted and improperly fitted helmets was greater than in the no-helmet condition (P < .0001). In the sagittal plane, range of motion was greater with the improperly fitted helmet than with the properly fitted helmet. No difference was observed in helmet-to-thorax range of motion between properly and improperly fitted helmet conditions. Head-to-thorax range of motion was greater than helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 planes (P < .0001). Conclusions: Cervical spine motion was minimized the most in the no-helmet condition, indicating that in lacrosse players, unlike football players, the helmet may need to be removed before stabilization. PMID:20446833

Petschauer, Meredith A.; Schmitz, Randy; Gill, Diane L.

2010-01-01

98

Evaluation of morbidity, mortality and outcome following cervical spine injuries in elderly patients  

PubMed Central

We analysed the morbidity, mortality and outcome of cervical spine injuries in patients over the age of 65 years. This study was a retrospective review of 107 elderly patients admitted to our tertiary referral spinal injuries unit with cervical spine injuries between 1994 and 2002. The data was acquired by analysis of the national spinal unit database, hospital inpatient enquiry system, chart and radiographic review. Mean age was 74 years (range 66–93 years). The male to female ratio was 2.1:1 (M = 72, F = 35). The mean follow-up was 4.4 years (1–9 years) and mean in-hospital stay was 10 days (2–90 days). The mechanism of injury was a fall in 75 and road traffic accident in the remaining 32 patients. The level involved was atlanto-axial in 44 cases, sub-axial in 52 cases and the remaining 11 had no bony injury. Multilevel involvement occurred in 48 patients. C2 dominated the single level injury and most of them were type II odontoid fractures. Four patients had complete neurology, 27 had incomplete neurology, and the remaining 76 had no neurological deficit. Treatment included cervical orthosis in 67 cases, halo immobilization in 25, posterior stabilization in 12 patients and anterior cervical fusion in three patients. The overall complication rate was 18.6% with an associated in-hospital mortality of 11.2%. The complications included loss of reduction due to halo and Minerva loosening, non-union and delayed union among conservatively treated patients, pin site and wound infection, gastrointestinal bleeding and complication due to associated injuries. Among the 28.9% patients with neurological involvement, 37.7% had significant neurological recovery. Outcome was assessed using a cervical spine outcome questionnaire from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Sixty-seven patients (70%) completed the form, 20 patients (19%) were deceased at review and 8 patients (7%) were uncontactable. Functional disability was more marked in the patients with neurologically deficit at time of injury. Outcome of the injury was related to increasing age, co-morbidity and the severity of neurological deficit. Injuries of the cervical spine are not infrequent occurrence in the elderly and occur with relatively minor trauma. Neck pain in the elderly patients should be thoroughly evaluated to exclude C2 injuries. Most patients can be managed in an orthosis but unstable injuries require rigid external immobilization or surgical stabilization. PMID:18196293

Murphy, M.; Connolly, P.; O’Byrne, J.

2008-01-01

99

[MR functional diagnosis of the cervical spine after strain injury].  

PubMed

50 patients with a history of distortion injury of the cervical spine were examined with static and functional MRI. Functional MRI consisted of different patient's positions from maximal extension to maximal flexion (30 degrees, 0 degrees, 25 degrees, 40 degrees, 50 degrees). T2*-weighted gradient echo sequences were performed in a sagittal view for the different positions. Ligamentous instabilities and disc protrusions were seen only in functional MRI in 17 patients. These findings correlated with the neurological symptoms. Two patients were treated by operative fusion because of these findings. PMID:7749087

Schnarkowski, P; Weidenmaier, W; Heuck, A; Reiser, M F

1995-04-01

100

Cervical Spine Functional Anatomy and the Biomechanics of Injury Due to Compressive Loading  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide a foundation of knowledge concerning the functional anatomy, kinematic response, and mechanisms involved in axial-compression cervical spine injury as they relate to sport injury. Data Sources: We conducted literature searches through the Index Medicus, SPORT Discus, and PubMed databases and the Library of Congress from 1975–2003 using the key phrases cervical spine injury, biomechanics of cervical spine, football spinal injuries, kinematics of the cervical spine, and axial load. Data Synthesis: Research on normal kinematics and minor and major injury mechanisms to the cervical spine reveals the complex nature of movement in this segment. The movement into a single plane is not the product of equal and summative movement between and among all cervical vertebrae. Instead, individual vertebrae may experience a reversal of motion while traveling through a single plane of movement. Furthermore, vertebral movement in 1 plane often requires contributed movement in 1 or 2 other planes. Injury mechanisms are even more complex. The reaction of the cervical spine to an axial-load impact has been investigated using cadaver specimens and demonstrates a buckling effect. Impact location and head orientation affect the degree and level of resultant injury. Conclusions/Recommendations: As with any joint of the body, our understanding of the mechanisms of cervical spine injury will ultimately serve to reduce their occurrence and increase the likelihood of recognition and immediate care. However, the cervical spine is unique in its normal kinematics compared with joints of the extremities. Injury biomechanics in the cervical spine are complex, and much can still be learned about mechanisms of the cervical spine injury specific to sports. PMID:16284634

Swartz, Erik E; Floyd, R. T; Cendoma, Mike

2005-01-01

101

Carotid and Vertebral Artery Injury following Severe Head or Cervical Spine Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the frequency of neck vessel injuries, Doppler investigations were performed in 60 patients following either severe head injury (n = 29), cervical spine injury (n = 26), or combined head and cervical spine injury (n = 5). The majority of patients were referred to our hospital for early rehabilitation; before admission Doppler investigations had been performed

Oliver Rommel; Andreas Niedeggen; Martin Tegenthoff; Paul Kiwitt; Uwe Bötel; Jean-Pierre Malin

1999-01-01

102

Sensorimotor function of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Sensorimotor mechanisms are important for controlling head motion. However, relatively little is known about sensorimotor function in the cervical spine. This study investigated how age, gender and variations in the test conditions affect measures of position sense, movement sense and reflex activation in cervical muscles. Methods Forty healthy volunteers (19M/21F, aged 19–59 years) participated. Position sense was assessed by determining repositioning errors in upright and flexed neck postures during tests performed in 25%, 50% and 75% cervical flexion. Movement sense was assessed by detecting thresholds to passive flexion and extension at velocities between 1 and 25°s? 1. Reflexes were assessed by determining the latency and amplitude of reflex activation in trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Reliability was evaluated from intraclass correlation coefficients. Findings Mean repositioning errors ranged from 1.5° to 2.6°, were greater in flexed than upright postures (P = 0.006) and in people aged over 25 years (P = 0.05). Time to detect head motion decreased with increasing velocity (P < 0.001) and was lower during flexion than extension movements (P = 0.002). Reflexes demonstrated shorter latency (P < 0.001) and greater amplitude (P = 0.009) in trapezius compared to sternocleidomastoid, and became slower and weaker with age. None of the measures were influenced by gender. Reliability was good for movement sense measures, but was influenced by the test conditions when assessing position sense. Interpretation Increased repositioning errors and slower reflexes in older subjects suggest that sensorimotor function in the cervical spine becomes impaired with age. In position sense tests, reliability was influenced by the test conditions with mid-range flexion movements, performed in standing, providing the most reliable measurements. PMID:25686675

Artz, Neil J.; Adams, Michael A.; Dolan, Patricia

2015-01-01

103

Bone morphogenetic protein in complex cervical spine surgery: A safe biologic adjunct?  

PubMed Central

The advent of recombinant DNA technology has substantially increased the intra-operative utilization of biologic augmentation in spine surgery over the past several years after the Food and Drug Administration approval of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) class of molecules for indications in the lumbar spine. Much less is known about the potential benefits and risks of the “off-label” use of BMP in the cervical spine. The history and relevant literature pertaining to the use of the “off-label” implantation of the BMP class of molecules in the anterior or posterior cervical spine are reviewed and discussed. Early prospective studies of BMP-2 implantation in anterior cervical spine constructs showed encouraging results. Later retrospective studies reported potentially “life threatening complications” resulting in a 2007 public health advisory by the FDA. Limited data regarding BMP-7 in anterior cervical surgery was available with one group reporting a 2.4% early (< 30 d) complication rate (brachialgia and dysphagia). BMP use in the decompressed posterior cervical spine may result in neurologic or wound compromise according to several retrospective reports, however, controlled use has been reported to increase fusion rates in select complex and pediatric patients. There were no cases of de novo neoplasia related to BMP implantation in the cervical spine. BMP-2 use in anterior cervical spine surgery has been associated with a high early complication rate. Definitive recommendations for BMP-7 use in anterior cervical spine surgery cannot be made with current clinical data. According to limited reports, select complex patients who are considered “high risk” for pseudoarthrosis undergoing posterior cervical or occipitocervical arthrodesis or children with congenital or traumatic conditions may be candidates for “off-label” use of BMP in the context of appropriate informed decision making. At the present time, there are no high-level clinical studies on the outcomes and complication rates of BMP implantation in the cervical spine. PMID:23610751

Lebl, Darren R

2013-01-01

104

Cervical spine mobility analysis on radiographs: a fully automatic approach.  

PubMed

Conventional X-ray radiography remains nowadays the most common method to analyze spinal mobility in two dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a framework dedicated to the fully automatic cervical spine mobility analysis on X-ray images. To this aim, we propose an approach based on three main steps: fully automatic vertebra detection, vertebra segmentation and angular measurement. The accuracy of the method was assessed for a total of 245 vertebræ. For the vertebra detection, we proposed an adapted version of two descriptors, namely Scale-invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-up Robust Features (SURF), coupled with a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Vertebræ are successfully detected in 89.8% of cases and it is demonstrated that SURF slightly outperforms SIFT. The Active Shape Model approach was considered as a segmentation procedure. We observed that a statistical shape model specific to the vertebral level improves the results. Angular errors of cervical spine mobility are presented. We showed that these errors remain within the inter-operator variability of the reference method. PMID:22981777

Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

2012-12-01

105

Finite element analysis of the cervical spine: a material property sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study determined the effect of variations in the material properties of the cervical spinal components on the output of the finite element analysis (external and internal responses of the cervical spine) under physiologic load vectors.Design. A three-dimensional (3D) anatomically accurate finite element model comprising of the C4-C5-C6 cervical spine unit including the three vertebrae, two interconnecting intervertebral discs,

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

1999-01-01

106

Whiplash-Associated Disorders Impairment Rating: Neck Disability Index Score According to Severity of MRI Findings of Ligaments and Membranes in the Upper Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore whether reported pain and functional disability in whiplash- associated disorders (WAD) patients is associated with lesions to specific soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, as assessed by MRI. Pre-selected structures for MRI assessment included the alar ligaments, the transverse ligament, the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. The questionnaire employed

Bertel Rune Kaale; Jostein Krakenes; Grethe Albrektsen; Knut Wester

2005-01-01

107

Chiropractic management of postoperative spine pain: a report of 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe chiropractic care including spinal manipulation for 3 patients with postsurgical spine pain. Clinical features Three patients with postsurgical spine pain (1 cervical fusion, 1 lumbar discectomy, and 1 lumbar laminectomy) presented for chiropractic treatment at a major US medical center. Treatment included spinal manipulation and/or flexion-distraction mobilization based on patient response to joint loading strategies. Intervention and outcomes Two patients were treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation; and 1 patient was treated with flexion-distraction mobilization. Treatment frequency and duration were 4 treatments over 4 weeks for case 1, 17 treatments over 7 years for case 2, and 5 treatments over 5 weeks for case 3. Subjective improvement was noted using numeric pain scores and functional changes; and upon completion, the patients reported being “satisfied” with their overall outcome. One episode of transient benign soreness was noted by 1 patient. No additional adverse events or effects were noted. Conclusion In these 3 cases, patients with postsurgical spine pain responded positively to chiropractic care. Spinal manipulation/mobilization was tolerated without significant adverse effects. PMID:24396317

Coulis, Christopher M.; Lisi, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

108

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Acute Management of the Cervical Spine–Injured Athlete  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, team physicians, emergency responders, and other health care professionals with recommendations on how to best manage a catastrophic cervical spine injury in the athlete. Background: The relative incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sports is low compared with other injuries. However, cervical spine injuries necessitate delicate and precise management, often involving the combined efforts of a variety of health care providers. The outcome of a catastrophic cervical spine injury depends on the efficiency of this management process and the timeliness of transfer to a controlled environment for diagnosis and treatment. Recommendations: Recommendations are based on current evidence pertaining to prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in sport; emergency planning and preparation to increase management efficiency; maintaining or creating neutral alignment in the cervical spine; accessing and maintaining the airway; stabilizing and transferring the athlete with a suspected cervical spine injury; managing the athlete participating in an equipment-laden sport, such as football, hockey, or lacrosse; and considerations in the emergency department. PMID:19478836

Swartz, Erik E; Boden, Barry P; Courson, Ronald W; Decoster, Laura C; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Norkus, Susan A; Rehberg, Robb S; Waninger, Kevin N

2009-01-01

109

Treatment of a patient with cervical radiculopathy using thoracic spine thrust manipulation, soft tissue mobilization, and exercise.  

PubMed

While there is currently little evidence to suggest which non-operative treatment approach is best for the management of patients with cervical radiculopathy, emerging evidence suggests that these patients benefit from a multimodal treatment approach. The purpose of this case report is to describe the physical therapy management of a patient with cervical radiculopathy. Diagnosis was based on the patient's meeting three of the four criteria in the diagnostic test cluster currently used to identify patients with cervical radiculopathy. Treatment included thrust manipulation of the thoracic spine, soft tissue mobilization, and therapeutic exercise. After three visits, patient-perceived disability, as measured by the Patient-Specific Functional Scale, improved from 5/10 to 10/10. The Numeric Pain Rating Score decreased from 4.66/10 to 0/10. The patient rated his improvement as a very great deal better on the Global Rating of Change Scale. These clinically meaningful improvements were maintained at the 14-week follow-up. While a cause-and-effect relationship may not be established from a case report, a multimodal approach including thoracic spine manipulation, soft tissue mobilization, and therapeutic exercise was associated with decreased pain and perceived disability in a patient with cervical radiculopathy. Further research is needed to investigate benefits of the components of this approach. PMID:19119401

Costello, Michael

2008-01-01

110

[Cervical pain as the only complaint in a patient with metastatic advanced lung carcinoma (case report)].  

PubMed

Description of a case of metastatic advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma without any symptoms of the original focus. The only complaint of the patient almost throughout the course of the disease was cervical pain. Despite fast clinical course of the disease considerable adaptation of spinal cord to compression by metastatic focus in the vertebral column, may occur. Also numerous metastatic in bones or large foci in suprarenal glands may remain silent for a longer time of the disease. Examinations carried out: bons scinticsanning, CT of the abdominal cavity and MRI of cervical spine allowed to suspect that process with great probability, what was confirmed by autopsy. PMID:10672568

Bobek, J; Wilk, L

1999-01-01

111

Static and dynamic bending responses of the human cervical spine.  

PubMed

The quasi-static and dynamic bending responses of the human mid-lower cervical spine were determined using cadaver intervertebral joints fixed at the base to a six-axis load cell. Flexion bending moment was applied to the superior end of the specimen using an electrohydraulic piston. Each specimen was tested under three cycles of quasi-static load-unload and one high-speed dynamic load. A total of five specimens were included in this study. The maximum intervertebral rotation ranged from 11.0 to 15.4 deg for quasi-static tests and from 22.9 to 34.4 deg for dynamic tests. The resulting peak moments at the center of the intervertebral joint ranged from 3.8 to 6.9 Nm for quasi-static tests and from 14.0 to 31.8 Nm for dynamic tests. The quasi-static stiffness ranged from 0.80 to 1.35 Nm/deg with a mean of 1.03 Nm/deg (+/- 0.11 Nm/deg). The dynamic stiffness ranged from 1.08 to 2.00 Nm/deg with a mean of 1.50 Nm/deg (+/- 0.17 Nm/deg). The differences between the two stiffnesses were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Exponential functions were derived to describe the quasi-static and dynamic moment-rotation responses. These results provide input data for lumped-parameter models and validation data for finite element models to better investigate the biomechanics of the human cervical spine. PMID:10412450

Voo, L M; Pintar, F A; Yoganandan, N; Liu, Y K

1998-12-01

112

Morphology of young and old cervical spine intervertebral disc tissues.  

PubMed

The intervertebral disc of the cervical spine undergoes degenerative changes during the aging process. Although many studies have reported the qualitative changes in the disc, methodology to quantify these changes is lacking. The present study was designed to quantify the geometrical variations of the nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus and uncovertebral joints. The age groups of specimens were classified as juvenile, adult and aged. Fresh intervertebral discs with adjacent vertebral bodies of the lower cervical spine of primates were isolated. The specimens were sectioned sequentially in a coronal plane. Sections were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin, Verhoeff's, Safranin O, and Trichrome methods to distinguish the nucleus, annulus and uncovertebral joints. Histological images were examined using light microscopy and processed using a computer imaging program to trace the boundaries of the disc components. Dorsal-to-ventral depth and medial-to-lateral width of the nucleus pulposus, and its relative location to the annulus pulposus were also obtained. In the juvenile and adult discs, the nucleus appeared as a light opaque region with scattered notochordal cells with a clear distinction from the annulus region. In contrast, in the aged discs, the nucleus appeared as a dense region of amorphous, irregular collagen materials with less distinction from the annulus region. With the progression of aging, the dorsal-to-ventral depth of the nucleus decreased considerably compared to medial-to-lateral width. The uncovertebral joints were clear in the adult discs. The joints were less distinct in the aged discs and their size decreased. Quantification of three-dimensional geometrical variations will assist in better defining the disc tissue in the mathematical models. PMID:10834223

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Macias, M; Cusick, J F

2000-01-01

113

Spine and scapular pain: an unusual presentation of colon adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

We are presenting an elderly Caucasian woman who was admitted to our hospital for severe lower back pain and scapular pain for 8 days. She had a history of spinal stenosis and we believed this was the aetiology of her pain. However, her pain was not subsiding and hence an MRI spine was performed. It revealed spinal stenosis and abnormal signal in the lower thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. Hence a bone biopsy was performed that came back as metastatic adenocarcinoma. She underwent a bone scan and revealed diffuse disease in thoracic, lumbar, sacral spine as well as third and 10th ribs. Her CT chest/abdomen/pelvis revealed no primary tumour. A mass was detected on her colonscopy, and pathology revealed adenocarcinoma. She underwent palliative radiation and one cycle of chemotherapy. She was discharged to home hospice care. It is very rare to have osseous metastases as the only manifestation of colon cancer. PMID:23861273

Padhi, Parikshit; Mackey, Christine

2013-01-01

114

THE EFFECTS OF LIGAMENTOUS INJURY IN THE HUMAN LOWER CERVICAL SPINE  

PubMed Central

Damage is often sustained by the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and ligamentum flavum LF) in the cervical spine subsequent to whiplash or other cervical trauma. These ligaments afford substantial cervical stability when healthy, but the ability of the ALL and LF to stabilize the spine when injured is not as conclusively studied. In order to address this issue, the current study excised ALL and LF tissues from cadaveric spines and experimentally simulated whiplash-type damage to the isolated ligaments. Stiffnesses and toe region lengths were measured for both the uninjured and damaged states. These ligamentous mechanical properties were then inputted into a previously-validated finite element (FE) model of the cervical spine and the kinematic effects of various clinically relevant combinations of ligamentous injury were predicted. The data indicated three and five-fold increases in toe region length for the LF and ALL injury variants, respectively. These toe length distensions resulted in FE predictions of supra-physiologic ranges of motion, and these motions were comparable to spines with no ligamentous support. Finally, a set of cadaveric cervical spine ligament-sectioning experiments confirmed the FE predictions and supported the finding that partial injury to the relevant ligaments produces equivalent cervical kinematic signatures to spines that have completely compromised ALL and LF tissues. PMID:22939289

Leahy, P Devin; Puttlitz, Christian M

2012-01-01

115

Three Dimensional Movements Of The Upper Cervical Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten fresh cadaveric whole cervical spine specimens (occiput to C7) were studied using well established techniques to document the movements in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation. Pure moments of maximum 1.5 newton meters were applied incrementally and three dimensional movements of the bones were recorded using stereophotogrammetry. Each moment was applied individually and in a three load/unload cycles. The motion measurements were made on the third load cycle. Parameters of neutral zone, elastic zone and range of motion were computed. Neutral zones for flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and right/left axial rotation were respectively: 1.1, 1.5 and 1.6 (occiput-C1); and 3.2, 1.2 and 29.6 degrees (C1-C2). Ranges of motion for flexion, extension, lateral bending (one side) and axial rotation (one side) were respectively: 3.5, 21.0, 5.5 and 7.2 degrees (occiput-Cl joint) and 11.5, 10.9, 6.7 and 38.9 degrees (CI-CZ joint). The highest intervertebral motion in the spine was the axial rotation at the Cl-C2 joint, neutral zone constituting 75% of this motion.

Panjabi, Manohar M.; Dvorak, Jiri; Duranceau, Joanne; Yamamoto, Isao

1989-04-01

116

Endonasal Access to the Upper Cervical Spine, Part One: Radiographic Morphometric Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the anatomical relationships that may influence endonasal access to the upper cervical spine. Setting We retrospectively analyzed computed tomography of 100 patients at a single institution. Participants Participants included adults with imaging of the hard palate, clivus, and cervical spine without evidence of fracture, severe spondylosis, or previous instrumentation. Main Outcome Measures Morphometric analyses of hard palate length and both distance and angle between the hard palate and odontoid process were based on radiographic measurements. Descriptive zones were assigned to cervical spine levels, and endoscopic visualization was simulated with projected lines at 0, 30, and 45 degrees from the hard palate to the cervical spine. Results We found an inverse relationship between hard palate length and the lowest zone of the cervical spine potentially visualized by nasal endoscopy. The distance between the posterior tip of the hard palate and the odontoid tip, and the angle formed between the two, directly influenced the lowest possible cervical exposure. Conclusions Radiographic relationships between hard palate length, distance to the odontoid, and the angle formed between the two predict the limits of endonasal access to the cervical spine. These results are supported by cadaveric data in Part Two of this study. PMID:24436909

Singh, Harminder; Grobelny, Bartosz T.; Harrop, James; Rosen, Marc; Lober, Robert M.; Evans, James

2013-01-01

117

Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

118

Severe neurologic manifestations from cervical spine instability in spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia.  

PubMed

Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia (SMMD; OMIM 613330) is a dysostosis/dysplasia caused by recessive mutations in the homeobox-containing gene, NKX3-2 (formerly known as BAPX1). Because of the rarity of the condition, its diagnostic features and natural course are not well known. We describe clinical and radiographic findings in six patients (five of which with homozygous mutations in the NKX3-2 gene) and highlight the unusual and severe changes in the cervical spine and the neurologic complications. In individuals with SMMD, the trunk and the neck are short, while the limbs, fingers and toes are disproportionately long. Radiographs show a severe ossification delay of the vertebral bodies with sagittal and coronal clefts, missing ossification of the pubic bones, large round "balloon-like" epiphyses of the long bones, and presence of multiple pseudoepiphyses at all metacarpals and phalanges. Reduced or absent ossification of the cervical vertebrae leads to cervical instability with anterior or posterior kinking of the cervical spine (swan neck-like deformity, kyknodysostosis). As a result of the cervical spine instability or deformation, five of six patients in our series suffered cervical cord injury that manifested clinically as limb spasticity. Although the number of individuals observed is small, the high incidence of cervical spine deformation in SMMD is unique among skeletal dysplasias. Early diagnosis of SMMD by recognition of the radiographic pattern might prevent of the neurologic complications via prophylactic cervical spine stabilization. PMID:22791571

Simon, Marleen; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Mittaz-Crettol, Lauréane; Valadares, Eugenia Ribeiro; Carvalho, Daniel; Speck-Martins, Carlos Eduardo; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Alanay, Yasemin; Mihci, Ercan; van Bever, Yolande; Garcia-Segarra, Nuria; Cavalcanti, Denise; Mortier, Geert; Bonafé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea

2012-08-15

119

Occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation in the pediatric population.  

PubMed

Fixation at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is necessary in a variety of pediatric clinical scenarios. Traditionally an occipital bone to cervical fusion is preformed, which requires a large amount of hardware to be placed on the occiput of a child. If a patient has previously undergone a posterior fossa decompression or requires a decompression at the time of the fusion procedure, it can be difficult to anchor a plate to the occipital bone. The authors propose a technique that can be used when faced with this difficult challenge by using the occipital condyle as a point of fixation for the construct. Adult cadaveric and a limited number of case studies have been published using occipital condyle (C-0) fixation. This work was adapted for the pediatric population. Between 2009 and 2012, 4 children underwent occipital condyle to axial or subaxial spine fixation. One patient had previously undergone posterior fossa surgery for tumor resection, and 1 required decompression at the time of operation. Two patients underwent preoperative deformity reduction using traction. One child had a Chiari malformation Type I. Each procedure was performed using polyaxial screw-rod constructs with intraoperative neuronavigation supplemented by a custom navigational drill guide. Smooth-shanked 3.5-mm polyaxial screws, ranging in length from 26 to 32 mm, were placed into the occipital condyles. All patients successfully underwent occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation. In 3 patients the construct extended from C-0 to C-2, and in 1 from C-0 to T-2. Patients with preoperative halo stabilization were placed in a cervical collar postoperatively. There were no new postoperative neurological deficits or vascular injuries. Each patient underwent postoperative CT, demonstrating excellent screw placement and evidence of solid fusion. Occipital condyle fixation is an effective option in pediatric patients requiring occipitocervical fusion for treatment of deformity and/or instability at the CVJ. The use of intraoperative neuronavigation allows for safe placement of screws into C-0, especially when faced with a challenging patient in whom fixation to the occipital bone is not possible or is less than ideal. PMID:24206344

Kosnik-Infinger, Libby; Glazier, Steven S; Frankel, Bruce M

2014-01-01

120

Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualized using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered.

Safriel, Yair [Yale University School of Medicine, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: safriel@yale.edu; Ang, Roberto [Center for Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Ali, Muhammed [Kaiser Permanente Woodland Hills Medical Center (United States)

2008-03-15

121

When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?  

PubMed Central

Background: The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT)-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6%) had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001). The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001) and orbital (P = 0.004) regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries. PMID:25097643

Rahman, Sajjad A.; Chandrasala, Soumithran

2014-01-01

122

Validation of a Finite Element Model of the Young Normal Lower Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Finite Element Model (FEM) of the young adult human cervical spine has been developed as a first step in studying the process\\u000a of spondylotic degeneration. The model was developed using normal geometry and material properties for the lower cervical\\u000a spine. The model used a three-zone composite disc annulus to reflect the different material properties of the anterior, posterior,\\u000a and

John A. Wheeldon; Brian D. Stemper; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

2008-01-01

123

Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion for Prediction of Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injury Due to Side Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Intervertebral Neck Injury Criterion (IV-NIC) is based on the hypothesis that dynamic three-dimensional intervertebral motion beyond physiological limits may cause multiplanar injury of cervical spine soft tissues. Goals of this study, using a biofidelic whole human cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head in simulated side impacts, were to correlate IV-NIC with multiplanar injury and determine

Manohar M. Panjabi; Paul C. Ivancic; Yasuhiro Tominaga; Jaw-Lin Wang

2005-01-01

124

Probabilistic Finite Element Analysis of the Lower Cervical Spine under Eccentric Loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The probabilistic response of an anatomically accurate, three-dimensional, non-linear and experimentally validated finite element model of the human lower cervical spine is presented. In the analysis, eccentric loading is applied to the superior surface of a C4-C5-C6 cervical spine segment to simulate an extension motion similar to that seen in falls, diving accidents, and rear-end automobile collisions. Biological variability of

Ben H. Thacker; Daniel P. Nicolella; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

125

Airway Preparation Techniques for the Cervical Spine-Injured Football Player  

PubMed Central

Athletic health care professionals have been concerned about how to optimize the emergency care the cervical spine-injured football player receives on the field. Much of the discussion has centered on how to best expose and prepare the airway for rescue breathing in the quickest and safest manner possible. This study compared the time required and the extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine during three traditional and one new airway exposure and preparation technique. Twelve subjects wearing football helmets and shoulder pads were exposed to multiple trials of airway exposure via face mask repositioning using a manual screwdriver, power screwdriver, and the Trainer's Angel cutting device. Subjects also underwent airway preparation using the pocket mask insertion technique. Cervical spine motion was measured in two dimensions using an optoelectronic motion analysis system. Time and qualitative assessment were obtained through videotape analysis. Significant differences were found between the techniques with respect to time and cervical spine motion. The pocket mask allowed quicker activation of rescue breathing than the other three traditional techniques. There was no significant difference in the amount of extraneous motion induced at the cervical spine between the pocket mask, manual screwdriver, and power screwdriver techniques. The Trainer's Angel induced significantly more motion than the other three techniques in each of the four motions measured. Changes in traditional protocols used to treat cervical spine-injured football players on the field are recommended based on these data. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2. PMID:16558339

Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Bazuin, Doug; Farrell, Robert N.

1995-01-01

126

Brown Tumor of the Cervical Spines: A Case Report with Literature Review  

PubMed Central

To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

2015-01-01

127

Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Intact Human Cervical Spine Ligaments  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND CONTEXT Most previous studies have investigated ligaments mechanical properties at slow elongation rates of less than 25 mm/s. PURPOSE To determine the tensile mechanical properties, at a fast elongation rate, of intact human cervical anterior and posterior longitudinal, capsular, and interspinous and supraspinous ligaments, middle-third disc, and ligamentum flavum. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING In vitro biomechanical study. METHODS A total of 97 intact bone-ligament-bone specimens (C2–C3 to C7-T1) were prepared from six cervical spines (average age: 80.6 years, range, 71 to 92 years) and were elongated to complete rupture at an average (SD) peak rate of 723 (106) mm/s using a custom-built apparatus. Non-linear force vs. elongation curves were plotted and peak force, peak elongation, peak energy, and stiffness were statistically compared (P<0.05) among ligament. A mathematical model was developed to determine the quasi-static physiological ligament elongation. RESULTS Highest average peak force, up to 244.4 and 220.0 N in the ligamentum flavum and capsular ligament, respectively, were significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament and middle-third disc. Highest peak elongation reached 5.9 mm in the intraspinous and supraspinous ligaments, significantly greater than in the middle-third disc. Highest peak energy of 0.57 J was attained in the capsular ligament, significantly greater than in the anterior longitudinal ligament and middle-third disc. Average stiffness was generally greatest in the ligamentum flavum and least in the intraspinous and supraspinous ligaments. For all ligaments, peak elongation was greater than average physiological elongation computed using the mathematical model. CONCLUSIONS Comparison of the present results with previously reported data indicated that high speed elongation may cause cervical ligaments to fail at a higher peak force and smaller peak elongation and may be stiffer and absorb less energy, as compared to a slow elongation rate. These comparisons may be useful to clinicians for diagnosing cervical ligament injuries based upon the specific trauma. PMID:17998125

Ivancic, Paul C.; Coe, Marcus P.; Ndu, Anthony B.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Carlson, Erik J.; Rubin, Wolfgang; (FH), Dipl-Ing; Panjabi, Manohar M.

2009-01-01

128

Anatomic study of individualized and improved pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore a safe, reliable, and effective method for pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. Recently, a number of studies have shown that cervical pedicle screw fixation is better than roadside steel plate after cervical screw internal fixation within the scope of its indications. However, the difficulty of the former surgery technology is relatively higher and it is much easier to cause many complications. Therefore, domestic and foreign scholars have been positively exploring safer, easier operations and cheaper methods of pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine. The lower cervical spine areas (C3-C7) of 7 adult cadavers were carried out with computed tomography (CT) scans of 1-mm slices. The entry point, angle, and length of the screws were determined by the measurement of CT images in a picture archiving and communication system. The pedicle screws were implanted with the technique of improved Abumi pedicle screw placement in the lab. The accuracy of the screws was evaluated by the Andrew CT classification criteria of pedicle screw position and gross observation after the experiment. A total of 66 screws were implanted in the lower cervical spine, and 90.9% of the screws inserted were found to be in an optimal position. The method of individualized and improved pedicle screw implantation in the lower cervical spine is relatively safe and reliable, which can be considered to be used in the clinic. PMID:25692438

Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min; Xiong, Han-Chu; Gao, Song; Li, Bin-Hua; Yao, Hao-Qun; Cao, Kai; Liu, Zhi-Li

2015-02-01

129

The Human Cervical Spine in Tension: Effects of Frame and Fixation Compliance on Structural Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little data available on the responses of the human cervical spine to tensile loading. Such tests are mechanistically and technically challenging due to the variety of end conditions that need to be imposed and the difficulty of strong specimen fixation. As a result, spine specimens need to be tested using fairly complex, and potentially compliant, apparati in order

ROGER W. NIGHTINGALE; VALETA CAROL CHANCEY; JASON F. LUCK; LAURA TRAN; DANIELLE OTTAVIANO; BARRY S. MYERS

2004-01-01

130

Cervical artificial disc replacement versus fusion in the cervical spine: a systematic review comparing multilevel versus single-level surgery  

PubMed Central

Study design:?Systematic review. Clinical questions:?What is the effectiveness of multilevel cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) compared with multilevel fusion with respect to pain and functional outcomes, and are the two procedures comparable in terms of safety? What is the effectiveness of multilevel C-ADR compared with single-level C-ADR with respect to pain and functional outcomes, and are the two procedures comparable in terms of safety? Methods:?A systematic review was undertaken for articles published up to October 2011. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies comparing multilevel C-ADR with multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or comparing multilevel C-ADR with single-level C-ADR. Studies which compared these procedures in the lumbar or thoracic spine or that reported alignment outcomes only were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the GRADE criteria and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results:?Two studies compared multilevel C-ADR with multilevel ACDF. While both reported improved Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scores after C-ADR compared with ACDF, only one study reported statistically significant results. Seven studies compared single-level C-ADR with multilevel C-ADR. Results were similar in terms of overall success, NDI and SF-36 scores, and patient satisfaction. There is discrepant information regarding rates of heterotopic ossification; dysphagia rate may be higher in multilevel C-ADR. Conclusions:?The literature suggests that outcomes are at least similar for multilevel C-ADR and ACDF and may favor C-ADR. Future studies are necessary before firm recommendations can be made favoring one treatment strategy. Multilevel C-ADR seems to have similar results to single-level C-ADR but may have higher rates of heterotopic ossification and dysphagia. PMID:23236310

Kepler, Christopher K.; Brodt, Erika D.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Albert, Todd J.

2012-01-01

131

Soft tissue injuries associated with traumatic locked facets in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical, radiological and operative findings in 10 consecutive patients with cervical spine trauma presenting with locked facets (bilaterally in nine patients) are reported. The treatment was cervical traction until reduction of the locked facets was achieved, followed by anterior surgical decompression and ostheosynthesis. Intervertebral disc herniation was present in nine of the patients, and ruptured calcified posterior longitudinal ligament

A C Moraes; A Serdeira; A Pereira Filho; E Zardo; J Deitos

1995-01-01

132

Oropharyngeal Dysphagia after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A Review  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Review. Objective?Postoperative oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the most common complications following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). We review and summarize recent literature in order to provide a general overview of clinical signs and symptoms, assessment, incidence and natural history, pathophysiology, risk factors, treatment, prevention, and topics for future research. Methods?A search of English literature regarding dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. The search was focused on articles published since the last review on this topic was published in 2005. Results?Patients who develop dysphagia after ACSS show significant alterations in swallowing biomechanics. Patient history, physical examination, X-ray, direct or indirect laryngoscopy, and videoradiographic swallow evaluation are considered the primary modalities for evaluating oropharyngeal dysphagia. There is no universally accepted objective instrument for assessing dysphagia after ACSS, but the most widely used instrument is the Bazaz Dysphagia Score. Because dysphagia is a subjective sensation, patient-reported instruments appear to be more clinically relevant and more effective in identifying dysfunction. The causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS are multifactorial, involving neuronal, muscular, and mucosal structures. The condition is usually transient, most often beginning in the immediate postoperative period but sometimes beginning more than 1 month after surgery. The incidence of dysphagia within one week after ACSS varies from 1 to 79% in the literature. This wide variance can be attributed to variations in surgical techniques, extent of surgery, and size of the implant used, as well as variations in definitions and measurements of dysphagia, time intervals of postoperative evaluations, and relatively small sample sizes used in published studies. The factors most commonly associated with an increased risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS are: more levels operated, female gender, increased operative time, and older age (usually >60 years). Dysphagic patients can learn compensatory strategies for the safe and effective passage of bolus material. Certain intraoperative and postoperative techniques may decrease the incidence and/or severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS. Conclusions?Large, prospective, randomized studies are required to confirm the incidence, prevalence, etiology, mechanisms, long-term natural history, and risk factors for the development of dysphagia after ACSS, as well as to identify prevention measures. Also needed is a universal outcome measurement that is specific, reliable and valid, would include global, functional, psychosocial, and physical domains, and would facilitate comparisons among studies. Results of these studies can lead to improvements in surgical techniques and/or perioperative management, and may reduce the incidence of dysphagia after ACSS. PMID:24436882

Anderson, Karen K.; Arnold, Paul M.

2013-01-01

133

Low-back pain, sciatica, cervical and lumbar spondylosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spondylosis is the progressive, age-related degenerative changes of the spine. The mid-cervical and lower-lumbar regions are particularly affected because of the distribution of mechanical stresses due to spinal motion and loading of the spinal segments when in the erect posture. These changes are usually asymptomatic apart from increasing stiffness and reduced mobility of the spine. When symptomatic, clinical features include

Nicholas WM Thomas

2004-01-01

134

Pitfalls and complications in the treatment of cervical spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at significant risk for sustaining cervical spine injuries following trauma predisposed by kyphosis, stiffness and osteoporotic bone quality of the spine. The risk of sustaining neurological deficits in this patient population is higher than average. The present review article provides an outline on the specific injury patterns in the cervical spine, diagnostic algorithms and specific treatment modalities dictated by the underlying disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. An emphasis is placed on the risks and complication patterns in the treatment of these rare, but challenging injuries. PMID:18538019

Heyde, Christoph-E; Fakler, Johannes K; Hasenboehler, Erik; Stahel, Philip F; John, Thilo; Robinson, Yohan; Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph

2008-01-01

135

Pitfalls and complications in the treatment of cervical spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at significant risk for sustaining cervical spine injuries following trauma predisposed by kyphosis, stiffness and osteoporotic bone quality of the spine. The risk of sustaining neurological deficits in this patient population is higher than average. The present review article provides an outline on the specific injury patterns in the cervical spine, diagnostic algorithms and specific treatment modalities dictated by the underlying disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. An emphasis is placed on the risks and complication patterns in the treatment of these rare, but challenging injuries. PMID:18538019

Heyde, Christoph-E; Fakler, Johannes K; Hasenboehler, Erik; Stahel, Philip F; John, Thilo; Robinson, Yohan; Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph

2008-01-01

136

Geometric and mechanical properties of human cervical spine ligaments.  

PubMed

This study characterized the geometry and mechanical properties of the cervical ligaments from C2-T1 levels. The lengths and cross-sectional areas of the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, joint capsules, ligamentum flavum, and interspinous ligament were determined from eight human cadavers using cryomicrotomy images. The geometry was defined based on spinal anatomy and its potential use in complex mathematical models. The biomechanical force-deflection, stiffness, energy, stress, and strain data were obtained from 25 cadavers using in situ axial tensile tests. Data were grouped into middle (C2-C5) and lower (C5-T1) cervical levels. Both the geometric length and area of cross section, and the biomechanical properties including the stiffness, stress, strain, energy, and Young's modulus, were presented for each of the five ligaments. In both groups, joint capsules and ligamentum flavum exhibited the highest cross-sectional area (p < 0.005), while the longitudinal ligaments had the highest length measurements. Although not reaching statistical significance, for all ligaments, cross-sectional areas were higher in the C5-T1 than in the C2-C5 group; and lengths were higher in the C2-C5 than in the C5-T1 group with the exception of the flavum (Table 1 in the main text). Force-deflection characteristics (plots) are provided for all ligaments in both groups. Failure strains were higher for the ligaments of the posterior (interspinous ligament, joint capsules, and ligamentum flavum) than the anterior complex (anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments) in both groups. In contrast, the failure stress and Young's modulus were higher for the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments compared to the ligaments of the posterior complex in the two groups. However, similar tendencies in the structural responses (stiffness, energy) were not found in both groups. Researchers attempting to incorporate these data into stress-analysis models can choose the specific parameter(s) based on the complexity of the model used to study the biomechanical behavior of the human cervical spine. PMID:11192384

Yoganandan, N; Kumaresan, S; Pintar, F A

2000-12-01

137

National trends in outpatient surgical treatment of degenerative cervical spine disease.  

PubMed

Study Design?Retrospective population-based observational study. Objective?To assess the growth of cervical spine surgery performed in an outpatient setting. Methods?A retrospective study was conducted using the United States Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's State Inpatient and Ambulatory Surgery Databases for California, New York, Florida, and Maryland from 2005 to 2009. Current Procedural Terminology, fourth revision (CPT-4) and International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes were used to identify operations for degenerative cervical spine diseases in adults (age?>?20 years). Disposition and complication rates were examined. Results?There was an increase in cervical spine surgeries performed in an ambulatory setting during the study period. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion accounted for 68% of outpatient procedures; posterior decompression made up 21%. Younger patients predominantly underwent anterior fusion procedures, and patients in the eighth and ninth decades of life had more posterior decompressions. Charlson comorbidity index and complication rates were substantially lower for ambulatory cases when compared with inpatients. The majority (>99%) of patients were discharged home following ambulatory surgery. Conclusions?Recently, the number of cervical spine surgeries has increased in general, and more of these procedures are being performed in an ambulatory setting. The majority (>99%) of patients are discharged home but the nature of analyzing administrative data limits accurate assessment of postoperative complications and thus patient safety. This increase in outpatient cervical spine surgery necessitates further discussion of its safety. PMID:25083354

Baird, Evan O; Egorova, Natalia N; McAnany, Steven J; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Hecht, Andrew C; Cho, Samuel K

2014-08-01

138

Biomechanical effect of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments.  

PubMed

The biomechanical effects of superior (C4-C5) and inferior (C5-C6) level fusions with different graft materials on the adjacent unaltered components were quantified using an anatomically accurate and experimentally validated C4-C5-C6 finite element model. Smith-Robinson and Bailey-Badgley fusion procedures were analyzed with five different types of inter-body fusion materials with varying stiffnesses. Intact and surgically altered finite element models were subjected to physiologic compression, flexion, extension and lateral bending. The external axial and angular stiffness, and the internal unaltered intervertebral disc (C5-C6 for the superior and C4-C5 for inferior fusion) and C5 vertebral body stresses were determined. The superior level fusion resulted in the highest increase in external response in lateral bending for all implant materials in both surgical procedures. In contrast, the inferior level fusion produced a higher increase in the C4-C5 disc and C5 vertebral body stresses in compression than the superior level fusion in both surgical procedures. The increased internal stress responses reflecting the changes in the load-sharing following inferior level fusion may explain clinical observations such as enhanced degeneration subsequent to surgery. Because of the inclusion of three levels in the present multi-segment finite element model, it was possible to determine these responses in the unaltered adjacent components of the cervical spine. PMID:10436851

Maiman, D J; Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

1999-01-01

139

Biomechanical study of pediatric human cervical spine: a finite element approach.  

PubMed

Although considerable effort has been made to understand the biomechanical behavior of the adult cervical spine, relatively little information is available on the response of the pediatric cervical spine to external forces. Since significant anatomical differences exist between the adult and pediatric cervical spines, distinct biomechanical responses are expected. The present study quantified the biomechanical responses of human pediatric spines by incorporating their unique developmental anatomical features. One-, three-, and six-year-old cervical spines were simulated using the finite element modeling technique, and their responses computed and compared with the adult spine response. The effects of pure overall structural scaling of the adult spine, local component developmental anatomy variations that occur to the actual pediatric spines, and structural scaling combined with local component anatomy variations on the responses of the pediatric spines were studied. Age- and component-related developmental anatomical features included variations in the ossification centers, cartilages, growth plates, vertebral centrum, facet joints, and annular fibers and nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs. The flexibility responses of the models were determined under pure compression, pure flexion, pure extension, and varying degrees of combined compression-flexion and compression-extension. The pediatric spine responses obtained with the pure overall (only geometric) scaling of the adult spine indicated that the flexibilities consistently increase in a uniform manner from six- to one-year-old spines under all loading cases. In contrast, incorporation of local anatomic changes specific to the pediatric spines of the three age groups (maintaining the same adult size) not only resulted in considerable increases in flexibilities, but the responses also varied as a function of the age of the pediatric spine and type of external loading. When the geometric scaling effects were added to these spines, the increases in flexibilities were slightly higher; however, the pattern of the responses remained the same as found in the previous approach. These results indicate that inclusion of developmental anatomical changes characteristic of the pediatric spines has more of a predominant effect on biomechanical responses than extrapolating responses of the adult spine based on pure overall geometric scaling. PMID:10790831

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Maiman, D J; Kuppa, S

2000-02-01

140

Accuracy of ICD-9-CM coding of cervical spine fractures: Implications for research using administrative databases  

PubMed Central

Objective ICD-9-CM codes are often used for trauma research due to their ready availability in administrative databases. They are also used to classify injury severity in trauma patients. However, errors in coding may limit the use of these codes. Prior studies have found coding accuracy ranging from 20 to 100%, casting doubt on the reliability of studies utilizing these codes. The goal of this study was to determine the accuracy of ICD-9-CM coding for cervical spine fractures. Methods We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify trauma admissions and cervical spine fractures at a Level I trauma center in 2006. Cervical spine CT or CTA reports were reviewed by two independent observers. Data were compared to ICD-9-CM codes to determine accuracy. Results Of 1620 trauma admissions, 174 (11%) included a cervical spine fracture defined by ICD-9-CM codes. A cervical spine fracture was the primary diagnosis in 79 admissions and a secondary diagnosis in 63 admissions. Of the 142 cervical spine fractures defined by ICD-9-CM code, there were 133 (94%) cervical fractures by radiology report. Accuracy varied by primary diagnosis (97%) versus secondary diagnosis (89%). By cervical level, there were 230 fractures by CT report. Of these, 7% of ICD-9-CM codes documented a fractured level not noted in the CT report. Conversely, 14% of fractured levels noted by CT report did not have a corresponding ICD-9-CM code. Implications We found an overall 94% accuracy of ICD-9-CM coding compared to radiology reports. Inaccuracy of coding fracture level ranged from 7 to 14%. Researchers using these codes should refer back to the medical record or perform a sensitivity analysis to improve reliability. PMID:19026227

Miller, Matthew L.; Wang, Marjorie C.

2008-01-01

141

Risk Factors for Medical Complication after Cervical Spine Surgery: a multivariate analysis of 582 patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design Multivariate analysis of prospectively collected registry data Objective Using multivariate analysis, to determine significant risk factors for medical complication after cervical spine surgery. Summary of Background Data Several studies have examined the occurrence of medical complication after spine surgery. However many of these studies have been done utilizing large national databases. While these allow for analysis of thousands of patients, potentially influential co-variates are not accounted for in these retrospective studies. Furthermore, the accuracy of these retrospective data collection in these databases has been called into question. Methods The Spine End Results Registry (2003–2004) is a collection prospectively collected data on all patients who underwent spine surgery at our two institutions. Extensive demographic and medical information were prospectively recorded as described previously by Mirza et al. Complications were defined in detail a priori and were prospectively recorded for at least 2 years after surgery. We analyzed risk factors for medical complication after lumbar spine surgery using univariate and multivariate analysis. Results We analayzed data from 582 patients who met out inclusion criteria. The cumulative incidences of complication after cervical spine surgery per organ system are as follows: cardiac – 8.4%, pulmonary – 13%, gastrointestinal – 3.9%, neurological – 7.4%, hematological – 10.8% and urologic complications – 9.2%. The occurrence of cardiac or respiratory complication after cervical spine surgery was significantly associated with death within 2 years (RR 4.32, 6.43 respectively). Relative risk values with 95% confidence intervals and p values are listed individually in Tables 2 and 3. Conclusion Risk factors identified in this study can be beneficial to clinicians and patients alike when considering surgical treatment of the cervical spine. Future analyses and models that predict the occurrence of medical complication after cervical spine surgery may be of further benefit for surgical decision making. PMID:22805344

Lee, Michael J.; Konodi, Mark A.; Cizik, Amy M.; Weinreich, Mark A.; Bransford, Richard J.; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens

2012-01-01

142

The cervical spine of professional front-row rugby players: correlation between degenerative changes and symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Injuries to the cervical spine (C-spine) are among the most serious in rugby and are well documented. Front-row players are\\u000a particularly at risk due to repetitive high-intensity collisions in the scrum.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  This study evaluates degenerative changes of the C-spine and associated symptomatology in front-row rugby players.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  C-spine radiographs from 14 professional rugby players and controls were compared. Players

B. A. Hogan; N. A. Hogan; P. M. Vos; S. J. Eustace; P. J. Kenny

2010-01-01

143

Comparison of risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in rollover crashes.  

PubMed

Previous epidemiological studies of rollover crashes have focused primarily on serious and fatal injuries in general, while rollover crash testing has focused almost exclusively on cervical spine injury. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the risk factors for cervical spine, head, serious, and fatal injury in real world rollover crashes. Rollover crashes from 1995-2008 in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) were investigated. A large data set of 6015 raw cases (2.5 million weighted) was generated. Nonparametric univariate analyses, univariate logistic regression, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted. Complete or partial ejection, a lack of seatbelt use, a greater number of roof inversions, and older occupant age significantly increased the risk of all types of injuries studied (p<0.05). Far side seating position increased the risk of fatal, head, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not serious injury in general. Higher BMI was associated with an increased risk of fatal, serious, and cervical spine injury (p<0.05), but not head injury. Greater roof crush was associated with a higher rate of fatal and cervical spine injury (p<0.05). Vehicle type, occupant height, and occupant gender had inconsistent and generally non-significant effects on injury. This study demonstrates both common and unique risk factors for different types of injuries in rollover crashes. PMID:22269486

Funk, James R; Cormier, Joseph M; Manoogian, Sarah J

2012-03-01

144

Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical, metabolic, and kinematic spinal changes in the lumbar spine may aid further development of countermeasures to prevent lumbar back pain in microgravity and reduce the incidence of HNPs post-flight.

Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

2013-05-01

145

The adequacy of cervical spine radiographs in the accident and emergency department.  

PubMed Central

One hundred and twenty radiographs of the cervical spine were performed at the request of the Accident and Emergency (A & E) department over a 6 week period. These consecutive films were reviewed for adequacy of anatomical demonstration of the complete cervical spine. The initial series of three films presented to the A& E staff achieved this objective in only 55% of cases overall, although further radiographic examinations requested before the patient left the department raised this figure to 75% for the lateral view and to 70% for the combined anteroposterior (AP) views. From the data it can be predicted that if every patient whose first 3 films were inadequate had received further investigation, the cervical spine would have been well visualized on approximately 90% of radiographs in each plane. The availability of radiologists for advice and their involvement with senior A & E staff in teaching are important factors in improving this situation. PMID:8459376

Moulton, C; Griffiths, P D

1993-01-01

146

Asymptomatic cervical spine dysfunction (CSD) in patients with internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint.  

PubMed

Patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) frequently show symptoms related to the cervical spine. It is however unknown whether patients with TMD who have no symptoms in the neck region often have signs of cervical spine dysfunction (CSD) and whether there is a predominant localization of these asymptomatic CSDs. In a prospective and controlled examiner-blinded clinical trial, the prevalence and localization of asymptomatic CSD in patients with TMD was examined. Thirty patients with internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint but without any neck problems were compared with 30 age and gender matched healthy controls. Significantly more asymptomatic dysfunctions of the vertebral joints and increased muscle tenderness were found in the patient group. The difference between patents and nonpatients for vertebral joint dysfunction and muscle tenderness was greatest in the upper cervical spine. These findings support the thesis that a complementary examination of this area should be performed, even when TMD patents do not report any neck problems. PMID:12150265

Fink, Matthias; Tschernitschek, Harald; Stiesch-Scholz, Meike

2002-07-01

147

Effectiveness of Manual Physical Therapy to the Cervical Spine in the Management of Lateral Epicondylalgia: A Retrospective Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design: Retrospective ex-post facto design. Objectives: To retrospectively review the management of patients with lateral epicondylalgia, and to compare self-reported outcomes to assess the potential benefit of manual physical therapy to the cervical spine. Background: It has been postulated that dysfunction of the cervical spine may contribute to the symptoms associated with lateral epicondylalgia; however, the literature assessing the effectiveness

Joshua A. Cleland; Julie M. Whitman; Julie M. Fritz

2004-01-01

148

Radiation therapy for chordomas of the base of skull and cervical spine: Patterns of failure and outcome after relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the patterns of failure and outcome following relapse of chordomas of the base of skull and cervical spine.Methods and Materials: Between November 1975 and October 1993, 204 patients were treated for chordoma of the base of skull or cervical spine, of which 63 have developed relapse. These 63 patients constitute the main focus of this study. Forty-five

Marcio A. Fagundes; Eugen B. Hug; Norbert J. Liebsch; William Daly; Jimmy Efird; John E. Munzenrider

1995-01-01

149

Experimental flexion\\/extension data corridors for validation of finite element models of the young, normal cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite element (FE) modeling is an important tool for studying the cervical spine in normal, injured and diseased conditions. To understand the role of mechanical changes on the spine as it goes from a normal to a diseased or injured state, experimental studies are needed to establish the external response of young, normal cervical spinal segments compared to injured or

John A. Wheeldon; Frank A. Pintar; Stephanie Knowles; Narayan Yoganandan

2006-01-01

150

In vitro low-speed side collisions cause injury to the lower cervical spine but do not damage alar ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether injuries to the alar ligaments could be responsible for complaints of patients having whiplash injury in the upper cervical spine is still controversially discussed. It is known that these ligaments protect the upper cervical spine against excessive lateral bending and axial rotation movements. The objective of the present in vitro study was therefore to examine whether the alar ligaments

E. Hartwig; A. Kettler; M. Schultheiß; L. Kinzl; L. Claes; H.-J. Wilke

2004-01-01

151

Relationship between cervical spine injury and helmet use in motorcycle road crashes.  

PubMed

Motorcycle helmets have been proven to prevent head injury and reduce fatality in road crashes. However, certain studies indicate that the helmet increases the mass to the head, and thus the potential of neck injury due to the flexion/extension of the head-neck segment in a road crash may increase. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of motorcycle helmets and the ways in which the accidents that occurred affected the incidence of cervical spine injury. Nevertheless, it is not intended to and does not discredit the fact that helmet use prevents many motorcyclists from sustaining serious and fatal head injuries. A total of 76 cases were collected and analyzed based on the data collected from real-world crashes. The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was used to assess the severity of injury, whereas the statistical Pearson ?(2) correlation method was used for analysis. The results showed that motorcycle helmets did not affect the severity of cervical spine injury. However, when the samples were further subcategorized into different crash modes, it was found that helmets affect the incidence of a severe cervical spine injury. In frontal collisions, the use of helmets significantly reduces the severity of cervical spine injury, whereas in rear-end, side impact, and skidded accidents, the use of helmets increases the probability of a severe cervical spine injury. However, in the latter crash modes, a motorcyclist without a helmet will have to trade-off with head injury. A logistic regression model has been developed with respective crash modes and the probabilities of risk in having severe cervical spine injury have been calculated. Future designs in motorcycle helmets should therefore consider the significance of nonfrontal accidents and the interaction of helmet with other parts of the body by possibly considering the weight of the helmet. PMID:21768134

Ooi, S S; Wong, S V; Yeap, J S; Umar, Radin

2011-07-01

152

Tertiary Syphilis in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

As the prevalence of syphilis rises, an increase in tertiary syphilis with spinal involvement is predicted. We report what we believe to be the first case of compressive cervical spine syphilitic gummata, with central cord compression signs. We also review the relevant literature to date. The diagnosis of syphilis in the spine relies on the physician to be aware of it as part of the differential diagnosis. Treponemal laboratory tests are an important aid in establishing a diagnosis. PMID:24436850

Salem, K. M. I.; Majeed, H.; Bommireddy, R.; Klezl, Z.

2012-01-01

153

Brown tumor of the cervical spine: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown tumors (BT) are benign focal bone lesions that may appear in the context of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism\\u000a (HPT). Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. We present a case of brown tumor involving the cervical spine, the third\\u000a reported in the literature. In the literature review (until August 2010), we found nine cases of spinal BT in primary

Lourdes Mateo; Ana Massuet; Montserrat Solà; Ricard Pérez Andrés; Eva Musulen; M. Carmen Sánchez Torres

2011-01-01

154

A biomechanical system for measuring the three dimensional kinematics of the cervical spine during impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four intact human head-neck complexes were fixed between T1 and T2. Reflective target markers were inserted into the exposed cervical vertebra to document the 3D kinematics of the cervical spine and head. A dynamic pulse was delivered to the specimen using a mini-sled pendulum apparatus. Each specimen was examined in five different orientations and with two different pulses, for a

J. R. Humm; G. F. Harris; Y. N. Yoganandan; T. H. Lim; C. J. Mugnier; R. C. Anderson

1997-01-01

155

Current status of bone graft options for anterior interbody fusion of the cervical and lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) are common surgical procedures for degenerative disc disease of the cervical and lumbar spine. Over the years, many bone graft options have been developed and investigated aimed at complimenting or substituting autograft bone, the traditional fusion substrate. Here, we summarise the historical context, biological basis and current best evidence for these bone graft options in ACDF and ALIF. PMID:23743981

Chau, Anthony Minh Tien; Xu, Lileane Liang; Wong, Johnny Ho-Yin; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

2014-01-01

156

Degenerative disease of the cervical spine and its relationship to athletes.  

PubMed

Each sport presents with unique risk factors and different mechanisms of injury, and therefore extrapolation of the data from one sport to another makes comparison difficult. The current evidence exploring the relationship of athletes and degenerative changes of the cervical spine leaves much to be debated, and future prospective longitudinal studies will be needed to clarify our understanding further. Such research will help structure clinical recommendations and improve sports safety and the care of athletes of all ages. Currently, there is evidence to suggest that participation in collision sports is implicated in premature degeneration of the cervical spine. There is some evidence to suggest that the same is true with noncollision sports and activities that result in direct and indirect repetitive loads to the cervical spine over time. The risk factors have yet to be clearly identified. The natural history and sequelae of premature degeneration have yet to be elucidated. Cervical spondylosis also appears to increase the severity, but not the frequency, of irreversible neurologic injury during collision sport participation. Prudence dictates that we not ignore the present evidence suggesting a link between neuropraxia and cervical stenosis. Proper screening for cervical stenosis in patients with transient neuropraxia with subsequent cessation of participation in collision sports if severe stenosis is present is suggested. There is no consensus for RTP guidelines in the setting of transient neurologic injuries in the athlete when severe degeneration is present, and each case must be considered individually with regard to the sport involved. PMID:22657999

Triantafillou, Konstantinos M; Lauerman, William; Kalantar, S Babak

2012-07-01

157

Active range of motion of the head and cervical spine: a three-dimensional investigation in healthy young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To define reference values for head–cervical range of motion (ROM) in healthy young adults, to assess the effect of sex, and to quantify the separate contribution of other body districts.Methods. Thirty women and 30 men performed maximal head and cervical spine flexion–extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Movements were detected using a digital optoelectronic instrument. Maximum head–cervical spine and

Virgilio F. Ferrario; Chiarella Sforza; Graziano Serrao; GianPiero Grassi; Erio Mossi

2002-01-01

158

Overdistraction: a hazard of skull traction in the management of acute injuries of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In acute cervical spine trauma, skull traction is used to reduce a dislocation or fracture dislocation, to immobilize an unstable lesion until definitive treatment (operative or conservative) is possible or, more rarely, as a definitive treatment until healing occurs. This method may be dangerous when an unstable lesion is accidentally overdistracted. A few cases have been reported in the literature,

B. Jeanneret; F. Magerl; J. C. Ward

1991-01-01

159

Finite element modeling approaches of human cervical spine facet joint capsule  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human cervical spine facet joint capsule was modeled using four nonlinear finite element approaches: slideline, contact surface, hyperelastic, and fluid models. Slideline elements and contact surface definitions were used in the first two models to simulate the synovial fluid between the articulating cartilages. Incompressible solid elements approximated the synovial fluid in the hyperelastic model. Hydrostatic fluid elements idealized the

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A Pintar

1998-01-01

160

Finite element modeling of the cervical spine: role of intervertebral disc under axial and eccentric loads  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anatomically accurate, three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element model of the human cervical spine was developed using computed tomography images and cryomicrotome sections. The detailed model included the cortical bone, cancellous core, endplate, lamina, pedicle, transverse processes and spinous processes of the vertebrae; the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs; the uncovertebral joints; the articular cartilage, the synovial

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A Pintar; Dennis J Maiman

1999-01-01

161

Contribution of disc degeneration to osteophyte formation in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine disorders such as spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy are often related to osteophyte formation. Bone remodeling experimental–analytical studies have correlated biomechanical responses such as stress and strain energy density to the formation of bony outgrowth. Using these responses of the spinal components, the present study was conducted to investigate the basis for the occurrence of disc-related pathological conditions. An

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar; Dennis J. Maiman; Vijay K. Goel

2001-01-01

162

Assessment of published reliability studies for cervical spine range-of-motion measurement tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the reliability of tools to measure cervical spine range of motion in clinical settings and discuss the necessary components for reliability studies.Data Sources: Database searches included Bandolier, Bath Information and Data Services including Index of Scientific and Technical Proceedings, British Nursing Index, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, English National Health Care Database, MEDLINE, Occupational

Kelvin Jordan

2000-01-01

163

The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinema tographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Pre liminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association

Joseph S. Torg; Joseph J. Vegso; Mary Jane ONeill; Brian Sennett

1990-01-01

164

Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?  

SciTech Connect

Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional radiogenic lethal cancer incidents. According to the decision model calculations, the use of CT is more favorable over the use of radiography alone or radiography with CT by a factor of 13, for low risk 20 yr old patients, to a factor of 23, for high risk patients younger than 80 yr old. The radiography/CT imaging strategy slightly outperforms plain radiography for high and moderate risk patients. Regardless of the patient age, sex, and fracture risk, the higher diagnostic accuracy obtained by the CT examination counterbalances the increase in dose compared to plain radiography or radiography followed by CT only for positive radiographs and renders CT utilization justified and the radiographic screening redundant.

Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, 71003 Crete (Greece) and Department of Natural Sciences, Technological Education Institute of Crete, P.O. Box 140, Iraklion 71004 Crete (Greece); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, 71003 Crete (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, 71003 Crete (Greece)

2009-10-15

165

Single stage transforaminal retrojugular tumor resection: The spinal keyhole for dumbbell tumors in the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

Background: Dumbbell tumors are defined as having an intradural and extradural component with an intermediate component within an expanded neural foramen. Complete resection of these lesions in the subaxial cervical spine is a challenge, and it has been achieved through a combined posterior/anterior or anterolateral approach. This study describes a single stage transforaminal retrojugular (TFR) approach for dumbbell tumors resection in the cervical spine. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a series of 17 patients treated for cervical benign tumors, 4 of which were “true” cervical dumbbell tumors operated by a simplified retrojugular approach. The TFR approach allows a single stage gross total resection of both the extraspinal and intraspinal/intradural components of the tumor, taking advantage of the expanded neural foramen. All patients were followed clinically and radiologically with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Gross total resection was confirmed in all four patients by postoperative MRI. Minimal to no bone resection was performed. No fusion procedure was performed and no delayed instability was seen. At follow up, one patient had a persistent mild hand weakness and Horners syndrome following resection of a hemangioblastoma of the C8 nerve root. The other three patients were neurologically normal. Conclusions: The TFR approach appears to be a feasible surgical option for single stage resection in selective cases of dumbbell tumors of the cervical spine.

Bobinski, Lukas; Henchoz, Yves; Sandu, Kishore; Duff, John Michael

2015-01-01

166

Brown-Sequard syndrome after blunt cervical spine trauma: clinical and radiological correlations  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to describe clinical and radiological features of a series of patients presenting with Brown-Sequard syndrome after blunt spinal trauma and to determine whether a correlation exists between cervical plain films, CT, MRI and the clinical presentation and neurological outcome. A retrospective review was done of the medical records and analysis of clinical and radiological features of patients diagnosed of BSS after blunt cervical spine trauma and admitted to our hospital between 1995 and 2005. Ten patients were collected for study, three with upper- and seven with lower-cervical spine fracture. ASIA impairment scale and motor score were determined on admission and at last follow-up (6 months–9 years, mean 30 months). Patients with lower cervical spine fracture presented with laminar fracture ipsilateral to the side of cord injury in five out of six cases. T2-weighted hyperintensity was present in seven patients showing a close correlation with neurological deficit in terms of side and level but not with the severity of motor deficit. Patients with Brown-Sequard syndrome secondary to blunt cervical spine injury commonly presented T2-weighted hyperintensity in the clinically affected hemicord. A close correlation was observed between these signal changes in the MR studies and the neurologic level. Effacement of the anterior cervical subarachnoid space was present in all patients, standing as a highly sensitive but very nonspecific finding. In the present study, craniocaudal extent of T2-weighted hyperintensity of the cord failed to demonstrate a positive correlation with neurological impairment. PMID:17394028

Gomez, Pedro; Alday, Rafael; Kaen, Ariel; Ramos, Ana

2007-01-01

167

Retropharyngeal hematoma secondary to cervical spine surgery: report of one fatal case.  

PubMed

A 53-year-old woman suffering from radicular pain due to cervical herniation underwent a spinal surgery consisting of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with an implantable titanium cage. Five hours after the procedure, the patient developed cervical swelling and dyspnea. An emergency surgery permitted evacuation of a deep cervical hematoma and intubation of the patient, who died some minutes later. The family of the deceased lodged a complaint with the public prosecutor because of unclear circumstances of death. After analysis of the medical records by two forensic pathologists, a medicolegal autopsy was ordered. Massive retropharyngeal and mediastinal hematomas were diagnosed. Pathological study confirmed acute cervical hemorrhage, but failed to detect the source of bleeding. The forensic pathologists concluded that death was due to mechanical asphyxia secondary to pharyngeal compression by the cervical hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, death secondary to retropharyngeal hematoma in this neurosurgical context is rarely encountered. PMID:24962728

Dedouit, Fabrice; Grill, Stéphane; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Savall, Frédéric; Rougé, Daniel; Telmon, Norbert

2014-09-01

168

[Controversies about instrumented surgery and pain relief in degenerative lumbar spine pain. Results of scientific evidence].  

PubMed

Investigation and development of new techniques for intrumented surgery of the spine is not free of conflicts of interest. The influence of financial forces in the development of new technologies an its immediately application to spine surgery, shows the relationship between the published results and the industry support. Even authors who have defend eagerly fusion techniques, it have been demonstrated that them are very much involved in the revision of new articles to be published and in the approval process of new spinal technologies. When we analyze the published results of spine surgery, we must bear in mind what have been call in the "American Stock and Exchange" as "the bubble of spine surgery". The scientific literature doesn't show clear evidence in the cost-benefit studies of most instrumented surgical interventions of the spine compare with the conservative treatments. It has not been yet demonstrated that fusion surgery and disc replacement are better options than the conservative treatment. It's necessary to point out that at present "there are relationships between the industry and back pain, and there is also an industry of the back pain". Nonetheless, the "market of the spine surgery" is growing up because patients are demanding solutions for their back problems. The tide of scientific evidence seams to go against the spinal fusions in the degenerative disc disease, discogenic pain and inespecific back pain. After decades of advances in this field, the results of spinal fusions are mediocre. New epidemiological studies show that "spinal fusion must be accepted as a non proved or experimental method for the treatment of back pain". The surgical literature on spinal fusion published in the last 20 years following the Cochrane's method establish that: 1- this is at least incomplete, not reliable and careless; 2- the instrumentation seems to slightly increase the fusion rate; 3- the instrumentation doesn't improve the clinical results in general, lacking studies in subgroups of patients. We still are needing randomized studies to compare the surgical results with the natural history of the disease, the placebo effect, or the conservative treatment. The European Guidelines for lumbar chronic pain management show a "strong evidence" indicating that complex and demanding spine surgery where different instrumentation is used, is not more effective than a simple, safer and cheaper posterolateral fusion without instrumentation. Recently, the literature published in this field is sending a message to use "minimally invasive techniques", abandon transpedicular fusions and clearly indicating that we must apply the knowledge accumulated at least along the last 20 years based on the scientific evidence. In conclusion, based in recent information, we must recommend the "abandon of the instrumented pathway" in a great number of present indications for degenerative spine surgery, and look for new strategies in the field of rehabilitation and conservative treatments correctly apply, using before the decompressive and instrumented surgery all the interventional and minimally invasive techniques that are presently offer in the field of modem lumbar chronic pain treatment. PMID:18008014

Robaina-Padrón, F J

2007-10-01

169

Chiropractic and Neck Pain: Conservative Care of Cervical Pain, Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... this flexibility makes the neck very susceptible to pain and injury. The neck’s susceptibility to injury is ... normal aging, and everyday wear and tear. Neck pain can be very bothersome, and it can have ...

170

Cervical pain syndromes: Primary care diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses treatment of the most common musculoskeletal causes of cervical pain syndromes. A thorough history\\u000a and physical exam can allow treatment of these disorders without use of unnecessary and costly testing in the current era\\u000a of managed care.

Howard I. Levy

2000-01-01

171

A radiological review of cervical spine injuries from an accident and emergency department: has the ATLS made a difference?  

PubMed Central

The importance of visualizing the entire cervical spine on radiological examination in patients with cervical trauma is well known. A review of the cervical films of 98 patients attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department was undertaken in order to assess the adequacy of imaging. It was found that 33.7% of the films were not sufficient to exclude fracture or dislocation of the cervical spine. The number of patients with inadequate views was significantly reduced when an advanced trauma life support trained senior doctor was involved. PMID:8581244

Palmer, S H; Maheson, M

1995-01-01

172

Establishing reference values for cervical spine range of motion in pre-pubescent children.  

PubMed

Medical professionals, physical therapists, product designers, and computational models all use cervical spine range of motion reference values. To support these functions, researchers have collected a plethora of data to determine the normal range of motion of the cervical spine of adult subjects. However, little to no data exists for subjects under the age of 14. This study utilized the cervical range of motion device, referenced with respect to the Frankfort Plane, to measure the active cervical spine range of motion in all three cardinal planes of the human body, for 106 subjects whose ages ranged from 8 to 10 years. The active range of motion for flexion, extension, lateral extension, and rotation was calculated as 66+/-13 degrees , 85+/-14 degrees , 58+/-8 degrees , and 77+/-7 degrees , respectively, using linear statistics. The observed data significantly differed from the published American Medical Association guidelines for adults but fell within the range of the reference values for 10 year olds. Stratifying and analyzing the range of motion data with respect to gender yielded no significant effect. Appendix A analyzes the data using angular statistics, and produces virtually identical results as those from linear statistics. PMID:18675420

Lynch-Caris, Terri; Majeske, Karl D; Brelin-Fornari, Janet; Nashi, Shrishail

2008-08-28

173

Accelerated Development of Cervical Spine Instabilities in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Prospective Minimum 5-Year Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the incidence and predictive risk factors of cervical spine instabilities which may induce compression myelopathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Three types of cervical spine instability were radiographically categorized into “moderate” and “severe” based on atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS: atlantodental interval >3 mm versus ?10 mm), vertical subluxation (VS: Ranawat value <13 mm versus ?10 mm), and subaxial subluxation (SAS: irreducible translation ?2 mm versus ?4 mm or at multiple). 228 “definite” or “classical” RA patients (140 without instability and 88 with “moderate” instability) were prospectively followed for >5 years. The endpoint incidence of “severe” instabilities and predictors for “severe” instability were determined. Results Patients with baseline “moderate” instability, including all sub-groups (AAS+ [VS? SAS?], VS+ [SAS? AAS±], and SAS+ [AAS± VS±]), developed “severe” instabilities more frequently (33.3% with AAS+, 75.0% with VS+, and 42.9% with SAS+) than those initially without instability (12.9%; p<0.003, p<0.003, and p?=?0.061, respectively). The incidence of cervical canal stenosis and/or basilar invagination was also higher in patients with initial instability (17.5% with AAS+, 37.5% with VS+, and 14.3% with SAS+) than in those without instability (7.1%; p?=?0.028, p<0.003, and p?=?0.427, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified corticosteroid administration, Steinbrocker stage III or IV at baseline, mutilating changes at baseline, and the development of mutilans during the follow-up period correlated with the progression to “severe” instability (p<0.05). Conclusions This prospective cohort study demonstrates accelerated development of cervical spine involvement in RA patients with pre-existing instability—especially VS. Advanced peripheral erosiveness and concomitant corticosteroid treatment are indicators for poor prognosis of the cervical spine in RA. PMID:24558457

Yurube, Takashi; Sumi, Masatoshi; Nishida, Kotaro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kozo; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Miura, Yasushi; Hirata, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Doita, Minoru

2014-01-01

174

Intermittent cervical traction for cervical radiculopathy caused by large-volume herniated disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the use of intermittent cervical traction in managing 4 patients with cervical radiculopathy and large-volume herniated disks. Clinical Features: Four patients had neck pain radiating to the arm. The clinical examination was typical in all cases for radiculopathy of cervical origin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed large-volume herniated disks in all patients. Intervention

Constantine Constantoyannis; Demetres Konstantinou; Harry Kourtopoulos; Nicolas Papadakis

2002-01-01

175

A systematic review of the need for MRI for the clearance of cervical spine injury in obtunded blunt trauma patients after normal cervical spine CT.  

PubMed

Clearance of cervical spine injury (CSI) in the obtunded or comatose blunt trauma patient remains controversial. In patients with unreliable physical examination and no evidence of CSI on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine (CS-MRI) is the typical follow-up study. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that CS-MRI is unnecessary with negative findings on a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scan. This review article systematically analyzes current literature to address the controversies surrounding clearance of CSI in obtunded blunt trauma patients. A literature search through MEDLINE database was conducted using all databases on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) for keywords: "cervical spine injury," "obtunded," and "MRI." The search was limited to studies published within the last 10 years and with populations of patients older than 18 years old. Eleven studies were included in the analysis yielding data on 1535 patients. CS-MRI detected abnormalities in 256 patients (16.6%). The abnormalities reported on CS-MRI resulted in prolonged rigid c-collar immobilization in 74 patients (4.9%). Eleven patients (0.7%) had unstable injury detected on CS-MRI alone that required surgical intervention. In the obtunded blunt trauma patient with unreliable clinical examination and a normal CT scan, there is still a role for CS-MRI in detecting clinically significant injuries when MRI resources are available. However, when a reliable clinical exam reveals intact gross motor function, CS-MRI may be unnecessary. PMID:25400384

James, Iyore Ao; Moukalled, Ahmad; Yu, Elizabeth; Tulman, David B; Bergese, Sergio D; Jones, Christian D; Stawicki, Stanislaw Pa; Evans, David C

2014-10-01

176

Extrication, immobilization and radiologic investigation of patients with cervical spine injuries.  

PubMed Central

Most cervical spine injuries are due to motor vehicle accidents. Proper extrication of the victims is vital; the ideal device should be easily assembled and applied, should facilitate removal of victims from automobile seats without changing the body's position, must not hinder airway access or the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, must accommodate all types of patients, including children and obese or pregnant patients, and must completely immobilize the patient, especially if hyperextension is suspected. Current methods of immobilization, such as the use of a soft collar and sandbags, allow neck extension; the short board protects against extension but interferes with airway access. Newer devices are discussed in this article. Injuries of the upper cervical spine are less common but more serious than those of the lower portion and usually involve the vertebral arch. Radiologic examination of the first and second cervical vertebrae and the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae should be emphasized. If lateral and anteroposterior views do not reveal abnormal findings and injury is still suspected, oblique views and computed or conventional tomography should be used. Cervical spinal cord injuries can be minimized or prevented if proper early management is applied. PMID:3046734

Karbi, O A; Caspari, D A; Tator, C H

1988-01-01

177

Immediate effects of thoracic manipulation in patients with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical neck pain is a common occurrence in the general population resulting in a considerable economic burden. Often physical therapists will incorporate manual therapies directed at the cervical spine including joint mobilization and manipulation into the management of patients with cervical pain. Although the effectiveness of mobilization and manipulation of the cervical spine has been well documented, the small inherent

Joshua A. Cleland; Maj. John D. Childs; Meghann McRae; Jessica A. Palmer; Thomas Stowell

2005-01-01

178

Oesophageal perforation caused by screw displacement 16?months following anterior cervical spine fixation.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical spine plating is a standard procedure for fixing unstable vertebral fractures. Following surgery, oesophageal perforation has an incidence of 0.25% and this is usually hours following surgery, due to over prominent screws or friction between the oesophagus and the plate. Instrumentation failure of these plates months or years following surgery is very rare but potentially life-threatening. We report a case of microcytic anaemia which was investigated by oesophagogastroduodenoscopy, and subsequently found that a screw from the anterior plate had lifted off and perforated the oesophagus. This is very rare, but emphasises an important lesson. Anyone presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding or infectious signs, with a history of cervical spine plating should be investigated immediately for instrumentation failure as it brings a high mortality. PMID:25796082

Leaver, Nicholas; Colby, Alexandra; Appleton, Nathan; Vimalachandran, Dale

2015-01-01

179

Low Back Pain and Lumbar Spine Osteoarthritis: How Are They Related?  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA) is very common, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 40–85 %. The process of degeneration of the spine has commonly been classified as OA (disc space narrowing together with vertebral osteophyte formation); however, anatomically, the facet joint is the only synovial joint in the spine that has a similar pathological degenerative process to appendicular joints. Low back pain (LBP) is also a common condition, with nearly 80 % of Americans experiencing at least one episode of LBP in their lifetime. The complex relationship between spine radiographs and LBP has many clinical and research challenges. Specific conservative treatments for spine degeneration have not been established; there has, however, been recent interest in use of exercise therapy, because of some moderate benefits in treating chronic LBP. An understanding of the relationship between spine degeneration and LBP may be improved with further population-based research in the areas of genetics, biomarkers, and pain pathways. PMID:23307577

Goode, Adam P.; Carey, Timothy S.; Jordan, Joanne M.

2013-01-01

180

Basic principles of management for cervical spine trauma  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the basic principles of management of cervical trauma. The technique and critical importance of careful assessment is described. Instability is defined, and the incidence of a second injury is highlighted. The concept of spinal clearance is discussed. Early reduction and stabilisation techniques are described, and the indications, and approach for surgery reviewed. The importance of the role of post-injury rehabilitation is identified. PMID:19701655

2009-01-01

181

Basic principles of management for cervical spine trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the basic principles of management of cervical trauma. The technique and critical importance of careful\\u000a assessment is described. Instability is defined, and the incidence of a second injury is highlighted. The concept of spinal\\u000a clearance is discussed. Early reduction and stabilisation techniques are described, and the indications, and approach for\\u000a surgery reviewed. The importance of the role

J. K. O’Dowd

2010-01-01

182

Management of the Helmeted Athlete with Suspected Cervical Spine Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improper handling of an unstable neck injury may result in iatrogenic neurologic injury. A review of published evidence on cervical management in the helmeted athlete with a suspected spinal injury is discussed. The approach to the neck-injured helmeted athlete and the algorithms for on-field and emergency department evaluations are reviewed. The characteristics of the fitted foot-ball helmet allow safe access

Kevin N. Waninger

2004-01-01

183

Gender dependent cervical spine segmental kinematics during whiplash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and epidemiological studies have frequently reported that female occupants sustain whiplash injuries more often than males. The current study was based on the hypothesis that segmental level-by-level cervical intervertebral motions in females are greater than in males during rear impact. The hypothesis was tested by subjecting 10 intact human cadaver head–neck complexes (five males, five females) to rear impact

Brian D. Stemper; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

2003-01-01

184

Ultrasound imaging of cervical spine motion for extreme acceleration environments  

E-print Network

Neck and back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints in personnel in variable acceleration environments such as astronauts and military pilots. Ultrasound is known for dynamic imaging and diagnostic ...

Buckland, Daniel Miller

2011-01-01

185

Gender dependent cervical spine segmental kinematics during whiplash.  

PubMed

Clinical and epidemiological studies have frequently reported that female occupants sustain whiplash injuries more often than males. The current study was based on the hypothesis that segmental level-by-level cervical intervertebral motions in females are greater than in males during rear impact. The hypothesis was tested by subjecting 10 intact human cadaver head-neck complexes (five males, five females) to rear impact loading. Intervertebral kinematics were analyzed as a function of spinal level at the time of maximum cervical S-curve, which occurred during the loading phase. Segmental angles were significantly greater (p<0.05) in female specimens at C2-C3, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels. Because greater angulations are associated with stretch in the innervated components of the cervical spinal column, these findings may offer a biomechanical explanation for the higher incidence of whiplash-related complaints in female patients secondary to rear impact acceleration. PMID:12893036

Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

2003-09-01

186

Predictors for the immediate responders to cervical manipulation in patients with neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical manipulation has been considered an effective treatment for managing neck pain. However, clinical observation showed that cervical manipulation was not effective for every patient. Development of clinical prediction rules for identifying patients with neck pain who are likely to respond to cervical manipulation may improve clinical decision-making and the treatment success rate. The purpose of the study was to

Yuh-Liang Tseng; Wendy T. J. Wang; Wen-Yin Chen; Tsun-Jen Hou; Tzu-Ching Chen; Fu-Kong Lieu

2006-01-01

187

[Calcification and ossification of the posterior and longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine(author's transl)].  

PubMed

Three patients with calcification or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine are described. This abnormality is very common in Japan. Descriptions from non-Japanese sources vary considerably. The practical significance of this abnormality consists of narrowing of the spinal canal, which may result in a myelopathy. Two of our patients are Chinese, the third was a white Dutchman. PMID:125690

Orth, J O

1975-05-01

188

A Technique for Dynamic Tensile Testing of Human Cervical Spine Ligaments  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is undertaken to examine the dynamic stress–strain characteristics of ligaments from the human cervical\\u000a spine (neck). Tests were conducted using a tensile split Hopkinson bar device and the engineering strain rates imposed were\\u000a of the order of 102?103\\/s. As ligaments are extremely soft and pliable, specialized test protocols applicable to Hopkinson bar testing were developed\\u000a to facilitate

V. P. W. Shim; J. F. Liu; V. S. Lee

2006-01-01

189

Finite element modeling of the C4–C6 cervical spine unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to develop a detailed, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate finite element model of the human cervical spine structure using close-up computed tomography scans and to validate against experimental data. The finite element model of the three vertebra segment CA-06 unit consisted of 9178 solid elements and 1193 thin shell elements. The force-displacement response under axial compression correlated well

N. Yoganandan; S. C. Kumaresan; Liming Voo; F. A. Pintar; S. J. Larson

1996-01-01

190

A cervical spine model to predict injury scenarios and clinical instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete and detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the human cervical spine (C1–C7), including soft and hard tissues, was created using a digitized geometric measurement tool. The model was validated against existing experimental studies in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The aims of this study were to use the model to simulate the mechanisms of injury scenarios,

Abraham Tchako; Ali Sadegh

2009-01-01

191

Characterisation of the dynamic compressive mechanical properties of cancellous bone from the human cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to characterise the mechanical properties of cancellous bone from the human cervical spine. Samples from eight male cadavers (aged 40–79yr) were subjected to quasi-static and dynamic compression. Results from quasi-static compression tests show that the strength of cancellous bone can be described in terms of density using a power law relationship. It is also observed that

V. P. W. Shim; L. M. Yang; J. F. Liu; V. S. Lee

2005-01-01

192

Howard H. Hepburn and the development of skull tongs for cervical spine traction.  

PubMed

The first use of skull tongs for cervical spine traction is credited primarily to W.G. Crutchfield. In 1933, Crutchfield described his application of extension tongs to the calvaria of a 23-year-old woman with a traumatic C2-C3 fracture. Less recognized are the contributions of Howard H. Hepburn, who designed skull tongs for cervical spine traction at the University of Alberta several years before Crutchfield's first case. Hepburn was the first neurosurgeon at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. On the basis of his experience treating wounded soldiers in World War I, he developed the hypothesis that traction would promote healing in cervical spine injuries. Hepburn designed skull extension tongs that were modeled on common ice tongs, and he used an automobile inner tube as an elastic to keep the tongs firmly applied to the patient's head. These tongs were first used in the mid-1920s, and by 1930 they were applied routinely. Crutchfield's 1933 report refers to the application of "Edmonton extension tongs." This suggests that he was at least indirectly aware of Hepburn's work, although how this information reached him is not entirely clear. Hepburn attended a meeting of the British Medical Society in 1930, and he is thought to have discussed his tongs during the conference. Hepburn's work has received some attention previously; his original tongs were included in a 1973 Smithsonian Institute exhibit on cervical spine traction as an example of an early cranial traction device. However, his contributions are underappreciated in the neurosurgical community and deserve wider recognition. PMID:11126914

Parney, I F; Allen, P B; Petruk, K C

2000-12-01

193

Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p?=?0.0055), CVT (p?=?0.0003), OPT (p?cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

2014-01-01

194

Chordomas: their CT appearance in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine  

SciTech Connect

The authors reviewed 25 CT scans of 21 patients who had chordomas in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. Nine patients were studied at the time of initial presentation and 12 after after tumor recurrence. All scans showed vertebral body destruction coupled with an associated soft tissue mass located anteriorly or laterally. Additional CT findings included septated areas of low attenuation within the tumor, amorphous soft tissue calcification, tumor extensions into the spinal canal, disk space involvement, and contrast enhancement.

Meyer, J.E.; Lepke, R.A.; Lindfors, K.K.; Pagani, J.J.; Hirschy, J.C.; Hayman, L.A.; Momose, K.J.; McGinnis, B.

1984-12-01

195

Primary bony non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the cervical spine: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma primarily originating from the bone is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bone lymphoma presenting with progressive cord compression from an origin in the cervical spine. Herein, we discuss the unusual location in this case, the presenting symptoms, and the management of this disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 23-year-old

Zachary A Smith; Mark F Sedrak; Larry T Khoo

2010-01-01

196

Wide-Band Steady State Free Precession with Small Diffusion Gradients for Spine Imaging: Application to Superior Nerve Visualization  

E-print Network

a high-spatial resolution. METHODS 12 subjects (6 with degenerative spine disease) had cervical spine (CS patients with lower back pain (Fig. 2) WBSSFP demonstrated bone impingement on nerves ("nerve pinching

Southern California, University of

197

Application of full-scale three-dimensional models in patients with rheumatoid cervical spine  

PubMed Central

Full-scale three-dimensional (3D) models offer a useful tool in preoperative planning, allowing full-scale stereoscopic recognition from any direction and distance with tactile feedback. Although skills and implants have progressed with various innovations, rheumatoid cervical spine surgery remains challenging. No previous studies have documented the usefulness of full-scale 3D models in this complicated situation. The present study assessed the utility of full-scale 3D models in rheumatoid cervical spine surgery. Polyurethane or plaster 3D models of 15 full-sized occipitocervical or upper cervical spines were fabricated using rapid prototyping (stereolithography) techniques from 1-mm slices of individual CT data. A comfortable alignment for patients was reproduced from CT data obtained with the patient in a comfortable occipitocervical position. Usefulness of these models was analyzed. Using models as a template, appropriate shape of the plate-rod construct could be created in advance. No troublesome Halo-vests were needed for preoperative adjustment of occipitocervical angle. No patients complained of dysphasia following surgery. Screw entry points and trajectories were simultaneously determined with full-scale dimensions and perspective, proving particularly valuable in cases involving high-riding vertebral artery. Full-scale stereoscopic recognition has never been achieved with any existing imaging modalities. Full-scale 3D models thus appear useful and applicable to all complicated spinal surgeries. The combination of computer-assisted navigation systems and full-scale 3D models appears likely to provide much better surgical results. PMID:18247063

Matsubara, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Muneyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Iguchi, Hirotaka; Furuya, Aiharu; Okamoto, Hideki; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

2008-01-01

198

Validation of a finite element model of the young normal lower cervical spine.  

PubMed

A Finite Element Model (FEM) of the young adult human cervical spine has been developed as a first step in studying the process of spondylotic degeneration. The model was developed using normal geometry and material properties for the lower cervical spine. The model used a three-zone composite disc annulus to reflect the different material properties of the anterior, posterior, and lateral regions of the annulus. Nonlinear ligaments were implemented with a toe region to help the model achieve greater flexibility at low loads. The model was validated against experimental data for normal, nondegenerated cervical spines tested in flexion and extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation at loads of 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Nm. The model was within in vitro experimental standard deviation corridors 100% of the load range for right and left lateral bending. The model was within 80% of the load response corridors for extension and flexion with a deviation <0.3 degrees from the SD corridors. For axial rotation, the model was within 70% of the SD corridors for left axial rotation within 83% of right axial rotation responses. The deviation from SD corridors for axial rotation was generally <0.2 degrees. PMID:18622702

Wheeldon, John A; Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

2008-09-01

199

Finite element modeling of the cervical spine: role of intervertebral disc under axial and eccentric loads.  

PubMed

An anatomically accurate, three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element model of the human cervical spine was developed using computed tomography images and cryomicrotome sections. The detailed model included the cortical bone, cancellous core, endplate, lamina, pedicle, transverse processes and spinous processes of the vertebrae; the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs; the uncovertebral joints; the articular cartilage, the synovial fluid and synovial membrane of the facet joints; and the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, interspinous ligaments, capsular ligaments and ligamentum flavum. The finite element model was validated with experimental results: force-displacement and localized strain responses of the vertebral body and lateral masses under pure compression, and varying eccentric anterior-compression and posterior-compression loading modes. This experimentally validated finite element model was used to study the biomechanics of the cervical spine intervertebral disc by quantifying the internal axial and shear forces resisted by the ventral, middle, and dorsal regions of the disc under the above axial and eccentric loading modes. Results indicated that higher axial forces (compared to shear forces) were transmitted through different regions of the disc under all loading modes. While the ventral region of the disc resisted higher variations in axial force, the dorsal region transmitted higher shear forces under all loading modes. These findings may offer an insight to better understand the biomechanical role of the human cervical spine intervertebral disc. PMID:10717549

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Maiman, D J

1999-12-01

200

Spontaneous CSF Collection in the Cervical Spine may Cause Neurological Deficit and Intra-cranial Hypotension  

PubMed Central

Objective: a case is described of a spontaneously occurring cerebrospinal fluid collection in the ventral cervical spine which caused radiculopathy and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Case: a sixty eight year old Caucasian man presented with a 2 year history of proximal upper limb weakness with a his-tory of trivial cervical trauma many years previously. Methods: the patient was investigated with blood tests for causes of peripheral neuropathy, nerve conduction and electro-myography studies, lumbar puncture and MRI of the brain and spine with contrast. Results: a cerebrospinal fluid collection was identified in the ventral cervical spinal cord causing mass effect associated with cord atrophy and there were signs of spontaneous intracranial hypotension on the MRI brain including subdural cere-brospinal fluid collections, meningeal enhancement and slumped posterior fossa. Conclusions: this is the first description of a spontaneous spinal fluid collection causing direct compression and cord sig-nal change, manifest as a motor deficit, with intracranial signs of spontaneous hypotension. Spinal imaging is recom-mended in cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension and cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine may rarely be a cause of radiculopathy in such cases. PMID:23407592

Zakaria, Rasheed; Wilby, Martin; Fletcher, Nicholas A

2013-01-01

201

High rotation rate behavior of cervical spine segments in flexion and extension.  

PubMed

Numerical finite element (FE) models of the neck have been developed to simulate occupant response and predict injury during motor vehicle collisions. However, there is a paucity of data on the response of young cervical spine segments under dynamic loading in flexion and extension, which is essential for the development or validation of tissue-level FE models. This limitation was identified during the development and validation of the FE model used in this study. The purpose of this study was to measure the high rotation rate loading response of human cervical spine segments in flexion and extension, and to investigate a new tissue-level FE model of the cervical spine with the experimental data to address a limitation in available data. Four test samples at each segment level from C2-C3 to C7-T1 were dissected from eight donors and were tested to 10 deg of rotation at 1 and 500 deg/s in flexion and extension using a custom built test apparatus. There was strong evidence (p < 0.05) of increased stiffness at the higher rotation rate above 4 deg of rotation in flexion and at 8 deg and 10 deg of rotation in extension. Cross-correlation software, Cora, was used to evaluate the fit between the experimental data and model predictions. The average rating was 0.771, which is considered to demonstrate a good correlation to the experimental data. PMID:25070575

Barker, Jeffrey B; Cronin, Duane S; Chandrashekar, Naveen

2014-12-01

202

Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

Ahn, Peter H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)], E-mail: phahn@mdanderson.org; Ahn, Andrew I. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

2009-02-01

203

In vitro low-speed side collisions cause injury to the lower cervical spine but do not damage alar ligaments.  

PubMed

Whether injuries to the alar ligaments could be responsible for complaints of patients having whiplash injury in the upper cervical spine is still controversially discussed. It is known that these ligaments protect the upper cervical spine against excessive lateral bending and axial rotation movements. The objective of the present in vitro study was therefore to examine whether the alar ligaments or any other structures of the cervical spine are damaged in side collisions. In a specially designed acceleration apparatus, six human osteoligamentous cervical spine specimens were subjected to incremental 90 degrees side collisions from the right (1 g, 2 g, 3 g, etc.) until structural failure occurred. A damped pivot table accounted for the passive movements of the trunk during collision, and a dummy head (4.5 kg) ensured almost physiological loading of the specimens. For quantification of functional injuries, the three-dimensional flexibility of the specimens was tested in a spine tester before and after each acceleration. In all six specimens, structural failure always occurred in the lower cervical spine and always affected the facet joint capsules and the intervertebral discs. In four specimens, this damage occurred during the 2 g collision, while in the other two it occurred during the 3 g and 4 g collision, respectively. The flexibility mainly increased in the lower cervical spine (especially in lateral bending to both sides) and, to a minor extent, in axial rotation. In vitro low-speed side collisions caused functional and structural injury to discoligamentous structures of the lower cervical spine, but did not damage the alar ligaments. Since the effects of muscle forces were not taken into account, the present in vitro study reflects a worst-case scenario. Injury thresholds should therefore not be transferred to reality. PMID:15221568

Hartwig, E; Kettler, A; Schultheiss, M; Kinzl, L; Claes, L; Wilke, H-J

2004-11-01

204

The Incidence of Infection after Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A 10 Year Review  

PubMed Central

Background?The incidence of infection after posterior cervical spine surgery ranges from 0 to 18%. Higher rates have been reported after posterior procedures compared with anterior procedures, but these studies have been for small series. We report on our rate of surgical site infection (SSI) after posterior cervical spine surgery and the risk factors that influence these infections. Methods?We retrospectively reviewed the records of 90 consecutive patients who underwent posterior cervical spine procedures at a major spinal referral center between 1998 and 2007. The main indications for surgery were trauma and degenerative conditions. Tumors and primary infections were excluded. Medical records of these patients were examined for evidence of SSI as diagnosed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Results?Using stringent criteria for diagnosing SSI, we found 15 infected patients (16.67%). The postoperative use of a Philadelphia hard collar was found to be a significant risk factor for SSI with a relative risk of 15.30 (95% confidence interval 2.10 to 111.52). Almost half of infected patients (47%) required reoperation for wound debridement, with four requiring skin flap closure. All 15 patients had successful outcomes with complete resolution of their infection. Conclusions?This study confirms a high incidence of SSI after posterior cervical surgery. The most significant risk factors for SSI were found to be a traumatic etiology and postoperative use of a collar. We believe it is important to develop strategies to minimize the risk of infection after posterior cervical surgery, which include questioning the postoperative use of collars. PMID:24353939

Barnes, Matt; Liew, Sue

2012-01-01

205

Neuromodulation of the cervical spinal cord in the treatment of chronic intractable neck and upper extremity pain: a case series and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Electrical spinal neuromodulation in the form of spinal cord stimulation is currently used for treating chronic painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, peripheral ischemia, low back pain, and other conditions refractory to more conservative treatments. To date, there are very few published reports documenting the use of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of head/neck and upper limb pain. This paper reports a case series of 5 consecutive patients outlining the use of spinal cord stimulation to treat upper extremity pain. All subjects had previously undergone cervical fusion surgery to treat chronic neck and upper limb pain. Patients were referred following failure of the surgery to manage their painful conditions. Spinal cord stimulators were placed in the cervical epidural space through a thoracic needle placement. Stimulation parameters were adjusted to capture as much of the painful area(s) as possible. In total, 4 out of 5 patients moved to implantation. In all cases, patients reported significant (70-90%) reductions in pain, including axial neck pain and upper extremity pain. Interestingly, 2 patients with associated headache and lower extremity pain obtained relief after paresthesia-steering reportedly covered those areas. Moreover, 2 patients reported that cervical spinal cord stimulation significantly improved axial low back pain. Patients continue to report excellent pain relief up to 9 months following implantation. This case series documents the successful treatment of neck and upper extremity pain following unsuccessful cervical spine fusion surgery. Given this initial success, prospective, controlled studies are warranted to more adequately assess the long term utility and cost effectiveness of electrical neuromodulation treatment of chronic neck and upper extremity pain. PMID:17387353

Vallejo, Ricardo; Kramer, Jeffery; Benyamin, Ramsin

2007-03-01

206

A Unique Case of Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical Spine in a 53-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare presentation, representing only 15% of all primary Ewing's sarcoma cases. Even more uncommon is EES presenting as a primary focus in the spinal canal. These rapidly growing tumors often present with focal neurological symptoms of myelopathy or radiculopathy. There are no classic characteristic imaging findings and thus the physician must keep a high index of clinical suspicion. Diagnosis can only be definitively made by histopathological studies. In this report, we discuss a primary cervical spine EES in a 53-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of left upper extremity pain and acute onset of weakness. Imaging revealed a cervical spinal canal mass. After undergoing cervical decompression, histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. A literature search revealed fewer than 25 reported cases of primary cervical spine EES published in the past 15 years and only one report demonstrating this pathology in a patient older than 30 years of age (age = 38). Given the low incidence of this pathology presenting in this age group and the lack of treatment guidelines, each patient's plan should be considered on a case-by-case basis until further studies are performed to determine optimal evidence based treatment. PMID:25802527

Holland, Marshall T.; Flouty, Oliver E.; Close, Liesl N.; Reddy, Chandan G.; Howard, Matthew A.

2015-01-01

207

Quadraplegia in a patient with an undiagnosed odontoid peg fracture. The importance of cervical spine immobilisation in patients with head injuries.  

PubMed

A 59 year old man was found collapsed and unconscious, tracheal intubation was performed without immobilisation of the cervical spine. Examination revealed signs of spinal cord transection with quadraplegia and a lateral cervical spine radiograph showed a displaced fracture of the odontoid peg. This case reinforces the importance of appropriate cervical spine management in all victims of trauma especially those with head injuries and is particularly relevant to the military situation. PMID:8819037

Powell, R M; Heath, K J

1996-06-01

208

Does the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine have an impact on disk degeneration? Minimum 10-year follow-up of asymptomatic volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been few studies that investigated and clarified the relationships between progression of degenerative changes\\u000a and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine. The objective of the study was to longitudinally evaluate the relationships\\u000a among progression of degenerative changes of the cervical spine with age, the development of clinical symptoms and sagittal\\u000a alignment of the cervical spine in healthy subjects.

Eijiro Okada; Morio Matsumoto; Daisuke Ichihara; Kazuhiro Chiba; Yoshiaki Toyama; Hirokazu Fujiwara; Suketaka Momoshima; Yuji Nishiwaki; Takeshi Hashimoto; Jun Ogawa; Masahiko Watanabe; Takeshi Takahata

2009-01-01

209

Global and regional kinematics of the cervical spine during upper cervical spine manipulation: a reliability analysis of 3D motion data.  

PubMed

Studies reporting spine kinematics during cervical manipulation are usually related to continuous global head-trunk motion or discrete angular displacements for pre-positioning. To date, segmental data analyzing continuous kinematics of cervical manipulation is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate upper cervical spine (UCS) manipulation in vitro. This paper reports an inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis of kinematics during high velocity low amplitude manipulation of the UCS. Integration of kinematics into specific-subject 3D models has been processed as well for providing anatomical motion representation during thrust manipulation. Three unembalmed specimens were included in the study. Restricted dissection was realized to attach technical clusters to each bone of interest (skull, C1-C4 and sternum). During manipulation, bone motion data was computed using an optoelectronic system. The reliability of manipulation kinematics was assessed for three experimented practitioners performing two trials of 3 repetitions on two separate days. During UCS manipulation, average global head-trunk motion ROM (±SD) were 14 ± 5°, 35 ± 7° and 14 ± 8° for lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively. For regional ROM (C0-C2), amplitudes were 10 ± 5°, 30 ± 5° and 16 ± 4° for the same respective motions. Concerning the reliability, mean RMS ranged from 1° to 4° and from 3° to 6° for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. The present results confirm the limited angular displacement during manipulation either for global head-trunk or for UCS motion components, especially for axial rotation. Additionally, kinematics variability was low confirming intra- and inter-practitioners consistency of UCS manipulation achievement. PMID:24920337

Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Beyer, Benoît; Sobczak, Stéphane; Salvia, Patrick; Feipel, Véronique

2014-10-01

210

Pain Flare Is a Common Adverse Event in Steroid-Naïve Patients After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Clinical Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the incidence of pain flare after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in steroid-naïve patients and identify predictive factors. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients were treated with spine SBRT between February 2010 and April 2012. All patients had their pain assessed at baseline, during, and for 10 days after SBRT using the Brief Pain Inventory. All pain medications were recorded daily and narcotics converted to an oral morphine equivalent dose. Pain flare was defined as a 2-point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake, a 25% increase in analgesic intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score, or if corticosteroids were initiated at any point during or after SBRT because of pain. Results: The median age and Karnofsky performance status were 57.5 years (range, 27-80 years) and 80 (range, 50-100), respectively. Eighteen patients were treated with 20-24 Gy in a single fraction, whereas 23 patients were treated with 24-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions. Pain flare was observed in 68.3% of patients (28 of 41), most commonly on day 1 after SBRT (29%, 8 of 28). Multivariate analysis identified a higher Karnofsky performance status (P=.02) and cervical (P=.049) or lumbar (P=.02) locations as significant predictors of pain flare. In those rescued with dexamethasone, a significant decrease in pain scores over time was subsequently observed (P<.0001). Conclusions: Pain flare is a common adverse event after spine SBRT and occurs most commonly the day after treatment completion. Patients should be appropriately consented for this adverse event.

Chiang, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Zeng, Liang; Zhang, Liying; Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Loblaw, Andrew; Chow, Edward [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sahgal, Arjun, E-mail: arjun.sahgal@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2013-07-15

211

Experimental flexion/extension data corridors for validation of finite element models of the young, normal cervical spine.  

PubMed

Finite element (FE) modeling is an important tool for studying the cervical spine in normal, injured and diseased conditions. To understand the role of mechanical changes on the spine as it goes from a normal to a diseased or injured state, experimental studies are needed to establish the external response of young, normal cervical spinal segments compared to injured or degenerated cervical spinal segments under physiologic loading. It is important to differentiate injured or degenerated specimens from young, normal specimens to provide accurate experimental results necessary for the validation of FE models. This study used seven young, normal fresh adult cadaver cervical spine segments C2-T1 ranging in age from 20 to 51 years. Prior to testing, the spines were graded in three ways: specimen quality, facet degeneration and disc degeneration. Spine segments were tested in flexion/extension, and the range of loads applied to the specimens was 0.33, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Nm. These loads resulted in rotations in the direction of loading as the primary response to loading. In general, results for young, normal specimens showed greater flexibility in flexion and less flexibility in extension than results previously reported in the literature. The flexion/extension curves are asymmetric with a greater magnitude in flexion than in extension. These experimental results will be used to validate FE models of young, normal cervical spines. PMID:16321642

Wheeldon, John A; Pintar, Frank A; Knowles, Stephanie; Yoganandan, Narayan

2006-01-01

212

Upper cervical spine chordoma of C2–C3  

PubMed Central

Chordoma is a rare low-grade malignant neoplasm derived from the remnants of the embryonic notochord. This locally invasive neoplasm is subject to recurrence after treatment. The median survival time is estimated to be 6.3 years. Various treatment approaches have been attempted, including radical excision, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Treatment outcome is significantly influenced by the size and site of the chordoma. Recently, Imatinib, a molecular-targeted agent, has been shown to have antitumor activity in chordoma. Proton radiotherapy, stereotactic radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy have also been used. Surgical treatment is still the primary choice for chordoma. It has become more aggressive in recent years, evolving from intralesional or partial excision to en bloc resection. However, upper cervical localizations make such en bloc resection in most cases not possible. We present and discuss the therapeutic challenges of a young female with large retropharyngeal chordoma who presented to our institution after conventional photon beam radiotherapy. This C2/3 tumor was classified IB according to the Enneking classification. It distributed to layers A–D and sectors 1–6 according to the Weinstein Boriani Biagini Classification. The left vertebral artery (VA) was encapsulated and displaced. One stage intralesional extracapsular tumor excision and reconstruction was achieved by combined bilateral high anterior cervical approaches and posterior approach. No recurrence or metastasis was observed 3 years after the operation. She returned to her previous occupation as office worker. PMID:19221808

Jiang, Liang; Liu, Xiao Guang; Ma, Qing Jun; Wei, Feng; Lv, Yang; Dang, Geng Ting

2009-01-01

213

Surgical treatment for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Although classically associated with patients of East Asian origin, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) may cause myelopathy in patients of any ethnic origin. Degeneration of the PLL is followed by endochondral ossification, resulting in spinal cord compression. Specific genetic polymorphisms and medical comorbidities have been implicated in the development of OPLL. Patients should be evaluated with a full history and neurologic examination, along with cervical radiographs. Advanced imaging with CT and MRI allows three-dimensional evaluation of OPLL. Minimally symptomatic patients can be treated nonsurgically, but patients with myelopathy or severe stenosis are best treated with surgical decompression. OPLL can be treated via an anterior (ie, corpectomy and fusion) or posterior (ie, laminectomy and fusion or laminoplasty) approach, or both. The optimal approach is dictated by the classification and extent of OPLL, cervical spine sagittal alignment, severity of stenosis, and history of previous surgery. Anterior surgery is associated with superior outcomes when OPLL occupies >50% to 60% of the canal, despite increased technical difficulty and higher complication rates. Posterior surgery is technically easier and allows decompression of the entire cervical spine, but patients may experience late deterioration because of disease progression. PMID:24966248

An, Howard S; Al-Shihabi, Laith; Kurd, Mark

2014-07-01

214

Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury during Heating Season in the Patients with Cervical Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of cervical spine injury in the patients with cervical trauma and analyze its associated risk factors during the special heating season in North China. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated predictors for cervical spine injury in cervical trauma patients using retrospectively collected data of Hebei Provincial Orthopaedic Hospital from 11/2011 to 02/2012, and 11/2012 to 02/2013. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for cervical fractures/dislocations or cord injury. Results A total of 106 patients were admitted into this study. Of all, 34 patients (32.1%) were treated from 11/2011 to 02/2012 and 72 patients (67.9%) from 11/2012 to 02/2013. The mean age was 41.9±13.3 years old; 85 patients (80.2%) were male and 82 (77.4%) from rural areas. Eighty patients (75.5%) were caused by fall including 45 (42.5%) by severe fall (>2 m). Sixty-five patients (61.3%) of all suffered injuries to other body regions and 32 (30.2%) got head injury. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) sustained cervical cord injury with cervical fractures/dislocations. Twenty-six (83.9%) of cervical cord injury patients were from rural areas and 24 (77.4%) of those resulted from fall including 15 (48.4%) from severe fall (>2 m). Logistic regression displayed that age (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.05–2.07), head injury (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.23–14.26), were risk factors for cervical cord injury and snowing (OR, 8.25; 95% CI, 2.26–30.15) was a risk factor for cervical spine injury due to severe fall (>2 m). Conclusions The elder male patients and patients with head trauma are high-risk population for cervical cord injury. As a seasonal factor, snowing during heating season is of note a risk factor for cervical spine injury resulting from severe fall (>2 m) in the patients with cervical trauma in North China. PMID:24223795

Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong; Gu, Tixin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Di; Sun, Yapeng; Ma, Lei; Song, Yanli

2013-01-01

215

An important complication of upper cervical spine fracture: a case report.  

PubMed Central

A case report is presented of a patient who sustained a high cervical spine fracture, the possible mechanisms of injury and details of the fracture are discussed. The patient developed bilateral vagal nerve palsies 48 h after the accident. This complication was only recognized after dysphagia and an aspiration pneumonia developed. The complication of aspiration pneumonia was preventable. Meticulous and repeated examination of the cranial nerve function in this type of injury is recommended. Normal feeding should commence only when the cranial nerve function has been shown to be normal after repeated examination. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8216602

Hodgkinson, D W; Bamford, D J; Driscoll, P

1993-01-01

216

Airway obstruction due to tracheomalacia caused by innominate artery compression and a kyphotic cervical spine.  

PubMed

Tracheomalacia can cause variable degrees of intrathoracic airway obstruction and is an easily overlooked cause of respiratory distress in adults. Here, we report a case of acute respiratory failure in which subglottic stenosis was accidentally identified during endotracheal intubation. Subsequent bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the thorax and neck revealed tracheal compression with tracheomalacia caused by a tortuous innominate artery and a kyphotic cervical spine. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy with metal stent implantation, and her symptoms were alleviated. These findings outline the importance of precise diagnosis and interventions for preventing recurrent life-threatening respiratory failure in such cases. PMID:25639407

Liu, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Hong-Hau; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Chian, Chih-Feng; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Tsai, Chen-Liang

2015-02-01

217

Resolution of hypothyroidism after correction of somatovisceral reflex dysfunction by refusion of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Psychosis is a rare initial presentation of new-onset hypothyroidism. The author describes the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with psychosis caused by hypothyroidism, or myxedema madness. Although the patient's psychosis resolved after standard monotherapy using levothyroxine sodium, her hypothyroidism persisted. Imaging of the patient's cervical spine showed that previous C5-C6 and C6-C7 fusions had failed. The failed fusions were corrected, and the patient's hypothyroidism resolved, suggesting that the somatovisceral reflex was the cause of the patient's hypothyroidism. Although somatovisceral reflex dysfunctions are rare, physicians should consider them as potential underlying causes of their patients' presenting medical conditions. PMID:25550492

Berkowitz, Murray R

2015-01-01

218

Fracture of the axis arch. "Hangman's fracture" of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Fifteen patients with fracture of the axis arch ("Hangman's Fracture" of the cervical spine) reviewed with regard to the clinical features, mechanism of injury and management, present a relatively high rate of cord involvement (11 patients) and injuries around the jaw (5 patients). All of the injuries occurred in civilian accidents. The jaw injuries suggest the inclusion of an extension-distraction force. Treatment was conservative in all patients, even in those with severe displacement. Union generally occurred in about 3 months. The only complaint in those patients with union in the displaced position, was limitation of lateral rotation of the head. PMID:1126070

Marar, B C

1975-01-01

219

Cervical Spine Immobilization in Sports Related Injuries: Review of Current Guidelines and a Case Study of an Injured Athlete  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine immobilization is an essential component of the ATLS® system. Inadequate training in the management of trauma calls and failure of early recognition can have disastrous consequences. Pre-hospital personnel are routinely involved more in the assessment and stabilization of patients in comparison to other health care professionals. This case study and review highlights the importance of early recognition, assessment and correct stabilization of cervical spine injuries both in the field and during the initial assessment in hospital. Inadequate assessment, immobilization and lack of standard guidelines on the management of suspected cervical spine trauma can result in secondary injury. Regular assessment and training of pre-hospital and medical personnel is essential to the proper management of these potentially devastating injuries. PMID:23248726

Bhamra, JS; Morar, Y; Khan, WS; Deep, K; Hammer, A

2012-01-01

220

Surgical management of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury complicated by cervical spine fracture  

PubMed Central

Background There are few reports regarding surgical management of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis with spinal cord injury. Our purpose is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of open-door expansive laminoplasty in combination with transpedicular screw fixation for the treatment of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury in the trauma population. Methods This was a retrospective study of 21 patients who had multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury with unstable fracture. An open-door expansive posterior laminoplasty combined with transpedicular screw fixation was performed under persistent intraoperative skull traction. Outcome measures included postoperative improvement in Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and incidence of complications. Results The average operation time was 190 min, with an average blood loss of 437 ml. A total of 120 transpedicular screws were implanted into the cervical vertebrae between vertebral C3 and C7, including 20 into C3, 34 into C4, 36 into C5, 20 into C6, and 10 into C7. The mean preoperative JOA score was 3.67?±?0.53. The patients were followed for an average of 17.5 months, and the average JOA score improved to 8.17?±?1.59, significantly higher than the preoperative score (t?=?1.798, P?cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury complicated by unstable fracture. Its advantages include minimum surgical trauma, less intraoperative blood loss, and satisfactory stable supportive effect for reduction of fracture. PMID:25142353

2014-01-01

221

Cervical spine injuries to children under 11: should we use radiography more selectively in their initial assessment?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of cervical spine radiography in injured children under 11 years old, and suggest improvements. Methods: Retrospective survey of radiographs and accident and emergency records for children examined during a one year period in a large teaching hospital. Results: No cervical spine fractures occurred in this age group during the year. The recorded clinical findings did not always justify radiography. Conclusions: Clinical examination appears undervalued by those assessing injured children and is poorly recorded. Radiography can be used more selectively. Initial assessment using a single lateral projection can be followed in doubtful cases by cross sectional imaging. PMID:12748134

Smart, P; Hardy, P; Buckley, D; Somers, J; Broderick, N; Halliday, K; Williams, L

2003-01-01

222

Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

1980-01-01

223

The Immediate Effects of a Cervical Lateral Glide Treatment Technique in Patients With Neurogenic Cervicobrachial Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Objectives: To analyze the immediate treatment effects of cervical mobilization and therapeutic ultrasound in patients with neurogenic cervicobrachial pain. Background: Different treatment modalities have been described for patients with neurogenic cervicobrachial pain. Although it has been suggested that a more specific approach, like cervical mobilization, would be more effective, effect studies are scarce. Methods and

Michel W. Coppieters; Karel H. Stappaerts; Leo L. Wouters; Koen Janssens

224

The effect of introducing guidelines for cervical spine radiographs in the accident and emergency department.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of guidelines for x ray requests on requests for cervical spine x rays. SETTING: Accident and emergency (A&E) department of tertiary referral centre. METHODS: Guidelines for all x ray requests were introduced in the (A&E) department of the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh in February 1992. The effect of the guidelines on requests for cervical spine x rays was assessed by retrospective review of all such x rays taken over two 30 d periods, before and after the introduction of the guidelines. Junior staff had been in post for 3 months during both periods assessed. Films were reviewed for quality by a consultant radiologist. RESULTS: Guidelines reduced the number of inappropriate requests significantly; however, 26% of requests were still unnecessary. The standard of radiography improved but 49% of x rays remained inadequate, usually because the C7/T1 level was not demonstrated on the lateral view. The A&E doctors correctly interpretated the radiographs in 95% of examinations. CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines reduce inappropriate x ray requests. Further improvements can be expected with continued education. PMID:8821225

Maurice, S; Brown, S; Robertson, C; Beggs, I

1996-01-01

225

Neurophysiological identification of position-induced neurologic injury during anterior cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

This study was a retrospective review of 3,806 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery with multi-modality neurophysiological monitoring consisting of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials, somatosensory evoked potentials and spontaneous electromyography between 1999-2003. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to evaluate the role of transcranial electric motor evoked potential tceMEP and ulnar nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring for identifying impending position-related stretch brachial plexopathy, peripheral nerve entrapment/compression or spinal cord compression and (2) to estimate the point-prevalence of impending neurologic injury secondary to surgical positioning effects. Sixty-nine of 3,806 patients (1.8% showed intraoperative evidence of impending neurologic injury secondary to positioning, prompting interventional repositioning of the patient. The brachial plexus was the site of evolving injury in 65% of these 69 cases. Impending brachial plexopathy was most commonly noted immediately following shoulder taping and the application of counter-traction. Brachial plexus stretch upon neck extension for optimal surgical access and visualization was second in frequency-of-occurrence. Evolving traction injury to the ulnar nerve attributed to tightly-wrapped or malpositioned arms was observed in 16% of alerted cases, whereas evolving spinal cord injury following neck extension accounted for an additional 19%. This study highlights the role of tceMEP and ulnar nerve SSEP monitoring for detecting emerging peripheral nerve injury secondary to positioning in preparation for and during anterior cervical spine surgery. PMID:16960753

Schwartz, Daniel M; Sestokas, Anthony K; Hilibrand, Alan S; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Bose, Bikash; Li, Mark; Albert, Todd J

2006-12-01

226

Finite element modeling of the C4-C6 cervical spine unit.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to develop a detailed, three-dimensional, anatomically accurate finite element model of the human cervical spine structure using close-up computed tomography scans and to validate against experimental data. The finite element model of the three vertebra segment C4-C6 unit consisted of 9178 solid elements and 1193 thin shell elements. The force-displacement response under axial compression correlated well with experimental data. Because of the inclusion of three levels in the spinal structure, it was possible to determine the internal mechanics of the various components at each level. The applicability of the model was illustrated by adopting appropriate material properties from literature. Results indicated that, the stresses in the anterior column were higher compared to the posterior column at the inferior level, while the opposite was found to be true at the superior level. The superior and inferior endplate stresses were higher in the middle vertebral body compared to the adjacent vertebrae. In addition, the stresses in the cancellous core of the middle, unconstrained vertebral body were higher. The present three-dimensional finite element model offers an additional facet to a better understanding of the biomechanics of the human cervical spine. PMID:8892241

Yoganandan, N; Kumaresan, S C; Voo, L; Pintar, F A; Larson, S J

1996-10-01

227

Cervical spine injuries from high-velocity forces: a pathoanatomic and radiologic study.  

PubMed

The detailed analysis of the radiologic and pathoanatomic data from 10 human cadaver head-neck complexes defined the type and extent of expected cervical spine injuries after high-velocity flexion-compression loads to the cranium. All specimens demonstrated multiple injuries with both contiguous and noncontiguous patterns. Although all preparations showed evidence of axial compression, a multiplicity of other force vectors, including noncontiguous occurrences of flexion, extension, and shear, were documented. These findings indicate that the injury pattern is not a sequential process but a reaction to changes in the segmental interrelations of the various vertebral column components, including varying vector applications of injurious forces at the segmental level. The presence of moderate or severe spondylotic alterations restricted the distal transmission of injury forces with the principal injury patterns occurring at or proximal to the initial level of severe spondylotic involvement. These data emphasize the need for increased awareness of the presence of multiple cervical spine injuries, both contiguous and noncontiguous, and that separate levels of compromise may not share similar mechanisms of injury. PMID:8727450

Cusick, J F; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F; Gardon, M

1996-02-01

228

Chiari malformation, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits in velocardiofacial syndrome.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the prevalence of Chiari malformation, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits in patients with velocardio-facial syndrome. This study was a prospective evaluation of 41 consecutive patients with velocardiofacial syndrome, documented by fluorescence in situ hybridization, between March of 1994 and September of 1998. The 23 girls and 18 boys ranged in age from 0.5 to 15.2 years, with a mean age of 6.7 years. Nineteen patients were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging, 39 underwent lateral cephalometric radiography, and all patients were examined for neurologic deficits. Eight of 19 patients (42 percent) had anomalies of the craniovertebral junction, including Chiari type I malformations (n = 4), occipitalization of the atlas (n = 3), and narrowing of the foramen magnum (n = 1). One patient with Chiari malformation required suboccipital craniectomy with laminectomy and decompression. Fourteen of 41 patients (34 percent) had demonstrated neurologic deficits; 10 patients (24 percent) had velar paresis (6 unilateral and 4 bilateral). Chiari malformations, cervical spine anomalies, and neurologic deficits are common in velocardiofacial syndrome. Because these findings may influence the outcome of surgical intervention, routine assessment of patients with velocardiofacial syndrome should include careful orofacial examination, lateral cephalometric radiography, and magnetic resonance imaging of the craniovertebral junction. PMID:10883607

Hultman, C S; Riski, J E; Cohen, S R; Burstein, F D; Boydston, W R; Hudgins, R J; Grattan-Smith, D; Uhas, K; Simms, C

2000-07-01

229

Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.METHODSDescription of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction

Johanna C M Oostveen; Martin A F J van de Laar; Jan A G Geelen; Ron de Graaff

1999-01-01

230

Role of clinical examination in screening for blunt cervical spine injury 1 1 No competing interests declared. %  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that awake and alert blunt trauma patients with Glasgow Coma Scores of 14 or 15 (regardless of blood ethanol level or other injuries sustained) can be effectively evaluated with clinical examination without radiographic evaluation of the cervical spine.Study Design: During a 32-month period at an urban Level 1 Trauma

Richard P Gonzalez; Peter O Fried; Mikhail Bukhalo; Michele R Holevar; Mark E Falimirski

1999-01-01

231

Effect of cryotherapy on the lumbar spine in elderly men with back pain.  

PubMed

Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is a procedure which is more and more often successfully applied in medicine. Used in physiotherapy programs improves the efficiency of physiotherapeutic exercises applied in different aliments. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of WBC treatment on the improvement of spine activity in elderly men. The evaluation was based on subjects suffering from chronic lower back pain. The research was conducted on 96 male in the age of 65-75 years suffering from chronic pain in the lumbar spine, lasting >3 months. All the subjects performed physical exercises at a gym. Half of the examined patients performed only physical exercises while the second half of the group participated in WBC before performing the same exercises. The research evaluated the mobility of lumbar spine at all movement planes and examined the values of active potentials of erector spinae in the lumbar part of the spine. The group of men who participated in WBC showed significantly lower values of active potentials of erector spinae muscles in the lumbar part of the spine and a significant increase in the range of the lumbar spine mobility, in comparison to the group which did not use WBC. PMID:24304196

Giemza, Czes?aw; Matczak-Giemza, Magdalena; Ostrowska, Bo?ena; Bie?, Ewa; Doli?ski, Miros?aw

2014-09-01

232

Strain energy density used as the biomechanical signal for osteophyte growth in the cervical spine - biomed 2009.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylosis is a degenerative disease of the cervical spine that affects over 50% of the population older than 50 years. Spondylosis is a progressive disease where the intervertebral disc degenerates and bony growths called osteophytes form. Osteophyte growth has been identified by numerous investigators as an example of Wolff's law of bone remodeling acting on the abnormal strain energy density (SED) caused by the degenerating spine. A series of finite element models of the progressively degenerating cervical spine was developed to determine the SED of normal spinal vertebral bodies and the SED of degenerating vertebral bodies. The values of SED of the degenerated vertebral bodies were used to find C and HSED, two constants used in the bone remodeling equation: ?X = C (SED-HSED). ?X is the amount of osteophyte growth normal to the vertebral body surface. A bone remodeling algorithm was developed using this equation and implemented on the FEM of the degenerated spine. C was determined to be 99 mm4/mJ and HSED was found to be 24.8 mJ/mm3. An osteophyte 3.9 mm long was grown on a FEM of a degenerated spine with a disc height loss of 37%. PMID:19369754

Wheeldon, John A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

2009-01-01

233

Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

1993-06-01

234

Discontinuation of cervical spine immobilisation in unconscious patients with trauma in intensive care units--telephone survey of practice in south and west region.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To study how the cervical spine is assessed before discontinuation of cervical spine immobilisation in unconscious trauma patients in intensive care units. DESIGN: Telephone interview of consultants responsible for adult intensive care units. SETTING: All 25 intensive care units in the South and West region that admit victims of major trauma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The clinical and radiological basis on which the decision is made to stop cervical spine immobilisation in unconscious patients with trauma. RESULTS: In 19 units cervical spine immobilisation was stopped in unconscious patients on the basis of radiology alone, and six units combined radiology with clinical examination after the patient had regained consciousness. Sixteen units relied on a normal lateral radiological view of the cervical spine alone, five required a normal lateral and anteroposterior view, and four required a normal lateral, anteroposterior, and open mouth peg view. CONCLUSIONS: There are inconsistencies in the clinical and radiological approach to assessing the cervical spine in unconscious patients with trauma before the removal of immobilisation precautions. There is an overreliance on the lateral cervical spine view alone, which has been shown to be insensitive in this setting. PMID:9180066

Gupta, K. J.; Clancy, M.

1997-01-01

235

Comparison of Cervical Spine Motion During Application Among 4 Rigid Immobilization Collars  

PubMed Central

Objective: To quantify the cervical spine range of motion that occurred during application of 4 rigid cervical immobilization collars, the time of application, and the amount of active range of motion available after application. Design and Setting: We evaluated the amount of cervical motion that occurred during application of 4 commonly used collars: NECLOC (NL), StifNeck (SN), StifNeck Select (SNS), and Rapid Form Vacuum Immobilizer (VI). Each clinician applied a properly sized collar to both a small- and medium-size model 3 times. After application, active range-of-motion testing was completed with the subject in the supine and seated positions. Subjects: A total of 17 certified athletic trainers participated. Measurements: We used 3-dimensional kinematic head and thorax data to calculate peak angular displacement, total linear distance, and total angular distance during application and peak angular displacement during supine and seated range-of-motion testing. Application time was calculated during each trial. Results: Significant differences between collars were noted for application time, total linear distance, and total angular distance (P< .01). The SN and SNS were applied significantly faster and with significantly less total linear distance and total angular distance than the NL and the VI collars. The NL was applied significantly faster and with significantly less total linear distance and total angular distance than the VI. During supine and seated active range-of-motion tests, the SN and SNS permitted significantly less cervical flexion-extension, rotation, and lateral flexion than the NL and VI. Conclusions: Of the collars tested, the SN and SNS appear to be the optimal collars for use by certified athletic trainers. They were applied with the least motion in the fastest time and provided superior restriction during active range-of-motion testing. PMID:15173864

James, Colleen Y.; Munkasy, Barry A.; Joyner, A. Barry

2004-01-01

236

An in-vitro biomechanical comparison of the Orosco and AO locking plates for anterior cervical spine fixation.  

PubMed

The Orosco anterior cervical spine plate (H-plate) and the Morscher AO cervical locking plate (CSLP) were studied to determine their comparative in vitro mechanical properties in flexion. Human cadaver cervical spines were tested nondestructively in flexion as intact, destabilized, and stabilized specimens with both implants. Stabilized specimens were also subjected to a large angular displacement in an attempt to induce implant failure. Differences between intact, destabilized, and stabilized specimens were significant for both the CSLP and H-plate groups in flexion testing (p < 0.05). Large angular displacement testing resulted in plate/screw displacement with the H-plate but not with the CSLP. Small angular displacements in flexion was tolerated well by both implants, but only the CSLP maintained stability with large angular displacements. PMID:7670213

Smith, S A; Lindsey, R W; Doherty, B J; Alexander, J; Dickson, J H

1995-06-01

237

The use of anterior Caspar plate fixation in acute cervical spine injury.  

PubMed

Optimal management of cervical cord injury in the presence of documented instability and/or compression of neural elements remains a controversial topic. Surgery and internal stabilization of cervical spine fracture/dislocations are effective and well accepted, but controversy exists on the relative merits of the anterior versus the posterior approach as well as the optimal timing of surgical intervention. We report our experience with the Caspar technique and instrumentation for anterior stabilization in 54 patients for acute cervical spine injury. Our series consists of 38 male and 16 female patients whose ages ranged from 16 to 68 years, with a mean age of 29.2 years. Thirty-two of these patients had complete neurological sensory/motor deficits at the time of presentation, eight were neurologically intact, and 14 had preservation of some motor and sensory function. All 54 patients had radiographic evidence of posterior instability as well as anterior disruption of either a vertebral body or intervertebral disk. We found that "early" intervention (less than 24 hours after injury) was performed frequently in the neurologically compromised patients. Twelve of the 22 patients undergoing surgery less than 24 hours after admission regained significant neurological function, with 13 of 22 developing postoperative complications. In the "delayed" group (surgery more than 24 hours after injury, mean 14.3 days), 14 patients experienced postoperative complications, with 15 of 24 demonstrating neurological improvement. The eight patients who were intact did uniformly well. There was no mortality during the follow-up. All 54 patients showed a solid fusion (clinically and radiologically) within 6 months of surgery. In two cases the plates had to be removed, without risking the fusion. Our experience suggests that although anterior cervical fusion and Caspar plating remain appropriate for patients with documented anterior compromise of the canal, it should not substitute for more traditional posterior stabilization procedures. Because this route has the potential for more serious complications, it should be reserved for the cases in which anterior decompression is deemed necessary or posterior fusion was unsuccessful. With appropriate selection of patients, no adverse effect of early surgery was demonstrated. In fact, neurologically compromised patients had the benefits of increased ease of patient care and early transfer to rehabilitation. PMID:1876968

Randle, M J; Wolf, A; Levi, L; Rigamonti, D; Mirvis, S; Robinson, W; Bellis, E; Greenberg, J; Salcman, M

1991-09-01

238

Clinical presentation of cervical ribs in the pediatric population.  

PubMed

Cervical ribs may cause thoracic outlet syndrome in adults, but symptoms are poorly described in children. In our series, 88.8% of the 322 children were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were neck mass and pain. Useful diagnostic tools were cervical spine and chest radiographs. Differential diagnosis of a supraclavicular mass includes cervical ribs. PMID:23219244

Chan, Kenny H; Gitomer, Sarah A; Perkins, Jonathan N; Liang, Conan; Strain, John D

2013-03-01

239

Percutaneous disc decompression for the treatment of chronic atypical cervical discogenic pain.  

PubMed

Percutaneous disc decompression with the radiofrequency coblation technique has been described to treat contained, symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. In symptomatic cervical disc herniations it has been used very selectively. We report a 42-year-old female with cervical disc pathology, predominantly at C6/C7, treated with percutaneous disc decompression using coblation technology. Her complaint of cervicogenic cephalgia completely resolved, along with an 85% reduction of neck pain and upper extremity pain 6-months post-operatively. This is the first case report of chronic cervical discogenic pain being treated with this technique. PMID:16868623

Singh, Vijay

2004-01-01

240

Finite element modeling approaches of human cervical spine facet joint capsule.  

PubMed

The human cervical spine facet joint capsule was modeled using four nonlinear finite element approaches: slideline, contact surface, hyperelastic, and fluid models. Slideline elements and contact surface definitions were used in the first two models to simulate the synovial fluid between the articulating cartilages. Incompressible solid elements approximated the synovial fluid in the hyperelastic model. Hydrostatic fluid elements idealized the synovial fluid in the fluid model. The finite element analysis incorporated geometric, material and contact nonlinearities. All models were subjected to compression, flexion, extension, and lateral bending. The fluid model idealization better approximates the actual facet joint anatomy and its behavior than the gap assumption in the slideline and contact surface models, and the solid element simulation in the hyperelastic model. PMID:9672091

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

1998-04-01

241

Why Atlas, why not Heracles: reflections on the rheumatoid cervical spine.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid involvement of the 24 joints of the cervical spine leads to prominent changes in the occipito-atlanto-axial area. Eight different subtypes of such changes are recognized, depicted, and defined. The frequencies of these 8 subtypes in rheumatoid arthritis and other arthritides are tabulated. A central role in these disorders is played by a small-size, heavy-duty fitting piece or adapter, atlas, between the occiput and C2. The history of the fate of Atlas, who led the fight of godlike titans against the new gods of Olympos, is recapitulated. In particular, for a short moment Atlas was released from his heavy physical ordeal by another strongman, the heavy-weight wrestler of his times, Heracles. The reasons for the current nomenclature and answer to the question "Why Atlas, why not Heracles" are provided. PMID:15692956

Laiho, Kari; Kauppi, Markku; Konttinen, Yrjö T

2005-02-01

242

Hydrocephalus communicans after traumatic upper cervical spine injury with a cerebrospinal fluid fistula: a rare complication  

PubMed Central

Secondary hydrocephalus communicans after traumatic upper cervical spine injuries with leakage of cerebrospinal fluid is a rare and hardly described complication. A case of a 75-year-old woman sustained a type II dens axis without other injuries, especially without evidence of a hydrocephalus in the primary CT scan. Dorsal atlanto-axial fusion was performed. Postoperative drainage was prolonged and positive for ?2-transferrin. Wound revision with an attempt to seal the leakage was not successful. Secondary CT scans of the brain were performed due to neurological deterioration and showed a hydrocephalus with typical EEG findings. No anatomical reason for a circulative obstruction was found in the CT scan. After application of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt the neurological status improved and the patient could be discharged to neurological rehabilitation. PMID:22752831

Mica, Ladislav; Neuhaus, Valentin; Pöschmann, Enrico; Könü-Leblebicioglu, Dilek; Schwarz, Urs; Wanner, Guido A; Werner, Clément ML; Simmen, Hans-Peter

2010-01-01

243

The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain  

PubMed Central

Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean?±?SD age: 43?±?12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7?±?150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9?±?25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r?=?0.52, p?=?0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r?=?0.549, p?=?0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

2014-01-01

244

Contribution of disc degeneration to osteophyte formation in the cervical spine: a biomechanical investigation.  

PubMed

Cervical spine disorders such as spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy are often related to osteophyte formation. Bone remodeling experimental-analytical studies have correlated biomechanical responses such as stress and strain energy density to the formation of bony outgrowth. Using these responses of the spinal components, the present study was conducted to investigate the basis for the occurrence of disc-related pathological conditions. An anatomically accurate and validated intact finite element model of the C4-C5-C6 cervical spine was used to simulate progressive disc degeneration at the C5-C6 level. Slight degeneration included an alteration of material properties of the nucleus pulposus representing the dehydration process. Moderate degeneration included an alteration of fiber content and material properties of the anulus fibrosus representing the disintegrated nature of the anulus in addition to dehydrated nucleus. Severe degeneration included decrease in the intervertebral disc height with dehydrated nucleus and disintegrated anulus. The intact and three degenerated models were exercised under compression, and the overall force-displacement response, local segmental stiffness, anulus fiber strain, disc bulge, anulus stress, load shared by the disc and facet joints, pressure in the disc, facet and uncovertebral joints, and strain energy density and stress in the vertebral cortex were determined. The overall stiffness (C4-C6) increased with the severity of degeneration. The segmental stiffness at the degenerated level (C5-C6) increased with the severity of degeneration. Intervertebral disc bulge and anulus stress and strain decreased at the degenerated level. The strain energy density and stress in vertebral cortex increased adjacent to the degenerated disc. Specifically, the anterior region of the cortex responded with a higher increase in these responses. The increased strain energy density and stress in the vertebral cortex over time may induce the remodeling process according to Wolff's law, leading to the formation of osteophytes. PMID:11562150

Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A; Maiman, D J; Goel, V K

2001-09-01

245

Primary leptomeningeal melanoma of the cervical spine mimicking a meningioma-a case report.  

PubMed

Background and Importance?Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation?A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2-C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion?As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

2014-08-01

246

Primary Leptomeningeal Melanoma of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Meningioma—A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance?Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation?A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2–C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion?As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K.; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W.S.

2014-01-01

247

Multirigid registration of MR and CT images of the cervical spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our work on fusion of MR and CT images of the cervical spine. To achieve the required registration accuracy of approximately 1mm, the spine is treated as a collection of rigid vertebrae, and a separate rigid body transformation applied to each (Hawkes). This in turn requires segmentation of the CT datasets into separate vertebral images, which is difficult because the narrow planes separating adjacent vertebrae are parallel to the axial plane of the CT scans. We solve this problem by evolving all the vertebral contours simultaneously using a level set method, and use contour competition to estimate the position of the vertebral edges when a clean separation between adjacent vertebrae is not seen. Contour competition is based in turn on the vertical scan principle: no part of a given vertebra is vertically below any part of an inferior vertebra. Once segmentation is complete, the individual rigid body transforms are then estimated using mutual information maximization, and the CT images of the vertebrae superimposed on the MR scans. The resultant fused images contain the bony detail of CT and the soft tissue discrimination of MR and appear to be diagnostically equivalent, or superior, to CT myelograms. A formal test of these conclusions is planned for the next phase of our work.

Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.

2004-05-01

248

The validity of using an electrocutaneous device for pain assessment in patients with cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and preference for assessing pain magnitude with electrocutaneous testing (ECT) compared to the visual analogue scale (VAS) and Borg CR10 scale in men and women with cervical radiculopathy of varying sensory phenotypes. An additional purpose was to investigate ECT sensory and pain thresholds in men and women with cervical radiculopathy of varying sensory phenotypes. This is a cross-sectional study of 34 patients with cervical radiculopathy. Scatterplots and linear regression were used to investigate bivariate relationships between ECT, VAS and Borg CR10 methods of pain magnitude measurement as well as ECT sensory and pain thresholds. The use of the ECT pain magnitude matching paradigm for patients with cervical radiculopathy with normal sensory phenotype shows good linear association with arm pain VAS (R(2)?=?0.39), neck pain VAS (R(2)?=?0.38), arm pain Borg CR10 scale (R(2)?=?0.50) and neck pain Borg CR10 scale (R(2)?=?0.49) suggesting acceptable validity of the procedure. For patients with hypoesthesia and hyperesthesia sensory phenotypes, the ECT pain magnitude matching paradigm does not show adequate linear association with rating scale methods rendering the validity of the procedure as doubtful. ECT for sensory and pain threshold investigation, however, provides a method to objectively assess global sensory function in conjunction with sensory receptor specific bedside examination measures. PMID:24666409

Abbott, Allan; Ghasemi-Kafash, Elaheh; Dedering, Åsa

2014-10-01

249

The use of intraoperative navigation for complex upper cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

Imaging guidance using intraoperative CT (O-arm surgical imaging system) combined with a navigation system has been shown to increase accuracy in the placement of spinal instrumentation. The authors describe 4 complex upper cervical spine cases in which the O-arm combined with the StealthStation surgical navigation system was used to accurately place occipital screws, C-1 screws anteriorly and posteriorly, C-2 lateral mass screws, and pedicle screws in C-6. This combination was also used to navigate through complex bony anatomy altered by tumor growth and bony overgrowth. The 4 cases presented are: 1) a developmental deformity case in which the C-1 lateral mass was in the center of the cervical canal causing cord compression; 2) a case of odontoid compression of the spinal cord requiring an odontoidectomy in a patient with cerebral palsy; 3) a case of an en bloc resection of a C2-3 chordoma with instrumentation from the occiput to C-6 and placement of C-1 lateral mass screws anteriorly and posteriorly; and 4) a case of repeat surgery for a non-union at C1-2 with distortion of the anatomy and overgrowth of the bony structure at C-2. PMID:24580006

Guppy, Kern H; Chakrabarti, Indro; Banerjee, Amit

2014-03-01

250

Inertial sensor real-time feedback enhances the learning of cervical spine manipulation: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical Spinal Manipulation (CSM) is considered a high-level skill of the central nervous system because it requires bimanual coordinated rhythmical movements therefore necessitating training to achieve proficiency. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of real-time feedback on the performance of CSM. Methods Six postgraduate physiotherapy students attending a training workshop on Cervical Spine Manipulation Technique (CSMT) using inertial sensor derived real-time feedback participated in this study. The key variables were pre-manipulative position, angular displacement of the thrust and angular velocity of the thrust. Differences between variables before and after training were investigated using t-tests. Results There were no significant differences after training for the pre-manipulative position (rotation p?=?0.549; side bending p?=?0.312) or for thrust displacement (rotation p?=?0.247; side bending p?=?0.314). Thrust angular velocity demonstrated a significant difference following training for rotation (pre-training mean (sd) 48.9°/s (35.1); post-training mean (sd) 96.9°/s (53.9); p?=?0.027) but not for side bending (p?=?0.521). Conclusion Real-time feedback using an inertial sensor may be valuable in the development of specific manipulative skill. Future studies investigating manipulation could consider a randomized controlled trial using inertial sensor real time feedback compared to traditional training. PMID:24942483

2014-01-01

251

MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).  

PubMed

Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis. PMID:23404316

Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

2013-03-01

252

A study of chronic pelvic pain after radiotherapy in survivors of locally advanced cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Chronic pelvic pain (persisting pain in hips, groins or lower back) is poorly described in studies of cervical cancer survivors\\u000a (CCSs). The aims of this study were to describe chronic pelvic pain and associated variables in CCSs surveyed >5 years post-radiotherapy,\\u000a and to compare the presence of pain in hips and lower back in CCSs with findings in the general female

Ingvild Vistad; Milada Cvancarova; Gunnar Balle Kristensen; Sophie Dorothea Fosså

2011-01-01

253

Chronic lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: A prospective study of low-energy shockwave therapy and low-energy shockwave therapy plus manual therapy of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rompe JD, Riedel C, Betz U, Fink C. Chronic lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: a prospective study of low-energy shockwave therapy and low-energy shockwave therapy plus manual therapy of the cervical spine. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:578-82. Objective: To compare the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) alone with a combination of ESWT and manual therapy of the cervical spine

Jan D Rompe; Christiane Riedel; Ulrich Betz; Christian Fink

2001-01-01

254

Validation, in healthy adults, of the reproducibility of the elongation of the cervical spine, under constant traction, in function of time and breathing. Pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The region of the neck is vulnerable. In case of pathology, the cervical traction is suggested to put under stress its constituent elements. We consider that the elongation of the cervical spine is constant and reproducible under the influence of a given traction power. We suggest studying the validation of a measuring instrument to objectivize the pathological damages and

Jad Wehbe; Mohamad Khalil; Mohamad Halimi

2012-01-01

255

Is cervical spine rotation, as used in the standard vertebrobasilar insufficiency test, associated with a measureable change in intracranial vertebral artery blood flow?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine rotation is used by manual therapists as a premanipulative vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) test to identify patients at risk of developing VBI post-manipulation. Investigations of the effect of rotation on vertebral artery blood flow have yielded conflicting results, the validity of the test being debated. It was the aim of this study, therefore, to investigate the effects of cervical

Jeanette Mitchell; David Keene; Craig Dyson; Lyndsay Harvey; Christopher Pruvey; Rita Phillips

2004-01-01

256

A method to characterize average cervical spine ligament response based on raw data sets for implementation into injury biomechanics models.  

PubMed

Experimental testing on cervical spine ligaments provides important data for advanced numerical modeling and injury prediction; however, accurate characterization of individual ligament response and determination of average mechanical properties for specific ligaments has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Existing methods are limited by a number of arbitrary choices made during the curve fits that often misrepresent the characteristic shape response of the ligaments, which is important for incorporation into numerical models to produce a biofidelic response. A method was developed to represent the mechanical properties of individual ligaments using a piece-wise curve fit with first derivative continuity between adjacent regions. The method was applied to published data for cervical spine ligaments and preserved the shape response (toe, linear, and traumatic regions) up to failure, for strain rates of 0.5s(-1), 20s(-1), and 150-250s(-1), to determine the average force-displacement curves. Individual ligament coefficients of determination were 0.989 to 1.000 demonstrating excellent fit. This study produced a novel method in which a set of experimental ligament material property data exhibiting scatter was fit using a characteristic curve approach with a toe, linear, and traumatic region, as often observed in ligaments and tendons, and could be applied to other biological material data with a similar characteristic shape. The resultant average cervical spine ligament curves provide an accurate representation of the raw test data and the expected material property effects corresponding to varying deformation rates. PMID:25457171

Mattucci, Stephen F E; Cronin, Duane S

2015-01-01

257

Cervical spine injuries resulting from diving accidents in swimming pools: outcome of 34 patients.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injuries after diving into private swimming pools can lead to dramatic consequences. We reviewed 34 patients hospitalized in our center between 1996 and 2006. Data was collected from their initial admission and from follow-up appointments. The injuries were sustained by young men in 97% (mean age 27) and the majority happened during the summer (88%). Fractures were at C5-C7 in 70%. American Spinal Injury Association class (ASIA) on admission was A for 8 patients, B for 4, C for 4, D for 1, and E for 17. There were 23 surgical spine stabilizations. Final ASIA class was A for 6 patients, B for 1, C for 3, D for 5, and E for 18. The mean duration of hospitalization was 21.3 days in our neurosurgical center (mean overall cost: 36,000 Euros/patient) plus 10.6 months in rehabilitation center for the 15 patients admitted who had an ASIA class A to C. Mean overall direct cost for a patient with class A is almost 300,000 Euros, compared to around 10,000 Euros for patients with class D and E. In addition, a profound impact on personal and professional life was seen in many cases including 11 divorces and 7 job losses. Dangerous diving into swimming pools can result in spinal injuries with drastic consequences, including permanent physical disability and a profound impact on socio-professional status. Moreover, there are significant financial costs to society. Better prevention strategies should be implemented to reduce the impact of this public health problem. PMID:19956985

Borius, Pierre-Yves; Gouader, Ismail; Bousquet, Philippe; Draper, Louisa; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

2010-04-01

258

Massage Therapy for Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease: Alleviating a Pain in the Neck?  

PubMed Central

Background: A 66-year-old female client with cervical degenerative disc disease at lateral left facet joint C6/C7 was experiencing symptoms of chronic neck pain accompanied by limited cervical range of motion, as well as radicular left shoulder and arm pain. The objective of this case report was to describe the effect of therapeutic massage on the client’s symptoms and impairments of cervical DDD. Methods: Therapeutic massage interventions included soft-tissue manipulation using petrissage and neuromuscular techniques, fascial work, facilitated stretching, joint play, hydrotherapy, education on self-stretching, and positive guidance about condition management. Assessment included pain-free cervical ROM and a subjective verbal pain scale. Results: After several treatment sessions, client’s symptoms had decreased and cervical ROM had improved moderately. There was also a decrease in reported pain and an increase in functional daily activities. Client showed a greater understanding of the physiologic barriers which degenerative changes may present. Conclusions: This client responded favorably to massage therapy as a treatment intervention for cervical DDD symptoms. PMID:23087777

Avery, Rhonda-Marie

2012-01-01

259

Pelvic Incidence and Lumbar Spine Instability Correlations in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose Many factors such as lumbar instability and spinopelvic alignment are associated with low back pain. Our purpose was to analyze the pelvic incidence - one of spinopelvic alignment parameters- and spine instability correlations in patients with chronic low back pain. Methods Fifty-two patients suffering from chronic low back pain entered this case control study. Lateral spine radiography was taken from patients. pelvic incidence and L3, L4 and L5‘s vertebral body width were measured for all patients, and lumbar instability was evaluated in 3 different levels: L5-S1, L4-L5 and L3-L4. Results Thirty-two patients having lumbar instability formed group A and 20 patients without lumbar spine instability allocated to group B. Average age, mean weight, height, body mass index and mean vertebral width of both groups did not differ meaningfully. Pelvic incidence‘s mean amounts set to 53.9 in group B and 57.7 in group A without any significant difference; but pelvic incidence was significantly lower in patients with lumbar instability of L5-S1 origin (P=0.01). Conclusions Overall, pelvic incidence did not differ between two groups. However, separate evaluation of each level revealed lumbar instability of L5-S1 segment to be associated with lower pelvic incidence. PMID:23342229

Golbakhsh, Mohammad-Reza; Hamidi, Majid Attar; Hassanmirzaei, Bahar

2012-01-01

260

Nail-gun injury of the cervical spine: simple technique for removal of a barbed nail.  

PubMed

Although nail-gun injuries are a common form of penetrating low-velocity injury, impalement with barbed nails has been underreported to date. Barbed nails are designed to resist dislodgment once embedded, and any attempt at removal may splay open the barbs along the path of entry, with the potential for significant soft-tissue and neurovascular injury. A 25-year-old man sustained a nail impalement of the cervical spine from accidental discharge of a nail gun. The patient was noted to be fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Cervical Zone 2 impalement was noted, with only the head of the nail visible. Angiography revealed the nail lying just anterior to the right vertebral artery (VA), with compression of the vessel. Preoperatively, analysis of a similar nail revealed that orientation of the head determined position of the barbs. A deep neck dissection was then performed to the lateral aspect of the C-3 body, using the nail as a guide. Prior to removal, the nail was turned 180° to change the position of the barbs, to prevent injury to the VA. Nail removal was uneventful. The authors present a simple technique for treatment of a nail-gun injury with a barbed nail. Prior to removal, radiographic analysis of the impaled nail must be performed to determine the presence of barbs. If possible, the surgeon should request a similar nail for analysis prior to surgery. Last, the treating surgeon must have knowledge of the barbs' position at all times during nail removal, to prevent damage to critical structures. PMID:21456893

Nathoo, Narendra; Sarkar, Atom; Varma, Gandhi; Mendel, Ehud

2011-07-01

261

Quantitative Analyses of Pediatric Cervical Spine Ossification Patterns Using Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to quantify ossification processes of the human pediatric cervical spine. Computed tomography images were obtained from a high resolution scanner according to clinical protocols. Bone window images were used to identify the presence of the primary synchondroses of the atlas, axis, and C3 vertebrae in 101 children. Principles of logistic regression were used to determine probability distributions as a function of subject age for each synchondrosis for each vertebra. The mean and 95% upper and 95% lower confidence intervals are given for each dataset delineating probability curves. Posterior ossifications preceded bilateral anterior closures of the synchondroses in all vertebrae. However, ossifications occurred at different ages. Logistic regression results for closures of different synchondrosis indicated p-values of <0.001 for the atlas, ranging from 0.002 to <0.001 for the axis, and 0.021 to 0.005 for the C3 vertebra. Fifty percent probability of three, two, and one synchondroses occurred at 2.53, 6.97, and 7.57 years of age for the atlas; 3.59, 4.74, and 5.7 years of age for the axis; and 1.28, 2.22, and 3.17 years of age for the third cervical vertebrae, respectively. Ossifications occurring at different ages indicate non-uniform maturations of bone growth/strength. They provide an anatomical rationale to reexamine dummies, scaling processes, and injury metrics for improved understanding of pediatric neck injuries PMID:22105393

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Lew, Sean M.; Rao, Raj D.; Rangarajan, Nagarajan

2011-01-01

262

Quantitative analyses of pediatric cervical spine ossification patterns using computed tomography.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to quantify ossification processes of the human pediatric cervical spine. Computed tomography images were obtained from a high resolution scanner according to clinical protocols. Bone window images were used to identify the presence of the primary synchondroses of the atlas, axis, and C3 vertebrae in 101 children. Principles of logistic regression were used to determine probability distributions as a function of subject age for each synchondrosis for each vertebra. The mean and 95% upper and 95% lower confidence intervals are given for each dataset delineating probability curves. Posterior ossifications preceded bilateral anterior closures of the synchondroses in all vertebrae. However, ossifications occurred at different ages. Logistic regression results for closures of different synchondrosis indicated p-values of <0.001 for the atlas, ranging from 0.002 to <0.001 for the axis, and 0.021 to 0.005 for the C3 vertebra. Fifty percent probability of three, two, and one synchondroses occurred at 2.53, 6.97, and 7.57 years of age for the atlas; 3.59, 4.74, and 5.7 years of age for the axis; and 1.28, 2.22, and 3.17 years of age for the third cervical vertebrae, respectively. Ossifications occurring at different ages indicate non-uniform maturations of bone growth/strength. They provide an anatomical rationale to reexamine dummies, scaling processes, and injury metrics for improved understanding of pediatric neck injuries. PMID:22105393

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Lew, Sean M; Rao, Raj D; Rangarajan, Nagarajan

2011-01-01

263

Quantification of Pediatric Cervical Growth: Anatomical Changes in the Sub-Axial Spine  

PubMed Central

Objective In order to provide normal values of the pediatric sub-axial cervical spinal canal and vertebral body growth pattern using computed tomographic scans, a total of 318 patients less than 10 years old were included. Methods The growth of the vertebral body and canal space was investigated using four different age groups. The Torg ratio (TR) was calculated and all patients were classified into a low TR group and a high TR group according to a cutoff value of 1.0. To account for spinal curvature, the C3-7 angle was measured. Results Very little axial expansion and growth in height were observed (2.9 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively), and the spinal canal increments (1.8 mm) were much smaller than the dimensions of the vertebral body. The mean TR values were 1.03±0.14 at the C3 vertebral level, 1.02±0.13 at C4, 1.05±0.13 at C5, 1.04±0.13 at C6, and 1.02±0.12 at C7 in all patients. The mean sub-axial angle (C3-7) was 7.9±10.6° (range: -17-47°). Conclusion The upper sub-axial spinal canal continuously increased in size compared to the lower sub-axial spine after 8 years of age. Considerable decrements in the TR was found after late childhood compared to younger ages. Generally, there were no significant differences between boys and girls in vertical length of the cervical vertebrae. However, the axial dimension of the vertebral body and the spinal canal space varied according to gender.

Lee, Jung Jae; Hong, Jae Taek; Kim, Jong Tae

2015-01-01

264

Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted. A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level. In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

2013-01-01

265

Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma of cervical spine: A case report with review of literature.  

PubMed

Osteoblastomas are rare benign but sometimes aggressive primary bone tumors (1%), usually seen in males in the 2nd decade. Osteoblastomas, occurring in the spine, constitute a medical emergency due to impending cord compression. Hence a rapid and simple diagnostic modality, such as fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays an important role in clinical decision making. Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma is rare. We report a case of a young female patient presenting with a swelling in the left cervical paravertebral region. The X-ray findings were non-diagnostic and the patient was sent for an FNA. Aspiration yielded moderately cellular hemorrhagic smears with plasmacytoid cells, spindle cells, and osteoclastic giant cells in a background of matrix material. A diagnosis favoring osteoblastoma was made. The CT scan findings were in agreement with the cytological diagnosis and the lesion was excised. Histopathological examination confirmed the same. We describe here, the clinical and cytological features of osteoblastoma with their differential diagnosis, along with review of the literature. FNA can be used as an important tool in the pre-operative diagnosis of osteoblastoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2015;43:218-221. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24853790

Venugopal, Suguna Belur; Prasad, Sruthi

2015-03-01

266

The efficacy of intermittent cervical traction in patents with chronic neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies about the usefulness of traction therapy have concluded with conflicting results. The aim of this study was\\u000a to examine its efficacy in chronic neck pain. Forty-two patients with at least 6 weeks of nonspecific neck pain were selected\\u000a for the study. Data about demographic characteristics including age, sex, body mass index, duration of cervical pain, working\\u000a status, smoking status,

Pinar Borman; Dilek Keskin; Betul Ekici; Hatice Bodur

2008-01-01

267

Changes in muscle activity determine progression of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic spine-related muscle pain. A complex clinical and neurophysiological approach.  

PubMed

Spine-related muscle pain can affect muscle strength and motor unit activity. This study was undertaken to investigate whether surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings performed during relaxation and maximal contraction reveal differences in the activity of muscles with or without trigger points (TRPs). We also analyzed the possible coexistence of characteristic spontaneous activity in needle electromyographic (eEMG) recordings with the presence of TRPs. Thirty patients with non-specific cervical and back pain were evaluated using clinical, neuroimaging and electroneurographic examinations. Muscle pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and strength using Lovett's scale; trigger points were detected by palpation. EMG was used to examine motor unit activity. Trigger points were found mainly in the trapezius muscles in thirteen patients. Their presence was accompanied by increased pain intensity, decreased muscle strength, increased resting sEMG amplitude, and decreased sEMG amplitude during muscle contraction. eEMG revealed characteristic asynchronous discharges in TRPs. The results of EMG examinations point to a complexity of muscle pain that depends on progression of the myofascial syndrome. PMID:22152435

Wytrazek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lisinski, Przemyslaw

2011-01-01

268

Prevalence of the Fibromyalgia Phenotype in Spine Pain Patients Presenting to a Tertiary Care Pain Clinic and the Potential Treatment Implications  

PubMed Central

Objective Injections for spinal pain have high failure rates, emphasizing the importance of patient selection. It is possible that detecting the presence of a fibromyalgia-like phenotype could aid in prediction, because in these individuals a peripheral injection would not address pain due to alterations in central neurotransmission. We hypothesized that spine pain patients meeting survey criteria for fibromyalgia would be phenotypically distinct from those who do not meet criteria. Methods 548 patients with a primary spine pain diagnosis were studied. All patients completed validated self-report questionnaires, including the Brief Pain Inventory, PainDETECT, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, measures of physical function, and the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Results 42% met survey criteria for fibromyalgia (FM+). When compared with criteria negative patients, FM+ patients were more likely to be younger, unemployed, receiving compensation, have greater pain intensity, pain interference and neuropathic pain descriptors, as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety, and lower level of physical function (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Gender, neuropathic pain, pain interference, physical function, and anxiety were independently predictive of fibromyalgia status in a multivariate analysis (p < 0.01, all variables). ROC analysis showed the strength of association of 0.81 as measured by the cross-validated C-statistic. Conclusion Using the survey criteria for fibromyalgia, we demonstrated profound phenotypic differences in a spine pain population. Although centralized pain cannot be confirmed with a survey alone, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia may help explain a portion of the variability of responses to spine interventions. PMID:24022710

Brummett, Chad M.; Goesling, Jenna; Tsodikov, Alex; Meraj, Taha S.; Wasserman, Ronald A.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Hassett, Afton L.

2014-01-01

269

Sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to specific diversified adjustments to chiropractic vertebral subluxations of the cervical and thoracic spine  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The aims of this study were to investigate the response of the autonomic nervous system based upon the area of the spine adjusted and to determine if a cervical adjustment elicits a parasympathetic response and if a thoracic adjustment elicits a sympathetic response. Methods Forty patients (25-55 years old) met inclusion criteria that consisted of normal blood pressure, no history of heart disease, and being asymptomatic. Patients were evaluated pre– and post–chiropractic adjustment for the following autonomic responses: blood pressure and pulse rate. Seven patients were measured for heart rate variability. The subjects received either a diversified cervical segment adjustment or a diversified thoracic segment adjustment. Results Diastolic pressure (indicating a sympathetic response) dropped significantly postadjustment among those receiving cervical adjustments, accompanied by a moderate clinical effect (0.50). Pulse pressure increased significantly among those receiving cervical adjustments, accompanied by a large effect size (0.82). Although the decrease in pulse pressure for those receiving thoracic adjustments was not statistically significant, the decrease was accompanied by a moderate effect size (0.66). Conclusion It is preliminarily suggested that cervical adjustments may result in parasympathetic responses, whereas thoracic adjustments result in sympathetic responses. Furthermore, it appears that these responses may demonstrate the relationship of autonomic responses in association to the particular segment(s) adjusted. PMID:19646369

Welch, Arlene; Boone, Ralph

2008-01-01

270

Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

2014-12-17

271

Investigation of the effect of GaAs laser therapy on cervical myofascial pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-energy laser therapy has been applied in several rheumatoid and soft tissue disorders with varying rates of success. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of laser therapy on cervical myofascial pain syndrome with a placebo-controlled double-blind prospective study model. It was performed with a total of 53 patients (35 females and 18 males) with cervical myofascial

Lale Altan; Umit Bingöl; Mehtap Aykaç; Merih Yurtkuran

2005-01-01

272

SPECT/CT imaging of the lumbar spine in chronic low back pain: a case report  

PubMed Central

Mechanical low back pain is a common indication for Nuclear Medicine imaging. Whole-body bone scan is a very sensitive but poorly specific study for the detection of metabolic bone abnormalities. The accurate localisation of metabolically active bone disease is often difficult in 2D imaging but single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) allows accurate diagnosis and anatomic localisation of osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions in 3D imaging. We present a clinical case of a patient referred for evaluation of chronic lower back pain with no history of trauma, spinal surgery, or cancer. Planar whole-body scan showed heterogeneous tracer uptake in the lumbar spine with intense localisation to the right lateral aspect of L3. Integrated SPECT/CT of the lumbar spine detected active bone metabolism in the right L3/L4 facet joint in the presence of minimal signs of degenerative osteoarthrosis on CT images, while a segment demonstrating more gross degenerative changes was more quiescent with only mild tracer uptake. The usefulness of integrated SPECT/CT for anatomical and functional assessment of back pain opens promising opportunities both for multi-disciplinary clinical assessment and treatment for manual therapists and for research into the effectiveness of manual therapies. PMID:21247412

2011-01-01

273

Estimated Probability of a Cervical Spine Injury During an ISS Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes historical data, cohort data, and external simulations as input factors to provide estimates of crew health, resource utilization and mission outcomes. The Cervical Spine Injury Module (CSIM) is an external simulation designed to provide the IMM with parameter estimates for 1) a probability distribution function (PDF) of the incidence rate, 2) the mean incidence rate, and 3) the standard deviation associated with the mean resulting from injury/trauma of the neck. Methods: An injury mechanism based on an idealized low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax of an ISS crewmember was used as the simulated mission environment. As a result of this impact, the cervical spine is inertially loaded from the mass of the head producing an extension-flexion motion deforming the soft tissues of the neck. A multibody biomechanical model was developed to estimate the kinematic and dynamic response of the head-neck system from a prescribed acceleration profile. Logistic regression was performed on a dataset containing AIS1 soft tissue neck injuries from rear-end automobile collisions with published Neck Injury Criterion values producing an injury transfer function (ITF). An injury event scenario (IES) was constructed such that crew 1 is moving through a primary or standard translation path transferring large volume equipment impacting stationary crew 2. The incidence rate for this IES was estimated from in-flight data and used to calculate the probability of occurrence. The uncertainty in the model input factors were estimated from representative datasets and expressed in terms of probability distributions. A Monte Carlo Method utilizing simple random sampling was employed to propagate both aleatory and epistemic uncertain factors. Scatterplots and partial correlation coefficients (PCC) were generated to determine input factor sensitivity. CSIM was developed in the SimMechanics/Simulink environment with a Monte Carlo wrapper (MATLAB) used to integrate the components of the module. Results: The probability of generating an AIS1 soft tissue neck injury from the extension/flexion motion induced by a low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax was fitted with a lognormal PDF with mean 0.26409, standard deviation 0.11353, standard error of mean 0.00114, and 95% confidence interval [0.26186, 0.26631]. Combining the probability of an AIS1 injury with the probability of IES occurrence was fitted with a Johnson SI PDF with mean 0.02772, standard deviation 0.02012, standard error of mean 0.00020, and 95% confidence interval [0.02733, 0.02812]. The input factor sensitivity analysis in descending order was IES incidence rate, ITF regression coefficient 1, impactor initial velocity, ITF regression coefficient 2, and all others (equipment mass, crew 1 body mass, crew 2 body mass) insignificant. Verification and Validation (V&V): The IMM V&V, based upon NASA STD 7009, was implemented which included an assessment of the data sets used to build CSIM. The documentation maintained includes source code comments and a technical report. The software code and documentation is under Subversion configuration management. Kinematic validation was performed by comparing the biomechanical model output to established corridors.

Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G.

2013-01-01

274

Movement coordination of the lumbar spine and hip during a picking up activity in low back pain subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of low back pain, with or without nerve root signs, on the joint coordination and kinematics of the lumbar spine\\u000a and hips during everyday activities, such as picking up an object from the floor, are largely unknown. An experimental study\\u000a was designed to compare lumbar spine and hip joint kinematics and coordination in subjects with and without sub-acute

Gary L. K. Shum; Jack Crosbie; Raymond Y. W. Lee

2007-01-01

275

Four lateral mass screw fixation techniques in lower cervical spine following laminectomy: a finite element analysis study of stress distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) techniques have been widely used for reconstructing and stabilizing the cervical spine; however, complications may result depending on the choice of surgeon. There are only a few reports related to LSF applications, even though fracture fixation has become a severe complication. This study establishes the three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine, and compares the stress distribution of the four LSF techniques (Magerl, Roy-Camille, Anderson, and An), following laminectomy -- to explore the risks of rupture after fixation. Method CT scans were performed on a healthy adult female volunteer, and Digital imaging and communication in medicine (Dicom) data was obtained. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio 12.0, Solidworks 2012, HyperMesh 10.1 and Abaqus 6.12 software programs were used to establish the intact model of the lower cervical spines (C3-C7), a postoperative model after laminectomy, and a reconstructive model after applying the LSF techniques. A compressive preload of 74 N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm was applied to the intact and reconstructive model, simulating normal flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The stress distribution of the four LSF techniques was compared by analyzing the maximum von Mises stress. Result The three-dimensional finite element model of the intact C3-C7 vertebrae was successfully established. This model consists of 503,911 elements and 93,390 nodes. During flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes, the intact model’s angular intersegmental range of motion was in good agreement with the results reported from the literature. The postoperative model after the three-segment laminectomy and the reconstructive model after applying the four LSF techniques were established based on the validated intact model. The stress distribution for the Magerl and Roy-Camille groups were more dispersive, and the maximum von Mises stress levels were lower than the other two groups in various conditions. Conclusion The LSF techniques of Magerl and Roy-Camille are safer methods for stabilizing the lower cervical spine. Therefore, these methods potentially have a lower risk of fixation fracture. PMID:25106498

2014-01-01

276

The immediate effects of thoracic spine and rib manipulation on subjects with primary complaints of shoulder pain.  

PubMed

Shoulder pain is a common orthopedic condition seen by physical therapists, with many potential contributing factors and proposed treatments. Although manual physical therapy interventions for the cervicothoracic spine and ribs have been investigated for this patient population, the specific effects of these treatments have not been reported. The purpose of this investigational study is to report the immediate effects of thoracic spine and rib manipulation in patients with primary complaints of shoulder pain. Using a test-retest design, 21 subjects with shoulder pain were treated during a single treatment session with high-velocity thrust manipulation to the thoracic spine or upper ribs. Post-treatment effects demonstrated a 51% (32mm) reduction in shoulder pain, a corresponding increase in shoulder range of motion (30 degrees -38 degrees ), and a mean patient-perceived global rating of change of 4.2 (median 5). These immediate post-treatment results suggest that thoracic and rib manipulative therapy is associated with improved shoulder pain and motion in patients with shoulder pain, and further these interventions support the concept of a regional interdependence between the thoracic spine, upper ribs, and shoulder. PMID:20140154

Strunce, Joseph B; Walker, Michael J; Boyles, Robert E; Young, Brian A

2009-01-01

277

The Clinical Efficacy of Low-Power Laser Therapy on Pain and Function in Cervical Osteoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Pain is a major symptom in cervical osteoarthritis (COA). Low-power laser (LPL) therapy has been claimed to reduce pain in\\u000a musculoskeletal pathologies, but there have been concerns about this point. The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic\\u000a efficacy of LPL therapy and related functional changes in COA. Sixty patients between 20 and 65 years of age

F. Özdemir; M. Birtane; S. Kokino

2001-01-01

278

Immediate effects of various physical therapeutic modalities on cervical myofascial pain and trigger-point sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hou C-R, Tsai L-C, Cheng K-F, Chung K-C, Hong C-Z. Immediate effects of various physical therapeutic modalities on cervical myofascial pain and trigger-point sensitivity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1406-14. Objective: To investigate the immediate effect of physical therapeutic modalities on myofascial pain in the upper trapezius muscle. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Institutional practice. Patients: One hundred nineteen subjects with

Chuen-Ru Hou; Li-Chen Tsai; Kuang-Feng Cheng; Kao-Chi Chung; Chang-Zern Hong

2002-01-01

279

Lumbar spine stenosis: a common cause of back and leg pain.  

PubMed

Lumbar spine stenosis most commonly affects the middle-aged and elderly population. Entrapment of the cauda equina roots by hypertrophy of the osseous and soft tissue structures surrounding the lumbar spinal canal is often associated with incapacitating pain in the back and lower extremities, difficulty ambulating, leg paresthesias and weakness and, in severe cases, bowel or bladder disturbances. The characteristic syndrome associated with lumbar stenosis is termed neurogenic intermittent claudication. This condition must be differentiated from true claudication, which is caused by atherosclerosis of the pelvofemoral vessels. Although many conditions may be associated with lumbar canal stenosis, most cases are idiopathic. Imaging of the lumbar spine performed with computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging often demonstrates narrowing of the lumbar canal with compression of the cauda equina nerve roots by thickened posterior vertebral elements, facet joints, marginal osteophytes or soft tissue structures such as the ligamentum flavum or herniated discs. Treatment for symptomatic lumbar stenosis is usually surgical decompression. Medical treatment alternatives, such as bed rest, pain management and physical therapy, should be reserved for use in debilitated patients or patients whose surgical risk is prohibitive as a result of concomitant medical conditions. PMID:9575322

Alvarez, J A; Hardy, R H

1998-04-15

280

Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with neck pain likely to benefit from cervical traction and exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to develop a clinical prediction rule (CPR) to identify patients with neck pain likely to improve\\u000a with cervical traction. The study design included prospective cohort of patients with neck pain referred to physical therapy.\\u000a Development of a CPR will assist clinicians in classifying patients with neck pain likely to benefit from cervical traction.\\u000a Eighty

Nicole H. Raney; Evan J. Petersen; Tracy A. Smith; James E. Cowan; Daniel G. Rendeiro; Gail D. Deyle; John D. Childs

2009-01-01

281

Comparison of the C-MAC(®) and GlideScope(®) videolaryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine disorders and immobilisation.  

PubMed

In-line stabilisation of the neck can increase the difficulty of tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy. We randomly assigned 56 patients with cervical spine pathology scheduled for elective surgery to tracheal intubation using either the C-MAC(®) (n = 26) or GlideScope(®) (n = 30), when the head and neck were stabilised in-line. There was no significant difference in the median (IQR [range]) intubation times between the C-MAC (19 (14-35 [9-90]) s and the GlideScope (23, (15-32 [8-65]) s. The first-attempt failure rate for the C-MAC was 42% (95% CI 23-63%) compared with 7% (95% CI 1-22%) for the GlideScope, p = 0.002. The laryngeal view was excellent and comparable with both devices, with the C-MAC requiring significantly more attempts and optimising manoeuvers (11 vs 5, respectively, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in postoperative complaints e.g. sore throat, hoarseness and dysphagia. Both devices provided an excellent glottic view in patients with cervical spine immobilisation, but tracheal intubation was more often successful on the first attempt with the GlideScope. PMID:25265994

Brück, S; Trautner, H; Wolff, A; Hain, J; Mols, G; Pakos, P; Roewer, N; Lange, M

2015-02-01

282

Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the

Amy Crothers; Bruce Walker; Simon D French

2008-01-01

283

REDISTRIBUTION OF LOAD OF INJURED LOWER CERVICAL SPINE UNDER AXIAL COMPRESSION USING FEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hu man spine, any ligamentous injury, degenerated d isc or facetectomy leads to certain d egrees of spinal instability. There are limited studies using finite element method (FEM) simulating these effects to evaluate the biomechanical response of spine under various physiological load configurations. This parametric study was conducted to evaluate the roles of ligaments, facets, and disc nucleus in

E. C. Teo; H. W. Ng

284

The Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Allows Tracheal Intubation When the Cervical Spine Is Immobilized by a Rigid Collar  

PubMed Central

Summary An intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) facilitates tracheal intubation with the neck in neutral position, which is similar to the neck position maintained by a rigid cervical collar. However, a cervical collar virtually obliterates neck movement, even the small movements that normally facilitate airway insertion. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the ILMA facilitates tracheal intubation even in patients wearing a rigid cervical collar. In 50 cervical spine surgery patients with a rigid Philadelphia collar in place and 50 general surgery patients under general anaesthesia, we performed blind tracheal intubation via an ILMA. The time required for intubation, intubation success rate, and numbers and type of adjusting manoeuvres employed were recorded. Inter-incisor distance was significantly smaller (4.1 [0.8] cm vs. 4.6 [0.7] cm, mean [SD], P<0.01) and Mallampati scores were significantly greater (P<0.001) in the collared patients. ILMA insertion took longer (30 [25] vs. 22 [6] seconds), more patients required 2 insertion attempts (15 vs. 3; P<0.005), and ventilation adequacy with ILMA was worse (P<0.05) in collared patients. However, there were no significant differences between the collared and control patients in terms of total time required for intubation (60 [41] vs. 50 [30] seconds), number of intubation attempts, overall intubation success rate (96 vs. 98%), or the incidence of intubation complications. Blind intubation through an ILMA is thus a reasonable strategy for controlling the airway in patients who are immobilized with a rigid cervical collar, especially when urgency precludes a fiberoptic approach. PMID:15321932

Komatsu, Ryu; Nagata, Osamu; Kamata, Kotoe; Yamagata, Katsuyuki; Sessler, Daniel I.; Ozaki, Makoto

2005-01-01

285

Cervical Spine Motion During Football Equipment-Removal Protocols: A Challenge to the All-or-Nothing Endeavor  

PubMed Central

Context The National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete recommended the all-or-nothing endeavor, which involves removing or not removing both helmet and shoulder pads, from equipment-laden American football and ice hockey athletes. However, in supporting research, investigators have not considered alternative protocols. Objective To measure cervical spine movement (head relative to sternum) produced when certified athletic trainers (ATs) use the all-or-nothing endeavor and to compare these findings with the movement produced using an alternative pack-and-fill protocol, which involves packing the area under and around the cervical neck and head with rolled towels. Design Crossover study. Setting Movement analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight male collegiate football players (age = 21.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 1.87 ± 0.02 m; mass = 103.6 ± 12.5 kg). Intervention(s) Four ATs removed equipment under 4 conditions: removal of helmet only followed by placing the head on the ground (H), removal of the helmet only followed by pack-and-fill (HP), removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by placing the head on the ground (HS), and removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by pack-and-fill (HSP). Motion capture was used to track the movement of the head with respect to the sternum during equipment removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured head movement relative to sternum movement (translations and rotations). We used 4 × 4 analyses of variance with repeated measures to compare discrete motion variables (changes in position and total excursions) among protocols and ATs. Results Protocol HP resulted in a 0.1 ± 0.6 cm rise in head position compared with a 1.4 ± 0.3 cm drop with protocol HS (P < .001). Protocol HP produced 4.9° less total angular excursion (P < .001) and 2.1 cm less total vertical excursion (P < .001) than protocol HS. Conclusions The pack-and-fill protocol was more effective than shoulder pad removal in minimizing cervical spine movement throughout the equipment-removal process. This study provides evidence for including the pack-and-fill protocol in future treatment recommendations when helmet removal is necessary for on-field care. PMID:24377964

Jacobson, Bradley; Cendoma, Michael; Gdovin, Jacob; Cooney, Kevin; Bruening, Dustin

2014-01-01

286

Pain and cervical traction variation during manual turning  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment using a dummy with a cervical traction recorder was used in place of a patient. Nurses and orderlies from the Spinal Unit carried out manual lifting and turning techniques, used in the conservative treatment of spinal injury. Variation in manual traction continues throughout a turn. Traction force may be quadrupled or quartered. Inco-ordination between the individuals lifting, causes

F X Keane

1978-01-01

287

Laryngoscope and a New Tracheal Tube Assist Lightwand Intubation in Difficult Airways due to Unstable Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Purpose The WEI Jet Endotracheal Tube (WEI JET) is a new tracheal tube that facilitates both oxygenation and ventilation during the process of intubation and assists tracheal intubation in patients with difficult airway. We evaluated the effectiveness and usefulness of the WEI JET in combination with lightwand under direct laryngoscopy in difficult tracheal intubation due to unstable cervical spine. Methods Ninety patients with unstable cervical spine disorders (ASA I-III) with general anaesthesia were included and randomly assigned to three groups, based on the device used for intubation: lightwand only, lightwand under direct laryngoscopy, lightwand with WEI JET under direct laryngoscopy. Results No statistically significant differences were detected among three groups with respect to demographic characteristics and C/L grade. There were statistically significant differences between three groups for overall intubation success rate (p = 0.015) and first attempt success rate (p = 0.000). The intubation time was significantly longer in the WEI group (110.8±18.3 s) than in the LW group (63.3±27.5 s, p = 0.000) and DL group (66.7±29.4 s, p = 0.000), but the lowest SpO2 in WEI group was significantly higher than other two groups (p<0.01). The WEI JET significantly reduced successful tracheal intubation attempts compared to the LW group (p = 0.043). The severity of sore throat was similar in three groups (p = 0.185). Conclusions The combined use of WEI JET under direct laryngoscopy helps to assist tracheal intubation and improves oxygenation during intubation in patients with difficult airway secondary to unstable spine disorders. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14005141 PMID:25803435

Wu, Cai-neng; Ma, Wu-hua; Wei, Jian-qi; Wei, Hua-feng; Cen, Qing-yun; Cai, Qing-xiang; Cao, Ying

2015-01-01

288

Effects of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy and simvastatin treatment on cervical spine disease in mucopolysaccharidosis I dogs.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient ?-L-iduronidase activity, leading to the accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Children with MPS I exhibit high incidence of spine disease, including accelerated disc degeneration and vertebral dysplasia, which in turn lead to spinal cord compression and kyphoscoliosis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), alone or in combination with oral simvastatin (ERT?+?SIM) for attenuating cervical spine disease progression in MPS I, using a canine model. Four groups were studied: normal controls; MPS I untreated; MPS I ERT-treated; and MPS I ERT?+?SIM-treated. Animals were euthanized at age 1 year. Intervertebral disc condition and spinal cord compression were evaluated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and plain radiographs, vertebral bone condition and odontoid hypoplasia were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (µCT), and epiphyseal cartilage to bone conversion was evaluated histologically. Untreated MPS I animals exhibited more advanced disc degeneration and more severe spinal cord compression than normal animals. Both treatment groups resulted in partial preservation of disc condition and cord compression, with ERT?+?SIM not significantly better than ERT alone. Untreated MPS I animals had significantly lower vertebral trabecular bone volume and mineral density, whereas ERT treatment resulted in partial preservation of these properties. ERT?+?SIM treatment demonstrated similar, but not greater, efficacy. Both treatment groups partially normalized endochondral ossification in the vertebral epiphyses (as indicated by absence of persistent growth plate cartilage), and odontoid process size and morphology. These results indicate that ERT begun from a very early age attenuates the severity of cervical spine disease in MPS I, particularly for the vertebral bone and odontoid process, and that additional treatment with simvastatin does not provide a significant additional benefit over ERT alone. PMID:24898323

Chiaro, Joseph A; O'Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Malhotra, Neil R; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

2014-12-01

289

Fatal outcome after brain stem infarction related to bilateral vertebral artery occlusion - case report of a detrimental complication of cervical spine trauma  

PubMed Central

Background Vertebral artery injury (VAI) after blunt cervical trauma occurs more frequently than historically believed. The symptoms due to vertebral artery (VA) occlusion usually manifest within the first 24 hours after trauma. Misdiagnosed VAI or delay in diagnosis has been reported to cause acute deterioration of previously conscious and neurologically intact patients. Case presentation A 67 year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) sustaining multiple injuries. Initial evaluation by the emergency medical response team revealed that he was alert, oriented, and neurologically intact. He was transferred to the local hospital where cervical spine computed tomography (CT) revealed several abnormalities. Distraction and subluxation was present at C5-C6 and a comminuted fracture of the left lateral mass of C6 with violation of the transverse foramen was noted. Unavailability of a spine specialist prompted the patient's transfer to an area medical center equipped with spine care capabilities. After arrival, the patient became unresponsive and neurological deficits were noted. His continued deterioration prompted yet another transfer to our Level 1 regional trauma center. A repeat cervical spine CT at our institution revealed significantly worsened subluxation at C5-C6. CT angiogram also revealed complete occlusion of bilateral VA. The following day, a repeat CT of the head revealed brain stem infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion. Shortly following, the patient was diagnosed with brain death and care was withdrawn. Conclusion Brain stem infarction secondary to bilateral VA occlusion following cervical spine trauma resulted in fatal outcome. Prompt imaging evaluation is necessary to assess for VAI in cervical trauma cases with facet joint subluxation/dislocation or transverse foramen fracture so that treatment is not delayed. Additionally, multiple transportation events are risk factors for worsening when unstable cervical injuries are present. Close attention to proper immobilization and neck position depending on the mechanism of injury is mandatory. PMID:21756312

2011-01-01

290

A biomechanical analysis of decompression and reconstruction methods in the cervical spine. Emphasis on a carbon-fiber-composite cage.  

PubMed

Biomechanical analysis of three different patterns of instability--that created by fifth and sixth cervical anterior discectomy, that created by one-level (fifth cervical) anterior corpectomy, and that created by two-level (fourth and fifth cervical) corpectomy--was performed in eighteen calf spines. Three types of anterior reconstruction--anterior iliac strut bone-grafting, use of an anterior carbon-fiber-composite cage packed with cancellous bone graft, as well as use of polymethylmethacrylate anteriorly--were cyclically tested in axial compression, torsion, and flexion-extension. Each of these types of reconstruction was also tested with supplemental posterior wire stabilization (the triple-wire technique of Bohlman). Regardless of the type of anterior instability, the carbon-fiber-reinforced cage packed with cancellous bone graft was more rigid than the iliac bone graft alone. The cage resulted in good stiffness in the axial compression and rotation tests and was the most rigid construct in the flexion-extension tests. The superior aspect of the polymethylmethacrylate constructs loosened at the bone-cement interface in eight of the twelve specimens during flexion-extension testing. The addition of the supplemental posterior wiring to the anterior constructs provided additional rigidity in flexion-extension testing. PMID:8245060

Shono, Y; McAfee, P C; Cunningham, B W; Brantigan, J W

1993-11-01

291

Clinical assessment techniques for detecting ligament and membrane injuries in the upper cervical spine region—A comparison with MRI results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined whether results from a clinical test of passive mobility of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, corresponded with signs of physical injuries, as judged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results were based on examinations of 122 study participants, 92 with and 30 without a diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder, type 2. The structures considered

Bertel Rune Kaale; Jostein Krakenes; Grethe Albrektsen; Knut Wester

2008-01-01

292

Spine Surgery in Athletes With Low Back Pain-Considerations for Management and Treatment  

PubMed Central

While degenerative lumbar spine conditions are common in the general population, there are unique considerations when diagnosed in high-level athletes. Genetic factors have been identified as a more significant contributor to the development of degenerative disc disease than occupational risks, however, some have postulated that the incessant training of young, competitive athletes may put them at a greater risk for accelerated disease. The evidence-based literature regarding lumbar disc herniation in elite athletes suggests that it is reasonable to expect excellent clinical outcomes and successful return-to-sport after either operative or non-operative treatment regardless of sport played. However, those athletes who require repetitive torque on their lumbar spines may have poorer long-term outcomes if surgical treatment is required for this condition. Painful spondylolysis in the athlete can often be treated successfully with non-operative treatment, however, if surgery is required, pars repair techniques provides a motion-sparing alternative that may lead to successful return to sport. PMID:25741419

Burgmeier, Robert J.; Hsu, Wellington K.

2014-01-01

293

Cervical and thoracic spine injury from interactions with vehicle roofs in pure rollover crashes.  

PubMed

Around one third of serious injuries sustained by belted, non-ejected occupants in pure rollover crashes occur to the spine. Dynamic rollover crash test methodologies have been established in Australia and the United States, with the aims of understanding injury potential in rollovers and establishing the basis of an occupant rollover protection crashworthiness test protocol that could be adopted by consumer new car assessment programmes and government regulators internationally. However, for any proposed test protocol to be effective in reducing the high trauma burden resulting from rollover crashes, appropriate anthropomorphic devices that replicate real-world injury mechanisms and biomechanical loads are required. To date, consensus regarding the combination of anthropomorphic device and neck injury criteria for rollover crash tests has not been reached. The aim of the present study is to provide new information pertaining to the nature and mechanisms of spine injury in pure rollover crashes, and to assist in the assessment of spine injury potential in rollover crash tests. Real-world spine injury cases that resulted from pure rollover crashes in the United States between 2000 and 2009 are identified, and compared with cadaver experiments under vertical load by other authors. The analysis is restricted to contained, restrained occupants that were injured from contact with the vehicle roof structure during a pure rollover, and the role of roof intrusion in creating potential for spine injury is assessed. Recommendations for assessing the potential for spine injury in rollover occupant protection crash test protocols are made. PMID:23149322

Bambach, M R; Grzebieta, R H; McIntosh, A S; Mattos, G A

2013-01-01

294

Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277

Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2013-09-15

295

A comparison of McCoy, TruView, and Macintosh laryngoscopes for tracheal intubation in patients with immobilized cervical spine  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical spine immobilization results in a poor laryngeal view on direct laryngoscopy leading to difficulty in intubation. This randomized prospective study was designed to compare the laryngeal view and ease of intubation with the Macintosh, McCoy, and TruView laryngoscopes in patients with immobilized cervical spine. Materials and Methods: 60 adult patients of ASA grade I-II with immobilized cervical spine undergoing elective cervical spine surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium and maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups to achieve tracheal intubation with Macintosh, McCoy, or TruView laryngoscopes. When the best possible view of the glottis was obtained, the Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopy grade and the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score were assessed. Other measurements included the intubation time, the intubation difficulty score, and the intubation success rate. Hemodynamic parameters and any airway complications were also recorded. Results: TruView reduced the intubation difficulty score, improved the Cormack and Lehane glottic view, and the POGO score compared with the McCoy and Macintosh laryngoscopes. The first attempt intubation success rate was also high in the TruView laryngoscope group. However, there were no differences in the time required for successful intubation and the overall success rates between the devices tested. No dental injury or hypoxia occurred with either device. Conclusion: The use of a TruView laryngoscope resulted in better glottis visualization, easier tracheal intubation, and higher first attempt success rate as compared to Macintosh and McCoy laryngoscopes in immobilized cervical spine patients. PMID:24843330

Bharti, Neerja; Arora, Suman; Panda, Nidhi B

2014-01-01

296

Minimally Invasive Posterior Stabilization Improved Ambulation and Pain Scores in Patients with Plasmacytomas and/or Metastases of the Spine  

PubMed Central

Background. The incidence of spine metastasis is expected to increase as the population ages, and so is the number of palliative spinal procedures. Minimally invasive procedures are attractive options in that they offer the theoretical advantage of less morbidity. Purpose. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether minimally invasive posterior spinal instrumentation provided significant pain relief and improved function. Study Design. We compared pre- and postoperative pain scores as well as ambulatory status in a population of patients suffering from oncologic conditions in the spine. Patient Sample. A consecutive series of patients with spine tumors treated minimally invasively with stabilization were reviewed. Outcome Measures. Visual analog pain scale as well as pre- and postoperative ambulatory status were used as outcome measures. Methods. Twenty-four patients who underwent minimally invasive posterior spinal instrumentation for metastasis were retrospectively reviewed. Results. Seven (29%) patients were unable to ambulate secondary to pain and instability prior to surgery. All patients were ambulating within 2 to 3 days after having surgery (P = 0.01). The mean visual analog scale value for the preoperative patients was 2.8, and the mean postoperative value was 1.0 (P = 0.001). Conclusion. Minimally invasive posterior spinal instrumentation significantly improved pain and ambulatory status in this series. PMID:22312498

Schwab, Joseph H.; Gasbarrini, Alessandro; Cappuccio, Michele; Boriani, Luca; De Iure, Federico; Colangeli, Simone; Boriani, Stefano

2011-01-01

297

[Occupational disease 2108. Degenerative changes of the cervical spine as a causality criterion in the assessment of discogenic diseases according to BeKV 2108].  

PubMed

With the second amendment to the Ordinance on Occupational Diseases (BeKV) of 18 December 1992, discogenic diseases of the spine are included in the disease register of occupational diseases for the first time. If occupations that impose stress on the spine have been practised for many years, the possibility exists of recognizing degenerative diseases as an occupational disease. In assessment practice, the radiological data on the spine exposed to stress is compared with that of regions which are remote from the stress (cervical/thoracic spine). This pattern of the distribution of degenerative disease is then used as the basis for determining a causal relationship between the occupation causing the stress and disease of the axial skeleton. The pattern of degeneration of the cervical spine was investigated in two groups, one with ( n =153) and one without ( n =333) occupations that impose stress on the lumbar spine. A cumulative score of degenerative changes was elaborated and presented as a new classification. No differences were found between the groups with regard to either the frequency of occurrence, segmental distribution or severity of disease. In both groups, degenerative changes correlated with age. The prevailing assessment practice is discussed on the basis of these data. PMID:12719851

Hartwig, E; Schultheiss, M; Krämer, S; Ebert, V; Kinzl, L; Kramer, M

2003-04-01

298

4- and 5-level anterior fusions of the cervical spine: review of literature and clinical results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the future, there will be an increased number of cervical revision surgeries, including 4- and more-levels. But, there\\u000a is a paucity of literature concerning the geometrical and clinical outcome in these challenging reconstructions. To contribute\\u000a to current knowledge, we want to share our experience with 4- and 5-level anterior cervical fusions in 26 cases in sight of\\u000a a critical

Heiko Koller; Axel Hempfing; Luis Ferraris; Oliver Maier; Wolfgang Hitzl; Peter Metz-Stavenhagen

2007-01-01

299

Range of global motion of the cervical spine: intraindividual reliability and the influence of measurement device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range of motion tests are often employed in the quantification of musculoskeletal impairment and in the assessment of the\\u000a efficacy of therapeutic interventions. The aim of the present study was to compare the absolute values for, and the day-to-day\\u000a reliability of, measures of cervical spinal mobility made with two computerised motion analysis devices. The ranges of cervical\\u000a flexion, extension, lateral

A. F. Mannion; G. N. Klein; J. Dvorak; C. Lanz

2000-01-01

300

Influence of neck pain on cervical movement in the sagittal plane during smartphone use  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Smartphone use reportedly changes posture. However, how neck posture is altered in smartphone users with neck pain is unknown. This study examined changes in the posture of young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) when using a smartphone. [Subjects] Thirteen control subjects and 14 subjects with MNP who used smartphones were recruited. [Methods] The upper cervical (UC) and lower cervical (LC) angles in the sagittal plane were measured using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system while the seated subjects used a smartphone for 5?min. [Results] During smartphone use, the MNP group exhibited greater UC and LC flexion angles than the control group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP are more careful and more frequently utilize a neutral neck posture than young adults without MNP when using a smartphone while sitting. PMID:25642027

Kim, Man-Sig

2015-01-01

301

Influence of neck pain on cervical movement in the sagittal plane during smartphone use.  

PubMed

[Purpose] Smartphone use reportedly changes posture. However, how neck posture is altered in smartphone users with neck pain is unknown. This study examined changes in the posture of young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) when using a smartphone. [Subjects] Thirteen control subjects and 14 subjects with MNP who used smartphones were recruited. [Methods] The upper cervical (UC) and lower cervical (LC) angles in the sagittal plane were measured using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system while the seated subjects used a smartphone for 5?min. [Results] During smartphone use, the MNP group exhibited greater UC and LC flexion angles than the control group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP are more careful and more frequently utilize a neutral neck posture than young adults without MNP when using a smartphone while sitting. PMID:25642027

Kim, Man-Sig

2015-01-01

302

Is Polymethyl Methacrylate a Viable Option for Salvaging Lateral Mass Screw Failure in the Subaxial Cervical Spine?  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Biomechanical analysis of lateral mass screw pullout strength. Objective?We compare the pullout strength of our bone cement–revised lateral mass screw with the standard lateral mass screw. Methods?In cadaveric cervical spines, we simulated lateral mass screw “cutouts” unilaterally from C3 to C7. We salvaged fixation in the cutout side with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Cortoss cement (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States), allowed the cement to harden, and then drilled and placed lateral mass screws back into the cement-augmented lateral masses. On the contralateral side, we placed standard lateral mass screws into the native, or normal lateral, masses and then compared pullout strength of the cement-augmented side to the standard lateral mass screw. For pullout testing, each augmentation group was fixed to a servohydraulic load frame and a specially designed pullout fixture was attached to each lateral mass screw head. Results?Quick-mix PMMA-salvaged lateral mass screws required greater force to fail when compared with native lateral mass screws. Cortoss cement and PMMA standard-mix cement-augmented screws demonstrated less strength of fixation when compared with control-side lateral mass screws. Attempts at a second round of cement salvage of the same lateral masses led to more variations in load to failure, but quick-mix PMMA again demonstrated greater load to failure when compared with the nonaugmented control lateral mass screws. Conclusion?Quick-mix PMMA cement revision equips the spinal surgeon with a much needed salvage option for a failed lateral mass screw in the subaxial cervical spine. PMID:25649421

Gallizzi, Michael A.; Kuhns, Craig A.; Jenkins, Tyler J.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

2014-01-01

303

Impairment in the cervical flexors: a comparison of whiplash and insidious onset neck pain patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been little investigation into whether or not differences exist in the nature of physical impairment associated with neck pain of whiplash and insidious origin. This study examined the neck flexor synergy during performance of the cranio-cervical flexion test, a test targeting the action of the deep neck flexors.Seventy-five volunteer subjects participated in this study and were equally divided

G Jull; E Kristjansson; P Dall’Alba

2004-01-01

304

Chronic compression of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine is associated with abnormal discharge of middle cervical ganglion  

PubMed Central

There are abundant sympathetic nerve fibers in cervical posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PLL in the occurrence of sympathetic symptoms. Ten healthy adult beagles were selected and anesthetized to establish a PLL compression model by C4/5 discectomy, nucleus pulposus tissue replantation, and plate internal fixation. The middle cervical ganglia (MCG) activities were recorded before modeling, shortly after modeling, and two months after modeling. The waveform parameters and spectral densities of autonomic discharge of MCG among the three periods were compared. There was significant difference only in terms of the area of waveform per unit time between before and shortly after modeling. Abnormal discharge waveforms of MCG were detected in two months after modeling. The wave amplitude and waveform area per unit time in two months after modeling were increased significantly compared with those in shortly after modeling. Functional spectral decomposition found a significant increase in 100-250 Hz in two months after modeling. In conclusion, abnormal discharge of MCG caused by chronic compression of PLL may be one of the pathological basis of sympathetic nervous symptoms. PMID:25550947

Gu, Qingguo; Jiang, Dongjie; Wang, Xinwei; Chen, Deyu; Yuan, Wen

2014-01-01

305

Effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening in a neck pain: a patient with klippel-feil syndrome.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2-3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6-7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-12-01

306

Effects of Cervical Deep Muscle Strengthening in a Neck Pain: A Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2–3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6–7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-01-01

307

Complete upper airway obstruction during awake fibreoptic intubation in patients with unstable cervical spine fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe the presentation and management of complete upper airway obstruction with life threatening arterial oxygen desaturation\\u000a that occurred during attempted awake fibreoptic intubation in two patients presenting with unstable C-spine injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical Feature  Complete upper airway obstruction occurred during awake fibreoptic intubation of two men (ASA II; 68 & 55 yr old) presenting\\u000a with unstable C-spine fractures. In both cases,

Glenn McGuire; Hossam El-Beheiry

1999-01-01

308

Managing cervical lymphadenitis--a total pain in the neck!  

PubMed

Patients presenting with cervical lymphadenitis are a complex and common occurrence in a general pediatric practice. Although Staphylococcus aureus (often methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) and Streptococcus pyogenes predominate as causative pathogens, the next most common pathogens, Bartonella, atypical mycobacterium, and mononucleosis, also must be considered early on. The best way to diagnose and manage these cases initially is to proceed methodically, with detailed history and physical examination, initial streptococcal mono rapid tests, serial office visits, and complete blood counts. In nonviral cases, an empiric oral antibiotic trial is usually prescribed as early as possible to cover for MRSA or Bartonella. Very tender or reddened lymph nodes larger than 5 cm that are unresponsive and worsening may likely require inpatient parenteral antibiotics and sometimes surgical removal. The practitioner must also realize that submandibular and supraclavicular node locations are highly suggestive of atypical mycombacterium and cancer, respectively. PMID:25290125

Block, Stan L

2014-10-01

309

Finite element model of the human lower cervical spine: parametric analysis of the C4-C6 unit.  

PubMed

In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model of the human lower cervical spine (C4-C6) was constructed. The mathematical model was based on close-up CT scans from a young human cadaver. Cortical shell, cancellous core, endplates, and posterior elements including the lateral masses, pedicle, lamina, and transverse and spinous processes, and the intervertebral disks, were simulated. Using the material properties from literature, the 10,371-element model was exercised under an axial compressive mode of loading. The finite element model response agreed with literature. As a logical step, a parametric study was conducted by evaluating the biomechanical response secondary to changes in the elastic moduli of the intervertebral disk and the endplates. In the stress analysis, the minimum principal compressive stress was used for the cancellous core of the vertebral body and von Mises stress was used for the endplate component. The model output indicated that an increase in the elastic modulii of the disk resulted in an increase in the endplate stresses at all the three spinal levels. In addition, the inferior endplate of the middle vertebral body responded with the highest mean compressive stress followed by its superior counterpart. Furthermore, the middle vertebral body produced the highest compressive stresses compared to its counterparts. These findings appear to correlate with experimental results as well as common clinical experience wherein cervical fractures are induced due to external compressive forces. As a first step, this model will lead to more advanced simulations as additional data become available. PMID:9083854

Yoganandan, N; Kumaresan, S; Voo, L; Pintar, F A

1997-02-01

310

Cervical spine disc prosthesis: radiographic, biomechanical and morphological post mortal findings 12 weeks after implantation. A retrieval example  

PubMed Central

There is a gap between in vitro and clinical studies concerning performance of spinal disc prosthesis. Retrieval studies may help to bridge this gap by providing more detailed information about motion characteristics, wear properties and osseous integration. Here, we report on the radiographic, mechanical, histological properties of a cervical spine segment treated with a cervical spine disc prosthesis (Prodisc C, Synthes Spine, Paoli, USA) for 3 months. A 48-year-old male received the device due to symptomatic degenerative disc disease within C5–C6. The patient recovered completely from his symptoms. Twelve weeks later, he died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During routine autopsy, C3–T1 was removed with all attached muscles and ligaments and subjected to plain X-rays and computed tomography, three dimensional flexibility tests, shear test as well as histological and electronic microscopic investigations. We detected radiolucencies mainly at the cranial interface between bone and implant. The flexibility of the segment under pure bending moments of ±2.5 Nm applied in flexion/extension, axial rotation and lateral bending was preserved, with, however, reduced lateral bending and enlarged neutral zone compared to the adjacent segments C4–C5, and C6–C7. Stepwise increase of loading in flexion/extension up to ±9.5 Nm did not result in segmental destruction. A postero-anterior force of 146 N was necessary to detach the lower half of the prosthesis from the vertebra. At the polyethylene (PE) core, signs of wear were observed compared to an unused core using electronic microscopy. Metal and PE debris without signs of severe inflammatory reaction was found within the surrounding soft tissue shell of the segment. A thin layer of soft connective tissue covered the major part of the implant endplate. Despite the limits of such a case report, the results show: that such implants are able to preserve at least a certain degree of segmental flexibility, that direct bone implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks. PMID:17242873

Kettler, Annette; Drumm, Joerg; Nabhan, Abdullah; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans Joachim

2007-01-01

311

Cervical spine disc prosthesis: radiographic, biomechanical and morphological post mortal findings 12 weeks after implantation. A retrieval example.  

PubMed

There is a gap between in vitro and clinical studies concerning performance of spinal disc prosthesis. Retrieval studies may help to bridge this gap by providing more detailed information about motion characteristics, wear properties and osseous integration. Here, we report on the radiographic, mechanical, histological properties of a cervical spine segment treated with a cervical spine disc prosthesis (Prodisc C, Synthes Spine, Paoli, USA) for 3 months. A 48-year-old male received the device due to symptomatic degenerative disc disease within C5-C6. The patient recovered completely from his symptoms. Twelve weeks later, he died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During routine autopsy, C3-T1 was removed with all attached muscles and ligaments and subjected to plain X-rays and computed tomography, three dimensional flexibility tests, shear test as well as histological and electronic microscopic investigations. We detected radiolucencies mainly at the cranial interface between bone and implant. The flexibility of the segment under pure bending moments of +/-2.5 Nm applied in flexion/extension, axial rotation and lateral bending was preserved, with, however, reduced lateral bending and enlarged neutral zone compared to the adjacent segments C4-C5, and C6-C7. Stepwise increase of loading in flexion/extension up to +/-9.5 Nm did not result in segmental destruction. A postero-anterior force of 146 N was necessary to detach the lower half of the prosthesis from the vertebra. At the polyethylene (PE) core, signs of wear were observed compared to an unused core using electronic microscopy. Metal and PE debris without signs of severe inflammatory reaction was found within the surrounding soft tissue shell of the segment. A thin layer of soft connective tissue covered the major part of the implant endplate. Despite the limits of such a case report, the results show: that such implants are able to preserve at least a certain degree of segmental flexibility, that direct bone implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks. PMID:17242873

Pitzen, Tobias; Kettler, Annette; Drumm, Joerg; Nabhan, Abdullah; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans Joachim

2007-07-01

312

Pathological studies and pathological principles on the management of extension injuries of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension injury to the arthritic spine of elderly individuals involves rupture of the anterior longitudinal ligaments and disks at several levels, but no bony injury can be observed on X-ray. There are many small focal haemorrhages in the central portion of the spinal cord and the injury is often accompanied by incomplete paresis. As the injury is a stable injury

H Kinoshita; H Hirakawa

1989-01-01

313

A comparison of conventional tube and EndoFlex tube for tracheal intubation in patients with a cervical spine immobilisation  

PubMed Central

Background The EndoFlex is a new type of tracheal tube with an adjustable distal tip that can be bent without the use of a stylet. The aim of this study was to compare a standard endotracheal tube with the EndoFlex tracheal tube for intubation in patients with simulated cervical spine injury. Methods A group of 60 patients without any kind of the cervical spine injury, classified as the ASA physiological scale I or II and qualified for elective surgery procedures were intubated with the use of classical Macintosh laryngoscope, and either a standard endotracheal tube with the intubation stylet in it or EndoFlex tube without stylet. The subjects were randomized into two subgroups. All patients have had the cervical collar placed on their neck for the simulation of intubation procedure in case of the spinal injury. Results The intubation procedure was performed by 16 anesthetists with different experience (5-19 yrs). Time of intubation with the use of EndoFlex tube was similar to that with a the use of standard endotracheal tube and intubation stylet: Me (median) 19.5 s [IQR (interquatile range) 18-50] vs. Me 20 s [IQR 17-60] respectively (p?=?0.9705). No significant additional maneuvers were necessary during intubation with the use of EndoFlex tube in comparison with standard endotracheal tube (70% vs. 56.6%) (p?=?0.4220). Subjective assessment of the usability of both tubes revealed that more anesthesiologists found intubations with the use of EndoFlex more demanding than intubation with conventional tracheal tube and intubation stylet. The assessment of usability: very easy 3.3% vs. 20%, easy 83.4% vs. 56.7%, difficult 10% vs. 20% and very difficult 3.3% vs. 3.3% for standard endotracheal tube with stylet and EndoFlex, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion we asses, that the EndoFlex tube does not improve intubation success rate, in fact it requires more maneuvers facilitating intubation and was found to be more difficult to use. PMID:24267640

2013-01-01

314

Nomal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine: An Initial Goniometric Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

I1 to 97 years. Measurements were taken by jive physical therapists with 7 to 30 years of clinical and teaching exppenence. Among male and female subjects of the same age, females had a greater AROM than did males for all AROMs except neck flexion. Among both males and females, each of the six cervical AROMs de- creased signijicantly with age.

James W Youdas; Tom R Garrett; Vera J Suman; Connle L Bogard; James R Carey

1992-01-01

315

A case of symptomatic cervical perineural (Tarlov) cyst: clinical manifestation and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are most often found in the sacral region and are rare in the cervical spine. Although they are\\u000a usually asymptomatic, a small number of those at the lumbosacral level have been known to produce localized or radicular pain.\\u000a Few reports are available on symptomatic perineural cysts in the cervical spine and it has not been discussed how

Keewon Kim; Se Woong Chun; Sun G. Chung

316

Reliability of joint mobility and pain assessment of the thoracic spine and rib cage in asymptomatic individuals.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of correctly diagnosing a spinal dysfunction, limited research exists related to physical therapists' ability to reliably identify a joint exhibiting signs of dysfunction. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a thoracic spine and rib cage joint mobility and pain assessment between two experienced manipulative physical therapists. Nine healthy subjects (3 male, 6 female; ages 23-35) without history of mid- or low back pain participated. Posterior-to-anterior pressures were applied to the thoracic spine and rib articulations with anterior-to-posterior pressures applied to the costosternal joints of each subject by two examiners to evaluate joint mobility and pain provocation. Both examiners assessed all subjects twice and were blinded to subject identity. Kappa statistics were calculated using a strict and expanded definition of agreement to determine the between- and within-examiner reliability for each outcome. Intra-examiner reliability of joint mobility assessment ranged from slight to fair based on the strict agreement but improved to good when findings were compared across +/- 1 spinal/rib level. Pain provocation reliability increased to very good under the expanded agreement; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to limited pain prevalence in the subject sample. Selected clinical prediction rules, applied to the care of individuals with back pain, characterize the patient's regional mobility simply as hypomobile, normal, or hypermobile; consequently, we feel the results of an expanded definition of agreement may be more appropriate for clinic practice. Further research is needed to determine the reliability in individuals with thoracic spine and rib cage symptoms. PMID:19771193

Heiderscheit, Bryan; Boissonnault, William

2008-01-01

317

The Effect of Power Nordic Walking on Spine Deformation and Visual Analog Pain Scale in Elderly Women with Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether Nordic walking exercise can relieve low back pain and change the spine shape in elderly women. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly women with chronic low back pain from N University in Chungcheong-do, South Korea, were enrolled. [Methods] The participants were asked to walk in an upright posture, with the head upright and looking forward. The Nordic poles were held close to the body. When a foot was moved forward, the arm on the other side lifted the Nordic pole and moved it forward. The participants were using the Nordic pole when walked on the track with their arms lifted above their shoulders. The type of shoes worn during walking was not considered. [Results] One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the presence of significant differences between the measures of spine deformation and VAS. [Conclusion] Chronic low back pain, a complaint often received from elderly women, was reduced by pole-induced power walking reduction on the balance of the spine and back of this important exercise program is presented as a guideline. PMID:25435707

Park, Hoo-Sung; Lee, Sung-No; Sung, Dong-Hun; Choi, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Tae Dong; Park, Gi Duck

2014-01-01

318

Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine fracture and dislocation: a case report.  

PubMed

Hydrocephalus is a well-known complication of head injury, but an uncommon complication of a spinal lesion. Here, we present a rare case of acute obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to a cervical fracture and dislocation. A 60-year-old female patient was transferred to the emergency department with quadriplegia and respiratory difficulty. Imaging studies showed a cervical fracture and dislocation at the C3-4 level. She required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-four hours after admission, her mental status had deteriorated and both pupils were dilated. Computed tomography of the brain showed acute hydrocephalus; therefore, extraventricular drainage (EVD) was performed. After the EVD, her mental status recovered and she became alert, but she remained quadriplegic and dependent on the ventilator. Two months after injury, she died because of respiratory failure caused by pneumonia. PMID:25110487

Chung, Yoon Young; Ju, Chang Il; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Dong Min

2014-06-01

319

Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

320

Head Position and Impact Direction in Whiplash Injuries: Associations with MRI-Verified Lesions of Ligaments and Membranes in the Upper Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of soft tissue struc- tures in the upper cervical spine between whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) patients and popu- lation-based control persons, and examined whether MRI-verified abnormalities in WAD patients were related to accident-related factors hypothesized to be of importance for severity of injury. A total of 92 whiplash patients and

Bertel Rune Kaale; Jostein Krakenes; Grethe Albrektsen; Knut Wester

2005-01-01

321

Is pressure pain sensitivity over the cervical musculature associated with neck disability in individuals with migraine?  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if disability due to neck pain is correlated with pressure pain sensitivity in the cervical muscles in patients with migraine. Thirty-two volunteers with migraine completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and linear regression models (? < 0.05). Moderate negative correlations between NDI and PPT were obtained for the sternocleidomastoid (rs = -0.42; p = 0.001), upper trapezius (rs = -0.33; p = 0.001) and suboccipital muscles (rs = -0.41; p = 0.001). The linear regression revealed no association between NDI and PPT of sternocleidomastoid (? = 0.01; R(2) = 0.17), upper trapezius (? = 0.01; R(2) = 0.11) and suboccipital muscles (? = 0.02; R(2) = 0.17). NDI scores and PPT of the cervical muscles correlated moderately and was inversely proportional in patients with migraine, but the association was not linear, so both outcomes should be considered in the assessment of this population. PMID:25603745

Gonçalves, Maria Claudia; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Dach, Fabíola; Fernández-De-Las-Penãs, Cesar; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

2015-01-01

322

Lower cervical spine loading in frontal sled tests using inverse dynamics: potential applications for lower neck injury criteria.  

PubMed

Lower cervical spine injuries are more common in survivors of motor vehicle crashes sustaining neck trauma. Injury criteria are determined using upper neck loads in dummies although a lower neck load cell exists. Due to a paucity of lower neck data from post mortem human subject (PMHS) studies, this research was designed to determine the head-neck biomechanics with a focus on lower neck metrics and injuries. Sixteen frontal impact tests were conducted using five belted PMHS. Instrumentation consisted of a pyramid shaped nine accelerometer package on the head, tri-axial accelerometer on T1, and uniaxial accelerometer on the sled. Three-dimensional kinematics of the head-neck complex were obtained using a 20- camera high-speed motion analysis system. Testing sequence was: low (3.6 m/s), medium (6.9 m/s), repeat low, and high (15.8 m/s) velocities. Trauma evaluations were made between tests. Testing was terminated upon confirmation of injuries. Autopsy was conducted, and geometric and inertial properties of the head were determined. Using inverse dynamics, upper and lower neck loads were determined, along with head and T1 kinematics. Lower cervical injuries occurred in four specimens during the loading phase and were attributed to the flexion mechanism. Peak upper and lower neck loading magnitudes and head-neck and T1 kinematics are given for each test. Sagittal plane head center of gravity and T1 kinematic data along with upper and lower neck forces and moments, hitherto not reported in literature, may be used to determine the biofidelity responses of frontal impact dummies and establish lower neck injury criteria. PMID:21512907

Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Maiman, Dennis J

2010-11-01

323

The use of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage in subaxial cervical spine trauma: a preliminary report.  

PubMed

Background?Anterior spinal surgery has a predominant role in the treatment of traumatic lesions of the subaxial cervical spine. Plating is considered indispensable to achieve stability but may cause dysphagia, dysphonia, and adjacent-level ossification. Zero-P (Synthes GmbH, Oberdorf, Switzerland), an anchored interdisc spacer, can be used without an associated plate. The present study aimed to test if this new implant would be associated with a low rate of dysphagia and other short-term complications compared with the standard for anterior spinal fusion surgery and would be able to achieve a solid fusion and maintain correct metamere alignment. Material and Methods?This is a preliminary presentation of a clinical case series of patients with subaxial cervical injuries who underwent anterior interbody fusion. From July 2009 until September 2011, 12 patients were treated with a Zero-P cage. The data for analysis included operating time compared with the standard for spinal fusion surgery with a cage plus plate construct, intraoperative blood loss, clinical and radiographic results, and complications. Results?In the postoperative period no patient had neurologic worsening. One patient experienced transient dysphonia and moderate dysphagia. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of 6 months (mean: 13 months; range: 6-27 months). Stability and fusion were obtained in all patients together with correct metamere alignment. Conclusion?We presented the preliminary results of a clinical case series. Our results support the initiation of prospective randomized trials with more patients and longer follow-up. PMID:24682927

Brembilla, Carlo; Lanterna, Luigi Andrea; Gritti, Paolo; Signorelli, Antonio; Biroli, Francesco

2015-01-01

324

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. (continued on next page) Cervical Cancer Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Copyright © 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal cervical ...

325

Three-dimensional assessment of the intervertebral kinematics after Mobi-C total disc replacement at the cervical spine in vivo using the EOS stereoradiography system  

PubMed Central

Background Because 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the spinal architecture is done with the patient in the supine position, stereoradiography may be more clinically relevant for the measurement of the relative displacements of the cervical vertebrae in vivo in the upright position. The innovative EOS stereoradiography system was used for measuring the relative angular displacements of the cervical vertebrae in a limited population to determine its feasibility. The precision and accuracy of the method were investigated. Methods In 9 patients with 16 Mobi-C prostheses (LDR Medical, Troyes, France) and 12 healthy subjects, EOS stereoradiography of the lower cervical spine (C3-7) was performed in the neutral upright position of the neck, flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending, and left and right axial rotation. The angular displacements were measured from the neutral position to every other posture. The random error was studied in terms of reproducibility. In addition, an in vitro protocol was performed in 6 specimens to investigate accuracy. Results The reproducibility and the accuracy variables varied similarly between 1.2° and 3.2° depending on the axis and direction of rotation under consideration. The Mobi-C group showed less mobility than the control group, whereas the pattern of coupling was similar. Conclusions Overall, the feasibility of dynamic EOS stereoradiography was shown. The prosthesis replicates the pattern of motion of the normal cervical spine.

Rousseau, Marc-Antoine; Laporte, Sébastien; Dufour, Thierry; Steib, Jean-Paul; Lazennec, Jean-Yves; Skalli, Wafa

2011-01-01

326

Effectiveness of Postoperative Wound Drains in One- and Two-Level Cervical Spine Fusions  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical drains have historically been used to avoid postoperative wound and respiratory complications such as excessive edema, hematoma, infection, re-intubation, delayed extubation, or respiratory distress. Recently, some surgeons have ceased using drains because they may prolong hospital stay, operative time, or patient discomfort. The objective of this retrospective case-control series is to investigate the effectiveness of postoperative drains following one- and two-level cervical fusions. Methods A chart review was conducted at a single institution from 2010-2013. Outcome measures included operative time, hospital stay, estimated blood loss and incidence of wound complications (infection, hematoma, edema, and complications with wound healing or evacuation), respiratory complications (delayed extubation, re-intubation, and respiratory treatment), and overall complications (wound complications, respiratory complications, dysphagia, and other complications). Statistical analyses including independent samples t-test, chi-square, analysis of covariance, and linear regression were used to compare patients who received a postoperative drain to those who did not. Results The study population included 39 patients who received a postoperative drain and 42 patients who did not. There were no differences in demographics between the two groups. Patients with drains showed increased operative time (100.1 vs 69.3 min, p < 0.001), hospital stay (38.9 vs. 31.7 hrs, p = 0.021), and blood loss (62.7 vs 29.1 mL, p < 0.001) compared to patients without drains. The frequency of wound complications, respiratory complications, and overall complications did not vary significantly between groups. Conclusions/Level of Evidence Cervical drains may not be necessary for patients undergoing one- and two-level cervical fusion. While there were no differences in incidence of complications between groups, patients treated with drains had significantly longer operative time and length of hospital stay. Clinical relevance This could contribute to excessive costs for patients treated with drains, despite the lack of compelling evidence of the advantages of this treatment in the literature and in the current study. PMID:25694927

Poorman, Caroline E.; Bianco, Kristina M.; Boniello, Anthony; Yang, Sun; Gerling, Michael C.

2014-01-01

327

Corrective surgery for deformity of the upper cervical spine due to ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Rotational and flexion deformity of C1-C2 due to ankylosing spondylitis is rare. We did surgical correction in one such case by lateral release, resection of the posterior arch of C1 and mobilization of the vertebral arteries, wedge osteotomy of the lateral masses of C1 and internal fixation under general anesthesia. There were no vascular and neurological complications during the surgery. After operation the atlantoaxial rotational deformity was corrected and the normal cervical lordosis was restored. At 1 year followup his visual field and feeding became normal and internal fixation was stable. PMID:24741145

Lin, Bin; Zhang, Bi; Li, Zhu-mei; Li, Qiu-sheng

2014-01-01

328

Cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing a C2-T9 spinal epidural hematoma- Treatment resulted in a rapid and complete recovery from tetraplegia: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Full recovery from tetraplegia is uncommon in cervical spine injury. This has not being reported for cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis causing spinal epidural hematoma. We report on a case of cervical spine fracture in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis who came with tetraplegia. He underwent a two stage fixation and fusion. He had a complete recovery. Two hours after the operation he regained full strength in all the limbs while in the Intensive Care Unit. He went back to full employment. There are only two other reports in the literature where patients with ankylosing spondylitis and extradural hematoma who underwent treatment within 12 h and recovered completely from tetraparesis and paraplegia respectively. Patient with ankylosing spondylitis has a higher incidence of spinal fracture and extradural hematoma. Good outcome can be achieved by early diagnosis and treatment. This can ensure not only a stable spine, but also a rapid and complete recovery in a tetraplegic patient.

Wong, Albert Sii Hieng; Yu, Denis Hee youg

2015-01-01

329

Solitary Cervical Neurenteric Cyst in an Adolescent Patient  

PubMed Central

Spinal neurenteric cysts are uncommon congenital lesions, furthermore solitary neurenteric cysts of the upper cervical spine are very rare. A 15-year-old boy having an intraspinal neurenteric cyst located at cervical spine presented with symptoms of neck pain and both shoulders pain for 2 months. Cervical spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an intradural extramedullary cystic mass at the C1-3 level without enhancement after gadolinium injection. There was no associated malformation on the MR imaging, computed tomography, and radiography. Hemilaminectomy at the C1-3 levels was performed and the lesion was completely removed through a posterior approach. Histological examination showed the cystic wall lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing mucinous contents. Neurenteric cyst should be considered in the diagnosis of spinal solitary cystic mass. PMID:25733997

Choi, Doo Yong; Lee, Ho Jin; Shin, Myung Hoon

2015-01-01

330

Pain intensity and cervical range of motion in women with myofascial pain treated with acupuncture and electroacupuncture: a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Acupuncture stimulates points on the body, influencing the perception of myofascial pain or altering physiologic functions. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of electroacupuncture (EAC) and acupuncture (AC) for myofascial pain of the upper trapezius and cervical range of motion, using SHAM acupuncture as control. METHOD: Sixty women presenting at least one trigger point at the upper trapezius and local or referred pain for more than six months were randomized into EAC, AC, and SHAM groups. Eight sessions were scheduled and a follow-up was conducted after 28 days. The Visual Analog Scale assessed the intensity of local and general pain. A fleximeter assessed cervical movements. Data were analyzed using paired t or Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA or Friedman or Kruskal-Wallis tests and Pearson's correlation (?=0.05). RESULTS: There was reduction in general pain in the EAC and AC groups after eight sessions (P<0.001). A significant decrease in pain intensity occurred for the right trapezius in all groups and for the left trapezius in the EAC and AC groups. Intergroup comparisons showed improvement in general pain in the EAC and AC groups and in local pain intensity in the EAC group (P<0.05), which showed an increase in left rotation (P=0.049). The AC group showed increases in inclination (P=0.005) sustained until follow-up and rotation to the right (P=0.032). CONCLUSION : EAC and AC were effective in reducing the pain intensity compared with SHAM. EAC was better than AC for local pain relief. These treatments can assist in increasing cervical range of motion, albeit subtly. PMID:25714602

Aranha, Maria F. M.; Müller, Cristina E. E.; Gavião, Maria B. D.

2015-01-01

331

Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain  

PubMed Central

Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.2±5.7, 47.4±5.2, and 51.4±8.5º, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. PMID:25054381

Ruivo, Rodrigo M.; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I.

2014-01-01

332

Malignant degeneration of multilevel monostotic Paget's disease involving the thoracic spine: an unusual presentation.  

PubMed

Paget's disease is the second most common metabolic bone disease after osteoporosis and is characterized by abnormal bone turnover and remodeling that can lead to pain, pathological fracture, bony deformity and nerve compression syndromes. The lumbar region is the most commonly affected site within the spine followed by the thoracic and cervical spine. Even though the spine is affected very commonly in Paget's disease, malignant degeneration is exceptionally rare. Multilevel monostotic spine involvement due to Paget's disease is very uncommon. An unusual clinico-radiological manifestation of multilevel thoracic Paget's disease with sarcomatous degeneration presenting as a neurosurgical emergency is reported with a pertinent review of the literature. PMID:24411323

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Harbhajanka, Aparna; Miller, Ira J; Deutsch, Harel

2014-07-01

333

Chronic At- and Below-Level Pain after Moderate Unilateral Cervical Spinal Cord Contusion in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chronic neuropathic pain is a significant consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is associated with evoked pain, including allodynia and/or hyperalgesia. Allodynia is defined as a painful response to normally innocuous stimuli, and hyperalgesia occurs when there is an amplified pain response to normally noxious stimuli. We describe a model of a unilateral cervical level (C5) contusion injury where sensory recovery was assessed weekly for 6 weeks in 32 adult, female, Sprague-Dawley rats. Bilateral thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia are detectable in the fore- and hindpaws as early as 7 days post-injury (dpi) and persist for at least 42 days. Paw withdrawal latency in response to a noxious thermal stimulus significantly intra-animal pre-operative values. Change in paw withdrawal latency plateaued at 21?dpi. Interestingly, bilateral forepaw allodynia develops in fewer than 40% of rats as measured by von Frey monofilament testing. Similar results occur in the hindpaws, where bilateral allodynia occurs in 46% of rats with SCI. The contralesional forepaw and both hindpaws of rats showed a slight increase in paw withdrawal threshold to tactile stimuli acutely after SCI, corresponding to ipsilesional forelimb motor deficits that resolve over time. That there is no difference among allodynic and non-allodynic groups in overall spared tissue or specifically of the dorsal column or ventrolateral white matter where ascending sensory tracts reside suggests that SCI-induced pain does not depend solely on the size or extent of the lesion, but that other mechanisms are in play. These observations provide a valid model system for future testing of therapeutic interventions to prevent the onset or to reduce the debilitating effects of chronic neuropathic pain after SCI. PMID:23216008

Wade, Rodel E.; Houlé, John D.

2013-01-01

334

Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition. PMID:25780714

Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

2014-01-01

335

Interactive cervical motion kinematics: Sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.  

PubMed

Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. PMID:25456272

Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

2015-04-01

336

A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of intermittent cervical traction for patients with chronic neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of intermittent cervical traction in the treatment of chronic neck pain over a 12-week follow-up.Design: A randomized controlled trial.Setting: Hospital-based outpatient practice.Subjects: Seventy-nine patients with chronic neck pain.Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to either experimental group (n = 39, mean age = 50.5 ± 9.8) or control group (n = 40, mean age = 48.8

Thomas TW Chiu; Joseph Kim-Fai Ng; Barbro Walther-Zhang; Rex JH Lin; Luc Ortelli; Siew Kuan Chua

2011-01-01

337

Multiplanar CT of the spine  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

1985-01-01

338

Comparison of hybrid constructs with 2-level artificial disc replacement and 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for surgical reconstruction of the cervical spine: a kinematic study in whole cadavers.  

PubMed

Background Multi-level cervical degeneration of the spine is a common clinical pathology that is often repaired by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the cervical spine after hybrid surgery compared with 2-level ACDF. Material and Methods Five freshly frozen, unembalmed whole human cadavers were used including 3 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51±8 years. After evaluating the intact spine for range of motion (ROM), sagittal alignment and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR), each cadaver underwent 4 consecutive surgeries: 2-level artificial disc replacement (ADR) from C4 to C6 (ADR surgery); 2-level ACDF from C4 to C6 (ACDF surgery); hybrid C4-5 ACDF and C5-6 ADR (ACDF+ADR surgery); and hybrid C4-5 ADR and C5-6 ACDF (ADR+ACDF surgery). The ROM and ICR of adjacent intact segments (C3-4; C6-7), and whole sagittal alignment were revaluated. Results Two-level ACDF resulted in increased ROM at C3-4 and C6-7 compared with intact spine. ROM was significantly different to intact spine using ACDF surgery at C3-C4 and C6-C7 and ROM was increased with ACDF+ADR surgery at C6-C7 (all P<0.05). No improvement in sagittal alignment was observed with any approach. The localization of the ICR shifted upwards and anteriorly at C3-C4 after reconstruction. ICR changes at C3-C4 were greatest for ADR+ACDF surgery and were significantly different to ACDF surgery (P<0.05), but not between ADR surgery and ACDF+ADR surgery. At C6-C7, the ICR was more posterior and superior than in the intact condition. The greatest change in ICR was observed in ACDF surgery at the C6-C7 level, significantly different from the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions For 2-level reconstruction, hybrid surgery and ADR did not alter ROM and minimally changed ICR at the adjacent-level. The type of surgery had a significant impact on the ICR location. This suggests that hybrid surgery may be a viable option for 2-level cervical surgery. PMID:25853772

Liu, Baoge; Zeng, Zheng; Hoof, Tom Van; Kalala, Jean Pierre; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Bingxuan

2015-01-01

339

Analysis of post-operative pain patterns following total lumbar disc replacement: results from fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations  

PubMed Central

Although a variety of biomechanical laboratory investigations and radiological studies have highlighted the potential problems associated with total lumbar disc replacement (TDR), no previous study has performed a systematic clinical failure analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the post-operative pain sources, establish the incidence of post-operative pain patterns and investigate the effect on post-operative outcome with the help of fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations in patients from an ongoing prospective study with ProDisc II. Patients who reported unsatisfactory results at any of the FU-examinations received fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations as part of a semi-invasive diagnostic and conservative treatment program. Pain sources were identified in patients with reproducible (?2×) significant (50–75%) or highly significant (75–100%) pain relief. Results were correlated with outcome parameters visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the subjective patient satisfaction rate. From a total of 175 operated patients with a mean follow-up (FU) of 29.3 months (range 12.2–74.9 months), n = 342 infiltrations were performed in n = 58 patients (33.1%) overall. Facet joint pain, predominantly at the index level (86.4%), was identified in n = 22 patients (12.6%). The sacroiliac joint was a similarly frequent cause of post-operative pain (n = 21, 12.0%). Pain from both structures influenced all outcome parameters negatively (P < 0.05). Patients with an early onset of pain (?6 months) were 2–5× higher at risk of developing persisting complaints and unsatisfactory outcome at later FU-stages in comparison to the entire study cohort (P < 0.05). The level of TDR significantly influenced post-operative outcome. Best results were achieved for the TDRs above the lumbosacral junction at L4/5 (incidence of posterior joint pain 14.8%). Inferior outcome and a significantly higher incidence of posterior joint pain were observed for TDR at L5/S1 (21.6%) and bisegmental TDR at L4/5/S1 (33.3%), respectively. Lumbar facet and/or ISJ-pain are a frequent and currently underestimated source of post-operative pain and the most common reasons for unsatisfactory results following TDR. Further failure-analysis studies are required and adequate salvage treatment options need to be established with respect to the underlying pathology of post-operative pain. The question as to whether or not TDR will reduce the incidence of posterior joint pain, which has been previously attributed to lumbar fusion procedures, remains unanswered. Additional studies will have to investigate whether TDR compromises the index-segment in an attempt to avoid adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:17972116

Korge, Andreas; Grochulla, Frank; Mehren, Christoph

2007-01-01

340

Failure analysis of a beam-column under oblique-eccentric loading: potential failure surfaces for cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

For a cantilever beam-column with one end built-in and the free end subjected to an oblique-eccentric arbitrary concentrated force, general formulas to produce failure were derived. The original generalized uniform solution to the oblique-eccentric buckling problem was obtained. The Secant formula and Euler's formula were proved to be specific cases in this general solution. The load ratio, F/aE, was derived as functions of the force acting direction, alpha, the slenderness ratio, L/r, as well as the eccentricity ratio, ec/r2. Material and buckling failures aspects were combined in a uniform structural failure analysis. Safe regions for the load ratio, F/aE, were visualized in the three-dimensional (F/aE)-alpha-(L/r) space with the eccentricity ratios, ec/r2, as a parameter. The column failure factor, kL, was shown to be a key index controlling both aspects of failure as well as the orientation of the second stiffest region. The angle alpha E = tan-1 (2L/pi e) for kL = pi/2 is the singular point for both strength and buckling failure, and alpha II = tan-1 (2L/3e) for KL = 0 is the upper bound of the second stiffest region. The feasible domain of the second stiffest region is bounded by alpha E and alpha II both of which are only functions of geometrical properties. The implications of these analyses for the experimental validation of cervical spine trauma are discussed. PMID:1491574

Dai, Q G; Liu, Y K

1992-02-01

341

Interventional Pain Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic back pain is a widespread disease. (Manchikanti et al. 2004; Neuhauser et al. 2005; Schwarzer et al. 1995). Due to\\u000a the anatomy of the intervertebral joints and the increasing static load towards the lumbar spine, the lumbar facet syndrome\\u000a is definitely more frequently observed than the cervical or thoracic one (Masharawi et al. 2004; Yoganandan et al. 2003).\\u000a In

Jan Hoeltje; Roland Bruening; Bruno Kastler; Reto Bale; Gerlig Widmann; Bernd Turowski; Gero Wieners; Oliver Beuing

342

Tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A comparison of McGrath® video laryngoscope and Truview EVO2® laryngoscope  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Literature suggests that glottic view is better when using McGrath® Video laryngoscope and Truview® in comparison with McIntosh blade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of McGrath Video laryngoscope in comparison with Truview laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in patients with simulated cervical spine injury using manual in-line stabilisation. Methods: This prospective randomised study was undertaken in operation theatre of a tertiary referral centre after approval from the Institutional Review Board. A total of 100 consenting patients presenting for elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to undergo intubation using McGrath® Video laryngoscope (n = 50) or Truview® (n = 50) laryngoscope. In all patients, we applied manual-in-line stabilisation of the cervical spine throughout the airway management. Statistical testing was conducted with the statistical package for the social science system version SPSS 17.0. Demographic data, airway assessment and haemodynamics were compared using the Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The time to successful intubation was less with McGrath video laryngoscope when compared to Truview (30.02 s vs. 38.72 s). However, there was no significant difference between laryngoscopic views obtained in both groups. The number of second intubation attempts required and incidence of complications were negligible with both devices. Success rate of intubation with both devices was 100%. Intubation with McGrath Video laryngoscope caused lesser alterations in haemodynamics. Conclusions: Both laryngoscopes are reliable in case of simulated cervical spine injury using manual-in-line stabilisation with 100% success rate and good glottic view. PMID:25024468

Bhola, Ruchi; Bhalla, Swaran; Gupta, Radha; Singh, Ishwar; Kumar, Sunil

2014-01-01

343

SU-E-I-51: Use of Blade Sequences in Cervical Spine MR Imaging for Eliminating Motion, Truncation and Flow Artifacts  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the BLADE technique to eliminate motion, truncation, flow and other artifacts in Cervical Spine MRI compared to the conventional technique. To study the ability of the examined sequences to reduce the indetention and wrap artifacts, which have been reported in BLADE sagittal sequences. Methods: Forty consecutive subjects, who had been routinely scanned for cervical spine examination using four different image acquisition techniques, were analyzed. More specifically, the following pairs of sequences were compared: a) T2 TSE SAG vs. T2 TSE SAG BLADE and b) T2 TIRM SAG vs. T2 TIRM SAG BLADE. A quantitative analysis was performed using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and relative contrast (ReCon) measures. A qualitative analysis was also performed by two radiologists, who graded seven image characteristics on a 5-point scale (0:non-visualization; 1:poor; 2:average; 3:good; 4:excellent). The observers also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, truncation, flow, indentation). Results: Based on the findings of the quantitative analysis, the ReCON values of the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)/SC (spinal cord) between TIRM SAG and TIRM SAG BLADE were found to present statistical significant differences (p<0.001). Regarding motion and truncation artifacts, the T2 TSE SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TSE SAG and the T2 TIRM SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Regarding flow artifacts, T2 TIRM SAG BLADE eliminated more artifacts compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Conclusion: The use of BLADE sequences in cervical spine MR examinations appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and trancation artifacts. Furthermore, BLADE sequences are proposed to be used in the standard examination protocols based on the fact that a significantly improved image quality could be achieved.

Mavroidis, P [University of Texas Health Science Center, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX (United States); Lavdas, E; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Strikou, A; Glotsos, D; Vlachopoulou, A; Oikonomou, G [Technological Education Institute of Athens, Athens, Athens (Greece); Economopoulos, N [General University Hospital ATTIKON, Athens, Athens (Greece); Roka, V [Health Center of Farkadona, Trikala (Greece); Sakkas, G [Center for Research and Technology of Thessaly, Trikala (Greece); Tsagkalis, A; Batsikas, G [IASO Thessalias Hospital, Larissa (Greece); Statkahis, S [Cancer Therapy and Research Center, San Antonio, TX (United States); Papanikolaou, N [University of Texas HSC SA, San Antonio, TX (United States)

2014-06-01

344

Immediate effects of lower cervical spine manipulation on handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy of asymptomatic basketball players: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to collect preliminary information for a study to determine the immediate effects of a single unilateral chiropractic manipulation to the lower cervical spine on handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy in asymptomatic male recreational basketball players. Methods For this study, 24 asymptomatic male recreational right-handed basketball players (age = 26.3 ± 9.2 years, height = 1.81 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 82.6 ± 10.4 kg [mean ± SD]) underwent baseline dominant handgrip isometric strength and free-throw accuracy testing in an indoor basketball court. They were then equally randomized to receive either (1) diversified left lower cervical spine chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) at C5/C6 or (2) placebo CMT at C5/C6 using an Activator adjusting instrument on zero force setting. Participants then underwent posttesting of isometric handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy. A paired-samples t test was used to make within-group pre to post comparisons and between-group pre to post comparisons. Results No statistically significant difference was shown between either of the 2 basketball performance variables measured in either group. Isometric handgrip strength marginally improved by 0.7 kg (mean) in the CMT group (P = .710). Free-throw accuracy increased by 13.2% in the CMT group (P = .058). The placebo CMT group performed the same or more poorly during their second test session. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study showed that a single lower cervical spine manipulation did not significantly impact basketball performance for this group of healthy asymptomatic participants. A slight increase in free-throw percentage was seen, which deserves further investigation. This pilot study demonstrates that a larger study to evaluate if CMT affects handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy is feasible. PMID:24396315

Humphries, Kelley M.; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Nobert, Jeannique; Amonette, William; Dyess, Stephen

2013-01-01

345

Comparison of Four Airway Devices on Cervical Spine Alignment in Cadaver Models of Global Ligamentous Instability at C1-2  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of advanced airway management on cervical spine alignment in patients with upper cervical spine instability are uncertain. Methods To examine the potential for mechanical disruption during endotracheal intubation in cadavers with unstable cervical spines, we performed a prospective observational cohort study with three cadaver subjects. We created an unstable, type II odontoid fracture with global ligamentous instability at C1-2 in lightly embalmed cadavers, followed by repetitive intubations with four different airway devices (Airtraq laryngoscope, Lightwand, intubating LMA, and Macintosh laryngoscope) while manual in-line stabilization was applied. Motion analysis data were collected using an electromagnetic device to assess the degree of angular movement in three axes (flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending) during the intubation trials with each device. Intubation was performed by either an emergency medical technician or attending anesthesiologist. Results Overall, 153 intubations were recorded with the four devices. The Lightwand technique resulted in significantly less flexion extension and axial rotation at C1-2 than with the intubating LMA (mean difference in flexion-extension 3.2 degrees [95% CI 0.9 to 5.5], p=0.003; mean difference in axial rotation 1.6 degrees [95% CI 0.3 to 2.8], p=0.01 and Macintosh laryngoscope (mean difference in flexion extension 3.1 degrees [95% CI 0.8 to5.4], p=0.005; mean difference in axial rotation 1.4 degrees [95% CI 0.1 to 2.6], p=0.03. Conclusions In cadavers with instability at C1-2, the Lightwand technique produced less motion than the Macintosh and intubating LMA. PMID:23354337

Wendling, Adam L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R.

2014-01-01

346

Desarrollo de una nueva metodología para la valoración de la movilidad cervical basada en técnicas de fotogrametría  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe non-existence of objective, reliable and precise methods of functional valuation of the cervical spine mobility makes difficult the election of a suitable rehabilitation treatment and subsequent control of its evolution in affected patients of cervical pain. All this has raised the need of developing a new methodology of cervical mobility valuation based on video-photogrammetry techniques and to define the

J. M. Baydal-Bertomeu; M. P. Serra-Añó; D. Garrido-Jaén; J. López-Pascual; F. Matey; C. Gimeno; C. Soler; R. Dejoz

2007-01-01

347

'Iatrogenic' brain stem infarction. A complication of x-ray examination of the cervical spine and following posterior tamponation of the nose.  

PubMed

Two patients sustained an ischemic brain stem infarction during medical examination and treatment. The first patient lost consciousness and the spontaneous respiration ceased during X-ray examination of the cervical spine when the neck was hyperextended. After some minutes he regained conciousness but was found to be tetraplegic, and the patient deceased 4 months later. The angiogram revealed thrombosis of the basilar artery. The other patient had profuse nosebleed and was treated with posterior tamponation during which she sat for about 10 min with the neck hyperextended. Some hours after this procedure symptoms and signs of lateral caudal brain stem infarction emerged. PMID:1126348

Fogelholm, R; Karli, P

1975-01-01

348

Cine phase-contrast MRI measurement of CSF flow in the cervical spine: a pilot study in patients with spinal cord injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI velocimetry (also known as phase-contrast MRI) is a powerful tool for quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in various regions of the brain and craniospinal junction and has been accepted as a diagnostic tool to assist with the diagnosis of certain conditions such as hydrocephalus and chiari malformations. Cerebrospinal fluid is continually produced in the ventricles of the brain, flows through the ventricular system and then out and around the brain and spinal cord and is reabsorbed over the convexity of the brain. Any disease process which either impedes the normal pattern of flow or restricts the area where flow occurs can change the pattern of these waveforms with the direction and velocity of flow being determined by the pressure transmitted from the pulsation of the heart and circulation of blood within the central nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that phase-contrast MRI could eventually be used as a diagnostic aid in determining the degree of spinal cord compression following injury to the cervical or thoracic spine. In this study, we examined CSF flow in 3 normal subjects and 2 subjects with non-acute injuries in the cervical spine using Cine phasecontrast MRI. CSF flow analysis was performed using an in-house developed software. The flow waveform was calculated in both normal subjects (n=3) as well as subjects with spinal cord injury in the cervical spine (n=2). The bulk flow at C2 was measured to be 0.30 +/- 0.05 cc, at 5 cm distal to C2, it was 0.19+/- 0.07 cc, and at 10 cm distal to C2, it was 0.17+/- 0.05 cc. These results were in good agreement with previously published results. In patients with spinal cord injury, at the site of injury in the cervical spine, bulk flow was found to be 0.08 +/- 0.12 cc, at 5 cm proximal to the site of injury it was found to be 0.18 +/- 0.07 cc, and at 5 cm distal to the site of injury, it was found to be 0.12 +/- 0.01 cc.

Negahdar, MJ; Shakeri, M.; McDowell, E.; Wells, J.; Vitaz, T.; Harkema, S.; Amini, A.

2011-03-01

349

Effect of laser acupuncture versus traditional acupuncture in neck pain of cervical spondylosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This prospective cohort study aimed to compare the efficiency of laser versus traditional acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis (CS) pain. Forty female patients were randomized into two equal groups that received 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks. Group A received needle acupuncture therapy with electrical stimulation for 20 min at standard acupoints, ear points and Ashi point on the average 3 points. Group B received low level laser therapy (LLLT) acupuncture at the same acupoints. The results demonstrated that tenderness disappeared in 65% of patients in group A and 75% of patients in group B with improved percentage of 85.5% and 89.2%. Pain on VAS related to direction of motion at 6 directions was improved in all cases where with improvement percentage 76.45% and 85.88%. Pain on VAS at rest was improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 80.41% and 84.28%. NDIQ score improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 69.78% and 73.77%. Follow up of VAS after 6 months from the last session revealed persistent improvement in 55% of patients of group A vs 80% of patients of group B. Mean serum TNF-? was decreased in 85% of patients of group A vs 95% of patients of group B where serum beta endorphins was increased in all patients. It is concluded that both modes of treatment for CS gave improvement regarding pain intensity, disability and quality of life being more evident in LLLT followed for 6 months supported with improved serum TNF? and beta endorphin.

El-Kharbotly, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Alyaa A.; Mohammed, Mouchira A.; El-Masry, Manal R.; Daoud, Eitedal M.; Hassan, Nagwa; Abdel-Wahab, Khaled G.; Helmy, Ghada; Mostafa, Taymour

2014-02-01

350

Spinal neuronal plasticity is evident within 1 day after a painful cervical facet joint injury  

PubMed Central

Excessive stretch of the cervical facet capsular ligament induces persistent pain and spinal plasticity at later time points. Yet, it is not known when such spinal modifications are initiated following this painful injury. This study investigates the development of hyperalgesia and neuronal hyperexcitability in the spinal cord after a facet joint injury. Behavioral sensitivity was measured in a model of painful C6/C7 facet joint injury in the rat, and neuronal hyperexcitability in the spinal cord was evaluated at 6 hours and 1 day after injury or a sham procedure, in separate groups. Extracellular recordings of C6/C7 dorsal horn neuronal activity (229 neurons) were used to quantify spontaneous and evoked firing. Rats exhibited no change in sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the forepaw at 6 hours, but did exhibit increased sensitivity at 1 day after injury (p=0.012). At 6 hours, both spontaneous neuronal activity and firing evoked by light brushing, pinch, and von Frey filaments (1.4–26g) applied at the forepaw were not different between sham and injury. At 1 day, spontaneous firing was noted in a greater number of neurons after injury than sham (p<0.04). Evoked firing was also increased 1 day after injury compared to normal and sham (p<0.03). Dorsal horn hyperexcitability and increased spontaneous firing developed between 6 and 24 hours after painful facet injury, suggesting that the development of hyperalgesia parallels dorsal horn hyperexcitability following mechanical facet joint injury, and these spinal mechanisms are initiated as early as 1 day after injury. PMID:23523644

Crosby, Nathan D.; Weisshaar, Christine L.; Winkelstein, Beth A.

2013-01-01

351

Cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

To assess the associations of acceleration force indicators (aircraft type and flight hours) with cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched until October 2013. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review and 20 in the meta-analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of neck pain (pooled OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.33), cervical disc degeneration (OR=1.26, CI 0.81 to 1.96), low back pain (OR=0.80, CI 0.47 to 1.38) or lumbar disc degeneration (OR=0.87, CI 0.67 to 1.13) between fighter pilots and helicopter or transport/cargo pilots. Moreover, the prevalence of cervical (OR=1.14, CI 0.61 to 2.16) or lumbar (OR=1.05, CI 0.49 to 2.26) disc degeneration did not differ between fighter pilots and non-flying personnel. Most studies did not control their estimates for age and other potential confounders. Among high-performance aircraft pilots, exposure to the highest G-forces was associated with a higher prevalence of neck pain compared with exposure to lower G-forces (pooled OR=3.12, CI 2.08 to 4.67). The studies on the association between flight hours and neck pain reported inconsistent findings. Moreover, looking back over the shoulder (check six) was the most common posture associated with neck pain. Fighter pilots exposed to high G-forces may be at a greater risk for neck pain than those exposed to low G-forces. This finding should be confirmed with better control for confounding. Awkward neck posture may be an important factor in neck pain among fighter pilots. PMID:25180267

Shiri, Rahman; Frilander, Heikki; Sainio, Markku; Karvala, Kirsi; Sovelius, Roope; Vehmas, Tapio; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

2015-02-01

352

Biomechanical stability of a bioabsorbable self-retaining polylactic acid/nano-sized ?-tricalcium phosphate cervical spine interbody fusion device in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion sheep models  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical stability provided by a novel, polylactic acid/nano-sized, ?-tricalcium phosphate, bioabsorbable, self-retaining cervical fusion cage (BCFC). Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torques (maximum 1.5 NM) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending (±1.5 NM), and axial rotation (±1.5 NM) on 32 sheep cervical spines (C2–C5). The motion segment C3–C4 was first tested intact; the following groups were tested after complete discectomy: autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft, Medtronic–Wego polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage, Solis PEEK cage, and BCFC. The autologous bone graft group was tested with an anterior plate. The mean range of motion (ROM) was calculated from the load-displacement curves. Results BCFC significantly decreased ROM in lateral bending and axial rotation compared to other implants, and no significant difference in ROM between two types of PEEK cages and BCFC could be observed in flexion and extension. Anterior cervical plate (ACP) significantly decreased ROM in flexion and extension, but no significant difference in ROM between BCFC and bone graft plus ACP could be determined in lateral bending and axial rotation. Conclusion The BCFC device showed better stability to autologous tricortical iliac crest bone graft and PEEK cages in single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion models and thus may be a potential alternative to the current PEEK cages. PMID:23226018

Cao, Lu; Duan, Ping-Guo; Li, Xi-Lei; Yuan, Feng-Lai; Zhao, Ming-Dong; Che, Wu; Wang, Hui-Ren; Dong, Jian

2012-01-01

353

Mechanical stability of the in vivo lumbar spine: implications for injury and chronic low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important mechanical function of the lumbar spine is to support the upper body by transmitting compressive and shearing forces to the lower body during the performance of everyday activities. To enable the successful transmission of these forces, mechanical stability of the spinal system must be assured. The purpose of this study was to develop a method and to quantify

J Cholewicki; SM McGill

1996-01-01

354

A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge involving a case of dysphagia in association with cervical osteophytosis and a dental pain  

PubMed Central

Herein, presenting a case of a 42-year-old female with the chief complaint of dysphagia. The problem was assumed to be of dental origin, due to the onset of dental pain followed by dysphagia. A cervical radiograph revealed the presence of osteophytic lipping which proved to be the cause of dysphagia. Confusing and overlapping disease entities showing similar symptoms need thorough investigation. Dysphagia related to cervical spondylosis may have a direct connection with the person's occupation. Dentistry is considered a potentially hazardous occupation with regard to musculoskeletal disorders. However, additional studies are required to understand the occupational hazards faced by dentists. PMID:24250178

Dable, Rajani A.; Wasnik, Pradnya B.; Nagmode, Sunilkumar L.; Ali, Mukkaram Faridi

2013-01-01

355

[Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation as part of a complex cervical spine injury. Case report in a 12-year-old girl].  

PubMed

Traumatic atlanto-occipital dislocation (AOD) appears to be an unusual and almost universally fatal injury. Although AOD is the cause of death in about 10% of fatal cervical spine injuries an increasing number of reports document cases of survival following this injury. Improved pre-hospital and in-hospital emergency care according to ATLS guidelines that include early cervical spine stabilization, effective diagnosis because of improved imaging after trauma including whole body multislice CT followed by expeditious reposition and adequate immobilization are reasons for this phenomenon. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl surviving an AOD accompanied by a distraction injury C6/7 with unilateral fixed spinal luxation. After a primary attempt at closed reduction and external stabilization with a halo vest, the injury was treated by a navigated dorsal spondylodesis C0-C1 using the CerviFix rod system and open reposition of the remaining subluxation C6/7 with laminar hooks. The literature was reviewed for diagnostic possibilities, management and prognosis of AOD. PMID:17431574

Schmal, H; Südkamp, N P; Oberst, M

2007-08-01

356

Radiologic Assessment of Forward Head Posture and Its Relation to Myofascial Pain Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess head posture using cervical spine X-rays to find out whether forward head posture is related to myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in neck and shoulder. Methods Eighty-eight participants who were diagnosed with MPS in neck and shoulder were evaluated in this study. Four parameters (distance among head, cervical spines, and shoulder, and cervical angle) were measured from lateral view of cervical spine X-ray. The location and number of trigger points in the neck and shoulder and symptom duration were evaluated for each patient. Results Both horizontal distances between C1 vertebral body and C7 spinous process and between the earhole and C7 vertebral body were negatively correlated with cervical angle reflecting cervical lordosis (p<0.05). Younger patients had significantly (p<0.05) less cervical angle with more forward head posture. There was no relationship between MPS (presence, location, and number of trigger points) and radiologic assessments (distance parameters and the cervical angle). Conclusion Forward head posture and reduced cervical lordosis were seen more in younger patients with spontaneous neck pain. However, these abnormalities did not correlate with the location or the number of MPS. Further studies are needed to delineate the mechanism of neck pain in patients with forward head posture. PMID:25566482

Sun, An; Yeo, Han Gyeol; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

2014-01-01

357

Three-dimensional analysis of active head and cervical spine range of motion: effect of age in healthy male subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To assess the effect of age on active head–cervical range of motion in healthy men.Design. Three-dimensional cervical motion ranges and patterns were measured in 70 men.Background. The effect of age on cervical range of motion is still discussed.Methods. Twenty adolescent (mean age 16 year), 30 young adult (mean age 23 year), and 20 mid-aged (mean age 37 year) men

Chiarella Sforza; GianPiero Grassi; Nicola Fragnito; Michela Turci; Virgilio F Ferrario

2002-01-01

358

The Cervical Spine of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Regionalization in Their S-Shaped Arrangement  

PubMed Central

Background Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. Methodology/Principal findings X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola) and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1?C14). The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14) formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. Conclusions/Significance A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3–7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further characterize morphology and the potential movements associated with it. PMID:24651767

Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.; Wagner, Hermann

2014-01-01

359

Neck Pain Following Cervical Laminoplasty: Does Preservation of the C2 Muscle Attachments and/or C7 Matter?  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?In patients aged 18 years or older, with cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), does sparing the C2 muscle attachments and/or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty lead to reduced postoperative axial pain compared with conventional C3 to C7 laminoplasty? Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and August 17, 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating C2/C3- or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified 11 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Only the randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no significant difference in late axial pain (at 12 months) when C7 spinous muscle preservation was compared with no preservation. However, seven other retrospective cohort studies showed significant pain relief in the preserved group compared with the nonpreserved group. The preservation group included those with preservation of the C7 spinous process and/or attached muscles, the deep extensor muscles, or C2 muscle attachment and/or C3 laminectomy (as opposed to laminoplasty). One study that included preservation of either the C2 or C7 posterior paraspinal muscles found that only preservation of the muscles attached to C2 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Another study that included preservation of either the C7 spinous process or the deep extensor muscles found that only preservation of C7 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Conclusion?Although there is conflicting data regarding the importance of preserving C7 and/or the semispinalis cervicis muscle attachments to C2, there is enough evidence to suggest that surgeons should make every attempt to preserve these structures whenever possible since there appears to be little downside to doing so, unless it compromises the neurologic decompression. PMID:24436698

Riew, K. Daniel; Raich, Annie L.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Heller, John G.

2013-01-01

360

Neck Pain Following Cervical Laminoplasty: Does Preservation of the C2 Muscle Attachments and/or C7 Matter?  

PubMed

Study Design?Systematic review. Objective?In patients aged 18 years or older, with cervical spondylotic myelopathy or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), does sparing the C2 muscle attachments and/or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty lead to reduced postoperative axial pain compared with conventional C3 to C7 laminoplasty? Do these results vary based on early active postoperative cervical motion? Methods?A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and August 17, 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating C2/C3- or C7-preserving cervical laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) or OPLL in adults. Studies involving traumatic onset, cervical fracture, infection, deformity, or neoplasms were excluded, as were noncomparative studies. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?We identified 11 articles meeting our inclusion criteria. Only the randomized controlled trial (RCT) showed no significant difference in late axial pain (at 12 months) when C7 spinous muscle preservation was compared with no preservation. However, seven other retrospective cohort studies showed significant pain relief in the preserved group compared with the nonpreserved group. The preservation group included those with preservation of the C7 spinous process and/or attached muscles, the deep extensor muscles, or C2 muscle attachment and/or C3 laminectomy (as opposed to laminoplasty). One study that included preservation of either the C2 or C7 posterior paraspinal muscles found that only preservation of the muscles attached to C2 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Another study that included preservation of either the C7 spinous process or the deep extensor muscles found that only preservation of C7 resulted in reduced postoperative pain. Conclusion?Although there is conflicting data regarding the importance of preserving C7 and/or the semispinalis cervicis muscle attachments to C2, there is enough evidence to suggest that surgeons should make every attempt to preserve these structures whenever possible since there appears to be little downside to doing so, unless it compromises the neurologic decompression. PMID:24436698

Riew, K Daniel; Raich, Annie L; Dettori, Joseph R; Heller, John G

2013-04-01

361

Brown–Sequard syndrome produced by cervical disc herniation with complete neurologic recovery: report of three cases and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Case report.Objective:To report three cases of Brown–Sequard syndrome (BSS) associated with cervical disc herniation.Method:We describe clinical and radiographic review of three patients who presented with BSS caused by cervical disc herniation. Three patients presented with ipsilateral motor weakness and diminished sensation to pain and temperature on the contralateral side. Magnetic resonance images of the cervical spine in all cases,

J-K Lee; Y-S Kim; S-H Kim; Jung-Kil Lee

2007-01-01

362

Cervical Angina  

PubMed Central

Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

2015-01-01

363

Cervical spine CT scan  

MedlinePLUS

... type of contrast given into a vein contains iodine. If a person with an iodine allergy is given this type of contrast, nausea ... steroids before the test. The kidneys help remove iodine out of the body. People with kidney disease ...

364

Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Trial Comparing Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc to Anterior Discectomy and Fusion in the Treatment of Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating symptomatic cervical disc degeneration. Cervical total disc replacements (TDRs) have emerged as an alternative for some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new TDR device compared with ACDF for treating single-level cervical disc degeneration. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. A total of 245 patients were treated (164 TDR: 81 ACDF). The primary outcome measure was overall success based on improvement in Neck Disability Index (NDI), no subsequent surgical interventions, and no adverse events (AEs) classified as major complications. Secondary outcome measures included SF-12, visual analog scale (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, patient satisfaction, radiographic range of motion, and adjacent level degeneration. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The hypothesis was that the TDR success rate was non-inferior to ACDF at 24 months. Results Overall success rates were 73.6% for TDR and 65.3% for ACDF, confirming non-inferiority (p < 0.0025). TDR demonstrated earlier improvements with significant differences in NDI scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, and VAS neck pain and SF-12 PCS scores at 6 weeks (p<0.05). Operative level range of motion in the TDR group was maintained throughout follow-up. Radiographic evidence of inferior adjacent segment degeneration was significantly greater with ACDF at 12 and 24 months (p < 0.05). AE rates were similar. Conclusions Mobi-C TDR is a safe and effective treatment for single-level disc degeneration, producing outcomes similar to ACDF with less adjacent segment degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level I. Clinical relevance: This study adds to the literature supporting cervical TDR as a viable option to ACDF in appropriately selected patients with disc degeneration. PMID:25694918

Bae, Hyun W.; Davis, Reginald; Gaede, Steven; Hoffman, Greg; Kim, Kee; Nunley, Pierce D.; Peterson, Daniel; Rashbaum, Ralph; Stokes, John

2014-01-01

365

Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility in young and middle-aged adults with or without a history of mild neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that there is no significant relationship between the degree of structural degeneration of the cervical spine and neck pain. We therefore sought to investigate the potential role of sensory dysfunction in chronic neck pain. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility, expressed by how accurately an individual can reposition the head, was studied in three groups of individuals, a control

C.-C. Teng; H. Chai; D.-M. Lai; S.-F. Wang

2007-01-01

366

THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT  

PubMed Central

Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

2012-01-01

367

The Nijmegen Decision Tool for Chronic Low Back Pain. Development of a Clinical Decision Tool for Secondary or Tertiary Spine Care Specialists  

PubMed Central

Background In Western Europe, low back pain has the greatest burden of all diseases. When back pain persists, different medical specialists are involved and a lack of consensus exists among these specialists for medical decision-making in Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP). Objective To develop a decision tool for secondary or tertiary spine care specialists to decide which patients with CLBP should be seen by a spine surgeon or by other non-surgical medical specialists. Methods A Delphi study was performed to identify indicators predicting the outcome of interventions. In the preparatory stage evidence from international guidelines and literature were summarized. Eligible studies were reviews and longitudinal studies. Inclusion criteria: surgical or non-surgical interventions and persistence of complaints, CLBP-patients aged 18–65 years, reported baseline measures of predictive indicators, and one or more reported outcomes had to assess functional status, quality of life, pain intensity, employment status or a composite score. Subsequently, a three-round Delphi procedure, to reach consensus on candidate indicators, was performed among a multidisciplinary panel of 29 CLBP-professionals (>five years CLBP-experience). The pre-set threshold for general agreement was ?70%. The final indicator set was used to develop a clinical decision tool. Results A draft list with 53 candidate indicators (38 with conclusive evidence and 15 with inconclusive evidence) was included for the Delphi study. Consensus was reached to include 47 indicators. A first version of the decision tool was developed, consisting of a web-based screening questionnaire and a provisional decision algorithm. Conclusions This is the first clinical decision tool based on current scientific evidence and formal multidisciplinary consensus that helps referring the patient for consultation to a spine surgeon or a non-surgical spine care specialist. We expect that this tool considerably helps in clinical decision-making spine care, thereby improving efficient use of scarce sources and the outcomes of spinal interventions. PMID:25133645

van Hooff, Miranda L.; van Loon, Jan; van Limbeek, Jacques; de Kleuver, Marinus

2014-01-01

368

Potential cervical spine injury and difficult airway management for emergency intubation of trauma adults in the emergency department—a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: Emergency airway management for trauma adults is practised by physicians from a range of training backgrounds and with differing levels of experience. The indications for intubation and technique employed are factors that vary within EDs and between hospitals. Objectives: To provide practical evidence based guidance for airway management in trauma resuscitation: first for the trauma adult with potential cervical spine injury and second the management when a difficult airway is encountered at intubation. Search strategy and methodology: Full literature search for relevant articles in Medline (1966–2003), EMBASE (1980–2003), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Relevant articles relating to adults and written in English language were appraised. English language abstracts of foreign articles were included. Studies were critically appraised on a standardised data collection sheet to assess validity and quality of evidence. The level of evidence was allocated using the methods of the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. PMID:16373795

Ollerton, J E; Parr, M J A; Harrison, K; Hanrahan, B; Sugrue, M

2006-01-01

369

Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

2013-01-01

370

Giant anterior cervical osteophyte leading to Dysphagia.  

PubMed

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee; Joo, Won Il

2013-09-01

371

Cervical radiculopathy, entrapment neuropathy, and thoracic outlet syndrome: how to differentiate? Invited submission from the Joint Section Meeting on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, March 2004.  

PubMed

The common diagnoses of cervical radiculopathy and upper-extremity entrapment neuropathies can at times be difficult to differentiate. Additionally, thoracic outlet syndrome is often diagnosed when, in fact, the problem is radiculopathy or neuropathy. Another source of confusion, especially in older patients, is neuralgic amyotrophy, brachial plexitis, or the Parsonage-Turner syndrome. The differential diagnosis of unilateral arm pain, weakness, and/or sensory loss includes all of these problems. The clinical and electrodiagnostic features of each are discussed as an aid to distinguishing between these common and similar entities. PMID:15347004

McGillicuddy, John E

2004-09-01

372

The Relationship between Increased Intervertebral Disc Height and Development of Postoperative Axial Neck Pain after Anterior Cervical Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relationship between postoperative increase in intervertebral disc space height (IVH) and posterior axial neck in cases of degenerative cervical disease treated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods A total of 155 patients who underwent ACDF with more than 1 year follow up were included. Radiologically, IVH and interfacet distance (IFD) of the operated segment were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. We clinically evaluated neck and arm pains according to visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and assessed neck disability index (NDI) scores preoperatively, postoperatively, at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. The relationship between radiological parameters, and clinical scores were analyzed using a regression analysis. Results The mean increase in IVH was 2.62 mm, and the mean increase in IFD was 0.67 mm. The VAS scores for neck pain preoperatively, postoperatively, and at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year postoperatively were 4.46, 2.11, 2.07, 1.95, and 1.29; those for arm pain were 5.89, 3.24, 3.20, 3.03, and 2.18. The NDI scores were improved from 18.52 to 7.47. No significant relationship was observed between the radiological evaluation results regarding the increase in intervertebral height or interfacet distance and clinical changes in VAS or NDI scores. Conclusion The increase in intervertebral space or interfacet distance by the insertion of a large graft material while performing ACDF for the treatment of degenerative cervical disease was not related with the change in VAS scores for neck and arm pains and NDI scores postoperatively and during the follow-up period. PMID:25237430

Chang, Han; Baek, Dong-Hoon

2014-01-01

373

SPECT\\/CT imaging of the lumbar spine in chronic low back pain: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical low back pain is a common indication for Nuclear Medicine imaging. Whole-body bone scan is a very sensitive but poorly specific study for the detection of metabolic bone abnormalities. The accurate localisation of metabolically active bone disease is often difficult in 2D imaging but single photon emission computed tomography\\/computed tomography (SPECT\\/CT) allows accurate diagnosis and anatomic localisation of osteoblastic

Michael H Carstensen; Mashael Al-Harbi; Jean-Luc Urbain; Tarik-Zine Belhocine

2011-01-01

374

Cervical facet injections in the management of cervicogenic headaches.  

PubMed

Cervicogenic headache is defined as headaches originating from cervical spine structures including cervical facet joints, cervical intervertebral discs, skeletal muscles, connective tissues, and neurovascular structures. Cervical facet injections with steroids have been used to alleviate cervicogenic headache secondary to cervical facet arthropathy. In this article, we will review the cervical spine anatomy, cervical facet injections, and the efficacy of cervical facet injections as a treatment for cervicogenic headache. PMID:25795156

Ng, Andrew; Wang, Dajie

2015-05-01

375

Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis due to cervical chiropractic manipulation.  

PubMed

Neck pain from cervical spinal disease is a common problem with significant disability, and chiropractic manipulation has emerged as one of the leading forms of alternative treatment for such spinal symptoms. However, more experience with these forms of treatment has revealed associated complications that are far from benign. Complications range from mild symptoms, such as local neck tenderness or stiffness, to more severe injuries involving the spinal cord, peripheral nerve roots, and arteries within the neck. Phrenic nerve injury causing diaphragmatic palsy is a rare complication of cervical chiropractic manipulation. We report a case of bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in a healthy gentleman who underwent cervical manipulation. Physicians must be aware of this complication and should be cautious when recommending spinal manipulation for the treatment of neck pain, especially in the presence of preexisting degenerative disease of the cervical spine. PMID:25692510

John, Seby; Tavee, Jinny

2015-02-01

376

Rehabilitation of chronic whiplash: treatment of cervical dysfunctions or chronic pain syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) remains a challenging condition for clinicians. There is substantial evidence\\u000a for the presence of various cervical dysfunctions (e.g., increased cervical muscle tone and impaired cervical movement control),\\u000a but their contribution to the complex clinical picture of subjects with chronic WAD seems rather limited. There is consistent\\u000a evidence for increased responsiveness of the central nervous system in

Jo Nijs; Jessica Van Oosterwijck; Willem De Hertogh

2009-01-01

377

Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).  

PubMed

In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis. PMID:17467038

Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Carretero, José Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-García, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Martínez, Ignacio

2007-07-01

378

Cervical Laminoplasty for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy can result from degenerative cervical spondylosis, herniated disk material, osteophytes, redundant ligamentum flavum, or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. Surgical intervention for multi-level myelopathy aims to decompress the spinal cord and maintain stability of the cervical spine. Laminoplasty was major surgical advancement as laminectomy resulted in kyphosis and unsatisfactory outcomes. Hirabayashi popularised the expansive open door laminoplasty which was later modified several surgeons. Laminoplasty has changed the way surgeons approach multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:21991408

Sayana, Murali Krishna; Jamil, Hassan; Poynton, Ashley

2011-01-01

379

Relationship between Radiographic Abnormalities of Lumbar Spine and Incidence of Low Back Pain in High School and College Football PlayersA Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Low back pain is a common presenting symptom among players of American football. In Japan, however, skeletal disorders in football players, including low back problems, have been rarely studied, and management to prevent skeletal disorders has not been established.Study Design:An epidemiological study with prospective observation.Methods:The authors analyzed the relationship between lumbar spine abnormalities viewed through radiographs taken during the preparticipation

Jun Iwamoto; Hitoshi Abe; Yasunori Tsukimura; Koichi Wakano

2004-01-01

380

Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3.8–35.3% and 9.8% respectively. TSP was significantly associated with: concurrent musculoskeletal pain; growth and physical; lifestyle and social; backpack; postural; psychological; and environmental factors. Risk factors identified for TSP in adolescents included age (being older) and poorer mental health. Conclusion TSP is a common condition in the general population. While there is some evidence for biopsychosocial associations it is limited and further prospectively designed research is required to inform prevention and management strategies. PMID:19563667

Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

2009-01-01

381

The effects of weightbath traction hydrotherapy as a component of complex physical therapy in disorders of the cervical and lumbar spine: a controlled pilot study with follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic modalities available for the conservative management of chronic cervical and lumbar pain include underwater\\u000a traction, the usefulness of which is not universally acknowledged. No reports have been published on clinical trials evaluating\\u000a underwater traction. This study was intended to ascertain any beneficial impact of weightbath therapy on the clinical parameters\\u000a and quality of life of patients with cervical\\/lumbar

Mihály Oláh; Levente Molnár; József Dobai; Csaba Oláh; Judit Fehér; Tamás Bender

2008-01-01

382

The Prevalence of Lumbar Spine Facet Joint Osteoarthritis and Its Association with Low Back Pain in Selected Korean Populations  

PubMed Central

Background This study was to evaluate the association of lumbar spine facet joint osteoarthritis (LSFJOA) identified by multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with age and low back pain (LBP) in an adult community-based population in Korea. Methods A sample of 472 participants (age range, 20 to 84 years) who underwent MDCT imaging for abdominal or urological lesions, not for chief complaints of LBP, were included in this study. LSFJOA based on MDCT findings was characterized using four grades of osteoarthritis of the facet joints. The prevalence of LSFJOA according to age group (below 40 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, and above 70 years), gender, and spinal level was analyzed using chi-square tests and the association between LBP and LSFJOA adjusting for age, gender, and spine level was analyzed using multiple binary logistic regression test. Results Eighty-three study subjects (17.58%) had LSFJOA (grade ? 2). The prevalence of LSFJOA was not associated with gender (p = 0.092). The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age (p = 0.015). The highest prevalence of LSFJOA was observed at L4-5 in men (p = 0.001) and at L5-S1 in women (p = 0.003), and at L5-S1 in the overall population (p = 0.000). LSFJOA was not associated with LBP in men (p = 0.093) but was associated with LBP in women (p = 0.003), especially at L3-4 (p = 0.018) and L5-S1 (p = 0.026). Conclusions The prevalence of LSFJOA based on the computed tomography imaging was 17.58% in the adult community Korean population. The prevalence of LSFJOA increased with age, and the highest prevalence was noted at L5-S1. LSFJOA was not associated with LBP at any spinal level and age except at L3-4 and L5-S1 in women. PMID:25436061

Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jaekun; Chang, Hojin

2014-01-01

383

Long-standing pain in a 25-year-old patient with a non-diagnosed cervical osteoblastoma: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benign osteoblastomas are infrequent tumors, representing less than 1% of all bone tumors. The spinal location accounts for\\u000a 40–50% of all osteoblastomas from which only 20% are located in the cervical spine. The majority of the spinal osteoblastomas\\u000a arise from the posterior elements: pedicles, laminas, transverse or spinous processes. We present a case report of a young\\u000a male that due

A. Combalia Aleu; D. Popescu; J. Pomes; A. Palacin

2008-01-01

384

[Application of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on a novel porous TiO2/glass ceramic--2: Biomechanical evaluation after implantation in the sheep cervical spine].  

PubMed

Animals are becoming more and more common as in vivo models for the human spine. Especially the sheep cervical spine is stated to be of good comparability and usefulness in the evaluation of in vivo radiological, biomechanical and histological behaviour of new bone replacement materials, implants and cages for cervical spine interbody fusion. In preceding biomechanical in vitro examinations human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO2/glass composite (Ecopore) or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) after discectomy. Following our first experience with the use of the new material and its influence on the primary stability after in vitro application we carried out fusions of 20 sheep cervical spines levels with either PMMA or an Ecopore-cage, and performed radiological examinations during the following 2-4 months. In this second part of the study we intended the biomechanical evaluation of the spine segments with reference to the previously determined morphological findings, like subsidence of the implants, significant increase of the kyphosis angle and degree of the bony fusion along with the interpretation of the results. 20 sheep cervical spines segments with either PMMA- or Ecopore-fusion in the levels C2/3 and C4/5 were tested, in comparison to 10 native corresponding sheep cervical spine segments. Non-destructive biomechanical testing was performed, including flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation using a spine testing apparatus. Three-dimensional range of motion (ROM) was evaluated using an ultrasound measurement system. In the native spine segments C2/3 and C4/5 the ROM increased in cranio-caudal direction particulary in flexion/extension, less pronounced in lateral flexion and axial rotation (p < 0.05). The overall ROM of both tested segments was greatest in lateral flexion, reduced to 52% in flexion/extension and to 16% in axial rotation. After 2 months C2/3- and C4/5-segments with PMMA-fusion and C2/3-segments with Ecopore-interposition showed decrease of ROM in lateral flexion in comparison to the native segments, indicating increasing stiffening. However, after 4 months all operated segments, independent from level or implanted material, were stiffer than the comparable native segments. The decrease of the ROM correlated with the radiological-morphological degree of fusion. Our evaluation of the new porous TiO2/glass composite as interbody fusion cage has shown satisfactory radiological results as well as distinct biomechanical stability and fusion of the segments after 4 months in comparison to PMMA. After histological analysis of the bone-biomaterial-interface, further examinations of this biomaterial previous to an application as alternative to other customary cages in humans are necessary. PMID:15884708

Korinth, M C; Hero, T; Pandorf, T; Zell, D

2005-04-01

385

What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review  

PubMed Central

What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

386

Is cervical decompression beneficial in patients with coexistent cervical stenosis and multiple sclerosis?  

PubMed

Cervical stenosis (CS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are two common conditions with distinctive pathophysiology but overlapping clinical manifestations. The uncertainty involved in attributing worsening symptoms to CS in patients with MS due to extremely high prevalence of asymptomatic radiological CS makes treatment decisions challenging. A retrospective review was performed analyzing the medical records of all patients with confirmed diagnosis of MS who had coexistent CS and underwent surgery for cervical radiculopathy/myeloradiculopathy. Eighteen patients with coexistent CS and MS who had undergone cervical spine decompression and fusion were identified. There were six men and 12 women with an average age of 52.7 years (range 40-72 years). Pre-operative symptoms included progressive myelopathy (14 patients), neck pain (seven patients), radiculopathy (five patients), and bladder dysfunction (seven patients). Thirteen of the 14 patients (92.9%) with myelopathy showed either improvement (4/14, 28.6%) or stabilization (9/14, 64.3%) in their symptoms with neck pain and radiculopathy improving in 100% and 80% of patients, respectively. None of the seven patients with urinary dysfunction had improvement in urinary symptoms after surgery. To conclude, cervical spine decompression and fusion can improve or stabilize myelopathy, and significantly relieve neck pain and radiculopathy in the majority of patients with coexistent CS and MS. Urinary dysfunctions appear unlikely to improve after surgery. The low rate of surgical complications in our cohort demonstrates that cervical spine surgery can be safely performed in carefully selected patients with concomitant CS and MS with a good clinical outcome and also eliminate CS as a confounding factor in the long-term management of MS patients. PMID:25088960

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Muth, Christopher C; Stefoski, Dusan; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-12-01

387

Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness of surgical stabilisation (spinal fusion) compared with intensive rehabilitation for patients with chronic low back pain. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 secondary care orthopaedic and rehabilitation centres across the United Kingdom. Participants 349 participants aged 18-55 with chronic low back pain of at least one year's duration who were considered candidates for

Jeremy Fairbank; Helen Frost; James Wilson-MacDonald; Ly-Mee Yu; Karen Barker

2005-01-01

388

Immediate effects of a thoracic spine thrust manipulation on the autonomic nervous system: a randomized clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Thoracic spine manipulation has been shown to be effective for the management of neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of a T3–T4 spinal thrust manipulation on autonomic nervous system activity in subjects with chronic cervical pain. An additional aim was to determine if the manipulation resulted in an immediate pain relief in patients with chronic neck pain when compared to a placebo intervention. One hundred subjects with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned to receive either a thoracic thrust manipulation or a placebo intervention. The Friedman’s test was used to evaluate the change in pupil diameter within both groups. The Wilcoxen signed-ranks test was used to explore pupil changes over time and to make paired comparisons of the pupil change between the groups. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare the change in pain perception for the chronic cervical pain group subjects receiving either the thrust manipulation or the placebo intervention. The results demonstrated that manipulation did not result in a change in sympathetic activity. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the subject’s pain perception (P?=?0.961) when comparing the effects of the thrust manipulation to the placebo intervention within this group of subjects with chronic neck pain. The clinical impression of this study is that manipulation of the thoracic spine may not be effective in immediately reducing pain in patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:22131791

Sillevis, Rob; Cleland, Joshua; Hellman, Madeleine; Beekhuizen, Kristina

2010-01-01

389

Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders.  

PubMed

The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice. PMID:20380955

Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

2010-03-01

390

Development of a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with neck pain who are likely to benefit from home-based mechanical cervical traction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to identify the population of patients with neck pain who improved with home-based mechanical\\u000a cervical traction (HMCT). A prospective cohort study was conducted in a physical therapy clinic at a local hospital. Patients\\u000a with neck pain referred to the clinic for physical therapy were included in the study. A HMCT program was given to

Congcong CaiGuan; Guan Ming; Lih Yen Ng

2011-01-01

391

CT-Guided Epidural/Perineural Injections in Painful Disorders of the Lumbar Spine:Short- and Extended-Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Evaluation of short- and extended-term results of repeated epidural/perineural injections (EDT/PRT) of corticoids in painful afflictions of the lumbar spine. Methods: Thirty-two patients who had persistent radicular or low back pain for more than 6 weeks were treated with CT-guided injection therapy. By EDT/PRT, 40 mg of triamcinolonacetonid was injected either periradicularly or by a direct intraspinal epidural method at intervals of 3 weeks. Altogether, 140 EDT/PRT were performed in 32 patients (mean 4.4, range 2-8). In nine patients partial facet joint denervation with 1-2 ml of 50% alcohol solution was combined with EDT/PRT to reduce low back pain. Before and after treatment and at follow-up (mean 9.6 months), treatment success was evaluated on a visual analog scale and by physical examination (good = >50% improvement, moderate = 20%-50%, no improvement <20%).Results: Short-term (end of therapy) good or moderate improvement was achieved in 91% of patients, extended-term (mean 9.6 months) in 56%. Regarding certain subgroups, those with disc herniations of the lumbar spine showed a better outcome with good or moderate improvement in 95% short-term and 69% extended-term than those with spinal stenosis who had 72% short-term and 28% long-term. Conclusion: Results indicate that CT-guided EDT/PRT in combination with partial facet joint denervation is a safe and effective outpatient treatment.

Schmid, Gebhard [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Josef Hospital, University Hospital Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D-44791 Bochum (Germany); Vetter, Sylvia; Goettmann, Dieter; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine and Interventional Radiology, Diakonissenkrankenhaus Karlsruhe-Rueppurr, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe-Rueppurr (Germany)

1999-11-15

392

A pilot evaluation of an educational program that offers visualizations of cervical spine injuries: medical students' self-efficacy increases by training.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, a new method for visualization through imaging and simulation (VIS-Ed) for teaching diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine trauma was formatively evaluated. The aims were to examine if medical students' self-efficacy would change by training using VIS-Ed, and if so these changes were related to how they evaluated the session, and the user interface (UI) of this program. Using a one-group, pre-post course test design 43 Swedish medical students (4th year, 17 males, 26 females) practiced in groups of three participants. Overall the practice and the UI were considered as positive experiences. They judged VIS-Ed as a good interactive scenario-based educational tool. All students' self-efficacy increased significantly by training (p?

Hedman, Leif; Fahlstedt, Madelen; Schlickum, Marcus; Möller, Hans; von Holst, Hans; Felländer-Tsai, Li

2014-01-01

393

The Effect of Various Types of Motorcycle Helmets on Cervical Spine Injury in Head Injury Patients: A Multicenter Study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The relationship between cervical spine injury (CSI) and helmet in head injury (HI) patients following motorcycle crashes is crucial. Controversy still exists; therefore we evaluated the effect of various types of helmets on CSI in HI patients following motorcycle crashes and researched the mechanism of this effect. Patients and Methods. A total of 5225 patients of motorcycle crashes between 2000 and 2009 were extracted from the Head Injury Registry in Taiwan. These patients were divided into case and control groups according to the presence of concomitant CSI. Helmet use and types were separately compared between the two groups and the odds ratio of CSI was obtained by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. We observed that 173 (3.3%) of the HI patients were associated with CSI. The HI patients using a helmet (odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19?0.49), full-coverage helmet (0.19, 0.10?0.36), and partial-coverage helmet (0.35, 0.21?0.56) exhibited a significantly decreased rate of CSI compared with those without a helmet. Conclusion. Wearing full-coverage and partial-coverage helmets significantly reduced the risk of CSI among HI patients following motorcycle crashes. This effect may be due to the smooth surface and hard padding materials of helmet. PMID:25705663

Lin, Mau-Roung; Chu, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Shin-Han; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chiu, Wen-Ta

2015-01-01

394

The optimized acupuncture treatment for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain is one of the chief symptoms of cervical spondylosis (CS). Acupuncture is a well-accepted and widely used complementary therapy for the management of neck pain caused by CS. In this paper, we present a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating the use of acupuncture for CS neck pain, comparing the effects of the optimized acupuncture therapy in real practice compared with sham and shallow acupuncture. Methods/Design This trial uses a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture, controlled single-blind design. Nine hospitals are involved as trial centres. 945 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to receive optimized acupuncture therapy, sham acupuncture or shallow acupuncture by a computerized central randomization system. The interventions past for 4 weeks with eight to ten treatments in total. The group allocations and interventions are concealed to patients and statisticians. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) is used as the primary outcome measure, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and The Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) are applied as secondary outcome measures. The evaluation is performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at the end of the first month and the third month during follow-up. The statistical analyses will include baseline data comparison and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for primary and secondary outcomes of group and time differences. Adverse events (AEs) will be reported if they occur. Discussion This trial is a multicentre randomized control trial (RCT) on the efficacy of acupuncture for CS neck pain and has a large sample size and central randomization in China. It will strictly follow the CONSORT statement and STRICTA extension guideline to report high-quality study results. By setting the control groups as sham and shallow acupuncture, this study attempts to reveal the effects of real acupuncture versus placebo or non-classic acupuncture treatment and evaluate whether classic Chinese medical acupuncture is effective on CS neck pain. This study will provide evidence for the effects of acupuncture on CS neck pain. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-00000184. PMID:22776567

2012-01-01

395

Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors’ clinic and treated by PCN. The patients’ gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 ± 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3–4, 30 cases at C4–5, 40 cases at C5–6, and 35 cases at C6–7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) ?11° or horizontal displacement (HD) ?3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery. PMID:18830638

Li, Jian; Zhang, Zai-Heng

2008-01-01

396

The Impact of Spinal Cord Nerve Roots and Denticulate Ligaments on Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (?6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS. PMID:24710111

Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R. Shane; Bunck, Alexander C.; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A.

2014-01-01

397

Minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using tubular retractor: The technical note and early clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this work is to present a novel decompression technique that approaches cervical spine posteriorly, but through minimal invasive method using tubular retractor avoiding detachment of posterior musculature. Methods: Six patients underwent minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using the tubular retractor system and surgical microscope. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system and deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression could be accomplished. This approach also allows safe docking of the retractor system on the lateral mass, thus avoiding the cervical spinal canal during exposure. A standard operating microscope was used with ×10 magnification and 400 mm focal length. The hospital charts, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and follow-up records of all the patients were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by neurological status and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain. Results: There was no significant complication related to operation. The follow-up time was 4-12 months (mean, 9 months). Muscle weakness improved in all patients; sensory deficits resolved in four patients and improved in two patients. Analysis of the mean VAS for radicular pain and VAS for neck pain showed significant improvement. Conclusions: The preliminary experiences with good clinical outcome seem to promise that this minimally invasive technique is a valid alternative option for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24778922

Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Shin, Myeong-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik

2014-01-01

398

Cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical radiculopathy is a condition encountered commonly in the evaluation of neck pain that may result in significant discomfort and functional deficits. Although the long-term prognosis of this condition is favorable, a standardized approach to therapy is important to minimize unnecessary tests and identify patients who require more urgent intervention. Patient education, pain control, and physical therapy are the first line of therapy. Patients who have protracted pain or significant functional deficits may require a more thorough evaluation, including imaging, electrodiagnostic testing, and, possibly, surgical referral. This article outlines the basic clinical, diagnostic, and therapy considerations in the evaluation of cervical radiculopathy. PMID:17445734

Polston, David W