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Sample records for cervical spine pain

  1. [Imaging of the painful cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M

    2003-02-01

    Neck pain can occur in several circumstances: traumatic, spontaneous, associated or not with motion, with or without head or upper limb irradiations. Each case requires appropriate clinical examination and radiographs. CT and MRI can be used to obtain additional information. Myelography and arteriography are exceptionally used. Cervical discography and facet joint arthrography are used therapeutically. After a brief anatomical review, normal and pathological patterns will be reviewed using radiographs. Each circumstance is studied: traumatic, degenerative, inflammatory and tumoral. It is emphasized that discogenic cervico-brachial neuralgia usually has a favorable spontaneous outcome. A special chapter is dedicated to calcifying and ossifying diseases of the cervical spine. Cervico-occipital neuralgia is also discussed. PMID:12665720

  2. Correlation between TMD and Cervical Spine Pain and Mobility: Is the Whole Body Balance TMJ Related?

    PubMed Central

    Walczyńska-Dragon, Karolina; Baron, Stefan; Nitecka-Buchta, Aleksandra; Tkacz, Ewaryst

    2014-01-01

    Temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD) is considered to be associated with imbalance of the whole body. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of TMD therapy on cervical spine range of movement (ROM) and reduction of spinal pain. The study group consisted of 60 patients with TMD, cervical spine pain, and limited cervical spine range of movements. Subjects were interviewed by a questionnaire about symptoms of TMD and neck pain and had also masticatory motor system physically examined (according to RDC-TMD) and analysed by JMA ultrasound device. The cervical spine motion was analysed using an MCS device. Subjects were randomly admitted to two groups, treated and control. Patients from the treated group were treated with an occlusal splint. Patients from control group were ordered to self-control parafunctional habits. Subsequent examinations were planned in both groups 3 weeks and 3 months after treatment was introduced. The results of tests performed 3 months after the beginning of occlusal splint therapy showed a significant improvement in TMJ function (P > 0.05), cervical spine ROM, and a reduction of spinal pain. The conclusion is that there is a significant association between TMD treatment and reduction of cervical spine pain, as far as improvement of cervical spine mobility. PMID:25050363

  3. Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Emily; Buchtel, Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    A 48 year-old female presented to her primary care physician with a two-month history of neck pain with negative cervical spine x-rays. During that office visit, the patient was noted to be tachycardic with EKG revealing ST depressions, which led to hospital admission. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out, however, persistent neck pain warranted inpatient MRI of the cervical spine, which revealed a cervical spine lesion. Extensive investigation and biopsy ultimately confirmed stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to the bone, liver, and likely lung. In the literature, the findings of a primary metastatic site being bone is rare with only a few case reports showing vertebral or sternal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The uniqueness of this case lies in the only presenting complaint being cervical spine pain in the setting of extensive metastases to the liver, bone, and likely lung. PMID:26890294

  4. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical spine; Computed tomography scan of cervical spine; CT scan of cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

  5. Immediate effects of active cranio-cervical flexion exercise versus passive mobilisation of the upper cervical spine on pain and performance on the cranio-cervical flexion test.

    PubMed

    Lluch, Enrique; Schomacher, Jochen; Gizzi, Leonardo; Petzke, Frank; Seegar, Dagmar; Falla, Deborah

    2014-02-01

    This study compared the immediate effects of an assisted plus active cranio-cervical flexion exercise (exercise group) versus a passive mobilisation plus assisted cranio-cervical flexion (mobilisation group) on performance of the cranio-cervical flexion test (CCFT), cervical range of motion (ROM) and pain in patients with chronic neck pain. Eighteen volunteers with chronic idiopathic neck pain participated in the study and were randomised to one of the two intervention groups. Current level of pain, cervical ROM and pain perceived during movement, pressure pain threshold (PPT) and surface electromyography (EMG) during performance of the CCFT were measured before and immediately after the intervention. A significant reduction in resting pain and PPT measured over cervical sites was observed immediately following both interventions, although a greater change was observed for the exercise group. No change in cervical ROM was observed after either intervention. Reduced sternocleidomastoid and anterior scalene EMG amplitude were observed during stages of the CCFT but only for the participants in the active exercise group. Although both active and passive interventions offered pain relief, only the exercise group improved on a task of motor function highlighting the importance of specific active treatment for improved motor control of the cervical spine. PMID:23806488

  6. Comparison of Modic Changes in the Lumbar and Cervical Spine, in 3167 Patients with and without Spinal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Chen; Mamuti, Maiwulanjiang; Jun-hui, Liu; Zhi, Shan; Chong-yan, Wang; Shunwu, Fan; Zhao, Fengdong

    2014-01-01

    Background Context There are few comparisons of Modic changes (MCs) in the lumbar and cervical spine. Purpose Compare the prevalence of MCs in the lumbar and cervical spine, and determine how MC prevalence depends on spinal pain, age, disc degeneration, spinal level, and the presence or absence of kyphosis. Study Design Retrospective clinical survey. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were compared from five patient groups: 1. 1223 patients with low-back pain/radiculopathy only; 2. 1023 patients with neck pain/radiculopathy only; 3. 497 patients with concurrent low-back and neck symptoms; 4. 304 asymptomatic subjects with lumbar MRIs; and 5. 120 asymptomatic subjects with cervical MRIs. Results The prevalence of MCs was higher in those with spinal pain than in those without, both in the lumbar spine (21.0% vs 10.5%) and cervical spine (8.8% vs 3.3%). Type II MCs were most common and Type III were least common in all groups. The prevalence of lumbar MCs in people with back pain was little affected by the presence of concurrent neck pain, and the same was true for the prevalence of cervical MCs in people with neck pain with or without concurrent back pain. When symptomatic patients were reclassified into two groups (back pain, neck pain), the prevalence of lumbar MCs in people with back pain was greater than that of cervical MCs in people with neck pain. The prevalence of lumbar and cervical MCs increased with age, disc degeneration, (descending) spinal level, and increased kyphosis. Conclusions There is a significantly higher prevalence of MCs in patients with back and neck pain. The reported association with increased kyphosis (flat back) is novel. PMID:25506944

  7. Finite element modeling of potential cervical spine pain sources in neutral position low speed rear impact.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Duane S

    2014-05-01

    The rate of soft tissue sprain/strain injuries to the cervical spine and associated cost continue to be significant; however, the physiological nature of this injury makes experimental tests challenging while aspects such as occupant position and musculature may contribute to significant variability in the current epidemiological data. Several theories have been proposed to identify the source of pain associated with whiplash. The goal of this study was to investigate three proposed sources of pain generation using a detailed numerical model in rear impact scenarios: distraction of the capsular ligaments; transverse nerve root compression through decrease of the intervertebral foramen space; and potential for damage to the disc based on the extent of rotation and annulus fibre strain. There was significant variability associated with experimental measures, where the range of motion data overlapped ultimate failure data. Average data values were used to evaluate the model, which was justified by the use of average mechanical properties within the model and previous studies demonstrating predicted response and failure of the tissues was comparable to average response values. The model predicted changes in dimension of the intervertebral foramen were independent of loading conditions, and were within measured physiological ranges for the impact severities considered. Disc response, measured using relative rotation between intervertebral bodies, was below values associated with catastrophic failure or avulsion but exceeded the average range of motion values. Annulus fibre strains exceeded a proposed threshold value at three levels for 10g impacts. Capsular ligament strain increased with increasing impact severity and the model predicted the potential for injury at impact severities from 4g to 15.4g, when the range of proposed distraction corresponding to sub-catastrophic failure was exceeded, in agreement with the typically reported values of 9-15g. This study used an enhanced neck finite element model with active musculature to investigate three potential sources of neck pain resulting from rear impact scenarios and identified capsular ligament strain and deformation of the disc as potential sources of neck pain in rear impact scenarios. PMID:23466282

  8. [Injury of upper cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Ryba, Luděk; Cienciala, Jan; Chaloupka, Richard; Repko, Martin; Vyskočil, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Injuries of the upper cervical spine represent 1/3 of all cervical spine injuries and approximately 40 % result by the death. Every level of the cervical spine can be injured - fractures of condyles of the occipital bone (CO), atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD), fractures of the Atlas (C1), atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD) and fractures of the axis (C2). Most of cases in younger patients are caused by high-energy trauma, while by elderly people, because of the osteoporosis, is needed much less energy and even simple falls can cause the injury of the cervical spine. That´s why the etiology of injuries can be different. In younger patients are caused mainly by car accidents, motorcycle and bicycle accidents and pedestrian crashes by car and in elderly populations are the main reason falls. The mechanism of the injury is axial force, hyperflexion, hyperextension, latero-flexion, rotation and combination of all. The basic diagnostic examination is X ray in AP, lateral and transoral projection. But in the most of cases is CT examination necessary and in the suspicion of the ligamentous injury and neurological deterioration must be MRI examination added. Every injury of the upper cervical spine has its own classification. Clinical symptoms can vary from the neck pain, restricted range of motion, antalgic position of the head, injury of the cranial nerves and different neurologic symptoms from the irritation of nerves to quadriplegia. A large percentage of deaths is at the time of the injury. Therapy is divided to conservative treatment, which is indicated in bone injuries with minimal dislocation. In more severe cases, with the dislocation and ligamentous injury, when is high chance of the instability, is indicated the surgical treatment. We can use anterior or posterior approach, make the osteosynthesis, stabilisation and fusion of the spine. Complex fractures and combination of different types of injuries are often present in this part of the spine. Correct and early diagnosis with the best treatment option is necessary for successful result of the cervical spine injuries. PMID:27221727

  9. The effects of manual therapy and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    La Touche, R; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C; Fernández-Carnero, J; Escalante, K; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, S; Paris-Alemany, A; Cleland, J A

    2009-09-01

    No studies have investigated the effects of the treatments directed at the cervical spine in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Our aim was to investigate the effects of joint mobilization and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity in the muscles of mastication in patients with TMD. Nineteen patients (14 females), aged 19-57 years, with myofascial TMD were included. All patients received a total of 10 treatment session over a 5-week period (twice per week). Treatment included manual therapy techniques and exercise directed at the cervical spine. Outcome measures included bilateral pressure pain threshold (PPT) levels over the masseter and temporalis muscles, active pain-free mouth opening (mm) and pain (Visual Analogue Scale) and were all assessed pre-intervention, 48 h after the last treatment (post-intervention) and at 12-week follow-up period. Mixed-model anovas were used to examine the effects of the intervention on each outcome measure. Within-group effect sizes were calculated in order to assess clinical effect. The 2 x 3 mixed model anova revealed significant effect for time (F = 77.8; P < 0.001) but not for side (F = 0.2; P = 0.7) for changes in PPT over the masseter muscle and over the temporalis muscle (time: F = 66.8; P < 0.001; side: F = 0.07; P = 0.8). Post hoc revealed significant differences between pre-intervention and both post-intervention and follow-up periods (P < 0.001) but not between post-intervention and follow-up period (P = 0.9) for both muscles. Within-group effect sizes were large (d > 1.0) for both follow-up periods in both muscles. The anova found a significant effect for time (F = 78.6; P < 0.001) for changes in pain intensity and active pain-free mouth opening (F = 17.1; P < 0.001). Significant differences were found between pre-intervention and both post-intervention and follow-up periods (P < 0.001) but not between the post-intervention and follow-up period (P > 0.7). Within-group effect sizes were large (d > 0.8) for both post-intervention and follow-up periods. The application of treatment directed at the cervical spine may be beneficial in decreasing pain intensity, increasing PPTs over the masticatory muscles and an increasing pain-free mouth opening in patients with myofascial TMD. PMID:19627454

  10. Palliative Surgery in Treating Painful Metastases of the Upper Cervical Spine: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xinghuo; Ye, Zhewei; Pu, Feifei; Chen, Songfeng; Wang, Baichuan; Zhang, Zhicai; Yang, Cao; Yang, Shuhua; Shao, Zengwu

    2016-05-01

    Increased incidence of upper cervical metastases and higher life expectancy resulted in higher operative rates in patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the methods and the clinical outcomes of palliative surgery for cervical spinal metastases.A systematic review of a 15-case series of upper cervical metastases treated with palliative surgery was performed. All cases underwent palliative surgery, including anterior tumor resection and internal fixation in 3 cases, posterior tumor resection and internal fixation in 10 cases, and combined anterior and posterior tumor resection and internal fixation in 2 cases. Patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically after the operation, and visual analog scale (VAS) and activities of daily living scores were calculated. In addition, a literature review was performed and patients with upper cervical spine metastases were analyzed.The mean follow-up period was 12.5 months (range, 3-26 months) in this consecutive case series. The pain was substantially relieved in 93.3% (14/15) of the patients after the operation. The VAS and Japanese Orthopedic Association scores showed improved clinical outcomes, from 7.86 ± 1.72 and 11.13 ± 2.19 preoperatively to 2.13 ± 1.40 and 14.26 ± 3.03 postoperatively, respectively. The mean survival time was 9.5 months (range, 5-26 months). Dural tear occurred in 1 patient. Wound infections, instrumentation failure, and postoperative death were not observed. Among our cases and other cases reported in the literature, 72% of the patients were treated with simple anterior or posterior operation, and only 12% of the patients (3/25) underwent complex combined anterior and posterior operation.Metastatic upper cervical spine disease is not a rare occurrence. Balancing the perspective of patients on palliative surgery concerning the clinical benefits of operation versus its operative risks can assist the decision for surgery. PMID:27149472

  11. Airway management for cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Farag, Ehab

    2016-03-01

    Cervical spine surgery is one of the most commonly performed spine surgeries in the United States, and 90% of the cases are related to degenerative cervical spine disease (the rest to cervical spine trauma and/or instability). The airway management for cervical spine surgery represents a crucial step in the anesthetic management to avoid injury to the cervical cord. The crux for upper airway management for cervical spine surgery is maintaining the neck in a neutral position with minimal neck movement during endotracheal intubation. Therefore, the conventional direct laryngoscopy (DL) can be unsuitable for securing the upper airway in cervical spine surgery, especially in cases of cervical spine instability and myelopathy. This review discusses the most recent evidence-based facts of the main advantages and limitations of different techniques available for upper airway management for cervical spine surgery. PMID:27036600

  12. Cervical spine injury: tiger attack.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Meredith; Utter, Philip; Szatkowski, Jan; Patrick, Todd; Duncan, William; Turner, Norman; Dekutoski, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Reports of tiger attacks in the United States are rare. This article presents a case of a young woman who was violently attacked by a Siberian tiger and sustained penetrating trauma to the neck, cervical spine, and bilateral lower extremities. This article presents both diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients who may present with similar injuries. Animal bites from large animals are prone to infection in 10% to 20% of cases. Most infections are polymicrobial, with Pasteurella multicida being the most common isolate. Animal bites also mandate consideration of tetanus and rabies prophylaxis. The decision to administer postexposure rabies prophylaxis is dependent on the type of animal involved, whether the exposure was provoked, the local epidemiology of rabies, and the availability of the animal for observation or testing. Assessment of patients with cervical spine injury requires knowledge of possible associated injuries. Evaluation involves assessment of plain radiographs and computed tomography for evaluation of the cervical spine for bony injury. Furthermore, computed angiography is advantageous to noninvasively evaluate carotid or vertebral artery injury at the same setting in patients with deep cervical puncture wounds. Surgical treatment of unstable cervical spine fractures with lateral mass screw and rod fixation has been reported in the literature to have superior biomechanical properties compared to anterior and posterior instrumentation and fusion. In recent clinical studies, the use of lateral mass screws for traumatic injury of the cervical spine has been associated with excellent maintenance of alignment and minimal complications. PMID:19226051

  13. Osteotomies in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Derman, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Rigid cervical deformities are difficult problems to treat. The goals of surgical treatment include deformity correction, achieving a rigid fusion, and performing a thorough neural decompression. In stiff and ankylosed cervical spines, osteotomies are required to restore sagittal and coronal balance. In this chapter, we describe the clinical and radiographic workup for patients with cervical deformities, and delineate the various factors that must be considered when planning surgical treatment. We also describe in detail the various types of cervical osteotomies, along with their surgical technique, advantages, and potential complications. PMID:26949476

  14. Unusual cervical spine epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jr-Han; Su, Yu-Jang

    2015-10-01

    A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complain of severe neck pain and anterior chest pain. Intermittent fever in the recent 2 days was also noted. There is a track maker over his left side of neck. The laboratory examination showed leukocytosis and high C-reactive protein level. Urine drug screen was positive for opiate. Empirical antibiotic administration was given. Blood culture grew gram-positive cocci in chain, and there was no vegetation found by heart echocardiogram. However, progressive weakness of four limbs was noted, and patient even cannot stand up and walk. The patient also complained of numbness sensation over bilateral hands and legs, and lower abdomen. Acute urine retention occurred. We arranged magnetic resonance imaging survey, which showed evidence of inflammatory process involving the retropharyngeal spaces and epidural spaces from the skull base to the bony level of T5. Epidural inflammatory process resulted in compression of the spinal cord and bilateral neural foramen narrowing. Neurosurgeon was consulted. Operation with laminectomy and posterior fusion with bone graft and internal fixation was done. Culture of epidural abscess and 2 sets of blood culture all yielded methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. For epidural abscess, the most common involved spine is lumbar followed by thoracic and cervical spine. Diagnosis and treatment in the drug abusers are still challenging because they lack typical presentation, drug compliance, and adequate follow-up and because it is hard to stop drug abuser habit. Significant improvement of neurological deficit can be expected in most spinal abscess in drug abusers after treatment. PMID:26298050

  15. The Effect of an Analgesic Mobilization Technique When Applied at Symptomatic or Asymptomatic Levels of the Cervical Spine in Subjects with Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schomacher, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this single-blinded, randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of a manual treatment technique on neck pain and movement sensation when applied in different segments of the cervical spine. Consecutive patients with neck pain (n=126) were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups (A or B). Group A received a single 4-minute pain-alleviating traction at the most symptomatic zygopophyseal joint of the cervical segment, where movement was correlated with pain. Group B received the same treatment 3 segments away from the concordant segment. Pain intensity and sensation of movement were assessed with a numeric rating scale (NRS). Statistical analysis included a t-test for paired and unpaired samples. Pre- and post-test findings demonstrated significant improvements in both types of mobilization although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Similar results have been reported in the literature for cervical manipulation. The findings of this study question the necessity of precise symptom localization tests for a pain treatment. however, limitations of the study prevent generalization of these results. PMID:20046552

  16. Cervical Spine Instrumentation in Children.

    PubMed

    Hedequist, Daniel J; Emans, John B

    2016-06-01

    Instrumentation of the cervical spine enhances stability and improves arthrodesis rates in children undergoing surgery for deformity or instability. Various morphologic and clinical studies have been conducted in children, confirming the feasibility of anterior or posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine with modern implants. Knowledge of the relevant spine anatomy and preoperative imaging studies can aid the clinician in understanding the pitfalls of instrumentation for each patient. Preoperative planning, intraoperative positioning, and adherence to strict surgical techniques are required given the small size of children. Instrumentation options include anterior plating, occipital plating, and a variety of posterior screw techniques. Complications related to screw malposition include injury to the vertebral artery, neurologic injury, and instrumentation failure. PMID:27097300

  17. [Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient].

    PubMed

    Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A

    2014-03-01

    Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients. PMID:24050606

  18. [Spondylarthrosis of the cervical spine. Therapy].

    PubMed

    Radl, R; Leixner, G; Stihsen, C; Windhager, R

    2013-09-01

    Chronic neck pain is often associated with spondylarthrosis, whereby segments C4/C5 (C: cervical) are most frequently affected. Spondylarthrosis can be the sole complaint, but it is associated with a degenerative cascade of the spine. The umbrella term for neck pain is the so-called cervical syndrome, which can be differentiated into segmental dysfunction and/or morphological changes of the intervertebral discs and small joints of the vertebral column. Conservative therapy modalities include physical therapy, subcutaneous application of local anesthetics, muscle, nerve and facet joint injections in addition to adequate analgesic and muscle relaxant therapy. If surgery is required, various techniques via dorsal and ventral approaches, depending on the clinic and morphologic changes, can be applied. PMID:23989596

  19. Palliative surgery for cervical spine metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Jai; Tiruchelvarayan, Rajendra; Lee, Lester

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to assess the immediate/early clinical outcomes and surgical results of 11 consecutive patients who underwent palliative cervical spine surgery for symptomatic spinal metastases. METHODS This single-surgeon retrospective case series analysed 12 surgical procedures that were performed for symptomatic cervical spinal metastasis in 11 consecutive patients. All surgeries were carried out at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, from 2007 to 2013. Preoperative medical oncological assessment/staging was performed on each patient – all patients presented with either axial neck pain or neurological deficits, and had no bladder or bowel symptoms. The primary outcomes analysed were postoperative neurological power and improvement in neck pain. RESULTS Anterior (n = 5), posterior (n = 4) and combined (n = 2) surgical approaches were used for decompression and stabilisation. Comparing between pre- and postoperative pain scores (scored according to the visual analog scale), and pre- and postoperative limb power scores (scored according to the Medical Research Council scale for muscle strength), we found that all patients showed improvement in their symptoms. Postoperatively, patients had either improvement or preservation of neurological power, and all patients had a decrease in axial neck pain after surgery. Although there was one case of minor pedicle screw instrumentation malplacement, this did not result in any neurological symptoms. Median survival for the patients was 108 (range 7‒1,095) days. CONCLUSION Palliative surgery for cervical spine metastasis is safe with good neurological results, low complication rates, and improvement in neck pain. A multidisciplinary approach involving surgeons, medical oncologists and radiotherapists is needed to optimise patient care and outcome. PMID:25631966

  20. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  1. Non-rigid registration of cervical spine MRI volumes.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Mst Nargis; Jahangir Alam, Md; Pickering, Mark; Webb, Alexandra; Perriman, Diana

    2015-08-01

    Whiplash is the colloquial term for neck injuries caused by sudden extension of the cervical spine. Patients with chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD) can experience neck pain for many years after the original injury. Researchers have found some evidence to suggest that chronic whiplash is related to the amount of intra-muscular fat in the cervical spine muscles. Hence, an important step towards developing a treatment for chronic WAD is a technique to accurately and efficiently measure the amount of intra-muscular fat in the muscles of the cervical spine. Our proposed technique for making this measurement is to automatically segment the cervical spine muscles using a fused volume created from multi-modal MRI volumes of the cervical spine. Multiple modes are required to enhance the boundaries between the different muscles to assist the following automatic segmentation process. However, before these multiple modes can be fused it is first necessary to accurately register these volumes. Hence, in this paper, we have proposed a new non-rigid multi-modal registration algorithm using the sum of conditional variance (SCV) with partial volume interpolation (PVI) similarity measure and Gauss-Newton (GN) optimization for the accurate registration of multi-modal cervical spine MRI volumes. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the existing SCV based registration algorithm and the sum of the conditional squared deviation from the mode (SCSDM) method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides superior performance than the best existing approaches. PMID:26736677

  2. Progressive dysphagia and neck pain due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the cervical spine: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Ruan, Dike; He, Qing; Wen, Tianyong; Yang, Pushan

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is considered an underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic nonprimary osteoarthritis. The etiology of DISH remains unknown and the validated diagnostic criteria are absent. This condition is still recognized radiologically only. Rarely, large projecting anterior osteophytes result in esophageal impingement and distortion leading to dysphagia. We report the case of progressive dysphagia and neck pain due to DISH of the cervical spine in a 70-year-old man, which was surgically removed with excellent postoperative results and complete resolution of symptoms. Imaging studies, surgical findings, and histopathological examinations were used to support the diagnosis. The patient was successfully treated with total excision of the anterior osteophytes with no evidence of recurrence 12 months after surgery. In this report, we also discuss the clinical features and perioperative considerations in combination with a literature review. Our patient illustrates that clinicians should be aware of this rare clinical manifestation as the presenting feature of DISH in cervical spine. Surgical decompression through osteophytectomy is effective for patients who fail conservative treatment. PMID:24729695

  3. Airway management in cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

    2014-01-01

    To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

  4. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  5. Radiographic Comparison between Cervical Spine Lateral and Whole-Spine Lateral Standing Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Kang, Hwa Jun; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective radiologic study. Objective?The sagittal alignment of the cervical spine can be evaluated using either a lateral cervical radiograph or a whole-spine lateral view on which the cervical spine is included. To our knowledge, however, no report has compared the two. The purpose of this work is to identify the difference in radiographic parameters between the cervical spine lateral view and the whole-spine lateral view. Methods?We retrospectively analyzed 59 adult patients suffering from neck pain with cervical spine lateral radiographs and whole-spine lateral radiographs from November 2007 to December 2011. The radiographs were measured using standard techniques to obtain the following parameters from the two different radiographs: occipitalC2 angle, C2C7 angle, C7sternal angle, sternal slope, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, the distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, C4 anteroposterior (AP) diameter, the ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, the ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter. Results?We found that the occipitalC2 angle, sternal slope, and C4 AP diameter were similar, but the C2C7 angle, C7sternal angle, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, and ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter were different. However, the error of measurement was greater than the small angular and linear differences between the two views. Conclusions?Most numerical values of the measured radiographic parameters appear to be different between the two views. However, the two views are comparable because the numerical differences were smaller than the errors of measurement.

  6. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  7. Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.

    PubMed

    Sovio, O M; Van Peteghem, P K; Schweigel, J F

    1984-03-15

    Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. PMID:6697282

  8. Developmental biomechanics of the human cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nuckley, David J; Linders, David R; Ching, Randal P

    2013-04-01

    Head and neck injuries, the leading cause of death for children in the U.S., are difficult to diagnose, treat, and prevent because of a critical void in our understanding of the biomechanical response of the immature cervical spine. The objective of this study was to investigate the functional and failure biomechanics of the cervical spine across multiple axes of loading throughout maturation. A correlational study design was used to examine the relationships governing spinal maturation and biomechanical flexibility curves and tolerance data using a cadaver human in vitro model. Eleven human cadaver cervical spines from across the developmental spectrum (2-28 years) were dissected into segments (C1-C2, C3-C5, and C6-C7) for biomechanical testing. Non-destructive flexibility tests were performed in tension, compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. After measuring their intact biomechanical responses, each segment group was failed in different modes to measure the tissue tolerance in tension (C1-C2), compression (C3-C5), and extension (C5-C6). Classical injury patterns were observed in all of the specimens tested. Both the functional (p<0.014) and failure (p<0.0001) mechanics exhibited significant relationships with age. Nonlinear flexibility curves described the functional response of the cervical spine throughout maturation and elucidated age, spinal level, and mode of loading specificity. These data support our understanding of the child cervical spine from a developmental perspective and facilitate the generation of injury prevention or management schema for the mitigation of child spine injuries and their deleterious effects. PMID:23415075

  9. Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1982-05-01

    Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

  10. Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Arne; Niedeggen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    The cervical spine (CS) is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support) which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its joint and the surrounding muscles are highly interconnected (e.g. direct neuronal projections into the brain stem, connections to the TMJ, Head's zones with projections to the skin surface). Moreover, the spinal pain memory store can lead to a variets of multi-facette clinical pictures. In addition to reversible disorders of the cervical spine, posttraumatic disorders play a major role. The therapy options available include physiotherapy, drug therapy and surgical measures. However, a multidisciplinary approach is most favourable. PMID:22073068

  11. Cervical Spine Injuries and the Return to Football

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background: The literature dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine injuries is considerable. Absent, however, are comprehensive criteria or guidelines for permitting or prohibiting return to collusion activities such as tackle football. Objective: The purpose of this report is to describe developmental and posttraumatic conditions of the cervical spine as presenting (1) no contraindication, (2) relative contraindication, or (3) an absolute contraindication to continued participation in tackle football and other contact activities. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: Analysis of data compiled from more than 1200 cervical spine injuries documented by the National Football Head and Neck Registry, in addition to a review of the limited published literature, plus an understanding of the recognized axial load injury mechanism and extensive anecdotal experience. Conclusion: The one overriding principle regarding the return to football or, for that matter, any collusion activity is that the individual be asymptomatic, pain-free, and neurologically intact and have full strength and full range of cervical motion. PMID:23015896

  12. Dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tan, Andrew M; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a significant unmet medical need in patients with variety of injury or disease insults to the nervous system. Neuropathic pain often presents as a painful sensation described as electrical, burning, or tingling. Currently available treatments have limited effectiveness and narrow therapeutic windows for safety. More powerful analgesics, e.g., opioids, carry a high risk for chemical dependence. Thus, a major challenge for pain research is the elucidation of the mechanisms that underlie neuropathic pain and developing targeted strategies to alleviate pathological pain. The mechanistic link between dendritic spine structure and circuit function could explain why neuropathic pain is difficult to treat, since nociceptive processing pathways are adversely "hard-wired" through the reorganization of dendritic spines. Several studies in animal models of neuropathic pain have begun to reveal the functional contribution of dendritic spine dysgenesis in neuropathic pain. Previous reports have demonstrated three primary changes in dendritic spine structure on nociceptive dorsal horn neurons following injury or disease, which accompany chronic intractable pain: (I) increased density of dendritic spines, particularly mature mushroom-spine spines, (II) redistribution of spines toward dendritic branch locations close to the cell body, and (III) enlargement of the spine head diameter, which generally presents as a mushroom-shaped spine. Given the important functional implications of spine distribution, density, and shape for synaptic and neuronal function, the study of dendritic spine abnormality may provide a new perspective for investigating pain, and the identification of specific molecular players that regulate spine morphology may guide the development of more effective and long-lasting therapies. PMID:25445354

  13. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury From Diving Accident.

    PubMed

    Voland, Christelle; Vilarino, Raquel; Grabherr, Silke; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injuries result after diving into shallow water, often after incautious jumps head first into water of unknown depth during recreational or sport activities. Mortality is generally due to upper cervical trauma. The authors present a case of a diving-related death in a young woman who underwent medicolegal investigations. The measured water depth at the supposed dive site was 1.40 m. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed fractures of the body and the posterior arch of the fifth cervical vertebra, a fracture of the right transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra and hemorrhages involving the cervical paraspinal muscles. Neuropathology showed a posterior epidural hematoma involving the whole cervical region and a symmetric laceration of the spinal cord located at the fourth and fifth cervical vertebra level, surrounded by multiple petechial hemorrhages. Toxicology revealed the presence of ethanol in both blood and urine samples. The death was attributed to cervical spine fracture (C5-C6), spinal cord contusion, and subsequent drowning. This case highlights the usefulness of postmortem radiology, examination of the deep structures of the neck, toxicology, neuropathology, and a detailed research of signs of drowning to formulate appropriate hypotheses pertaining to the cause and mechanism of death. PMID:26108039

  14. Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James

    2009-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closure and esophageal exclusion with a Jpeg tube. The patient was eventually successfully treated with a three-stage procedure consisting of firstly a posterior approach to reinforce the posterior stabilization of the cervical spine that was felt to be inadequate, secondly an anterior approach with removal of all the anterior instrumentation followed by iliac crest bone graft and thirdly a superior based sternocleidomastoid flap that was interposed between the esophagus and the anterior cervical spine. The patient's fistula healed successfully. However, yet asymptomatic, the anterior iliac crest bone graft resorbed almost completely at 16 months follow up. In light of this complication, we discuss the surgical options for the treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistulae and the closure of this fistula using a superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. PMID:19330360

  15. [Surgical aspects of the cervical spine in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Grob, D

    2004-10-01

    Approximately 20% percent of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis show pathology in the cervical spine. The translational instability between axis and atlas might be painful and leads in the long term to myelopathic changes due to chronic traumatization of the myelon. Ongoing osseous resorption of the lateral masses of the atlas cause upward migration of the dens into the foramen magnum. In the subaxial cervical spine, the inflammatory process causes instability and deformity. Neck pain is the most common indication for surgery, but neurological symptoms with myelopathy or radicular deficits might be the primary cause for surgery. Neurophysiological investigation is suitable to obtain objective results. Stabilization of the atlantoaxial segment is the most common procedure for treatment of atlantoaxial instability. It is performed by screw fixation technique from a posterior approach. In case of severe occipitocervical dislocation, the fixation has to be extended to the occiput. Persistent dislocation or compression by the dislocated dens has to be treated by transoral decompression. In the subaxial spine, instabilities may be treated by posterior plate fixation with lateral mass screws or pedicle screws. Concomitant nar-rowing of the spinal canal should be approached by anterior decompression with corpectomy and/or posterior laminectomy. The timing of surgery in rheumatoid patients is crucial to obtain satisfactory clinical results. PMID:15375655

  16. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... oira_submission@omb.eop.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine...- ] NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE CERVICAL SPINE AMONG PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Passos Cardoso, André Luiz; Da Silva, Nilzio Antonio; Daher, Sérgio; De Moraes, Frederico Barra; Do Carmo, Humberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical spine abnormalities among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and correlate the imaging findings with the clinical state. Methods: A cross-sectional study on 35 patients was carried out at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) in 2004. The following were evaluated: age, use of medications and the clinical picture of pain and neurological characteristics. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and rheumatoid factor were tested, and radiographs of the cervical spine were produced in anteroposterior, lateral and dynamic views. To evaluate the influence of the variables on the emergence of instabilities, univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used (p < 0.05). Results: Among the 35 patients evaluated, 13 (37.1%) presented a stable cervical spine. Out of the 22 patients with instability, six presented more than one type. Atlantoaxial instability was found in 15 patients, with a mean anterior atlantodental distance of 3.40 mm in the neutral lateral radiographic view and 6.54 mm in the lateral view with flexion. Basilar invagination was found in five patients and subaxial subluxation in seven patients. Two thirds of the asymptomatic patients had instabilities. Bicipital hyperreflexia presented statistically significant correlations with atlantoaxial instability (p = 0.024) and subaxial instability (p = 0.01). Age at diagnosis correlated with subaxial instability (p = 0.02). Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical instability was 62.9 % (22/35). The most frequent instabilities were: atlantoaxial subluxation (42.9 %), subaxial subluxation (20%) and basilar invagination (14.3%). The correlation between instabilities and clinical signs and symptoms was poor. The patients with subaxial subluxation presented disease onset at a younger age. Dynamic radiography was important for diagnosing atlantoaxial subluxation.

  18. Unusual cervical spine injury by fishing harpoon.

    PubMed

    Mouzopoulos, George; Tzurbakis, Mathaios

    2009-08-01

    Modern fishing and hunting weapons are powerful and capable of causing severe tissue damage, similarly to gunshot wounds. The principles of management after fish harpoon penetrating injuries include primary basic life support, followed by trajectory surgical removal and wound care. Clinicians should know about the structures and the mechanisms of fishing harpoons and how to manage these injuries to avoid fatal complications. Lesions to the neck produced by underwater fishing harpoon, are extremely rare. Herein we describe a case of an unusual injury of cervical spine by fishing harpoon, and we discuss the appropriate management. PMID:19593891

  19. Misdiagnosing Absent Pedicle of Cervical Spine in the Acute Trauma Setting.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Fahad H; Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026

  20. Misdiagnosing Absent Pedicle of Cervical Spine in the Acute Trauma Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026

  1. Cervical Spine Imaging in Hospitalized Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tellen D.; Bratton, Susan L.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Scaife, Eric R.; Nance, Michael L.; Prince, Jeffrey S.; Wilkes, Jacob; Keenan, Heather T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In children with TBI, to describe cervical spine imaging practice, to assess for recent changes in imaging practice, and to determine if cervical spine CT is being used in children at low risk for cervical spine injury. Methods The setting was children’s hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System database, January, 2001 to June, 2011. Participants were children (age < 18 years) with TBI who were evaluated in the Emergency Department, admitted to the hospital, and received a head CT scan on the day of admission. The primary outcome measures were cervical spine imaging studies. This study was exempted from IRB review. Results 30,112 children met study criteria. Overall, 52% (15,687/30,112) received cervical spine imaging. Use of cervical spine radiographs alone decreased between 2001 (47%) and 2011 (23%), annual decrease 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–3.3%), largely replaced by increased use of CT, with or without radiographs (8.6% in 2001, 19.5% in 2011, annual increase 0.9%, 95% CI 0.1–1.8%). 2,545 children received a cervical spine CT despite being discharged alive from the hospital in < 72 hours, and 1,655 of those had a low-risk mechanism of injury. Conclusions The adoption of CT clearance of the cervical spine in adults appears to have influenced the care of children with TBI, despite concerns about radiation exposure. PMID:25803749

  2. Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    The normal cervical spine may appear abnormal due to several factors, namely: The complexity of the cervical vertebra, the normal variation, the superimposition of the adjacent vertebrae, and the superimposition of structures outside the spine such as the craniofacial and laryngeal structures.

  3. High Grade Infective Spondylolisthesis of Cervical Spine Secondary to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hadgaonkar, Shailesh; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2015-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis coexisting with tuberculosis is rarely reported. There is a controversy whether spondylolisthesis coexists or precedes tuberculosis. Few cases of pathological spondylolisthesis secondary to tuberculous spondylodiscitis have been reported in the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. All cases in the literature presented as anterolisthesis, except one which presented as posterolisthesis of lumbar spine. Spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine is mainly degenerative and traumatic. Spondylolisthesis due to tuberculosis is not reported in the lower cervical spine. The exact mechanism of such an occurrence of spondylolisthesis with tuberculosis is sparsely reported in the literature and inadequately understood. We report a rare case of high grade pathological posterolisthesis of the lower cervical spine due to tubercular spondylodiscitis in a 67-year-old woman managed surgically with a three-year follow-up period. This case highlights the varied and complex presentation of tuberculosis of the lower cervical spine and gives insight into its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. PMID:26640638

  4. Rugby injuries of the upper cervical spine. Case reports.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1983-09-17

    Fractures and dislocations of the upper cervical spine (atlas and axis) differ markedly from those of the lower cervical spine (C3 - C7) because of the unique anatomy and function of these two vertebrae. Case reports of 4 rugby players who sustained serious injuries of the upper cervical spine are presented. The role of the high tackle in causing these injuries is described and the association of head and upper cervical spinal trauma is emphasized. The radiological management of the player with suspected injury is outlined. PMID:6623223

  5. From less to maximally invasiveness in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Visocchi, M.; Conforti, G.; Roselli, R.; La Rocca, G.; Spallone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multilevel cervical myelopathy without surgical treatment is generally poor in the neurological deficit without surgical decompression. The two main surgical strategies used for the treatment of multilevel cervical myelopathy are anterior decompression via anterior corpectomy or posterior decompression via laminctomy/laminoplasty. Presentation of case We present the case of a 62 year-old lady, harboring rheumatoid artritis (RA) with gait disturbances, pain, and weakness in both arms. A C5 and C6 somatectomy, C4–C7 discectomy and, instrumentation and fusion with telescopic distractor “piston like”, anterior plate and expandable screws were performed. Two days later the patient complained dysfagia, and a cervical X-ray showed hardware dislocation. So a C4 somatectomy, telescopic extension of the construct up to C3 with expandible screws was performed. After one week the patient complained again soft dysfagia. New cervical X-ray showed the pull out of the cranial screws (C3). So the third surgery “one stage combined” an anterior decompression with fusion along with posterior instrumentation, and fusion was performed. Discussion There is a considerable controversy over which surgical approach will receive the best clinical outcome for the minimum cost in the compressive cervical myelopathy. However, the most important factors in patient selection for a particular procedure are the clinical symptoms and the radiographic alignment of the spine. the goals of surgery for cervical multilevel stenosis include the restoration of height, alignment, and stability. Conclusion We stress the importance of a careful patients selection, and invocated still the importance for 360° cervical fixation. PMID:25734320

  6. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  7. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Taku

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  8. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Taku

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  9. Protocol to Clear Cervical Spine Injuries in Pediatric Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Pamela M; Alwood, Shannon M; Zeretzke-Bien, Cristina; Chalasani, Swathi; Herskovitz, Scott; Blanchard, Meagan C; Lin, Yea Ping

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation to which young trauma patients are subjected, a cervical spine clearance project was implemented. The aim was to increase the number of pediatric trauma patients clinically cleared and decrease the number of such patients undergoing cervical spine CT imaging when they met clinical clearance criteria. To accomplish the goals, a brief education program about the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine injuries, radiation exposure risks, and safe and effective means available for cervical spine clearance to pediatric trauma providers was delivered. This was made possible through funds awarded by the AHRA & Toshiba Putting Patients First grant. Mean knowledge scores after the program increased significantly for all groups of providers. This study showed that after implementation of the cervical spine clinical clearance protocol, there was an increase of 35.7% in the number of patients who were clinically cleared based on the protocol's criteria. Additionally, a 24%. decrease was seen in the number of pediatric patients undergoing CT scans of the cervical spine when they met criteria for clinical clearance of the cervical spine. PMID:26571972

  10. The Burden of Clostridium difficile after Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Javier Z; Skovrlj, Branko; Rothenberg, Edward S; Lu, Young; McAnany, Steven; Cho, Samuel K; Hecht, Andrew C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective database analysis. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate incidence, comorbidities, and impact on health care resources of Clostridium difficile infection after cervical spine surgery. Methods A total of 1,602,130 cervical spine surgeries from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2002 to 2011 were included. Patients were included for study based on International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedural codes for cervical spine surgery for degenerative spine diagnoses. Baseline patient characteristics were determined. Multivariable analyses assessed factors associated with increased incidence of C. difficile and risk of mortality. Results Incidence of C. difficile infection in postoperative cervical spine surgery hospitalizations is 0.08%, significantly increased since 2002 (p < 0.0001). The odds of postoperative C. difficile infection were significantly increased in patients with comorbidities such as congestive heart failure, renal failure, and perivascular disease. Circumferential cervical fusion (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, p < 0.0001) increased the likelihood of developing C. difficile infection after degenerative cervical spine surgery. C. difficile infection after cervical spine surgery results in extended length of stay (p < 0.0001) and increased hospital costs (p < 0.0001). Mortality rate in patients who develop C. difficile after cervical spine surgery is nearly 8% versus 0.19% otherwise (p < 0.0001). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed C. difficile to be a significant predictor of inpatient mortality (OR = 3.99, p < 0.0001). Conclusions C. difficile increases the risk of in-hospital mortality and costs approximately $6,830,695 per year to manage in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery. Patients with comorbidities such as renal failure or congestive heart failure have increased probability of developing infection after surgery. Accepted antibiotic guidelines in this population must be followed to decrease the risk of developing postoperative C. difficile colitis. PMID:27190732

  11. Complications of Anterior and Posterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Jason Pui Yin

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spine surgery performed for the correct indications yields good results. However, surgeons need to be mindful of the many possible pitfalls. Complications may occur starting from the anaesthestic procedure and patient positioning to dura exposure and instrumentation. This review examines specific complications related to anterior and posterior cervical spine surgery, discusses their causes and considers methods to prevent or treat them. In general, avoiding complications is best achieved with meticulous preoperative analysis of the pathology, good patient selection for a specific procedure and careful execution of the surgery. Cervical spine surgery is usually effective in treating most pathologies and only a reasonable complication rate exists. PMID:27114784

  12. Cervical spine surgery in professional athletes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Hsu, Wellington K; Patel, Alpesh A

    2016-04-01

    Cervical surgery is one of the most common surgical spinal procedures performed around the world. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature reporting the outcomes of cervical spine surgery in high-level athletes in order to better understand the nuances of cervical spine pathology in this population. A search of the MEDLINE database using the search terms "cervical spine" AND "surgery" AND "athletes" yielded 54 abstracts. After exclusion of publications that did not meet the criteria for inclusion, a total of 8 papers reporting the outcome of cervical spine surgery in professional or elite athletes treated for symptoms secondary to cervical spine pathology (focusing in degenerative conditions) remained for analysis. Five of these involved the management of cervical disc herniation, 3 were specifically about traumatic neurapraxia. The majority of the patients included in this review were American football players. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) was commonly performed in high-level athletes for the treatment of cervical disc herniation. Most of the studies suggested that return to play is safe for athletes who are asymptomatic after ACDF for cervical radiculopathy due to disc herniation. Surgical treatment may provide a higher rate of return to play for these athletes than nonsurgical treatment. Return to play after cervical spinal cord contusion may be possible in asymptomatic patients. Cervical cord signal changes on MRI may not be an absolute contraindication for return to play in neurologically intact patients, according to some authors. Cervical contusions secondary to cervical stenosis may be associated with a worse outcome and a higher recurrence rate than those those secondary to disc herniation. The evidence is low (Level IV) and individualized treatment must be recommended. PMID:27032913

  13. Tumoral calcinosis involving the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Nashimoto, Takeo; Shibuya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of calcified masses in the juxta-articular regions of the extremities. Involvement of the cervical spine is very rare. In this report, the characteristics of TC of the cervical spine, including the clinical presentation, radiographic features, and surgical management are discussed. Case Description: A 90-year-old healthy female suffering from numbness of the upper extremities for 3 months presented with a 2-week history of progressive weakness of the lower extremities. A neurological examination revealed mild weakness and sensory impairment of the bilateral upper and lower extremities. Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated amorphous calcified masses posterior to the spinous process that extended into the interlaminar spaces of C3/4 and C4/5. The masses involved the posterior elements of C3-C4. Interestingly, CT scans performed 4 years earlier showed subtle calcification of a yellow ligament at C3/4 and C4/5. However, neither calcified masses nor bone erosion were observed. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the mass showed hypointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was compressing the spinal cord and was resected surgically. The pathological findings were consistent with those of TC. The natural history of TC is not understood. However, this case suggests that calcified masses may progress within several years and that the bone around the mass may be involved. Postoperatively, residual masses may disappear spontaneously, while new bone is formed in the erosive lamina and facet. Conclusion: The treatment of choice for TC, if the lesion causes progressive symptoms, is surgical resection. PMID:26167361

  14. Cervical spine models for biomechanical research.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, M M

    1998-12-15

    Biomechanical models have been used for the understanding of the basic normal function and dysfunction of the cervical spine and for testing implants and devices. Biomechanical models can be broadly categorized into four groups: 1) Physical models, made of nonanatomic material (e.g., plastic blocks), are often used for the testing of spinal instrumentation when only the device is to be evaluated. 2) In vitro models consisting of a cadaveric spine specimen are useful in providing basic understanding of the functioning of the spine. Human specimens are more suitable for these models than are animal specimens whenever anatomy, size (for instrumentation), and kinematics are important. Animal specimens are less costly, easier to obtain, and often have less variability but should be used with care because of the absence of anatomic fidelity with the human. 3) In vivo animal models provide the means to model living phenomena, such as fusion, development of disc degeneration, instability, and adaptive responses in segments adjacent to spinal instrumentation. Choosing the appropriate animal is important. The appropriate animal should have spinal loading, kinematics, kinetics, vertebral size, and healing-fusion rates as similar to those in humans as possible. For better interpretation of in vivo animal experimental results, in vitro biomechanical study using the same animal cadaveric specimen is useful but has not been used routinely. 4) Computer models are developed from mathematical equations that incorporate geometry and physical characteristics of the human spine and may be advantageously used for problems that are difficult to model by other means. Examples are the changes in disc and vertebral stresses in response to graded transection of facet joints and the study of changes in endplate loading caused by disc degeneration. Because these models are purely mathematical, their validation is essential. Validation is best achieved by first incorporating high-quality geometry and physical characteristics of the human spine and then comparing the model predictions with experimental observations. Sometimes an enthusiastic researcher may use a computer model beyond its validation boundary, making the model's predictions unreliable. In general, it is important to remember that a biomechanical model, similar to any other model, represents only a certain aspect of the real living human being. The aspect chosen for representation should be selected with great care. The model should be designed to answer specifically the question asked. Its predictions are valid only within the boundaries of assumptions and limitations that it incorporates. PMID:9879095

  15. Cervical spine surgery in ankylosing spondylitis: Review and current concept.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, J-Y; d'Astorg, H; Rousseau, M-A

    2015-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis of the cervical spine is associated with stiff kyphosis and increased risk of transversal unstable fracture. A spine surgeon may be involved mainly in the management of trauma cases, but in some situations, corrective surgery of a kyphotic cervical deformity is needed. Both types of cases carry specific aspects and rely on principles that differ from those associated with more common cervical surgery. This paper is a review of the literature regarding cervical surgery in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. It addresses practical technical questions. PMID:25863707

  16. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. Purpose To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Study Design Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Methods Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). Results The atlantoaxial (C1–2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4–C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Conclusion Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine. PMID:26866593

  17. Detection of degenerative change in lateral projection cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebri, Beyrem; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative changes to the cervical spine can be accompanied by neck pain, which can result from narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and growth of osteophytes. In a lateral x-ray image of the cervical spine, degenerative changes are characterized by vertebral bodies that have indistinct boundaries and limited spacing between vertebrae. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach to detect and localize degenerative changes in lateral x-ray images of the cervical spine. Starting from a user-supplied set of points in the center of each vertebral body, we fit a central spline, from which a region of interest is extracted and image features are computed. A Random Forest classifier labels regions as degenerative change or normal. Leave-one-out cross-validation studies performed on a dataset of 103 patients demonstrates performance of above 95% accuracy.

  18. Determination of the stiffness of the equine cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Pagger, H; Schmidburg, I; Peham, C; Licka, T

    2010-12-01

    This aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the stiffness of the equine cervical spine depends on the direction of force applied and on spinal position. Muscles and nuchal ligament were removed from the cervical spines of 17 horses that were without a history of cervical or neurological disease. The cervical spines were then flexed/extended dorsoventrally (with the spine straight and with the occiput rotated 30° against T1) and laterolaterally. Mean dorsoventral stiffness was 297 N/m (± 135) in flexion, 1347 N/m (± 2083) in extension, 421 N/m (± 164) in lateral flexion, 279 N/m (± 93) in rotated flexion, and 386 N/m (± 191) in rotated extension. There was a positive correlation between the length of cervical spine and stiffness for dorsoventral flexion (r = 0.63; P < 0.01) and extension (r = 0.53; P < 0.05). The stiffness of the equine cervical spine depended on the direction of the loading and was 2-7 times less than thoracolumbar stiffness in horses. PMID:19850500

  19. A delayed diagnosis of bilateral facet dislocation of the cervical spine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    O’Shaughnessy, Julie; Grenier, Julie-Marthe; Stern, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the case of a patient suffering from bilateral facet dislocation of the cervical spine. Clinical features: A 53-year-old male was involved in a car accident and was transported to the hospital. Cervical radiographs were taken at the emergency department and interpreted as normal. Four days later, he consulted a chiropractor where radiographs of the cervical spine were repeated. The examination revealed bilateral cervical facet joint dislocation at C5–C6 as well as a fracture involving the spinous process and laminae of C6. Intervention and outcome: The patient was referred to the hospital and underwent surgery. Conclusion: Patients involved in motor vehicle accidents often consult chiropractors for neck pain treatment. A high index of suspicion due to significant history and physical examination findings should guide the clinician in determining the need for reviewing the initial radiographs (if taken and available) or request repeat studies, regardless of the initial imaging status. PMID:24587496

  20. Avoiding and Managing Intraoperative Complications During Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Lim, Moe R; Brodke, Darrel S; Lee, Joon Y

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of intraoperative complications in cervical spine surgery is low. However, when they do occur, such complications have the potential for causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Spine surgeons should be familiar with methods of minimizing such complications. Furthermore, if they do occur, surgeons must be prepared to immediately treat each potential complication to reduce any associated morbidity. PMID:26519429

  1. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the bone stronger. Sometimes, patients may need surgery to secure the spine using a bone graft or an internal metal device. A treatment called vertebroplasty may help hold the fractured bone ... X-ray equipment, so open surgery isn’t necessary. Once the needle is in ...

  2. Paravertebral muscles in disease of the cervical spine.

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, S B; Chan, K K; Pickard, J D; Anderson, J R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cervical spine disorders are common in the older population. The paravertebral muscles are essential to the support and stabilisation of the cervical spine but have been little studied. The aim was to determine whether pathological changes develop in these muscles in patients with severe cervical spine disease, which, if present, might contribute to the pathogenesis and symptomatology of their disorder. METHODS: Open biopsies of superficial and deep paravertebral muscles were obtained during the course of surgical procedures to alleviate cervical myelopathy. Most of these patients had cervical spondylosis or rheumatoid arthritis involving the cervical spine. The biopsies were compared with muscle obtained at necropsy from patients without a history of cervical spine or neuromuscular disorder. RESULTS: Muscle from both the study and control groups showed a similar range and severity of abnormalities. In several patients, grouped fibre atrophy suggested chronic partial denervation. Most biopsies showed type 1 fibre predominance and selective type 2 fibre atrophy. Ragged red fibres were a frequent finding and electron microscopy disclosed accumulations of mitochondria, a small proportion of which contained rounded, or longitudinally oriented, single osmiophilic inclusions. Fibres containing core-like areas were also frequent. These pathological features were seen with increasing severity and frequency with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: The paravertebral cervical muscles develop pathological abnormalities with increasing age with both neurogenic and myopathic features, the pathogenesis of which is probably multifactorial. Such a muscle disorder would be expected to be accompanied by functional impairment which may contribute to the development and symptomatology of cervical spine disease with increasing age. Images PMID:8937338

  3. Posterior fusion of the subaxial cervical spine: indications and techniques.

    PubMed

    Liu, J K; Das, K

    2001-01-01

    The biomechanical stability of the subaxial cervical spine (C3-7) can be compromised by numerous pathological processes, and the restoration of stability may ultimately require fusion and placement of rigid internal fixation devices. A posterior fusion and stabilization procedure is often used to treat cervical instability secondary to traumatic injury, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, neoplastic disease, infections, and previous laminectomy. Numerous techniques and advances in spinal instrumentation have evolved over the last 30 years. The authors review the indications and the various methods for stabilizing and fusing the subaxial cervical spine via posterior approaches. PMID:16732634

  4. Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability

    PubMed Central

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

  5. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5–C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  6. Coupled motion of cervical spine in three level hybrid constructs.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhenhua; Pu, Ting; Gu, Hongsheng; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical characters of three-level anterior cervical fusion and hybrid constructs by measuring coupled motion changes of the cervical spine, Eighteen adult human cadaveric cervical spines were biomechanically investigated under eccentric displacement control in lateral bending and axial rotation by measuring vertebral motion (X, Y, Z -axis).The 3DPD condition displayed similar coupled motion compared to the intact condition both in lateral bending and in axial rotation, while the 3PDP condition was similar only in lateral bending. However, the coupled motion of the cervical spine under 3P conditions markedly changed in both lateral bending and axial rotation. Considering the coupled motion characteristics, the 3DPD hybrid construct is biomechanically advantageous in three types of reconstructions (3DPD, 3PDP, 3P). PMID:26406059

  7. Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Joo Kang; Jung, Soo Chang; Lee, Hwang-woo; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Young Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA) on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (P < 0.001). Changes of subjective symptom severity also showed significant improvement (P < 0.05). Conclusion. These cases revealed rudimentary clinical evidence that holistic OA therapy may be related to an alleviated symptom severity and an improved cervical spinal alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy. PMID:23935655

  8. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  9. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  10. Utility of flexion-extension radiography for the detection of ligamentous cervical spine injury and its current role in the clearance of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jason Jaeseong; Asha, Stephen Edward

    2016-04-01

    Detecting the presence of injuries to the cervical spine is an important component of the initial assessment of patients sustaining blunt trauma. A small proportion of cervical spine injuries consists of ligamentous disruption. Accurate detection of ligamentous injury is essential as it may result in sequelae including radiculopathy, quadriplegia and death. Flexion-extension (FE) radiography has traditionally been utilised for the detection of ligamentous injury in patients who have been cleared of bony injury. There are controversies surrounding the use of FE for alert patients with neck pain. There are studies that call into question the diagnostic accuracy of FE, the high proportion of inadequate FE images due to muscle spasm and the adverse effects of prolonged cervical collar immobilisation while awaiting FE. Other literature indicates that FE provides no additional diagnostic information following a multi-detector helical computed tomography. This review evaluates the literature on the utility of FE for the detection of ligamentous injury and explores alternate strategies for clearing the cervical spine of ligamentous injury. PMID:26685877

  11. 'Abnormal' cervical imaging?: Cervical pneumatocysts - A case report of a cervical spine pneumatocyst.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Hanna; Patel, Amit; Boctor, Daniel Sherif Zakaria Matta; Hakmi, Mohamed Atef

    2015-10-01

    To our knowledge there are only 15 reported cases of pneumatocysts in the cervical spine, but awareness of their existence should help the clinician when diagnosing abnormalities in radiological images. When faced with intravertebral gas, in addition to considering more sinister causes, one should consider the differentials including pneumatocysts. Despite our relative lack of understanding of these benign lesions the knowledge that they can change over time should prevent unnecessary testing or treating. We present a patient who fell down stairs and was found to have cervical intravertebral gas, on computed tomography imaging, with the typical appearance of a pneumatocyst. PMID:26719615

  12. Cervical spine injury in dismounted improvised explosive device trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Joseph; Devine, Maj Melissa; McAlister, LCol Vivian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The injury pattern from improvised explosive device (IED) trauma is different if the target is in a vehicle (mounted) or on foot (dismounted). Combat and civilian first response protocols require the placement of a cervical collar on all victims of a blast injury. Methods We searched the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) and the Role 3 Hospital, Kandahar Airfield (KAF) database from Mar. 1, 2008, to May 31, 2011. We collected data on cervical fracture; head injury; traumatic amputation; initial blood pressure, pulse, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and base excess; and patient demographic information. Results The concordance rate between JTTR and KAF databases was 98%. Of the 15 693 admissions in JTTR, 326 patients with dismounted IED injuries were located. The rate of cervical collar prehospital placement was 7.6%. Cervical fractures were found in 19 (5.8%) dismounted IED victims, but only 4 (1.2%) were considered radiographically unstable. None of these 19 patients had prehospital placement of a collar. Patients with cervical spine fractures were more severely injured than those without (ISS 18.2 v. 13.4; GCS 10.1 v. 12.5). Patients with head injuries had significantly higher risk of cervical spine injury than those with no head injury recorded (13.6% v. 3.9%). No differences in frequency of cervical spine injury were found between patients who had associated traumatic amputations and those who did not (5.4% v. 6.0%). Conclusion Dismounted IED is a mechanism of injury associated with a low risk for cervical spine trauma. A selective protocol for cervical collar placement on victims of dismounted IED blasts is possible and may be more amenable to combat situations. PMID:26100769

  13. Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

  14. Assessment of spine pain presence in children and young persons studying in ballet schools

    PubMed Central

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.24±0.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.14±0.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.01±0.84, mean of years of learning ballet 4.64±1.24; 64 students (high school) mean age 17.01±0.77, mean of years of learning ballet 7.47±1.54. Numeric rating scale was used to determine spine pain. [Results] Feelings of pain were analyzed on the basis of “now” and “before” between levels education by using point statistics and statistical tests to compare groups. “Now” exhibited weaker back pain feelings than “before” at all the education levels. There were statistically significant differences in pain feeling for “before” (at any time of learning) and “now” (the day of survey). [Conclusion] All patients reported pain “before” and “now” in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. At all levels of education there were statistically significant differences in feelings of pain between “before” and “now”. PMID:25995566

  15. Assessment of spine pain presence in children and young persons studying in ballet schools.

    PubMed

    Wjcik, Ma?gorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.240.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.140.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.010.84, mean of years of learning ballet 4.641.24; 64 students (high school) mean age 17.010.77, mean of years of learning ballet 7.471.54. Numeric rating scale was used to determine spine pain. [Results] Feelings of pain were analyzed on the basis of "now" and "before" between levels education by using point statistics and statistical tests to compare groups. "Now" exhibited weaker back pain feelings than "before" at all the education levels. There were statistically significant differences in pain feeling for "before" (at any time of learning) and "now" (the day of survey). [Conclusion] All patients reported pain "before" and "now" in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. At all levels of education there were statistically significant differences in feelings of pain between "before" and "now". PMID:25995566

  16. Optimal computed-tomographic techniques for cervical spine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orrison, W.W.; Johansen, J.G.; Eldevik, O.P.; Haughton, V.M.

    1982-07-01

    The authors compare various techniques for optimal computed-tomographic imaging of the cervical spine and find that no single method is adequate for visualizing all anatomic structures. Thin sections are needed to obtain images of intervertebral disks, but thick sections are preferred to obtain images of the spinal cord. Spatial resolution is more important than contrast resolution when imaging the vertebrae. Small-body calibration is recommended for adequate cervical spine visualization, although some artifacts can be minimized when large-body calibration is used.

  17. [Injuries to the upper cervical spine. Part 2: osseous injuries].

    PubMed

    Kandziora, F; Schnake, K; Hoffmann, R

    2010-12-01

    This article for continuing education describes osseous injuries of the upper cervical spine and their treatment. Fractures of the occipital condyles are very rare and mostly result from high-speed traumas. These are usually managed conservatively. Atlas fractures can also usually be treated with immobilization of the cervical spine; in cases of unstable or dislocated injuries, various surgical procedures are employed. Three types of axis fractures can be distinguished: odontoid fractures, traumatic spondylolistheses, which also affect the isthmic region, and atypical fractures in the corpus region. The incidence, classification, diagnostic workup, standard treatment, and characteristics of the fractures mentioned are presented in detail. PMID:21153464

  18. [Initial clinical experiences with the cervical spine titanium locking plate].

    PubMed

    Arnold, W

    1990-12-01

    The titanium CS (cervical spine) locking plate is a system that takes account not only of biochemical aspects, in the choice of material, but also new biomechanical aspects. With the help of a new hollow screwing system, such stability is achieved that in many cases there is no need for a second, dorsal, operation. Ten patients, most of whom had unstable fractures, have so far been treated. No complications attributable to this implantation system were observed. A further step in the attainment of security and stability by operative treatment of cervical spine disorders has been achieved with this system. PMID:2281326

  19. The Relationship between Neck Pain and Cervical Alignment in Young Female Nursing Staff

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang-Hun; Kim, Joo Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kwon, Taek-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Degenerative changes in the cervical spine are commonly accompanied by cervical kyphosis which can cause neck pain. This study examined the relationship between neck pain and cervical alignment. Methods A total of 323 female nursing staff from our hospital were enrolled. Sagittal radiographs of the cervical spine, Body Mass Index (BMI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measures of neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36 scores) were obtained and reviewed retrospectively. Global lordosis (GL) of the cervical spine was measured on radiograph images. Correlations between GL and questionnaire scores were investigated using the following three methods : 1) correlation between GL and questionnaire scores among the entire sample; 2) subgroup analysis of patients with "kyphosis (KYP) : GL scores<0" vs. those with "lordosis (LOR) : GL scores>0" on questionnaire measures; and 3) subgroup analysis of patients with pain vs. those without pain, on GL and questionnaire measures. Results There was no significant correlation between GL and any questionnaire measure. There was a significant difference between the mean GLs of the KYP and LOR groups, but there were no group differences in BMI, age or any questionnaire measures. There was no difference between the pain (n=92) and pain-free (n=231) groups in age, BMI or GL, but there were differences in neck, and arm pain, and physical function and NDI scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that kyphotic deformity was not associated with neck pain. PMID:26539266

  20. Vertebral locking lesion following cervical spine fracture in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, Tomoyuki; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Sakaki, Kyohei; Inose, Hiroyuki; Tomizawa, Shoji; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Kawabata, Shigenori; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Okawa, Atsushi

    2012-06-01

    Spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis frequently extend to all 3 columns, which can lead to displacement and deformity with severe instability. Cervical spine fractures occasionally cause severe kyphotic deformities, such as chin-on-chest deformities. In such cases, the patients typically exhibit a chronic progression of hyperkyphosis after the traumatic event. This article describes a unique case of ankylosing spondylitis associated with an acute chin-on-chest deformity following a spine fracture due to a vertebral locking lesion.A 60-year-old man fell while walking and sustained a compression fracture of the C6 vertebra. Two weeks later, the patient acutely developed an inability to raise his head, difficulties with chewing and swallowing, and a horizontal gaze. Radiographs demonstrated a severe kyphosis in the cervical spine with a locking lesion between the anterior wall of the C5 and C6 vertebrae. The patient also presented with neurological impairment in his hands. Because the anterior approach to the spine was anatomically impossible, halo traction was initially applied under a close observation of neurological symptoms. Three days after halo traction, release of the vertebral locking lesion and realignment of the spine were seen. The patient subsequently underwent spinal fusion using a combined anterior-posterior approach.Postoperatively, neurological dysfunction improved, and solid fusion was confirmed at 6 months. In cases of acute kyphotic deformity following cervical spine fracture in ankylosing spondylitis patients, halo traction followed by circumferential spine fusion is a safe and effective approach for improving the alignment and stability of the spine. PMID:22691645

  1. Intraosseous schwannoma of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nannapaneni, R; Sinar, E J

    2005-06-01

    The authors report a rare case of a cervical intraosseous schwannoma, which was diagnosed following an incidental history of trauma. This is the first case of an intraosseous schwannoma of the cervical vertebra that was diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. The authors discuss the radiological imaging, surgical procedure and review the relevant literature. PMID:16455526

  2. Cervical spine instability in children with Goldenhar’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Healey, David; Letts, Merv; Jarvis, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the vertebral involvement of the cervical spine, in particular the stability of C1–C2, in children with proven Goldenhar’s syndrome. Design A case review. Setting The Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa. Patients Eight children who had a minimum of 2 out of 3 Goldenhar criteria plus other strong associations with the syndrome and for whom detailed radiographic spinal assessment, including flexion–extension views of the cervical spine and computed tomography of the congenital anomalies, were available. Outcome measures Radiographic findings. Results Seven children demonstrated cervical spine anomalies. Of particular concern was the high incidence of C1–C2 instability in 3 children, 2 of whom required occiput to C2 fusion. The presence of hemivertebrae and failures of segmentation were most common and resulted in thoracic scoliosis, leading to spinal fusion in 2 children. Conclusions In patients with Goldenhar’s syndrome the cervical spines must be monitored carefully for C1–C2 subluxation before any proposed surgery for other malformations associated with the syndrome, so that any instability can be identified to avoid cord impingement during a general anesthetic. PMID:12387536

  3. Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    The complexity of the structure of the cervical spine as well superimposition by the parts of adjacent vertebrae, as well as other structures may cause some abnormalities to be overlooked. Among those abnormalities are, the short sagittal diameter, neoplasm in the cancellous part of the vertebral bodies, spurs in the apophyseal joints, trauma, infection and others.

  4. The radiology of acute cervical spine trauma. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.H. Jr.; Edeiken-Monroe, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The edition, includes extensive coverage of computed tomography (including 3-D CT) and magnetic resonance imaging applications. Organization by mechanism of injury makes specific information easy to locate; coverage includes chapters on hyperextension injuries, injuries involving diverse or poorly understood mechanisms, and a useful classification system of acute cervical spine injuries.

  5. Orthopedic conditions of the cervical spine and shoulder.

    PubMed

    Epps, H R; Salter, R B

    1996-08-01

    Orthopedic conditions of the cervical spine and shoulder can range from benign to life threatening. A careful history and examination are crucial to evaluate these children, and additional investigations may be necessary. The signs and symptoms in these conditions and the indications for referral are discussed. PMID:8692587

  6. Cortical bone facet spacers for cervical spine decompression: effects on intervertebral kinetics and foraminal area.

    PubMed

    Maulucci, Christopher M; Sansur, Charles A; Singh, Vaneet; Cholewczynski, Alexandra; Shetye, Snehal S; McGilvray, Kirk; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Nerve root decompression to relieve pain and radiculopathy remains one of the main goals of fusion-promoting procedures in the subaxial cervical spine. The use of allograft facet spacers has been suggested as a potential alternative for performing foraminotomies to increase the space available for the cervical nerve roots while providing segmental stiffening. Therefore, the goal of this cadaveric biomechanical study was to determine the acute changes in kinetics and foraminal area after the insertion of cortical bone facet spacers into the subaxial cervical spine. METHODS Allograft spacers (2 mm in height) were placed bilaterally into cadaveric cervical spine specimens (C2-T1, age of donors 57.5 9.5 years, n = 7) at 1 (C4-5) and 3 (C3-6) levels with and without laminectomies and posterior lateral mass screw fixation. Standard stereophotogrammetry under pure moment loading was used to assess spinal kinetics. In addition, the authors performed 3D principal component analysis of CT scans to determine changes in foraminal cross-sectional area (FCSA) available for the spinal nerve roots. RESULTS Generally, the introduction of 2-mm-height facet spacers to the cervical spine produced mild, statistically insignificant reductions in motion with particular exceptions at the levels of implantation. No significant adjacent-level motion effects in any bending plane were observed. The addition of the posterior instrumentation (PI) to the intact spines resulted in statistically significant reductions in motion at all cervical levels and bending planes. The same kinetic results were obtained when PI was added to spines that also had facet spacers at 3 levels and spines that had been destabilized by en bloc laminectomy. The addition of 2-mm facet spacers at C3-4, C4-5, and C5-6 did produce statistically significant increases in FCSA at those levels. CONCLUSIONS The addition of allograft cervical facet spacers should be considered a potential option to accomplish indirect foraminal decompression as measured in this cadaveric biomechanical study. However, 2-mm spacers without supplemental instrumentation do not provide significantly increased spinal segmental stability. PMID:26407085

  7. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... Lumbar Spine Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) Contact Us Print Resources Send ...

  8. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  9. Successful treatment of severe sympathetically maintained pain following anterior spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Park, Hahck Soo

    2014-07-01

    Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

  10. Successful Treatment of Severe Sympathetically Maintained Pain Following Anterior Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jae Hee

    2014-01-01

    Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

  11. Tolerance of the cervical spine to eccentric axial compression.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jarrod W; Ku, Grace S; Nuckley, David J; Ching, Randal P

    2002-11-01

    Cervical spine injury resulting from compressive impact loading is a particularly devastating musculoskeletal injury due to the frequency of neurologic involvement. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of axial eccentricity on the tolerance of the cervical spine. Two functional spinal unit segments (3 adjacent vertebra and their intervening discs and soft-tissues) were dissected from the lower cervical spine of twenty-four human cadaver cervical spines and randomly assigned to one of three loading groups. The eight specimens were tested to failure in compression, compression-flexion, and compression-extension under displacement control on a high-rate MTS load frame. The resulting six-axis loads were measured and evaluated by injury mechanism (group). Statistically distinct (p < 0.01) injury mechanisms, in terms of measured axial eccentricity, were produced by each of the eccentric axial compression inputs (compression-flexion, compression-extension, and compression). The axial force at failure for the compression and compression-extension loading environments were nearly equal and significantly (p < 0.01) larger (4-times) than their counterpart in the compression-flexion group. Failure data were compared with the neck injury criteria (Nij) recently proposed by the NHTSA using the 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female injury reference values. The compression and compression-extension mechanisms produced Nij values near 1.0. The compression-flexion series resulted in significantly lower Nij values at failure (approx. 0.3, p < 0.01). The results of this study provide tolerance data for the cervical spine subjected to different compressive loading environments and may be used to enhance injury reference computations facilitating neck injury prevention. PMID:17096237

  12. Pathological burst fracture in the cervical spine with negative red flags: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jocelyn; DeGraauw, Chris; Klein, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report on a case of a pathological burst fracture in the cervical spine where typical core red flag tests failed to identify a significant lesion, and to remind chiropractors to be vigilant in the recognition of subtle signs and symptoms of disease processes. Clinical Features: A 61-year-old man presented to a chiropractic clinic with neck pain that began earlier that morning. After a physical exam that was relatively unremarkable, imaging identified a burst fracture in the cervical spine. Intervention & Outcomes: The patient was sent by ambulance to the hospital where he was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. No medical intervention was performed on the fracture. Summary: The patient’s initial physical examination was largely unremarkable, with an absence of clinical red flags. The screening tools were non-diagnostic. Pain with traction and the sudden onset of symptoms prompted further investigation with plain film imaging of the cervical spine. This identified a pathological burst fracture in the C4 vertebrae. PMID:27069270

  13. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the vertebral ... spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily activities ...

  14. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  15. Mobilization and Manipulation of the Cervical Spine in Patients with Cervicogenic Headache: Any Scientific Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jodan D.; Arnold, Stephen; Tetley, Kylie; Voight, Kiel; Frank, Rachael Anne

    2016-01-01

    Cervical mobilization and manipulation are frequently used to treat patients diagnosed with cervicogenic headache (CEH); however, there is conflicting evidence on the efficacy of these manual therapy techniques. The purpose of this review is to investigate the effects of cervical mobilization and manipulation on pain intensity and headache frequency, compared to traditional physical therapy interventions in patients diagnosed with CEH. A total of 66 relevant studies were originally identified through a review of the literature, and the 25 most suitable articles were fully evaluated via a careful review of the text. Ultimately, 10 studies met the inclusion criteria: (1) randomized controlled trial (RCT) or open RCT; the study contained at least two separate groups of subjects that were randomly assigned either to a cervical spine mobilization or manipulation or a group that served as a comparison; (2) subjects must have had a diagnosis of CEH; (3) the treatment group received either spinal mobilization or spinal manipulation, while the control group received another physical therapy intervention or placebo control; and (4) the study included headache pain and frequency as outcome measurements. Seven of the 10 studies had statistically significant findings that subjects who received mobilization or manipulation interventions experienced improved outcomes or reported fewer symptoms than control subjects. These results suggest that mobilization or manipulation of the cervical spine may be beneficial for individuals who suffer from CEH, although heterogeneity of the studies makes it difficult to generalize the findings. PMID:27047446

  16. Current Trends in the Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments in Degenerative Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Haruki; Cutler, Holt S; Guzman, Javier Z; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Bibliometric analysis. Objective To determine trends, frequency, and distribution of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROIs) in degenerative cervical spine surgery literature over the past decade. Methods A search was conducted via PubMed from 2004 to 2013 on five journals (The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, The Bone and Joint Journal, The Spine Journal, European Spine Journal, and Spine), which were chosen based on their impact factors and authors' consensus. All abstracts were screened and articles addressing degenerative cervical spine surgery using PROIs were included. Articles were then analyzed for publication date, study design, journal, level of evidence, and PROI trends. Prevalence of PROIs and level of evidence of included articles were analyzed. Results From 19,736 articles published, 241 articles fulfilled our study criteria. Overall, 53 distinct PROIs appeared. The top seven most frequently used PROIs were: Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (104 studies), visual analog scale for pain (100), Neck Disability Index (72), Short Form-36 (38), Nurick score (25), Odom criteria (21), and Oswestry Disability Index (15). Only 11 PROIs were used in 5 or more articles. Thirty-three of the PROIs were appeared in only 1 article. Among the included articles, 16% were of level 1 evidence and 32% were of level 4 evidence. Conclusion Numerous PROIs are currently used in degenerative cervical spine surgery. A consensus on which instruments to use for a given diagnosis or procedure is lacking and may be necessary for better communication and comparison, as well as for the accumulation and analysis of vast clinical data across multiple studies. PMID:27099815

  17. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for cervical spine metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Benvenutti-Regato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertebroplasty (VP) and kyphoplasty (KP) are two minimally invasive techniques used to relieve pain and restore stability in metastatic spinal disease. However, most of these procedures are performed in the thoracolumbar spine, and there is limited data on outcomes after VP/KP for cervical metastases. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VP and KP for treating pain in patients with cervical spine metastases. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed and Medline databases. Only studies that reported five or more patients treated with VP/KP in the cervical spine were included. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation were established based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Data was pooled to perform a meta-analysis for pain relief and complication rates. Results Six studies (all level 4 studies) met the inclusion criteria, representing 120 patients undergoing VP/KP at 135 vertebrae; the most common addressed level was C2 in 83 cases. The average volume of injected cement was 2.5 ± 0.5 milliliters at each vertebra. There were 22 asymptomatic cement leaks (16%; 95% CI, 9.8% - 22.2%) most commonly occurring in the paraspinal soft tissue. There were 5 complications (4%; 95% CI, 0.5% - 7.5%): 3 cases of mild odynophagia, 1 case of occipital neuralgia secondary to leak, and 1 case of stroke secondary to cement embolism. Pain relief was achieved in 89% of cases (range: 80 - 100%). The calculated average pain score decreased significantly from 7.6 ± 0.9 before surgery to 1.9 ± 0.8 at last evaluation (p=0.006). Conclusion Although the calculated complication rate after VP/KP in the cervical spine is low (4%) and the reported pain relief rate is approximately 89%, there is lack of high-quality evidence supporting this. Future randomized controlled trials are needed. PMID:26913227

  18. A Case of Cervical Spine Tuberculosis in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Trilok C; Kumar, Savit; Chauhan, Vikas; Pandey, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of cervical spine is an extremely rare entity in infants with only few case reports available in the literature. The diagnosis is often delayed due to less dramatic effects of paraplegia or quadriplegia in an infant as compared to older paediatric population. Along with clinical and laboratory investigations, imaging plays a crucial role in defining the extent of involvement, evaluation of complications, providing suitable differential diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment. Tuberculosis typically involves the discovertebral complex while involvement of isolated vertebral body or multiple vertebrae without involving the intervertebral discs is much less common. We present such an unusual case of cervical spine tuberculosis in an infant involving a single vertebral body without adjacent intervertebral disc involvement complicated with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and communicating hydrocephalus. The early medical intervention in this case resulted in early diagnosis, active treatment and resultant near normal recovery. PMID:26894144

  19. Virchow's Triad and spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Symons, Bruce P; Westaway, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review paper is to borrow Virchow's Triad as a conceptual framework to examine the state of the art in research on thrombosis, specifically in the vertebrobasilar system as a consequence of high velocity, low amplitude spinal manipulation of the cervical spine. A revised Virchow's Triad is presented which emphasizes the interactions between various risk factors, as a tool for clinicians and researchers to use in their analyses of vertebrobasilar stroke. Endothelial injury, abnormal blood flow and hypercoagulability are discussed.

  20. Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n = 10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n = 5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (∼80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ∼10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced the proportion of time rats spent quadruped (median, from 71% to 47%) and bipedal free standing (median, from 2.9% to 0.4%). The cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. PMID:25219425

  1. Dysphagia Secondary to Anterior Osteophytes of the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Egerter, Alexander C.; Kim, Eric S.; Lee, Darrin J.; Liu, Jonathan J.; Cadena, Gilbert; Panchal, Ripul R.; Kim, Kee D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier disease involves hyperostosis of the spinal column. Hyperostosis involving the anterior margin of the cervical vertebrae can cause dysphonia, dyspnea, and/or dysphagia. However, the natural history pertaining to the risk factors remain unknown. We present the surgical management of two cases of dysphagia secondary to cervical hyperostosis and discuss the etiology and management of DISH based on the literature review. Methods?This is a retrospective review of two patients with DISH and anterior cervical osteophytes. We reviewed the preoperative and postoperative images and clinical history. Results?Two patients underwent anterior cervical osteophytectomies due to severe dysphagia. At more than a year follow-up, both patients noted improvement in swallowing as well as their associated pain. Conclusion?The surgical removal of cervical osteophytes can be highly successful in treating dysphagia if refractory to prolonged conservative therapy. PMID:26430607

  2. Clustered clinical findings for diagnosis of cervical spine myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Chad; Brown, Christopher; Isaacs, Robert; Roman, Matthew; Davis, Samuel; Richardson, William

    2010-01-01

    Cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) is a clinical diagnosis made with imaging confirmation. At present, most clinical tests used to identify CSM are specific and no clusters of tests have proven more beneficial than stand alone tests in guiding treatment decision making. This study endeavored to produce a cluster of predictive clinical findings for a sample of patients using a clinical diagnosis/imaging confirmation as the reference standard for cervical spine myelopathy. Data from 249 patients with various conditions associated with cervical spine dysfunction were analyzed to determine which clinical tests and measures, when clustered together, were most diagnostic for CSM. Using multivariate regression analyses and calculations for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios, a definitive cluster was identified. Thirteen clinical findings were investigated for capacity to diagnosis CSM. Five clinical: (1) gait deviation; (2) +Hoffmann’s test; (3) inverted supinator sign; (4) +Babinski test; and (5) age >45 years, were demonstrated the capacity when clustered into one of five positive tests to rule out CSM (negative likelihood ratio = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.12–0.42), and when clustered into three of five positive findings to rule in CSM (positive likelihood ratio = 30.9; 95% CI = 5.5–181.8). This study found clustered combinations of clinical findings that could rule in and rule out CSM. These clusters may be useful in identifying patients with this complex diagnosis in similar patient populations. PMID:22131790

  3. Occurrence of cervical spine injuries during the rugby scrum.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, M J; Akpata, T; Laughlin, W; Levy, A S

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs came together (engagement), and 13 (36%) occurred when the scrum collapsed. Twenty-eight (78%) hookers, seven (19%) props, and one (3%) second-row player were injured. Twenty (56%) hookers and three (8%) props were hurt during engagement. Eight hookers (22%), four props (11%), and one second-row player (3%) were injured when the scrum collapsed. Significantly more injuries occurred during engagement than during collapse, and hookers were injured significantly more than props. We conclude that in the rugby scrum in the U.S., the hooker suffers most of the cervical spine injuries (78% in this study) and this position is by far the most vulnerable. This study should be used to develop rugby law (rule) changes and educate players, coaches, and referees in United States rugby. PMID:9548109

  4. Local and global subaxial cervical spine biomechanics after single-level fusion or cervical arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Michael A.; Daubs, Michael; Patel, Alpesh; Bachus, Kent N.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental in vitro biomechanical study was conducted on human cadaveric spines to evaluate the motion segment (C4–C5) and global subaxial cervical spine motion after placement of a cervical arthroplasty device (Altia TDI™,Amedica, Salt Lake City, UT) as compared to both the intact spine and a single-level fusion. Six specimens (C2–C7) were tested in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation under a ± 1.5 Nm moment with a 100 N axial follower load. Following the intact spine was tested; the cervical arthroplasty device was implanted at C4–C5 and tested. Then, a fusion using lateral mass fixation and an anterior plate was simulated and tested. Stiffness and range of motion (ROM) data were calculated. The ROM of the C4–C5 motion segment with the arthroplasty device was similar to that of the intact spine in flexion/extension and slightly less in lateral bending and rotation, while the fusion construct allowed significantly less motion in all directions. The fusion construct caused broader effects of increasing motion in the remaining segments of the subaxial cervical spine, whereas the TDI did not alter the adjacent and remote motion segments. The fusion construct was also far stiffer in all motion planes than the intact motion segment and the TDI, while the artificial disc treated level was slightly stiffer than the intact segment. The Altia TDI allows for a magnitude of motion similar to that of the intact spine at the treated and adjacent levels in the in vitro setting. PMID:19585159

  5. Age-related changes in the cervical spines of front-line rugby players.

    PubMed

    Berge, J; Marque, B; Vital, J M; Sénégas, J; Caillé, J M

    1999-01-01

    Cervical spine trauma occurs frequently in front-line rugby players. To evaluate the accumulative effects of this trauma, magnetic resonance imaging scans of the cervical spine were performed on 47 rugby players and 40 age-matched control subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the cervical spine of players at different points in their careers. A study of cervical spine changes, including spinal curve, spinal constituents, posttraumatic deformities, and degenerative modifications, was completed by a study of cervical measurements. Front-line rugby players showed more early degenerative alterations on magnetic resonance imaging scans than did the control subjects of the same age. These changes correlated with age and were probably linked with repetitive cervical trauma throughout the players' careers. Particular attention should be paid to the data confirming cervical spine canal stenosis in front-line players, which may place these athletes at risk for acute neurapraxia while playing this collision sport. PMID:10424210

  6. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  7. Acute hemorrhage within intradural extramedullary schwannoma in cervical spine presenting with quadriparesis

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Das, Pulin Bihari; Sarangi, Gouri Sankar; Mohanty, Sureswar

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma with acute hemorrhage is rarely seen. A 44-years-old male patient presented with complaint of neck pain and acute onset of quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his cervical spine revealed evidence of an intradural extramedullary tumor with intratumoral acute hemorrhage. He was operated in emergency and the mass was found to be schwannoma with acute hemorrhage. Post operatively the patient improved significantly. Though schwannomas show microscopic intratumoral hemorrhage and necrosis at times, schwannoma with acute hemorrhage resulting acute onset of neurological deficit is very uncommon. PMID:25972715

  8. Assessment of neck pain and cervical mobility among female computer workers at Hail University.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa S; Hamza, Hayat H; ElSais, Walaa M

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of neck pain among computer workers at Hail University, Saudi Arabia and to compare the cervical range of motion (ROM) of female computer workers suffering from neck pain to the cervical ROM of healthy female computer workers. One hundred and seventy-six female volunteers between 20 and 46 years of age were investigated. Fifty-six of these volunteers were staff members, 22 were administrators and 98 were students. The Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) instrument was used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. A questionnaire was used to assess participants for the presence of neck pain. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, and the level of significant was set at p < .05 for all statistical tests. There was a high prevalence of neck pain (75%) among computer workers at Hail University, particularly among students. There were significant differences in cervical lateral flexion, rotation to the right side and protraction range between the pain and pain-free groups. Our results demonstrated that cervical ROM measurements, particularly cervical lateral flexion, rotation and protraction, could be useful for predicting changes in head and neck posture after long-term computer work. PMID:26327269

  9. Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Ryan T; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G; Straub, Stephen J; Sitler, Michael R

    2002-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN AND SETTING: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. SUBJECTS: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 +/- 2.5 years, height = 181.0 +/- 5.8 cm, weight = 90 +/- 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). MEASUREMENTS: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r =.53, P <.01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r (2) =.58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r (2) =.48). Also, the spinal canal (r (2) =.66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r (2) =.23). CONCLUSIONS: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

  10. Three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine segmental motion in rotation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiong; Wu, Zi-xiang; Han, Bao-jun; Yan, Ya-bo; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The movements of the cervical spine during head rotation are too complicated to measure using conventional radiography or computed tomography (CT) techniques. In this study, we measure three-dimensional segmental motion of cervical spine rotation in vivo using a non-invasive measurement technique. Material and methods Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent three-dimensional CT of the cervical spine during head rotation. Occiput (Oc) – T1 reconstructions were created of volunteers in each of 3 positions: supine and maximum left and right rotations of the head with respect to the bosom. Segmental motions were calculated using Euler angles and volume merge methods in three major planes. Results Mean maximum axial rotation of the cervical spine to one side was 1.6° to 38.5° at each level. Coupled lateral bending opposite to lateral bending was observed in the upper cervical levels, while in the subaxial cervical levels, it was observed in the same direction as axial rotation. Coupled extension was observed in the cervical levels of C5-T1, while coupled flexion was observed in the cervical levels of Oc-C5. Conclusions The three-dimensional cervical segmental motions in rotation were accurately measured with the non-invasive measure. These findings will be helpful as the basis for understanding cervical spine movement in rotation and abnormal conditions. The presented data also provide baseline segmental motions for the design of prostheses for the cervical spine. PMID:23847675

  11. Management of difficult airway in penetrating cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, Ajay Kumar; Bhadani, Umesh Kumar; Chabra, Balbir; Rani, Kanchan; Srivastava, Bhavana

    2010-01-01

    Management of airway in trauma victim with penetrating cervical/thoracic spine injury has always been a challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Stabilisation of spine during airway manipulation, to prevent any further neural damage, is of obvious concern to the anaesthesiologist. Most anaesthesiologists are not exposed to direct laryngoscopy and intubation in lateral position during their training period. Tracheal intubation in the lateral position may be unavoidable in some circumstances. Difficult airway in an uncooperative patient compounds the problem to secure airway in lateral position. We present a 46-year-old alcoholic, hypertensive, morbidly obese person who suffered a sharp instrument (screwdriver) spinal injury with anticipated difficult intubation; the case was managed successfully. PMID:20532076

  12. Strain rate dependent properties of younger human cervical spine ligaments.

    PubMed

    Mattucci, Stephen F E; Moulton, Jeffrey A; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-06-01

    The cervical spine ligaments play an essential role in limiting the physiological ranges of motion in the neck; however, traumatic loading such as that experienced in automotive crash scenarios can lead to ligament damage and result in neck injury. The development of detailed neck models to evaluate the response and the potential for injury requires accurate ligament mechanical properties at relevant loading rates. The objective of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of the cervical spine ligaments, by performing tensile tests at elongation rates relevant to car crash scenarios, using younger specimens (≤50 years), in simulated in vivo conditions, and to provide a comprehensive investigation of gender and spinal level effects. The five ligaments investigated were the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, capsular ligament, ligamentum flavum, and interspinous ligament. Ligaments were tested in tension at quasi-static (0.5 s(-1)), medium (20 s(-1)) and high (150-250 s(-1)) strain rates. The high strain rates represented typical car crash scenarios as determined using an existing cervical spine finite element model. In total, 261 ligament tests were performed, with approximately even distribution within elongation rate, spinal level, and gender. The measured force-displacement data followed expected trends compared to previous studies. The younger ligaments investigated in this study demonstrated less scatter, and were both stiffer and stronger than comparable data from older specimens reported in previous studies. Strain rate effects were most significant, while spinal level effects were limited. Gender effects were not significant, but consistent trends were identified, with male ligaments having a higher stiffness and failure force than female ligaments. PMID:22520433

  13. Evaluation of morbidity, mortality and outcome following cervical spine injuries in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Murphy, M; Connolly, P; O'Byrne, J

    2008-04-01

    We analysed the morbidity, mortality and outcome of cervical spine injuries in patients over the age of 65 years. This study was a retrospective review of 107 elderly patients admitted to our tertiary referral spinal injuries unit with cervical spine injuries between 1994 and 2002. The data was acquired by analysis of the national spinal unit database, hospital inpatient enquiry system, chart and radiographic review. Mean age was 74 years (range 66-93 years). The male to female ratio was 2.1:1 (M = 72, F = 35). The mean follow-up was 4.4 years (1-9 years) and mean in-hospital stay was 10 days (2-90 days). The mechanism of injury was a fall in 75 and road traffic accident in the remaining 32 patients. The level involved was atlanto-axial in 44 cases, sub-axial in 52 cases and the remaining 11 had no bony injury. Multilevel involvement occurred in 48 patients. C2 dominated the single level injury and most of them were type II odontoid fractures. Four patients had complete neurology, 27 had incomplete neurology, and the remaining 76 had no neurological deficit. Treatment included cervical orthosis in 67 cases, halo immobilization in 25, posterior stabilization in 12 patients and anterior cervical fusion in three patients. The overall complication rate was 18.6% with an associated in-hospital mortality of 11.2%. The complications included loss of reduction due to halo and Minerva loosening, non-union and delayed union among conservatively treated patients, pin site and wound infection, gastrointestinal bleeding and complication due to associated injuries. Among the 28.9% patients with neurological involvement, 37.7% had significant neurological recovery. Outcome was assessed using a cervical spine outcome questionnaire from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Sixty-seven patients (70%) completed the form, 20 patients (19%) were deceased at review and 8 patients (7%) were uncontactable. Functional disability was more marked in the patients with neurologically deficit at time of injury. Outcome of the injury was related to increasing age, co-morbidity and the severity of neurological deficit. Injuries of the cervical spine are not infrequent occurrence in the elderly and occur with relatively minor trauma. Neck pain in the elderly patients should be thoroughly evaluated to exclude C2 injuries. Most patients can be managed in an orthosis but unstable injuries require rigid external immobilization or surgical stabilization. PMID:18196293

  14. Delayed Esophagus Perforation after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sei-Youn; Cho, Kyoung-Suok

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal perforation is a serious possible complication after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). It usually occurs during the first postoperative day. Esophageal perforation is a potentially life-threatening complication. A 63-year-old man who underwent ACDF 8 years prior visited our emergency room with recurrent aspiration pneumonia, fever, dysphagia and neck pain. Endoscopic study showed esophageal perforation by cervical plate. Successful treatment of the perforation resulted after surgical repair using a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. We presented a rare case of delayed esophageal perforation after ACDF and successful treatment of the perforation by surgical repair using a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap.

  15. A Mathematical Model of the Cervical Spine Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The general purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable laboratory tool to evaluate the cervical spine mobility in normal conditions. The paper proposes an approximation function to model the variation in time of movement angles and angular velocities. The measurements have been performed using a Zebris ultrasound-based measuring system in Motion Laboratory of the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara. The approximation functions were compared with the recorded data series and graphically plotted as both time and phase diagram representation.

  16. Sensorimotor function of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Artz, Neil J.; Adams, Michael A.; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensorimotor mechanisms are important for controlling head motion. However, relatively little is known about sensorimotor function in the cervical spine. This study investigated how age, gender and variations in the test conditions affect measures of position sense, movement sense and reflex activation in cervical muscles. Methods Forty healthy volunteers (19M/21F, aged 19–59 years) participated. Position sense was assessed by determining repositioning errors in upright and flexed neck postures during tests performed in 25%, 50% and 75% cervical flexion. Movement sense was assessed by detecting thresholds to passive flexion and extension at velocities between 1 and 25°s− 1. Reflexes were assessed by determining the latency and amplitude of reflex activation in trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Reliability was evaluated from intraclass correlation coefficients. Findings Mean repositioning errors ranged from 1.5° to 2.6°, were greater in flexed than upright postures (P = 0.006) and in people aged over 25 years (P = 0.05). Time to detect head motion decreased with increasing velocity (P < 0.001) and was lower during flexion than extension movements (P = 0.002). Reflexes demonstrated shorter latency (P < 0.001) and greater amplitude (P = 0.009) in trapezius compared to sternocleidomastoid, and became slower and weaker with age. None of the measures were influenced by gender. Reliability was good for movement sense measures, but was influenced by the test conditions when assessing position sense. Interpretation Increased repositioning errors and slower reflexes in older subjects suggest that sensorimotor function in the cervical spine becomes impaired with age. In position sense tests, reliability was influenced by the test conditions with mid-range flexion movements, performed in standing, providing the most reliable measurements. PMID:25686675

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein in complex cervical spine surgery: A safe biologic adjunct?

    PubMed Central

    Lebl, Darren R

    2013-01-01

    The advent of recombinant DNA technology has substantially increased the intra-operative utilization of biologic augmentation in spine surgery over the past several years after the Food and Drug Administration approval of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) class of molecules for indications in the lumbar spine. Much less is known about the potential benefits and risks of the “off-label” use of BMP in the cervical spine. The history and relevant literature pertaining to the use of the “off-label” implantation of the BMP class of molecules in the anterior or posterior cervical spine are reviewed and discussed. Early prospective studies of BMP-2 implantation in anterior cervical spine constructs showed encouraging results. Later retrospective studies reported potentially “life threatening complications” resulting in a 2007 public health advisory by the FDA. Limited data regarding BMP-7 in anterior cervical surgery was available with one group reporting a 2.4% early (< 30 d) complication rate (brachialgia and dysphagia). BMP use in the decompressed posterior cervical spine may result in neurologic or wound compromise according to several retrospective reports, however, controlled use has been reported to increase fusion rates in select complex and pediatric patients. There were no cases of de novo neoplasia related to BMP implantation in the cervical spine. BMP-2 use in anterior cervical spine surgery has been associated with a high early complication rate. Definitive recommendations for BMP-7 use in anterior cervical spine surgery cannot be made with current clinical data. According to limited reports, select complex patients who are considered “high risk” for pseudoarthrosis undergoing posterior cervical or occipitocervical arthrodesis or children with congenital or traumatic conditions may be candidates for “off-label” use of BMP in the context of appropriate informed decision making. At the present time, there are no high-level clinical studies on the outcomes and complication rates of BMP implantation in the cervical spine. PMID:23610751

  18. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented. PMID:23849933

  19. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jenny; Winkler, Dietrich; Münscher, Adrian; Tank, Sascha

    2013-05-01

    We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5) for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat) specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment. PMID:23983289

  20. Radiological ageing process in the cervical spine of Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Obisesan, K A; Obajimi, M O

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the age of commencement of ageing process in Nigerian women Four hundred (400) consecutive women requesting for cervical spine radiographs where recruited for this study. A study chart was made showing different variables like osteoarthrosis, detached osteophytes, postural ulterations and disk degenerations in a four year period from 1st January, 1993 to 31st December, 1996 the modified Kellgren and Lawrence grading system was used to assess radiographic changes. The highest rate of osteoarthrosis (31.13%) was found in the fifth decade. Incidence of postural alterations of the cervical spine rose sharply in the 5th and 6th decades of life. Grade 2 osteoarthrosis (Kellgren and Lawrence) was commonest (61.3%); Grades 3 and 4 had the lowest incidence (3.45%). Disc degeneration was commonest in the 5th; the most involved disc was C5/C6 and the least involved was C2/C3. It is concluded that the ageing process in the Nigerian women commences in the fourth decade of life, and apparently shows no difference with caucasian women. PMID:11205829

  1. Thalamic Pain Misdiagnosed as Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tae Ha; Choi, Soo Il; Yoo, Jee In; Choi, Young Soon; Lim, Young Su; Sang, Bo Hyun; Bang, Yun Sic

    2016-01-01

    Thalamic pain is a primary cause of central post-stroke pain (CPSP). Clinical symptoms vary depending on the location of the infarction and frequently accompany several pain symptoms. Therefore, correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. We report a case of CPSP due to a left acute thalamic infarction with central disc protrusion at C5-6. A 45-year-old-male patient experiencing a tingling sensation in his right arm was referred to our pain clinic under the diagnosis of cervical disc herniation. This patient also complained of right cramp-like abdominal pain. After further evaluations, he was diagnosed with an acute thalamic infarction. Therefore detailed history taking should be performed and examiners should always be aware of other symptoms that could suggest a more dangerous disease. PMID:27103967

  2. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy due to the Ochronotic Arthropathy of the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Qiang; He, Da

    2016-01-01

    Ochronosis is a musculoskeletal manifestation of alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary metabolic disorder occurs due to the absence of homogentisic acid oxidase and leading to various systemic abnormalities related to deposition of homogentisic acid pigmentation (ochronotic pigmentation). The present case reports the clinical features, radiographic findings, treatments and results of a cervical spondylotic myelopathy woman patient due to the ochronotic arthropathy of the cervical spine. The patient aged 62 years was presented with gait disturbance and hand clumsiness. Physical examination, X-rays, computed tomography and lab results of the urine sample confirmed the presence of ochronosis with the involvement of the cervical spine. The patient underwent a modified cervical laminoplasty due to multi-segment spinal cord compression. The postoperative follow-up showed a good functional outcome with patient satisfaction. The present study concludes the conditions and important diagnostic and surgical aspects of a patient. It is necessary to identify the condition clinically and if cord compression is observed, appropriate surgical interventions needs to be instituted. PMID:26885289

  3. Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis after Anterior Cervical Discectomy Following Cervical Spine Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nikandish, Reza; Zareizadeh, Alireza; Motazedian, Siavash; Zeraatian, Sam; Zakeri, Habib; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral vocal cord paralysis is a rare and preventable complication of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Herein, we report a fatal case of bilateral vocal cord paralysis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACD/F). A 65-year-old man with cervical spine trauma and anterior cord syndrome, following car overturn presented to our emergency department. The patient had C6-T10 prolapsed discs for which ACD/F was performed. In the recovery room he developed stridor and respiratory distress immediately after extubation, and was reintubated. Otolaryngological evaluation revealed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. He later required a tracheostomy but finally died in a rehabilitation center after an acute coronary event. Awake fibroptic intubation is recommended in patients at high risk for preoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. Intraoperative tracheal tube cuff pressure monitoring and modification of surgical approach to neck are recommended to prevent bilateral nerve damage.

  4. Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: Report of two cases in preadolescent males

    SciTech Connect

    Novick, G.S.; Pavlov, H.; Bullough, P.G.

    1982-03-01

    Although considered to be rare in the spine, osteochondromas are in fact found there as often as other benign bone tumors. Three percent of all osteochondromas occur in the spine, while forty percent of osteoblastomas are to be found there. Yet, because osteochondromas are so much more common overall than osteoblastomas, their actual occurrences in the spine can be expected to be equal. Two cases of osteochondroma of the cervical spine, one of which was diagnosed by computed tomography, are reported.

  5. Idiopathic scoliosis: the tethered spine II: post-surgical pain.

    PubMed

    Whyte Ferguson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of severe chronic pain in young people following surgery for the correction of curvatures of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is presented through two case histories. Effective treatment involved release of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) known to refer pain into the spine, and treatment of related fascia and joint dysfunction. The TrPs found to be contributing to spinal area pain were located in muscles at some distance from the spine rather than in the paraspinal muscles. Referred pain from these TrPs apparently accounted for pain throughout the base of the neck and thoracolumbar spine. Exploratory surgery was considered for one patient to address pain following rod placement but the second surgery became unnecessary when the pain was controlled with treatment of the myofascial pain and joint dysfunction. The other individual had both scoliosis and hyperkyphosis, had undergone primary scoliosis surgery, and subsequently underwent a second surgery to remove hardware in an attempt to address her persistent pain following the initial surgery (and because of dislodged screws). The second surgery did not, however, reduce her pain. In both cases these individuals, with severe chronic pain following scoliosis corrective surgery, experienced a marked decrease of pain after myofascial treatment. As will be discussed below, despite the fact that a significant minority of individuals who have scoliosis corrective surgery are thought to require a second surgery, and despite the fact that pain is the most common reason leading to such revision surgery, myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) had apparently not previously been considered as a possible factor in their pain. PMID:25440198

  6. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Cantu, Robert C; Chalmers, David J

    2002-01-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine are among the most serious injuries occurring as a result of participation in rugby. Outcomes of such injuries range from complete recovery to death, depending on the degree of spinal cord damage sustained. Much information has been gained regarding the mechanisms and frequency of such injuries, from case reports and case series studies. The most commonly reported mechanism of injury has been hyperflexion of the cervical spine, resulting in fracture dislocation of C4-C5 or C5-C6. Tracking both the trends of incidence of spinal injuries, and the effectiveness of injury prevention initiatives has proved difficult because of a lack of properly conducted epidemiological studies. Within the constraints of the research published to date, it appears that hookers and props have been at disproportionate risk of cervical spine injury, predominantly because of injuries sustained during scrummaging. While the scrum was the phase of play most commonly associated with spinal injuries throughout the 1980s in most rugby playing countries, there has been a trend through the 1990s of an increasing proportion of spinal injuries occurring in the tackle situation. The majority of injuries have occurred early in the season, when grounds tend to be harder, and players are lacking both practice and physical conditioning for the physical contact phases of the sport. A number of injury prevention measures have been launched, including changes to the laws of the game regarding scrummaging, and education programmes aimed at enforcing safe techniques and eliminating illegal play. Calls for case-registers and effective epidemiological studies have been made by researchers and physicians in most countries where rugby is widespread, but it appears to be only recently that definite steps have been made towards this goal. Well-designed epidemiological studies will be able to provide more accurate information about potential risk factors for injury such as age, grade, position, gender and ethnicity. Research into the long-term effects of participation in rugby on the integrity of the spinal column is warranted. PMID:12141883

  7. Chiropractic management of postoperative spine pain: a report of 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Coulis, Christopher M.; Lisi, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe chiropractic care including spinal manipulation for 3 patients with postsurgical spine pain. Clinical features Three patients with postsurgical spine pain (1 cervical fusion, 1 lumbar discectomy, and 1 lumbar laminectomy) presented for chiropractic treatment at a major US medical center. Treatment included spinal manipulation and/or flexion-distraction mobilization based on patient response to joint loading strategies. Intervention and outcomes Two patients were treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation; and 1 patient was treated with flexion-distraction mobilization. Treatment frequency and duration were 4 treatments over 4 weeks for case 1, 17 treatments over 7 years for case 2, and 5 treatments over 5 weeks for case 3. Subjective improvement was noted using numeric pain scores and functional changes; and upon completion, the patients reported being “satisfied” with their overall outcome. One episode of transient benign soreness was noted by 1 patient. No additional adverse events or effects were noted. Conclusion In these 3 cases, patients with postsurgical spine pain responded positively to chiropractic care. Spinal manipulation/mobilization was tolerated without significant adverse effects. PMID:24396317

  8. Three Dimensional Movements Of The Upper Cervical Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjabi, Manohar M.; Dvorak, Jiri; Duranceau, Joanne; Yamamoto, Isao

    1989-04-01

    Ten fresh cadaveric whole cervical spine specimens (occiput to C7) were studied using well established techniques to document the movements in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation. Pure moments of maximum 1.5 newton meters were applied incrementally and three dimensional movements of the bones were recorded using stereophotogrammetry. Each moment was applied individually and in a three load/unload cycles. The motion measurements were made on the third load cycle. Parameters of neutral zone, elastic zone and range of motion were computed. Neutral zones for flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and right/left axial rotation were respectively: 1.1, 1.5 and 1.6 (occiput-C1); and 3.2, 1.2 and 29.6 degrees (C1-C2). Ranges of motion for flexion, extension, lateral bending (one side) and axial rotation (one side) were respectively: 3.5, 21.0, 5.5 and 7.2 degrees (occiput-Cl joint) and 11.5, 10.9, 6.7 and 38.9 degrees (CI-CZ joint). The highest intervertebral motion in the spine was the axial rotation at the Cl-C2 joint, neutral zone constituting 75% of this motion.

  9. Treatment of a Patient with Cervical Radiculopathy Using Thoracic Spine Thrust Manipulation, Soft Tissue Mobilization, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    While there is currently little evidence to suggest which non-operative treatment approach is best for the management of patients with cervical radiculopathy, emerging evidence suggests that these patients benefit from a multimodal treatment approach. The purpose of this case report is to describe the physical therapy management of a patient with cervical radiculopathy. Diagnosis was based on the patient's meeting three of the four criteria in the diagnostic test cluster currently used to identify patients with cervical radiculopathy. Treatment included thrust manipulation of the thoracic spine, soft tissue mobilization, and therapeutic exercise. After three visits, patient-perceived disability, as measured by the Patient-Specific Functional Scale, improved from 5/10 to 10/10. The Numeric Pain Rating Score decreased from 4.66/10 to 0/10. The patient rated his improvement as a very great deal better on the Global Rating of Change Scale. These clinically meaningful improvements were maintained at the 14-week follow-up. While a cause-and-effect relationship may not be established from a case report, a multimodal approach including thoracic spine manipulation, soft tissue mobilization, and therapeutic exercise was associated with decreased pain and perceived disability in a patient with cervical radiculopathy. Further research is needed to investigate benefits of the components of this approach. PMID:19119401

  10. Deceleration during 'real life' motor vehicle collisions a sensitive predictor for the risk of sustaining a cervical spine injury?

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Martin; Kramer, Michael; Huber-Lang, Markus; Hartwig, Erich; Dehner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background The predictive value of trauma impact for the severity of whiplash injuries has mainly been investigated in sled- and crash-test studies. However, very little data exist for real-life accidents. Therefore, the predictive value of the trauma impact as assessed by the change in velocity of the car due to the collision (?V) for the resulting cervical spine injuries were investigated in 57 cases after real-life car accidents. Methods ?V was determined for every car and clinical findings related to the cervical spine were assessed and classified according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF). Results In our study, 32 (56%) subjects did not complain about symptoms and were therefore classified as QTF grade 0; 25 (44%) patients complained of neck pain: 8 (14%) were classified as QTF grade I, 6 (10%) as QTF grade II, and 11 (19%) as QTF grade IV. Only a slight correlation (r = 0.55) was found between the reported pain and ?V. No relevant correlation was found between ?V and the neck disability index (r = 0.46) and between ?V and the QTF grade (r = 0.45) for any of the collision types. There was no ?V threshold associated with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the prognosis of a cervical spine injury. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that ?V is not a conclusive predictor for cervical spine injury in real-life motor vehicle accidents. This is of importance for surgeons involved in medicolegal expertise jobs as well as patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) after motor vehicle accidents. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission. PMID:19267940

  11. THE EFFECTS OF LIGAMENTOUS INJURY IN THE HUMAN LOWER CERVICAL SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, P Devin; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2012-01-01

    Damage is often sustained by the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and ligamentum flavum LF) in the cervical spine subsequent to whiplash or other cervical trauma. These ligaments afford substantial cervical stability when healthy, but the ability of the ALL and LF to stabilize the spine when injured is not as conclusively studied. In order to address this issue, the current study excised ALL and LF tissues from cadaveric spines and experimentally simulated whiplash-type damage to the isolated ligaments. Stiffnesses and toe region lengths were measured for both the uninjured and damaged states. These ligamentous mechanical properties were then inputted into a previously-validated finite element (FE) model of the cervical spine and the kinematic effects of various clinically relevant combinations of ligamentous injury were predicted. The data indicated three and five-fold increases in toe region length for the LF and ALL injury variants, respectively. These toe length distensions resulted in FE predictions of supra-physiologic ranges of motion, and these motions were comparable to spines with no ligamentous support. Finally, a set of cadaveric cervical spine ligament-sectioning experiments confirmed the FE predictions and supported the finding that partial injury to the relevant ligaments produces equivalent cervical kinematic signatures to spines that have completely compromised ALL and LF tissues. PMID:22939289

  12. Discal cysts of the cervical spine in two dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Jae; Jung, Yechan; Park, Sangjun

    2015-01-01

    Discal cysts, which lie directly over intervertebral discs, are rare. Two old dogs with tetraparesis were referred to our facility. In both animals, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intraspinal extradural cystic mass lesions that were dorsal to degenerative intervertebral discs at the C3-C4 level. These lesions had low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A ventral slot approach was used to perform surgical decompression, after which the symptoms improved remarkably. Discal cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with cervical pain and tetraparesis. One effective treatment for discal cysts is surgical intervention. PMID:26040615

  13. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  14. Estimation of CSF flow resistance in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Mardal, K-A; Rutkowska, G; Linge, S; Haughton, V

    2013-02-01

    Chiari I patients have increased CSF velocities in the foramen magnum due hypothetically to increased pressure gradients or reduced flow resistance. We calculated flow resistance in the cervical spinal canal in a group of subjects with and without the Chiari malformation. Eight subjects including healthy volunteers and Chiari I patients were studied. From 3D high resolution MR images of the cervical spine mathematical models of the subarachnoid spaces were created by means of standard programs for segmentation and discretization. Oscillatory flow through the subarachnoid space was simulated. Cross-sectional area of the subarachnoid space was computed at each level from C1 through C4 and the length of this spinal canal segment was measured. Peak caudad CSF flow velocity at each level was plotted against cross-section area. CSF volumetric flux and resistance were calculated for each subject. The correlation between velocity and resistance was calculated. In all subjects, peak velocities increased progressively from C1 to C4 by 0.6 to 0.7 cm/s per level. Spinal canal areas diminished from C1 to C5 in each subject at a rate of -0.25 to -0.29 cm(2) per level. Resistance averaged 4.3 pascal/ml/s in the eight subjects; 3.8 pascal/ml/s in patients with tonsilar herniation and 6.0 pascal/ml/s in volunteers. Velocity correlated inversely with resistance (R(2) = 0.6). CSF velocities correlated inversely with the flow resistance in the upper cervical spinal canal. Resistance tends to be lower in Chiari I patients than in healthy volunteers. PMID:23859177

  15. Severe neurologic manifestations from cervical spine instability in spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marleen; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Mittaz-Crettol, Lauréane; Valadares, Eugenia Ribeiro; Carvalho, Daniel; Speck-Martins, Carlos Eduardo; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Alanay, Yasemin; Mihci, Ercan; van Bever, Yolande; Garcia-Segarra, Nuria; Cavalcanti, Denise; Mortier, Geert; Bonafé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2012-08-15

    Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia (SMMD; OMIM 613330) is a dysostosis/dysplasia caused by recessive mutations in the homeobox-containing gene, NKX3-2 (formerly known as BAPX1). Because of the rarity of the condition, its diagnostic features and natural course are not well known. We describe clinical and radiographic findings in six patients (five of which with homozygous mutations in the NKX3-2 gene) and highlight the unusual and severe changes in the cervical spine and the neurologic complications. In individuals with SMMD, the trunk and the neck are short, while the limbs, fingers and toes are disproportionately long. Radiographs show a severe ossification delay of the vertebral bodies with sagittal and coronal clefts, missing ossification of the pubic bones, large round "balloon-like" epiphyses of the long bones, and presence of multiple pseudoepiphyses at all metacarpals and phalanges. Reduced or absent ossification of the cervical vertebrae leads to cervical instability with anterior or posterior kinking of the cervical spine (swan neck-like deformity, kyknodysostosis). As a result of the cervical spine instability or deformation, five of six patients in our series suffered cervical cord injury that manifested clinically as limb spasticity. Although the number of individuals observed is small, the high incidence of cervical spine deformation in SMMD is unique among skeletal dysplasias. Early diagnosis of SMMD by recognition of the radiographic pattern might prevent of the neurologic complications via prophylactic cervical spine stabilization. PMID:22791571

  16. Occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kosnik-Infinger, Libby; Glazier, Steven S; Frankel, Bruce M

    2014-01-01

    Fixation at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) is necessary in a variety of pediatric clinical scenarios. Traditionally an occipital bone to cervical fusion is preformed, which requires a large amount of hardware to be placed on the occiput of a child. If a patient has previously undergone a posterior fossa decompression or requires a decompression at the time of the fusion procedure, it can be difficult to anchor a plate to the occipital bone. The authors propose a technique that can be used when faced with this difficult challenge by using the occipital condyle as a point of fixation for the construct. Adult cadaveric and a limited number of case studies have been published using occipital condyle (C-0) fixation. This work was adapted for the pediatric population. Between 2009 and 2012, 4 children underwent occipital condyle to axial or subaxial spine fixation. One patient had previously undergone posterior fossa surgery for tumor resection, and 1 required decompression at the time of operation. Two patients underwent preoperative deformity reduction using traction. One child had a Chiari malformation Type I. Each procedure was performed using polyaxial screw-rod constructs with intraoperative neuronavigation supplemented by a custom navigational drill guide. Smooth-shanked 3.5-mm polyaxial screws, ranging in length from 26 to 32 mm, were placed into the occipital condyles. All patients successfully underwent occipital condyle to cervical spine fixation. In 3 patients the construct extended from C-0 to C-2, and in 1 from C-0 to T-2. Patients with preoperative halo stabilization were placed in a cervical collar postoperatively. There were no new postoperative neurological deficits or vascular injuries. Each patient underwent postoperative CT, demonstrating excellent screw placement and evidence of solid fusion. Occipital condyle fixation is an effective option in pediatric patients requiring occipitocervical fusion for treatment of deformity and/or instability at the CVJ. The use of intraoperative neuronavigation allows for safe placement of screws into C-0, especially when faced with a challenging patient in whom fixation to the occipital bone is not possible or is less than ideal. PMID:24206344

  17. Hematogenous pyogenic facet joint infection of the subaxial cervical spine. A report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Muffolerro, A J; Nader, R; Westmark, R M; Nauta, H J; Garges, K J; Hadjipavlou, A G

    2001-07-01

    Two cases of hematogenous, pyogenic, subaxial cervical facet joint infection are reported, and the literature is reviewed. Infection of the cervical facet joint is a rarely diagnosed condition; only one case has been reported in the literature. Lumbar facet joint infections are also rare but more commonly reported. Approximately one fourth of facet joint infections in the lumbar spine are complicated by epidural abscess formation, which can lead to a neurological deficit. Because of the paucity of reports on cervical facet joint infections, the clinical characteristics of this entity are not well known. Both patients presented with an acute onset of unilateral neck pain that radiated into the ipsilateral shoulder. Frank radicular pain was initially absent. Unilateral upper-extremity motor weakness that was attributed to associated epidural abscess or granulation tissue formation was also demonstrated in both patients. Leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated in both cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was necessary to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as the offending pathogen in both cases. Decompressive surgery and antibiotic therapy were required to cure the condition. One patient recovered completely and the other sustained a permanent motor deficit. Hematogenous cervical facet joint infection is a rare clinical entity that has many characteristics in common with the more-common lumbar homolog. All three reported cases, however, have been complicated by epidural abscess or granulation tissue formation that has led to a neurological deficit. This finding suggests that a facet joint infection in the cervical spine may have a less benign clinical course than that in the lumbar spine. PMID:11453416

  18. Identifying inflammatory targets for biologic therapies for spine pain.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lloydine J; Vo, Nam; Kang, James D

    2011-06-01

    The costs associated with treating spine-related conditions are enormous and are trending upward. Current methods employed to treat inflammatory-mediated pain are targeted at alleviating symptoms, rather than correcting the underlying cause of disease. It is clear that a biochemical basis for inflammatory-mediated intervertebral disk, facet joint, and nerve pain exists. Biologic therapies that address the underlying cause of pain could potentially decrease the costs associated with treating spine pathology. MMPs, IL-1, TNF- ?, IL-6, NGF, bradykinin, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide are implicated in much of the catabolic effects seen in the pathogenesis of inflammatory-mediated pain and are good targets for inhibition. The anticatabolic and anabolic effects of TIMPs, BMPs, TGF- ?, and IGF-1 are targets already shown to favorably impact disk matrix homeostasis. With rapid advances in biomedical technology, these interventions may be available for clinical use in the near future. PMID:21703568

  19. Brown-Sequard Syndrome after an Accidental Stab Injury of Cervical Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo Dong; Jeon, Ikchan

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Brown-Sequard syndrome (BSS) caused by an accidental stab injury of the cervical spine that shows clear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical presentation. A 42-year-old woman was brought into the emergency department after a stab injury on the right side of the posterior neck from a knife that was lying in a fruit basket after slipping. The patient complained of hemiparesis of the right-side extremities, and ipsilateral hypoesthesia and contralateral sensory loss of pain and temperature were also found on neurological examination. MRI showed a signal change of the C6-7 cord level and the tract of the stab wound through the posterior neck. Irrigation and primary closure of the laceration was performed under the impression of BSS. The neurologic deficit was improved with rehabilitation therapy. PMID:27169090

  20. Cervical spine injury in children: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nebhani, Tahir; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are less common in children than in adults. But may be associated with significant disability and mortality. Pediatric victims of blunt trauma have mechanisms of injury, developmental and anatomic characteristics different than the adults. The purpose of this observation is to highlight the differences between the adult and pediatric cervical spine. We report below the case of spinal cord cut occurs to a very young girl after a motor vehicle accident. PMID:26161184

  1. Cervical spine injury in children: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Nebhani, Tahir; Bakkali, Hicham; Belyamani, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are less common in children than in adults. But may be associated with significant disability and mortality. Pediatric victims of blunt trauma have mechanisms of injury, developmental and anatomic characteristics different than the adults. The purpose of this observation is to highlight the differences between the adult and pediatric cervical spine. We report below the case of spinal cord cut occurs to a very young girl after a motor vehicle accident. PMID:26161184

  2. MRI of giant cell turmor of the tendon sheath in the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Bui-Mansfield, L.T.; Youngberg, R.A.; Coughlin, W.; Choolijian, D.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present a case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) in the cervical spine, not previously described in the radiologic literature. Diagnostic imaging includes plain film radiographs, bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI. Only one case of tenosynoviaI giant cell tumor of the cervical spine has been reported. The radiological features of this tumor are described along with a brief review of GCTTS. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Severe Scapular Pain Following Unintentional Cervical Epidural Air Injection.

    PubMed

    Henthorn, Randall W; Murray, Kerra

    2016-03-01

    This a unique case of severe scapular pain following unintentional epidural space air injection during epidural steroid injection.A 70-year-old woman presented for a fluoroscopically guided C7-T1 interlaminar epidural steroid injection. Three injection attempts were made using the loss of resistance with air technique. On the first attempt the epidural space was entered, but contrast injection showed that the needle was intravenous. On the second attempt an equivocal loss of resistance with air was perceived and 5 mL of air was lost from the syringe. The needle was withdrawn and redirected, and upon the third needle passage the contrast injection showed appropriate epidural space filling up to the C4-5 level. Injection of betamethasone mixed in lidocaine was initially uneventful.However, 20 minutes post-injection the patient experienced sudden sharp and continuous pain along the medial edge of the scapula. After failing to respond to multiple intravascular analgesics, the patient was transferred to the emergency room. Her pain subsided completely following an intravenous diazepam injection. Cervical spine computerized tomography showed obvious air in the posterior epidural space from C4-5 to C6-7 as well as outside the spinal canal from (C4-T2). Having recovered fully, she was discharged the following morning. In reviewing the procedure, the equivocal loss of resistance on the second passage was actually a true loss of resistance to epidural space and air was unintentionally injected. Surprisingly, severe scapular pain resulted in a delayed manner after the steroid solution was injected. The authors theorize that unintentional prefilling of the epidural space with air prior to the injection of the subsequent steroid mixture added sufficient pressure to the epidural space to cause right-sided C4 nerve root stretching/entrapment and ensuing radicular pain to the right scapular border. The subsequent intravenous diazepam provided cervical muscle relaxation and facilitated foramina passage of air out of the spinal canal.This case demonstrates that under certain conditions entry of air into cervical epidural space can lead to unexpected, albeit temporary, neurological symptoms. PMID:27008310

  4. Brown Tumor of the Cervical Spines: A Case Report with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Halawani, Mohammed Mohamoud; Attia, Walid Ismail; Almusrea, Khaled Naser

    2015-01-01

    To report a rare case of axis brown tumor and to review literature of cervical spine brown tumor. Brown tumor is a rare bone lesion, incidence less than 5% in primary hyperparathyroidism. It is more common in secondary hyperparathyroidism with up to 13% of cases. Brown tumor reactive lesion forms as a result of disturbed bone remodeling due to long standing increase in parathyroid hormones. Cervical spine involvement is extremely rare, can be confused with serous spine lesions. To date, only four cases of cervical spine involvement have been reported. Three were due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Only one was reported to involve the axis and was due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. This is the first reported case of axis brown tumor due to primary hyperparathyroidism. A case report of brown tumor is presented. A literature review was conducted by a Medline search of reported cases of brown tumor, key words: brown tumor, osteoclastoma and cervical lesions. The resulting papers were reviewed and cervical spine cases were listed then classified according to the level, cause, and management. Only four previous cases involved the cervical spine. Three were caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism and one was by primary hyperparathyroidism which involved the C6. Our case was the first case of C2 involvement of primary hyperparathyroidism and it was managed conservatively. Brown tumor, a rare spinal tumor that presents with high PTH and giant cells, requires a high level of suspicion. PMID:25705344

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Cervical Spine: A Review on the Role of Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillick, John L.; Wainwright, John; Das, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting a significant percentage of the population. The cervical spine is often affected in this disease and can present in the form of atlantoaxial instability (AAI), cranial settling (CS), or subaxial subluxation (SAS). Patients may present with symptoms and disability secondary to these entities but may also be neurologically intact. Cervical spine involvement in RA can pose a challenge to the clinician and the appropriate role of surgical intervention is controversial. The aim of this paper is to describe the pathology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis in the cervical spine in order to provide a better understanding of the indications and options for surgery. Both the medical and surgical treatment options for RA have improved, so has the prognosis of the cervical spine disease. With the advent of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), fewer patients are presenting with cervical spine manifestations of RA; however, those that do, now have improved surgical techniques available to them. We hope that, by reading this paper, the clinician is able to better evaluate patients with RA in the cervical spine and determine in which patients surgery is indicated. PMID:26351458

  6. A review of functional outcome measures for cervical spine disorders: literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bussières, André

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability, validity and usefulness of three outcome measures: cervical ranges of motion, sagittal neck muscle strength and presence or absence of the flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) in the neck. The literature search included the Index Medicus and computerized database of MEDLINE for relevant material. Articles were selected if they contained primary data on neck range of motion, sagittal muscle strength and FRP. The results of 59 articles and 2 textbooks were analyzed. Normative values of cervical ROM have been reported in healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 74 years. The extent of degrees of motion lost per year did not differ between male or female subjects, but females started with higher degrees of active range of motion, which they maintained throughout life. Instrumented methods of recording muscle strength have included strain gauge dynamometers and modified sphygmomanometers. Parameters such as gender, age and stature were also observed to have important effects on muscle strength. The ratio of extension to flexion maximum isometric peak force has been estimated to range between 1.40-1.70 in normal subjects. Therefore, the extensor muscles of the neck are approximately 40% stronger then the neck flexor muscles. Evidence suggested that neck pain sufferers have weaker neck flexors than normal subjects. The FRP refers to the absence of myoelectrical activity in extensor muscles upon full forward flexion and has been documented in the cervical spine of asymptomatic subjects. In conclusion, inclinometric methods used for measurements of cervical range of motion were found to be safe, effective and reliable. The Cervical Range of Motion Device appeared to be well suited for clinical practice. The ratio of cervical extension-flexion maximum isometric voluntary contraction has been determined in asymptomatic subjects. The presence of the FRP in the neck has also been observed in normals. Future study is needed to investigate the functional limitations relating to acute and chronic mechanical neck pain which account for a portion of total neck disability.

  7. Experimentally induced central sensitization in the cervical spine evokes postural stiffening strategies in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Andrew H; Srbely, John Z; Zettel, John L

    2015-02-01

    Dysequilibrium of cervicogenic origin can result from pain and injury to cervical paraspinal tissues post-whiplash; however, the specific physiological mechanisms still remain unclear. Central sensitization is a neuradaptive process which has been clinically associated with conditions of chronic pain and hypersensitivity. Strong links have been demonstrated between pain hypersensitivity and postural deficits post-whiplash; however, the precise mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms of cervicogenic disequilibrium by investigating the effect of experimentally induced central sensitization in the cervical spine on postural stability in young healthy adults. Sixteen healthy young adults (7 males (22.6±1.13 years) and 9 females (22±2.69 years)) performed 30-s full-tandem stance trials on an AMTI force plate under normal and centrally sensitized conditions. The primary outcome variables included the standard deviation of the center of pressure (COP) position in medio-lateral (M-L) and antero-posterior (A-P) directions; sway range of the COP in M-L and A-P directions and the mean power frequency (MPF) of the COP and horizontal ground shear forces. Variability and sway range of the COP decreased with experimental induction of central sensitization, accompanied by an increase in MPF of COP displacement in both M-L and A-P directions, suggesting an increase in postural stiffening post-sensitization versus non-sensitized controls. Future studies need to further explore this relationship in clinical (whiplash, chronic pain) populations. PMID:25670652

  8. Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Safriel, Yair Ang, Roberto; Ali, Muhammed

    2008-03-15

    Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualized using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered.

  9. Pain Sensitivity Subgroups in Individuals With Spine Pain: Potential Relevance to Short-Term Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bialosky, Joel E.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster analysis can be used to identify individuals similar in profile based on response to multiple pain sensitivity measures. There are limited investigations into how empirically derived pain sensitivity subgroups influence clinical outcomes for individuals with spine pain. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate empirically derived subgroups based on pressure and thermal pain sensitivity in individuals with spine pain and (2) to examine subgroup influence on 2-week clinical pain intensity and disability outcomes. Design A secondary analysis of data from 2 randomized trials was conducted. Methods Baseline and 2-week outcome data from 157 participants with low back pain (n=110) and neck pain (n=47) were examined. Participants completed demographic, psychological, and clinical information and were assessed using pain sensitivity protocols, including pressure (suprathreshold pressure pain) and thermal pain sensitivity (thermal heat threshold and tolerance, suprathreshold heat pain, temporal summation). A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was used to create subgroups based on pain sensitivity responses. Differences in data for baseline variables, clinical pain intensity, and disability were examined. Results Three pain sensitivity cluster groups were derived: low pain sensitivity, high thermal static sensitivity, and high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity. There were differences in the proportion of individuals meeting a 30% change in pain intensity, where fewer individuals within the high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity group (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval=0.1, 0.8) achieved successful outcomes. Limitations Only 2-week outcomes are reported. Conclusions Distinct pain sensitivity cluster groups for individuals with spine pain were identified, with the high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity group showing worse clinical outcome for pain intensity. Future studies should aim to confirm these findings. PMID:24764070

  10. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Karen K.; Arnold, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Review. Objective Postoperative oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the most common complications following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). We review and summarize recent literature in order to provide a general overview of clinical signs and symptoms, assessment, incidence and natural history, pathophysiology, risk factors, treatment, prevention, and topics for future research. Methods A search of English literature regarding dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. The search was focused on articles published since the last review on this topic was published in 2005. Results Patients who develop dysphagia after ACSS show significant alterations in swallowing biomechanics. Patient history, physical examination, X-ray, direct or indirect laryngoscopy, and videoradiographic swallow evaluation are considered the primary modalities for evaluating oropharyngeal dysphagia. There is no universally accepted objective instrument for assessing dysphagia after ACSS, but the most widely used instrument is the Bazaz Dysphagia Score. Because dysphagia is a subjective sensation, patient-reported instruments appear to be more clinically relevant and more effective in identifying dysfunction. The causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS are multifactorial, involving neuronal, muscular, and mucosal structures. The condition is usually transient, most often beginning in the immediate postoperative period but sometimes beginning more than 1 month after surgery. The incidence of dysphagia within one week after ACSS varies from 1 to 79% in the literature. This wide variance can be attributed to variations in surgical techniques, extent of surgery, and size of the implant used, as well as variations in definitions and measurements of dysphagia, time intervals of postoperative evaluations, and relatively small sample sizes used in published studies. The factors most commonly associated with an increased risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS are: more levels operated, female gender, increased operative time, and older age (usually >60 years). Dysphagic patients can learn compensatory strategies for the safe and effective passage of bolus material. Certain intraoperative and postoperative techniques may decrease the incidence and/or severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS. Conclusions Large, prospective, randomized studies are required to confirm the incidence, prevalence, etiology, mechanisms, long-term natural history, and risk factors for the development of dysphagia after ACSS, as well as to identify prevention measures. Also needed is a universal outcome measurement that is specific, reliable and valid, would include global, functional, psychosocial, and physical domains, and would facilitate comparisons among studies. Results of these studies can lead to improvements in surgical techniques and/or perioperative management, and may reduce the incidence of dysphagia after ACSS. PMID:24436882

  11. A 73-Year-Old Male with Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis Presenting as Urosepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kakarlapudi, H.; Speirs, S.; Lal, A.P.; Alaie, D.; Petrillo, R.; Ashraf, M.B.; Kolanuvada, B.; Bhargava, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is a serious debilitating infection if not detected early. Involvement of cervical vertebrae is usually seen in the presence of specific risk factors. Urinary tract infection commonly spreads to the lumbar vertebrae. This is a case presentation of an elderly male who, in the absence of specific risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis, presented with symptoms of urinary tract infection and was found to have cervical spine osteomyelitis. PMID:26715867

  12. Imaging of acute cervical spine injuries: review and outlook.

    PubMed

    Tins, B J; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2004-10-01

    Advances in imaging technology have been successfully applied in the emergency trauma setting with great benefit providing early, accurate and efficient diagnoses. Gaps in the knowledge of imaging acute spinal injury remain, despite a vast wealth of useful research and publications on the role of CT and MRI. This article reviews in a balanced manner the main questions that still face the attending radiologist by embracing the current and evolving concepts to help define and provide answers to the following; Imaging techniques -- strengths and weaknesses; what are the implications of a missed cervical spine injury?; who should be imaged?; how should they be imaged?; spinal immobilisation -- help or hazard?; residual open questions; what does all this mean?; and what are the implications for the radiologist? Although there are many helpful guidelines, the residual gaps in the knowledge base result in incomplete answers to the questions posed. The identification of these gaps in knowledge however should act as the initiating stimulus for further research. All too often there is a danger that the performance and productivity of the imaging modalities is the main research focus and not enough attention is given to the two fundamental prerequisites to the assessment of any imaging technology -- the clinical selection criteria for imaging and the level of expertise of the appropriate clinician interpreting the images. PMID:15451345

  13. Mandible, maxilla and cervical spine--a functional unit?

    PubMed

    Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Thieme, K M; Weber, S; Fanghanel, J; Dumont, C; Spassov, A; Hahn, W; Ihlow, D; Nagerl, H

    2008-11-01

    The motion patterns of mandibular points were recorded in vivo in closed, free movements of the mandible parallel to the sagittal-vertical plane. The points ran along loops which were valued by their area and length. All points whose loops included the same area under regarding the sense of circulation formed a straight line. Lines belonging to different areas were parallel. When the absolute areas of the oops were plotted for particular points a hollow depression with two minima resulted. The point that showed the lowest minimum in the depression corresponded to the position of the neuromuscular mandibular axis of rotation. The points running along equal loop lengths formed elliptical lines with a minimum below the condyle. The lines of constant loop area and loop length were overlaid with lateral radiographs, to match the patterns of motion with anatomical structures. The mandibular axis of rotation lay mostly cranial anterior of the condyle whereas the point with the shortest path lay mainly below this axis point, inside the bony structures. The row of teeth in the maxilla was found to be located below the line of minimal loop lengths. The cervical spine was arranged along the depression of the minimal absolute areas. PMID:19075327

  14. Feedforward activity of the cervical flexor muscles during voluntary arm movements is delayed in chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Falla, D; Jull, G; Hodges, P W

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare onset of deep and superficial cervical flexor muscle activity during rapid, unilateral arm movements between ten patients with chronic neck pain and 12 control subjects. Deep cervical flexor (DCF) electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorded with custom electrodes inserted via the nose and fixed by suction to the posterior mucosa of the oropharynx. Surface electrodes were placed over the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and anterior scalene (AS) muscles. While standing, subjects flexed and extended the right arm in response to a visual stimulus. For the control group, activation of DCF, SCM and AS muscles occurred less than 50 ms after the onset of deltoid activity, which is consistent with feedforward control of the neck during arm flexion and extension. When subjects with a history of neck pain flexed the arm, the onsets of DCF and contralateral SCM and AS muscles were significantly delayed ( p<0.05). It is concluded that the delay in neck muscle activity associated with movement of the arm in patients with neck pain indicates a significant deficit in the automatic feedforward control of the cervical spine. As the deep cervical muscles are fundamentally important for support of the cervical lordosis and the cervical joints, change in the feedforward response may leave the cervical spine vulnerable to reactive forces from arm movement. PMID:14762639

  15. Novel Intraoperative Technique to Visualize the Lower Cervical Spine: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Ryan; Stammen, Kari; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2016-02-01

    Visualization of the lower cervical spine with a lateral radiograph poses a challenge secondary to encroachment of the shoulders. Applying traction to the arms or taping the shoulders down provides adequate visualization in most patients, but imaging the mid- to lower cervical levels presents a significant challenge in patients with stout necks. We present a variation of the lateral radiograph that is 30º oblique from horizontal and 30º cephalad from neutral and used in a series of patients with stout necks that require anterior instrumentation of the lower cervical spine. We reviewed intraoperative images of 2 patients who underwent anterior cervical spine surgery at our institution, and assessed type of procedure, body mass index, and outcome scores. Our variation provided improved visualization relative to a lateral view and was used intraoperatively to confirm correct-level hardware placement in both patients. PMID:26866322

  16. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. PMID:26891637

  17. Cervical Spine Motion in Football Players During 3 Airway-Exposure Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Frens, Margaret Abfall; Hughes, Wendy; Sturmfels, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Immediate rescue breathing, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, may be necessary for the cervical spine-injured football player without removal of the helmet. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 pocket-mask insertion techniques with a face-mask rotation technique to determine which allowed the quickest initiation of rescue breathing with the least cervical spine motion. Design and Setting: In a biomechanics laboratory, 3 airway-preparation techniques were tested: chin-insertion technique (pocket mask inserted between the chin and face mask), eye-hole-insertion technique (pocket mask inserted through the face mask eye hole), and screwdriver technique (side loop straps removed using manual screwdriver followed by mask rotation). Subjects: One athletic trainer team and 12 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III football players. Measurements: Time to initiate rescue breathing and induced helmet motion. Results: Both pocket-mask techniques allowed quicker initiation of rescue breathing. Cervical spine anterior-posterior displacement was greater for the chin technique than for the screwdriver or eye-hole techniques. Lateral translation was greater for the screwdriver technique than for either pocket-mask technique. Peak displacement from initial cervical spine position was greater for the chin technique than for the eye-hole technique. Conclusions: Both pocket-mask techniques allowed quicker initiation of rescue breathing than did rotation of the face mask via loop strap screw removal. The eye-hole insertion technique was faster and produced less cervical spine motion than the other 2 techniques. Each technique produced significantly smaller amounts of cervical spine displacement than that caused by cutting face-mask loop straps as reported earlier. We suggest a protocol for field management of cervical spine injuries in football players. PMID:12937431

  18. Quantifying cervical-spine curvature using Bézier splines.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge of the distributions of cervical-spine curvature is needed for computational studies of cervical-spine injury in motor-vehicle crashes. Many methods of specifying spinal curvature have been proposed, but they often involve qualitative assessment or a large number of parameters. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative method of characterizing cervical-spine curvature using a small number of parameters. 180 sagittal X-rays of subjects seated in automotive posture with their necks in neutral, flexed, and extended postures were collected in the early 1970s. Subjects were selected to represent a range of statures and ages for each gender. X-rays were reanalyzed using advanced technology and statistical methods. Coordinates of the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies and dens were digitized. Bézier splines were fit through the coordinates of these points. The interior control points that define the spline curvature were parameterized as a vector angle and length. By defining the length as a function of the angle, cervical-spine curvature was defined with just two parameters: superior and inferior Bézier angles. A classification scheme was derived to sort each curvature by magnitude and type of curvature (lordosis versus S-shaped versus kyphosis; inferior or superior location). Cervical-spine curvature in an automotive seated posture varies with gender and age but not stature. Average values of superior and inferior Bézier angles for cervical spines in flexion, neutral, and extension automotive postures are presented for each gender and age group. Use of Bézier splines fit through posterior margins offers a quantitative method of characterizing cervical-spine curvature using two parameters: superior and inferior Bézier angles. PMID:23387791

  19. Spear tackler's spine. An entity precluding participation in tackle football and collision activities that expose the cervical spine to axial energy inputs.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S; Sennett, B; Pavlov, H; Leventhal, M R; Glasgow, S G

    1993-01-01

    We describe spear tackler's spine, a clinical entity that constitutes an absolute contraindication to participation in tackle football and other collision activities that expose the cervical spine to axial energy inputs. A subset of football players were identified who demonstrated: 1) developmental narrowing (stenosis) of the cervical canal; 2) persistent straightening or reversal of the normal cervical lordotic curve on erect lateral roentgenograms obtained in the neutral position; 3) concomitant preexisting posttraumatic roentgenographic abnormalities of the cervical spine; and 4) documentation of having employed spear tackling techniques. From data obtained by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry and the senior author's practice, 15 cases of spear tackler's spine were identified during 1987 to 1990. All 15 cases were evaluated because of complaints referable to the cervical spine or brachial plexus resulting from football injuries. Of these, 11 had complete neurologic recovery without permanent sequelae. Four cases resulted in permanent neurologic deficits: quadriplegia, 2; incomplete hemiplegia, 1; and residual long track signs, 1. Permanent neurologic injury occurred as the result of axial loading of a persistently straightened cervical spine from use of head-impact playing techniques. We suggest that individuals who possess the aforementioned characteristics of spear tackler's spine be precluded from participation in collision activities that expose the cervical spine to axial energy inputs. PMID:8238702

  20. On the creation of a segmentation library for digitized cervical and lumbar spine radiographs.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, Arunkumar; Kamalakannan, Sridharan; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Shahriar, Muneem; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, we address the issue of computer-assisted indexing in one specific case, i.e., for the 17,000 digitized images of the spine acquired during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The crucial step in this process is to accurately segment the cervical and lumbar spine in the radiographic images. To that end, we have implemented a unique segmentation system that consists of a suite of spine-customized automatic and semi-automatic statistical shape segmentation algorithms. Using the aforementioned system, we have developed experiments to optimally generate a library of spine segmentations, which currently include 2000 cervical and 2000 lumbar spines. This work is expected to contribute toward the creation of a biomedical Content-Based Image Retrieval system that will allow retrieval of vertebral shapes by using query by image example or query by shape example. PMID:21377835

  1. Unrecognized Shoulder Disorders in Treatment of Cervical Spondylosis Presenting Neck and Shoulder Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hyun-Jin; Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Chun-Kun

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cervical spondylosis and shoulder disorders share with neck and shoulder pain. Differentiating between the two can be challenging and patient with combined pathologies is less likely to have pain improvement even after successful cervical operation. We investigated clinical characteristics of the patients who were diagnosed as cervical spondylosis however, were turned out to have shoulder disorders or the patients whose pain was solely originated from shoulder. Methods Between January 2008 and October 2009, the patients presenting neck and shoulder pain with diagnosis of cervical spondylosis were enrolled. Among them, the patients who met following inclusion criteria were grouped into shoulder disorder group and the others were into cervical spondylosis group. Inclusion criteria were as follows. (1) To have residual or unresponsive neck and shoulder pain despite of optimal surgical treatment due to concomitant shoulder disorders. (2) When the operation was cancelled for the reason that shoulder and neck pain was proved to be related with unrecognized shoulder disorders. The authors retrospectively reviewed and compared clinical characteristics, level of pathology, diagnosis of cervical spondylosis and shoulder disorders. Results A total of 96 patients were enrolled in this study. Shoulder disorder group was composed of 15 patients (15.8%) and needed additional orthopedic treatment. Cervical spondylosis group was composed of 81 patients (84.2%). There was no significant differences in mean age, sex ratio and major diagnosis in both shoulder disorder and cervical spondylosis group (p=0.33, 0.78, and 0.68 respectively). However, the distribution of pathologic levels was found to be significantly different (p=0.03). In shoulder disorder group, the majority of lesions (15 of 19 levels, 78.9%) were located at the level of C4-5 (36.8%) and C5-6 (42.1%). On the other hand, in cervical spondylosis group, C5-6 (39.0%) and C6-7 (37.1%) were the most frequently observed level of lesions (80 of 105 levels, 16.1%). Conclusion It is very important for spine surgeons to perform a complete history taking and physical examination using the special tests, and to discover the underlying shoulder disorders causing of symptom in treatment of cervical spondylosis presenting neck and shoulder pain. PMID:25983819

  2. Factors influencing surgical outcome after anterior stabilization of the cervical spine with heterogeneous material

    PubMed Central

    Petridis, Athanasios K.; Sechting, Sabrina; Budde, Michael; Doukas, Alexandros; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion through an anterior approach with polymethylacrylate is a well-established neurosurgical technique in the treatment of cervical spine degeneration. However, questions still remain concerning the post-surgical outcome. Factors influencing surgical outcome that could help to predict which patients need further post-surgical treatment and what to expect after surgery are the subject of numerous studies. In the present study, we retrospectively collected data from patients who had undergone intervertebral fusion and defined which pre-operative factors could influence the surgical outcome. Between 1993 and 1997, 379 patients were surgically treated with the ventral fusion technique in our hospital. In 2006, we sent a questionnaire to the patients and 164 responses were received. We identified pre-operative presence of severe pain, hypesthesia, palsy and gait disturbance as negative predictive factors, whereas age, body mass index, pre-operative physical strain and the cervical segment involved did not seem to influence prognosis. In conclusion, identifying pre-operative factors which influence prognosis after intervetebral fusion will help predict postoperative outcome. PMID:24765459

  3. Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Suvimol C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. Objective To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. Materials and methods We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Results Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Conclusion Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations. PMID:22825777

  4. In-vivo Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Frontal Sled Tests

    PubMed Central

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Hell, Wolfram; Richter, Peter; Kraus, Michael; Kramer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The description of cervical spine motion and the risk to sustain a cervical spine injury in traffic accidents is mainly based on rear-end collisions. The knowledge about frontal collisions is comparable low. Therefore the objective of this exploratory study was, to describe the in-vivo cervical spine motion and acceleration during simulated frontal sled collisions and to identify sequences of motion in which the risk of injury is increased. A frontal collision with a speed change of 10.2km/h was simulated in a sled test with ten volunteers. Cervical spine kinematics was assessed by the simultaneous analysis of the angular head motion and acceleration as well as the simultaneous analysis of the relative motion and acceleration between the head and the first thoracic vertebral body. The motion sequence was divided into five phases. The combination of peak values of the angular head acceleration to ventral and the relative horizontal head acceleration to dorsal between the time period of 90ms and 110ms (early flexion phase) included – potential injury generating – shear forces. Although a hyperflexion (late rebound phase) as injury pattern didn’t occur, dorsal soft tissue injuries due to eccentric muscle-sprain could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion the study showed under simulated test conditions that during the early flexion phase and the late rebound phase, acceleration and movement pattern occur that could lead to cervical spine injuries. PMID:23618481

  5. Fatalities from head and cervical spine injuries occurring in tackle football: 40 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Mueller, F O; Blyth, C S

    1987-01-01

    Football head and cervical spine fatalities have been related to 84.6 per cent of all football fatalities from 1945 through 1984. The decade from 1965 through 1974 was responsible for the greatest number and percentage of head and cervical spine fatalities, and the decade from 1975 through 1984 was associated with the smallest number and percentage. The data reveal that the majority of head and cervical spine fatalities are related to high-school football players either tackling or being tackled in a game. The majority of head fatalities are subdural hematomas, and almost all of the cervical spine fatalities are fractures, dislocations, or fracture-dislocations. There has been a dramatic reduction in these types of fatalities during the last decade, 1975 through 1984, and the preventive measures that have received most of the credit have been the 1976 rule change that prohibits initial contact with the head and face when blocking and tackling, the NOCSAE helmet standard that went into effect in colleges in 1978 and high schools in 1980, better coaching in the techniques of blocking and tackling, and improved medical care. There has been a reduction of head and cervical spine fatalities, but the analysis of data for the next decade, 1985 through 1994, will reveal the effects of the preventive measures discussed and continued research efforts. PMID:3508103

  6. A systematic review of the use of expandable cages in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Goodwin, C Rory; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Expandable vertebral body replacement cages (VBRs) have been widely used for reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy. However, their use in the cervical spine is less common, and currently, no expandable cages on the market are cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of expandable cages in the treatment of cervical spine pathology with a focus on fusion rates, deformity correction, complications, and indications. A comprehensive Medline search was performed, and 24 applicable articles were identified and included in this review. The advantages of expandable cages include greater ease of implantation with less risk of damage to the end plate, less intraoperative manipulation of the device, and potentially greater control over lordosis. They may be particularly advantageous in cases with poor bone quality, such as patients with osteoporosis or metastatic tumors that have been radiated. However, there is a potential risk of overdistraction, which is increased in the cervical spine, their minimum height limits their use in cases with collapsed vertebra, and the amount of hardware in the expansion mechanism may limit the surface area available for fusion. The use of expandable VBRs are a valuable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of the anterior column of the cervical spine with an acceptable safety profile. Although expandable cervical cages are clearly beneficial in certain clinical situations, widespread use following all corpectomies is not justified due to their significantly greater cost compared to structural bone grafts or non-expandable VBRs, which can be utilized to achieve similar clinical outcomes. PMID:26212700

  7. Fatalities from head and cervical spine injuries occurring in tackle football: 50 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Mueller, F O

    1998-01-01

    Football head and cervical spine fatalities have been related to 84.9% of all football fatalities from 1945 through 1994. The decade from 1965 through 1974 was responsible for the greatest number and percentage of head and cervical spine fatalities, and the two decades from 1975 through 1994 were associated with the smallest number and percentage. The data reveal that most head and cervical spine fatalities are related to high school football players either tackling or being tackled in a game. Most head fatalities are subdural hematomas, and almost all of the cervical spine fatalities are fractures, dislocations, or fracture-dislocations. There has been a dramatic reduction in these types of fatalities during the last two decades, 1975 through 1994, and the preventive measures that have received most of the credit have been the 1976 rule change that prohibits initial contact with the head and face when blocking and tackling, the NOCSAE helmet standard that went into effect in colleges in 1978 and high schools in 1980, better coaching in the techniques of blocking and tackling, and improved medical care. There has been a reduction of head and cervical spine fatalities, but the analysis of data for the next decade, 1995 through 2004, will reveal the continued effects of the preventive measures discussed and continued research efforts. A number of researchers have stated that in order for the head and cervical spine fatalities to continue decreasing, there must be increased helmet research with an emphasis on concussions and neck injuries. Will the number of fatalities continue to decrease? Only time will tell. PMID:9475981

  8. A Female Ligamentous Cervical Spine Finite Element Model Validated for Physiological Loads.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Svensson, Mats Y; Linder, Astrid

    2016-06-01

    Mathematical cervical spine models allow for studying of impact loading that can cause whiplash associated disorders (WAD). However, existing models only cover the male anthropometry, despite the female population being at a higher risk of sustaining WAD in automotive rear-end impacts. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a ligamentous cervical spine intended for biomechanical research on the effect of automotive impacts. A female model has the potential to aid the design of better protection systems as well as improve understanding of injury mechanisms causing WAD. A finite element (FE) mesh was created from surface data of the cervical vertebrae of a 26-year old female (stature 167 cm, weight 59 kg). Soft tissues were generated from the skeletal geometry and anatomical literature descriptions. Ligaments were modeled with nonlinear elastic orthotropic membrane elements, intervertebral disks as composites of nonlinear elastic bulk elements, and orthotropic anulus fibrosus fiber layers, while cortical and trabecular bones were modeled as isotropic plastic-elastic. The model has geometrical features representative of the female cervical spine-the largest average difference compared with published anthropometric female data was the vertebral body depth being 3.4% shorter for the model. The majority the cervical segments compare well with respect to biomechanical data at physiological loads, with the best match for flexion-extension loads and less biofidelity for axial rotation. An average female FE ligamentous cervical spine model was developed and validated with respect to physiological loading. In flexion-extension simulations with the developed female model and an existing average male cervical spine model, a greater range of motion (ROM) was found in the female model. PMID:26974520

  9. Tertiary Syphilis in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Salem, K. M. I.; Majeed, H.; Bommireddy, R.; Klezl, Z.

    2012-01-01

    As the prevalence of syphilis rises, an increase in tertiary syphilis with spinal involvement is predicted. We report what we believe to be the first case of compressive cervical spine syphilitic gummata, with central cord compression signs. We also review the relevant literature to date. The diagnosis of syphilis in the spine relies on the physician to be aware of it as part of the differential diagnosis. Treponemal laboratory tests are an important aid in establishing a diagnosis. PMID:24436850

  10. The role of the cervical spine in post-concussion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Cameron M; Vernon, Howard; Leddy, John J; Baldwin, Bradley A

    2015-07-01

    While much is known regarding the pathophysiology surrounding concussion injuries in the acute phase, there is little evidence to support many of the theorized etiologies to post-concussion syndrome (PCS); the chronic phase of concussion occurring in ∼ 10-15% of concussed patients. This paper reviews the existing literature surrounding the numerous proposed theories of PCS and introduces another potential, and very treatable, cause of this chronic condition; cervical spine dysfunction due to concomitant whiplash-type injury. We also discuss a short case-series of five patients with diagnosed PCS having very favorable outcomes following various treatment and rehabilitative techniques aimed at restoring cervical spine function. PMID:26138797

  11. Pearls for Interpreting Computed Tomography of the Cervical Spine in Trauma.

    PubMed

    Darras, Kathryn; Andrews, Gordon T; McLaughlin, Patrick D; Khorrami-Arani, Nivmand; Roston, Alexandra; Forster, Bruce B; Louis, Luck

    2015-07-01

    The high morbidity and mortality associated with cervical spine injuries makes identification and classification essential. It is important to have a systematic approach to evaluation, especially in the trauma setting with other distracting injuries. Understanding the anatomy and biomechanics enables rapid and accurate interpretation of images. In severe trauma and in patients with rigid spinal disease, the classic patterns of injury may be difficult or impossible to recognize. This article provides an approach to acquiring and interpreting cervical spine images in the setting of acute trauma and reviews the classic patterns of injury. PMID:26046504

  12. [FUNCTIONAL STATE OF STATOKINETIC SYSTEM AND CERVICAL SPINE IN EDENTULOUS PATIENTS WITH CONCOMITANT SOMATIC PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, K A; Veretenko, E A; Iordanishvili, A K

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the functional state of statokinetic system and cervical spine in edentulous patients with concomitant somatic pathology before and three months after prosthetic dental treatment. Thirty seven edentulous patients underwent comprehensive examination including computer-assisted stabilometry. Stabilometric recordings were performed using stabilometric platform "Stabilan-01" (manufactured by special design office "Ritm", Taganrog) by means of special tests. According to the data of computer-assisted stabilometry prosthetic dental treatment leads to improvement of the functional state of statokinetic system and cervical spine in patients with concomitant somatic pathology. PMID:26390624

  13. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical, metabolic, and kinematic spinal changes in the lumbar spine may aid further development of countermeasures to prevent lumbar back pain in microgravity and reduce the incidence of HNPs post-flight.

  14. Asymptomatic Stenosis in the Cervical and Thoracic Spines of Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lyu, Ho Dong; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Studies on age-related degenerative changes causing concurrent stenoses in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines (triple stenosis) are rare in the literature. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the incidence of asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis, (2) the incidence of concurrent radiologic spinal stenosis in the cervical and thoracic spines, and (3) the radiologic features of cervical stenosis that might predict concurrent thoracic stenosis. Methods Whole-spine T2 sagittal magnetic resonance images of patients older than 80 and diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis between January 2003 and January 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. We included patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical and thoracic stenosis. We measured the anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral body, bony spinal canal, and spinal cord, along with the Pavlov ratio and anterior or posterior epidural stenosis at the level of the disk for each cervical and thoracic level. We compared the radiologic parameters between the subgroups of cervical stenosis with and without thoracic stenosis. Results Among the 460 patients with lumbar stenosis, 110 (23.9%) had concurrent radiologic cervical stenosis and 112 (24.3%) had concurrent radiologic thoracic stenosis. Fifty-six patients (12.1%) had combined radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in addition to their symptomatic lumbar stenosis (triple stenosis). Anterior epidural stenosis at C7–T1 was associated with a high prevalence of thoracic stenosis. Conclusions It appears that asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis is common in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. PMID:26430589

  15. Current status of bone graft options for anterior interbody fusion of the cervical and lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Chau, Anthony Minh Tien; Xu, Lileane Liang; Wong, Johnny Ho-Yin; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) are common surgical procedures for degenerative disc disease of the cervical and lumbar spine. Over the years, many bone graft options have been developed and investigated aimed at complimenting or substituting autograft bone, the traditional fusion substrate. Here, we summarise the historical context, biological basis and current best evidence for these bone graft options in ACDF and ALIF. PMID:23743981

  16. Local Muscle Fatigue and 3D Kinematics of the Cervical Spine in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Pippig, Torsten; Wall, Rudolf; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The authors aimed to further explore the effects of local muscle fatigue on cervical 3D kinematics and the interrelationship between these kinematic characteristics and local muscle endurance capacity in the unimpaired cervical spine. Twenty healthy subjects (38 ± 10 years; 5 women) performed 2 × 10 maximal cervical flexion-extension movements. Isometric muscle endurance tests (prone/supine lying) were applied between sets to induce local muscle fatigue quantified by Borg scale rates of perceived exertion (RPE) and slope in mean power frequency (MPF; surface electromyography; m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. splenius capitis). Cervical motion characteristics (maximal range of motion [ROM], coefficient of variation of the 10 repetitive movements, mean angular velocity, conjunct movements in transversal and frontal plane) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic movement data. Average isometric strength testing duration for flexion and extension correlated to the cervical ROM (r = .49/r = .48; p < .05). However, Student's t test demonstrated no significant alterations in any kinematic parameter following local muscle fatigue (p > .05). Although subjects' cervical muscle endurance capacity and motor output seems to be conjugated, no impact of local cervical muscle fatigue on motor function was shown. These findings underline the importance of complementary measures to address muscular performance and kinematic characteristics in outcome assessment and functional rehabilitation of the cervical spine. PMID:26180902

  17. Assessment of cervical spine movement during laryngoscopy with Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Kajal; Rao, Madhusudan; Mandal, Arup Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Truview laryngoscope provides an indirect view of the glottis and will cause less cervical spine movement since a ventral lifting force will not be required to visualize the glottis compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover study to assess the degree of movement of cervical spine during endotracheal intubation with Truview laryngoscope was conducted in 25 adult ASA-I patients. After a standard anesthetic technique laryngoscopy was performed twice in each patient using in turn both the Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes. A baseline radiograph with the head and neck in a neutral position was followed by a second radiograph taken during each laryngoscopy. An experienced radiologist analyzed and measured the cervical movement. Results: Significant cervical spine movement occurred at all segments when compared to the baseline with both the Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes (P < 0.001). However, the movement was significantly less with Truview compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope at C0C1 (21%; P = 0.005) and C1C2 levels (32%; P = 0.009). The atlantooccipital distance (AOD) traversed while using Truview laryngoscope was significantly less than with Macintosh blade (26%; P = 0.001). Truview blade produced a better laryngoscopic view (P = 0.005) than Macintosh blade, but had a longer time to laryngoscopy (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Truview laryngoscope produced a better laryngoscopic view of glottis as compared with Macintosh laryngoscopy. It also produced significantly less cervical spine movement at C0C1 and C1C2 levels than with Macintosh laryngoscope in patients without cervical spine injury and without manual in-line stabilization (MILS). Further studies are warranted with Truview laryngoscope using MILS. PMID:24106352

  18. A preliminary study comparing the use of cervical/upper thoracic mobilization and manipulation for individuals with mechanical neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Griswold, David; Learman, Ken; O'Halloran, Bryan; Cleland, Josh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neck pain is routinely managed using manual therapy (MT) to the cervical and thoracic spines. While both mobilizations and manipulations to these areas have been shown to reduce neck pain, increase cervical range of motion, and reduce disability, the most effective option remains elusive. The purpose of this preliminary trial was to compare the pragmatic use of cervical and thoracic mobilizations vs. manipulation for mechanical neck pain. Methods: This trial included 20 patients with mechanical neck pain. Each patient was randomized to receive either mobilization or manipulation to both the cervical and thoracic spines during their plan of care. Within-group analyses were made with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and between-group analyses were made with Mann–Whitney U. Results: There were no between-group differences for any of the dependent variables including cervical active range of motion (CAROM) (P = 0.18), deep cervical flexion (DCF) endurance (P = 0.06), numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) (P = 0.26), the neck disability index (NDI, P = 0.33), patient-specific functional scale (PSFS, P = 0.20), or the global rating of change (GROC) scale (P = 0.94). Within-group results were significant for all outcome variables (P<0.001) from initial evaluation to discharge for both groups. Discussion: These findings were consistent with other trials previously conducted that applied the MT techniques in a pragmatic fashion, but varied from previous trials where the treatment was standardized. A larger experimental study is necessary to further examine the differences between mobilization and manipulation for neck pain. PMID:26109828

  19. Mechanisms of cervical spine injuries for non-fatal motorcycle road crash.

    PubMed

    Ooi, S S; Wong, S V; Radin Umar, R S; Azhar, A A; Yeap, J S; Megat Ahmad, M M H

    2004-06-01

    Cervical spine injuries such as subluxation and fracture dislocation have long been known to result in severe consequences, as well as the trauma management itself. The injury to the region has been identified as one of the major causes of death in Malaysian motorcyclists involved in road crashes, besides head and chest injuries (Pang, 1999). Despite this, cervical spine injury in motorcyclists is not a well-studied injury, unlike the whiplash injury in motorcar accidents. The present study is a retrospective study on the mechanisms of injury in cervical spine sustained by Malaysian motorcyclists, who were involved in road crash using an established mechanistic classification system. This will serve as an initial step to look at the cervical injuries pattern. The information obtained gives engineer ideas to facilitate design and safety features to reduce injuries. All cervical spine injured motorcyclists admitted to Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2001 were included in the present study. Based on the medical notes and radiological investigations (X-rays, CT and MRI scans), the mechanisms of injuries were formulated using the injury mechanics classification. The result shows that flexion of the cervical vertebrae is the most common vertebral kinematics in causing injury to motorcyclists. This indicates that the cervical vertebrae sustained a high-energy loading at flexion movement in road crash, and exceeded its tolerance level. The high frequency of injury at the C5 vertebra, C6 vertebra and C5-C6 intervertebral space are recorded. Classification based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is made to give a view on injury severity, 9.1% of the study samples have been classified as AIS code 1, 51.5% with AIS 2 and 21.2% with AIS 3. PMID:15559162

  20. Controlled Laboratory Comparison Study of Motion With Football Equipment in a Destabilized Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; DiPaola, Matthew J.; DiPaola, Christian P.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Conrad, Bryan P.; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that there are better alternatives to log rolling patients with unstable spinal injuries, although this method is still commonly used for placing patients onto a spine board. No previous studies have examined transfer maneuvers involving an injured football player with equipment in place onto a spine board. Purpose To test 3 different transfer maneuvers of an injured football player onto a spine board to determine which method most effectively minimizes spinal motion in an injured cervical spine model. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Five whole, lightly embalmed cadavers were fitted with shoulder pads and helmets and tested both before and after global instability was surgically created at C5-C6. An electromagnetic motion analysis device was used to assess the amount of angular and linear motion with sensors placed above and below the injured segment during transfer. Spine-boarding techniques evaluated were the log roll, the lift and slide, and the 8-person lift. Results The 8-person lift technique resulted in the least amount of angular and linear motion for all planes tested as compared with the lift-and-slide and log-roll techniques. This reached statistical significance for lateral bending (P = .031) and medial-lateral translation (P = .030) when compared with the log-roll maneuver. The lift-and-slide technique was significantly more effective at reducing motion than the log roll for axial rotation (P = .029) and lateral bending (P = .006). Conclusion The log roll resulted in the most motion at an unstable cervical injury as compared with the other 2 spine-boarding techniques examined. The 8-person lift and lift-and-slide techniques may both be more effective than the log roll at reducing unwanted cervical spine motion when spine boarding an injured football player. Reduction of such motion is critical in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. PMID:26535397

  1. Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John

    2009-10-15

    Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional radiogenic lethal cancer incidents. According to the decision model calculations, the use of CT is more favorable over the use of radiography alone or radiography with CT by a factor of 13, for low risk 20 yr old patients, to a factor of 23, for high risk patients younger than 80 yr old. The radiography/CT imaging strategy slightly outperforms plain radiography for high and moderate risk patients. Regardless of the patient age, sex, and fracture risk, the higher diagnostic accuracy obtained by the CT examination counterbalances the increase in dose compared to plain radiography or radiography followed by CT only for positive radiographs and renders CT utilization justified and the radiographic screening redundant.

  2. Single stage transforaminal retrojugular tumor resection: The spinal keyhole for dumbbell tumors in the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Bobinski, Lukas; Henchoz, Yves; Sandu, Kishore; Duff, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dumbbell tumors are defined as having an intradural and extradural component with an intermediate component within an expanded neural foramen. Complete resection of these lesions in the subaxial cervical spine is a challenge, and it has been achieved through a combined posterior/anterior or anterolateral approach. This study describes a single stage transforaminal retrojugular (TFR) approach for dumbbell tumors resection in the cervical spine. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a series of 17 patients treated for cervical benign tumors, 4 of which were “true” cervical dumbbell tumors operated by a simplified retrojugular approach. The TFR approach allows a single stage gross total resection of both the extraspinal and intraspinal/intradural components of the tumor, taking advantage of the expanded neural foramen. All patients were followed clinically and radiologically with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Gross total resection was confirmed in all four patients by postoperative MRI. Minimal to no bone resection was performed. No fusion procedure was performed and no delayed instability was seen. At follow up, one patient had a persistent mild hand weakness and Horners syndrome following resection of a hemangioblastoma of the C8 nerve root. The other three patients were neurologically normal. Conclusions: The TFR approach appears to be a feasible surgical option for single stage resection in selective cases of dumbbell tumors of the cervical spine. PMID:25883845

  3. [Posttraumatic Chance fracture of the cervical spine in a case with ankylosing spondylitis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, H Mustafa; Erkoçak, Omer; Demirayak, Mehmet; Ogün, Tunç

    2006-01-01

    Spinal fractures can occur after minor traumas due to the fragility of osseous or ligamentous structures of the spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. They are usually seen in the thoracolumbar region of the spine. However, the cervical region is an extremely rare location for these fractures. We present a 52-year-old male with ankylosing spondilitis who had complaints of weakness in the lower extremities and difficulty with walking after a fall from height. Neurologic examination revealed a progressive loss of motor function. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a Chance fracture at the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae. We performed a one-stage anterior cervical fusion and stabilization with posterior decompression. Postoperatively, there was a progressive neurologic improvement. However, the patient died due to pulmonary failure at the seventh day postoperatively. PMID:16456756

  4. Vertebroplasty as a Treatment for Primary Benign or Metastatic Cervical Spine Lesions: Up to One Year of Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, G; Vassallo, P; Ambrosanio, G; Zeccolini, F; Lavanga, A; Varelli, C; Fabozzi, G; Izzo, R; Muto, M

    2010-03-01

    This paper illustrates the validity of vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with primary benign or metastatic lesion in the cervical spine. From January 2006 to December 2007, ten consecutive patients were treated with VP for a total of ten vertebral bodies: two symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas at C5 and C4.3, multiple myeloma at C2 (two cases) and one case at C4, five patients with vertebral metastasis from breast or lung cancer at C2, C4 (three cases) and C5. All the patients complained of pain resistant to continuous medical management. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia by anterolateral approach under CT or fluoroscopy control with manual dislocation of the carotid axis. A transoral approach under fluoroscopy was performed to treat the C2 lesion. Bone biopsy was never performed. VP was performed to prevent fracture after implantation of a double discal prothesis in two patients. For patients with multiple myeloma, VP was performed to prevent new vertebral fracture. VP was performed before of radiotherapy in three patients with metastasis, and just after radiotherapy in two. Two metastatic patients were lost at one year follow-up due to death from systematic diffusion. Results were evaluated on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODS). A successful outcome was observed with a complete resolution or partial reduction of pain in 90% of patients 24-72 hours after VP. At 12 months follow-up, we recorded a reduction of four points in the VAS evaluation and a 45% reduction in the ODS score. No extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage was observed. At 12 months, X-ray follow-up showed a stable result. Percutaneous treatment with VP for benign or malignant cervical spine lesions is a valuable, mini-invasive and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of painful vertebral symptoms without fracture of the adjacent or distal vertebral bodies. PMID:24148339

  5. Extensive cervical spine and foregut anomaly in ‘serpentine syndrome’

    PubMed Central

    Dargan, D.; McMorrow, A.; Bourke, T.W.; McCallion, W.A.; Verner, A.M.; Lyons, J.; McConnell, R.S.; Lundy, C.T.; Eames, N.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We report an extremely rare and challenging combination of congenital anomalies. Only five similar cases have been described in the English language medical literature to date. PRESENTATION OF CASE A male infant was born at 30+5 weeks gestation by emergency caesarian section. Cervical spine rachischisis, shortened oesophagus, intrathoracic stomach, atretic duodenum and absent spleen were noted, in addition to respiratory insufficiency. Gastrointestinal re-anastomosis, particularly oesophageal lengthening, was not feasible at the initial thoracotomy. Surgical stabilization of the cervical spine was unlikely to be successful until two years of age. Asplenia predisposed the infant to sepsis from encapsulated organisms, and recurrent respiratory infections occurred. DISCUSSION A close relationship exists between the upper gastrointestinal tract and cervical spine during embryonic development. An embryonic aberration at this level could account for all the deformities present in this infant. Tethering of the embryonic cervical oesophagus to the somites in the first trimester, preventing foregut elongation, and producing ischaemia at the coeliac axis, is suggested as the aetiology. CONCLUSION This case presented a challenge to the multi-disciplinary team involved in his management and prompted extensive consultation with international experts. After considerable counseling of the parents, care was directed towards palliation. PMID:23567544

  6. Whiplash-associated disorders impairment rating: neck disability index score according to severity of MRI findings of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether reported pain and functional disability in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) patients is associated with lesions to specific soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, as assessed by MRI. Pre-selected structures for MRI assessment included the alar ligaments, the transverse ligament, the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. The questionnaire employed was a modification of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Index. It was comprised of ten single items related to pain and activity of daily living. Ninety-two whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. WAD patients reported significantly more pain and functional disability than the controls, both for total score and each of the ten single items. In the WAD patients, MRI lesions to the alar ligaments showed the most consistent association to the reported pain and disability. Lesions to other structures often occurred in combination with lesions to the alar ligaments. Lesions to the transverse ligament and to the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane also appeared to be related to the NDI score, although the association was weaker than for the alar ligament. The disability score increased with increasing number of abnormal (grade 2-3) structures. These results indicate that symptoms and complaints among WAD patients can be linked with structural abnormalities in ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine, in particular the alar ligaments. PMID:15853463

  7. Correlation between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical outcome after cervical laminoplasty for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Shin, Dong Ah; Yi, Seong; Kim, Keung Nyun; Shin, Hyun Chul; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes after cervical laminoplasty in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). METHODS Fifty consecutive patients who underwent a cervical laminoplasty for OPLL between January 2012 and January 2013 and who were followed up for at least 1 year were analyzed in this study. Standing plain radiographs of the cervical spine, CT (midsagittal view), and MRI (T2-weighted sagittal view) were obtained (anteroposterior, lateral, flexion, and extension) pre- and postoperatively. Cervical spine alignment was assessed with the following 3 parameters: the C2-7 Cobb angle, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and T-1 slope minus C2-7 Cobb angle. The change in cervical sagittal alignment was defined as the difference between the post- and preoperative C2-7 Cobb angles, C2-7 SVAs, and T-1 slope minus C2-7 Cobb angles. Outcome assessments (visual analog scale [VAS], Oswestry Neck Disability Index [NDI], 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] scores) were obtained in all patients pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS The average patient age was 56.3 years (range 38-72 years). There were 34 male patients and 16 female patients. Cervical laminoplasty for OPLL helped alleviate radiculomyelopathy. Compared with the preoperative scores, improvement was seen in postoperative VAS and JOA scores. After laminoplasty, 35 patients had kyphotic changes, and 15 had lordotic changes. However, cervical sagittal alignment after laminoplasty was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes in terms of postoperative improvement of the JOA score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.633; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.817; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.554), the SF-36 score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.554; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.793; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.829), the VAS neck score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.263; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.716; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.497), or the NDI score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.568; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.279; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.966). Similarly, the change in cervical sagittal alignment was not related to the JOA (p = 0.604), SF-36 (p = 0.308), VAS neck (p = 0.832), or NDI (p = 0.608) scores. CONCLUSIONS Cervical laminoplasty for OPLL improved radiculomyelopathy. Cervical laminoplasty increased the probability of cervical kyphotic alignment. However, cervical sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes were not clearly related. PMID:26431070

  8. Connective tissue, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s), and head and cervical pain.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for a growing group of hereditary disorders of the connective tissue mainly manifesting with generalized joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and vascular and internal organ fragility. In contrast with other well known heritable connective tissue disorders with severe cardiovascular involvement (e.g., Marfan syndrome), most EDS patients share a nearly normal life span, but are severely limited by disabling features, such as pain, fatigue and headache. In this work, pertinent literature is reviewed with focus on prevalence, features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of headache in EDSs. Gathered data are fragmented and generally have a low level of evidence. Headache is reported in no less than 1/3 of the patients. Migraine results the most common type in the hypermobility type of EDS. Other possibly related headache disorders include tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, headache attributed to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage, headache secondary to Chiari malformation, cervicogenic headache and neck-tongue syndrome, whose association still lacks of reliable prevalence studies. The underlying pathogenesis seems complex and variably associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia, cervical spine and temporomandibular joint instability/dysfunction, meningeal fragility, poor sleep quality, pain-killer drugs overuse and central sensitization. Particular attention is posed on a presumed subclinical cervical spine dysfunction. Standard treatment is always symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. Assessment and management procedures are discussed in order to put some basis for ameliorating the actual patients' needs and nurturing future research. PMID:25655119

  9. Effects of the height of shoe heels on muscle activation of cervical and lumbar spine in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kisu; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different height of high heels on muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in healthy young women. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen healthy women were recruited in this study. To examine the effects of different heights of heels on muscle activation, the paraspinalis cervicis (cervical spine) and erector spinae (lumbar spine) were measured at the time of heel strike and toe off during gait on three different conditions (barefoot, 4 cm high heels, and 10 cm high heels). There are no previous trials or reports that have evaluated this approach in patients with chronic neck pain. [Results] A significant increase in muscle activation of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae at heel strike and toe off (except that of the paraspinalis cervicis at toe off in healthy subjects) was observed in the under 10 cm high heel condition as, compared to that with barefoot condition, in all the subjects. [Conclusion] The height of the high heels affects to the activation demand of the paraspinalis cervicis and erector spinae in patients with neck pain. PMID:27134392

  10. [Controversies about instrumented surgery and pain relief in degenerative lumbar spine pain. Results of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Robaina-Padrón, F J

    2007-10-01

    Investigation and development of new techniques for intrumented surgery of the spine is not free of conflicts of interest. The influence of financial forces in the development of new technologies an its immediately application to spine surgery, shows the relationship between the published results and the industry support. Even authors who have defend eagerly fusion techniques, it have been demonstrated that them are very much involved in the revision of new articles to be published and in the approval process of new spinal technologies. When we analyze the published results of spine surgery, we must bear in mind what have been call in the "American Stock and Exchange" as "the bubble of spine surgery". The scientific literature doesn't show clear evidence in the cost-benefit studies of most instrumented surgical interventions of the spine compare with the conservative treatments. It has not been yet demonstrated that fusion surgery and disc replacement are better options than the conservative treatment. It's necessary to point out that at present "there are relationships between the industry and back pain, and there is also an industry of the back pain". Nonetheless, the "market of the spine surgery" is growing up because patients are demanding solutions for their back problems. The tide of scientific evidence seams to go against the spinal fusions in the degenerative disc disease, discogenic pain and inespecific back pain. After decades of advances in this field, the results of spinal fusions are mediocre. New epidemiological studies show that "spinal fusion must be accepted as a non proved or experimental method for the treatment of back pain". The surgical literature on spinal fusion published in the last 20 years following the Cochrane's method establish that: 1- this is at least incomplete, not reliable and careless; 2- the instrumentation seems to slightly increase the fusion rate; 3- the instrumentation doesn't improve the clinical results in general, lacking studies in subgroups of patients. We still are needing randomized studies to compare the surgical results with the natural history of the disease, the placebo effect, or the conservative treatment. The European Guidelines for lumbar chronic pain management show a "strong evidence" indicating that complex and demanding spine surgery where different instrumentation is used, is not more effective than a simple, safer and cheaper posterolateral fusion without instrumentation. Recently, the literature published in this field is sending a message to use "minimally invasive techniques", abandon transpedicular fusions and clearly indicating that we must apply the knowledge accumulated at least along the last 20 years based on the scientific evidence. In conclusion, based in recent information, we must recommend the "abandon of the instrumented pathway" in a great number of present indications for degenerative spine surgery, and look for new strategies in the field of rehabilitation and conservative treatments correctly apply, using before the decompressive and instrumented surgery all the interventional and minimally invasive techniques that are presently offer in the field of modem lumbar chronic pain treatment. PMID:18008014

  11. Pedicle Reduction Osteotomy in the Upper Cervical Spine: Technique, Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Post, Nicholas; Cooper, Colin S.; Pivec, Robert; Paulino, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a case report of the correction of a degenerative cervical 45-degree kyphosis centered at C4 with a single stage PSO. Summary of Background Data Correction of a fixed cervical kyphosis is a surgical challenge that is frequently managed with a combination of anterior and posterior surgical procedures. An alternative the three stage operation is a single stage pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). A PSO releases the posterior, middle and anterior columns of the spine by resecting the facet joints, pedicles, and a portion of the vertebral body at the apex of a kyphosis through a posterior approach. Methods This was a case report of a patient who had degenerative cervical 45 degree kyphosis and was corrected with a single stage pedicle subtraction osteotomy. We did a literature review to provide information on current techniques to treat these patients. Results With careful resection of the lateral mass and decompression of the vertebral artery by removal of the posterior margin of the foramen transversarium the upper cervical pedicles can be accessed and a PSO can be performed. The vertebral arteries were not obstructed or kinked with posterior reduction of the PSO in this case. Conclusions A closing wedge PSO is a useful tool for correcting fixed kyphotic deformities in the upper cervical spine. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term outcomes in these patients. PMID:26609512

  12. Infantile tumoral calcinosis of the cervical spine presenting as torticollis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ali; Diehn, Felix E; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lane, John I; Fritchie, Karen; Larson, A Noelle

    2016-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) and MRI findings of infantile tumoral calcinosis and the utility of image-guided biopsy are demonstrated. A 5-month old presented with torticollis and a calcified cervical spinal mass. The radiologic appearance suggested a malignant neoplasm, prompting CT-guided biopsy, which diagnosed tumoral calcinosis. We hope to increase awareness of this entity and describe image-guided biopsy as a way to avoid morbidity associated with open biopsy. PMID:26520701

  13. Airway management with the Laryngeal Tube Suction II in a patient with cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Genzwuerker, Harald V; Tsagogiorgas, C; Hinkelbein, J; Beck, G

    2005-05-01

    Supraglottic airway devices may offer alternative strategies for securing the airway in patients with cervical spine injuries. A case of airway management with the LTS II, a modified version of the laryngeal tube suction, in a patient with a paramedian atlas fracture scheduled for decompression of a haematoma on the forehead is described. Device insertion was successful in the first attempt and a gastric tube was inserted without problems. Ventilation was uneventful, no complaints were stated after surgery. PMID:15866406

  14. Role of posterior elements in the disc bulging of a degenerated cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Solitro, Giovanni F.; Siemionow, Kris; Drucker, David; Upadhyay, Ashish; Patel, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have been developed to characterize the mechanical behavior of the intervertebral disc specifically for the lumbar spine and there have been limited studies done on the cervical spine with the goal to evaluate the strength of the cervical spine under compression without any information on the bulging of the intervertebral discs. The goal of the current study is to examine the deformation response of the cervical intervertebral disc classified with grade III or greater degeneration and analyze the relationship between axial deformation and anterior and posterior bulge under compression up to 550 N. Methods Each specimen was compressed for 3 cycles to a maximum load of 550N in steps of 50 N. The bulge was measured using Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs on an intact spinal segment, spinal segment with post laminectomy, and spinal segment post facetectomy. Results The anterior budge for an intact spinal segment shows a change of slope at loads of 262N±66N. For a physiological load of 250N the vertical displacement or spine segment height was reduced by 10.1% for an intact segment and 8.78% for the laminectomy and facetectomy configurations with F = 0.159 (Fcrit = 3.89) with no statistical difference observed. For the post laminectomy there was a decrease of 35% in anterior bulge compared to the intact specimen. Conclusions Our results show that for grade III disc degeneration the cervical segments bulging for both the laminectomy and facetectomy procedures are not significantly different. In post laminectomy the average anterior and posterior bulges are similar to the average anterior and posterior bulge post facetectomy. PMID:26056628

  15. [Halo instrumentation for the correction and immobilization of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Brinckmann, P; Horst, M; Polster, J

    1985-01-01

    An instrument set for application in patients requiring a correction treatment and/or a temporary fixation of the cervical spine is described. The halo is combined with a cast or a brace employing the 8 mm Hoffmann External Fixator system supplemented by three additional, newly designed parts. Applications of the instrument set in the treatment of traumatic fracture, fibrous dysplasia and ankylosing spondylitis are described. PMID:4050046

  16. Chordomas: their CT appearance in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.; Lepke, R.A.; Lindfors, K.K.; Pagani, J.J.; Hirschy, J.C.; Hayman, L.A.; Momose, K.J.; McGinnis, B.

    1984-12-01

    The authors reviewed 25 CT scans of 21 patients who had chordomas in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. Nine patients were studied at the time of initial presentation and 12 after after tumor recurrence. All scans showed vertebral body destruction coupled with an associated soft tissue mass located anteriorly or laterally. Additional CT findings included septated areas of low attenuation within the tumor, amorphous soft tissue calcification, tumor extensions into the spinal canal, disk space involvement, and contrast enhancement.

  17. Cervical Spine Chondroma Compressing Spinal Cord: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yoon Hwan; Park, Sung-Hye; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-01-01

    Chondromas are benign tumor of cartilaginous tissue that is rarely found in spine. The authors document a rare case of a 72 year old male patient with a cervical spinal chondroma compressing the spinal cord. The patient had symptoms of motor and sensory deficits, dysphagia and dysarthria. C1 and C2 laminotomy was done and the spinal tumor was removed. The patient gradually recovered from his previous symptom after the surgery. PMID:26834817

  18. Chronic spinal cord injury in the cervical spine of a young soccer player.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yoshihiko; Koga, Michiaki; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    A 17-year-old male soccer player presented with numbness in the upper- and lower-left extremities of 6 months' duration. He had no apparent history of trauma but experienced neck pain during heading of the ball 5 years prior. A high-signal intensity area was seen on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. No muscle weakness was observed. Hypoesthesia was observed in bilateral forearms, hands, and extremities below the inguinal region. Plain radiographs in the neutral position showed local kyphosis at C3/4. A small protrusion of the C3/4 disk was observed on T1-weighted MRI. A high-signal area in the spinal cord at the C3/4 level was observed on T2-weighted MRI, but this was not enhanced by gadolinium. Multiple sclerosis, intramedullary spinal cord tumor, sarcoidosis and malignant lymphoma, and spinal cord injury were all considered in the differential diagnosis. However, in view of the clinical, laboratory, and radiological investigations, we concluded that repeated impacts to the neck caused by heading of the ball during soccer induced a chronic, minor spinal cord injury. This contributed to the high-signal intensity change of the spinal cord in T2-weighted MRI. The present case demonstrates that repeated impact may cause chronic spinal cord injury. Soccer, American football, or rugby players presenting with neck or extremity symptoms should not be overlooked for the possibility of latent spinal cord injury, as this could present later development of more severe or unrecoverable spinal cord injuries. PMID:20506942

  19. High rotation rate behavior of cervical spine segments in flexion and extension.

    PubMed

    Barker, Jeffrey B; Cronin, Duane S; Chandrashekar, Naveen

    2014-12-01

    Numerical finite element (FE) models of the neck have been developed to simulate occupant response and predict injury during motor vehicle collisions. However, there is a paucity of data on the response of young cervical spine segments under dynamic loading in flexion and extension, which is essential for the development or validation of tissue-level FE models. This limitation was identified during the development and validation of the FE model used in this study. The purpose of this study was to measure the high rotation rate loading response of human cervical spine segments in flexion and extension, and to investigate a new tissue-level FE model of the cervical spine with the experimental data to address a limitation in available data. Four test samples at each segment level from C2-C3 to C7-T1 were dissected from eight donors and were tested to 10 deg of rotation at 1 and 500 deg/s in flexion and extension using a custom built test apparatus. There was strong evidence (p < 0.05) of increased stiffness at the higher rotation rate above 4 deg of rotation in flexion and at 8 deg and 10 deg of rotation in extension. Cross-correlation software, Cora, was used to evaluate the fit between the experimental data and model predictions. The average rating was 0.771, which is considered to demonstrate a good correlation to the experimental data. PMID:25070575

  20. A Study to Analyses Pattern and Treatment of Upper Cervical Spine Injuries Experience From Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Gani, Naseemul; Gupta, Anil; Singh, Dara; Gul, Snobar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature regarding the different patterns of upper cervical spine injuries, their appropriate management, and management development of such injuries is scarce in the world. Objectives: The current study aimed to present the experience regarding the high velocity trauma of upper cervical spine injuries. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients (22 males, 8 females) with upper cervical spine injuries were treated and followed-up for an average of 24 months. The corresponding data were analyzed with respect to various types of injuries and different treatment modalities used to treat such patients keeping the basic healthcare facilities in view. Results: The clinical as well as radiological outcomes of the treatment of such injuries were mostly achievable with minimum facilities in India, with only few complications. Conclusions: Managing such patients needs a proper transport facility, proper care during transport, appropriate evaluation in the hospital and prompt conservative or operative treatment. Treatment is usually safe and effective by well trained professionals with good clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:26543839

  1. Application of full-scale three-dimensional models in patients with rheumatoid cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Jun; Matsubara, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Muneyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Iguchi, Hirotaka; Furuya, Aiharu; Okamoto, Hideki; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2008-05-01

    Full-scale three-dimensional (3D) models offer a useful tool in preoperative planning, allowing full-scale stereoscopic recognition from any direction and distance with tactile feedback. Although skills and implants have progressed with various innovations, rheumatoid cervical spine surgery remains challenging. No previous studies have documented the usefulness of full-scale 3D models in this complicated situation. The present study assessed the utility of full-scale 3D models in rheumatoid cervical spine surgery. Polyurethane or plaster 3D models of 15 full-sized occipitocervical or upper cervical spines were fabricated using rapid prototyping (stereolithography) techniques from 1-mm slices of individual CT data. A comfortable alignment for patients was reproduced from CT data obtained with the patient in a comfortable occipitocervical position. Usefulness of these models was analyzed. Using models as a template, appropriate shape of the plate-rod construct could be created in advance. No troublesome Halo-vests were needed for preoperative adjustment of occipitocervical angle. No patients complained of dysphasia following surgery. Screw entry points and trajectories were simultaneously determined with full-scale dimensions and perspective, proving particularly valuable in cases involving high-riding vertebral artery. Full-scale stereoscopic recognition has never been achieved with any existing imaging modalities. Full-scale 3D models thus appear useful and applicable to all complicated spinal surgeries. The combination of computer-assisted navigation systems and full-scale 3D models appears likely to provide much better surgical results. PMID:18247063

  2. Application of full-scale three-dimensional models in patients with rheumatoid cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Muneyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Iguchi, Hirotaka; Furuya, Aiharu; Okamoto, Hideki; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2008-01-01

    Full-scale three-dimensional (3D) models offer a useful tool in preoperative planning, allowing full-scale stereoscopic recognition from any direction and distance with tactile feedback. Although skills and implants have progressed with various innovations, rheumatoid cervical spine surgery remains challenging. No previous studies have documented the usefulness of full-scale 3D models in this complicated situation. The present study assessed the utility of full-scale 3D models in rheumatoid cervical spine surgery. Polyurethane or plaster 3D models of 15 full-sized occipitocervical or upper cervical spines were fabricated using rapid prototyping (stereolithography) techniques from 1-mm slices of individual CT data. A comfortable alignment for patients was reproduced from CT data obtained with the patient in a comfortable occipitocervical position. Usefulness of these models was analyzed. Using models as a template, appropriate shape of the plate-rod construct could be created in advance. No troublesome Halo-vests were needed for preoperative adjustment of occipitocervical angle. No patients complained of dysphasia following surgery. Screw entry points and trajectories were simultaneously determined with full-scale dimensions and perspective, proving particularly valuable in cases involving high-riding vertebral artery. Full-scale stereoscopic recognition has never been achieved with any existing imaging modalities. Full-scale 3D models thus appear useful and applicable to all complicated spinal surgeries. The combination of computer-assisted navigation systems and full-scale 3D models appears likely to provide much better surgical results. PMID:18247063

  3. Comparative effectiveness of McCoy laryngoscope and CMAC® videolaryngoscope in simulated cervical spine injuries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Divya; Bala, Indu; Gandhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Videolaryngoscopes are increasingly being used in potentially difficult airway. McCoy laryngoscope provides definitive advantage over conventional laryngoscopes in cervical spine patients. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the CMAC® videolaryngoscope with the McCoy Laryngoscope in patients with a cervical collar. Material and Methods: Sample size of at least 22 patients in each group was calculated using Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) score as the primary outcome. 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients requiring tracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly allocated into the McCoy group (n = 30) and the CMAC® videolaryngoscope group (n = 30). Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 mcg/kg, propofol 2-3 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. A rigid collar was applied to immobilize the cervical spine. Comparative data on the IDS scale, Cormack-Lehane (CL) laryngoscopic view, time taken for glottis visualization, time taken to pass endotracheal tube, total time to intubate, number of optimizing maneuvers and hemodynamic variables were recorded in the two groups. Results: IDS score was significantly less in the CMAC® group compared to the McCoy group (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 1 [0-1] vs. 4 [3-6], P < 0.05). CMAC® videolaryngoscope required significantly less time for glottic visualization with median (IQR), 5 (5-7) versus 14 (8-15), P = 0.000 in McCoy laryngoscope, 29 (96.7%) patients in the CMAC® group had Modified CL Grade I compared with 16 (53.3%) patients in McCoy group. The hemodynamic variables, number of optimizing maneuvers and incidence of side effects were comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: CMAC® videolaryngoscope forms an effective tool for the airway management of cervical spine patients with a cervical collar. PMID:27006543

  4. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  5. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H. Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  6. Low back pain and lumbar spine osteoarthritis: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Goode, Adam P; Carey, Timothy S; Jordan, Joanne M

    2013-02-01

    Lumbar spine osteoarthritis (OA) is very common, with estimates of prevalence ranging from 40-85 %. The process of degeneration of the spine has commonly been classified as OA (disc space narrowing together with vertebral osteophyte formation); however, anatomically, the facet joint is the only synovial joint in the spine that has a similar pathological degenerative process to appendicular joints. Low back pain (LBP) is also a common condition, with nearly 80 % of Americans experiencing at least one episode of LBP in their lifetime. The complex relationship between spine radiographs and LBP has many clinical and research challenges. Specific conservative treatments for spine degeneration have not been established; there has, however, been recent interest in use of exercise therapy, because of some moderate benefits in treating chronic LBP. An understanding of the relationship between spine degeneration and LBP may be improved with further population-based research in the areas of genetics, biomarkers, and pain pathways. PMID:23307577

  7. Minimally invasive central corpectomy for ossified posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Junichi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yasunobu; Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Sadayoshi; Matsuoka, Hidenori; Numazawa, Shinichi; Tomii, Masato; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive central corpectomy (MICC) for cervical segmental ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is described. The procedure of MICC includes upper- or lower-half central corpectomy of the involved cervical spine, transdiscal decompression of the adjacent disc level, dissection and partial removal of the OPLL, removal of the OPLL behind the vertebral body via these windows, and fusion with cylindrical titanium cages. Anterior plate fixation is not necessary. From January 2008 to December 2009 we surgically treated three patients with cervical OPLL by MICC. All three patients showed remarkable improvement of their symptoms within a few days after the operation. No neurological or radiological complication was observed during that period. MICC is beneficial in avoiding complete corpectomy and long fusion, usage of an anterior plate, and usage of a large external orthosis. MICC also reduces the risk of postoperative esophageal perforation due to a screw backing out of the plate. PMID:20888772

  8. A Unique Case of Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical Spine in a 53-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Marshall T.; Flouty, Oliver E.; Close, Liesl N.; Reddy, Chandan G.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare presentation, representing only 15% of all primary Ewing's sarcoma cases. Even more uncommon is EES presenting as a primary focus in the spinal canal. These rapidly growing tumors often present with focal neurological symptoms of myelopathy or radiculopathy. There are no classic characteristic imaging findings and thus the physician must keep a high index of clinical suspicion. Diagnosis can only be definitively made by histopathological studies. In this report, we discuss a primary cervical spine EES in a 53-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of left upper extremity pain and acute onset of weakness. Imaging revealed a cervical spinal canal mass. After undergoing cervical decompression, histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. A literature search revealed fewer than 25 reported cases of primary cervical spine EES published in the past 15 years and only one report demonstrating this pathology in a patient older than 30 years of age (age = 38). Given the low incidence of this pathology presenting in this age group and the lack of treatment guidelines, each patient's plan should be considered on a case-by-case basis until further studies are performed to determine optimal evidence based treatment. PMID:25802527

  9. Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ≥ 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥ 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

  10. Short communication: Traits unique to genus Homo within primates at the cervical spine (C2-C7).

    PubMed

    Rios, Luis; Muñoz, Alexandra; Cardoso, Hugo; Pastor, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    From a comparative study of 222 human and 261 nonhuman primates complete cervical spines, two bony variants associated to the course of the vertebral artery are proposed as unique to genus Homo within primates. First, the opening of the foramen transversarium at C2, a trait present at low frequency in humans (3 to 5.6%). Second, the presence of a bipartite foramen transversarium in the cervical segment C3-C6, a trait that can be observed fully formed in human fetal skeletons, with a clear frequency pattern along the cervical spine (C3>C4>C5>C6spines studied, practically absent in Strepsirrhini, at low frequency in Platyrrhini, and generalized in Catarrhini. These findings, together with previous data regarding absence and presence of foramina at C1, indicate a pattern of gain and loss of foramina in the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae for genus Homo. The test of a possible explanation of these differences as associated to anatomical changes of the cervical spine due to erect posture and bipedal locomotion needs further research in the morphology and function of the primate cervical spine. PMID:24439363

  11. Pain Relief in Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lígia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients. PMID:26110508

  12. Pain Relief in Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lígia; Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni

    2015-06-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients. PMID:26110508

  13. Ninety-day readmissions after degenerative cervical spine surgery: A single-center administrative database study

    PubMed Central

    Akamnonu, Chibuikem; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Errico, Thomas J.; Bendo, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmissions result in significant clinical and financial burdens to patients and the healthcare system. Readmission rates and causes have been investigated using large administrative databases which have certain limitations in data reporting and coding. The objective of this study was to provide a description of 90 day post-discharge readmissions following surgery for common degenerative cervical spine pathologies at a large-volume tertiary hospital. The study also compared the readmission rates of patients who underwent anterior- and posterior-approach procedures. Methods The administrative records from a single-center, high-volume tertiary institution were queried using ICD-9 codes for common cervical pathology over a three year period to determine the rate and causes of readmissions within the 90 days following the index surgery. Results A total of 768 patients underwent degenerative cervical spine surgery during the three year study period. Within 90 days of discharge, 24 (3.13%) patients were readmitted; 16 (2.06%) readmissions were planned for lumbar surgery; 8 (1.04%) readmissions were unplanned. 640 patients underwent procedures involving an anterior approach and 128 patients underwent procedures involving a posterior approach. There were 14 (2.17%) planned readmissions in the anterior group and 2 (1.5%) in the posterior group. The unplanned readmission rate was 0.63% (4 patients) and 3.13% (4 patients) in the anterior and posterior groups, respectively. (p=0.0343). Conclusion The 90 day post-discharge unplanned readmission rate that followed elective degenerative cervical spine surgery was 1.04%. The unplanned readmission rate associated with posterior-approach procedures (3.13%) was significantly higher than that of anterior-approach procedures (0.63%). Level of evidence: IV PMID:26114088

  14. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  15. Image Segmentation and Analysis of Flexion-Extension Radiographs of Cervical Spines

    PubMed Central

    Enikov, Eniko T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new analysis tool for cervical flexion-extension radiographs based on machine vision and computerized image processing. The method is based on semiautomatic image segmentation leading to detection of common landmarks such as the spinolaminar (SL) line or contour lines of the implanted anterior cervical plates. The technique allows for visualization of the local curvature of these landmarks during flexion-extension experiments. In addition to changes in the curvature of the SL line, it has been found that the cervical plates also deform during flexion-extension examination. While extension radiographs reveal larger curvature changes in the SL line, flexion radiographs on the other hand tend to generate larger curvature changes in the implanted cervical plates. Furthermore, while some lordosis is always present in the cervical plates by design, it actually decreases during extension and increases during flexion. Possible causes of this unexpected finding are also discussed. The described analysis may lead to a more precise interpretation of flexion-extension radiographs, allowing diagnosis of spinal instability and/or pseudoarthrosis in already seemingly fused spines. PMID:27006937

  16. Pain Flare Is a Common Adverse Event in Steroid-Naïve Patients After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Andrew; Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON ; Zeng, Liang; Zhang, Liying; Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Loblaw, Andrew; Chow, Edward; Sahgal, Arjun; Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of pain flare after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in steroid-naïve patients and identify predictive factors. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients were treated with spine SBRT between February 2010 and April 2012. All patients had their pain assessed at baseline, during, and for 10 days after SBRT using the Brief Pain Inventory. All pain medications were recorded daily and narcotics converted to an oral morphine equivalent dose. Pain flare was defined as a 2-point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake, a 25% increase in analgesic intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score, or if corticosteroids were initiated at any point during or after SBRT because of pain. Results: The median age and Karnofsky performance status were 57.5 years (range, 27-80 years) and 80 (range, 50-100), respectively. Eighteen patients were treated with 20-24 Gy in a single fraction, whereas 23 patients were treated with 24-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions. Pain flare was observed in 68.3% of patients (28 of 41), most commonly on day 1 after SBRT (29%, 8 of 28). Multivariate analysis identified a higher Karnofsky performance status (P=.02) and cervical (P=.049) or lumbar (P=.02) locations as significant predictors of pain flare. In those rescued with dexamethasone, a significant decrease in pain scores over time was subsequently observed (P<.0001). Conclusions: Pain flare is a common adverse event after spine SBRT and occurs most commonly the day after treatment completion. Patients should be appropriately consented for this adverse event.

  17. Congenital stenosis and adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Belding, Jon; Schnaser, Erik; Rowan, Andrew; Moffitt, Gable; Weaver, John; Reich, Michael S; Bechtel, Chris; Xie, Ke; Gande, Abhiram; Hohl, Justin; Braly, Brett; Hilibrand, Alan; Kang, James D

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) is reported in 25% of patients at 10 years postoperatively. Debate continues as to whether this degeneration is due to the natural history of the disk or the changed biomechanics after ACF. This study explored whether congenital stenosis predisposes patients to an increased incidence of ASD after ACF. A retrospective review of 635 patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy was performed; 364 patients had complete records for review. Patients underwent 1- to 5-level ACF (94 one-level, 145 two-level, 79 three-level, 45 four-level, and 1 five-level). Radiographs were evaluated for bony congenital stenosis using validated parameters, and ASD was measured according to Hilibrand's criteria and correlated with symptomatic ASD. Congenital stenosis was found in 21.7% of patients and radiographic ASD in 33.5%, with a significant association between these parameters. However, symptomatic ASD occurred in 11.8% of patients; no association between congenital stenosis and symptomatic ASD or myelopathy and ASD was found. Clinical results demonstrated excellent or good Robinson scores in 86.2% of patients and Odom scores in 87% of patients. Despite mostly excellent to good outcomes, symptomatic ASD is common after ACF. Although congenital stenosis appears to increase the incidence of radiographic ASD, it does not appear to predict symptomatic ASD. PMID:24093699

  18. C5 Nerve root palsies following cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Hollingsworth, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical C5 nerve root palsies may occur in between 0% and 30% of routine anterior or posterior cervical spine operations. They are largely attributed to traction injuries/increased cord migration following anterior/posterior decompressions. Of interest, almost all studies cite spontaneous resolution of these deficits without surgery with 3–24 postoperative months. Methods: Different studies cite various frequencies for C5 root palsies following anterior or posterior cervical spine surgery. In their combined anterior/posterior series involving C4-C5 level decompressions, Libelski et al. cited up to a 12% incidence of C5 palsies. In Gu et al. series, C5 root palsies occurred in 3.1% of double-door laminoplasty, 4.5% of open-door laminoplasty, and 11.3% of laminectomy. Miller et al. observed an intermediate 6.9% frequency of C5 palsies followed by posterior cervical decompressions and fusions (PCDF). Results: Gu et al. also identified multiple risk factors for developing C5 palsies following posterior surgery; male gender, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), narrower foramina, laminectomy, and marked dorsal spinal cord drift. Miller et al. also identified an average $1918 increased cost for physical/occupational therapy for patients with C5 palsies. Conclusions: The incidence of C5 root deficits for anterior/posterior cervical surgery at C4-C5 was 12% in one series, and ranged up to 11.3% for laminectomies, while others cited 0–30%. Although identification of preoperative risk factors for C5 root deficits may help educate patients regarding these risks, there is no clear method for their avoidance at this time. PMID:26005577

  19. Segmentation and feature extraction of cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    1999-05-01

    As part of an R&D project in mixed text/image database design, the National Library of Medicine has archived a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine which were collected as part of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). To make this image data available and usable to a wide audience, we are investigating techniques for indexing the image content by automated or semi-automated means. Indexing of the images by features of interest to researchers in spine disease and structure requires effective segmentation of the vertebral anatomy. This paper describes work in progress toward this segmentation of the cervical spine images into anatomical components of interest, including anatomical landmarks for vertebral location, and segmentation and identification of individual vertebrae. Our work includes developing a reliable method for automatically fixing an anatomy-based coordinate system in the images, and work to adaptively threshold the images, using methods previously applied by researchers in cardioangiography. We describe the motivation for our work and present our current results in both areas.

  20. 14-Year-Old Boy With Mild Antecedent Neck Pain in Setting of Acute Trauma: A Rare Case of Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Skunda, Raymond; Puckett, Timothy; Martin, Michael; Sanclement, Jose; Peterson, Jo Elle

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with neck pain after a football accident. Imaging revealed a discrete, expansile, lytic, radiolucent mass extending anterior from the left C2 vertebral body. The differential diagnosis for this mass is broad and includes both benign and malignant lesions. A thorough history and physical examination, along with selective imaging and a tissue sample, are essential in making the correct diagnosis. We report a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient, present the diagnostic dilemma involved in diagnosing BFH, and review the literature to compare the characteristics of BFH with those of other benign bone lesions. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of BFH in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient. PMID:26991583

  1. Dynamic changes of the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine assessed with kinetic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sayit, E; Daubs, M D; Aghdasi, B; Montgomery, S R; Inoue, H; Wang, C J; Wang, B J; Phan, K H; Scott, T P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify changes in thickness of the ligamentum flavum (LF) associated with motion of the cervical spine and to compare the thickness of the LF at each cervical level using kinetic magnetic resonance imaging (kMRI). Two hundred fifty-seven symptomatic patients (129 men; 128 women) underwent kMRI in neutral, flexion, and extension positions. Midsagittal images were digitally marked and electronically analyzed by spine surgeons. Thickness of LF in the cervical region from C2-3 to C7-T1 was measured in all three positions. LF at C7-T1 was significantly thicker than C2-3 to C6-7 in neutral, flexion, and extension positions (p < 0.05). LF was significantly thicker in extension than in flexion at C3-4 to C6-7. LF thickness increases with extension and decreases with flexion. LF is uniquely thick at C6-7 and at C7-T1 in the extension position, which may predispose these levels to cord compression syndromes and associated neuropathies. PMID:24436854

  2. An accurate finite element model of the cervical spine under quasi-static loading.

    PubMed

    del Palomar, A Pérez; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M

    2008-01-01

    Cervical disc injury due to impact has been observed in clinical and biomechanical investigations; however, there is a lack of data that helps to elucidate the mechanisms of disc injury during these collisions. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of the cervical spine under different types of loading situations. A three dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multi-level cervical spine segment (C0-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data and applied to study the internal stresses and strains of the intervertebral discs under quasi-static loading conditions. The intervertebral discs were treated as nonlinear, anisotropic and incompressible subjected to large deformations. The model accuracy was validated by comparing it with previously published experimental and numerical results for different movements. It was shown that the use of a fiber reinforced model to describe the behavior of the annulus of the discs would predict higher maximum shear strains than an isotropic one, being therefore important the use of complex constitutive models in order to be able to detect the appearance of injured zones, since those strains and stresses are supposed to be related with damage to soft tissues. Several movements were analyzed: flexion, extension and axial rotation, obtaining that the maximum shear stresses in the disc were higher for a flexo-extension movement. PMID:18061196

  3. [Cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Narrative review of physiotherapeutic treatment].

    PubMed

    Capó-Juan, M A

    2015-01-01

    Pain is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that depends on the interaction of biopsychosocial factors. Between 15-25% of adults suffer from chronic pain at some point in their lives. Cervical chronic pain is considered a public health problem affecting 9.6% men and 21.9% women, according to the latest National Health Survey 2011-12. A high percentage of medical consultations due to muscle pain turn out to be myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). Its existence implies the presence of myofascial trigger points which can be latent or active throughout the whole population. The aim of this review is to update knowledge in the various therapies applied by the physiotherapist in the treatment of this syndrome at cervical level. From the review it appears that some of the most used techniques that may be useful in the short or medium term are: ischemic compression and/or trigger point pressure release and dry needling. Furthermore, various combinations of treatment modalities are used to treat this syndrome, taking other aspects into account, such as education. PMID:25963463

  4. Morphometric evaluation of subaxial cervical spine using multi-detector computerized tomography (MD-CT) scan: the consideration for cervical pedicle screws fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion is a technically demanding procedure. The quantitative understanding of cervical pedicle morphology, especially the narrowest part of cervical pedicle or isthmus, would minimize the risk of catastrophic damage to surrounding neurovascular structures and improve surgical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate morphology and quantify cortical thickness of the cervical isthmus by using Multi-detector Computerized Tomography (MD-CT) scan. Methods The cervical CT scans were performed in 74 patients (37 males and 37 females) with 1-mm slice thickness and then retro-reconstructed into sagittal and coronal planes to measure various cervical parameters as follows: outer pedicle width (OPW), inner pedicle width (IPW), outer pedicle height (OPH), inner pedicle height (IPH), pedicle cortical thickness, pedicle sagittal angle (PSA), and pedicle transverse angle (PTA). Results Total numbers of 740 pedicles were measured in this present study. The mean OPW and IPW significantly increased from C3 to C7 while the mean OPH and IPH of those showed non-significant difference between any measured levels. The medial-lateral cortical thickness was significantly smaller than the superior-inferior one. PTA in the upper cervical spine was significantly wider than the lower ones. The PSA changed from upward inclination at upper cervical spine to the downward inclination at lower cervical spine. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that cervical vertebra has relatively small and narrow inner pedicle canal with thick outer pedicle cortex and also shows a variable in pedicle width and inconsistent transverse angle. To enhance the safety of CPS insertion, the entry point and trajectories should be determined individually by using preoperative MD-CT scan and the inner pedicle width should be a key parameter to determine the screw dimensions. PMID:24725394

  5. Delayed Esophageal Pseudodiverticulum after Anterior Cervical Spine Fixation: Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Sadrizadeh, Ali; Soltani, Ehsan; Abili, Mehdi; Dehghanian, Paria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Although perforation of the esophagus, in the anterior cervical spine fixation, is well established, cases with delayed onset, especially cases that present pseudodiverticulum, are not common. In addition, management of the perforation in this situation is debated. Case Report: Delayed esophageal pseudodiverticulum was managed in two patients with a history of anterior spine fixation. Patients were operated on, the loose plate and screws were extracted, the wall of the diverticulum was excised, the perforation on the nasogastric tube was suboptimally repaired, and a closed suction drain was placed there. The NGT was removed on the 7th day and barium swallow demonstrated no leakage at the operation site; therefore, oral feeding was started without any problem Conclusion: In cases with delayed perforation, fistula, or diverticulum removal of anterior fixation instruments, gentle repair of the esophageal wall without persistence on definitive and optimal perforation closure, wide local drainage, early enteral nutrition via NGT, and antibiotic prescription is suggested. PMID:25938087

  6. Prediction of cervical spine injury risk for the 6-year-old child in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Shaw, C G; van Rooij, L; Kent, R W; Gupta, P K; Crandall, J R; Orzechowski, K M; Eichelberger, M R; Kallieris, D

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a series of 49 km/h sled tests using the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy in a high-back booster, a low-back booster, and a three-point belt. Although it is shown that non-contact cervical spine injuries are rare in correctly restrained children in this age group, neck loads exceeded published injury thresholds in all tests. The dummy kinematics were compared to the kinematics of a 12-year-old cadaver tested in a similar impact environment. This comparison was expanded using MADYMO simulations. It is concluded that the stiff thoracic spine of the dummy results in high neck forces and moments that are not representative of the true injury potential. PMID:12361510

  7. Exposure of emergency medicine personnel to ionizing radiation during cervical spine radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, C.M.; Baraff, L.J.; Benedict, S.H.; Weiss, E.L.; Singer, B.D.

    1989-08-01

    We studied the potential hazard of ionizing radiation exposure to health care workers who routinely stabilize the necks of trauma patients during cervical spine radiography. A clinical trauma model was developed using an Alderson RANDO Phantom artificial torso to simulate an actual patient. A radiation monitor was placed where a health care worker's fingers, hands, arms, and thyroid gland would be, and standard cervical spine radiographs were taken. The exposures to the finger positions then were repeated with the monitor inside a 0.5 mm lead-equivalent glove. The mean exposure to the finger for a single cross-table lateral radiograph was 174.5 mrem. The use of leaded gloves reduced this exposure to 0.3 mrem (a 99.9% reduction). For a single series of lateral, anteroposterior, odontoid, and swimmer's views, the total mean measured unprotected exposure to the finger of the hand positioned nearest the radiographic tube was 681 mrem and the exposure to the finger of the opposite hand was 230 mrem. If these simulated exposures are indicative of actual patient situations, a health care worker who holds the head of a trauma patient four times each week with unshielded hands would receive more than twice the maximum allowable annual occupational radiation exposure to the extremities recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. We conclude that health care workers who routinely stabilize the necks of trauma patients during cervical spine radiography may incur a radiation exposure risk and that 0.5-mm lead-equivalent gloves provide an effective barrier to ionizing radiation.

  8. Resolution of hypothyroidism after correction of somatovisceral reflex dysfunction by refusion of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Murray R

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis is a rare initial presentation of new-onset hypothyroidism. The author describes the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with psychosis caused by hypothyroidism, or myxedema madness. Although the patient's psychosis resolved after standard monotherapy using levothyroxine sodium, her hypothyroidism persisted. Imaging of the patient's cervical spine showed that previous C5-C6 and C6-C7 fusions had failed. The failed fusions were corrected, and the patient's hypothyroidism resolved, suggesting that the somatovisceral reflex was the cause of the patient's hypothyroidism. Although somatovisceral reflex dysfunctions are rare, physicians should consider them as potential underlying causes of their patients' presenting medical conditions. PMID:25550492

  9. Intra and interexaminer reliability of motion palpation in the cervical spine *

    PubMed Central

    Mior, Silvano A.; King, Ronald S.; McGregor, Marion; Bernard, Marc

    1985-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate the intra- and interexaminer agreement in passive motion palpation of the upper cervical spine. Sixty-two subjects were examined by two examiners, who were in their final year of clinical training. The observed results compared quite favourably with those reported in similar studies, however, agreement beyond chance ranged from 15 to 52 percent. Three issues which require consideration for future research are: role of asymptomatic subjects, student expectations, and the use of student examiners. ImagesFigure 1-A,BFigure 2-A,B

  10. Airway Compromise Due to Wound Hematoma Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Mark A; Aidlen, Jessica Pelow; Daniels, Alan H; Thakur, Nikhil A; Caiati, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious adverse events associated with anterior cervical spine surgery is wound hematoma resulting in airway compromise. The reported incidence of this postoperative complication has varied from 0.2% to 1.9%. Obstruction of the airway secondary to bleeding presents a challenging clinical scenario given the rapidity of onset, distorted anatomy of the upper respiratory tract, urgent need to act and potential for catastrophic consequences. This high-risk, life-threatening clinical scenario requires specialized knowledge and a well-designed treatment protocol to achieve a positive outcome. In this review, we report a case of airway compromise secondary to wound hematoma following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, followed by a review of relevant literature, anatomy, etiologic factors and diagnostic considerations. We also propose guidelines for the prevention and management of postoperative airway obstruction due to wound hematoma. PMID:22431955

  11. [Severe airway distress following cervical spine operation: retrospective breakdown of the chain of errors].

    PubMed

    Paul, C; Ladra, A; Pillai, V; Böttiger, B W; Spöhr, F; Keller, K; Zarghooni, K

    2011-09-01

    A 71-year-old female patient received a prothesis due to a cervical disc prolapsed and bleeding into the collar soft tissues occurred postoperatively. Following a computed tomography examination severe peracute respiratory decompensation occurred while administering topical anesthesia to the pharynx in order to perform fiber optic intubation. Endotracheal intubation using conventional laryngoscopy was unsuccessful and the patient required immediate cricothyroidotomy. As an on-site cricothyrotomy set to establish a secure airway was not available the decision was taken to perform surgical cricothyroidotomy. As a conclusion to this life-threatening event in the case of symptoms, such as dyspnea, dysphonia and dysphagia after operations of the cervical spine the airway has to be secured early and according to the local algorithm. PMID:21728049

  12. [Extended melanocytic tumor of the cervical spine. Apropos of a case of melanotic schwannoma].

    PubMed

    Krichen, H; Daghfous, M S; Mrabet, A; Douik, M; Slimane, N; Forest, M

    1993-01-01

    A case of melanotic tumour was described localized close to the right cervical spine, destroying C6 and C7 vertebral bodies and pedicles, on a 27 years old woman. Histological and immunohistochemical findings, correlated with clinical and X-rays data, led up to the diagnosis of a melanotic schwannoma. Six years after the beginning of the illness, the outcome was preceded by a local vertebral involvement without metastasis and paradoxically with a good general state. The tumoral localization and the finding of nervous structures allowed to evoke a development from a cervical nerve root. On histological basis, we propose to classify this tumour along the new concept described by the Mayo Clinic pathologists team, under the name of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma. Some authors evoke a congenital outset in a context of endocrine disorders. PMID:8397544

  13. A selected annotated bibliography of the core biomedical literature pertaining to stroke, cervical spine, manipulation and head/neck movement

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, Allan C.; Thiel, Haymo

    1985-01-01

    This manuscript’s purpose was to establish a knowledge base of information related to stroke and the cervical spine vascular structures, from both historical and current perspectives. The scientific biomedical literatures both indexed (ie. Index Medicus, CRAC) and non-indexed literature systems were scanned and the pertinent manuscripts were annotated. Citation is by occurence in the literature so that historical trends may be viewed more easily. No analysis of the reference material is offered. Suggested however is that: 1. complications to cervical spine manipulation are being recognized and reported with increasing frequency, 2. a cause and effect relationship between stroke and cervical spine manipulation has not been established, 3. a screening mechanism that is valid, reliable and reasonable needs to be established.

  14. Safety and efficacy of rhBMP2 in posterior cervical spinal fusion for subaxial degenerative spine disease: Analysis of outcomes in 204 patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Risheng; Bydon, Mohamad; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Witham, Timothy F.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many studies offer excellent demonstration of the ability of bone morphogenic protein (BMP) to enhance fusion rates in anterior as well as posterior lumbar surgery. Recently, BMP has also been shown to increase arthrodesis rates in anterior cervical surgery, albeit with concomitant increases in complication rates. To date, however, few studies have investigated the safety and efficacy of BMP in cervical surgeries approached posteriorly. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 204 consecutive patients with degenerative cervical spinal conditions necessitating posterior cervical fusion at a single institution over the past 4 years. The incidence of postoperative mechanical neck pain, fusion rates, as well as neurologic outcomes were compared between patients who received BMP vs those who did not receive BMP intraoperatively. Results: There were no significant differences in preoperative variables between the non-BMP vs the BMP cohorts. Over an average follow-up of 24.2 months, there were no significant differences between the two cohorts in duration of hospitalization, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, hyperostosis, infection, pneumonia, hematoma, C5 palsy, wound dehiscence, reoperation rates, or Nurick/ASIA scores. Eleven (7.1%) patients in the non-BMP group experienced instrumentation failure vs none in the BMP group (P=0.06). Patients receiving BMP had a significantly increased rate of fusion by the chi-square test (P=0.01) and the log-rank test (P=0.02). However, patients receiving BMP also had the highest rates of recurrent/persistent neck pain by the chi-square test (P=0.003) and the log-rank test (P=0.01). Conclusions: To date, few studies have evaluated the safety and efficacy of BMP in the posterior cervical spine. Here, we show that BMP usage does not increase complication rates, but it significantly increases arthrodesis rates and also may increase the rate of recurrent/persistent neck pain. PMID:21886882

  15. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies. PMID:26378358

  16. Surgical management of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury complicated by cervical spine fracture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are few reports regarding surgical management of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis with spinal cord injury. Our purpose is to evaluate the safety and feasibility of open-door expansive laminoplasty in combination with transpedicular screw fixation for the treatment of multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury in the trauma population. Methods This was a retrospective study of 21 patients who had multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury with unstable fracture. An open-door expansive posterior laminoplasty combined with transpedicular screw fixation was performed under persistent intraoperative skull traction. Outcome measures included postoperative improvement in Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and incidence of complications. Results The average operation time was 190 min, with an average blood loss of 437 ml. A total of 120 transpedicular screws were implanted into the cervical vertebrae between vertebral C3 and C7, including 20 into C3, 34 into C4, 36 into C5, 20 into C6, and 10 into C7. The mean preoperative JOA score was 3.67 ± 0.53. The patients were followed for an average of 17.5 months, and the average JOA score improved to 8.17 ± 1.59, significantly higher than the preoperative score (t = 1.798, P < 0.05), with an average improvement of 44.7 ± 11.7%. Postoperative complications in four patients included cerebrospinal fluid leakage, delayed wound healing, pulmonary infection, and urinary system infection. All four patients were responsive to antibiotic treatment; one died from respiratory failure 3 months postoperatively. Conclusions The open-door expansive laminoplasty combined with posterior transpedicular screw fixation is feasible for treating multilevel cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord injury complicated by unstable fracture. Its advantages include minimum surgical trauma, less intraoperative blood loss, and satisfactory stable supportive effect for reduction of fracture. PMID:25142353

  17. Continuous Cervical Spine Kinematics During In Vivo Dynamic Flexion-Extension

    PubMed Central

    Anderst, William J; Donaldson, William F; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT A precise and comprehensive definition of “normal” in vivo cervical kinematics does not exist due to high inter-subject variability and the absence of mid-range kinematic data. In vitro test protocols and finite element models that are validated using only end range of motion data may not accurately reproduce continuous in vivo motion. PURPOSE The primary objective of this study was to precisely quantify cervical spine intervertebral kinematics during continuous, functional flexion-extension in asymptomatic subjects. The advantages of assessing continuous intervertebral kinematics were demonstrated by comparing asymptomatic controls with single-level anterior arthrodesis patients. STUDY DESIGN Cervical spine kinematics were determined during continuous in vivo flexion-extension in a clinically relevant age group of asymptomatic controls and a group of C5/C6 arthrodesis patients. PATIENT SAMPLE 6 single-level (C5/C6) anterior arthrodesis patients (average age: 48.8 ± 6.9 yrs; 1 M, 5 F; 7.6±1.2 mo. post-surgery) and 18 asymptomatic control subjects of similar age (average age: 45.6 ± 5.8 yrs; 5 M, 13 F). OUTCOME MEASURES The physiologic measure of continuous kinematic motion paths at each cervical motion segment (C2 to C7) during flexion-extension. METHODS Participants performed flexion-extension while biplane radiographs were collected at 30 images per second. A previously validated tracking process determined three-dimensional vertebral positions with sub-millimeter accuracy. Continuous flexion-extension rotation and anterior-posterior translation motion paths were adjusted for disc height and static orientation of each corresponding motion segment. This study was funded by NIH/NIAMS Grant #1R03AR056265 and The Cervical Spine Research Society 21st Century Development Grant. The authors have no potential financial conflict of interest biases related to this study. RESULTS Inter-subject variability in flexion-extension angle was decreased 15% to 46% and inter-subject variability in anterior-posterior translation was reduced 14% to 33% after adjusting for disc height and static orientation angle. Average inter-subject variability in continuous motion paths was 1.9° in flexion-extension and 0.6 mm in translation. Third-order polynomial equations were determined to precisely describe the continuous flexion-extension and anterior-posterior translation motion path at each motion segment (all R2 > .99). CONCLUSIONS A significant portion of the inter-subject variability in cervical kinematics can be explained by the disc height and the static orientation of each motion segment. Clinically relevant information may be gained by assessing intervertebral kinematics during continuous functional movement rather than at static, end range of motion positions. The fidelity of in vitro cervical spine mechanical testing protocols may be evaluated by comparing in vitro kinematics to the continuous motion paths presented. PMID:24210579

  18. MR and CT image fusion of the cervical spine: a noninvasive alternative to CT-myelography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yangqiu; Mirza, Sohail K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Haynor, David R.

    2005-04-01

    CT-Myelography (CTM) is routinely used for planning surgery for degenerative disease of the spine, but its invasive nature, significant potential morbidity, and high costs make a noninvasive substitute desirable. We report our work on evaluating CT and MR image fusion as an alternative to CTM. Because the spine is only piecewise rigid, a multi-rigid approach to the registration of spinal CT and MR images was developed (SPIE 2004), in which the spine on CT images is first segmented into separate vertebrae, each of which is then rigidly registered with the corresponding vertebra on MR images. The results are then blended to obtain fusion images. Since they contain information from both modalities, we hypothesized that fusion images would be equivalent to CTM. To test this we selected 34 patients who had undergone MRI and CTM for degenerative disease of the cervical spine, and used the multi-rigid approach to produce fused images. A clinical vignette for each patient was created and presented along with either CT/MR fusion images or CTM images. A group of spine surgeons are asked to formulate detailed surgical plans based on each set of images, and the surgical plans are compared. A similar study assessing diagnostic agreement is being performed with neuroradiologists, who also assess the accuracy of registration. Our work to date has demonstrated the feasibility of segmentation and multi-rigid fusion in clinical cases and the acceptability of the questionnaire to physicians. Preliminary analysis of one surgeon's and one neuroradiologist"s evaluation has been performed.

  19. The Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Molinari, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective There is a paucity of literature describing the use of bone graft substitutes to achieve fusion in the pediatric cervical spine. The outcomes and complications involving the off-label use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in the pediatric cervical spine are not clearly defined. The purpose of this article is to report successful fusion without complications in two pediatric patients who had instrumented occipitocervical fusion using low-dose BMP-2. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the patients were followed for 5 years. Two patients under 10 years of age with upper cervical instability were treated with occipitocervical instrumented fusion using rigid occipitocervical fixation techniques along with conventionally available low-dose BMP-2. A Medline and PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms “bone morphogenetic protein,” “BMP,” “rh-BMP2,” “bone graft substitutes,” and “pediatric cervical spine.” Results Solid occipitocervical fusion was achieved in both pediatric patients. There were no reported perioperative or follow-up complications. At 5-year follow-up, radiographs in both patients showed successful occipital cervical fusion without evidence of instrumentation failure or changes in the occipitocervical alignment. To date, there are few published reports on this topic. Complications and the appropriate dosage application in the pediatric posterior cervical spine remain unknown. Conclusions We describe two pediatric patients with upper cervical instability who achieved successful occipital cervical fusion without complication using off-label BMP-2. This report underscores the potential for BMP-2 to achieve successful arthrodesis of the posterior occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients. Use should be judicious as complications and long-term outcomes of pediatric BMP-2 use remain undefined in the existing literature. PMID:26835215

  20. The Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Robert W; Molinari, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective There is a paucity of literature describing the use of bone graft substitutes to achieve fusion in the pediatric cervical spine. The outcomes and complications involving the off-label use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in the pediatric cervical spine are not clearly defined. The purpose of this article is to report successful fusion without complications in two pediatric patients who had instrumented occipitocervical fusion using low-dose BMP-2. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the patients were followed for 5 years. Two patients under 10 years of age with upper cervical instability were treated with occipitocervical instrumented fusion using rigid occipitocervical fixation techniques along with conventionally available low-dose BMP-2. A Medline and PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms "bone morphogenetic protein," "BMP," "rh-BMP2," "bone graft substitutes," and "pediatric cervical spine." Results Solid occipitocervical fusion was achieved in both pediatric patients. There were no reported perioperative or follow-up complications. At 5-year follow-up, radiographs in both patients showed successful occipital cervical fusion without evidence of instrumentation failure or changes in the occipitocervical alignment. To date, there are few published reports on this topic. Complications and the appropriate dosage application in the pediatric posterior cervical spine remain unknown. Conclusions We describe two pediatric patients with upper cervical instability who achieved successful occipital cervical fusion without complication using off-label BMP-2. This report underscores the potential for BMP-2 to achieve successful arthrodesis of the posterior occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients. Use should be judicious as complications and long-term outcomes of pediatric BMP-2 use remain undefined in the existing literature. PMID:26835215

  1. The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S; Vegso, J J; O'Neill, M J; Sennett, B

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Preliminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and National Federation of High School Athletic Associations (NFHSAA) implemented rule changes banning "spearing" and the use of the top of the helmet as the initial point of contact in striking an opponent during a tackle or block. Between 1976 and 1987, as a result of these rule changes, the Registry has documented a dramatic decrease in both the total number of cervical spine injuries and those resulting in quadriplegia at both the high school and college level. It is suggested that development and implementation of similar preventative measures based on clearly defined injury mechanisms would decrease injury rates in diving, rugby, ice hockey, trampolining, wrestling, and other high-risk sports as well. PMID:2301692

  2. Cervical spinal cord compression after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenlong; Qiu, Jin; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Chuanhan

    2014-02-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury is a rare but serious complication after general anesthesia. The risk factors include traumatic cervical injury, cervical spine instability, and difficult airway management. It has also occurred in the absence of cervical instability. Here we report a patient who had a history of intermittent neck pain without numbness. Preoperative radiologic examinations showed degenerative changes in the cervical spine. She developed progressive tingling and numbness in her limbs after thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cervical disc protruding into the canal at C5-C6, which was considered to be induced by surgical positioning. She recovered after anterior cervical decompression and internal fixation surgery. PMID:23828450

  3. Influence of varying compressive loading methods on physiologic motion patterns in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kevin M; Yan, Yiguo; Debski, Richard E; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Kang, James D; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-25

    The human cervical spine supports substantial compressive load in-vivo arising from muscle forces and the weight of the head. However, the traditional in-vitro testing methods rarely include compressive loads, especially in investigations of multi-segment cervical spine constructs. Various methods of modeling physiologic loading have been reported in the literature including axial forces produced with inclined loading plates, eccentric axial force application, follower load, as well as attempts to individually apply/model muscle forces in-vitro. The importance of proper compressive loading to recreate the segmental motion patterns exhibited in-vivo has been highlighted in previous studies. However, appropriate methods of representing the weight of head and muscle loading are currently unknown. Therefore, a systematic comparison of standard pure moment with no compressive loading versus published and novel compressive loading techniques (follower load - FL, axial load - AL, and combined load - CL) was performed. The present study is unique in that a direct comparison to continuous cervical kinematics over the entire extension to flexion motion path was possible through an ongoing intra-institutional collaboration. The pure moment testing protocol without compression or with the application of follower load was not able to replicate the typical in-vivo segmental motion patterns throughout the entire motion path. Axial load or a combination of axial and follower load was necessary to mimic the in-vivo segmental contributions at the extremes of the extension-flexion motion path. It is hypothesized that dynamically altering the compressive loading throughout the motion path is necessary to mimic the segmental contribution patterns exhibited in-vivo. PMID:26708967

  4. Cervical lateral glide increases nociceptive flexion reflex threshold but not pressure or thermal pain thresholds in chronic whiplash associated disorders: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sterling, Michele; Pedler, Ashley; Chan, Cliffton; Puglisi, Madonna; Vuvan, Viana; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-04-01

    Sensory hypersensitivity indicative of augmented central pain processing is a feature of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). This study investigated the immediate effects of a cervical spine manual therapy (SMT) technique on measures of central hyperexcitability. In a randomised, single blind, clinical trial, 39 participants with chronic WAD were randomly assigned to a cervical SMT (lateral glide) or manual contact intervention. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and GHQ-28 were administered at baseline. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), thermal pain thresholds (TPTs) and Nociceptive Flexion Reflex (NFR) responses (threshold and VAS of pain) were measured pre and post intervention. There was a significantly greater increase in NFR threshold following SMT compared to the manual contact intervention (p = 0.04). PPTs at the cervical spine increased following both SMT (mean +/- SE: 24.1 +/- 7.3%) and manual contact (21 +/- 8.4%) with no difference between interventions. There was no difference between interventions for pain ratings with the NFR test, PPTs at the Median Nerve or Tibialis Anterior, heat or cold TPT. SMT may be effective in reducing spinal hyperexcitability in chronic WAD. PMID:19884037

  5. The accuracy of the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display during cervical spine mobility measurement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Chen, Karen B; Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G

    2015-02-26

    An inertial sensor-embedded virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display, the Oculus Rift (the Rift), monitors head movement so the content displayed can be updated accordingly. While the Rift may have potential use in cervical spine biomechanics studies, its accuracy in terms of cervical spine mobility measurement has not yet been validated. In the current study, a VR environment was designed to guide participants to perform prescribed neck movements. The cervical spine kinematics was measured by both the Rift and a reference motion tracking system. Comparison of the kinematics data between the Rift and the tracking system indicated that the Rift can provide good estimates on full range of motion (from one side to the other side) during the performed task. Because of inertial sensor drifting, the unilateral range of motion (from one side to neutral posture) derived from the Rift is more erroneous. The root-mean-square errors over a 1-min task were within 10° for each rotation axis. The error analysis further indicated that the inertial sensor drifted approximately 6° at the beginning of a trial during the initialization. This needs to be addressed when using the Rift in order to more accurately measure cervical spine kinematics. It is suggested that the front cover of the Rift should be aligned against a vertical plane during its initialization. PMID:25636855

  6. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 37 Final Diagnosis: Vertebral artery dissection Symptoms: Neck pain and focal neurological deficits Medication: No previous Clinical Procedure: Endovascular thrombectomy Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. Case Report: A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. Conclusions: In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  7. Inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Trijffel, E; Anderegg, Q; Bossuyt, P M M; Lucas, C

    2005-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted to determine inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of segmental intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine as well as to explore sources of heterogeneity. Passive assessment of motion is used to decide on treatments for neck and low-back pain patients. Inter-examiner reliability has been a matter of debate, resulting in questions about professional credibility and accountability. A structured search for relevant studies in MEDLINE and CINAHL was followed by extensive reference tracing and hand searching. Studies presenting estimates of reliability for individual motion segments were included. No language restrictions were imposed. Study quality was assessed using criteria derived from the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement and a quality assessment tool for studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews (QUADAS). Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. Qualitative analyses and additional subgroup analyses were conducted. Nineteen studies were included. Two studies satisfied criteria for external and internal validity, of which one found fair to moderate reliability. Assessment of motion segments C1-C2 and C2-C3 almost consistently reached at least fair reliability. Overall, inter-examiner reliability was poor to fair. However, most studies were found to be of poor methodological quality. We propose explicit recommendations for the conduct and reporting of future research. PMID:15994114

  8. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  9. Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

    1993-06-01

    The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

  10. Partial tetraplegic syndrome as a complication of a mobilizing/manipulating procedure of the cervical spine in a man with Forestier's disease: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Even if performed by qualified physical therapists, spinal manipulation and mobilization can cause adverse events. This holds true particularly for the cervical spine. In light of the substantial risks, the benefits of cervical spine manipulation may be outweighed by the possibility of further injury. Case presentation We present the case of a 56-year-old Caucasian man with Forestier's disease who went to see a physiotherapist to relieve his aching neck while on a holiday trip. Following the procedure, he was transferred to a local hospital with a partial tetraplegic syndrome due to a cervical 6/7 luxation fracture. Reportedly, the physiotherapist took neither a detailed history, nor adequate diagnostic measures. Conclusions This case highlights the potentially dangerous complications associated with cervical spine mobilization/manipulation. If guidelines concerning cervical spine mobilization and manipulation practices had been followed, this adverse event could have been avoided. PMID:22032418

  11. Effect of cryotherapy on the lumbar spine in elderly men with back pain.

    PubMed

    Giemza, Czesław; Matczak-Giemza, Magdalena; Ostrowska, Bożena; Bieć, Ewa; Doliński, Mirosław

    2014-09-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) is a procedure which is more and more often successfully applied in medicine. Used in physiotherapy programs improves the efficiency of physiotherapeutic exercises applied in different aliments. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of WBC treatment on the improvement of spine activity in elderly men. The evaluation was based on subjects suffering from chronic lower back pain. The research was conducted on 96 male in the age of 65-75 years suffering from chronic pain in the lumbar spine, lasting >3 months. All the subjects performed physical exercises at a gym. Half of the examined patients performed only physical exercises while the second half of the group participated in WBC before performing the same exercises. The research evaluated the mobility of lumbar spine at all movement planes and examined the values of active potentials of erector spinae in the lumbar part of the spine. The group of men who participated in WBC showed significantly lower values of active potentials of erector spinae muscles in the lumbar part of the spine and a significant increase in the range of the lumbar spine mobility, in comparison to the group which did not use WBC. PMID:24304196

  12. Recurrence of cervical spine instability in rheumatoid arthritis following previous fusion: can disease progression be prevented by early surgery?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A K; Peppelman, W C; Kraus, D R; Pollock, B H; Stolzer, B L; Eisenbeis, C H; Donaldson, W F

    1992-09-01

    In a retrospective study, 110 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had cervical spine fusion were evaluated for recurrence of cervical spine instability and resultant need for further surgery. Recurrence of cervical instability was correlated with initial radiographic abnormality, primary surgical procedure and interval between the 2 surgeries. There were 55 patients who had atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS) and required C1-C2 fusion as primary surgery. Three of these patients (5.5%) developed subaxial subluxation (SAS) and had a second procedure after a mean interval of 9 years. Twenty-two patients had AAS with superior migration of the odontoid (AAS-SMO) and had initial surgery of occiput-C3 fusion. Eight of these patients (36%) developed SAS and had a second surgery after a mean interval of 2.6 years. Of the 19 patients with primary radiographic deformity of SAS, one required further surgery for subluxation of an adjacent superior vertebra after a period of 6 years. Fourteen patients had combined deformity of AAS-SMO-SAS, and one required further surgery for SAS after an interval of 22 months. Recurrence of cervical instability following a previous fusion occurred in 15% of these 110 patients. It was seen in 5.5% of patients with initial deformity of AAS vs 36% of patients with AAS-SMO. No patients with C1-C2 fusion for AAS progressed to develop superior migration of the odontoid. We conclude that early C1-C2 fusion for AAS before development of SMO decreases the risk of further progression of cervical spine instability. The pattern of progression of cervical spine involvement, as discussed in the literature, is reviewed. PMID:1433002

  13. [Administration of the cervical torsion test by the examination of Doppler's blood flows in vertebral arteries and basilar artery in patients with degenerative cervical spine changes].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, J; Zalewski, P; Machała, W; Gaszyński, W

    1994-01-01

    Using the neck rotation test during examination of Doppler's blood flows in vertebral arteries and basilar artery, the authors examined 60 subjects aged 16-60 years, including 20 healthy ones and 40 with cervical spondylarthrosis. The Transpect-TCD was used. Half the patients with cervical spine changes had also receptive hearing damage of low degree. The study demonstrated that neck rotation affected of patological Doppler's blood flows in one or in both vertebral arteries at 50% patients with cervical spondylarthrosis, but without clinical symptoms, and at 70% patients with cervical spondylarthrosis and clinical symptoms. The neck rotation test can have diagnostic significance by examination of sufficiency in vertebrobasilar system, or qualitative significance to microsurgical treatment. PMID:7870428

  14. Pediatric cervical spine fracture caused by an adult 3-point seatbelt.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Robert Jay; Badawy, Mohamed K

    2008-02-01

    The development and use of seatbelts has saved numerous lives and prevented serious injuries in the setting of automobile crashes. However, restraints designed for adults are not necessarily effective in preventing injury to small children and may actually be harmful. Here, we present a case of upper cervical spine fracture in a 5-year-old female patient caused by neck flexion over an inappropriately applied adult 3-point seatbelt during a motor vehicle collision. The American Academy of Pediatrics currently advises against the use of vehicle safety belts until the shoulder belt can be positioned across the chest with the lap belt snug across the thighs. As clinicians who care for children, it is imperative that we continue to educate parents about proper use of age-appropriate child safety restraints. PMID:18277848

  15. A review of cervical spine injury associated with maxillofacial trauma at a UK tertiary referral centre

    PubMed Central

    Abhinav, K; Revington, PJ

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and patterns of cervical spine injury (CSI) associated with maxillofacial fractures at a UK trauma centre. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted of 714 maxillofacial fracture patients presenting to a single trauma centre between 2006 and 2012. Results Of the 714 maxillofacial fracture patients, 2.2% had associated CSI including a fracture, cord contusion or disc herniation. In comparison, 1.0% of patients without maxillofacial trauma sustained a CSI (odds ratio: 2.2, p=0.01). The majority (88%) of CSI cases of were caused by a road traffic accident (RTA) with the remainder due to falls. While 8.8% of RTA related maxillofacial trauma patients sustained a CSI, only 2.0% of fall related patients did (p=0.03, not significant). Most (70%) of the CSIs occurred at C1/C2 or C6/C7 levels. Overall, 455, 220 and 39 patients suffered non-mandibular, isolated mandibular and mixed mandibular/non-mandibular fractures respectively. Their respective incidences of CSI were 1.5%, 1.8% and 12.8% (p=0.005, significant). Twelve patients with concomitant CSI had their maxillofacial fractures treated within twenty-four hours and all were treated within four days. Conclusions The presence of maxillofacial trauma mandates exclusion and prompt management of cervical spine injury, particularly in RTA and trauma cases involving combined facial fracture patterns. This approach will facilitate management of maxillofacial fractures within an optimum time period. PMID:25519271

  16. Multirigid registration of MR and CT images of the cervical spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.

    2004-05-01

    We present our work on fusion of MR and CT images of the cervical spine. To achieve the required registration accuracy of approximately 1mm, the spine is treated as a collection of rigid vertebrae, and a separate rigid body transformation applied to each (Hawkes). This in turn requires segmentation of the CT datasets into separate vertebral images, which is difficult because the narrow planes separating adjacent vertebrae are parallel to the axial plane of the CT scans. We solve this problem by evolving all the vertebral contours simultaneously using a level set method, and use contour competition to estimate the position of the vertebral edges when a clean separation between adjacent vertebrae is not seen. Contour competition is based in turn on the vertical scan principle: no part of a given vertebra is vertically below any part of an inferior vertebra. Once segmentation is complete, the individual rigid body transforms are then estimated using mutual information maximization, and the CT images of the vertebrae superimposed on the MR scans. The resultant fused images contain the bony detail of CT and the soft tissue discrimination of MR and appear to be diagnostically equivalent, or superior, to CT myelograms. A formal test of these conclusions is planned for the next phase of our work.

  17. Conversion paralysis after cervical spine arthroplasty: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boudissa, M; Castelain, J E; Boissière, L; Mariey, R; Pointillart, V; Vital, J M

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of conversion paralysis after cervical spine arthroplasty performed in a 45-year-old woman to treat cervico-brachial neuralgia due to a left-sided C6-C7 disc herniation. Upon awakening from the anaesthesia, she had left hemiplegia sparing the face, with normal sensory function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain ruled out a stroke. MRI of the spinal cord showed artefacts from the cobalt-chrome prosthesis that precluded confident elimination of mechanical spinal cord compression. Surgery performed on the same day to substitute a cage for the prosthesis ruled out spinal cord compression, while eliminating the source of MRI artefacts. Findings were normal from follow-up MRI scans 1 and 15days later, as well as from neurophysiological testing (electromyogram and motor evoked potentials). The deficit resolved fully within the next 4days. A psychological assessment revealed emotional distress related to an ongoing divorce. The most likely diagnosis was conversion paralysis. Surgeons should be aware that conversion disorder might develop after a procedure on the spine, although the risk of litigation requires re-operation. Familiarity with specific MRI sequences that minimise artefacts can be valuable. A preoperative psychological assessment might improve the detection of patients at high risk for conversion disorder. PMID:26194210

  18. Primary Leptomeningeal Melanoma of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Meningioma—A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K.; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2–C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

  19. Primary leptomeningeal melanoma of the cervical spine mimicking a meningioma-a case report.

    PubMed

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2014-08-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2-C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

  20. Inertial sensor real-time feedback enhances the learning of cervical spine manipulation: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical Spinal Manipulation (CSM) is considered a high-level skill of the central nervous system because it requires bimanual coordinated rhythmical movements therefore necessitating training to achieve proficiency. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of real-time feedback on the performance of CSM. Methods Six postgraduate physiotherapy students attending a training workshop on Cervical Spine Manipulation Technique (CSMT) using inertial sensor derived real-time feedback participated in this study. The key variables were pre-manipulative position, angular displacement of the thrust and angular velocity of the thrust. Differences between variables before and after training were investigated using t-tests. Results There were no significant differences after training for the pre-manipulative position (rotation p = 0.549; side bending p = 0.312) or for thrust displacement (rotation p = 0.247; side bending p = 0.314). Thrust angular velocity demonstrated a significant difference following training for rotation (pre-training mean (sd) 48.9°/s (35.1); post-training mean (sd) 96.9°/s (53.9); p = 0.027) but not for side bending (p = 0.521). Conclusion Real-time feedback using an inertial sensor may be valuable in the development of specific manipulative skill. Future studies investigating manipulation could consider a randomized controlled trial using inertial sensor real time feedback compared to traditional training. PMID:24942483

  1. Best evidence in multimodal pain management in spine surgery and means of assessing postoperative pain and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Multimodal approaches to pain management have arisen with the goal of improving postoperative pain and reducing opioid analgesic use. We performed a comprehensive literature review to determine grades of recommendation for commonly used agents in multimodal pain management and provide a best practice guideline. To evaluate common drugs used in multimodal treatment of pain, a search was performed on English language publications on Medline (PubMed; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manuscripts were rated as Level I-V according to the North American Spine Society's (NASS) standardized levels of evidence tables. Grades of recommendation were assigned for each drug based on the NASS Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care. There is good (Grade A) evidence gabapentinoids, acetaminophen, neuraxial blockade and extended-release local anesthetics reduce postoperative pain and narcotic requirements. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that preemptive analgesia and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) result in reduced postoperative pain. There is insufficient and/or conflicting (Grade I) evidence that muscle relaxants and ketamine provide a significant reduction in postoperative pain or narcotic usage. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that short-term use of NSAID result in no long-term reduction in bone healing or fusion rates. Comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of perioperative pain control can be accomplished through the use of validated measures. Multimodal pain management protocols have consistently been demonstrated to allow for improved pain control with less reliance on opioids. There is good quality evidence that supports many of the common agents utilized in multimodal therapy, however, there is a lack of evidence regarding optimal postoperative protocols or pathways. PMID:25766366

  2. A game of two discs: a case of non-contiguous and occult cervical spine injury in a rugby player.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Piggot, Robert; Jaddan, Mutaz; McCabe, John P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to highlight the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elucidating serious and occult injuries in a single case of hyperflextion injury of a patient cervical spine (C-Spine). A chart and radiology review was performed to establish the sequence of care and how the results of imaging studies influenced the clinical management in this trauma case. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities of the C-Spine revealed bilateral C4/C5 facetal subluxation with no obvious fractures; however, the MR imaging of the C-Spine revealed a non-contiguous and occult injury to C6/C7 disc with a posterior annular tear and associated disc extrusion. This altered the operative intervention that was initially planned. MR imaging proved an invaluable diagnostic addition in this particular case of cervical trauma in a rugby player following a hyperflextion injury, by revealing a serious non-contiguous and occult injury of the C-Spine. PMID:26980714

  3. A game of two discs: a case of non-contiguous and occult cervical spine injury in a rugby player

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Michael D.; Piggot, Robert; Jaddan, Mutaz; McCabe, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to highlight the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elucidating serious and occult injuries in a single case of hyperflextion injury of a patient cervical spine (C-Spine). A chart and radiology review was performed to establish the sequence of care and how the results of imaging studies influenced the clinical management in this trauma case. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities of the C-Spine revealed bilateral C4/C5 facetal subluxation with no obvious fractures; however, the MR imaging of the C-Spine revealed a non-contiguous and occult injury to C6/C7 disc with a posterior annular tear and associated disc extrusion. This altered the operative intervention that was initially planned. MR imaging proved an invaluable diagnostic addition in this particular case of cervical trauma in a rugby player following a hyperflextion injury, by revealing a serious non-contiguous and occult injury of the C-Spine. PMID:26980714

  4. The Occupancy of the Components in the Cervical Spine and Their Changes with Extension and Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Sayıt, Emrah; Aghdasi, Bayan; Daubs, Michael D.; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Objectives The kinematics of the cervical spine has been investigated by many researchers. However, the occupancy of the disk bulges, spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and the rest of the canal as well as the changes of these structures with motion have not yet been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate these dynamic changes. Methods The kinetic magnetic resonance images of 248 patients (124 men and 124 women) were evaluated, and the occupancy of each structure for each cervical level at neutral, flexion, and extension were calculated. Results Whole canal anteroposterior (AP) diameters showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C4–C5 and C5–C6 levels (p < 0.05). The mean disk bulges showed significant differences between neutral-flexion and flexion-extension at the C4–C5, C5–C6, C6–C7, and C7–T1 levels (p < 0.01). The mean spinal canal AP diameter showed significant differences between flexion-extension and neutral-extension at the C3–C4, C4–C5, C5–C6, and C6–C7 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C4–C5, C5–C6, and C6–C7 levels (p < 0.05). The mean thickness of the ligamentum flavum showed significant differences between flexion-extension at the C3–C4, C4–C5, C5–C6, and C6–C7 levels (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between neutral-extension at the C3–C4 and C5–C6 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C5–C6 and C6–C7 levels (p < 0.05). The mean thickness of the spinal cord showed significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C2–C3 and C3–C4 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between flexion-extension at the C3–C4 and C4–C5 levels (p < 0.01). The rest of the canal showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C3–C4, C4–C5, C5–C6, and C6–C7 levels (p < 0.005). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C5–C6 and C6–C7 levels (p < 0.01). Conclusions The occupancy of each structure in the cervical spine for each level was revealed by this study. In addition, the dynamic changes in the cervical spine with flexion and extension were seen to have different characteristics for each level. PMID:26430594

  5. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Low Back Pain on Spine Rotational Stiffness and Local Dynamic Stability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gwyneth B; Mavor, Matthew; Brown, Stephen H M; Graham, Ryan B

    2015-09-01

    Local dynamic stability, quantified using the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (λ max), and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness can provide pertinent information regarding the neuromuscular control of the spine during movement tasks. The primary goal of the present study was to assess if experimental capsaicin-induced low back pain (LBP) affects spine stability and the neuromuscular control of repetitive trunk movements in a group of healthy participants with no history of LBP. Fourteen healthy males were recruited for this investigation. Each participant was asked to complete three trials (baseline, in pain, and recovery) of 35 cycles of a repetitive trunk flexion/extension task at a rate of 0.25 Hz. Local dynamic stability and the muscular contributions to lumbar spine rotational stiffness were significantly impaired during the LBP trial compared to the baseline trial (p < 0.05); however, there was a trend for these measures to recover after a 1 h rest. This study provides evidence that capsaicin can effectively induce LBP, thereby altering spine rotational stiffness and local dynamic stability. Future research should directly compare the effects capsaicin-induced LBP and intramuscular/intraligamentous induced LBP on these same variables. PMID:25663629

  6. SpineData – a Danish clinical registry of people with chronic back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher; Albert, Hanne B; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Manniche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases of spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resource for collaborative research projects. Methods The SpineData registry is an Internet-based system that captures patient data electronically at the point of clinical contact. The setting is the government-funded Medical Department of the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, where patients receive a multidisciplinary assessment of their chronic spinal pain. Results Started in 2011, the database by early 2015 contained information on more than 36,300 baseline episodes of patient care, plus the available 6-month and 12-month follow-up data for these episodes. The baseline questionnaire completion rate has been 93%; 79% of people were presenting with low back pain as their main complaint, 6% with mid-back pain, and 15% with neck pain. Collectively, across the body regions and measurement time points, there are approximately 1,980 patient-related variables in the database across a broad range of biopsychosocial factors. To date, 36 research projects have used data from the SpineData registry, including collaborations with researchers from Denmark, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Brazil. Conclusion We described the aims, development, structure, and content of the SpineData registry, and what is known about any attrition bias and cluster effects in the data. For epidemiology research, these data can be linked, at an individual patient level, to the Danish population-based registries and the national spinal surgery registry. SpineData also has potential for the conduct of cohort multiple randomized controlled trials. Collaborations with other researchers are welcome. PMID:26316820

  7. The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean ± SD age: 43 ± 12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7 ± 150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9 ± 25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r = 0.52, p = 0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r = 0.549, p = 0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

  8. Chronic Neck Pain and Cervico-Craniofacial Pain Patients Express Similar Levels of Neck Pain-Related Disability, Pain Catastrophizing, and Cervical Range of Motion

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-García, Daniel; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; López-López, Almudena; Lopez-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; La Touche, Roy; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neck pain (NP) is strongly associated with cervico-craniofacial pain (CCFP). The primary aim of the present study was to compare the neck pain-related disability, pain catastrophizing, and cervical and mandibular ROM between patients with chronic mechanical NP and patients with CCFP, as well as asymptomatic subjects. Methods. A total of 64 participants formed three groups. All participants underwent a clinical examination evaluating the cervical range of motion and maximum mouth opening, neck disability index (NDI), and psychological factor of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Results. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with NP and CCFP for NDI and PCS (P > 0.05). One- way ANOVA revealed significant differences for all ROM measurements. The post hoc analysis showed no statistically significant differences in cervical extension and rotation between the two patient groups (P > 0.05). The Pearson correlation analysis shows a moderate positive association between NDI and the PCS for the group of patients with NP and CCFP. Conclusion. The CCFP and NP patient groups have similar neck disability levels and limitation in cervical ROM in extension and rotation. Both groups had positively correlated the NDI with the PCS. PMID:27119020

  9. Risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging and cervical collar in comatose, blunt trauma patients with negative comprehensive cervical spine computed tomography and no apparent spinal deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C Michael; Brocker, Brian P; Collier, B David; Gemmel, David J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In blunt trauma, comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 8) with a negative comprehensive cervical spine (CS) computed tomography assessment and no apparent spinal deficit, CS clearance strategies (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and prolonged cervical collar use) are controversial. Methods We conducted a literature review to delineate risks for coma, CS instability, prolonged cervical collar use, and CS MRI. Results Based on our search of the literature, the numbers of functional survivor patients among those who had sustained blunt trauma were as follows: 350 per 1,000 comatose unstable patients (increased intracranial pressure [ICP], hypotension, hypoxia, or early ventilator-associated pneumonia); 150 per 1,000 comatose high-risk patients (age > 45 years or Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 5); and 600 per 1,000 comatose stable patients (not unstable or high risk). Risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable, high-risk, and stable patients were as follows: 2.5% for CS instability; 26.2% for increased intensive care unit complications with prolonged cervical collar use; 9.3% to 14.6% for secondary brain injury with MRI transportation; and 20.6% for aspiration during MRI scanning (supine position). Additional risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable patients were as follows: 35.8% for increased ICP with cervical collar; and 72.1% for increased ICP during MRI scan (supine position). Conclusion Blunt trauma coma functional survivor (independent living) rates are alarming. When a comprehensive CS computed tomography evaluation is negative and there is no apparent spinal deficit, CS instability is unlikely (2.5%). Secondary brain injury from the cervical collar or MRI is more probable than CS instability and jeopardizes cerebral recovery. Brain injury severity, probability of CS instability, cervical collar risk, and MRI risk assessments are essential when deciding whether CS MRI is appropriate and for determining the timing of cervical collar removal. PMID:18625041

  10. Quantification of Pediatric Cervical Growth: Anatomical Changes in the Sub-Axial Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jae; Hong, Jae Taek; Kim, Jong Tae

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to provide normal values of the pediatric sub-axial cervical spinal canal and vertebral body growth pattern using computed tomographic scans, a total of 318 patients less than 10 years old were included. Methods The growth of the vertebral body and canal space was investigated using four different age groups. The Torg ratio (TR) was calculated and all patients were classified into a low TR group and a high TR group according to a cutoff value of 1.0. To account for spinal curvature, the C3-7 angle was measured. Results Very little axial expansion and growth in height were observed (2.9 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively), and the spinal canal increments (1.8 mm) were much smaller than the dimensions of the vertebral body. The mean TR values were 1.03±0.14 at the C3 vertebral level, 1.02±0.13 at C4, 1.05±0.13 at C5, 1.04±0.13 at C6, and 1.02±0.12 at C7 in all patients. The mean sub-axial angle (C3-7) was 7.9±10.6° (range: -17-47°). Conclusion The upper sub-axial spinal canal continuously increased in size compared to the lower sub-axial spine after 8 years of age. Considerable decrements in the TR was found after late childhood compared to younger ages. Generally, there were no significant differences between boys and girls in vertical length of the cervical vertebrae. However, the axial dimension of the vertebral body and the spinal canal space varied according to gender. PMID:25810858

  11. Dexmedetomidine provides optimum conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation in simulated cervical spine injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Pooja; Dixit, Madhu Bala; Dang, Aashish; Gupta, Vibhuti

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: We undertook this study to assess if a small-dose of dexmedetomidine (DEX) for conscious sedation during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI) in simulated cervical spine injury (CSI) patients provides optimum conditions and fulfills the need of postintubation neurological examination required in such patients. The aim was to assess the efficacy of DEX on arousability and patient's comfort during AFOI in simulated CSI patients. Material and Methods: In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I-II patients aged between 18 and 65 years scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia underwent AFOI under conscious sedation with DEX. After locally anesthetizing the airway and applying a cervical collar, patients either received DEX 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by 0.7 μg/kg/h maintenance infusion or normal saline in the same dose and rate during AFOI. Targeted sedation (Ramsay sedation score [RSS] ≥2) during AFOI was maintained with midazolam [MDZ] in both groups. Statistical Analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon-w test. Results: The total number of patients requiring MDZ and the mean dose of MDZ required to achieve targeted sedation (RSS ≥2) was significantly less in DEX group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). Similarly, patient satisfaction score, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and respiratory parameters were significantly better in DEX group (P < 0.001). Postintubation arousability in the two groups was comparable (P = 0.29). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine provides optimum sedation without compromising airway or hemodynamic instability with better patient tolerance and satisfaction for AFOI. It also preserves patient arousability for the postintubation neurological assessment. PMID:27006542

  12. Comparing precision of distortion-compensated and stereophotogrammetric Roentgen analysis when monitoring fusion in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Leivseth, Gunnar; Kolstad, Frode; Nygaard, Oystein P; Zoega, Björn; Frobin, W; Brinckmann, P

    2006-06-01

    Two methods to measure sagittal plane segmental motion in the cervical spine are compared. Translational and rotational motion was measured in nine cervical motion segments of nine patients by distortion-compensated (DCRA) as well as by stereophotogrammetric Roentgen analysis (RSA). To compare measurement precision of the new DCRA protocol with the established RSA technique under realistic clinical conditions and to discuss advantages and disadvantages of both methods in clinical studies. RSA constitutes the most precise method available to assess segmental motion or to monitor fusion in the cervical spine. Due to the invasive nature of the procedure there is an interest in alternative, non-invasive protocols, based on conventional, lateral radiographic views. In nine patients, segmental motion of nine cervical segments with spinal surgery and fusion had previously been assessed from stereo views by RSA. From the archive radiographs, sagittal plane segmental motion was re-assessed by DCRA. Results for sagittal plane translational and rotational motion obtained by both methods are compared. With respect to RSA, sagittal plane rotation was determined by DCRA with an error of 2.4 degrees and a mean difference not significantly different from zero. Sagittal plane translation was determined by DCRA with an error of less than 0.78 mm and a mean difference not significantly different from zero. As two methods are compared, these errors represent the combined (propagated) errors of RSA and DCRA. Averaged over the cohort investigated, measurement of sagittal plane segmental motion exhibited no significant difference between DCRA and RSA. PMID:16163513

  13. Concurrent cervical and craniofacial pain. A review of empiric and basic science evidence.

    PubMed

    Browne, P A; Clark, G T; Kuboki, T; Adachi, N Y

    1998-12-01

    Because many patients present themselves for treatment with both craniofacial and craniocervical pain, 2 questions arise: (1) What are the sensory and motor consequences of dysfunction in either of these areas on the other? (2) Do craniofacial and craniocervical pain have a similar cause? These questions formed the impetus for this review article. The phenomenon of concurrent pain in craniofacial and cervical structures is considered, and clinical reports and opinions are presented regarding theories of cervical-to-craniofacial and craniofacial-to-cervical pain referral. Because pain referral between these 2 areas requires anatomic and functional connectivity between trigeminally and cervically innervated structures, basic neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic literature is reviewed. The published data clearly demonstrate neurophysiologic and structural convergence of cervical sensory and muscle afferent inputs onto trigeminal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Moreover, changes in metabolic activity and blood flow in the brainstem and cervical dorsal horn of the spinal cord in both monkeys and cats have been demonstrated after electric stimulation of the V1-innervated superior sagittal sinus. In conclusion, the animal experimental data support the findings of human empiric and experimental studies, which suggest that strong connectivity exists between trigeminal and cervical motor and sensory responses. PMID:9868716

  14. Office evaluation of spine and limb pain: spondylotic radiculopathy and other nonstructural mimickers.

    PubMed

    Watson, James

    2011-02-01

    Low back and neck pain, with or without radiculopathy, are one of the most common reasons for referral to an outpatient neurology practice. Determining appropriate treatment relies on establishing an accurate diagnosis of the etiology of the spine or limb pain. The author reviews structural radiculopathies as a result of diskogenic and spondylotic etiologies with an emphasis on the clinical approach and evaluation of these patients (including imaging and electrodiagnostics), identifying management altering neurogenic mimickers of structural radiculopathies (such as infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic myeloradiculitis and radiculoplexopathies), and stratifying patients for treatment. PMID:21321836

  15. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted. A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level. In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

  16. Hyperextension soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G

    1996-01-01

    While a full understanding of continuing symptoms following a soft tissue hyperextension injury of the cervical spine remains elusive, recent research has shown that the explanation may lie with occult lesions beyond the musculoskeletal structures of the neck. The balance of the roles of injury, psychological factors, and the effects of litigation has shifted towards the former. However this injury would be unique if the latter two played only a minor role in determining recovery. It seems likely that among the large numbers of patients presenting with symptoms after hyperextension soft tissue injuries, a proportion will have occult bone, joint, or intervertebral disc lesions. Improvements in medical imaging techniques may allow better definition of these specific injuries and the development of more appropriate treatment. The search for a central nervous system lesion in humans continues and until this is demonstrated, many will dispute the existence of an organic brain syndrome. Evidence for significant injury to the temporomandibular joints, ear, and ophthalmic system has been found and this may be amenable to specialist intervention. While there is little evidence for effective treatments of the established injury, reduction in related disability appears most likely to be achieved by prevention. Improvements in automobile design, with particular reference to head restraints, could limit the cost to society of this common and disabling injury. PMID:8821214

  17. A knowledge-based approach to soft tissue reconstruction of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Sascha; Wachter, Irina; Schmelzle, Gottfried; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2009-04-01

    For surgical planning in spine surgery, the segmentation of anatomical structures is a prerequisite. Past efforts focussed on the segmentation of vertebrae from tomographic data, but soft tissue structures have, for the most part, been neglected. Only sparse research work has been done for the spinal cord and the trachea. However, as far as the author is aware, there is no work on segmenting intervertebral discs. Therefore, a totally automatic reconstruction algorithm for the most relevant cervical structures is presented. It is implemented as a straightforward process, using anatomical knowledge which is, in concept, transferrable to other tissues of the human body. No seed points are required since the discs, as initial landmarks, are located via an object recognition approach. The spinal musculature is reconstructed by surface analysis on already segmented vertebrae, thus it can be taken into account in a biomechanical simulation. The segmentation results of our approach showed 91% accordance with expert segmentations and the computation time is less than 1 min on a standard PC. Since the presented system follows some general concepts this approach may also be considered as a step towards full body segmentation of the human. PMID:19272999

  18. Degenerative Changes in the Cervical Spine Are More Common in Middle-Aged Individuals with Thalidomide Embryopathy than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi Jahani, Shadi A.; Danielsson, Aina; Ab-Fawaz, Rana; Hebelka, Hanna; Danielson, Barbro; Brisby, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background Thalidomide was used as a sedative drug for pregnant women in the 1950–60:s and resulted in children born with thalidomide embryopathy (TE), including upper limb malformations. These may alter the motion pattern of the cervical spine by the use of head/shoulder and mouth grip. Aims To compare degenerative changes in the cervical spine in TE individuals with healthy controls (CTR). Methods and Procedures Twenty-seven middle-aged TE individuals and 27 age- and gender-matched CTR were examined by cervical spine MRI. The presence of malformations, disc herniation(s), osteophytes, nerve and medullary compression and the degree of disc degeneration (DD) were evaluated. Outcomes and Results Significantly higher degree of DD was seen in the TE group compared with the controls (p<0.001). Similar frequencies of disc herniation and disc space narrowing were observed in the two groups, but more foraminal narrowing was seen in the TE group (p = 0.002). DD was observed relatively frequently at all cervical levels in the TE group, however, mainly at the two lower levels in the CTR. Conclusions and Implications Middle-aged individuals with TE have a higher frequency of degenerative changes in the cervical spine than controls, possibly caused by an altered load on the cervical spine. PMID:27175919

  19. The status of temporomandibular and cervical spine education in credentialed orthopedic manual physical therapy fellowship programs: a comparison of didactic and clinical education exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Stephen M; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Courtney, Carol A; Sizer, Phillip S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to establish a baseline of physical therapist education on temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related topics during credentialed orthopedic manual physical therapy fellowship training and compare it to cervical spine disorders education. Method: An online survey was distributed electronically to each fellowship program credentialed by the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) and recognized by the Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT). Data were analyzed to compare overall exposure to TMD educational content, including a direct comparison of TMD and cervical spine disorders education. Results: The response rate was 79%. Thirteen programs (87%) reported providing both didactic and clinical training on both TMD and cervical spine disorders. Didactic education for cervical spine disorders ranged from 16–20 hours to over 25 hours, whereas TMD hours ranged from 0 to 6–10 hours. Clinical education for cervical spine disorders ranged from 11–15 hours to over 25 hours, whereas TMD hours ranged from 0 to 6–10 hours. The number of hours of exposure during didactic training and the number of patients exposed to during clinical training were significantly different when comparing TMD to cervical spine disorders exposure (P<0.0001). Discussion: The data indicate a lack of uniformity between credentialed fellowship programs in orthopedic manual physical therapy with respect to the extent to which programs expose trainees to evaluation and management of TMD. There is consistency in that all programs provided more training on cervical spine disorders than TMD. Despite a high level of clinical specialization, fellows-in-training receive minimal TMD education. PMID:26674266

  20. Dystrophic calcinosis with both a huge calcified mass in the cervical spine and calcification in the chest wall in a patient with rheumatoid overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kei; Takaoka, Hirokazu; Iyama, Ken-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Dystrophic calcinosis in soft tissue occurs in damaged or devitalized tissues in the presence of normal calcium and phosphorous metabolism. It is often noted in subcutaneous tissues in patients with collagen vascular diseases and may involve a relatively localized area or be widespread. A 74-year-old Japanese woman with an overlap of rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis developed a huge tumor-like mass at the atlanto-axial vertebral joint region that caused severe cervical pain and difficulty in activities of daily living. She also had subcutaneous dystrophic calcification in the soft tissue of the chest wall. Calcinosis associated with systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized phenomenon, but a destructive paraspinal tumor in the cervical spine associated with overlap syndrome is extremely unique. Because calcinosis in spinal locations can be complicated by neurological involvement, patients with progressive symptoms may require surgical intervention. Surgical resection and biological therapy improved this patient's life and activities of daily living. Calcinosis is common in the conditions reviewed here, and different agents have been used for treatment. However, calcinosis management is poorly organized and lacks an accepted classification, systematic studies, and clinical therapeutic trials. The association of calcinosis and collagen vascular diseases is clinically and etiologically important. Although a combination of calcinosis and rheumatoid overlap syndrome is rare, various collagen vascular diseases may occur simultaneously. A perceptive diagnostic approach toward these diseases is critical, and early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent dystrophic calcinosis. PMID:24894107

  1. Inclusion of thoracic spine thrust manipulation into an electro-therapy/thermal program for the management of patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    González-Iglesias, Javier; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; Cleland, Joshua A; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Méndez-Sánchez, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to examine the effects of a seated thoracic spine distraction thrust manipulation included in an electrotherapy/thermal program on pain, disability, and cervical range of motion in patients with acute neck pain. This randomized controlled trial included 45 patients (20 males, 25 females) between 23 and 44 years of age presenting with acute neck pain. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: an experimental group which received a thoracic manipulation, and a control group which did not receive the manipulative procedure. Both groups received an electrotherapy program consisting of 6 sessions of TENS (frequency 100Hz; 20min), superficial thermo-therapy (15min) and soft tissue massage. The experimental group also received a thoracic manipulation once a week for 3 consecutive weeks. Outcome measures included neck pain (numerical pain rate scale; NPRS), level of disability (Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire; NPQ) and neck mobility. These outcomes were assessed at baseline and 1 week after discharge. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA with group as between-subject variable and time as within-subject variable was used. Patients receiving thoracic manipulation experienced greater reductions in both neck pain, with between-group difference of 2.3 (95% CI 2-2.7) points on a 11-NPRS, and perceived disability with between-group differences 8.5 (95% CI 7.2-9.8) points. Further, patients receiving thoracic manipulation experienced greater increases in all cervical motions with between-group differences of 10.6 degrees (95% CI 8.8-12.5 degrees) for flexion; 9.9 degrees (95% CI 8.1-11.7 degrees) for extension; 9.5 degrees (95% CI 7.6-11.4 degrees) for right lateral-flexion; 8 degrees (95% CI 6.2-9.8 degrees) for left lateral-flexion; 9.6 degrees (95% CI 7.7-11.6 degrees) for right rotation; and 8.4 degrees (95% CI 6.5-10.3 degrees) for left rotation. We found that the inclusion of a thoracic manipulation into an electrotherapy/thermal program was effective in reducing neck pain and disability, and in increasing active cervical mobility in patients with acute neck pain. PMID:18692428

  2. Systematic review of clinical trials of cervical manipulation: control group procedures and pain outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To characterize the types of control procedures used in controlled clinical trials of cervical spine manipulation and to evaluate the outcomes obtained by subjects in control groups so as to improve the quality of future clinical trials Methods A search of relevant clinical trials was performed in PubMed 1966-May 2010 with the following key words: "Chiropractic"[Mesh] OR "Manipulation, Spinal"[Mesh]) AND "Clinical Trial "[Publication Type]. Reference lists from these trials were searched for any additional trials. The reference lists of two prior studies, one review and one original study were also searched. Accepted reports were then rated for quality by 2 reviewers using the PEDro scale. Studies achieving a score of >50% were included for data extraction and analysis. Intra-group change scores on pain outcomes were obtained. For determining clinically important outcomes, a threshold of 20% improvement was used where continuous data were available; otherwise, an effect size of 0.30 was employed Results The PubMed search yielded 753 citations of which 13 were selected. Eight (8) other studies were identified by reviewing two systematic reviews and through reference searches. All studies scored >50% on the PEDro scale. There were 9 multi-session studies and 12 single-session studies. The most commonly used control procedure was "manual contact/no thrust". Four (4) studies used a placebo-control (patient blinded). For two of these studies with VAS data, the average change reported was 4.5 mm. For the other control procedures, variable results were obtained. No clinically important changes were reported in 57% of the paired comparisons, while, in 43% of these, changes which would be considered clinically important were obtained in the control groups. Only 15% of trials reported on post-intervention group registration. Conclusions Most control procedures in cervical manipulation trials result in small clinical changes, although larger changes are observed in 47% of paired comparisons. The vast majority of studies do not result in subject blinding; the effect of unmasking of control subjects in these studies makes the interpretation of the existing clinical trials challenging. The greatest majority of trials do not report on post-intervention blinding. A small number of candidate procedures for effective control interventions exist. Much more research is required to improve this important aspect of clinical trial methodology in cervical manipulation studies. PMID:21247413

  3. Observational Study of Depression in Patients Undergoing Cervical Disc Arthroplasty: Evidence of a Correlation between Pain Relief and Resolution of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Copay, Anne G.; Schranck, Francine W.; Kopjar, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression has been associated with inferior outcomes following lumbar spine surgery. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of depression and its impact on the outcomes of a large sample of cervical disc arthroplasty patients and to examine the change in depression occurring in conjunction with changes in disability and pain. Methods A cohort of 271 patients who underwent single or multi-level cervical disc arthroplasty at a single orthopedic center filled out the Neck Disability Index, Medical Outcomes Study SF-36, numerical rating scales for neck pain and arm pain, preoperatively and 12-month postoperatively. Patients were classified as Depressed or Non-Depressed, based on their preoperative SF-36 Mental Component Summary (MCS) score. Preoperative scores, 12-month postoperative scores, and change in scores (adjusted for preoperative scores, smoking status, and strenuous job) were compared between Depressed and Non-Depressed. Next, patients in the 2 groups were subdivided into 4 groups: Always Depressed, Never Depressed, No Longer Depressed, and Newly Depressed, based on their combined preoperative and postoperative MCS scores. The same score comparisons were conducted among the 4 groups. Results Forty-four percent (118 of 271) of the patients in our sample were Depressed. Despite a significant improvement after surgery, Depressed patients had poorer pre- and postoperative scores than Non-Depressed patients for NDI, MCS, neck pain and arm pain. Two-thirds (80 of 118) of the Depressed patients were No Longer Depressed at 12 months and had postoperative scores similar to the Never Depressed patients. Eight percent (12 of 153) of the Non-Depressed patients became Newly Depressed by 12 months and had postoperative scores similar to the Always Depressed patients. Conclusions Depression is a common occurrence in patients with cervical disorders. Relief from pain and disability after cervical disc arthroplasty can be associated with relief from depression, but poor outcomes may also result in patients becoming depressed.

  4. Positive Outcome After a Small-Caliber Gunshot Fracture of the Upper Cervical Spine without Neurovascular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Thula; Schwabe, Philipp; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Maurer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Gunshot wounds to the cervical spine most frequently concur with serious injuries to the spinal cord and cervical vessels and often have a fatal outcome. Case Report We describe the case of a 35-year-old male with a complex fracture of the C2 vertebra body and a mandibular fracture after a penetration gunshot to the cervical spine. Computed tomography (CT) at admission revealed the exact extent of the fractures and the small caliber bullet lodged next to the C2 vertebra. In this rare and extremely lucky case no collateral vascular or neurological damage was detected. Eighteen months after surgical bullet removal and posterior C1–C3 fusion complete bone healing of the C2 vertebra was achieved and there were no secondary neurovascular deficits. Conclusions Immediate surgical C1–C3 fixation resulted in an excellent outcome without secondary neurovascular deficits in this rare case of traumatic complex C2 vertebral fracture caused by a gunshot injury. PMID:27081417

  5. Hybrid lateral mass screw sublaminar wire construct: A salvage technique for posterior cervical fixation in pediatric spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Quinn, John C; Patel, Nitesh V; Tyagi, Rachana

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel salvage technique for pediatric subaxial cervical spine fusion in which lateral mass screw fixation was not possible due to anatomic constraints. The case presentation details a 4-year-old patient with C5-C6 flexion/distraction injury with bilateral jumped facets. Posterior cervical fixation was attempted; however, lateral mass fracture occurred during placement of screws. Using a wire-screw construct, an attempt was made to provide stable fixation. The patient was followed post-operatively for assessment of outcomes. After the patient had progressive kyphosis following initial closed reduction and external orthosis, internal reduction with fusion/fixation was performed. Lateral mass fracture occurred during placement of lateral mass screws. After placement of a sub-laminar wire-lateral mass screw construct, intra-operative evaluation determined stability. Post-operatively, the procedure resulted in stable fixation with evidence of bony fusion on follow-up. Pediatric subaxial cervical spine instrumentation provides rigid fixation however is technically difficult due to anatomic and instrumentation related constraints. In the presented patient, the wire-screw construct resulted in stable fixation and bony fusion on follow-up. A modified sublaminar wire-lateral mass screw construct is an example of a salvage technique that provides immediate stability in the event of instrumentation related lateral mass fracture. PMID:26541322

  6. Changes in muscle activity determine progression of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic spine-related muscle pain. A complex clinical and neurophysiological approach

    PubMed Central

    Wytra̦żek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lisiński, Przemysław

    Summary Spine-related muscle pain can affect muscle strength and motor unit activity. This study was undertaken to investigate whether surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings performed during relaxation and maximal contraction reveal differences in the activity of muscles with or without trigger points (TRPs). We also analyzed the possible coexistence of characteristic spontaneous activity in needle electromyographic (eEMG) recordings with the presence of TRPs. Thirty patients with non-specific cervical and back pain were evaluated using clinical, neuroimaging and electroneurographic examinations. Muscle pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and strength using Lovett’s scale; trigger points were detected by palpation. EMG was used to examine motor unit activity. Trigger points were found mainly in the trapezius muscles in thirteen patients. Their presence was accompanied by increased pain intensity, decreased muscle strength, increased resting sEMG amplitude, and decreased sEMG amplitude during muscle contraction. eEMG revealed characteristic asynchronous discharges in TRPs. The results of EMG examinations point to a complexity of muscle pain that depends on progression of the myofascial syndrome PMID:22152435

  7. Changes in muscle activity determine progression of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic spine-related muscle pain. A complex clinical and neurophysiological approach.

    PubMed

    Wytrazek, Marcin; Huber, Juliusz; Lisinski, Przemyslaw

    2011-01-01

    Spine-related muscle pain can affect muscle strength and motor unit activity. This study was undertaken to investigate whether surface electromyographic (sEMG) recordings performed during relaxation and maximal contraction reveal differences in the activity of muscles with or without trigger points (TRPs). We also analyzed the possible coexistence of characteristic spontaneous activity in needle electromyographic (eEMG) recordings with the presence of TRPs. Thirty patients with non-specific cervical and back pain were evaluated using clinical, neuroimaging and electroneurographic examinations. Muscle pain was measured using a visual analog scale (VAS), and strength using Lovett's scale; trigger points were detected by palpation. EMG was used to examine motor unit activity. Trigger points were found mainly in the trapezius muscles in thirteen patients. Their presence was accompanied by increased pain intensity, decreased muscle strength, increased resting sEMG amplitude, and decreased sEMG amplitude during muscle contraction. eEMG revealed characteristic asynchronous discharges in TRPs. The results of EMG examinations point to a complexity of muscle pain that depends on progression of the myofascial syndrome. PMID:22152435

  8. Estimated Probability of a Cervical Spine Injury During an ISS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes historical data, cohort data, and external simulations as input factors to provide estimates of crew health, resource utilization and mission outcomes. The Cervical Spine Injury Module (CSIM) is an external simulation designed to provide the IMM with parameter estimates for 1) a probability distribution function (PDF) of the incidence rate, 2) the mean incidence rate, and 3) the standard deviation associated with the mean resulting from injury/trauma of the neck. Methods: An injury mechanism based on an idealized low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax of an ISS crewmember was used as the simulated mission environment. As a result of this impact, the cervical spine is inertially loaded from the mass of the head producing an extension-flexion motion deforming the soft tissues of the neck. A multibody biomechanical model was developed to estimate the kinematic and dynamic response of the head-neck system from a prescribed acceleration profile. Logistic regression was performed on a dataset containing AIS1 soft tissue neck injuries from rear-end automobile collisions with published Neck Injury Criterion values producing an injury transfer function (ITF). An injury event scenario (IES) was constructed such that crew 1 is moving through a primary or standard translation path transferring large volume equipment impacting stationary crew 2. The incidence rate for this IES was estimated from in-flight data and used to calculate the probability of occurrence. The uncertainty in the model input factors were estimated from representative datasets and expressed in terms of probability distributions. A Monte Carlo Method utilizing simple random sampling was employed to propagate both aleatory and epistemic uncertain factors. Scatterplots and partial correlation coefficients (PCC) were generated to determine input factor sensitivity. CSIM was developed in the SimMechanics/Simulink environment with a Monte Carlo wrapper (MATLAB) used to integrate the components of the module. Results: The probability of generating an AIS1 soft tissue neck injury from the extension/flexion motion induced by a low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax was fitted with a lognormal PDF with mean 0.26409, standard deviation 0.11353, standard error of mean 0.00114, and 95% confidence interval [0.26186, 0.26631]. Combining the probability of an AIS1 injury with the probability of IES occurrence was fitted with a Johnson SI PDF with mean 0.02772, standard deviation 0.02012, standard error of mean 0.00020, and 95% confidence interval [0.02733, 0.02812]. The input factor sensitivity analysis in descending order was IES incidence rate, ITF regression coefficient 1, impactor initial velocity, ITF regression coefficient 2, and all others (equipment mass, crew 1 body mass, crew 2 body mass) insignificant. Verification and Validation (V&V): The IMM V&V, based upon NASA STD 7009, was implemented which included an assessment of the data sets used to build CSIM. The documentation maintained includes source code comments and a technical report. The software code and documentation is under Subversion configuration management. Kinematic validation was performed by comparing the biomechanical model output to established corridors.

  9. Influence of cervical spine stabilization via Stiff Neck on the postural system in healthy patients: compensation or decompensation of the postural system?

    PubMed

    Schikora, N; Eysel-Gosepath, Katrin; Klünter, H; Delank, S; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2010-10-01

    Functional and structural disorders of the cervical spine are often regarded as the cause of non-specific vertigo. Pathogenetically, disorders of proprioceptive connections between neck muscles and vestibular cores as well as the proprioceptors in the cervical facette joints are presumed. According to a study by Hülse and Hölzl (HNO 48:295-301, 1), after manual therapeutic intervention in patients with functional disorders of the cervical spine 50% of the probands stated a significant reduction of their vertigo. This was backed up in posturography, which documented an improvement in vestibulospinal reactions. To date, the effects of artificial as well as surgical stabilization of the cervical spine on the balance system have not been explored yet. In a first pilot study, we examined the influence of artificial stabilization of the cervical spine via cervical collar Stiff Neck, manufactured by Ambu/Perfit ACE] on the balance system of 20 healthy probands. For this purpose, a posturography (Balance Master Systems, NeuroCom, Clackamas, OR, USA) was applied to 20 healthy probands (10 males, 10 females) with a mean age of 35 years who had no prior spine pathology. Posturography was analyzed under static and dynamic test situations with and without Stiff Neck cervical collar. The results were compared statistically to the Wilcoxon test. In the static test situation of the modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance, a significantly improved standing stability occurred. In none of the dynamic tests did fixation of the cervical spine by Stiff Neck cuff lead to a measurable impairment of the movement coordination. All probands felt subjectively more stable when wearing the Stiff Neck. In healthy probands, a fixation of the cervical spine leads to a stabilization of the postural balance situation. This fixation seems to be helpful in compensating the malfunction of other components of balance information. In a next step, this same model of analysis is applied to patients with cervical instability. Standing stability and movement coordination before and after cervical fusion are being explored. PMID:20443016

  10. Novel Subtype of Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy Associated With Muscular Weakness and Cervical Spine Instability

    PubMed Central

    Simha, Vinaya; Agarwal, Anil K.; Aronin, Patricia A.; Iannaccone, Susan T.; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2009-01-01

    Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) is a rare auto-somal recessive disorder characterized by extreme paucity of adipose tissue from birth, and early onset of metabolic complications related to insulin resistance. Mutations in three genes, 1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2), Berardinelli Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy 2 (BSCL2), and Caveolin-1 (CAV1) are associated with the three subtypes of this disorder, CGL1, CGL2 and CGL3, respectively. We report two siblings of Hispanic origin who displayed characteristic features of CGL such as generalized loss of subcutaneous fat from birth, acanthosis nigricans, acromegaloid habitus, umbilical prominence, hepatosplenomegaly, hypoleptinemia, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. However, no disease causing variants were detected in the DNA sequence of AGPAT2, BSCL2 or CAV1 genes. Further, whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the two siblings revealed marked loss of subcutaneous, intraabdominal and intrathoracic fat like in other patients with CGL, but preservation of bone marrow fat which is invariably lost in all patients with CGL1 and CGL2, but not in the patient reported with CGL3. They also had generalized muscle weakness during infancy and early childhood associated with a nearly fivefold increase in serum creatine kinase (CK) levels, but with normal muscle biopsy and electrophysiologic studies. Both patients were also found to have atlantoaxial dislocation requiring surgical intervention. Thus, this pedigree represents a novel subtype of CGL characterized by generalized loss of body fat but with preservation of bone marrow fat, congenital muscular weakness and cervical spine instability. The genetic basis of this novel subtype remains to be determined. PMID:18698612

  11. Importance of precise positioning for proton beam therapy in the base of skull and cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Tatsuzaki, H; Urie, M M

    1991-08-01

    Using proton beam therapy, high doses have been delivered to chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the base of skull and cervical spine. Dose inhomogeneity to the tumors has been accepted in order to maintain normal tissue tolerances, and detailed attention to patient immobilization and to precise positioning has minimized the margins necessary to ensure these dose constraints. This study examined the contribution of precise positioning to the better dose localization achieved in these treatments. Three patients whose tumors represented different anatomic geometries were studied. Treatment plans were developed which treated as much of the tumor as possible to 74 Cobalt-Gray-Equivalent (CGE) while maintaining the central brain stem and central spinal cord at less than or equal to 48 CGE, the surface of the brain stem, surface of the spinal cord, and optic structures at less than or equal to 60 CGE, and the temporal lobes at less than or equal to 5% likelihood of complication using a biophysical model of normal tissue complication probability. Two positioning accuracies were assumed: 3 mm and 10 mm. Both proton beam plans and 10 MV X ray beam plans were developed with these assumptions and dose constraints. In all cases with the same positioning uncertainties, the proton beam plans delivered more dose to a larger percentage of the tumor volume and the estimated tumor control probability was higher than with the X ray plans. However, without precise positioning both the proton plans and the X ray plans deteriorated, with a 12% to 25% decrease in estimated tumor control probability. In all but one case, the difference between protons with good positioning and poor positioning was greater than the difference between protons and X rays, both with good positioning. Hence in treating these tumors, which are in close proximity to critical normal tissues, attention to immobilization and precise positioning is essential. With good positioning, proton beam therapy permits higher doses to significantly more of the tumor in these sites than do X rays. PMID:1651308

  12. Sacral decubitus after cervical spine injury: a case report and suggestions for avoiding such wounds.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Alan S

    2014-06-01

    Sacral decubitus ulcers after cervical spine injuries are particularly debilitating wounds. An illustrative case is presented here and strategies are proposed that may help reduce the incidence of this type of wound. These include early involvement in the patient's care by a wound prevention specialist and the incorporation of a cholera cot design into the spinal transport board with a hole to completely offload the sacral tissue and permit the drainage of stool. Because intermittent visual inspection of skin is probably inadequate to detect the first sign of impending complications, there is a need for technology to objectively assess the status of skin's integrity so a computer program could automatically adjust the pressure on the patient's skin and alert the doctor. Sophisticated equipment that measures mattress pressure on skin is now widely available; sensors of this type could be situated on top of a quilt of miniature air bags (ie, smart cubes) so that individual computer-controlled areas of the quilt could be deflated to offload pressure as required. In the future, probes capable of measuring CO2 production, electrical resistance, or even polarization spectroscopy might be interspersed among the cubes so that ongoing skin viability and integrity could also be monitored. Finally, if the middle model, which proposes that pressure damage starts deep in the middle of the tissue overlying the sacrum before spreading to the skin, proves to be correct and the ground zero for some decubitus really is in the sacral fat, then even more advanced monitoring will be required such as implantable biosensors, and treatment plans might require hyperbaric oxygen or even preemptive liposuction of necrotic fat. PMID:25856216

  13. Clinical results of patients with subaxial cervical spine trauma treated according to the SLIC score

    PubMed Central

    Joaquim, Andrei F.; Ghizoni, Enrico; Tedeschi, Helder; da Cruz, Halisson Y. F.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) system has been developed to improve injury classification and guide surgical decision making yet clinical validation remains necessary. Methods We evaluated the validity and safety of the SLIC system prospectively in patients treated for subaxial cervical spine trauma (SCST) between 2009 and 2012. Patients with four or more points were surgically treated, whereas patients with less than 4 points were conservatively managed. Outcome measures Neurological status was assessed as the primary outcome of successful treatment. Results Non-surgical group – Twenty-three patients were treated non-surgically, 14 (61%) of them with some follow-up at our institution. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 months (mean of 4.42; median 4). The SLIC score ranged from 0 to 6 points (mean and median of 1). One patient with a SLIC of 6 points refused surgery. Surgical group: Twenty-five patients were operated, but follow-up after hospital discharge was obtained in 23 (92%) patients (range from 1 to 24 months, mean of 5.82 months). The SLIC score in this group ranged from 4 to 9 points (mean and median of 7). No patients had neurological worsening. Eight of 13 patients with incomplete deficits had some improvement in American Spinal Injury Association score. Conclusions This is the first prospective application of the SLIC system. With regard to our primary outcome, neurological status, the SLIC system was found to be a safe and effective guide in the surgical treatment of SCST. PMID:24090539

  14. Prevalence of the Fibromyalgia Phenotype in Spine Pain Patients Presenting to a Tertiary Care Pain Clinic and the Potential Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Chad M.; Goesling, Jenna; Tsodikov, Alex; Meraj, Taha S.; Wasserman, Ronald A.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Hassett, Afton L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Injections for spinal pain have high failure rates, emphasizing the importance of patient selection. It is possible that detecting the presence of a fibromyalgia-like phenotype could aid in prediction, because in these individuals a peripheral injection would not address pain due to alterations in central neurotransmission. We hypothesized that spine pain patients meeting survey criteria for fibromyalgia would be phenotypically distinct from those who do not meet criteria. Methods 548 patients with a primary spine pain diagnosis were studied. All patients completed validated self-report questionnaires, including the Brief Pain Inventory, PainDETECT, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, measures of physical function, and the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Results 42% met survey criteria for fibromyalgia (FM+). When compared with criteria negative patients, FM+ patients were more likely to be younger, unemployed, receiving compensation, have greater pain intensity, pain interference and neuropathic pain descriptors, as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety, and lower level of physical function (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Gender, neuropathic pain, pain interference, physical function, and anxiety were independently predictive of fibromyalgia status in a multivariate analysis (p < 0.01, all variables). ROC analysis showed the strength of association of 0.81 as measured by the cross-validated C-statistic. Conclusion Using the survey criteria for fibromyalgia, we demonstrated profound phenotypic differences in a spine pain population. Although centralized pain cannot be confirmed with a survey alone, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia may help explain a portion of the variability of responses to spine interventions. PMID:24022710

  15. 78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical... the results of medical examination and related to the claimant's diagnosis of a cervical...

  16. Manual in-line stabilization for acute airway management of suspected cervical spine injury: historical review and current questions.

    PubMed

    Manoach, Seth; Paladino, Lorenzo

    2007-09-01

    Direct laryngoscopy with manual in-line stabilization is standard of care for acute trauma patients with suspected cervical spine injury. Ethical and methodologic constraints preclude controlled trials of manual in-line stabilization, and recent work questions its effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE, Index Medicus, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Database, and article reference lists. According to this search, we present an ancestral review tracing the origins of manual in-line stabilization and an analysis of subsequent studies evaluating the risks and benefits of the procedure. All manual in-line stabilization data came from trials of uninjured patients, cadaveric models, and case series. The procedure was adopted because of reasonable inference from the benefits of stabilization during general care of spine-injured patients, weak empirical data, and expert opinion. More recent data indicate that direct laryngoscopy and intubation are unlikely to cause clinically significant movement and that manual in-line stabilization may not immobilize injured segments. In addition, manual in-line stabilization degrades laryngoscopic view, which may cause hypoxia and worsen outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Patients intubated in the emergency department with suspected cervical spine injury often have traumatic brain injury, but the incidence of unstable cervical lesions in this group is low. The limited available evidence suggests that allowing some flexion or extension of the head is unlikely to cause secondary injury and may facilitate prompt intubation in difficult cases. Despite the presumed safety and efficacy of direct laryngoscopy with manual in-line stabilization, alternative techniques that do not require direct visualization warrant investigation. Promising techniques include intubation through supraglottic airways, along with video laryngoscopes, optical stylets, and other imaging devices. PMID:17337093

  17. Biomechanical analysis of expansion screws and cortical screws used for ventral plate fixation on the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Bernhard; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to bicortical screws, the surgical risk of injuring intraspinal structures can be minimized with the use of monocortical screws. However, this reduction should not be achieved at the expense of the stability of the fixation. With monocortical stabilization, the expansion screws have the potential of absorbing high loads. Therefore, they are expected to be a suitable alternative to bicortical screws for revision surgeries and in osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the stiffness of the two screw-plate systems used for ventral stabilization of the cervical spine, by focusing on the suitability of expansion screws as tools for revision treatments. The study was conducted in ten functional units of human cervical spines. The device sample stiffness was determined for four conditions using a turning moment of 2.25 N m each around one of the three principle axes. The conditions were native, destabilized, primarily stabilized with one of the screw-plate systems, followed by secondary stabilization using the expansion screw implant. The stabilized samples achieved a comparable, in most cases higher stiffness than the native samples. The samples undergoing secondary stabilization using expansion screws tend to display greater stiffness for all three axes compared to the primarily stabilized samples. The achieved tightening moment of the screws was higher than the one achieved with primary fixation. Both plates revealed similar primary stability. Revision surgeries with secondary instrumentation achieve a high stiffness of the screwed up segments. Monocortical expansion screws combined with a trapezoidal plate allow ventral stabilization of the cervical spine that is comparable to the plate fixation using bicortical screws. PMID:19588171

  18. Spine day 2012: spinal pain in Swiss school children– epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The key to a better understanding of the immense problem of spinal pain seems to be to investigate its development in adolescents. Based on the data of Spine Day 2012 (an annual action day where Swiss school children were examined by chiropractors on a voluntary basis for back problems), the aim of the present study was to gain systematic epidemiologic data on adolescent spinal pain in Switzerland and to explore risk factors per gender and per spinal area. Method Data (questionnaires and physical examinations) of 836 school children were descriptively analyzed for prevalence, recurrence and severity of spinal pain. Of those, 434 data sets were included in risk factor analysis. Using logistic regression analysis, psycho-social parameters (presence of parental back pain, parental smoking, media consumption, type of school bag) and physical parameters (trunk symmetry, posture, mobility, coordination, BMI) were analyzed per gender and per spinal area. Results Prevalence of spinal pain was higher for female gender in all areas apart from the neck. With age, a steep increase in prevalence was observed for low back pain (LBP) and for multiple pain sites. The increasing impact of spinal pain on quality of life with age was reflected in an increase in recurrence, but not in severity of spinal pain. Besides age and gender, parental back pain (Odds ratio (OR)=3.26, p=0.011) and trunk asymmetry (OR=3.36, p=0.027) emerged as risk factors for spinal pain in girls. Parental smoking seemed to increase the risk for both genders (boys: OR=2.39, p=0.020; girls: OR=2.19, p=0.051). Risk factor analysis per spinal area resulted in trunk asymmetry as risk factor for LBP (OR=3.15, p=0.015), while parental smoking increased the risk for thoracic spinal pain (TSP) (OR=2.83, p=0.036) and neck pain (OR=2.23, p=0.038). The risk for TSP was further enhanced by a higher BMI (OR=1.15, p=0.027). Conclusion This study supports the view of adolescent spinal pain as a bio-psycho-social problem that should be investigated per spinal area, age and gender. The role of trunk asymmetry and passive smoking as risk factors as well as the association between BMI and TSP should be further investigated, preferably in prospective studies. PMID:24094041

  19. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax presenting to a chiropractic clinic as undifferentiated thoracic spine pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a case of primary spontaneous pneumothorax presenting to a chiropractic clinic as undifferentiated thoracic spine pain. Clinical Features: A tall thin 25-year-old male anxiously presented to a chiropractic clinic with six days of sudden unexplained left thorax pain. His breathing was laboured and his dry cough aggravating. After assessment a high clinical suspicion of primary spontaneous pneumothorax prevailed. Intervention and Outcome: The patient was referred to hospital for further investigation and primary spontaneous pneumothorax was confirmed on chest radiograph. He underwent immediate tube thoracostomy to drain the air from his pleural space and to re-inflate his lung. After three days the tube was removed. By two weeks the lung had returned to full size. No recurrences have occurred to date. Conclusions: Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is a medical emergency in the presence of shortness of breath. The focus of treatment is to drain air from the pleural linings and to prevent recurrences. In less severe cases, patients may believe they have thoracic spine pain and seek manual therapy care. This case highlights the important role chiropractors have as primary contact health care providers. PMID:27069268

  20. Quantification of cervical spine muscle fat: a comparison between T1-weighted and multi-echo gradient echo imaging using a variable projection algorithm (VARPRO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous data using T1-weighted MRI demonstrated neck muscle fat infiltration (MFI) in patients with poor functional recovery following whiplash. Such findings do not occur in those with milder symptoms of whiplash, chronic non-traumatic neck pain or healthy controls, suggesting traumatic factors play a role. Muscle degeneration could potentially represent a quantifiable marker of poor recovery, but the temporal constraints of running a T1-weighted sequence and performing the subsequent analysis for muscle fat may be a barrier for clinical translation. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate, quantify and compare MFI for the cervical multifidus muscles with T1-weighted imaging and a more rapid quantitative 3D multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) Dixon based method in healthy subjects. Methods 5 asymptomatic participants with no history of neck pain underwent cervical spine MRI with a Siemens 3 Tesla system. The muscle and fat signal intensities on axial spin-echo T1-weighted images were quantitatively classified for the cervical multifidii from C3-C7, bilaterally. Additional axial GRE Dixon based data for fat and water quantification were used for comparison via paired t-tests. Inter-tester reliability for fat and water measures with GRE images were examined using 1) Pearson’s Intra-class correlation coefficient 2) Bland-Altman Plots and 3) Lin’s-Concordance Coefficient. P < 0.05 was used to indicate significance. Results Total mean (SD) MFI (C3-C7) for the multifidii obtained with T1-weighted imaging and GRE were 18.4% (3.3) (range 14-22%) and 18.8% (2.9) (range 15-22%), respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients for inter-tester reliability on the GRE sequences for the C3-C7 multifidii ranged from .83 - .99, indicating high levels of agreement with segmental MFI measures. Bland-Altman Plots revealed all data points were within 2 SDs and concordance was established between 2-blinded raters, suggesting good agreement between two raters measuring fat and water with GRE imaging. Conclusions Results of this preliminary study demonstrate reliability between 2 raters of varying experience for MRI analysis of MFI with 3D GRE MRI. The quantification of MFI for healthy cervical musculature is comparable to T1-weighted images. Inclusion of larger samples of symptomatic data and histological comparison with the reference standard biopsy is warranted. PMID:24020963

  1. Kinesiophobia in Pre-Operative Patients with Cervical Discopathy and Coexisting Degenerative Changes in Relation to Pain-Related Variables, Psychological State and Sports Activity

    PubMed Central

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Głowacki, Jakub; Shadi, Milud; Walczak, Michał; Głowacki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background No research group has ever investigated the level of kinesiophobia in a well defined group of preoperative patients treated due to cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease, confirmed by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. We aimed to investigate the degree of kinesiophobia and the differences in pain-related and psychosocial characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia, in relation to factors commonly associated with neck pain. Material/Methods Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes were assessed pre-surgically. The mean pain duration was 31.7 SD 34.0 months. Patients completed the Polish versions of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-PL) on 2 occasions, and the following once: Neck Disability Index (NDI-PL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-PL). Results A high level of kinesiophobia was indicated in 81.5% and 87.7% of patients in first and second completion, respectively. Patients with high and low kinesiophobia differ in regards to the recreation section of NDI-PL (p=0.012), gender (p=0.043), and sports activity (p=0.024). Correlations were identified between TSK-PL and marital status (p=0.023) and sports activity (p=0.024). Conclusions Kinesiophobia levels are higher in patients with chronic cervical pain before surgical treatment. Fear of movement tends to be higher in women and among patients avoiding sports recreation before surgical treatment. Although sports activity and socio-demographic data are predictors of kinesiophobia, psychological, pain-related, and clinical data are not. These findings should be considered when planning rehabilitation after surgical treatment of cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes. PMID:25598197

  2. Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-22

    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

  3. Impact of a multidisciplinary pain program for the management of chronic low back pain in patients undergoing spine surgery and primary total hip replacement: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a very common disorder. In this field chronic low back pain represents a special challenge. The management of chronic low back pain consists of a range of different intervention strategies. Usually operative intervention should be avoided if possible. However, there are constellations were surgical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain seems to be meaningful. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes after spine surgery and hip replacement in patients with chronic low back pain after undergoing a structured rehabilitation program including cognitive – behavioral therapy. Methods From January 1, 2007 to January 1, 2010 patients were indicated for total hip replacement (THA) or spine surgery after receiving inpatient multidisciplinary pain programs including cognitive – behavioral therapy at our orthopedic institute with a specialized unit for the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients. Indications for surgery were based on the synopsis of clinical and imaging findings and on positive effects after local injections during the multidisciplinary pain program. The tools for assessment included follow-up at 6 and 12 months and analyses of pain, chronicity, physical functioning and depression. Results Of the 256 patients admitted for multidisciplinary pain program, fifteen were indicated to benefit from a surgical intervention during multidisciplinary pain program. Ten patients received spine surgery. THA was indicated in five patients. In all cases, the peri- and postoperative clinical courses were uneventful. Only two of the patients subjected to spine surgery and three patients who had THA were improved after 12 months. One patient reported a worsened condition. All patients presented with good functional outcomes and normal radiological findings. Conclusions The indication for surgical intervention in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative diseases must be critically assessed. THA in this cohort should focus on functional aspects, such as the improvement of range of motion, rather than the reduction of pain. Spine surgery in chronic low back pain patients after multidisciplinary pain program including cognitive – behavioral therapy cannot be recommended due to its questionable success. PMID:25473419

  4. Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection for Painful Spasticity in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun; Chun, Seong Min; Park, Hee Won; Bang, Moon Suk

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53-year-old male with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). He could not maintain a standing position because of painful spasticity in his lower limbs. A magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography indicated chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, explaining his chronic low back pain before the injury. For diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes, transforaminal epidural steroid injection (ESI) to the right L5 root was performed. After the intervention, the spasticity decreased and his ambulatory function improved. This case illustrates that lumbar radiculopathy concomitant with a cervical SCI can produce severe spasticity and it can be dramatically improved by ESI. PMID:26361605

  5. Value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring to reduce neurological complications in patients undergoing anterior cervical spine procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Muralidharan, Aditya; Loke, Yoon K; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of reports of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and to assess the value of intraoperative monitoring (IOM), including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials and electromyography, in anterior cervical procedures. A search was conducted to collect a small database of relevant papers using key words describing disorders and procedures of interest. The database was then shortlisted using selection criteria and data was extracted to identify complications as a result of anterior cervical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy and outcome analysis on a continuous scale. In the 22 studies that matched the screening criteria, only two involved the use of IOM. The average sample size was 173 patients. In procedures done without IOM a mean change in Japanese Orthopaedic Association score of 3.94 points and Nurick score by 1.20 points (both less severe post-operatively) was observed. Within our sub-group analysis, worsening myelopathy and/or quadriplegia was seen in 2.71% of patients for studies without IOM and 0.91% of patients for studies with IOM. Variations persist in the existing literature in the evaluation of complications associated with anterior cervical spinal procedures. Based on the review of published studies, sufficient evidence does not exist to make recommendations regarding the use of different IOM modalities to reduce neurological complications during anterior cervical procedures. However, future studies with objective measures of neurological deficits using a specific IOM modality may establish it as an effective and reliable indicator of injury during such surgeries. PMID:26677786

  6. [Chronic pelvic pain and cervical endometriosis after a subtotal hysterectomy].

    PubMed

    Acosta Martínez, Marcos; Zamora Escudero, Rodrigo; García-Benítez, Carlos Quesnel; Vieyra Cortés, Edmundo Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The ectopic location of endometrial glands and stroma may cause the formation of a tumor known as endometrioma. It almost always occurs in the ovary, and due to its characteristic appearance has been called "chocolate cyst". Cervical localization of this disease is extremely rare, and when it occurs, tends to be an exocervical and/or endocervical injury, as a result of cervical procedures. We communicate the case of a patient with cystic endometriosis in the cervix after a subtotal abdominal hysterectomy, performed by obstetric hemorrhage. Even though there have been reports about cases of cervical endometriosis, most of them have been reported as superficial cervical endometriosis and as a discovery after a total hysterectomy or cervical biopsy, in some cases even with original diagnosis ofAGUS (atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance). We concluded that in this case, instrumented uterine curettage and subtotal hysterectomy by obstetric indication are a possible origin of cervical endometriosis, due to "seeding" endometrial tissue during the curettage in a friable cervix. PMID:23513405

  7. Periosteal chondroma of the cervical spine: one more cause of neural foramen enlargement.

    PubMed

    Baber, W W; Numaguchi, Y; Kenning, J A; Harkin, J C

    1988-02-01

    A case of cervical periosteal chondroma presenting with an enlarged neural foramen is described. Review of the literature showed that cervical chondromas are rare but that their characteristic clinical and computed tomographic findings aid in their diagnosis. The computed tomographic findings of two previously reported cases of cervical periosteal chondroma resembled those of the present case. On computed tomographic scanning, an iso-or high-density mass containing stippled calcifications and originating in a posterior cervical neural arch was observed in all three cases. Extensive spinal canal and extradural involvement was observed in five of the seven reported cases, including the one reported here. PMID:3336850

  8. Effects of using a device for self-measurement of cervical ROM on neck pain of computer user

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a device for the self-measurement of cervical range of motion on neck pain experienced by a computer user. [Subject] A 39-year-old male subject with neck pain caused by working on a computer was selected for the study. [Methods] The instrument was developed for the study, and that the instrument is used to self-measure cervical range of movement. The subject was trained in self-measurement procedures and a self-exercise program for two months, and pain was controlled through self-assessment and a program. The pressure pain threshold for the upper trapezius muscle, and cervical ranges of motion were measured prior to and after the 2-month period of pain control. [Results] At the conclusion of self-measurement and the self-exercise program, the pressure pain threshold was higher than the initial pressure pain threshold, and all cervical ranges of motion increased compared to the initial cervical ranges of motion. [Conclusion] This result shows that the self-management device for cervical ROM is an effective tool for pain management for computer users with cervical pain. PMID:26834388

  9. Laryngoscope and a New Tracheal Tube Assist Lightwand Intubation in Difficult Airways due to Unstable Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cai-neng; Ma, Wu-hua; Wei, Jian-qi; Wei, Hua-feng; Cen, Qing-yun; Cai, Qing-xiang; Cao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The WEI Jet Endotracheal Tube (WEI JET) is a new tracheal tube that facilitates both oxygenation and ventilation during the process of intubation and assists tracheal intubation in patients with difficult airway. We evaluated the effectiveness and usefulness of the WEI JET in combination with lightwand under direct laryngoscopy in difficult tracheal intubation due to unstable cervical spine. Methods Ninety patients with unstable cervical spine disorders (ASA I-III) with general anaesthesia were included and randomly assigned to three groups, based on the device used for intubation: lightwand only, lightwand under direct laryngoscopy, lightwand with WEI JET under direct laryngoscopy. Results No statistically significant differences were detected among three groups with respect to demographic characteristics and C/L grade. There were statistically significant differences between three groups for overall intubation success rate (p = 0.015) and first attempt success rate (p = 0.000). The intubation time was significantly longer in the WEI group (110.8±18.3 s) than in the LW group (63.3±27.5 s, p = 0.000) and DL group (66.7±29.4 s, p = 0.000), but the lowest SpO2 in WEI group was significantly higher than other two groups (p<0.01). The WEI JET significantly reduced successful tracheal intubation attempts compared to the LW group (p = 0.043). The severity of sore throat was similar in three groups (p = 0.185). Conclusions The combined use of WEI JET under direct laryngoscopy helps to assist tracheal intubation and improves oxygenation during intubation in patients with difficult airway secondary to unstable spine disorders. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14005141 PMID:25803435

  10. Effects of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy and simvastatin treatment on cervical spine disease in mucopolysaccharidosis I dogs.

    PubMed

    Chiaro, Joseph A; O'Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Malhotra, Neil R; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2014-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient α-L-iduronidase activity, leading to the accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Children with MPS I exhibit high incidence of spine disease, including accelerated disc degeneration and vertebral dysplasia, which in turn lead to spinal cord compression and kyphoscoliosis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), alone or in combination with oral simvastatin (ERT + SIM) for attenuating cervical spine disease progression in MPS I, using a canine model. Four groups were studied: normal controls; MPS I untreated; MPS I ERT-treated; and MPS I ERT + SIM-treated. Animals were euthanized at age 1 year. Intervertebral disc condition and spinal cord compression were evaluated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and plain radiographs, vertebral bone condition and odontoid hypoplasia were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (µCT), and epiphyseal cartilage to bone conversion was evaluated histologically. Untreated MPS I animals exhibited more advanced disc degeneration and more severe spinal cord compression than normal animals. Both treatment groups resulted in partial preservation of disc condition and cord compression, with ERT + SIM not significantly better than ERT alone. Untreated MPS I animals had significantly lower vertebral trabecular bone volume and mineral density, whereas ERT treatment resulted in partial preservation of these properties. ERT + SIM treatment demonstrated similar, but not greater, efficacy. Both treatment groups partially normalized endochondral ossification in the vertebral epiphyses (as indicated by absence of persistent growth plate cartilage), and odontoid process size and morphology. These results indicate that ERT begun from a very early age attenuates the severity of cervical spine disease in MPS I, particularly for the vertebral bone and odontoid process, and that additional treatment with simvastatin does not provide a significant additional benefit over ERT alone. PMID:24898323

  11. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of four fixation techniques for distractive–flexion injury stage 3 of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Thomas; Cunningham, Bryan W.; Mcafee, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anterior plate fixation has been reported to provide satisfactory results in cervical spine distractive flexion (DF) injuries stages 1 and 2, but will result in a substantial failure rate in more unstable stage 3 and above. The aim of this investigation was to determine the biomechanical properties of different fixation techniques in a DF-3 injury model where all structures responsible for the posterior tension band mechanism are torn. Methods The multidirectional three-dimensional stiffness of the subaxial cervical spine was measured in eight cadaveric specimens with a simulated DF-3 injury at C5–C6, stabilized with four different fixation techniques: anterior plate alone, anterior plate combined with posterior wire, transarticular facet screws, and a pedicle screw–rod construct, respectively. Results The anterior plate alone did not improve stability compared to the intact spine condition, thus allowing considerable range of motion around all three cardinal axes (p > 0.05). The anterior plate combined with posterior wire technique improved flexion–extension stiffness (p = 0.023), but not in axial rotation and lateral bending. When the anterior plate was combined with transarticular facet screws or with a pedicle screws–rod instrumentation, the stability improved in flexion–extension, lateral bending, and in axial rotation (p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings imply that the use of anterior fixation alone is insufficient for fixation of the highly unstable DF-3 injury. In these situations, the use of anterior fixation combined with a competent posterior tension band reconstruction (e.g. transarticular screws or a posterior pedicle screws–rod device) improves segmental stability. PMID:25742755

  12. Effects of Neonatal Enzyme Replacement Therapy and Simvastatin Treatment on Cervical Spine Disease in Mucopolysaccharidosis I Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chiaro, Joseph A; O’Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Malhotra, Neil R; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient α-L-iduronidase activity, leading to the accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Children with MPS I exhibit high incidence of spine disease, including accelerated disc degeneration and vertebral dysplasia, which in turn lead to spinal cord compression and kypho-scoliosis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), alone or in combination with oral simvastatin (ERT+SIM) for attenuating cervical spine disease progression in MPS I, using a canine model. Four groups were studied: normal controls; MPS I untreated; MPS I ERT treated; and MPS I ERT+SIM treated. Animals were euthanized at one year-of-age. Intervertebral disc condition and spinal cord compression were evaluated from MRIs and plain radiographs, vertebral bone condition and odontoid hypoplasia were evaluated using microcomputed tomography, and epiphyseal cartilage to bone conversion was evaluated histologically. Untreated MPS I animals exhibited more advanced disc degeneration and more severe spinal cord compression than normal animals. Both treatment groups resulted in partial preservation of disc condition and cord compression, with ERT+SIM not significantly better than ERT alone. Untreated MPS I animals had significantly lower vertebral trabecular bone volume and mineral density, while ERT treatment resulted in partial preservation of these properties. ERT+SIM treatment demonstrated similar, but not greater, efficacy. Both treatment groups partially normalized endochondral ossification in the vertebral epiphyses (as indicated by absence of persistent growth plate cartilage), and odontoid process size and morphology. These results indicate that ERT begun from a very early age attenuates the severity of cervical spine disease in MPS I, particularly for the vertebral bone and odontoid process, and that additional treatment with simvastatin does not provide a significant additional benefit over ERT alone. PMID:24898323

  13. Cervical spondylosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past neck injury (often several years before) Past spine surgery Ruptured or slipped disk Severe arthritis Small fractures ... Kshettry VR. Cervical spondylosis. In: Benzel EC, ed. Spine Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  14. Fatal outcome after brain stem infarction related to bilateral vertebral artery occlusion - case report of a detrimental complication of cervical spine trauma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vertebral artery injury (VAI) after blunt cervical trauma occurs more frequently than historically believed. The symptoms due to vertebral artery (VA) occlusion usually manifest within the first 24 hours after trauma. Misdiagnosed VAI or delay in diagnosis has been reported to cause acute deterioration of previously conscious and neurologically intact patients. Case presentation A 67 year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle crash (MVC) sustaining multiple injuries. Initial evaluation by the emergency medical response team revealed that he was alert, oriented, and neurologically intact. He was transferred to the local hospital where cervical spine computed tomography (CT) revealed several abnormalities. Distraction and subluxation was present at C5-C6 and a comminuted fracture of the left lateral mass of C6 with violation of the transverse foramen was noted. Unavailability of a spine specialist prompted the patient's transfer to an area medical center equipped with spine care capabilities. After arrival, the patient became unresponsive and neurological deficits were noted. His continued deterioration prompted yet another transfer to our Level 1 regional trauma center. A repeat cervical spine CT at our institution revealed significantly worsened subluxation at C5-C6. CT angiogram also revealed complete occlusion of bilateral VA. The following day, a repeat CT of the head revealed brain stem infarction due to bilateral VA occlusion. Shortly following, the patient was diagnosed with brain death and care was withdrawn. Conclusion Brain stem infarction secondary to bilateral VA occlusion following cervical spine trauma resulted in fatal outcome. Prompt imaging evaluation is necessary to assess for VAI in cervical trauma cases with facet joint subluxation/dislocation or transverse foramen fracture so that treatment is not delayed. Additionally, multiple transportation events are risk factors for worsening when unstable cervical injuries are present. Close attention to proper immobilization and neck position depending on the mechanism of injury is mandatory. PMID:21756312

  15. [Structural changes on hands as predicative factors of structural changes in the cervical spine and atlantoaxial joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Kikanovi?, ahza; Kapidi?-Bai?, Nedima; Hoti?-HadiefendiC, Asja; Dananovi?, Devad

    2014-01-01

    Determination of changes in the cervical spine of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is important. Although they are often clinically asymptomatic, during exercise therapy complications, or even death, may occur. The aim of the study was to determine the factors which indicate changes in the cervical spine and atlantoaxial joint (AA) in patients with RA, as well as the association between those changes and changes occurring on the hands. The study included 80 patients with RA who were divided into two groups according to the duration of the disease (up to 10 years and more than 10 years). Structural changes in the hands and cervical spine were monitored by ordinary radiography. Structural changes in the cervical spine were found in both groups of patients without a statistically significant difference between them (p = 0.165). The AA joint was more often deformed in patients with a longer duration of the disease (p = 0.012). The changes on the hands were worse in patients who had the disease for longer than 10 years (p = 0.002), and they correlated with AA subluxation (p = 0.002) and luxation (p = 0.004), as well as with an erosion of the cervical s pine (p = 0.000). According to our findings, in order to recognize changes in the cervical spine, patients with RA must be regularly monitored radiographically, and monitoring should be mandatory in patients who had a longer duration of the disease as well as those with more advanced structural changes on the hands. PMID:25509830

  16. A review of prognostic factors for surgical outcome of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Jiang, Lei-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    For patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) who have neurological-symptoms, surgery is necessary but not always effective. Various clinical factors influence the surgical outcome. The studies identifying these factors have been inconclusive and conflicting. It is essential for surgeons to understand the significance of the factors and choose the optimal therapeutic strategy for OPLL. The objective of this review is to determine the clinical factors predictive of the surgical outcome of cervical OPLL. The authors conducted a review of literature published in the English language. They examined studies in which the correlation between clinical factors and outcome were statistically evaluated. The results showed that the traverse area of the spinal cord, the spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs), the increase of the range of motion in the cervical spine (ROM), diabetes, history of trauma, the onset of ossification of the ligament flavum (OLF) in the thoracic spine, snake-eye appearance (SEA) and incomplete decompression may be predictive factors. Age at surgery seems to be closely related to the outcome of posterior surgical procedure. Whether the neurological score, OPLL type, pre-operative duration of symptoms, focal intra-medullar high signal intensity in T2-weighted (IMHSI) and progression of OPLL or kyphosis and expansion of the spinal canal predict the surgical outcome remains unclear. The use of uniform neurological score and proper statistic analysis should facilitate comparison of data from different studies. It is important to analyze the effect of each factor on groups with different surgical procedures as well as patients with different compressive pathology. Research on the etiology and pathology of cervical myelopathy due to OPLL should be helpful in precisely understanding these clinical factors and predicting surgical outcome. PMID:18704517

  17. Compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Douglass, Michael; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Aguilar, Roberto; Schaftenaar, Willem; Shores, Andy

    2009-03-01

    Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia. Antemortem diagnosis of compression was only confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Treatment ranged from supportive care to attempted surgical decompression. All dragons died or were euthanatized, at 4 days to 12 mo postpresentation. Studies to define normal vertebral anatomy in the species are necessary to determine whether the pathology is linked to cervical malformation, resulting in ligament laxity, subsequent instability, and subluxation. PMID:19368265

  18. Cervical spine collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient: A systematic review and practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayur B.; Humble, Stephen S.; Cullinane, Daniel C.; Day, Matthew A.; Jawa, Randeep S.; Devin, Clinton J.; Delozier, Margaret S.; Smith, Lou M.; Smith, Miya A.; Capella, Jeannette M.; Long, Andrea M.; Cheng, Joseph S.; Leath, Taylor C.; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Haut, Elliott R.; Como, John J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND With the use of the framework advocated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, our aims were to perform a systematic review and to develop evidence-based recommendations that may be used to answer the following PICO [Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes] question: In the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient, should cervical collar removal be performed after a negative high-quality cervical spine (C-spine) computed tomography (CT) result alone or after a negative high-quality C-spine CT result combined with adjunct imaging, to reduce peri-clearance events, such as new neurologic change, unstable C-spine injury, stable C-spine injury, need for post-clearance imaging, false-negative CT imaging result on re-review, pressure ulcers, and time to cervical collar clearance? METHODS Our protocol was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews on August 23, 2013 (Registration Number: CRD42013005461). Eligibility criteria consisted of adult blunt trauma patients 16 years or older, who underwent C-spine CT with axial thickness of less than 3 mm and who were obtunded using any definition. Quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis was not possible because of pre-post, partial-cohort, quasi-experimental study design limitations and the consequential incomplete diagnostic accuracy data. RESULTS Of five articles with a total follow-up of 1,017 included subjects, none reported new neurologic changes (paraplegia or quadriplegia) after cervical collar removal. There is a worst-case 9% (161 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of stable injuries and a 91% negative predictive value of no injury, after coupling a negative high-quality C-spine CT result with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging, upright x-rays, flexion-extension CT, and/or clinical follow-up. Similarly, there is a best-case 0% (0 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of unstable injuries after negative initial imaging result with a high-quality C-spine CT. CONCLUSION In obtunded adult blunt trauma patients, we conditionally recommend cervical collar removal after a negative high-quality C-spine CT scan result alone. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review, level III. PMID:25757133

  19. Is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome a Cause of Post-Operative Syndrome in the Lumbar Spine? - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Shim, Dae Moo; Kim, Yeung Jin; Choi, Deok Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) along with post-operative syndrome in the lumbar spine shows confusing and duplicated symptoms, and this makes it difficult to make a clear differential diagnosis. Therefore, the patient with post-operative syndrome in the lumbar spine suffers losses of time and money, and the surgeon who diagnoses and treats post-operative syndrome in the lumbar spine also agonize from the patient's losses. It is necessary to provide these patients with a multidisciplinary approach to their disease and symptoms. We diagnosed herniation of an intervertebral disc of the lumbar spine (L4/5) and we performed discetomy twice in different hospitals. However, the symptoms did not improve, so we re-operated and performed discetomy along with monosegmental fixation using pedicular screws and interbody cages. There was improvement of pre-operation symptoms, but neurogenic symptoms occurred and then progressed after the surgery. Therefore, we report here on the case of CRPS that was diagnosed with the exclusion of the causes of post-operative syndrome in the lumbar spine, and the patient was finally effectively treated with spinal cord stimulation. Although differentiating post-operative syndrome in the lumbar spine from CRPS is difficult, we recommend suspecting CRPS as the cause of post-operative syndrome in the lumbar spine and taking CRPS as the main interest in order to diagnose and treat CRPS more effectively and accurately. PMID:20404955

  20. Screening via CT angiogram after traumatic cervical spine fractures: narrowing imaging to improve cost effectiveness. Experience of a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Megan M; Smith, Gabriel A; Tanenbaum, Joseph; Lubelski, Daniel; Seicean, Andreea; Pace, Jonathan; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E; Steinmetz, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Screening for vertebral artery injury (VAI) following cervical spine fractures is routinely performed across trauma centers in North America. From 2002 to 2007, the total number of neck CT angiography (CTA) studies performed in the Medicare population after trauma increased from 9796 to 115,021. In the era of cost-effective medical care, the authors aimed to evaluate the utility of CTA screening in detecting VAI and reduce chances of posterior circulation strokes after traumatic cervical spine fractures. METHODS A retrospective review of all patients presenting with cervical spine fractures to Northeast Ohio's Level I trauma institution from 2002 to 2012 was performed. RESULTS There was a total of 1717 cervical spine fractures in patients presenting to Northeast Ohio's Level I trauma institution between 2002 and 2012. CTA screening was performed in 732 patients, and 51 patients (0.7%) were found to have a VAI. Fracture patterns with increased odds of VAI were C-1 and C-2 combined fractures, transverse foramen fractures, and subluxation of adjacent vertebral levels. Ten posterior circulation strokes were identified in this patient population (0.6%) and found in only 4 of 51 cases of VAI (7.8%). High-risk fractures defined by Denver Criteria, VAI, and antiplatelet treatment of VAI were not independent predictors of stroke. CONCLUSIONS Cost-effective screening must be reevaluated in the setting of blunt cervical spine fractures on a case-by-case basis. Further prospective studies must be performed to elucidate the utility of screening for VAI and posterior circulation stroke prevention, if identified. PMID:26613284

  1. Spine Surgery in Athletes With Low Back Pain-Considerations for Management and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Burgmeier, Robert J.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2014-01-01

    While degenerative lumbar spine conditions are common in the general population, there are unique considerations when diagnosed in high-level athletes. Genetic factors have been identified as a more significant contributor to the development of degenerative disc disease than occupational risks, however, some have postulated that the incessant training of young, competitive athletes may put them at a greater risk for accelerated disease. The evidence-based literature regarding lumbar disc herniation in elite athletes suggests that it is reasonable to expect excellent clinical outcomes and successful return-to-sport after either operative or non-operative treatment regardless of sport played. However, those athletes who require repetitive torque on their lumbar spines may have poorer long-term outcomes if surgical treatment is required for this condition. Painful spondylolysis in the athlete can often be treated successfully with non-operative treatment, however, if surgery is required, pars repair techniques provides a motion-sparing alternative that may lead to successful return to sport. PMID:25741419

  2. Impact of McKenzie Method Therapy Enriched by Muscular Energy Techniques on Subjective and Objective Parameters Related to Spine Function in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Paweł; Wendt, Michał; Waszak, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Maciej; Cieślik, Krystyna; Trzaska, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence and inconsistencies in diagnostic and therapeutic process of low back pain (LBP) stimulate the continuing search for more efficient treatment modalities. Integration of the information obtained with various therapeutic methods and a holistic approach to the patient seem to be associated with positive outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of combined treatment with McKenzie method and Muscle Energy Technique (MET), and to compare it with the outcomes of treatment with McKenzie method or standard physiotherapy in specific chronic lumbar pain. Material/Methods The study included 60 men and women with LBP (mean age 44 years). The patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 therapeutic groups, which were further treated with: 1) McKenzie method and MET, 2) McKenzie method alone, or 3) standard physiotherapy for 10 days. The extent of spinal movements (electrogoniometry), level of experienced pain (Visual Analogue Scale and Revised Oswestry Pain Questionnaire), and structure of the spinal discs (MRI) were examined prior to the intervention, immediately thereafter, and 3 months after the intervention. Results McKenzie method enriched with MET had the best therapeutic outcomes. The mobility of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine normalized at levels corresponding to 87.1%, 66.7%, and 95% of respective average normative values. Implementation of McKenzie method, both alone and combined with MET, was associated with a significant decrease in Oswestry Disability Index, significant alleviation of pain (VAS), and significantly reduced size of spinal disc herniation. Conclusions The combined method can be effectively used in the treatment of chronic LBP. PMID:26418868

  3. Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome or Suspected Craniovertebral or Cervical Spine Abnormalities: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder affecting the connective tissue. EDS can manifest with symptoms attributable to the spine or craniovertebral junction (CVJ). In addition to EDS, numerous congenital, developmental, or acquired disorders can increase ligamentous laxity in the CVJ and cervical spine. Resulting abnormalities can lead to morbidity and serious neurologic complications. Appropriate imaging and diagnosis is needed to determine patient management and need for complex surgery. Some spinal abnormalities cause symptoms or are more pronounced while patients sit, stand, or perform specific movements. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) allows imaging of the spine or CVJ with patients in upright, weight-bearing positions and can be combined with dynamic maneuvers, such as flexion, extension, or rotation. Imaging in these positions could allow diagnosticians to better detect spinal or CVJ abnormalities than recumbent MRI or even a combination of other available imaging modalities might allow. Objectives To determine the diagnostic impact and clinical utility of pMRI for the assessment of (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS and (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 1998, to September 28, 2014. Review Methods Studies comparing pMRI to recumbent MRI or other available imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of spinal or CVJ abnormalities were reviewed. All studies of spinal or CVJ imaging in people with EDS were included as well as studies among people with suspected major CVJ or cervical spine abnormalities (cervical or craniovertebral spine instability, basilar invagination, cranial settling, cervical stenosis, spinal cord compression, Chiari malformation). Results No studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions We did not identify any evidence that assessed the diagnostic impact or clinical utility of pMRI for (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS or (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people relative to currently available diagnostic modalities. PMID:26366238

  4. Is polymethyl methacrylate a viable option for salvaging lateral mass screw failure in the subaxial cervical spine?

    PubMed

    Gallizzi, Michael A; Kuhns, Craig A; Jenkins, Tyler J; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2015-02-01

    Study Design Biomechanical analysis of lateral mass screw pullout strength. Objective We compare the pullout strength of our bone cement-revised lateral mass screw with the standard lateral mass screw. Methods In cadaveric cervical spines, we simulated lateral mass screw "cutouts" unilaterally from C3 to C7. We salvaged fixation in the cutout side with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Cortoss cement (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States), allowed the cement to harden, and then drilled and placed lateral mass screws back into the cement-augmented lateral masses. On the contralateral side, we placed standard lateral mass screws into the native, or normal lateral, masses and then compared pullout strength of the cement-augmented side to the standard lateral mass screw. For pullout testing, each augmentation group was fixed to a servohydraulic load frame and a specially designed pullout fixture was attached to each lateral mass screw head. Results Quick-mix PMMA-salvaged lateral mass screws required greater force to fail when compared with native lateral mass screws. Cortoss cement and PMMA standard-mix cement-augmented screws demonstrated less strength of fixation when compared with control-side lateral mass screws. Attempts at a second round of cement salvage of the same lateral masses led to more variations in load to failure, but quick-mix PMMA again demonstrated greater load to failure when compared with the nonaugmented control lateral mass screws. Conclusion Quick-mix PMMA cement revision equips the spinal surgeon with a much needed salvage option for a failed lateral mass screw in the subaxial cervical spine. PMID:25649421

  5. Cervical Laminoplasty

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments for Spinal Pain Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artificial Disc Replacement Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy Spinal Fusion ... Medicine Cervical Laminoplasty What is ...

  6. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p < 0.05). There were no between group differences in heat pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149

  7. Lumbar spine kinematics during walking in people with and people without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Gombatto, Sara P; Brock, Tricia; DeLork, Anthony; Jones, Glynis; Madden, Erin; Rinere, Chelsea

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a problem that can contribute to functional limitations and disability. Understanding kinematics during walking can provide a basis for examination and treatment in people with LBP. Prior research related to kinematics during walking is conflicting. However, investigators have not considered regional differences in lumbar spine kinematics or movement-based LBP subgroups. In the current study, three-dimensional kinematics of the upper and lower lumbar regions were examined in people with and without LBP. A clinical examination then was conducted to assign people with LBP to a movement-based subgroup and differences in kinematics among subgroups were examined. All subjects displayed significantly more upper than lower lumbar movement in the axial and coronal planes (P<.01). People with LBP displayed significantly less overall lumbar rotation than controls (P<.05). There were no significant group differences in sagittal plane kinematics (P>.05). Walking was limited by or provocative of pain in <25% of subjects with LBP. There were predictable differences in kinematics among some movement-based LBP subgroups that approached statistical significance (P=.09-.11). Walking was provocative of LBP in few subjects, and differences between people with and without LBP and among LBP subgroups were minimal. Limitations include that attempts to standardize gait speed may have minimized observed effects, and there was limited power to detect movement-based LBP subgroup differences. PMID:26380913

  8. Semi-automatic delineation of the spino-laminar junction curve on lateral x-ray radiographs of the cervical spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Benjamin; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the cervical spine using x-ray radiography is an important task when providing emergency room care to trauma patients suspected of a cervical spine injury. In routine clinical practice, a physician will inspect the alignment of the cervical spine vertebrae by mentally tracing three alignment curves along the anterior and posterior sides of the cervical vertebral bodies, as well as one along the spinolaminar junction. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to semi-automatically delineate the spinolaminar junction curve, given a single reference point and the corners of each vertebral body. From the reference point, our method extracts a region of interest, and performs template matching using normalized cross-correlation to find matching regions along the spinolaminar junction. Matching points are then fit to a third order spline, producing an interpolating curve. Experimental results demonstrate promising results, on average producing a modified Hausdorff distance of 1.8 mm, validated on a dataset consisting of 29 patients including those with degenerative change, retrolisthesis, and fracture.

  9. Cervical spine disc prosthesis: radiographic, biomechanical and morphological post mortal findings 12 weeks after implantation. A retrieval example.

    PubMed

    Pitzen, Tobias; Kettler, Annette; Drumm, Joerg; Nabhan, Abdullah; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans Joachim

    2007-07-01

    There is a gap between in vitro and clinical studies concerning performance of spinal disc prosthesis. Retrieval studies may help to bridge this gap by providing more detailed information about motion characteristics, wear properties and osseous integration. Here, we report on the radiographic, mechanical, histological properties of a cervical spine segment treated with a cervical spine disc prosthesis (Prodisc C, Synthes Spine, Paoli, USA) for 3 months. A 48-year-old male received the device due to symptomatic degenerative disc disease within C5-C6. The patient recovered completely from his symptoms. Twelve weeks later, he died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During routine autopsy, C3-T1 was removed with all attached muscles and ligaments and subjected to plain X-rays and computed tomography, three dimensional flexibility tests, shear test as well as histological and electronic microscopic investigations. We detected radiolucencies mainly at the cranial interface between bone and implant. The flexibility of the segment under pure bending moments of +/-2.5 Nm applied in flexion/extension, axial rotation and lateral bending was preserved, with, however, reduced lateral bending and enlarged neutral zone compared to the adjacent segments C4-C5, and C6-C7. Stepwise increase of loading in flexion/extension up to +/-9.5 Nm did not result in segmental destruction. A postero-anterior force of 146 N was necessary to detach the lower half of the prosthesis from the vertebra. At the polyethylene (PE) core, signs of wear were observed compared to an unused core using electronic microscopy. Metal and PE debris without signs of severe inflammatory reaction was found within the surrounding soft tissue shell of the segment. A thin layer of soft connective tissue covered the major part of the implant endplate. Despite the limits of such a case report, the results show: that such implants are able to preserve at least a certain degree of segmental flexibility, that direct bone implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks. PMID:17242873

  10. Completion CT of Chest, Abdomen, and Pelvis after Acute Head and Cervical Spine Trauma: Incidence of Acute Traumatic Findings in the Setting of Low-Velocity Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Michael S; Gao, Guangzu; Rolen, Michael F; Bokhari, S A Jamal

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To determine the frequency of acute traumatic findings in computed tomographic (CT) chest abdomen pelvis (CAP) examinations in patients with acute traumatic head and/or cervical spine injury and no evidence suggesting bodily injury. Materials and Methods After institutional review board approval with a waiver of informed consent was obtained, a HIPAA-compliant retrospective study was performed. A review of the electronic medical records and dictated reports identified patients who met the following criteria: CT-documented acute head and/or cervical spine trauma, CT CAP performed at least 20 minutes after initial brain and/or cervical spine CT, and no evidence of bodily injury at physical examination or on initial plain radiographs. The types of head and/or cervical injury, as well as mechanisms of injury in these patients, were analyzed. The frequency of acute traumatic injury in the CT CAP examinations was also determined, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results There were 115 patients who met the study criteria (average age, 67.3 years). Sixty-three (54.8%) patients were male. The average injury severity score was 9.3. No patients who met the criteria for this study were found to have an acute traumatic injury to the chest, abdomen, or pelvis. These 115 CT CAP examinations comprised 7.5% (115 of 1530) of all CT CAP examinations performed in the emergency department over the 15-month study period. Conclusion CT CAP examinations rarely if ever reveal acute traumatic injury in patients who have experienced low-velocity trauma and have acute head and/or cervical spine trauma in the absence of evidence of bodily injury. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:26694053

  11. A comparison of conventional tube and EndoFlex tube for tracheal intubation in patients with a cervical spine immobilisation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The EndoFlex is a new type of tracheal tube with an adjustable distal tip that can be bent without the use of a stylet. The aim of this study was to compare a standard endotracheal tube with the EndoFlex tracheal tube for intubation in patients with simulated cervical spine injury. Methods A group of 60 patients without any kind of the cervical spine injury, classified as the ASA physiological scale I or II and qualified for elective surgery procedures were intubated with the use of classical Macintosh laryngoscope, and either a standard endotracheal tube with the intubation stylet in it or EndoFlex tube without stylet. The subjects were randomized into two subgroups. All patients have had the cervical collar placed on their neck for the simulation of intubation procedure in case of the spinal injury. Results The intubation procedure was performed by 16 anesthetists with different experience (5-19 yrs). Time of intubation with the use of EndoFlex tube was similar to that with a the use of standard endotracheal tube and intubation stylet: Me (median) 19.5 s [IQR (interquatile range) 18-50] vs. Me 20 s [IQR 17-60] respectively (p = 0.9705). No significant additional maneuvers were necessary during intubation with the use of EndoFlex tube in comparison with standard endotracheal tube (70% vs. 56.6%) (p = 0.4220). Subjective assessment of the usability of both tubes revealed that more anesthesiologists found intubations with the use of EndoFlex more demanding than intubation with conventional tracheal tube and intubation stylet. The assessment of usability: very easy 3.3% vs. 20%, easy 83.4% vs. 56.7%, difficult 10% vs. 20% and very difficult 3.3% vs. 3.3% for standard endotracheal tube with stylet and EndoFlex, respectively. Conclusion In conclusion we asses, that the EndoFlex tube does not improve intubation success rate, in fact it requires more maneuvers facilitating intubation and was found to be more difficult to use. PMID:24267640

  12. Unilateral ossified ligamentum flavum in the high cervical spine causing myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Udit; Jain, Manoj; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Behari, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    High cervical ossified ligamentum flavum (OLF) is rare and may cause progressive quadriparesis and respiratory failure. Our two patients had unilateral OLF between C1 and C4 levels. MR showed a unilateral, triangular bony excrescence with low signal and a central, intermediate or high signal on all pulse sequences due to bone marrow within. There was Type I thecal compression (partial deficit of contrast media ring). The first patient had a linear and nodular OLF with calcification within tectorial membrane, C2–3 fusion and unilateral C2-facetal hypertrophy; and the second patient, a lateral, linear OLF with loss of lordosis and C3–6 spondylotic changes. A decompressive laminectomy using “posterior floating and enbloc resection” brought significant relief in myelopathy. Histopathology showed mature bony trabeculae, bone marrow and ligament tissue. The coexisting mobile cervical vertebral segment above and congenitally fused or spondylotic rigid segment below the level of LF may have led to abnormal strain patterns within resulting in its unilateral ossification. In dealing with cervical OLF, carefully preserving facets during laminectomy or laminoplasty helps in maintaining normal cervical spinal curvature. PMID:19838355

  13. Long-term randomised comparison between a carbon fibre cage and the Cloward procedure in the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Vavruch, Ludek; Hedlund, Rune

    2006-01-01

    A prospective randomised study. To compare the long-term outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with a cervical intervertebral fusion cage (CIFC) and the Cloward procedure (CP). We have previously shown that the 2 year outcome of ACDF with the CIFC is the same as for the CP. The fusion rate in CIFC group was, however, only 55%, compared to 85% in CP group. The long-term outcome of CIFC is poorly documented. Ninety-five patients with at least 6 months duration of neck pain and radicular arm pain were randomly allocated for ACDF with the CIFC or the CP. Radiographs were obtained at 2 years. Questionnaires about pain, disability (Neck Disability Index, NDI), distress, quality of life and global outcome were obtained from 83 patients (87%) (43 CIFC, 40 CP) at a mean follow-up time of 6 years (range 56–94 months). There were no significant differences in any outcome variable between the two treatments. For both CP and CIFC the pain intensity improved (P<0.0001) whereas the NDI was unchanged at long-term follow-up compared to preoperatively. In the CIFC group patients with a healed fusion had significantly less mean pain (24 mm) and NDI (26%) than patients with pseudarthrosis (42 and 41, respectively). Furthermore, the mean pain and NDI reported by CIFC patients with a healed fusion was significantly less than in healed CP patients (37 and 38, respectively). The long-term outcome is the same for the CIFC and the CP, with similar improvements of pain but with considerable remaining functional disability. However, in the subgroup of patients with healed CIFC the outcome was clearly better than for the non-healed CIFC group, and also clearly better than for the healed CP group. Thus, if the healing problem associated with the CIFC can be solved the results indicate that a better outcome can be expected with the cage than with the CP. PMID:16463197

  14. Improvement in pain intensity, spine stiffness, and mobility during a controlled individualized physiotherapy program in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Gyurcsik, Zsuzsanna Némethné; András, Anita; Bodnár, Nóra; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Szántó, Sándor

    2012-12-01

    Physical therapy in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is important for maintaining or improving mobility, fitness, functioning, and global health. It also plays a role in the prevention and management of structural deformities. In this study we assessed the functional status of AS patients in relation to disease duration and activity. Furthermore, in volunteering patients we analyzed the efficacy of a controlled, individualized physiotherapeutic program. Altogether, clinical data of 75 AS patients were retrospectively analyzed. Anthropometrical data, duration since diagnosis and disease activity, pain intensity, tender points, sacroiliac joint involvement determined by X-ray, functional condition, and physical activity level were recorded. Subjective, functional, and physical tests were performed. Out of the 75 patients, 10 volunteered to undergo a complex physical exercise program twice a week for 3 months. The program included 1.5 h of general posture reeducation, manual mobilization of the spine, and pelvic-, upper-, and lower-extremity exercises, stretching with joint prevention strategies and functional exercises. In AS, pain intensity recorded on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS), BASFI, BASDAI, modified Schober index, chest expansion and occiput-to-wall distance values showed significant correlation with disease activity. The 3-month physical therapy improved several subjective and functional parameters, and markedly reduced pain intensity and spine stiffness. A complex, individualized physical therapy program may be useful and should be introduced to AS patients in order to maintain and increase spine mobility, preserve functional capacity, decrease the pain and stiffness. PMID:22198694

  15. A clinical tool to determine the necessity of spine radiography in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis presenting with back pain

    PubMed Central

    Roux, C; Priol, G; Fechtenbaum, J; Cortet, B; Liu‐Léage, S; Audran, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Vertebral fractures are underdiagnosed, although the resulting mortality and morbidity in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis is now recognised. In a population of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and back pain, symptoms may be related to vertebral fractures or degenerative changes of the spine. Aim To evaluate a population of postmenopausal women presenting with back pain and factors associated with vertebral fractures which were assessable in a clinical setting in order to determine the necessity for spine radiography. Methods Patient questioning and physical examination were carried out and spinal radiographic data collected from 410 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis, with an average age of 74 years, who consulted a rheumatologist for back pain. Of these, 215 (52.4%) patients were diagnosed with at least one vertebral fracture. Logistic regression was used to identify the most relevant clinical features associated with existing vertebral fractures, and to derive a quantitative index of risk. Results The model included six parameters: age, back pain intensity, height loss, history of low trauma non‐vertebral fractures, thoracic localisation of back pain and sudden occurrence of back pain. The scoring system, or the quantitative index, had a maximal score of 16. For a score ⩾7, the probability of existing vertebral fracture was ⩾43%. The correlation between this quantitative index and the logistic model probability was 0.98, suggesting an excellent and highly significant approximation of the original prediction equation. Conclusions : From six clinical items, an index was built to identify women with osteoporosis and back pain who should have spine radiography. This simple tool may help clinicians to optimise vertebral fracture diagnosis and to make a proper therapeutic decision. PMID:16793842

  16. Influence of neck pain on cervical movement in the sagittal plane during smartphone use

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphone use reportedly changes posture. However, how neck posture is altered in smartphone users with neck pain is unknown. This study examined changes in the posture of young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) when using a smartphone. [Subjects] Thirteen control subjects and 14 subjects with MNP who used smartphones were recruited. [Methods] The upper cervical (UC) and lower cervical (LC) angles in the sagittal plane were measured using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system while the seated subjects used a smartphone for 5 min. [Results] During smartphone use, the MNP group exhibited greater UC and LC flexion angles than the control group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP are more careful and more frequently utilize a neutral neck posture than young adults without MNP when using a smartphone while sitting. PMID:25642027

  17. Pain and Psychological Outcomes After Rehabilitative Treatment for a Woman With Chronic Pelvic Pain With Stage III Cervical Cancer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alappattu, Meryl J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic pelvic pain and sexual dysfunction are adverse effects of treatment of cervical cancer. Surgery and radiation therapies may result in soft tissue pain and dysfunction, including spasms and trigger points of the pelvic floor muscles that result in pain. In addition to physical restrictions, negative mood associated with pain is believed to intensify and prolong the pain experience. Study Design The purpose of this case report was to describe outcomes of pelvic physical therapy in a 58-year-old woman with chronic pelvic pain after medical treatments for cervical cancer. Case Description The patient reported dyspareunia, hip pain, and lower abdominal, pelvic pain, and fatigue with activities lasting greater than 30 minutes. Interventions included pelvic floor massage, dilator use, and patient education. Symptoms were assessed at baseline and completion of physical therapy, using the Female Sexual Function Index, Fear of Pain Questionnaire–III, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Outcomes The Female Sexual Function Index score decreased from 7.8 to 2.8, the Fear of Pain Questionnaire– III score decreased from 85 to 73, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale score decreased from 18 to 8, and lower abdominal and pelvic pain decreased from 4 of 10 to 0 of 10, while bilateral hip pain remained at 4 of 10. In addition, she exhibited increased tolerance to mechanical pressure, evidenced by progression in size of a vaginal dilator. Discussion These results suggest that pelvic physical therapy may be useful in treating chronic pelvic pain after cervical cancer treatments and may also help decrease the magnitude of negative mood aspects such as pain-related fear and catastrophizing. PMID:27134605

  18. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  19. Effect of Preoperative Nerve Block on Postthyroidectomy Headache and Cervical Pain: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Sunil Malla Bujar; Kishore, Kamal; Mishra, Saroj Kanta; Agarwal, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amit; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of greater occipital nerve (GON) block and bilateral superficial cervical plexuses (BSCP) blocks in alleviating postoperative occipital headache and posterior neck pain after thyroidectomy. This randomized prospective study consisted of 75 women undergoing total thyroidectomy. Patients were randomized into three groups: Group I (n = 25): patients receiving GON, Group II (n = 25): patients receiving bilateral (BSCP) blocks, and Group III (n = 25): patients receiving no block. Assessment of occipital headache, posterior neck, and incision site pains was made at 12 hours and 24 hours after extubation by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In comparison to Group III significantly fewer patients in Groups I and II experienced occipital headache at 12 (p = 0.006) and 24 hours (p = 0.005) and also posterior neck pain at 24 hours (p = 0.003). Mean VAS scores at 12 and 24 hours for occipital headache (p = 0.003 and p = 0.041) and posterior neck pain (p = 0.015 and p = 0.008) were significantly lower in Group I. The differences between Groups II and III were not significant except for the occipital headache at 12 hours. The efficacy of GON block is superior to BSCP blocks in alleviating postthyroidectomy occipital headache and posterior cervical pain. PMID:27034886

  20. Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

  1. Maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20 mm Hg to prevent dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery; protocol of a double-blind randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In anterior cervical spine surgery a retractor is obligatory to approach the spine. Previous studies showed an increase of endotracheal tube cuff pressure after placement of a retractor. It is known that high endotracheal tube cuff pressure increases the incidence of postoperative dysphagia, hoarseness, and sore throat. However, until now no evidence supports the fact whether adjusting the endotracheal tube cuff pressure during anterior cervical spine surgery will prevent this comorbidity. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial to determine whether adjusting endotracheal tube cuff pressure after placement of a retractor during anterior cervical spine surgery will prevent postoperative dysphagia. Methods/design 177 patients (aged 18–90 years) scheduled for anterior cervical spine surgery on 1 or more levels will be included. After intubation, endotracheal tube cuff pressure is manually inflated to 20 mm Hg in all patients. Patients will be randomized into two groups. In the control group endotracheal tube cuff pressure is not adjusted after retractor placement. In the intervention group endotracheal tube cuff pressure after retractor placement is maintained at 20 mm Hg and air is withdrawn when cuff pressure exceeds 20 mm Hg. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure is measured after intubation, before and after placement and removal of the retractor. Again air is inflated if cuff pressure sets below 20 mmHg after removal of the retractor. The primary outcome measure is postoperative dysphagia. Other outcome measures are postoperative hoarseness, postoperative sore throat, degree of dysphagia, length of hospital stay, and pneumonia. The study is a single centre double blind randomized trial in which patients and research nurses will be kept blinded for the allocated treatment during the follow-up period of 2 months. Discussion Postoperative dysphagia occurs frequently after anterior cervical spine surgery. This may be related to high endotracheal tube cuff pressure. Whether adaptation and maintaining the pressure after placement of the retractor will decrease the incidence of dysphagia, has to be determined by this trial. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR) 3542: http://www.trialregister.nl. PMID:24067111

  2. Pain-induced changes in cervical muscle activation do not affect muscle fatigability during sustained isometric contraction.

    PubMed

    Falla, Deborah; Farina, Dario; Kanstrup Dahl, Marlene; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated whether pain-induced changes in cervical muscle activation affect myoelectric manifestations of cervical muscle fatigue. Surface EMG signals were detected from the sternocleidomastoid and splenius capitis muscles bilaterally from 14 healthy subjects during 20-s cervical flexion contractions at 25% of the maximal force. Measurements were performed before and after the injection of 0.5 ml of hypertonic (painful) or isotonic (control) saline into either the sternocleidomastoid or splenius capitis in two experimental sessions. EMG average rectified value and mean power spectral frequency were estimated throughout the sustained contraction. Sternocleidomastoid or splenius capitis muscle pain resulted in lower sternocleidomastoid EMG average rectified value on the side of pain (P < 0.01). However, changes over time of sternocleidomastoid EMG average rectified value and mean frequency (myoelectric manifestations of fatigue) during sustained flexion were not changed during muscle pain. These results demonstrate that pain-induced modifications of cervical muscle activity do not change myoelectric manifestations of fatigue. This finding has implications for interpreting the mechanisms underlying greater cervical muscle fatigue in people with neck pain disorders. PMID:17632012

  3. Impact responses of the cervical spine: A computational study of the effects of muscle activity, torso constraint, and pre-flexion.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Roger W; Sganga, Jake; Cutcliffe, Hattie; Bass, Cameron R 'Dale'

    2016-02-29

    Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models, which are predicated on a better understanding of the neck response during dynamic loading. Previous studies have shown that the tolerance of the neck is dependent on its initial position and its buckling behavior. This study uses a computational model to examine three important factors hypothesized to influence the loads experienced by vertebrae in the neck under compressive impact: muscle activation, torso constraints, and pre-flexion angle of the cervical spine. Since cadaver testing is not practical for large scale parametric analyses, these factors were studied using a previously validated computational model. On average, simulations with active muscles had 32% larger compressive forces and 25% larger shear forces-well in excess of what was expected from the muscle forces alone. In the short period of time required for neck injury, constraints on torso motion increased the average neck compression by less than 250N. The pre-flexion hypothesis was tested by examining pre-flexion angles from neutral (0°) to 64°. Increases in pre-flexion resulted in the largest increases in peak loads and the expression of higher-order buckling modes. Peak force and buckling modality were both very sensitive to pre-flexion angle. These results validate the relevance of prior cadaver models for neck injury and help explain the wide variety of cervical spine fractures that can result from ostensibly similar compressive loadings. They also give insight into the mechanistic differences between burst fractures and lower cervical spine dislocations. PMID:26874970

  4. Impact on image quality when a variety of x-ray source detector distances are considered for the arthritic cervical spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Maria; Brennan, Patrick C.; Rainford, Louise A.; Last, Jason; Ryan, John T.

    2008-03-01

    The unavoidable distance between the cervical spine and the image receptor presents measurable levels of geometric unsharpness, which hinders arthritic scoring. The current work explores the impact on the visualisation of important arthritic indicators by increasing the distance between the X-ray source and image detector (SID) from the commonly employed 150cm. Lateral cervical spine images were acquired of an osteoarthritic human cadaver using a DR imaging system. All exposures were taken at 65kVp using automatic exposure control and various SID distances from 150 to 210cm. Four experienced clinicians assessed the images by means of visual grading analysis, using objective criteria based on normal anatomic features and arthritic indicators. A statistically significant improvement in image quality was observed with images acquired at 210cm compared with those acquired at 150cm and 180cm (p<0.05), with values of 56.0 (SE=1.105), 50.85 (SE=1.415) and 65.35 (SE=0.737) respectively. All images with a SID of 210cm scored higher for visually sharp reproduction of the spinous processes, facet joints, intervertebral disc spaces and trabecular bone pattern compared with both 180cm and 150cm. Results indicate that total image quality and visualisation of specific anatomical features is improved in cervical spine radiographs when traditionally employed SID distances are increased.

  5. Airway Management with Cervical Spine Immobilisation: A Comparison between the Macintosh Laryngoscope, Truview Evo2, and Totaltrack VLM Used by Novices—A Manikin Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaszyński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Airway management in patients with suspected cervical spine injury plays an important role in the pathway of care of trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different airway devices during intubation of a patient with reduced cervical spine mobility. Forty students of the third year of emergency medicine studies participated in the study (F = 26, M = 14). The time required to obtain a view of the entry to the larynx and successful ventilation time were recorded. Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopic view and damage to the incisors were also assessed. All three airway devices were used by each student (a novice) and they were randomly chosen. The mean time required to obtain the entry-to-the-larynx view was the shortest for the Macintosh laryngoscope 13.4 s (±2.14). Truview Evo2 had the shortest successful ventilation time 35.7 s (±9.27). The best view of the entry to the larynx was obtained by the Totaltrack VLM device. The Truview Evo2 and Totaltrack VLM may be an alternative to the classic Macintosh laryngoscope for intubation of trauma patients with suspected injury to the cervical spine. The use of new devices enables achieving better laryngoscopic view as well as minimising incisor damage during intubation. PMID:27034926

  6. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:26957772

  7. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:26957772

  8. Corrective surgery for deformity of the upper cervical spine due to ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Zhang, Bi; Li, Zhu-Mei; Li, Qiu-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Rotational and flexion deformity of C1-C2 due to ankylosing spondylitis is rare. We did surgical correction in one such case by lateral release, resection of the posterior arch of C1 and mobilization of the vertebral arteries, wedge osteotomy of the lateral masses of C1 and internal fixation under general anesthesia. There were no vascular and neurological complications during the surgery. After operation the atlantoaxial rotational deformity was corrected and the normal cervical lordosis was restored. At 1 year followup his visual field and feeding became normal and internal fixation was stable. PMID:24741145

  9. Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine: technical and clinical observations

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Boumphrey, F.; Starnes, D.; Duchesneau, P.M.

    1983-12-01

    Seventy-two patients were examined to determine the clinical potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine. MRI using different pulse sequences was compared with plain radiography, high-resolution computed tomography, and myelography. There were 35 normal patients; pathologic conditions studied included canal stenosis, herniated disk, metastatic tumor, neurofibroma, trauma, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, arteriovenous malformation, and rheumatoid arthritis. MRI provided sharply defined anatomic delineation and tissue characterization. It was diagnostic in syringomyelia and Chiari malformation and was useful in the evaluation of trauma and spinal canal block from any cause. MRI was sensitive to degenerative disk disease and infection. The spin-echo technique, with three pulse sequence variations, seems very promising. A short echo time (TE) produces the best signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Lengthening the TE enhances differentiation of various tissues by their signal intensity, whil the combined increase of TE and recovery time (TR) produces selective enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity.

  11. Assessment of nerve involvement in the lumbar spine: agreement between magnetic resonance imaging, physical examination and pain drawing findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Detection of nerve involvement originating in the spine is a primary concern in the assessment of spine symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the diagnostic method of choice for this detection. However, the agreement between MRI and other diagnostic methods for detecting nerve involvement has not been fully evaluated. The aim of this diagnostic study was to evaluate the agreement between nerve involvement visible in MRI and findings of nerve involvement detected in a structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing. Methods Sixty-one consecutive patients referred for MRI of the lumbar spine were - without knowledge of MRI findings - assessed for nerve involvement with a simplified pain drawing and a structured physical examination. Agreement between findings was calculated as overall agreement, the p value for McNemar's exact test, specificity, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values. Results MRI-visible nerve involvement was significantly less common than, and showed weak agreement with, physical examination and pain drawing findings of nerve involvement in corresponding body segments. In spine segment L4-5, where most findings of nerve involvement were detected, the mean sensitivity of MRI-visible nerve involvement to a positive neurological test in the physical examination ranged from 16-37%. The mean specificity of MRI-visible nerve involvement in the same segment ranged from 61-77%. Positive and negative predictive values of MRI-visible nerve involvement in segment L4-5 ranged from 22-78% and 28-56% respectively. Conclusion In patients with long-standing nerve root symptoms referred for lumbar MRI, MRI-visible nerve involvement significantly underestimates the presence of nerve involvement detected by a physical examination and a pain drawing. A structured physical examination and a simplified pain drawing may reveal that many patients with "MRI-invisible" lumbar symptoms need treatment aimed at nerve involvement. Factors other than present MRI-visible nerve involvement may be responsible for findings of nerve involvement in the physical examination and the pain drawing. PMID:20831785

  12. Just a drop of cement: a case of cervical spine bone aneurysmal cyst successfully treated by percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate cement.

    PubMed

    Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Riouallon, Guillaume; Cormier, Evelyne; Bonaccorsi, Raphael; Pascal-Mousselard, Hugues; Chiras, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign hemorrhagic tumor, commonly revealed by local pain. The best treatment for this lesion is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with chronic neck pain revealing an ABC of the third cervical vertebra. After percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement, the patient experienced significant clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:25526916

  13. Development and Validation of a Statistical Shape Modeling-Based Finite Element Model of the Cervical Spine Under Low-Level Multiple Direction Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bredbenner, Todd L.; Eliason, Travis D.; Francis, W. Loren; McFarland, John M.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3–T1) computed tomography data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft-tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, SSM methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps toward describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures. PMID:25506051

  14. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (≥50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  15. Effectiveness of second-opinion radiology consultations to reassess the cervical spine CT scans: a study on trauma patients referred to a tertiary-care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Omid; Rahimian, Maryam; Batchu, Vinay; Vadvala, Harshna V.; Novelline, Robert A.; Choy, Garry

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE A second opinion is a valuable resource in confirming proper medical diagnosis and treatment. This study evaluates the effectiveness of second-opinion radiology consultations to reassess the cervical spine computed tomography (CT) scans of the trauma patients referred to our hospital. METHODS Cervical spine CT scans of 301 consecutive adult trauma patients, who were referred to our hospital from outside institutions, were analyzed. The emergency radiologists at our institution completed the over-read reports on the CT images obtained at the outside facilities. A single radiologist compared the outside- and over-read reports and determined the discrepancy of the radiologic reports. RESULTS Based on the outside reports, 31% of the CT scans had cervical traumatic injury. In 92% of patients, the first-read and the over-read reports had consistent radiologic findings. About 90% of the positive, and 93% of the negative radiologic findings, were reported consistently in the over-read reports. Our analysis showed that the over-read reporting resulted in reassurance of negative findings in 63%; confirmation of positive findings in 29%; clearing a false diagnosis in 3%; and detection of a missed diagnosis in 5%. A rescan was done in 80% of patients with inconsistent and 20% of patients with consistent findings (P < 0.05). The most common missed radiologic findings in the first-reports were transverse and spinous process fractures and the most common misdiagnoses were dens fractures. CONCLUSION For a service offering second-opinion consultations on cervical spine trauma, review of outside CT studies improves diagnosis and benefits patient care. PMID:26200483

  16. Upright magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine: Back pain and radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ha Son; Doan, Ninh; Shabani, Saman; Baisden, Jamie; Wolfla, Christopher; Paskoff, Glenn; Shender, Barry; Stemper, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar back pain and radiculopathy are common diagnoses. Unfortunately, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinical symptoms do not necessarily correlate in the lumbar spine. With upright imaging, disc pathologies or foraminal stenosis may become more salient, leading to improvements in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Seventeen adults (10 asymptomatic and 7 symptomatic volunteers) provided their informed consent and participated in the study. A 0.6T upright MRI scan was performed on each adult in the seated position. Parameters were obtained from the L2/3 level to the L5/S1 level including those pertaining to the foramen [cross-sectional area (CSA), height, mid-disc width, width, thickness of ligamentum flavum], disc (bulge, height, width), vertebral body (height and width), and alignment (lordosis angle, wedge angle, lumbosacral angle). Each parameter was compared based on the spinal level and volunteer group using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). Bonferroni post hoc analysis was used to assess the differences between individual spinal levels. Results: Mid-disc width accounted for 56% of maximum foramen width in symptomatic volunteers and over 63% in asymptomatic volunteers. Disc bulge was 48% greater in symptomatic volunteers compared to asymptomatic volunteers. CSA was generally smaller in symptomatic volunteers compared to asymptomatic volunteers, particularly at the L4-L5 and L5-S1 spinal levels. Thickness of ligamentum flavum (TLF) generally increased from the cranial to caudal spinal levels where the L4-L5 and L5-S1 spinal levels were significantly thicker than the L1-L2 spinal level. Conclusions: The data implied that upright MRI could be a useful diagnostic option, as it can delineate pertinent differences between symptomatic volunteers and asymptomatic volunteers, especially with respect to foraminal geometry. PMID:27041883

  17. [Cervical fractures in autopsy records].

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafał; Wilmanowska, Anita; Gos, Tomasz; Smoczyński, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the autopsy records of 1872 cases of death because of politrauma, gunshot wounds and suicidal hanging. The analysis included causes and frequency of cervical spine fractures, their most common localisation, architecture of bone destruction and their influence on cervical cord. The most common cause of cervical spine injury was motor vehicle accidents. We examined 82 specimens with traumatic fractures of cervical spine obtained from accident victims. About half of the injuries occurred in upper cervical spine. The most common fracture localisation was C2 with dens fracture as the most frequent injury. The most common spinal cord lesion was complete rupture mainly at the upper cervical spine level. PMID:14564791

  18. Interventional spine and pain procedures in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications: guidelines from the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the European Society of Regional Anaesthesia and Pain Therapy, the American Academy of Pain Medicine, the International Neuromodulation Society, the North American Neuromodulation Society, and the World Institute of Pain.

    PubMed

    Narouze, Samer; Benzon, Honorio T; Provenzano, David A; Buvanendran, Asokumar; De Andres, José; Deer, Timothy R; Rauck, Richard; Huntoon, Marc A

    2015-01-01

    Interventional spine and pain procedures cover a far broader spectrum than those for regional anesthesia, reflecting diverse targets and goals. When surveyed, interventional pain and spine physicians attending the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ASRA) 11th Annual Pain Medicine Meeting exhorted that existing ASRA guidelines for regional anesthesia in patients on antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications were insufficient for their needs. Those surveyed agreed that procedure-specific and patient-specific factors necessitated separate guidelines for pain and spine procedures. In response, ASRA formed a guidelines committee. After preliminary review of published complication reports and studies, committee members stratified interventional spine and pain procedures according to potential bleeding risk as low-, intermediate-, and high-risk procedures. The ASRA guidelines were deemed largely appropriate for the low- and intermediate-risk categories, but it was agreed that the high-risk targets required an intensive look at issues specific to patient safety and optimal outcomes in pain medicine. The latest evidence was sought through extensive database search strategies and the recommendations were evidence-based when available and pharmacology-driven otherwise. We could not provide strength and grading of these recommendations as there are not enough well-designed large studies concerning interventional pain procedures to support such grading. Although the guidelines could not always be based on randomized studies or on large numbers of patients from pooled databases, it is hoped that they will provide sound recommendations and the evidentiary basis for such recommendations. PMID:25899949

  19. Solitary Cervical Neurenteric Cyst in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Doo Yong; Lee, Ho Jin; Shin, Myung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Spinal neurenteric cysts are uncommon congenital lesions, furthermore solitary neurenteric cysts of the upper cervical spine are very rare. A 15-year-old boy having an intraspinal neurenteric cyst located at cervical spine presented with symptoms of neck pain and both shoulders pain for 2 months. Cervical spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an intradural extramedullary cystic mass at the C1-3 level without enhancement after gadolinium injection. There was no associated malformation on the MR imaging, computed tomography, and radiography. Hemilaminectomy at the C1-3 levels was performed and the lesion was completely removed through a posterior approach. Histological examination showed the cystic wall lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing mucinous contents. Neurenteric cyst should be considered in the diagnosis of spinal solitary cystic mass. PMID:25733997

  20. Pneumocephalus leading to the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and esophageal perforation after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Boone, Christine E; Pendleton, James; Elder, Benjamin D; Wei, Zhikui; Hsu, Wesley; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-04-01

    Pneumocephalus is a collection of air within in the intracranial cavity, most commonly seen following traumatic injury or cranial surgeries. Esophageal injury and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak are rare complications that may occur following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a novel case of pneumocephalus arising from unrestricted leakage of CSF via coincident esophageal injury and durotomy in a patient who underwent an ACDF after trauma. A 21-year-old man presented to an outside hospital with C5/C6 subluxation, complete spinal cord injury, and quadriplegia from a motor vehicle accident. He underwent an ACDF, during which a CSF leak was observed. He was then transferred to our institution for rehabilitation and tracheostomy placement 1week after the ACDF surgery. Following the tracheostomy, the patient developed intractable fevers and nonspecific symptoms. A CT scan demonstrated frontal pneumocephalus without mass effect. Air was found in the retropharyngeal space. There were no accumulations of CSF in the neck. Extravasation of contrast around instrumentation at C5/C6 on a cine esophagogram demonstrated an esophageal perforation at that level. Pneumocephalus may form when large volumes of CSF escape from the intracranial space and air is drawn into the space by the negative pressure. In this unusual case, the esophageal perforation promoted the formation of the pneumocephalus. Treatment included closure of both defects, disrupting the suspected communication between the intracranial space and the esophagus. PMID:26778810

  1. Anterior corpectomy and fusion for severe ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Deyu; Wang, Xinwei; Lu, Xuhai; Guo, Yongfei; He, Zhimin; Tian, Haijun

    2009-04-01

    Between May 2002 and October 2006, 19 patients (17 men and 2 women; average age 57.2; range 47-71 years) received anterior corpectomy and fusion for severe ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in our department. Preoperative radiological evaluation showed the narrowing by the OPLL exceeded 50% in all cases, and OPLL extended from one to three vertebrae. We followed-up all patients for 12-36 months (mean 18 months). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score before surgery was 9.3 +/- 1.8 (range 5-12) which significantly increased to 14.2 +/- 1.3 (range 11-16) points at the last follow-up (P < 0.01). The improvement rate (IR) of neurological function ranged from 22.2-87.5%, with a mean of 63.2% +/- 15.2%. The operation also provided a significant increase in the cervical lordosis and the cord flatting rate (P < 0.01). No severe neurological complication developed. We therefore concluded that anterior decompression and fusion was effective and safe in the treatment of the selected patients, although OPLL exceeded 50% diameter of the spinal canal. PMID:18408927

  2. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

  3. Cervical Spine Disc Deformation During In Vivo Three-Dimensional Head Movements.

    PubMed

    Anderst, William; Donaldson, William; Lee, Joon; Kang, James

    2016-05-01

    Although substantial research demonstrates that intervertebral disc cells respond to mechanical signals, little research has been done to characterize the in vivo mechanical environment in the disc tissue. The objective of this study was to estimate cervical disc strain during three-dimensional head movements. Twenty-nine young healthy adults performed full range of motion flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation of the head within a biplane radiography system. Three-dimensional vertebral kinematics were determined using a validated model-based tracking technique. A computational model used these kinematics to estimate subject-specific intervertebral disc deformation (C3-4 to C6-7). Peak compression, distraction and shear strains were calculated for each movement, disc level, and disc region. Peak compression strain and peak shear strain were highest during flexion/extension (mean ± 95% confidence interval) (32 ± 3 and 86 ± 8%, respectively), while peak distraction strain was highest during lateral bending (57 ± 5%). Peak compression strain occurred at C4-5 (33 ± 4%), while peak distraction and shear strain occurred at C3-4 (54 ± 8 and 83 ± 11%, respectively). Peak compression, distraction, and shear strains all occurred in the posterior-lateral annulus (48 ± 4, 80 ± 8, and 109 ± 12%, respectively). These peak strain values may serve as boundary conditions for in vitro loading paradigms that aim to assess the biologic response to physiologic disc deformations. PMID:26271522

  4. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  5. Comparison of Hybrid Constructs with 2-Level Artificial Disc Replacement and 2-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Surgical Reconstruction of the Cervical Spine: A Kinematic Study in Whole Cadavers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoge; Zeng, Zheng; Van Hoof, Tom; Kalala, Jean Pierre; Liu, Zhenyu; Wu, Bingxuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-level cervical degeneration of the spine is a common clinical pathology that is often repaired by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinematics of the cervical spine after hybrid surgery compared with 2-level ACDF. Material/Methods Five freshly frozen, unembalmed whole human cadavers were used including 3 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51±8 years. After evaluating the intact spine for range of motion (ROM), sagittal alignment and instantaneous center of rotation (ICR), each cadaver underwent 4 consecutive surgeries: 2-level artificial disc replacement (ADR) from C4 to C6 (ADR surgery); 2-level ACDF from C4 to C6 (ACDF surgery); hybrid C4–5 ACDF and C5–6 ADR (ACDF+ADR surgery); and hybrid C4–5 ADR and C5–6 ACDF (ADR+ACDF surgery). The ROM and ICR of adjacent intact segments (C3–4; C6–7), and whole sagittal alignment were revaluated. Results Two-level ACDF resulted in increased ROM at C3–4 and C6–7 compared with intact spine. ROM was significantly different to intact spine using ACDF surgery at C3–C4 and C6–C7 and ROM was increased with ACDF+ADR surgery at C6–C7 (all P<0.05). No improvement in sagittal alignment was observed with any approach. The localization of the ICR shifted upwards and anteriorly at C3–C4 after reconstruction. ICR changes at C3–C4 were greatest for ADR+ACDF surgery and were significantly different to ACDF surgery (P<0.05), but not between ADR surgery and ACDF+ADR surgery. At C6–C7, the ICR was more posterior and superior than in the intact condition. The greatest change in ICR was observed in ACDF surgery at the C6–C7 level, significantly different from the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions For 2-level reconstruction, hybrid surgery and ADR did not alter ROM and minimally changed ICR at the adjacent-level. The type of surgery had a significant impact on the ICR location. This suggests that hybrid surgery may be a viable option for 2-level cervical surgery. PMID:25853772

  6. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin S.; Chang, Eric L.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Amini, Behrang; Wang, Xin A.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred.

  7. The role of surgery for treatment of low back pain: insights from the randomized controlled Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trials

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Peter; Rennert, Robert C.; Martin, Joel R.; Ciacci, Joseph; Taylor, William; Resnick, Daniel; Kasper, Ekkehard; Chen, Clark C.

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common medical problem with high morbidity and healthcare costs. The optimal management strategy, including the role of surgical intervention, remains controversial. The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trials were randomized controlled studies conducted to assess the effectiveness of surgery for three of the most common conditions implicated in LBP: Intervertebral disc herniation, degenerative spondylolisthesis, and spinal stenosis. Despite challenges in data interpretation related to patient cross over, these studies support the efficacy of surgery as treatment for these three common conditions. PMID:27127703

  8. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections for Cervical and Shoulder Girdle Myofascial Pain Using an Enriched Protocol Design

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Andrea L.; Wu, Irene I.; Ferrante, F. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional condition of muscle pain and stiffness and is classically characterized by the presence of trigger points in affected musculature. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been shown to have antinociceptive properties and elicit sustained muscle relaxation, thereby possibly affording even greater relief than traditional strategies. Our goal in this study was to determine whether direct injection of BoNT-A into painful muscle groups is effective for cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain. Methods An enriched protocol design was used wherein 114 patients with cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain underwent injection of BoNT-A to determine their response to the drug. Fifty-four responders were then enrolled in a twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain scales and quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at routine follow-up visits until completion of the study after 26 weeks. Results Injection of BoNT-A into painful muscle groups improved average visual numerical pain scores in subjects who received a second dose of BoNT-A compared to placebo (p = 0.019 (0.26, 2.78)). Subjects who received a second dose of BoNT-A had a reduced number of headaches per week (p = 0.04 (0.07, 4.55)). Brief Pain Inventory interference scores for general activity and sleep were improved (p = 0.046 (0.038, 3.7) and 0.02 (0.37, 4.33), respectively) in those who received a second dose of BoNT-A. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A injected directly into painful muscle groups improves average pain scores and certain aspects of quality of life in patients suffering from severe cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain. PMID:24842179

  9. SU-E-I-51: Use of Blade Sequences in Cervical Spine MR Imaging for Eliminating Motion, Truncation and Flow Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Mavroidis, P; Lavdas, E; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Strikou, A; Glotsos, D; Vlachopoulou, A; Oikonomou, G; Economopoulos, N; Roka, V; Sakkas, G; Tsagkalis, A; Batsikas, G; Statkahis, S; Papanikolaou, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the BLADE technique to eliminate motion, truncation, flow and other artifacts in Cervical Spine MRI compared to the conventional technique. To study the ability of the examined sequences to reduce the indetention and wrap artifacts, which have been reported in BLADE sagittal sequences. Methods: Forty consecutive subjects, who had been routinely scanned for cervical spine examination using four different image acquisition techniques, were analyzed. More specifically, the following pairs of sequences were compared: a) T2 TSE SAG vs. T2 TSE SAG BLADE and b) T2 TIRM SAG vs. T2 TIRM SAG BLADE. A quantitative analysis was performed using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and relative contrast (ReCon) measures. A qualitative analysis was also performed by two radiologists, who graded seven image characteristics on a 5-point scale (0:non-visualization; 1:poor; 2:average; 3:good; 4:excellent). The observers also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, truncation, flow, indentation). Results: Based on the findings of the quantitative analysis, the ReCON values of the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)/SC (spinal cord) between TIRM SAG and TIRM SAG BLADE were found to present statistical significant differences (p<0.001). Regarding motion and truncation artifacts, the T2 TSE SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TSE SAG and the T2 TIRM SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Regarding flow artifacts, T2 TIRM SAG BLADE eliminated more artifacts compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Conclusion: The use of BLADE sequences in cervical spine MR examinations appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and trancation artifacts. Furthermore, BLADE sequences are proposed to be used in the standard examination protocols based on the fact that a significantly improved image quality could be achieved.

  10. Botulinum toxin type A combined with cervical spine manual therapy for masseteric hypertrophy in a patient with Alzheimer-type dementia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Jorge H.; Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; Pillastrini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to present the findings of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and cervical spine manual therapy to address masseter muscle spasticity in a patient with Alzheimer-type dementia. Case Report A 78-year-old woman with bilateral spasticity of the masseteric regions for 2 years was referred for physiotherapy. She had trismus and bruxism, and could neither close nor open her mouth normally; thus, she was unable to be fed orally in a normal manner. Intervention and Outcome The patient underwent combined treatment with BoNT-A and cervical spine manual therapy. A medical physician (neurologist) performed the BoNT-A injections into 2 points at the center of the lower third of the masseter muscle. A physical therapist performed manual therapy interventions targeted at the cervical spine. Manual therapy started the day after the BoNT-A injection and continued for 5 sessions per week for a total period of 2 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured including spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), functionality (Barthel Index), and jaw opening. Outcomes were conducted at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment, and at 2-month follow-up session after finishing the treatment. The patient improved in all of the outcomes at the end of treatment, and these results were maintained during the follow-up. After treatment, the patient was able to feed with minimal caregiver dependency because oral feeding was possible. Conclusion The patient in this study responded positively to a combination of BoNT-A and manual therapy, resulting in decreased masseter muscles spasticity and improved trismus and bruxism. PMID:23843761

  11. Comparison of Four Airway Devices on Cervical Spine Alignment in Cadaver Models of Global Ligamentous Instability at C1-2

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Adam L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of advanced airway management on cervical spine alignment in patients with upper cervical spine instability are uncertain. Methods To examine the potential for mechanical disruption during endotracheal intubation in cadavers with unstable cervical spines, we performed a prospective observational cohort study with three cadaver subjects. We created an unstable, type II odontoid fracture with global ligamentous instability at C1-2 in lightly embalmed cadavers, followed by repetitive intubations with four different airway devices (Airtraq laryngoscope, Lightwand, intubating LMA, and Macintosh laryngoscope) while manual in-line stabilization was applied. Motion analysis data were collected using an electromagnetic device to assess the degree of angular movement in three axes (flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending) during the intubation trials with each device. Intubation was performed by either an emergency medical technician or attending anesthesiologist. Results Overall, 153 intubations were recorded with the four devices. The Lightwand technique resulted in significantly less flexion extension and axial rotation at C1-2 than with the intubating LMA (mean difference in flexion-extension 3.2 degrees [95% CI 0.9 to 5.5], p=0.003; mean difference in axial rotation 1.6 degrees [95% CI 0.3 to 2.8], p=0.01 and Macintosh laryngoscope (mean difference in flexion extension 3.1 degrees [95% CI 0.8 to5.4], p=0.005; mean difference in axial rotation 1.4 degrees [95% CI 0.1 to 2.6], p=0.03. Conclusions In cadavers with instability at C1-2, the Lightwand technique produced less motion than the Macintosh and intubating LMA. PMID:23354337

  12. The effect of thoracic spine mobilization and stabilization exercise on the muscular strength and flexibility of the trunk of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seong-Rae; Kim, Kyung; Park, Sun-Ja; Kim, Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate whether thoracic spine mobilization added to stabilization exercises increases the muscular strength and range of motion of the thoracic vertebrae of chronic low-back pain patients. [Subjects] This study enrolled 20 patients with chronic low back pain, who were divided into two groups. Ten subjects were randomly selected for the stabilization exercise group and the remaining 10 subjects received thoracic spine mobilization in addition to performing the stabilization exercises. [Methods] The patients performed stabilization exercises and received thoracic spine mobilization for 12 weeks. The range of motion and isometric muscular strength of the vertebrae of all subjects were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] In the comparison of muscular strength before and after the intervention, the change in muscular strength of the trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 16.0±7.4 Nm, and that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 34.2±7.6 Nm, a significant difference in each group. In the post-intervention intergroup comparison, the muscular strength of trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 111.1±16.9 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 125.9±11.3 Nm, a significant difference. Also, the muscular strength of the trunk extensors in the stabilization exercise group was 148.9±31.8 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 182.9±37.2 Nm, a significant difference. The thoracic spine flexion in the stabilization exercise group was 29.8±9 degrees, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 38.7±6.9 degrees, a significant difference. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar flexion values between the two groups. [Conclusion] Thoracic spine mobilization added to a stabilization exercise increased the muscular strength of patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:26834367

  13. Cine phase-contrast MRI measurement of CSF flow in the cervical spine: a pilot study in patients with spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negahdar, MJ; Shakeri, M.; McDowell, E.; Wells, J.; Vitaz, T.; Harkema, S.; Amini, A.

    2011-03-01

    MRI velocimetry (also known as phase-contrast MRI) is a powerful tool for quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in various regions of the brain and craniospinal junction and has been accepted as a diagnostic tool to assist with the diagnosis of certain conditions such as hydrocephalus and chiari malformations. Cerebrospinal fluid is continually produced in the ventricles of the brain, flows through the ventricular system and then out and around the brain and spinal cord and is reabsorbed over the convexity of the brain. Any disease process which either impedes the normal pattern of flow or restricts the area where flow occurs can change the pattern of these waveforms with the direction and velocity of flow being determined by the pressure transmitted from the pulsation of the heart and circulation of blood within the central nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that phase-contrast MRI could eventually be used as a diagnostic aid in determining the degree of spinal cord compression following injury to the cervical or thoracic spine. In this study, we examined CSF flow in 3 normal subjects and 2 subjects with non-acute injuries in the cervical spine using Cine phasecontrast MRI. CSF flow analysis was performed using an in-house developed software. The flow waveform was calculated in both normal subjects (n=3) as well as subjects with spinal cord injury in the cervical spine (n=2). The bulk flow at C2 was measured to be 0.30 +/- 0.05 cc, at 5 cm distal to C2, it was 0.19+/- 0.07 cc, and at 10 cm distal to C2, it was 0.17+/- 0.05 cc. These results were in good agreement with previously published results. In patients with spinal cord injury, at the site of injury in the cervical spine, bulk flow was found to be 0.08 +/- 0.12 cc, at 5 cm proximal to the site of injury it was found to be 0.18 +/- 0.07 cc, and at 5 cm distal to the site of injury, it was found to be 0.12 +/- 0.01 cc.

  14. Face validity of VIS-Ed: a visualization program for teaching medical students and residents the biomechanics of cervical spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Courteille, Olivier; Ho, Johnson; Fahlstedt, Madelen; Fors, Uno; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Hedman, Leif; Möller, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This RCT study aimed to investigate if VIS-Ed (Visualization through Imaging and Simulation - Education) had the potential to improve medical student education and specialist training in clinical diagnosis and treatment of trauma patients. The participants' general opinion was reported as high in both groups (lecture vs. virtual patient (VP)). Face validity of the VIS-Ed for cervical spine trauma was demonstrated and the VP group reported higher stimulation and engagement compared to the lecture group. No significant difference in the knowledge test between both groups could be observed, confirming our null hypothesis that VIS-Ed was on par with a lecture. PMID:23400137

  15. [Management of patients with simple cervical distortions].

    PubMed

    Foletti, G; Regli, F

    1995-11-11

    Common distortion of the cervical spine without evidence of neurological or osteoligamentary damage is a frequent consequence of indirect head and neck trauma. The mechanism of the injury (called "whiplash", "coup de lapin", or "Schleudertrauma") does not imply direct trauma to the head or neck. In the acute phase, common distortion of the cervical spine requires treatment. Rapid management may avoid or considerably reduce the chronic pain syndrome with the characteristic chronic tension-like headache. The chronic pain and the numerous associated functional disorders are not well understood: certain factors favour central and peripheral dysfunction and others emphasize the importance of extra-trauma phenomena. In our opinion, extra-trauma phenomena would explain the invalidating nature of pain in a small number of patients. Management of these chronic patients requires a multidisciplinary approach aimed at helping the patient overcome the inconveniences of this condition. PMID:8545369

  16. Analysis of post-operative pain patterns following total lumbar disc replacement: results from fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations.

    PubMed

    Siepe, Christoph J; Korge, Andreas; Grochulla, Frank; Mehren, Christoph; Mayer, H Michael

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of biomechanical laboratory investigations and radiological studies have highlighted the potential problems associated with total lumbar disc replacement (TDR), no previous study has performed a systematic clinical failure analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the post-operative pain sources, establish the incidence of post-operative pain patterns and investigate the effect on post-operative outcome with the help of fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations in patients from an ongoing prospective study with ProDisc II. Patients who reported unsatisfactory results at any of the FU-examinations received fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations as part of a semi-invasive diagnostic and conservative treatment program. Pain sources were identified in patients with reproducible (> or =2x) significant (50-75%) or highly significant (75-100%) pain relief. Results were correlated with outcome parameters visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the subjective patient satisfaction rate. From a total of 175 operated patients with a mean follow-up (FU) of 29.3 months (range 12.2-74.9 months), n = 342 infiltrations were performed in n = 58 patients (33.1%) overall. Facet joint pain, predominantly at the index level (86.4%), was identified in n = 22 patients (12.6%). The sacroiliac joint was a similarly frequent cause of post-operative pain (n = 21, 12.0%). Pain from both structures influenced all outcome parameters negatively (P < 0.05). Patients with an early onset of pain (< or =6 months) were 2-5x higher at risk of developing persisting complaints and unsatisfactory outcome at later FU-stages in comparison to the entire study cohort (P < 0.05). The level of TDR significantly influenced post-operative outcome. Best results were achieved for the TDRs above the lumbosacral junction at L4/5 (incidence of posterior joint pain 14.8%). Inferior outcome and a significantly higher incidence of posterior joint pain were observed for TDR at L5/S1 (21.6%) and bisegmental TDR at L4/5/S1 (33.3%), respectively. Lumbar facet and/or ISJ-pain are a frequent and currently underestimated source of post-operative pain and the most common reasons for unsatisfactory results following TDR. Further failure-analysis studies are required and adequate salvage treatment options need to be established with respect to the underlying pathology of post-operative pain. The question as to whether or not TDR will reduce the incidence of posterior joint pain, which has been previously attributed to lumbar fusion procedures, remains unanswered. Additional studies will have to investigate whether TDR compromises the index-segment in an attempt to avoid adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:17972116

  17. Analysis of post-operative pain patterns following total lumbar disc replacement: results from fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Korge, Andreas; Grochulla, Frank; Mehren, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Although a variety of biomechanical laboratory investigations and radiological studies have highlighted the potential problems associated with total lumbar disc replacement (TDR), no previous study has performed a systematic clinical failure analysis. The aim of this study was to identify the post-operative pain sources, establish the incidence of post-operative pain patterns and investigate the effect on post-operative outcome with the help of fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations in patients from an ongoing prospective study with ProDisc II. Patients who reported unsatisfactory results at any of the FU-examinations received fluoroscopically guided spine infiltrations as part of a semi-invasive diagnostic and conservative treatment program. Pain sources were identified in patients with reproducible (≥2×) significant (50–75%) or highly significant (75–100%) pain relief. Results were correlated with outcome parameters visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and the subjective patient satisfaction rate. From a total of 175 operated patients with a mean follow-up (FU) of 29.3 months (range 12.2–74.9 months), n = 342 infiltrations were performed in n = 58 patients (33.1%) overall. Facet joint pain, predominantly at the index level (86.4%), was identified in n = 22 patients (12.6%). The sacroiliac joint was a similarly frequent cause of post-operative pain (n = 21, 12.0%). Pain from both structures influenced all outcome parameters negatively (P < 0.05). Patients with an early onset of pain (≤6 months) were 2–5× higher at risk of developing persisting complaints and unsatisfactory outcome at later FU-stages in comparison to the entire study cohort (P < 0.05). The level of TDR significantly influenced post-operative outcome. Best results were achieved for the TDRs above the lumbosacral junction at L4/5 (incidence of posterior joint pain 14.8%). Inferior outcome and a significantly higher incidence of posterior joint pain were observed for TDR at L5/S1 (21.6%) and bisegmental TDR at L4/5/S1 (33.3%), respectively. Lumbar facet and/or ISJ-pain are a frequent and currently underestimated source of post-operative pain and the most common reasons for unsatisfactory results following TDR. Further failure-analysis studies are required and adequate salvage treatment options need to be established with respect to the underlying pathology of post-operative pain. The question as to whether or not TDR will reduce the incidence of posterior joint pain, which has been previously attributed to lumbar fusion procedures, remains unanswered. Additional studies will have to investigate whether TDR compromises the index-segment in an attempt to avoid adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:17972116

  18. Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. Methods Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS) and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON). The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. Results Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 ± 88 °/s and CON: 348 ± 92 °/s, p < 0.01). Peak speed was slower in NS compared to healthy controls and even slower in NS with comorbidity of low-back pain. Associations were found between reduced peak speed and self-rated difficulties with running, performing head movements, car driving, sleeping and pain. Peak speed showed reasonably high reliability, while the reliability for conjunct movements was poor. Conclusions Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between groups calls for caution in the interpretation of individual assessments. PMID:20875135

  19. Not just another case of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Etzkorn, Kristin; Oliver, Alyce M

    2014-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with persistent, progressive low back and neck pain for 5 years that had failed conservative therapy with analgesics and epidural injections. Physical examination revealed range of motion of lumbar and cervical spine were significantly limited in all directions and she had a bluish discolouration of the pinnae bilaterally. She had elevated urinary excretion of homogentisic acid, diagnostic of alkaptonuria. Further investigation with imaging of the spine revealed diffuse advanced degenerative disease of the cervical and lumbar spine consistent with ochronotic arthropathy. PMID:24781848

  20. Nonoperative Management of Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Childress, Marc A; Becker, Blair A

    2016-05-01

    Cervical radiculopathy describes pain in one or both of the upper extremities, often in the setting of neck pain, secondary to compression or irritation of nerve roots in the cervical spine. It can be accompanied by motor, sensory, or reflex deficits and is most prevalent in persons 50 to 54 years of age. Cervical radiculopathy most often stems from degenerative disease in the cervical spine. The most common examination findings are painful neck movements and muscle spasm. Diminished deep tendon reflexes, particularly of the triceps, are the most common neurologic finding. The Spurling test, shoulder abduction test, and upper limb tension test can be used to confirm the diagnosis. Imaging is not required unless there is a history of trauma, persistent symptoms, or red flags for malignancy, myelopathy, or abscess. Electrodiagnostic testing is not needed if the diagnosis is clear, but has clinical utility when peripheral neuropathy of the upper extremity is a likely alternate diagnosis. Patients should be reassured that most cases will resolve regardless of the type of treatment. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy involving strengthening, stretching, and potentially traction, as well as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, and massage. Epidural steroid injections may be helpful but have higher risks of serious complications. In patients with red flag symptoms or persistent symptoms after four to six weeks of treatment, magnetic resonance imaging can identify pathology amenable to epidural steroid injections or surgery. PMID:27175952

  1. Referred pain after painful stimulation of the greater occipital nerve in humans: evidence of convergence of cervical afferences on trigeminal nuclei.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, E J; Kowacs, P A; Tatsui, C E; Lange, M C; Ribas, L C; Werneck, L C

    2001-03-01

    Cranial sensory innervation is supplied mainly by the trigeminal nerves and by the first cervical nerves. Excitatory and inhibitory interactions among those nerve roots may occur in a mechanism called nociceptive convergence, leading to loss of somato-sensory spatial specificity. Three volunteers in an experimental trial had sterile water injected over their greater occipital nerve on one side of the neck. Pain intensity was evaluated 10, 30 and 120 s after the injection. Two of the patients reported intense pain. Trigeminal autonomic features, suggestive of parasympathetic activation, were seen associated with trigeminally distributed pain. These data add to and reinforce previous evidence of convergence of cervical afferents on the trigeminal sensory circuit. PMID:11422092

  2. The association between neck pain, the Neck Disability Index and cervical ranges of motion: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Emily R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and Cervical Ranges of Motion (CROM) are measurement tools that are used for neck pain patients. Objective: To review the literature to determine how the NDI is associated with neck pain and CROM outcomes. Methods: Computer based searches of 5 databases were performed and supplemented by internet and hand searching of article references and “related citations.” Results: The search yielded 23 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and these were summarized into four categories: NDI, NDI and other questionnaires, whiplash and NDI and cervical range of motion and NDI. The NDI was shown to be a well validated and reliable self-reported questionnaire, especially when compared to other questionnaires, in both neck pain and whiplash (WAD) patients. There are very few studies that discuss the NDI and cervical range of motion. Conclusion: This review outlines the strength of the NDI as a self-reported neck disability questionnaire, but also demonstrates a need for further research to explore the association between the NDI, neck pain and cervical ranges of motion. PMID:21886283

  3. Geriatric Trauma Patients With Cervical Spine Fractures due to Ground Level Fall: Five Years Experience in a Level One Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Coppola, Marco; Robinson, Richard D.; Scribner, James T.; Vithalani, Veer; de Moor, Carrie E.; Gandhi, Raj R.; Burton, Mandy; Delaney, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been found that significantly different clinical outcomes occur in trauma patients with different mechanisms of injury. Ground level falls (GLF) are usually considered minor trauma with less injury occurred in general. However, it is not uncommon that geriatric trauma patients sustain cervical spine (C-spine) fractures with other associated injuries due to GLF or less. The aim of this study is to determine the injury patterns and the roles of clinical risk factors in these geriatric trauma patients. Methods Data were reviewed from the institutional trauma registry of our local level 1 trauma center. All patients had sustained C-spine fracture(s). Basic clinical characteristics, the distribution of C-spine fracture(s), and mechanism of injury in geriatric patients (65 years or older) were compared with those less than 65 years old. Furthermore, different clinical variables including age, gender, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood alcohol level, and co-existing injuries were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression in geriatric trauma patients due to GLF and internally validated by random bootstrapping technique. Results From 2006 - 2010, a total of 12,805 trauma patients were included in trauma registry, of which 726 (5.67%) had sustained C-spine fracture(s). Among all C-spine fracture patients, 19.15% (139/726) were geriatric patients. Of these geriatric patients 27.34% (38/139) and 53.96% (75/139) had C1 and C2 fractures compared with 13.63% (80/587) and 21.98% (129/587) in young trauma patients (P < 0.001). Of geriatric trauma patients 13.67% (19/139) and 18.71% (26/139) had C6 and C7 fractures compared with 32.03% (188/587) and 41.40% (243/587) in younger ones separately (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 53.96% (75/139) geriatric patients had sustained C-spine fractures due to GLF with more upper C-spine fractures (C1 and C2). Only 3.2% of those had positive blood alcohol levels compared with 52.9% of younger patients (P < 0.001). In addition, 6.34% of geriatric patients due to GLF had intracranial pathology (ICP) which was one of the most common co-injuries with C-spine fractures. Logistic regression analysis showed the adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 (age) and 91.57 (male) in geriatric GLF patients to predict this co-injury pattern of C-spine fracture and ICP. Conclusion Geriatric patients tend to sustain more upper C-spine fractures than non-geriatric patients regardless of the mechanisms. GLF or less not only can cause isolated C-spines fracture(s) but also lead to other significant injuries with ICP as the most common one in geriatric patients. Advanced age and male are two risk factors that can predict this co-injury pattern. In addition, it seems that alcohol plays no role in the cause of GLF in geriatric trauma patients. PMID:23519239

  4. Influence of anthropometry on the kinematics of the cervical spine and the risk of injury in sled tests in female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Arand, Markus; Elbel, Martin; Hell, Wolfram; Kramer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of anthropometric data on the kinematics of the cervical spine and the risk factors for sustaining a neck injury during rear-end collisions occurring in a sled test. A rear-end collision with a velocity change (DeltaV) of 6.3 km/h was simulated in a sled test with eight healthy female subjects. The study analysed the association of anthropometric data with the initial distance between the head and the head restraint, defined kinematic characteristics, the neck injury criterion (NIC) and the neck injury criterion minor (NICmin). The head circumference is negatively associated (r=-0.598) with the initial distance between the head and the head restraint, the maximal head extension (r=-0.687) and the maximal dorsal angular head acceleration (r=-0.633). The body weight (r=0.800), body height (r=0.949) and thorax circumference (r=0.632) are positively associated with the maximal ventral head translation. The neck length correlates positively with the NIC (r=0.826) and negatively with the NICmin (r=-0.797). Anthropometric factors influence the kinematics of the cervical spine and the risk of injury. A high risk of injury may be assumed for individuals with a small head circumference, long neck, tall body height and high body weight. PMID:18606260

  5. Comparison of the C-MAC(®) and GlideScope(®) videolaryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine disorders and immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Brück, S; Trautner, H; Wolff, A; Hain, J; Mols, G; Pakos, P; Roewer, N; Lange, M

    2015-02-01

    In-line stabilisation of the neck can increase the difficulty of tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy. We randomly assigned 56 patients with cervical spine pathology scheduled for elective surgery to tracheal intubation using either the C-MAC(®) (n = 26) or GlideScope(®) (n = 30), when the head and neck were stabilised in-line. There was no significant difference in the median (IQR [range]) intubation times between the C-MAC (19 (14-35 [9-90]) s and the GlideScope (23, (15-32 [8-65]) s. The first-attempt failure rate for the C-MAC was 42% (95% CI 23-63%) compared with 7% (95% CI 1-22%) for the GlideScope, p = 0.002. The laryngeal view was excellent and comparable with both devices, with the C-MAC requiring significantly more attempts and optimising manoeuvers (11 vs 5, respectively, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in postoperative complaints e.g. sore throat, hoarseness and dysphagia. Both devices provided an excellent glottic view in patients with cervical spine immobilisation, but tracheal intubation was more often successful on the first attempt with the GlideScope. PMID:25265994

  6. Spinal alignment, mobility of the hip and thoracic spine and prevalence of low back pain in young elite cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Alricsson, Marie; Björklund, Glenn; Cronholm, Martin; Olsson, Oscar; Viklund, Peter; Svantesson, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between spinal alignment, mobility of the hips and the thoracic spine and low back pain in adolescent cross-country skiers. Cohort of 51 elite cross-country skiers from a cross-country skiing high school in Sweden participated in the study. Sagittal spinal alignment, active range of motion in flexion, extension and rotation of the thoracic spine as well as passive and active extension of the hips were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire regarding training, competition, skiing technique and occurrence of low back pain. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict pain score based on thoraco-lumbar relation, with a significant (P<0.05) regression equation of y=−0.069x+2.280 (standard error of estimate, 0.034). Participants with greater lordosis than kyphosis were more likely to suffer from low back pain than subjects without this offset. Thoracic mobility and passive or active hip extension showed no correlation with low back pain. Sagittal spinal alignment seems to be related with low back pain among young elite cross-country skiers. This study shows that range of motion of the thoracic spine and hips do not have an effect on the prevalence of low back pain in this population. PMID:26933656

  7. Spinal alignment, mobility of the hip and thoracic spine and prevalence of low back pain in young elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Alricsson, Marie; Björklund, Glenn; Cronholm, Martin; Olsson, Oscar; Viklund, Peter; Svantesson, Ulla

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the association between spinal alignment, mobility of the hips and the thoracic spine and low back pain in adolescent cross-country skiers. Cohort of 51 elite cross-country skiers from a cross-country skiing high school in Sweden participated in the study. Sagittal spinal alignment, active range of motion in flexion, extension and rotation of the thoracic spine as well as passive and active extension of the hips were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire regarding training, competition, skiing technique and occurrence of low back pain. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict pain score based on thoraco-lumbar relation, with a significant (P<0.05) regression equation of y=-0.069x+2.280 (standard error of estimate, 0.034). Participants with greater lordosis than kyphosis were more likely to suffer from low back pain than subjects without this offset. Thoracic mobility and passive or active hip extension showed no correlation with low back pain. Sagittal spinal alignment seems to be related with low back pain among young elite cross-country skiers. This study shows that range of motion of the thoracic spine and hips do not have an effect on the prevalence of low back pain in this population. PMID:26933656

  8. Skeletal spine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The spine is divided into several sections. The cervical vertebrae make up the neck. The thoracic vertebrae comprise the chest section and have ribs attached. The lumbar vertebrae are the remaining vertebrae below ...

  9. The Cervical Spine of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Regionalization in Their S-Shaped Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.; Wagner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Background Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. Methodology/Principal findings X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola) and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1−C14). The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14) formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. Conclusions/Significance A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3–7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further characterize morphology and the potential movements associated with it. PMID:24651767

  10. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy.A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs.Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  11. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy. A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs. Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  12. Effect of laser acupuncture versus traditional acupuncture in neck pain of cervical spondylosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kharbotly, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Alyaa A.; Mohammed, Mouchira A.; El-Masry, Manal R.; Daoud, Eitedal M.; Hassan, Nagwa; Abdel-Wahab, Khaled G.; Helmy, Ghada; Mostafa, Taymour

    2014-02-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to compare the efficiency of laser versus traditional acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis (CS) pain. Forty female patients were randomized into two equal groups that received 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks. Group A received needle acupuncture therapy with electrical stimulation for 20 min at standard acupoints, ear points and Ashi point on the average 3 points. Group B received low level laser therapy (LLLT) acupuncture at the same acupoints. The results demonstrated that tenderness disappeared in 65% of patients in group A and 75% of patients in group B with improved percentage of 85.5% and 89.2%. Pain on VAS related to direction of motion at 6 directions was improved in all cases where with improvement percentage 76.45% and 85.88%. Pain on VAS at rest was improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 80.41% and 84.28%. NDIQ score improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 69.78% and 73.77%. Follow up of VAS after 6 months from the last session revealed persistent improvement in 55% of patients of group A vs 80% of patients of group B. Mean serum TNF-α was decreased in 85% of patients of group A vs 95% of patients of group B where serum beta endorphins was increased in all patients. It is concluded that both modes of treatment for CS gave improvement regarding pain intensity, disability and quality of life being more evident in LLLT followed for 6 months supported with improved serum TNFα and beta endorphin.

  13. Effect of Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injection: Analysis According to the Neck Pain Patterns and MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Won; Lim, Hyung Woo; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Won Il; Lee, Eun Kyung; Chang, Choo Hoon; Yang, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that cervical interlaminar steroid injection (CIESI) is more effective in treating radicular pain than axial neck pain, but without direct comparison. And the differences of effect after CIESI according to MRI findings are inconsistent. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the therapeutic response of CIESI according to pain sites, durations, MRI findings, and other predictive factors altogether, unlike previous studies, which evaluated them separately. Methods The medical records of 128 patients who received fluoroscopy guided CIESI were analyzed. We evaluated the therapeutic response (more than a 50% reduction on the visual analog scale [VAS] by their second visit) after CIESI by (1) pain site; neck pain without radicular pain/radicular pain with or without neck pain, (2) pain duration; acute/chronic (more than 6 month), and (3) findings of MRI; herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD)/spinal stenosis, respectively and altogether. Results Eighty-eight patients (68%) responded to CIESI, and there were no significant differences in demographic data, initial VAS score, or laboratory findings. And there were no significant differences in the response rate relating to pain site, pain duration, or MRI findings, respectively. In additional analysis, acute radicular pain with HIVD patients showed significantly better response than chronic neck pain with spinal stenosis (P = 0.04). Conclusions We cannot find any sole predictive factor of therapeutic response to the CIESI. But the patients having acute radicular pain with HIVD showed the best response, and those having other chronic neck pain showed the worst response to CIESI. PMID:27103964

  14. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Interlaminar and Transforaminal Epidural Injection in Patients With Axial Pain due to Cervical Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Transforaminal (TF) approach is preferred by physician to interlaminar (IL) approach because it can deliver injectates directly around nerve root and dorsal root ganglion, which is regarded as main pain sources. Axial neck pain is originated from sinuvertebral nerve located in ventral epidural spaces, which has been described to be related to central or paramedian disc herniation. It is very questionable that TF injection is also more effective than IL injection in the patients with axial neck or interscapular pain. This study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of cervical epidural injection in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation and to compare the clinical outcomes between TF and IL approaches. Fifty-six and 52 patients who underwent IL and TF epidural injections, respectively, for axial neck/interscapular pain due to central or paramedian cervical disc herniation were included. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were compared between both groups at 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Successful pain relief was defined if a 50% or more reduction of NRS score was achieved in comparison with pretreatment one. Successful functional improvement was defined if at least a 40% reduction of NDI was obtained. Overall, 79 (73.1%) and 57 (52.8%) among 108 patients showed successful pain relief at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. Seventy-six (70.4%) and 52 (48.1%) had successful functional improvement at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The IL and TF groups showed no significant difference in proportion of successful results of NRS 2 weeks (73.2% vs 67.3%) and 8 weeks (48.2% vs 48.1%). Also, no significant difference was obtained in proportion of successful NDI between 2 groups at 2 weeks (75.0% vs 71.2%) and 8 weeks (53.6% vs 51.9%). Cervical epidural injection showed favorable results in 2 weeks and moderate results in 8 weeks in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation. IL and TF showed no significant difference in clinical efficacy. Considering TF was relevant to more serious side effects, IL was more recommendable in these patients. PMID:26825899

  15. Influence of intense light stimulation on trigeminal and cervical pain perception thresholds.

    PubMed

    Kowacs, P A; Piovesan, E J; Werneck, L C; Tatsui, C E; Lange, M C; Ribas, L C; da Silva, H P

    2001-04-01

    Thirty-three migraineurs and 23 healthy controls were submitted to pressure algometry before and after light-induced discomfort was elicited by progressive light stimulation in a monoblind fashion. Pressure algometries were performed on the emergence of the supraorbital, infraorbital, mental and greater occipital nerves, and over the temporal muscles, always throughout the same sequence and from right to left. Measurements were carried out before and immediately after light stimulation and after 10 min of the second algometry. The final result for each site measured at each time-point was the mean of the three measurements. Light stimulation was carried out progressively until light-induced discomfort was reported, to a maximum of 20,000 lux. A heat-blocking glass protected patients' eyes. Migraineurs presented significant and persistent drops in pain perception thresholds after light stimulation, at all sites tested (P = 0.002 to < 0.0001). These drops were not seen in controls, in whom, conversely, a less significant increase was seen on right infraorbital and left temporal muscle sites. Our results indicate that in migraineurs, light may have a relevant role in trigeminal and cervical pain perception thresholds. PMID:11442552

  16. Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Trial Comparing Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc to Anterior Discectomy and Fusion in the Treatment of Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun W.; Davis, Reginald; Gaede, Steven; Hoffman, Greg; Kim, Kee; Nunley, Pierce D.; Peterson, Daniel; Rashbaum, Ralph; Stokes, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating symptomatic cervical disc degeneration. Cervical total disc replacements (TDRs) have emerged as an alternative for some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new TDR device compared with ACDF for treating single-level cervical disc degeneration. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. A total of 245 patients were treated (164 TDR: 81 ACDF). The primary outcome measure was overall success based on improvement in Neck Disability Index (NDI), no subsequent surgical interventions, and no adverse events (AEs) classified as major complications. Secondary outcome measures included SF-12, visual analog scale (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, patient satisfaction, radiographic range of motion, and adjacent level degeneration. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The hypothesis was that the TDR success rate was non-inferior to ACDF at 24 months. Results Overall success rates were 73.6% for TDR and 65.3% for ACDF, confirming non-inferiority (p < 0.0025). TDR demonstrated earlier improvements with significant differences in NDI scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, and VAS neck pain and SF-12 PCS scores at 6 weeks (p<0.05). Operative level range of motion in the TDR group was maintained throughout follow-up. Radiographic evidence of inferior adjacent segment degeneration was significantly greater with ACDF at 12 and 24 months (p < 0.05). AE rates were similar. Conclusions Mobi-C TDR is a safe and effective treatment for single-level disc degeneration, producing outcomes similar to ACDF with less adjacent segment degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level I. Clinical relevance: This study adds to the literature supporting cervical TDR as a viable option to ACDF in appropriately selected patients with disc degeneration. PMID:25694918

  17. Exercise to Boost Spine Muscles Can Ease Back Pain, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back Pain, Study Suggests Clinical trial review shows motor control exercise helpful for lower back To use the ... new study suggests. This type of program -- called motor control exercise -- begins with patients practicing normal use of ...

  18. Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spine pain due to synovial cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cox, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to report the findings resulting from chiropractic care using flexion distraction spinal manipulation for a patient with low back and radicular pain due to spinal stenosis caused by a synovial cyst. Case Report A 75-year-old man presented with low back pain radiating to the right anterior thigh and down the left posterior leg of 3 years' duration. Physical and imaging examinations showed a synovial cyst–induced spinal stenosis at the right L3-L4 level and bilateral L4-L5 spinal stenosis. Intervention and Outcomes Flexion distraction spinal manipulation and physiological therapeutics were applied at the levels of stenosis. After 4 visits, the patient noted total absence of the right and left lower extremity pain and no adverse reaction to treatment. After 3 months of treatment and 16 visits, his low back and buttock pain were minimal; and he had no leg pain. Conclusion Lumbar synovial cyst and stenosis–generated low back and radicular pain was 80% relieved in a 75-year-old man following Cox flexion distraction spinal manipulation. PMID:22942836

  19. The Effect of a New Neck Support Tying Method Using Thera-Band on Cervical ROM and Shoulder Muscle Pain after Overhead Work.

    PubMed

    Yoo, In-Gyu; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] This study proposed a new neck support tying (NST) method using Thera-Band for the prevention of neck and shoulder pain in workers doing overhead work. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the new NST method using Thera-Band on cervical ROM and shoulder pain after overhead work. [Subjects] Fourteen male subjects were recruited. [Methods] This study measured the cervical ROM and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper and middle trapezius (UT and MT) muscles after the control and NST groups had performed overhead work. [Results] The cervical flexion, extension, and lateral flexion angles of the NST group were significantly larger than those of the control group. The PPTs of UT and MT of the NST group were significantly higher than those of the control group [Conclusion] The NST prevented ROM reduction and pain in the cervical and shoulder regions. PMID:24259866

  20. Alterations in cervical muscle activity in functional and stressful tasks in female office workers with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Johnston, V; Jull, G; Darnell, R; Jimmieson, N L; Souvlis, T

    2008-06-01

    This study determined differences between computer workers with varying levels of neck pain in terms of work stressors, employee strain, electromyography (EMG) amplitude and heart rate response to various tasks. Participants included 85 workers (33, no pain; 38, mild pain; 14, moderate pain) and 22 non-working controls. Work stressors evaluated were job demands, decision authority, and social support. Heart rate was recorded during three tasks: copy-typing, typing with superimposed stress and a colour word task. Measures included electromyography signals from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM), anterior scalene (AS), cervical extensor (CE) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles bilaterally. Results showed no difference between groups in work stressors or employee strain measures. Workers with and without pain had higher measured levels of EMG amplitude in SCM, AS and CE muscles during the tasks than controls (all P < 0.02). In workers with neck pain, the UT had difficulty in switching off on completion of tasks compared with controls and workers without pain. There was an increase in heart rate, perceived tension and pain and decrease in accuracy for all groups during the stressful tasks with symptomatic workers producing more typing errors than controls and workers without pain. These findings suggest an altered muscle recruitment pattern in the neck flexor and extensor muscles. Whether this is a consequence or source of the musculoskeletal disorder cannot be determined from this study. It is possible that workers currently without symptoms may be at risk of developing a musculoskeletal disorder. PMID:18293008

  1. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, Łukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of “halo-vest” system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of “halo-vest” traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656

  2. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Wiktor, Łukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of "halo-vest" system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of "halo-vest" traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656

  3. The Nijmegen Decision Tool for Chronic Low Back Pain. Development of a Clinical Decision Tool for Secondary or Tertiary Spine Care Specialists

    PubMed Central

    van Hooff, Miranda L.; van Loon, Jan; van Limbeek, Jacques; de Kleuver, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, low back pain has the greatest burden of all diseases. When back pain persists, different medical specialists are involved and a lack of consensus exists among these specialists for medical decision-making in Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP). Objective To develop a decision tool for secondary or tertiary spine care specialists to decide which patients with CLBP should be seen by a spine surgeon or by other non-surgical medical specialists. Methods A Delphi study was performed to identify indicators predicting the outcome of interventions. In the preparatory stage evidence from international guidelines and literature were summarized. Eligible studies were reviews and longitudinal studies. Inclusion criteria: surgical or non-surgical interventions and persistence of complaints, CLBP-patients aged 18–65 years, reported baseline measures of predictive indicators, and one or more reported outcomes had to assess functional status, quality of life, pain intensity, employment status or a composite score. Subsequently, a three-round Delphi procedure, to reach consensus on candidate indicators, was performed among a multidisciplinary panel of 29 CLBP-professionals (>five years CLBP-experience). The pre-set threshold for general agreement was ≥70%. The final indicator set was used to develop a clinical decision tool. Results A draft list with 53 candidate indicators (38 with conclusive evidence and 15 with inconclusive evidence) was included for the Delphi study. Consensus was reached to include 47 indicators. A first version of the decision tool was developed, consisting of a web-based screening questionnaire and a provisional decision algorithm. Conclusions This is the first clinical decision tool based on current scientific evidence and formal multidisciplinary consensus that helps referring the patient for consultation to a spine surgeon or a non-surgical spine care specialist. We expect that this tool considerably helps in clinical decision-making spine care, thereby improving efficient use of scarce sources and the outcomes of spinal interventions. PMID:25133645

  4. Cervical Laminoplasty: The History and the Future

    PubMed Central

    KUROKAWA, Ryu; KIM, Phyo

    Cervical laminoplasty was developed as an alternative to cervical laminectomy for treatment of cervical myelopathy, in which hinges are created to lift the lamina. Various techniques of laminoplasty have since been developed after two prototype techniques: Hirabayashi’s open-door laminoplasty and Kurokawa’s spinous process splitting (double-door) laminoplasty. Several in vitro studies report superior biomechanical stability of the cervical spine after laminoplasty compared with laminectomy. In clinical situation, randomized control studies are scarce and superiority of one procedure over another is not uniformly shown. Lack of hard evidence supporting the purported advantages of laminoplasty over laminectomy, that is, reduced rate of postoperative instability and kyphosis development, while preserving range of motion (ROM), has been a weak selling point. Currently, laminoplasty is performed by majority of spine surgeons in Japan, but is rarely performed in the United States and Europe. Recent development in laminoplasty is preservation of muscle attachment, which enabled dynamic stabilization of the cervical spine by neck extensor muscles. After treatment with new laminoplasty techniques with active postoperative neck ROM exercises, postoperative instability, kyphosis, axial neck pain, and loss of ROM seems minimal. Well-designed clinical trials to show the effectiveness and long-term outcome of this surgical procedure are warranted. PMID:26119898

  5. The immediate effects of sigmoid colon manipulation on pressure pain thresholds in the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, Terence P; Thomson, Oliver P; Johnston, Ross

    2012-10-01

    Visceral manual therapy is increasingly used by UK osteopaths and manual therapists, but there is a paucity of research investigating its underlying mechanisms, and in particular in relation to hypoalgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of osteopathic visceral mobilisation on pressure pain thresholds. A single-blinded, randomised, within subjects, repeated measures design was conducted on 15 asymptomatic subjects. Pressure pain thresholds were measured at the L1 paraspinal musculature and 1st dorsal interossei before and after osteopathic visceral mobilisation of the sigmoid colon. The results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in pressure pain thresholds immediately after the intervention (P<0.001). This effect was not observed to be systemic, affecting only the L1 paraspinal musculature. This novel study provides new experimental evidence that visceral manual therapy can produce immediate hypoalgesia in somatic structures segmentally related to the organ being mobilised, in asymptomatic subjects. PMID:23036875

  6. Use of McKenzie cervical protocol in the treatment of radicular neck pain in a machine operator

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Sundeep

    2003-01-01

    A case of mechanical neck pain with radiation into the upper extremity in a 53-year-old man is presented. The use of standard chiropractic manipulative therapy was not an option due to patient apprehension. A reduction of symptoms was reported with certain spinal movements. This made the patient a candidate for the use of spinal loading strategies as described by McKenzie. The application of McKenzie cervical therapy resulted in improved symptoms and function in this individual. The McKenzie protocol, and its use in the management of neck pain, is discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  7. Inter-operator Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Cerebrospinal Fluid Motion in the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryn A; Yiallourou, Theresia I; Pahlavian, Soroush Heidari; Thyagaraj, Suraj; Bunck, Alexander C; Loth, Francis; Sheffer, Daniel B; Kröger, Jan Robert; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    For the first time, inter-operator dependence of MRI based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cervical spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) is evaluated. In vivo MRI flow measurements and anatomy MRI images were obtained at the cervico-medullary junction of a healthy subject and a Chiari I malformation patient. 3D anatomies of the SSS were reconstructed by manual segmentation by four independent operators for both cases. CFD results were compared at nine axial locations along the SSS in terms of hydrodynamic and geometric parameters. Intraclass correlation (ICC) assessed the inter-operator agreement for each parameter over the axial locations and coefficient of variance (CV) compared the percentage of variance for each parameter between the operators. Greater operator dependence was found for the patient (0.19 < ICC < 0.99) near the craniovertebral junction compared to the healthy subject (ICC > 0.78). For the healthy subject, hydraulic diameter and Womersley number had the least variance (CV = ~2%). For the patient, peak diastolic velocity and Reynolds number had the smallest variance (CV = ~3%). These results show a high degree of inter-operator reliability for MRI-based CFD simulations of CSF flow in the cervical spine for healthy subjects and a lower degree of reliability for patients with Type I Chiari malformation. PMID:26446009

  8. Cervical spine surgery in patients with diastrophic dysplasia: Case report with long-term follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jasiewicz, Barbara; Potaczek, Tomasz; Duda, Sławomir; Tęsiorowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Cervical kyphosis in diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a very dangerous deformity which may lead to compression of neural structures resulting in tetraplegia or even. Treatment of this deformity is usually surgical, but no long-term follow-up studies are presented in the literature. Authors present a case of two children with DTD who underwent anterior corpectomy due to severe cervical kyphosis. The kyphotic deformity was corrected and the normal spinal canal width was restored. The effects of the correction remained stable for respectively 6 and 10 years of the follow-up period. The unique follow-up confirms that this type of intervention leads to an effective and long lasting results. Significant cervical kyphosis in patients suffering from DTD may be treated surgically using anterior approach even in young children with a favorable and lasting results. PMID:26692703

  9. THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

  10. Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Carretero, José Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-García, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Martínez, Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis. PMID:17467038

  11. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. Results The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Conclusion Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI. PMID:26175589

  12. Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

    2013-01-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

  13. Biomechanics of the flexion of spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, H. K.; Aurora, T. S.

    1991-03-01

    Low back pain is a common problem and it involves different kinds of injury to the spine. In this article the forces and torques experienced by the spine are examined in order to understand, and possibly avoid, low back pain.

  14. Soft tissue artifact evaluation of the cervical spine in motion patterns of flexion and lateral bending: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiajia; Lui, Zhongwen; Ren, Luquan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Soft tissue artifact (STA) is increasingly becoming a focus of research as the skin marker method is widely employed in motion capture technique. At present, medical imaging methods provide reliable ways to investigate the cervical STA. Among these approaches, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly preferred tool because of its low radiation. Methods. In the study, the 3D spatial location of vertebral landmarks and corresponding skin markers of the spinous processes of the second (C2), fifth (C5), and sixth (C6) cervical levels during flexion and lateral bending were investigated. A series of static postures were scanned using MRI. Skin deformation was obtained by the Mimics software. Results. Results shows that during flexion, the maximum skin deformation occurs at C6, in the superior–inferior (Z) direction. Upon lateral bending, the maximum skin displacement occurs at C2 level, in the left–right (Y) direction. The result presents variability of soft tissue in the terms of direction and magnitude, which is consistent with the prevailing opinion. Discussion. The results testified variability of cervical STA. Future studies involving large ranges of subject classification, such as age, sex, height, gravity, and etc. should be performed to completely verify the existing hypothesis on human cervical skin deformation. PMID:27069821

  15. Soft tissue artifact evaluation of the cervical spine in motion patterns of flexion and lateral bending: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Lui, Zhongwen; Qian, Zhihui; Ren, Luquan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Soft tissue artifact (STA) is increasingly becoming a focus of research as the skin marker method is widely employed in motion capture technique. At present, medical imaging methods provide reliable ways to investigate the cervical STA. Among these approaches, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a highly preferred tool because of its low radiation. Methods. In the study, the 3D spatial location of vertebral landmarks and corresponding skin markers of the spinous processes of the second (C2), fifth (C5), and sixth (C6) cervical levels during flexion and lateral bending were investigated. A series of static postures were scanned using MRI. Skin deformation was obtained by the Mimics software. Results. Results shows that during flexion, the maximum skin deformation occurs at C6, in the superior-inferior (Z) direction. Upon lateral bending, the maximum skin displacement occurs at C2 level, in the left-right (Y) direction. The result presents variability of soft tissue in the terms of direction and magnitude, which is consistent with the prevailing opinion. Discussion. The results testified variability of cervical STA. Future studies involving large ranges of subject classification, such as age, sex, height, gravity, and etc. should be performed to completely verify the existing hypothesis on human cervical skin deformation. PMID:27069821

  16. Adaptation of muscles of the lumbar spine to sudden imbalance in patients with lower back pain caused by military training

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Jian-guo; Ye, Hong; Liu, Zhi-rong; Zheng, Long-bao; Ni, Zhi-ming; Fan, Liang-quan; Wang, Jian; Hou, Zhen-hai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the effects of sudden load changes (expected and unexpected imbalance) on the activity of muscles of the lumbar spine and their central motor control strategy in military personnel with or without chronic low back pain (LBP). Design Bilateral sudden imbalance was examined (2 × 2 factorial design). Setting The 117th PLA Hospital, Hangzhou, China Participants Twenty-one male subjects with lower back pain and 21 male healthy control subjects were active members of the Nanjing Military Region land forces. Outcome measures Independent variables: LBP vs. healthy controls and imbalance anticipation (expected and unexpected imbalance). Dependent variables: rapid reaction time (RRT) and intensity of rapid reaction (IRR) of bilateral lumbar (L3–L4) erector spinae (ES), lumbar (L5–S1) multifidus (MF), and abdominal external oblique muscles. Results Under expected or unexpected sudden imbalance conditions, subjects with LBP demonstrated significantly greater IRR than healthy controls in ipsilateral and contralateral ES and MF, respectively (P < 0.05 for all). IRR of contralateral ES was significantly larger than that of the ipsilateral ES. A significant group effect of RRT of both ipsilateral and contralateral ES muscles and a significant time expectation effect on RRT of contralateral MF muscles were also observed. RRT of the contralateral ES muscles was significantly lower than that of the ipsilateral ES muscles (P < 0.001). Conclusions Sudden imbalance prolonged RRT of selected trunk muscles in patients with chronic LBP. The activation amplitude increased. The results may provide a theoretical basis for a study on the pathogenesis of chronic LBP. PMID:24621023

  17. The Relationship between Increased Intervertebral Disc Height and Development of Postoperative Axial Neck Pain after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Han; Baek, Dong-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the relationship between postoperative increase in intervertebral disc space height (IVH) and posterior axial neck in cases of degenerative cervical disease treated with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods A total of 155 patients who underwent ACDF with more than 1 year follow up were included. Radiologically, IVH and interfacet distance (IFD) of the operated segment were measured preoperatively and postoperatively. We clinically evaluated neck and arm pains according to visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and assessed neck disability index (NDI) scores preoperatively, postoperatively, at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. The relationship between radiological parameters, and clinical scores were analyzed using a regression analysis. Results The mean increase in IVH was 2.62 mm, and the mean increase in IFD was 0.67 mm. The VAS scores for neck pain preoperatively, postoperatively, and at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year postoperatively were 4.46, 2.11, 2.07, 1.95, and 1.29; those for arm pain were 5.89, 3.24, 3.20, 3.03, and 2.18. The NDI scores were improved from 18.52 to 7.47. No significant relationship was observed between the radiological evaluation results regarding the increase in intervertebral height or interfacet distance and clinical changes in VAS or NDI scores. Conclusion The increase in intervertebral space or interfacet distance by the insertion of a large graft material while performing ACDF for the treatment of degenerative cervical disease was not related with the change in VAS scores for neck and arm pains and NDI scores postoperatively and during the follow-up period. PMID:25237430

  18. A comparison of two non-thrust mobilization techniques applied to the C7 segment in patients with restricted and painful cervical rotation

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Doug; Gruca, Mark; Marsh, Douglas; Murphy, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cervical mobilization and manipulation have been shown to improve cervical range of motion and pain. Rotatory thrust manipulation applied to the lower cervical segments is associated with controversy and the potential for eliciting adverse reactions (AR). The purpose of this clinical trial was to describe two translatory non-thrust mobilization techniques and evaluate their effect on cervical pain, motion restriction, and whether any adverse effects were reported when applied to the C7 segment. Methods: This trial included 30 participants with painful and restricted cervical rotation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one of the two mobilization techniques. Active cervical rotation and pain intensity measurements were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Within group comparisons were determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and between group comparisons were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test. Significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: Thirty participants were evaluated immediately after one of the two mobilization techniques was applied. There was a statistically significant difference (improvement) for active cervical rotation after application of the C7 facet distraction technique for both right (P = 0.022) and left (P = 0.022) rotation. Statistically significant improvement was also found for the C7 facet gliding technique for both right (P = 0.022) and left rotation (P = 0.020). Pain reduction was statistically significant for both right and left rotation after application of both techniques. Both mobilization techniques produced similar positive effects and one was not statistically superior to the other. Discussion: A single application of both C7 mobilization techniques improved active cervical rotation, reduced perceived pain, and did not produce any AR in 30 patients with neck pain and movement limitation. These two non-thrust techniques may offer clinicians an additional safe and effective manual intervention for patients with limited and painful cervical rotation. A more robust experimental design is recommended to further examine these and similar cervical translatory mobilization techniques. PMID:25395829

  19. What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

  20. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra. PMID:26998448

  1. Cervical spondylosis. An update.

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, B M; Weinstein, P R

    1996-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is caused by degenerative disc disease and usually produces intermittent neck pain in middle-aged and elderly patients. This pain usually responds to activity modification, neck immobilization, isometric exercises, and medication. Neurologic symptoms occur infrequently, usually in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. For these patients, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred initial diagnostic study. Because involvement of neurologic structures on imaging studies may be asymptomatic, consultation with a neurologist is advised to rule out other neurologic diseases. In most cases of spondylotic radiculopathy, the results of conservative treatment are so favorable that surgical intervention is not considered unless pain persists or unless there is progressive neurologic deficit. If indicated, a surgical procedure may be done through the anterior or posterior cervical spine; results are gratifying, with long-term improvement in 70% to 80% of patients. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most serious and disabling condition of this disease. Because many patients have nonprogressive minor impairment, neck immobilization is a reasonable treatment in patients presenting with minor neurologic findings or in whom an operation is contraindicated. This simple remedy will result in improvement in 30% to 50% of patients. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients presenting with severe or progressive neurologic deficits. Anterior cervical approaches are generally preferred, although there are still indications for laminectomy. Surgical results are modest, with good initial results expected in about 70% of patients. Functional outcome noticeably declines with long-term follow-up, which raises the question of whether, and how much, surgical treatment affects the natural course of the disease. Prospective randomized studies are needed to answer these questions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8855684

  2. Randomized comparative trial of cervical block protocols for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of polyps and myomas

    PubMed Central

    Lukes, Andrea S; Roy, Kelly H; Presthus, James B; Diamond, Michael P; Berman, Jay M; Konsker, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of two cervical block protocols for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine polyps and myomas using the MyoSure® device. Patients and methods This was a randomized, comparative treatment trial conducted by five private Obstetrics and Gynecology practices in the USA. Forty premenopausal women aged 18 years and older were randomized to receive either a combination para/intracervical block protocol of 37 cc local anesthetic administered at six injections sites in association with the application of topic 1% lidocaine gel, or an intracervical block protocol of 22 cc local anesthetic administered at three injections sites without topical anesthetic, for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine polyps and/or a single type 0 or type 1 submucosal myoma ≤3 cm. The main outcomes were a composite measure of procedure-related pain and pain during the postoperative recovery period, assessed by the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale (0= no pain to 10= maximum pain). The lesion characteristics, procedure time, and adverse events were summarized. Results A total of 17 polyps and eight myomas were removed in the para/intracervical block group, with diameters of 1.3±0.5 cm and 1.8±0.8 cm, respectively. In the intracervical block group, 25 polyps with a mean diameter of 1.2±0.7 cm and 7 myomas with a mean diameter of 1.9±0.9 cm were removed. The mean tissue resection time was 1.2±2.0 minutes and 1.2±1.4 minutes for the para/intracervical and intracervical block groups, respectively. The mean composite procedure-related pain score was low for both cervical block protocols, 1.3±1.4 in the para/intracervical block group vs 2.1±1.5 in the intracervical block group. During the postoperative recovery period, the mean pain scores were 0.3±0.7 vs 1.2±1.7 for the para/intracervical and intracervical block groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusion The MyoSure procedure for removal of polyps and myomas was well tolerated, with low pain scores reported for both the para/intracervical and intracervical block protocols. PMID:26543383

  3. The roles of mechanical compression and chemical irritation in regulating spinal neuronal signaling in painful cervical nerve root injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sijia; Nicholson, Kristen J; Smith, Jenell R; Gilliland, Taylor M; Syré, Peter P; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    Both traumatic and slow-onset disc herniation can directly compress and/or chemically irritate cervical nerve roots, and both types of root injury elicit pain in animal models of radiculopathy. This study investigated the relative contributions of mechanical compression and chemical irritation of the nerve root to spinal regulation of neuronal activity using several outcomes. Modifications of two proteins known to regulate neurotransmission in the spinal cord, the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), were assessed in a rat model after painful cervical nerve root injuries using a mechanical compression, chemical irritation or their combination of injury. Only injuries with compression induced sustained behavioral hypersensitivity (p≤0.05) for two weeks and significant decreases (p<0.037) in CGRP and GLT-1 immunoreactivity to nearly half that of sham levels in the superficial dorsal horn. Because modification of spinal CGRP and GLT-1 is associated with enhanced excitatory signaling in the spinal cord, a second study evaluated the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the superficial and deeper dorsal horn at day 7 after a painful root compression. The evoked firing rate was significantly increased (p=0.045) after compression and only in the deeper lamina. The painful compression also induced a significant (p=0.002) shift in the percentage of neurons in the superficial lamina classified as low- threshold mechanoreceptive (sham 38%; compression 10%) to those classified as wide dynamic range neurons (sham 43%; compression 74%). Together, these studies highlight mechanical compression as a key modulator of spinal neuronal signaling in the context of radicular injury and pain. PMID:24435733

  4. A Biomechanical Comparison of Three Different Posterior Fixation Constructs Used for C6–C7 Cervical Spine Immobilization: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    HONG, Jae Taek; QASIM, Muhammad; ESPINOZA ORÍAS, Alejandro A.; NATARAJAN, Raghu N.; AN, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The intralaminar screw construct has been recently introduced in C6–C7 fixation. The aim of the study is to compare the stability afforded by three different C7 posterior fixation techniques using a three-dimensional finite element model of a C6–C7 cervical spine motion segment. Finite element models representing three different cervical anchor types (C7 intralaminar screw, C7 lateral mass screw, and C7 pedicle screw) were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the three screw techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. ROM for pedicle screw construct was less than the lateral mass screw construct and intralaminar screw construct in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in all the three screw constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in pedicle screw construct was less than the lateral mass screw construct and intralaminar screw construct in all loading modes. This study demonstrated that the pedicle screw fixation is the strongest instrumentation method for C6–C7 fixation. Pedicle screw fixation resulted in least stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex. However, if pedicle fixation is not favorable, the laminar screw can be a better option compared to the lateral mass screw because the stress around the pedicle-vertebral body complex and ROM predicted for laminar screw construct was smaller than those of lateral mass screw construct. PMID:24418790

  5. Mast cell degranulation distinctly activates trigemino-cervical and lumbosacral pain pathways and elicits widespread tactile pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dan; Kainz, Vanessa; Burstein, Rami; Strassman, Andrew M

    2012-02-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are tissue resident immune cells that participate in a variety of allergic and other inflammatory conditions. In most tissues, MCs are found in close proximity to nerve endings of primary afferent neurons that signal pain (i.e. nociceptors). Activation of MCs causes the release of a plethora of mediators that can activate these nociceptors and promote pain. Although MCs are ubiquitous, conditions associated with systemic MC activation give rise primarily to two major types of pain, headache and visceral pain. In this study we therefore examined the extent to which systemic MC degranulation induced by intraperitoneal administration of the MC secretagogue compound 48/80 activates pain pathways that originate in different parts of the body and studied whether this action can lead to development of behavioral pain hypersensitivity. Using c-fos expression as a marker of central nervous system neural activation, we found that intraperitoneal administration of 48/80 leads to the activation of dorsal horn neurons at two specific levels of the spinal cord; one responsible for processing cranial pain, at the medullary/C2 level, and one that processes pelvic visceral pain, at the caudal lumbar/rostral sacral level (L6-S2). Using behavioral sensory testing, we found that this nociceptive activation is associated with development of widespread tactile pain hypersensitivity within and outside the body regions corresponding to the activated spinal levels. Our data provide a neural basis for understanding the primacy of headache and visceral pain in conditions that involve systemic MC degranulation. Our data further suggest that MC activation may lead to widespread tactile pain hypersensitivity. PMID:22019552

  6. Clinical feasibility of cervical exercise to improve neck pain, body function, and psychosocial factors in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Doo; Kim, Suhn Yeop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of cervical exercise on neck pain, disability, and psychosocial factors in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. [Subjects] Thirty patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, who also complained of neck pain. [Methods] The cervical exercise group (n = 15) participated in cervical exercises for 30 min, 3 times/week for 6 weeks, and the control group (n = 16) underwent conventional physical therapy alone, without exercise. The exercises were performed in the following order: cervical relaxation, local muscle stabilization, and global muscle stabilization using a sling system. [Results] Compared to the control group, the cervical exercise group demonstrated significant decreases as follows: Visual analogue scale score, 4.2 vs. 1.0; Neck disability index, 3.9 vs. 1.9; and depression on the Symptom checklist-90-revised, 9.4 vs. 4.3 and on the Hopkins symptom checklist-25, 6.3 vs. 2.8. However, anxiety on the Symptom checklist-90-revised (3.1 vs. 1.3) was not significantly different. Effect sizes were as follows: Visual analogue scale score, 1.8; Neck disability index, 0.9; depression, 1.0; and anxiety on Symptom checklist-90-revised and Hopkins symptom checklist-25, 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Cervical exercise is effective in improving neck pain, disability, and efficacy of psychological treatment for depression in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:26157221

  7. The Effect of Various Types of Motorcycle Helmets on Cervical Spine Injury in Head Injury Patients: A Multicenter Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mau-Roung; Chu, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Shin-Han; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between cervical spine injury (CSI) and helmet in head injury (HI) patients following motorcycle crashes is crucial. Controversy still exists; therefore we evaluated the effect of various types of helmets on CSI in HI patients following motorcycle crashes and researched the mechanism of this effect. Patients and Methods. A total of 5225 patients of motorcycle crashes between 2000 and 2009 were extracted from the Head Injury Registry in Taiwan. These patients were divided into case and control groups according to the presence of concomitant CSI. Helmet use and types were separately compared between the two groups and the odds ratio of CSI was obtained by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. We observed that 173 (3.3%) of the HI patients were associated with CSI. The HI patients using a helmet (odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19−0.49), full-coverage helmet (0.19, 0.10−0.36), and partial-coverage helmet (0.35, 0.21−0.56) exhibited a significantly decreased rate of CSI compared with those without a helmet. Conclusion. Wearing full-coverage and partial-coverage helmets significantly reduced the risk of CSI among HI patients following motorcycle crashes. This effect may be due to the smooth surface and hard padding materials of helmet. PMID:25705663

  8. Influence of setup errors on spinal cord dose and treatment plan quality for cervical spine tumours: a phantom study for photon IMRT and heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Christian P.; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Didinger, Bernd H.; Debus, Jürgen; Jäkel, Oliver

    2003-10-01

    Tumours partly surrounding the cervical spine may be treated by conformal radiotherapy (RT) using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) with photons or heavy charged particle RT. For both, a high setup accuracy is required to spare the radiosensitive spinal cord, if a high dose is to be delivered. A phantom study was performed to determine the variation of the dose to the spinal cord surface by predefined setup errors. The measured doses were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning programme. The influence of systematic setup errors on characteristic parameters of the treatment plan quality was quantified. The largest variation of the mean and maximum doses to the spinal cord due to setup errors was significantly larger for carbon ions than for IMRT (mean: 11.9% versus 3.9%, max: 29.2% versus 10.8% of the prescribed dose). For the comparison of measured and calculated doses, mean deviations of 3% (IMRT) and 6% (carbon ions) of the prescribed dose were obtained. These deviations have to be considered, when the spinal cord dose is assessed from the treatment plan and they may also influence the dose prescription. Carbon ions yield better values for coverage (99.9% versus 93.1%) and conformality (110% versus 126%) of the PTV as compared to IMRT, while the spinal cord is better spared. Dose distributions produced with carbon ions, however, are more sensitive to setup errors, which have to be considered during treatment.

  9. A case report of rod migration into cerebellum through foramen magnum after lateral mass fixation of cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Belsare; Sharma, Ayush; Prashant, Gedam; Parekh, Aseem

    2016-04-01

    We report on a rare case of connecting rod migration into the posterior cranial fossa after posterior cervical decompression and lateral mass screw fixation. A 55-year-old male patient who was operated on for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament complained of sudden-onset giddiness followed by loss of consciousness one and half year following surgery. CT scan showed migration of left-sided connecting rod into the right cerebellum through foramen magnum. The patient was operated on for rod removal but he sustained a cardiorespiratory arrest and died on the eighth postoperative day. Autopsy confirmed damage to the right cerebellum due to rod migration. The clinician should be aware that superior rod migration is a rare but potentially disastrous complication. Regular follow-up with radiological evaluation should be done to look for implant loosening, migration, and non-union even in asymptomatic patients. The implant should be subsequently removed after it has served its purpose. PMID:26748502

  10. The impact of spinal cord nerve roots and denticulate ligaments on cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R Shane; Bunck, Alexander C; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼ 6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS. PMID:24710111

  11. The Impact of Spinal Cord Nerve Roots and Denticulate Ligaments on Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R. Shane; Bunck, Alexander C.; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS. PMID:24710111

  12. Two-Year Follow-Up Results of Fluoroscopic Cervical Epidural Injections in Chronic Axial or Discogenic Neck Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of axial or discogenic pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Summary of Background Data: Cervical discogenic pain without disc herniation is a common cause of suffering and disability in the adult population. Once conservative management has failed and facet joint pain has been excluded, cervical epidural injections may be considered as a management tool. Despite a paucity of evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic axial or disc-related neck pain. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain as determined by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups. Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL), whereas Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL or 6 mg of nonparticulate betamethasone. The primary outcome measure was ≥ 50% improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional improvement (≥ 50%) was present at the end of 2 years in 73% of patients receiving local anesthetic only and 70% receiving local anesthetic with steroids. In the successful group of patients, however, defined as consistent relief with 2 initial injections of at least 3 weeks, significant improvement was illustrated in 78% in the local anesthetic group and 75% in the local anesthetic with steroid group at the end of 2 years. The results reported at the one-year follow-up were sustained at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and functioning in patients with chronic discogenic or axial pain that is function-limiting and not related to facet joint pain. PMID:24578607

  13. Is a single low dose of intrathecal morphine a useful adjunct to patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain control following lumbar spine surgery? A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Yen, David; Turner, Kim; Mark, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies addressing intrathecal morphine (ITM) use following spine surgery have been published either involving the pediatric population, using mid- to high-dose ITM, or not in conjunction with morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether low-dose ITM is a useful adjunct to PCA for postoperative pain control following elective lumbar spine surgery in adults. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, and received either ITM or intrathecal placebo. Postoperatively, all patients were given a PCA pump and observed for the first 24 h in a step-down unit. Measurements of: total PCA morphine consumed in the first 24 h; intensity of pain; pruritus; nausea at 4 h, 8 h and 24 h; time to first ambulation; length of hospital stay; and occurrences of respiratory depression were recorded. RESULTS: The total PCA use was significantly lower in the ITM group. There were lower average pain scores in the ITM group, which increased to that of the intrathecal placebo group over 24 h; however, this failed to attain statistical significance. There were no differences in nausea, pruritus, time to first ambulation or hospital length stay. There were no cases of respiratory depression in either group. CONCLUSIONS: ITM may be a useful adjunct to PCA, but did not decrease time to ambulation or length of stay. PMID:25996764

  14. CT-Guided Epidural/Perineural Injections in Painful Disorders of the Lumbar Spine:Short- and Extended-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Gebhard; Vetter, Sylvia; Goettmann, Dieter; Strecker, Ernst-Peter

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of short- and extended-term results of repeated epidural/perineural injections (EDT/PRT) of corticoids in painful afflictions of the lumbar spine. Methods: Thirty-two patients who had persistent radicular or low back pain for more than 6 weeks were treated with CT-guided injection therapy. By EDT/PRT, 40 mg of triamcinolonacetonid was injected either periradicularly or by a direct intraspinal epidural method at intervals of 3 weeks. Altogether, 140 EDT/PRT were performed in 32 patients (mean 4.4, range 2-8). In nine patients partial facet joint denervation with 1-2 ml of 50% alcohol solution was combined with EDT/PRT to reduce low back pain. Before and after treatment and at follow-up (mean 9.6 months), treatment success was evaluated on a visual analog scale and by physical examination (good = >50% improvement, moderate = 20%-50%, no improvement <20%).Results: Short-term (end of therapy) good or moderate improvement was achieved in 91% of patients, extended-term (mean 9.6 months) in 56%. Regarding certain subgroups, those with disc herniations of the lumbar spine showed a better outcome with good or moderate improvement in 95% short-term and 69% extended-term than those with spinal stenosis who had 72% short-term and 28% long-term. Conclusion: Results indicate that CT-guided EDT/PRT in combination with partial facet joint denervation is a safe and effective outpatient treatment.

  15. Neck pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... falls can cause severe neck injuries, such as vertebral fractures, whiplash, blood vessel injury, and even paralysis. Other ... fibromyalgia Cervical arthritis or spondylosis Ruptured disk ... spine from osteoporosis Spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spinal ...

  16. Effect of Hamstring Flexibility on Hip and Lumbar Spine Joint Excursions During Forward Reaching Tasks in Individuals With and Without Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica N.; Thomas, James S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlation between hamstring flexibility and hip and lumbar spine joint excursions during standardized reaching and forward bending tasks. Design Retrospective analysis of data obtained during two previous prospective studies that examined kinematics and kinetics during forward bending tasks in individuals with and without low back pain (LBP). Setting The two previous studies were conducted in the Motor Control Lab at Ohio University. Participants Data from a total of 122 subjects from two previous studies. Study 1: 86 subjects recovered from an episode of acute LBP (Recovered). Study 2 (unpublished findings): 18 chronic low back pain subjects (LBP) and 18 healthy matched controls (Healthy). Interventions Not Applicable. Main Outcome Measure Correlation values between hamstring flexibility as measured by straight leg raise (SLR) and amount of hip and lumbar spine joint excursions used during standardized reaching and forward bending tasks. Results No significant correlation was found between hamstring flexibility and hip and lumbar joint excursions during forward bending tasks in the LBP or Recovered groups. Straight leg raise had a significant negative correlation with lumbar spine excursions during reaching tasks to a low target in the Healthy group (Right SLR: P=.011, Left SLR: P=.004). Conclusions Hamstring flexibility is not strongly related to the amount of lumbar flexion used to perform forward bending tasks in individuals who have chronic LBP or who have recovered from LBP. More research needs to be conducted to examine the influence of hamstring flexibility on observed movement patterns to further evaluate the efficacy of flexibility training in the rehabilitation of patients with low back pain. PMID:20599054

  17. Cervical epidural abscess caused by brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Lampropoulos, Christos; Kamposos, Panagiotis; Papaioannou, Ioanna; Niarou, Vasiliki

    2012-01-01

    A 70-year-old Greek lady presented with fever, arthralgias of knees, cervical and lumbar pain during the last month. On clinical examination the patient was found to have tenderness of the cervical and the lumbar spine with great motion restriction. The blood tests revealed high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, abnormal liver function tests and a positive rheumatoid factor. Serological test for Brucella was positive while cervical MRI revealed epidural abscess and spondylodiscitis. Conservative treatment with streptomycin (it was substituted by rifampicin after the third week) and doxycyclin for 4 months significantly improved her symptoms. The frequency as well as the diagnosis and management of this manifestation are discussed. PMID:23188848

  18. Paraplegia following cervical epidural catheterization using loss of resistance technique with air: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yun Jeong; Park, Hyung Bae; Kim, Chan; Nam, Si Gweon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of paraplegia without neurologic deficit of upper extremities following cervical epidural catheterization using air during the loss of resistance technique. A 41-year-old woman diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome had upper and lower extremity pain. A thoracic epidural lead was inserted for a trial spinal cord stimulation for treating lower extremity pain and cervical epidural catheterization was performed for treating upper extremity pain. Rapidly progressive paraplegia developed six hours after cervical epidural catheterization. Spine CT revealed air entrapment in multiple thoracic intervertebral foraminal spaces and surrounding epidural space without obvious spinal cord compression before the decompressive operation, which disappeared one day after the decompressive operation. Her paraplegia symptoms were normalized immediately after the operation. The presumed cause of paraplegia was transient interruption of blood supply to the spinal cord through the segmental radiculomedullary arteries feeding the spinal cord at the thoracic level of the intervertebral foramen caused by the air. PMID:26885305

  19. Six-Degrees-of-Freedom Cervical Spine Range of Motion During Dynamic Flexion-Extension After Single-Level Anterior Arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    Anderst, William J.; Lee, Joon Y.; Donaldson, William F.; Kang, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The etiology of adjacent-segment disease following cervical spine arthrodesis remains controversial. The objective of the current study was to evaluate cervical intervertebral range of motion during dynamic flexion-extension in patients who had undergone a single-level arthrodesis and in asymptomatic control subjects. Methods: Ten patients who had undergone a single-level (C5/C6) anterior arthrodesis and twenty asymptomatic control subjects performed continuous full range-of-motion flexion-extension while biplane radiographs were collected at thirty images per second. A previously validated tracking process determined three-dimensional vertebral position on each pair of radiographs with submillimeter accuracy. Six-degrees-of-freedom kinematics between adjacent vertebrae were calculated throughout the entire flexion-extension movement cycle over multiple trials for each participant. Cervical kinematics were also calculated from images collected during static full flexion and static full extension. Results: The C4/C5 motion segment moved through a larger extension range of motion and a smaller flexion range of motion in the subjects with the arthrodesis than in the controls. The extension difference between the arthrodesis and control groups was 3.8° (95% CI [confidence interval], 0.9° to 6.6°; p = 0.011) and the flexion difference was −2.9° (95% CI, −5.3° to −0.5°; p = 0.019). Adjacent-segment posterior translation was greater in the arthrodesis group than in the controls, with a C4/C5 difference of 0.8 mm (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.6 mm) and a C6/C7 difference of 0.4 mm (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.8 mm; p = 0.016). Translation range of motion and rotation range of motion were consistently larger when measured on images collected during dynamic functional movement as opposed to images collected at static full flexion or full extension. The upper 95% CI limit for anterior-posterior translation range of motion was 3.45 mm at C3/C4 and C4/C5, but only 2.3 mm at C6/C7. Conclusions: C5/C6 arthrodesis does not affect the total range of motion in adjacent vertebral segments, but it does alter the distribution of adjacent-segment motion toward more extension and less flexion superior to the arthrodesis and more posterior translation superior and inferior to the arthrodesis during in vivo functional loading. Range of motion measured from static full-flexion and full-extension images underestimates dynamic range of motion. Clinical evaluation of excessive anterior-posterior translation should take into account the cervical vertebral level. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23515984

  20. Surgical Treatment of Aneurysmal Bone Cysts of the Spine

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Addisu; McCarthy, Edward F.; Kebaish, Khaled M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to document the presentation, location, diagnostic modalities, preoperative embolization status, treatment, histology, complications, and recurrence rates for aneurysmal bone cysts of the mobile spine. Methods We reviewed our institution's database to identify patients diagnosed with aneurysmal bone cysts of the mobile spine (excluding the sacrum) from 1995 through 2006. Of those 17 patients, three were treated elsewhere and 14 underwent surgical treatment at our institution. Of those 14 patients, the nine (mean age at presentation, 17.2 years; range, 5‥32 years) with at least 2 years of follow-up (average, 49.6 months; range, 24‥88 months) formed our study group. For those nine patients, we tabulated the presentation, location, diagnostic modalities, preoperative embolization status, treatment, histology, complications, and recurrence rates. Results Pain was the presenting symptom in all nine patients. The lesion most commonly occurred in the cervical spine (five); two occurred in the lumbar spine, and two occurred in the thoracic spine. Patients underwent resection and combined anterior and posterior spinal arthrodesis (six) or resection and posterior spinal arthrodesis (three). There were four complications: one iliac crest donor site infection, one incidental durotomy, and two neurologic defcits. We noted two recurrences (both within 3 months). Conclusions Aneurysmal bone cysts of the spine can be successfully treated with surgical resection and instrumentation. PMID:23576920

  1. A stress fracture of the lumbar spine in a professional rugby player.

    PubMed

    Castinel, Bernard H; Adam, Philippe; Prat, Christophe

    2007-05-01

    In modern rugby, the spine is subjected to great physical pressure, with an increased number of impacts, on both the cervical and the lumbar spine. This case report illustrates overuse injuries of the lumbar spine in international professional rugby players. A 32-year-old sportsman had been practising rugby for 24 years and was playing for a championship level French team when he started suffering from a right lateral pain in the lumbosacral spine. A CT scan showed a unilateral isthmolysis and a coronal irregular fracture of the right pars interarticularis of L5. This led to discussion of (1) the importance of the decision on the date of return to playing rugby and (2) the future of professional rugby players with chronic spinal injuries. PMID:17138643

  2. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    PubMed Central

    Dugoni, D.E.; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; Tarantino, R.; Ruggeri, A.G.; Delfini, R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. PRESENTATION OF CASE In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1–C5 laminectomy and a C2–C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4–C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. DISCUSSION Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. CONCLUSION The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. PMID:25462050

  3. Measurement of Intervertebral Cervical Motion by Means of Dynamic X-Ray Image Processing and Data Interpolation

    PubMed Central

    Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Romano, Maria; Sansone, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of intervertebral kinematics of the cervical spine can support the diagnosis of widespread diseases related to neck pain, such as chronic whiplash dysfunction, arthritis, and segmental degeneration. The natural inaccessibility of the spine, its complex anatomy, and the small range of motion only permit concise measurement in vivo. Low dose X-ray fluoroscopy allows time-continuous screening of cervical spine during patient's spontaneous motion. To obtain accurate motion measurements, each vertebra was tracked by means of image processing along a sequence of radiographic images. To obtain a time-continuous representation of motion and to reduce noise in the experimental data, smoothing spline interpolation was used. Estimation of intervertebral motion for cervical segments was obtained by processing patient's fluoroscopic sequence; intervertebral angle and displacement and the instantaneous centre of rotation were computed. The RMS value of fitting errors resulted in about 0.2 degree for rotation and 0.2 mm for displacements. PMID:24288523

  4. Active range of motion as an indicator for ligament and membrane lesions in the upper cervical spine after a whiplash trauma.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, we examined whether active range of neck motion (AROM) differed between persons with and without a diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder type 2 (WAD2) and explored whether magnetic resonance (MR)-verified lesions of specific ligaments or membranes at the craniovertebral junction was associated with increased or decreased motion in any particular direction among the WAD2 patients. A CROM goniometer was used for registration of flexion, extension, side bending (left and right) and rotation (left and right), respectively. The neck structures considered were the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. Our study comprised 87 WAD2 patients and 29 control persons without any known neck injury. For comparing mean values of AROM between the groups, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. WAD patients had on average a shorter range of active motion for all movements compared with the control group. The difference was statistically significant for all measures considered, except side bending to the left. Among the WAD patients, increasing severity of lesions to the alar ligaments was associated with a decrease in maximal flexion and rotation. A similar pattern was seen for lesions to the transverse ligament, but the trend test was not significant. An abnormal posterior atlanto-occipital membrane was associated with shorter range of left rotation, with a significant trend test both in analyses with and without adjustment for lesions to other structures. No significant association was found in relation to lesions to the tectorial membrane, but very few persons had such lesions. These findings indicate that soft tissue lesions may affect neck motion as reflected by AROM. However, since lesions to different structures seem to affect the same movement, AROM alone is not a sufficient indicator for soft-tissue lesions to specific structure in the upper cervical spine. PMID:17439353

  5. Head position and impact direction in whiplash injuries: associations with MRI-verified lesions of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2005-11-01

    In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine between whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) patients and population-based control persons, and examined whether MRI-verified abnormalities in WAD patients were related to accident-related factors hypothesized to be of importance for severity of injury. A total of 92 whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. Information on the accident-related factors (i.e., head position and impact direction) was obtained by a questionnaire that was answered within 1 week after the accident. The MRI examination was performed 2-9 (mean 6) years after the accident. Focus was on MRI abnormalities of the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes, graded 0-3. For all neck structures, the whiplash patients had more high-grade lesions (grade 2 or 3) than the control persons (Chi-square test, p < 0.055). An abnormal alar ligament was most common (66.3% graded 2 or 3). Whiplash patients who had been sitting with their head/neck turned to one side at the moment of collision more often had high-grade lesions of the alar and transverse ligaments (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, respectively). Severe injuries to the transverse ligament and the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane were more common in front than in rear end collisions (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the difference in MRI-verified lesions between WAD patients and control persons, and in particular the association with head position and impact direction at time of accident, indicate that these lesions are caused by the whiplash trauma. PMID:16305317

  6. Clinical assessment techniques for detecting ligament and membrane injuries in the upper cervical spine region--a comparison with MRI results.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examined whether results from a clinical test of passive mobility of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, corresponded with signs of physical injuries, as judged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results were based on examinations of 122 study participants, 92 with and 30 without a diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder, type 2. The structures considered were the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. Ordinary and weighted kappa coefficients were used as a measure of agreement, whereas McNemar's test was used for evaluating differences in rating. The clinical classification and the MRI examination both comprised four response categories (grades 0-3), with 0 representing a normal structure, and 3 indicating a structure with pronounced abnormality. In our sample, an abnormal clinical test reflected a hyper- rather than hypo-mobility. Considering all four-response categories, the kappa coefficient indicated moderate agreement (range 0.45-0.60) between the clinical and the MRI classification. The results for the membranes appeared somewhat better than for the ligaments. When there was disagreement, the classifications obtained by the clinical test were significantly lower than the MRI grading, but mainly within one grade difference. When combining grade 0-1 (normal) and 2-3 (abnormal), the agreement improved considerably (range 0.70-0.90). Although results from the clinical test seem to be slightly more conservative than the MRI assessment, we believe that a clinical test can serve as valuable clinical tool in the assessment of WAD patients. However, further validity- and reliability studies are needed. PMID:17936054

  7. Simultaneous Three-Dimensional Analysis of Cervical Spine Kinematics in the Axial and Sagittal Views during a Simulated Frontal Impact: Differences between Tensed and Relaxed States

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Masataka; Ejima, Susumu; Ito, Daisuke; Nishino, Tomofumi; Kitajima, Sou; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective experimental study on humans. Purpose To determine whether postural differences during a low-speed impact are observed in the sagittal and axial views, particularly in a relaxed state. Overview of Literature: Three-dimensional motion capture systems have been used to analyze posture and head-neck-torso kinematics in humans during a simulated low-speed impact, yet little research has focused on the axial view. Since a seatbelt asymmetrically stabilizes a drivers right shoulder and left lower waist into the seat, it potentially creates movement in the axial view. Methods Three healthy adult men participated in the experimental series, which used a low-speed sled system. The acceleration pulse created a full sine shape with a maximum acceleration of 8.0 m/s2 at 500 ms, during which the kinematics were evaluated in relaxed and tensed states. The three-dimensional motion capture system used eight markers to record and analyze body movement and head-neck-torso kinematics in the sagittal and axial views during the low-speed impact. Head and trunk rotation angles were also calculated. Results Larger movements were observed in the relaxed than in the tensed state in the sagittal view. The cervical and thoracic spine flexed and extended, respectively, in the relaxed state. In the axial view, larger movements were also observed in the relaxed state than in the tensed state, and the left shoulder rotated. Conclusions During simulated frontal impact, the rotation angle between the head and trunk was significantly larger in the relaxed state. Therefore, we recommend also observing movement in the axial view during impact tests. PMID:26713119

  8. Cervical dystonia following exposure to high-G forces.<