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Sample records for cervical spine pain

  1. Cervical Spine pain as a presenting complaint in metastatic pancreatic cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Emily; Buchtel, Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    A 48 year-old female presented to her primary care physician with a two-month history of neck pain with negative cervical spine x-rays. During that office visit, the patient was noted to be tachycardic with EKG revealing ST depressions, which led to hospital admission. Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out, however, persistent neck pain warranted inpatient MRI of the cervical spine, which revealed a cervical spine lesion. Extensive investigation and biopsy ultimately confirmed stage IV pancreatic adenocarcinoma with metastases to the bone, liver, and likely lung. In the literature, the findings of a primary metastatic site being bone is rare with only a few case reports showing vertebral or sternal metastasis as the first clinical manifestation of pancreatic cancer. The uniqueness of this case lies in the only presenting complaint being cervical spine pain in the setting of extensive metastases to the liver, bone, and likely lung. PMID:26890294

  2. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaa; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcsio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  3. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    Even JL, Eskander MS, Donaldson WF. Cervical spine injuries. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 126. Gardocki ...

  4. A randomized clinical trial to compare the immediate effects of seated thoracic manipulation and targeted supine thoracic manipulation on cervical spine flexion range of motion and pain

    PubMed Central

    Karas, Steve; Olson Hunt, Megan J

    2014-01-01

    Design Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of seated thoracic manipulation versus targeted supine thoracic manipulation on cervical spine pain and flexion range of motion (ROM). There is evidence that thoracic spine manipulation is an effective treatment for patients with cervical spine pain. This evidence includes a variety of techniques to manipulate the thoracic spine. Although each of them is effective, no research has compared techniques to determine which produces the best outcomes. Methods A total of 39 patients with cervical spine pain were randomly assigned to either a seated thoracic manipulation or targeted supine thoracic manipulation group. Pain and flexion ROM measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results Pain reduction (post-treatmentpre-treatment) was significantly greater in those patients receiving the targeted supine thoracic manipulation compared to the seated thoracic manipulation (P<0.05). Although not significant, we did observe greater improvement in flexion ROM in the targeted supine thoracic manipulation group. The results of this study indicate that a targeted supine thoracic manipulation may be more effective in reducing cervical spine pain and improving cervical flexion ROM than a seated thoracic manipulation. Future studies should include a variety of patients and physical therapists (PTs) to validate our findings. PMID:24976754

  5. Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain Vertebroplasty for Spine Fracture Pain More than 40 million people in the ... bones that puts them at risk for spine fractures (broken bones). Thinning of the bones can occur ...

  6. [Radiology of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Wackenheim, A

    1989-04-01

    The author describes some particularities seen in the abnormal or pathological image of the cervical spine: the osteolysis of the cortical bone in the spinous processes, the "Y" shaped course of the corporeal veins, the notch in interspinous bursitis, and the main forms of constitutional stenosis of the cervical canal. PMID:2727290

  7. Osteotomies in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Nemani, Venu M.; Derman, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Rigid cervical deformities are difficult problems to treat. The goals of surgical treatment include deformity correction, achieving a rigid fusion, and performing a thorough neural decompression. In stiff and ankylosed cervical spines, osteotomies are required to restore sagittal and coronal balance. In this chapter, we describe the clinical and radiographic workup for patients with cervical deformities, and delineate the various factors that must be considered when planning surgical treatment. We also describe in detail the various types of cervical osteotomies, along with their surgical technique, advantages, and potential complications. PMID:26949476

  8. Unusual cervical spine epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Liou, Jr-Han; Su, Yu-Jang

    2015-10-01

    A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department with complain of severe neck pain and anterior chest pain. Intermittent fever in the recent 2 days was also noted. There is a track maker over his left side of neck. The laboratory examination showed leukocytosis and high C-reactive protein level. Urine drug screen was positive for opiate. Empirical antibiotic administration was given. Blood culture grew gram-positive cocci in chain, and there was no vegetation found by heart echocardiogram. However, progressive weakness of four limbs was noted, and patient even cannot stand up and walk. The patient also complained of numbness sensation over bilateral hands and legs, and lower abdomen. Acute urine retention occurred. We arranged magnetic resonance imaging survey, which showed evidence of inflammatory process involving the retropharyngeal spaces and epidural spaces from the skull base to the bony level of T5. Epidural inflammatory process resulted in compression of the spinal cord and bilateral neural foramen narrowing. Neurosurgeon was consulted. Operation with laminectomy and posterior fusion with bone graft and internal fixation was done. Culture of epidural abscess and 2 sets of blood culture all yielded methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. For epidural abscess, the most common involved spine is lumbar followed by thoracic and cervical spine. Diagnosis and treatment in the drug abusers are still challenging because they lack typical presentation, drug compliance, and adequate follow-up and because it is hard to stop drug abuser habit. Significant improvement of neurological deficit can be expected in most spinal abscess in drug abusers after treatment. PMID:26298050

  9. Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine after neck injury.

    PubMed

    Beltsios, Michail; Savvidou, Olga; Mitsiokapa, Evanthia A; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Kaspiris, Angelos; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2013-07-01

    The normal sagittal alignment of the cervical spine is lordotic and is affected by the posture of the head and neck. The question of whether loss of cervical lordosis is the result of muscle spasm after injury or a normal variation, and the clinical significance of such changes in sagittal profile of the cervical spine has been an issue of several studies. The purpose of this paper is to study the incidence of normal cervical lordosis and its changes after neck injury compared to the healthy population. We studied the lateral radiographs of the cervical spine of 60 patients with neck injury compared to 100 patients without a neck injury. Lateral radiographs were obtained in the standing or sitting position, and the curvature of the cervical spine was measured using the angle formed between the inferior end plates of the C2 and C7 vertebrae. In the patients without neck injury, lordotic and straight cervical spine sagittal alignment was observed in 36.5% each, double curvature in 17%, and kyphotic in 10%. In the patients with neck injury, lordotic sagittal alignment was observed in 36%, straight in 34%, double curvature in 26% and kyphotic in 4%. No significant difference between the two groups regarding all types of sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was found (p > 0.100). The alterations in normal cervical lordosis in patients with neck injury must be considered coincidental. These alterations should not be associated with muscle spasm caused by neck pain. PMID:23412281

  10. Palliative surgery for cervical spine metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Jai; Tiruchelvarayan, Rajendra; Lee, Lester

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present study aimed to assess the immediate/early clinical outcomes and surgical results of 11 consecutive patients who underwent palliative cervical spine surgery for symptomatic spinal metastases. METHODS This single-surgeon retrospective case series analysed 12 surgical procedures that were performed for symptomatic cervical spinal metastasis in 11 consecutive patients. All surgeries were carried out at Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, from 2007 to 2013. Preoperative medical oncological assessment/staging was performed on each patient all patients presented with either axial neck pain or neurological deficits, and had no bladder or bowel symptoms. The primary outcomes analysed were postoperative neurological power and improvement in neck pain. RESULTS Anterior (n = 5), posterior (n = 4) and combined (n = 2) surgical approaches were used for decompression and stabilisation. Comparing between pre- and postoperative pain scores (scored according to the visual analog scale), and pre- and postoperative limb power scores (scored according to the Medical Research Council scale for muscle strength), we found that all patients showed improvement in their symptoms. Postoperatively, patients had either improvement or preservation of neurological power, and all patients had a decrease in axial neck pain after surgery. Although there was one case of minor pedicle screw instrumentation malplacement, this did not result in any neurological symptoms. Median survival for the patients was 108 (range 7?1,095) days. CONCLUSION Palliative surgery for cervical spine metastasis is safe with good neurological results, low complication rates, and improvement in neck pain. A multidisciplinary approach involving surgeons, medical oncologists and radiotherapists is needed to optimise patient care and outcome. PMID:25631966

  11. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably

  12. Non-rigid registration of cervical spine MRI volumes.

    PubMed

    Aktar, Mst Nargis; Jahangir Alam, Md; Pickering, Mark; Webb, Alexandra; Perriman, Diana

    2015-08-01

    Whiplash is the colloquial term for neck injuries caused by sudden extension of the cervical spine. Patients with chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD) can experience neck pain for many years after the original injury. Researchers have found some evidence to suggest that chronic whiplash is related to the amount of intra-muscular fat in the cervical spine muscles. Hence, an important step towards developing a treatment for chronic WAD is a technique to accurately and efficiently measure the amount of intra-muscular fat in the muscles of the cervical spine. Our proposed technique for making this measurement is to automatically segment the cervical spine muscles using a fused volume created from multi-modal MRI volumes of the cervical spine. Multiple modes are required to enhance the boundaries between the different muscles to assist the following automatic segmentation process. However, before these multiple modes can be fused it is first necessary to accurately register these volumes. Hence, in this paper, we have proposed a new non-rigid multi-modal registration algorithm using the sum of conditional variance (SCV) with partial volume interpolation (PVI) similarity measure and Gauss-Newton (GN) optimization for the accurate registration of multi-modal cervical spine MRI volumes. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the existing SCV based registration algorithm and the sum of the conditional squared deviation from the mode (SCSDM) method. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach provides superior performance than the best existing approaches. PMID:26736677

  13. Soft disc herniation of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Y

    1985-01-01

    The definition of soft disc hernia of the cervical spine is not always clear, so we have studied 34 cases where soft disc material was extruded or had migrated outside the intervertebral space. There were 22 cases of the paracentral-central type and 12 cases of the posterolateral type. The diagnosis was made by discography using anteroposterior, lateral and both oblique radiographs. All the patients complained of pain or discomfort in the neck or the interscapular region which was increased by the neck compression test and reproduced during discography. Severe pain in the area was present in all the cases of the posterolateral type and in about half of the paracentral-central type. Cord signs, such as increased reflexes in the lower limbs, were found in 15 cases of the paracentral-central type and in 5 cases of the posterolateral type. These signs correlated with the width of the spinal canal and the amount of prolapsed disc material. Discography and reproduction of pain were most useful for the diagnosis of this type of hernia. It has now become possible to differentiate the paracentral type from the central type by performing computerised tomography scanning after discography. We treated 12 cases conservatively and 22 cases surgically, and obtained good results in both groups. PMID:4018967

  14. Airway management in cervical spine injury

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

    2014-01-01

    To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

  15. Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

    1982-08-01

    Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

  16. Radiographic Comparison between Cervical Spine Lateral and Whole-Spine Lateral Standing Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Kang, Hwa Jun; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective radiologic study. Objective?The sagittal alignment of the cervical spine can be evaluated using either a lateral cervical radiograph or a whole-spine lateral view on which the cervical spine is included. To our knowledge, however, no report has compared the two. The purpose of this work is to identify the difference in radiographic parameters between the cervical spine lateral view and the whole-spine lateral view. Methods?We retrospectively analyzed 59 adult patients suffering from neck pain with cervical spine lateral radiographs and whole-spine lateral radiographs from November 2007 to December 2011. The radiographs were measured using standard techniques to obtain the following parameters from the two different radiographs: occipitalC2 angle, C2C7 angle, C7sternal angle, sternal slope, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, the distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, C4 anteroposterior (AP) diameter, the ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, the ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter. Results?We found that the occipitalC2 angle, sternal slope, and C4 AP diameter were similar, but the C2C7 angle, C7sternal angle, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, and ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter were different. However, the error of measurement was greater than the small angular and linear differences between the two views. Conclusions?Most numerical values of the measured radiographic parameters appear to be different between the two views. However, the two views are comparable because the numerical differences were smaller than the errors of measurement.

  17. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter; Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  18. Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.

    PubMed

    Sovio, O M; Van Peteghem, P K; Schweigel, J F

    1984-03-15

    Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. PMID:6697282

  19. Prevalence of facet joint pain in chronic spinal pain of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar regions

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Boswell, Mark V; Singh, Vijay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D

    2004-01-01

    Background Facet joints are a clinically important source of chronic cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine pain. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the prevalence of facet joint pain by spinal region in patients with chronic spine pain referred to an interventional pain management practice. Methods Five hundred consecutive patients with chronic, non-specific spine pain were evaluated. The prevalence of facet joint pain was determined using controlled comparative local anesthetic blocks (1% lidocaine or 1% lidocaine followed by 0.25% bupivacaine), in accordance with the criteria established by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). The study was performed in the United States in a non-university based ambulatory interventional pain management setting. Results The prevalence of facet joint pain in patients with chronic cervical spine pain was 55% 5(95% CI, 49% 61%), with thoracic spine pain was 42% (95% CI, 30% 53%), and in with lumbar spine pain was 31% (95% CI, 27% 36%). The false-positive rate with single blocks with lidocaine was 63% (95% CI, 54% 72%) in the cervical spine, 55% (95% CI, 39% 78%) in the thoracic spine, and 27% (95% CI, 22% 32%) in the lumbar spine. Conclusion This study demonstrated that in an interventional pain management setting, facet joints are clinically important spinal pain generators in a significant proportion of patients with chronic spinal pain. Because these patients typically have failed conservative management, including physical therapy, chiropractic treatment and analgesics, they may benefit from specific interventions designed to manage facet joint pain. PMID:15169547

  20. Fatal Cervical Spine Injury From Diving Accident.

    PubMed

    Voland, Christelle; Vilarino, Raquel; Grabherr, Silke; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexander; Palmiere, Cristian

    2015-09-01

    Spinal cord injuries result after diving into shallow water, often after incautious jumps head first into water of unknown depth during recreational or sport activities. Mortality is generally due to upper cervical trauma. The authors present a case of a diving-related death in a young woman who underwent medicolegal investigations. The measured water depth at the supposed dive site was 1.40 m. Postmortem radiology and autopsy revealed fractures of the body and the posterior arch of the fifth cervical vertebra, a fracture of the right transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra and hemorrhages involving the cervical paraspinal muscles. Neuropathology showed a posterior epidural hematoma involving the whole cervical region and a symmetric laceration of the spinal cord located at the fourth and fifth cervical vertebra level, surrounded by multiple petechial hemorrhages. Toxicology revealed the presence of ethanol in both blood and urine samples. The death was attributed to cervical spine fracture (C5-C6), spinal cord contusion, and subsequent drowning. This case highlights the usefulness of postmortem radiology, examination of the deep structures of the neck, toxicology, neuropathology, and a detailed research of signs of drowning to formulate appropriate hypotheses pertaining to the cause and mechanism of death. PMID:26108039

  1. Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James

    2009-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closure and esophageal exclusion with a Jpeg tube. The patient was eventually successfully treated with a three-stage procedure consisting of firstly a posterior approach to reinforce the posterior stabilization of the cervical spine that was felt to be inadequate, secondly an anterior approach with removal of all the anterior instrumentation followed by iliac crest bone graft and thirdly a superior based sternocleidomastoid flap that was interposed between the esophagus and the anterior cervical spine. The patient's fistula healed successfully. However, yet asymptomatic, the anterior iliac crest bone graft resorbed almost completely at 16months follow up. In light of this complication, we discuss the surgical options for the treatment of pharyngocutaneous fistulae and the closure of this fistula using a superiorly based sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. PMID:19330360

  2. Tensile properties of the human muscular and ligamentous cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Van Ee, C A; Nightingale, R W; Camacho, D L; Chancey, V C; Knaub, K E; Sun, E A; Myers, B S

    2000-11-01

    Tensile neck injuries are amongst the most serious cervical injuries. However, because neither reliable human cervical tensile tolerance data nor tensile structural data are currently available, the quantification of tensile injury risk is limited. The purpose of this study is to provide previously unavailable kinetic and tolerance data for the ligamentous cervical spine and determine the effect of neck muscle on tensile load response and tolerance. Using six male human cadaver specimens, isolated ligamentous cervical spine tests (occiput - T1) were conducted to quantify the significant differences in kinetics due to head end condition and anteroposterior eccentricity of the tensile load. The spine was then separated into motion segments for tension failure testing. The upper cervical spine tolerance of 2400 +/- 270 N (occiput-C2) was found to be significantly greater (p < 0.01) than the lower cervical spine tolerance of 1780 +/- 230 N (C4-C5 and C6-C7 segments). Data from these experiments were used to develop and validate a computational model of the ligamentous spine. The model predicted the end condition and eccentricity responses for the tensile force-displacement relationship. Cervical muscular geometry data derived from cadaver dissection and MRI imaging were used to incorporate a muscular response into the model. The cervical musculature under maximal stimulation increased the tolerance of the cervical spine from 1800 N to 4160 N. In addition, the cervical musculature resulted in a shift in the site of injury from the lower cervical spine to the upper cervical spine and offers an explanation for the mechanism of upper cervical spine tension injuries observed clinically. The results from this study predict a range in tensile tolerance from 1.8 - 4.2 kN based on the varying role of the cervical musculature. PMID:17458720

  3. 78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... oira_submission@omb.eop.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine...- ] NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire).'' SUPPLEMENTARY...

  4. EVALUATION OF THE CERVICAL SPINE AMONG PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    PubMed Central

    Passos Cardoso, André Luiz; Da Silva, Nilzio Antonio; Daher, Sérgio; De Moraes, Frederico Barra; Do Carmo, Humberto Franco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of cervical spine abnormalities among patients with rheumatoid arthritis and correlate the imaging findings with the clinical state. Methods: A cross-sectional study on 35 patients was carried out at the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) in 2004. The following were evaluated: age, use of medications and the clinical picture of pain and neurological characteristics. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and rheumatoid factor were tested, and radiographs of the cervical spine were produced in anteroposterior, lateral and dynamic views. To evaluate the influence of the variables on the emergence of instabilities, univariate and multivariate logistic regression tests were used (p < 0.05). Results: Among the 35 patients evaluated, 13 (37.1%) presented a stable cervical spine. Out of the 22 patients with instability, six presented more than one type. Atlantoaxial instability was found in 15 patients, with a mean anterior atlantodental distance of 3.40 mm in the neutral lateral radiographic view and 6.54 mm in the lateral view with flexion. Basilar invagination was found in five patients and subaxial subluxation in seven patients. Two thirds of the asymptomatic patients had instabilities. Bicipital hyperreflexia presented statistically significant correlations with atlantoaxial instability (p = 0.024) and subaxial instability (p = 0.01). Age at diagnosis correlated with subaxial instability (p = 0.02). Conclusions: The prevalence of cervical instability was 62.9 % (22/35). The most frequent instabilities were: atlantoaxial subluxation (42.9 %), subaxial subluxation (20%) and basilar invagination (14.3%). The correlation between instabilities and clinical signs and symptoms was poor. The patients with subaxial subluxation presented disease onset at a younger age. Dynamic radiography was important for diagnosing atlantoaxial subluxation.

  5. Misdiagnosing Absent Pedicle of Cervical Spine in the Acute Trauma Setting

    PubMed Central

    Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026

  6. Misdiagnosing Absent Pedicle of Cervical Spine in the Acute Trauma Setting.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Fahad H; Rossel, Felipe; Nooh, Anas; Jarzem, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Congenital absence of cervical spine pedicle can be easily misdiagnosed as facet dislocation on plain radiographs especially in the acute trauma setting. Additional imaging, including computed tomography (CT)-scan with careful interpretation is required in order to not misdiagnose cervical posterior arch malformation with subsequent inappropriate management. A 39-year-old patient presented to the emergency unit of our university hospital after being trampled by a cow over her back and head followed by loss of consciousness, retrograde amnesia and neck pain. Her initial cervical CT-scan showed possible C5-C6 dislocation, then, it became clear that her problem was a misdiagnosed congenital cervical abnormality. Patient was treated symptomatically without consequences. The congenital absence of a cervical pedicle is a very unusual condition that is easily misdiagnosed. Diagnosis can be accurately confirmed with a CT-scan of the cervical spine. Symptomatic conservative treatment will result in resolution of the symptoms. PMID:26605026

  7. [Whiplash injuries of the cervical spine. A catamnestic study].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, H; Mumenthaler, M

    1975-01-01

    Whiplash injuries of the cervical spine are due to the rapid sequence of movements in opposite direction. They are mainly following rear-end collisions where the trunk is pushed rapidly forward. Very important forces act therefore on the different segments of the cervical spine and lead to lesions of the perispinal soft tissues, of the ligaments, of the disks and the bony structures. In 24 tables, the signs and symptoms in 104 personal cases observed for a period which lasted more than 4 years are described. Amongst the clinical signs there are cervical strain, cervico brachial pain, headaches, radicular signs as well as symptoms of concussion and cercial medullar lesion. Radiological findings are discrete; functional X-rays sometimes show local diminution of motility in a single segment. The treatments, amongst these immobilisation and local heat, are discussed. The unusually long duration of local disturbance is stressed. Signs of neurasthenia are part of the typical findings and do not at all mean a secondary neurotic development. PMID:1119976

  8. High Grade Infective Spondylolisthesis of Cervical Spine Secondary to Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Hadgaonkar, Shailesh; Shah, Kunal; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2015-12-01

    Spondylolisthesis coexisting with tuberculosis is rarely reported. There is a controversy whether spondylolisthesis coexists or precedes tuberculosis. Few cases of pathological spondylolisthesis secondary to tuberculous spondylodiscitis have been reported in the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. All cases in the literature presented as anterolisthesis, except one which presented as posterolisthesis of lumbar spine. Spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine is mainly degenerative and traumatic. Spondylolisthesis due to tuberculosis is not reported in the lower cervical spine. The exact mechanism of such an occurrence of spondylolisthesis with tuberculosis is sparsely reported in the literature and inadequately understood. We report a rare case of high grade pathological posterolisthesis of the lower cervical spine due to tubercular spondylodiscitis in a 67-year-old woman managed surgically with a three-year follow-up period. This case highlights the varied and complex presentation of tuberculosis of the lower cervical spine and gives insight into its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. PMID:26640638

  9. High Grade Infective Spondylolisthesis of Cervical Spine Secondary to Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hadgaonkar, Shailesh; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2015-01-01

    Spondylolisthesis coexisting with tuberculosis is rarely reported. There is a controversy whether spondylolisthesis coexists or precedes tuberculosis. Few cases of pathological spondylolisthesis secondary to tuberculous spondylodiscitis have been reported in the lumbar and lumbosacral spine. All cases in the literature presented as anterolisthesis, except one which presented as posterolisthesis of lumbar spine. Spondylolisthesis in the cervical spine is mainly degenerative and traumatic. Spondylolisthesis due to tuberculosis is not reported in the lower cervical spine. The exact mechanism of such an occurrence of spondylolisthesis with tuberculosis is sparsely reported in the literature and inadequately understood. We report a rare case of high grade pathological posterolisthesis of the lower cervical spine due to tubercular spondylodiscitis in a 67-year-old woman managed surgically with a three-year follow-up period. This case highlights the varied and complex presentation of tuberculosis of the lower cervical spine and gives insight into its pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. PMID:26640638

  10. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a whiplash-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  11. [Imaging strategy for cervical spine injury].

    PubMed

    Gerbeaux, Patrick; Portier, Franois

    2003-12-13

    MAKING THE DIAGNOSIS: Exploration strategies when faced with a suspected spine injury have improved with the recent development of new imaging techniques (notably the helical CT scan). A selection must be made between the techniques available in order to optimise diagnostic habits. THE FUNDAMENTAL POINTS: The clinical examination identifies the small group of patients that does not require radiographic exploration. When cervical lesions exist, they are often multiple and layered. This justifies the fact that, if an exploration of the cervical spine is proposed, it should be complete and include the upper and lower hinges. The quality of the standard images (face, profile, mouth open) varies greatly. Their negative quality and predictive value decreases when the severity of the injury increases. PARTICULAR EXAMINATIONS: Scanning is the most efficient technique for not only detecting but also formally eliminating an injury. Its indications should therefore be extended but also limited to a selected population. The MRI is currently a second line examination, indicated for any suspicion of a neurological lesion, notably of the bone marrow. Lesions of the ligaments are often missed and should be systematically searched for using dynamic imaging. These can be done at distance from the injury. PMID:14713882

  12. Clavicle pain and reduction of incisional and fascial pain after posterior cervical surgery.

    PubMed

    Duetzmann, Stephan; Cole, Tyler; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; Ratliff, John Kevin; Park, Jon

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Incisional pain after posterior cervical spine surgery can be severe and very unpleasant to the patient. Ongoing incisional pain is one of the key disadvantages of posterior over anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine. It prolongs hospital stays and delays return to work. In this study, the hypothesized that incisional pain in the immediate postoperative period is caused partially by tension on the skin as well as on the deep cervical fascia and the fascia overlying the trapezius, which are usually sewn together during closure. Reduction of this tension through retraction of the shoulders should therefore reduce pain as well as the amount of pain medication used in the early postoperative period. METHODS In this prospective randomized controlled study, 30 patients who had undergone posterior cervical spine surgery were randomized into 2 groups who either wore or did not wear a clavicle brace to retract the shoulders. Patients in the brace group began wearing the brace on postoperative day (POD) 4 and wore it continuously throughout the 30-day study period. Outcome was assessed by two measures: 1) the daily level of self reported pain according to the visual analog scale (VAS) and 2) the number of pain pills taken during the 30-day postoperative period. RESULTS Wearing a clavicle brace in the immediate postoperative period significantly reduced incisional pain and the amount of pain medication that patients took. Beginning on POD 4 and continuing until day POD 13, the mean daily VAS score for pain was significantly lower in the brace group than in the control group. Furthermore, patients who wore the clavicle brace took less pain medication from POD 4 to POD 12. At this point the difference lost significance until the end of the study period. Four patients were randomized but did not tolerate wearing the brace. CONCLUSIONS Patients who tolerated wearing the clavicle brace after posterior cervical spine surgery had reduced pain and used less pain medication. PMID:26296190

  13. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the thoracic spine. PMID:26308707

  14. Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery for Degenerative Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    SUGAWARA, Taku

    Anterior cervical spine surgery is an established surgical intervention for cervical degenerative disease and high success rate with excellent long-term outcomes have been reported. However, indications of surgical procedures for certain conditions are still controversial and severe complications to cause neurological dysfunction or deaths may occur. This review is focused mainly on five widely performed procedures by anterior approach for cervical degenerative disease; anterior cervical discectomy, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion, anterior cervical foraminotomy, and arthroplasty. Indications, procedures, outcomes, and complications of these surgeries are discussed. PMID:26119899

  15. Protocol to Clear Cervical Spine Injuries in Pediatric Trauma Patients.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Pamela M; Alwood, Shannon M; Zeretzke-Bien, Cristina; Chalasani, Swathi; Herskovitz, Scott; Blanchard, Meagan C; Lin, Yea Ping

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation to which young trauma patients are subjected, a cervical spine clearance project was implemented. The aim was to increase the number of pediatric trauma patients clinically cleared and decrease the number of such patients undergoing cervical spine CT imaging when they met clinical clearance criteria. To accomplish the goals, a brief education program about the epidemiology of pediatric cervical spine injuries, radiation exposure risks, and safe and effective means available for cervical spine clearance to pediatric trauma providers was delivered. This was made possible through funds awarded by the AHRA & Toshiba Putting Patients First grant. Mean knowledge scores after the program increased significantly for all groups of providers. This study showed that after implementation of the cervical spine clinical clearance protocol, there was an increase of 35.7% in the number of patients who were clinically cleared based on the protocol's criteria. Additionally, a 24%. decrease was seen in the number of pediatric patients undergoing CT scans of the cervical spine when they met criteria for clinical clearance of the cervical spine. PMID:26571972

  16. Epidemiology and risk factors for spine pain.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Devon I

    2007-05-01

    Low back and neck pain is a common problem and one of enormous social, psychologic, and economic burden. It is estimated that 15% to 20% of adults have back pain during a single year and 50% to 80% experience at least one episode of back pain during a lifetime. Low back pain afflicts all ages, from adolescents to the elderly, and is a major cause of disability in the adult working population. Risk factors for developing spine pain are multidimensional; physical attributes, socioeconomic status, general medical health and psychologic state, and occupational environmental factors all contribute to the risk for experiencing pain. PMID:17445733

  17. CERVICAL SPINE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: PERPETUATING RATHER THAN PREDISPOSING FACTORS FOR TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS IN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Dbora; Chaves, Thas Cristina; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of female community cases the relationship between the increase of percentage of cervical signs and symptoms and the severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and vice-versa. Material and Methods: One hundred women (aged 18-26 years) clinically diagnosed with TMD signs and symptoms and cervical spine disorders were randomly selected from a sample of college students. Results: 43% of the volunteers demonstrated the same severity for TMD and cervical spine disorders (CSD). The increase in TMD signs and symptoms was accompanied by increase in CSD severity, except for pain during palpation of posterior temporal muscle, more frequently observed in the severe CSD group. However, increase in pain during cervical extension, sounds during cervical lateral flexion, and tenderness to palpation of upper fibers of trapezius and suboccipital muscles were observed in association with the progression of TMD severity. Conclusion: The increase in cervical symptomatology seems to accompany TMD severity; nonetheless, the inverse was not verified. Such results suggest that cervical spine signs and symptoms could be better recognized as perpetuating rather than predisposing factors for TMD. PMID:19089141

  18. Tumoral calcinosis involving the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Nashimoto, Takeo; Shibuya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of calcified masses in the juxta-articular regions of the extremities. Involvement of the cervical spine is very rare. In this report, the characteristics of TC of the cervical spine, including the clinical presentation, radiographic features, and surgical management are discussed. Case Description: A 90-year-old healthy female suffering from numbness of the upper extremities for 3 months presented with a 2-week history of progressive weakness of the lower extremities. A neurological examination revealed mild weakness and sensory impairment of the bilateral upper and lower extremities. Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated amorphous calcified masses posterior to the spinous process that extended into the interlaminar spaces of C3/4 and C4/5. The masses involved the posterior elements of C3-C4. Interestingly, CT scans performed 4 years earlier showed subtle calcification of a yellow ligament at C3/4 and C4/5. However, neither calcified masses nor bone erosion were observed. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the mass showed hypointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was compressing the spinal cord and was resected surgically. The pathological findings were consistent with those of TC. The natural history of TC is not understood. However, this case suggests that calcified masses may progress within several years and that the bone around the mass may be involved. Postoperatively, residual masses may disappear spontaneously, while new bone is formed in the erosive lamina and facet. Conclusion: The treatment of choice for TC, if the lesion causes progressive symptoms, is surgical resection. PMID:26167361

  19. Cervical spine models for biomechanical research.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, M M

    1998-12-15

    Biomechanical models have been used for the understanding of the basic normal function and dysfunction of the cervical spine and for testing implants and devices. Biomechanical models can be broadly categorized into four groups: 1) Physical models, made of nonanatomic material (e.g., plastic blocks), are often used for the testing of spinal instrumentation when only the device is to be evaluated. 2) In vitro models consisting of a cadaveric spine specimen are useful in providing basic understanding of the functioning of the spine. Human specimens are more suitable for these models than are animal specimens whenever anatomy, size (for instrumentation), and kinematics are important. Animal specimens are less costly, easier to obtain, and often have less variability but should be used with care because of the absence of anatomic fidelity with the human. 3) In vivo animal models provide the means to model living phenomena, such as fusion, development of disc degeneration, instability, and adaptive responses in segments adjacent to spinal instrumentation. Choosing the appropriate animal is important. The appropriate animal should have spinal loading, kinematics, kinetics, vertebral size, and healing-fusion rates as similar to those in humans as possible. For better interpretation of in vivo animal experimental results, in vitro biomechanical study using the same animal cadaveric specimen is useful but has not been used routinely. 4) Computer models are developed from mathematical equations that incorporate geometry and physical characteristics of the human spine and may be advantageously used for problems that are difficult to model by other means. Examples are the changes in disc and vertebral stresses in response to graded transection of facet joints and the study of changes in endplate loading caused by disc degeneration. Because these models are purely mathematical, their validation is essential. Validation is best achieved by first incorporating high-quality geometry and physical characteristics of the human spine and then comparing the model predictions with experimental observations. Sometimes an enthusiastic researcher may use a computer model beyond its validation boundary, making the model's predictions unreliable. In general, it is important to remember that a biomechanical model, similar to any other model, represents only a certain aspect of the real living human being. The aspect chosen for representation should be selected with great care. The model should be designed to answer specifically the question asked. Its predictions are valid only within the boundaries of assumptions and limitations that it incorporates. PMID:9879095

  20. Cervical spine surgery in ankylosing spondylitis: Review and current concept.

    PubMed

    Lazennec, J-Y; d'Astorg, H; Rousseau, M-A

    2015-06-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis of the cervical spine is associated with stiff kyphosis and increased risk of transversal unstable fracture. A spine surgeon may be involved mainly in the management of trauma cases, but in some situations, corrective surgery of a kyphotic cervical deformity is needed. Both types of cases carry specific aspects and rely on principles that differ from those associated with more common cervical surgery. This paper is a review of the literature regarding cervical surgery in cases of ankylosing spondylitis. It addresses practical technical questions. PMID:25863707

  1. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background Context Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. Purpose To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Study Design Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Methods Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). Results The atlantoaxial (C1–2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4–C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Conclusion Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine. PMID:26866593

  2. Detection of degenerative change in lateral projection cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebri, Beyrem; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Degenerative changes to the cervical spine can be accompanied by neck pain, which can result from narrowing of the intervertebral disc space and growth of osteophytes. In a lateral x-ray image of the cervical spine, degenerative changes are characterized by vertebral bodies that have indistinct boundaries and limited spacing between vertebrae. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach to detect and localize degenerative changes in lateral x-ray images of the cervical spine. Starting from a user-supplied set of points in the center of each vertebral body, we fit a central spline, from which a region of interest is extracted and image features are computed. A Random Forest classifier labels regions as degenerative change or normal. Leave-one-out cross-validation studies performed on a dataset of 103 patients demonstrates performance of above 95% accuracy.

  3. Avoiding and Managing Intraoperative Complications During Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bible, Jesse E; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Lim, Moe R; Brodke, Darrel S; Lee, Joon Y

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of intraoperative complications in cervical spine surgery is low. However, when they do occur, such complications have the potential for causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Spine surgeons should be familiar with methods of minimizing such complications. Furthermore, if they do occur, surgeons must be prepared to immediately treat each potential complication to reduce any associated morbidity. PMID:26519429

  4. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part III: the unstable cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion

    1990-01-01

    In this, the last of the three part series on the anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine, the clinical entity-instability-is addressed. A summative definition of instability, addressing both the clinical and radiographic issues, is presented based on current available literature. The etiology of instability is discussed as it pertains to three possible mechanisms: acute trauma, latent evidence of trauma and repetitive microtrauma. The anatomical, clinical and radiographic aspects in each of these meachanisms is discussed. A case report is presented to illustrate the salient features of this potentially disastrous condition. The conclusion emphasizes the importance of defineable limits in each of the presented definitions, calling for future research into the clinical and radiographic correlations of abnormal cervical motion. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6

  5. Fatal Vertebral Artery Injury in Penetrating Cervical Spine Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Tannoury, Chadi; Degiacomo, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. This case illustrates complications to a vertebral artery injury (VAI) resulting from penetrating cervical spine trauma. Objectives. To discuss the management of both VAI and cervical spine trauma after penetrating gunshot wound to the neck. Summary of Background Data. Vertebral artery injury following cervical spine trauma is infrequent, and a unilateral VAI often occurs without neurologic sequela. Nevertheless, devastating complications of stroke and death do occur. Methods. A gunshot wound to the neck resulted in a C6 vertebral body fracture and C5C7 transverse foramina fractures. Neck CT angiogram identified a left vertebral artery occlusion. A cerebral angiography confirmed occlusion of the left extracranial vertebral artery and patency of the remaining cerebrovascular system. Following anterior cervical corpectomy and stabilization, brainstem infarction occurred and resulted in death. Results. A fatal outcome resulted from vertebral artery thrombus propagation with occlusion of the basilar artery triggering basilar ischemia and subsequent brainstem and cerebellar infarction. Conclusions. Vertebral artery injury secondary to cervical spine trauma can lead to potentially devastating neurologic sequela. Early surgical stabilization, along with anticoagulation therapy, contributes towards managing the combination of injuries. Unfortunately, despite efforts, a poor outcome is sometimes inevitable when cervical spine trauma is coupled with a VAI. PMID:26640731

  6. Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability.

    PubMed

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barr-Liou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

  7. Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability

    PubMed Central

    Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

  8. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z.; Overley, Samuel C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.; Caridi, John M.; Cho, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods?The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results?The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion?This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  9. The 100 Most Influential Articles in Cervical Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Skovrlj, Branko; Steinberger, Jeremy; Guzman, Javier Z; Overley, Samuel C; Qureshi, Sheeraz A; Caridi, John M; Cho, Samuel K

    2016-02-01

    Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To identify and analyze the top 100 cited articles in cervical spine surgery. Methods?The Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge was searched for citations of all articles relevant to cervical spine surgery. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country of publication, and institution were recorded for each article. Results?The most cited article was the classic from 1991 by Vernon and Mior that described the Neck Disability Index. The second most cited was Smith's 1958 article describing the anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion procedure. The third most cited article was Hilibrand's 1999 publication evaluating the incidence, prevalence, and radiographic progression of symptomatic adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis. The majority of the articles originated in the United States (65), and most were published in Spine (39). Most articles were published in the 1990s (34), and the three most common topics were cervical fusion (17), surgical complications (9), and biomechanics (9), respectively. Author Abumi had four articles in the top 100 list, and authors Goffin, Panjabi, and Hadley had three each. The Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan, had five articles in the top 100 list. Conclusion?This report identifies the top 100 articles in cervical spine surgery and acknowledges those individuals who have contributed the most to the advancement of the study of the cervical spine and the body of knowledge used to guide evidence-based clinical decision making in cervical spine surgery today. PMID:26835204

  10. Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Durga, Padmaja; Sahu, Barada Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Anaesthesiologists are often involved in the management of patients with cervical spine disorders. Airway management is often implicated in the deterioration of spinal cord function. Most evidence on neurological deterioration resulting from intubation is from case reports which suggest only association, but not causation. Most anaesthesiologists and surgeons probably believe that the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) during intubation is largely due to mechanical compression produced by movement of the cervical spine. But it is questionable that the small and brief deformations produced during intubation can produce SCI. Difficult intubation, more frequently encountered in patients with cervical spine disorders, is likely to produce greater movement of spine. Several alternative intubation techniques are shown to improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement but their role in limiting SCI is not studied. The current opinion is that most neurological injuries during anaesthesia are the result of prolonged deformation, impaired perfusion of the cord, or both. To prevent further neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and positioning for surgery are essential. The features that diagnose laryngoscopy induced SCI are myelopathy present on recovery, short period of unconsciousness, autonomic disturbances following laryngoscopy, cranio-cervical junction disease or gross instability below C3. It is difficult to accept or refute the claim that neurological deterioration was induced by intubation. Hence, a record of adequate care at laryngoscopy and also perioperative period are important in the event of later medico-legal proceedings. PMID:25624530

  11. 'Abnormal' cervical imaging?: Cervical pneumatocysts - A case report of a cervical spine pneumatocyst.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, Hanna; Patel, Amit; Boctor, Daniel Sherif Zakaria Matta; Hakmi, Mohamed Atef

    2015-10-01

    To our knowledge there are only 15 reported cases of pneumatocysts in the cervical spine, but awareness of their existence should help the clinician when diagnosing abnormalities in radiological images. When faced with intravertebral gas, in addition to considering more sinister causes, one should consider the differentials including pneumatocysts. Despite our relative lack of understanding of these benign lesions the knowledge that they can change over time should prevent unnecessary testing or treating. We present a patient who fell down stairs and was found to have cervical intravertebral gas, on computed tomography imaging, with the typical appearance of a pneumatocyst. PMID:26719615

  12. Cervical spine injury in dismounted improvised explosive device trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Joseph; Devine, Maj Melissa; McAlister, LCol Vivian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The injury pattern from improvised explosive device (IED) trauma is different if the target is in a vehicle (mounted) or on foot (dismounted). Combat and civilian first response protocols require the placement of a cervical collar on all victims of a blast injury. Methods We searched the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) and the Role 3 Hospital, Kandahar Airfield (KAF) database from Mar. 1, 2008, to May 31, 2011. We collected data on cervical fracture; head injury; traumatic amputation; initial blood pressure, pulse, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and base excess; and patient demographic information. Results The concordance rate between JTTR and KAF databases was 98%. Of the 15 693 admissions in JTTR, 326 patients with dismounted IED injuries were located. The rate of cervical collar prehospital placement was 7.6%. Cervical fractures were found in 19 (5.8%) dismounted IED victims, but only 4 (1.2%) were considered radiographically unstable. None of these 19 patients had prehospital placement of a collar. Patients with cervical spine fractures were more severely injured than those without (ISS 18.2 v. 13.4; GCS 10.1 v. 12.5). Patients with head injuries had significantly higher risk of cervical spine injury than those with no head injury recorded (13.6% v. 3.9%). No differences in frequency of cervical spine injury were found between patients who had associated traumatic amputations and those who did not (5.4% v. 6.0%). Conclusion Dismounted IED is a mechanism of injury associated with a low risk for cervical spine trauma. A selective protocol for cervical collar placement on victims of dismounted IED blasts is possible and may be more amenable to combat situations. PMID:26100769

  13. Osteochondromas of the cervical spine in atypical location.

    PubMed

    Schomacher, M; Suess, O; Kombos, T

    2009-06-01

    In the current article we review the available English literature by pubmed search engine on the topic of osteochondromas and their location in the cervical spine. The focus is to investigate the location of the lesions in cervical spine and to analyze clinical presentations and symptoms of patients, the aetiology and histopathology examination of the masses. In addition we report a rare illustrative case of a 62 year-old man with an osteochondroma of the cervical spine. The mass developed at a very slow rate for many years and produced no clinical symptoms. The location of the extradural mass in the right atlanto-axial joint of C1 and C2 is extremely rare and was not been reported so far. After preoperative CT- and MRI-imaging the entire mass could be removed. PMID:19290470

  14. Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1996-04-01

    We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

  15. [Indications for surgical management of injuries of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Bhren, V; Hofmeister, M; Militz, M; Potulski, M

    1998-01-01

    The indication for operative treatment of serious injuries to the cervical spine is basically determinated by instability and dislocation. Timing of the operation is based on the neurological deficit. If there is a chance for recovery operative treatment is urgent. For the upper cervical spine defined indications are existing for type-2-fractures of the dens and C 2/C 3-instabilities of the hangman-type with major dislocation. Fractures of C 0 and C 1 are preferably treated by conservative methods. Only cases with compound injury patterns with a high degree of ligamentous instability may require dorsal fusion. For serious injuries of the lower cervical spine operative treatment is needed in most instances. Conservative treatment is only indicated if functional stability can be proofed and injuries to the discs and compression to the myelon are ruled out. PMID:9757535

  16. Assessment of spine pain presence in children and young persons studying in ballet schools

    PubMed Central

    Wjcik, Ma?gorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.240.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.140.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.010.84, mean of years of learning ballet 4.641.24; 64 students (high school) mean age 17.010.77, mean of years of learning ballet 7.471.54. Numeric rating scale was used to determine spine pain. [Results] Feelings of pain were analyzed on the basis of now and before between levels education by using point statistics and statistical tests to compare groups. Now exhibited weaker back pain feelings than before at all the education levels. There were statistically significant differences in pain feeling for before (at any time of learning) and now (the day of survey). [Conclusion] All patients reported pain before and now in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. At all levels of education there were statistically significant differences in feelings of pain between before and now. PMID:25995566

  17. Assessment of spine pain presence in children and young persons studying in ballet schools.

    PubMed

    Wjcik, Ma?gorzata; Siatkowski, Idzi

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] Spine disorders affect various sections of the spine and have a variety of causes. Most pain occurs in the lumbo-sacral and cervical regions. Dance is associated with exercise. High levels of physical activity predispose to back pain occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 237 ballet learners; 80 children (primary school level), mean age 11.240.77, mean of years of training ballet 2.140.74; 93 students (junior high school level), mean age 14.010.84, mean of years of learning ballet 4.641.24; 64 students (high school) mean age 17.010.77, mean of years of learning ballet 7.471.54. Numeric rating scale was used to determine spine pain. [Results] Feelings of pain were analyzed on the basis of "now" and "before" between levels education by using point statistics and statistical tests to compare groups. "Now" exhibited weaker back pain feelings than "before" at all the education levels. There were statistically significant differences in pain feeling for "before" (at any time of learning) and "now" (the day of survey). [Conclusion] All patients reported pain "before" and "now" in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. At all levels of education there were statistically significant differences in feelings of pain between "before" and "now". PMID:25995566

  18. Osteoradionecrosis of the subaxial cervical spine following treatment for head and neck carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, A S; Mourad, W F; Urken, M L; Persky, M S; Lazarus, C L; Jacobson, A S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study MRI and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging of osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the subaxial cervical spine, a serious long-term complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancers that can lead to pain, vertebral instability, myelopathy and cord compression. Methods: This is a single-institution retrospective review of patients diagnosed and treated for ORN of the subaxial cervical spine following surgery and radiation for head and neck cancer. Results: We report PET/CT imaging and MRI for four patients, each with extensive treatment for recurrent head and neck cancer. Osteomyelitis (OM) and discitis are the end-stage manifestations of ORN of the subaxial spine. Conclusion: ORN of the subaxial spine has variable imaging appearance and needs to be differentiated from recurrent or metastatic disease. Surgical violation of the posterior pharyngeal wall on top of the compromised vasculature in patients treated heavily with RT may pre-dispose the subaxial cervical vertebrae to ORN, with possible resultant OM and discitis. MRI and PET/CT imaging are complimentary in this setting. PET/CT images may be misinterpreted in view of the history of head and neck cancer. MRI should be utilized for definitive diagnosis of OM and discitis in view of its imaging specificity. Advances in knowledge: We identify the end-stage manifestation of ORN in the sub-axial spine on PET/CT and MRI to facilitate its correct diagnosis. PMID:25375626

  19. Lateral Mass Fixation in the Subaxial Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Kurd, Mark F; Millhouse, Paul W; Schroeder, Gregory D; Kepler, Christopher K; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2015-08-01

    The use of lateral mass screws and rods in the subaxial spine has become the standard method of fixation for posterior cervical spine fusions. Multiple techniques have been described for the placement of lateral mass screws, including the Magerl, the Anderson, and the An techniques. While these techniques are all slightly different, the overall goal is to obtain solid bony fixation while avoiding the neurovascular structures. The use of lateral mass screws has been shown to be a safe and effective technique for achieving a posterior cervical fusion. PMID:26049972

  20. [Cervical spine instability: point of view of the anesthesiologist].

    PubMed

    Poveda Jaramillo, R; Paredes Sann, P; Carvajal, H; Carrasquilla, R; Murillo Deluquez, M

    2014-01-01

    The experience in airway management permits the anesthesiologist to participate in cases of cervical spine instability in the operating room when the patient is subjected to surgical procedures, or in cases of difficulty to access or keep the airway open in emergencies. This article reviews the epidemiology, definition, etiology, diagnostic criteria, methods of approach to airway management, and current recommendations on handling cervical instability in different scenarios. There is no approach to the airway that ensures complete immobility of the cervical spine, but there are methods that are better adapted to specific contexts; at the end, the reader will be able to identify the virtues and defects of the various options that the anesthesiologists have to address the airway in cases of cervical instability. PMID:23787370

  1. The Relationship between Neck Pain and Cervical Alignment in Young Female Nursing Staff

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang-Hun; Kim, Joo Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kwon, Taek-Hyun; Park, Yoon-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Degenerative changes in the cervical spine are commonly accompanied by cervical kyphosis which can cause neck pain. This study examined the relationship between neck pain and cervical alignment. Methods A total of 323 female nursing staff from our hospital were enrolled. Sagittal radiographs of the cervical spine, Body Mass Index (BMI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measures of neck and arm pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36 scores) were obtained and reviewed retrospectively. Global lordosis (GL) of the cervical spine was measured on radiograph images. Correlations between GL and questionnaire scores were investigated using the following three methods : 1) correlation between GL and questionnaire scores among the entire sample; 2) subgroup analysis of patients with "kyphosis (KYP) : GL scores<0" vs. those with "lordosis (LOR) : GL scores>0" on questionnaire measures; and 3) subgroup analysis of patients with pain vs. those without pain, on GL and questionnaire measures. Results There was no significant correlation between GL and any questionnaire measure. There was a significant difference between the mean GLs of the KYP and LOR groups, but there were no group differences in BMI, age or any questionnaire measures. There was no difference between the pain (n=92) and pain-free (n=231) groups in age, BMI or GL, but there were differences in neck, and arm pain, and physical function and NDI scores. Conclusions Our data suggest that kyphotic deformity was not associated with neck pain. PMID:26539266

  2. Missed upper cervical spine fracture: clinical and radiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Lemire, Joe J

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This report presents a case of missed upper cervical spine fracture following a motor vehicle accident and illustrates various clinical and radiographic considerations necessary in the evaluation of post traumatic cervical spine injuries. Specific clinical signs and symptoms, as well as radiographic clues should prompt the astute clinician to suspect a fracture even when plain film radiographs have been reported as normal. Clinical features: A 44-year-old male was referred for an orthopaedic consultation for assessment of headaches following a high speed head-on motor vehicle accident eleven weeks prior to his presentation. Cervical spine radiographs taken at an emergency ward the day of the collision were reported as essentially normal. Subsequent radiographs taken eleven weeks later revealed a fracture through the body of axis with anterior displacement of atlas. A review of the initial radiographs clearly demonstrated signs suggesting an upper cervical fracture. Intervention and outcome: Initially the patient was prescribed a soft collar which he wore daily until an orthopaedic consultation eleven weeks later. Fifteen weeks following trauma, the patient was considered for surgical intervention, due to persistent headaches associated with the development of neurological signs suggestive of early onset of cervical myelopathy. Conclusion: Cervical spine fractures can have disastrous consequences if not detected early. A thorough clinical and radiological evaluation is essential in any patient presenting with a history of neck or head trauma. Repeated plain film radiographs are imperative in the event of inadequate visualization of the cervical vertebrae. When in doubt, further imaging studies such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required to rule out a fracture. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1BFigure 2Figure 3

  3. Intraosseous schwannoma of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nannapaneni, R; Sinar, E J

    2005-06-01

    The authors report a rare case of a cervical intraosseous schwannoma, which was diagnosed following an incidental history of trauma. This is the first case of an intraosseous schwannoma of the cervical vertebra that was diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging. The authors discuss the radiological imaging, surgical procedure and review the relevant literature. PMID:16455526

  4. The radiology of acute cervical spine trauma. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.H. Jr.; Edeiken-Monroe, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    The edition, includes extensive coverage of computed tomography (including 3-D CT) and magnetic resonance imaging applications. Organization by mechanism of injury makes specific information easy to locate; coverage includes chapters on hyperextension injuries, injuries involving diverse or poorly understood mechanisms, and a useful classification system of acute cervical spine injuries.

  5. Pediatric Upper Cervical Spine Giant Cell Tumor: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Alfawareh, Mohammad D; Shah, Irfanullah D; Orief, Tamer I; Halawani, Mohammad M; Attia, Walid I; Almusrea, Khaled N

    2015-08-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The purpose of this work is to report the case of a giant cell tumor involving the second cervical vertebra in a pediatric patient. Surgical management included a combined posterior and anterior cervical approach. There has been no recurrence in 2 years of follow-up. Case Report?A 13-year-old girl presented with scoliosis with incidentally lytic lesion involving the second cervical vertebra. The radiologic investigations and biopsy result indicated a giant cell tumor of the bone. A combined posterior and anterior cervical approach was performed to resect the lesion, reconstruct the spine, and restore stability. Two years of follow-up revealed no recurrence of the lesion with stable reconstruction of the spine. Results?The lesion was surgically managed for excision and spinal fusion by combining a posterior occipitocervical arthrodesis with an anterior retropharyngeal cervical approach. The final histopathology result confirmed a giant cell tumor of the bone. Conclusions?Giant cell tumor involving the second cervical vertebra is uncommon; this tumor can be managed surgically by using a combined posterior and anterior cervical retropharyngeal approach. The presented case was unique in terms of the tumor location, patient age, and surgical management. PMID:26225290

  6. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Zika & Pregnancy: What to Know Signing Kids Up ... spine X-ray by explaining the test in simple terms before the procedure. You can describe the ...

  7. Cortical bone facet spacers for cervical spine decompression: effects on intervertebral kinetics and foraminal area.

    PubMed

    Maulucci, Christopher M; Sansur, Charles A; Singh, Vaneet; Cholewczynski, Alexandra; Shetye, Snehal S; McGilvray, Kirk; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Nerve root decompression to relieve pain and radiculopathy remains one of the main goals of fusion-promoting procedures in the subaxial cervical spine. The use of allograft facet spacers has been suggested as a potential alternative for performing foraminotomies to increase the space available for the cervical nerve roots while providing segmental stiffening. Therefore, the goal of this cadaveric biomechanical study was to determine the acute changes in kinetics and foraminal area after the insertion of cortical bone facet spacers into the subaxial cervical spine. METHODS Allograft spacers (2 mm in height) were placed bilaterally into cadaveric cervical spine specimens (C2-T1, age of donors 57.5 9.5 years, n = 7) at 1 (C4-5) and 3 (C3-6) levels with and without laminectomies and posterior lateral mass screw fixation. Standard stereophotogrammetry under pure moment loading was used to assess spinal kinetics. In addition, the authors performed 3D principal component analysis of CT scans to determine changes in foraminal cross-sectional area (FCSA) available for the spinal nerve roots. RESULTS Generally, the introduction of 2-mm-height facet spacers to the cervical spine produced mild, statistically insignificant reductions in motion with particular exceptions at the levels of implantation. No significant adjacent-level motion effects in any bending plane were observed. The addition of the posterior instrumentation (PI) to the intact spines resulted in statistically significant reductions in motion at all cervical levels and bending planes. The same kinetic results were obtained when PI was added to spines that also had facet spacers at 3 levels and spines that had been destabilized by en bloc laminectomy. The addition of 2-mm facet spacers at C3-4, C4-5, and C5-6 did produce statistically significant increases in FCSA at those levels. CONCLUSIONS The addition of allograft cervical facet spacers should be considered a potential option to accomplish indirect foraminal decompression as measured in this cadaveric biomechanical study. However, 2-mm spacers without supplemental instrumentation do not provide significantly increased spinal segmental stability. PMID:26407085

  8. Anterior surgical approaches to the sub-axial cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Khosla, V K; Gupta, S K; Sharma, B S; Mathuriya, S N

    2000-03-01

    Anterior cervical spine surgery has come of age, as a golden route for treating anteriorly placed cervical compressions ranging from simple prolapsed disc to long segment pathologies like ossification of posterior longitudinal ligaments and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Numerous technical modifications of the procedure are described. The role of stabilisation established for several pathologies, is still debateable in surgery for cervical disc. Bone is the ideal tissue for fusion. Hydroxyapetite implants are goods, but costly for our set up. Methylmethacrylate has a limited role in elderly patients with malignancy and a short life expectancy. Anterior cervical instrumentation has mushroomed over the last decade. Acceptable as methods of immediate stabilisation, the choice of the system varies with the surgeon. The authors use simple titanium plates with locking screws for the purpose. PMID:10751808

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in children: spinal incidental findings in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ramadorai, Uma E; Hire, Justin M; DeVine, John G

    2014-12-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods?We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results?Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion?MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine in Children: Spinal Incidental Findings in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramadorai, Uma E.; Hire, Justin M.; DeVine, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?To determine the rate of spinal incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine in the pediatric population. Methods?We reviewed MRI imaging of the neuraxial spine in patients less than 18 years of age and documented abnormal spinal findings. We then reviewed the charts of these patients to determine the reason for ordering the study. Those who presented with pain were considered symptomatic. Those who had no presenting complaint were considered asymptomatic. The data were analyzed to break down the rate of spinal incidental findings in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, respectively. Results?Thirty-one of the 99 MRIs had positive findings, with the most common being disk protrusion (51.6%). Spinal incidental findings were most common in the lumbar spine (9.4%) versus the cervical spine (8%) or thoracic spine (4.7%). In this group, Schmorl nodes and disk protrusion were the two most common findings (37.5% each). Other spinal incidental findings included a vertebral hemangioma and a Tarlov cyst. In the thoracic spine, the only spinal incidental finding was a central disk protrusion without spinal cord or nerve root compression. Conclusion?MRI is a useful modality in the pediatric patient with scoliosis or complaints of pain, but the provider should remain cognizant of the potential for spinal incidental findings. PMID:25396102

  11. Cervical spine fractures associated with maxillofacial trauma: an 11-year review.

    PubMed

    Roccia, Fabio; Cassarino, Emanuele; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Stura, Guido

    2007-11-01

    Although cervical spine injury is rarely associated with maxillofacial trauma, it should be suspected when injuries above the clavicle occur, as suggested in the Advanced Trauma Life Support Manual. A retrospective study of 2482 patients with maxillofacial trauma, who were admitted to the Maxillofacial Surgical Division of Turin University between 1996 and 2006, conducted to identify concomitant fractures of the cervical spine and establish a treatment protocol. Twenty-one patients (0.8%), consisting of 17 males and four females ranging in age from 15 to 70 years, had amyelic cervical spine fractures. In 90% of the cases, the cervical spine injury was caused by a road accident. Cervical spine injuries were diagnosed using lateral x-rays in three cases and with computed tomography in the remaining patients. Although an association has been reported between mandibular fracture and cervical spine injury, we did not observe a preferential association between injuries of the upper third of the face and spinal injury. Cervical spine immobilization should never be removed until cervical spine injury has been excluded using a lateral x-ray of the cervical spine. In males with significant blunt craniomaxillofacial trauma caused by high-energy impact accidents such as car and motorcycle accidents, computed tomography is the radiologic examination of first choice to exclude cervical spine injuries. Lastly, the presence of a cervical spine injury did not result in modified or delayed treatment of maxillofacial fractures, with the exception of one patient who had a fracture of the odontoid process. PMID:17993866

  12. Biomechanics of hyperextension injuries to the cervical spine in football.

    PubMed

    Carter, D R; Frankel, V H

    1980-01-01

    The biomechanics of cervical spine hyperextension injuries in football players were assessed by using quasi-static-free body analyses. Three situations, i.e., "cases," corresponding to the loading conditions created by three different helmet designs, were examined with the following assumptions: (1) the helmet rim is cut high enough posteriorly so that it does not impinge upon the posterior cervical spine, (2) the helmet rim impacts at the level of the fourth cervical vertebra, and (3) the posterior rim of the helmet strikes the shoulder pads. The results of the analyses suggest that the most dangerous hyperextension situation is Case 1 which leads to high forces and possibly serious injury to the upper cervical spine. The impact of the posterior rim of the helmet at the fourth cervical vertebra (Case 2) significantly reduces these forces. This finding directly conflicts with the so-called "guillotine" mechanism of injury. The impact of the posterior rim of the helmet on the shoulder pads (Case 3) creates the least hazardous loading conditions. PMID:7416346

  13. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  14. Successful treatment of severe sympathetically maintained pain following anterior spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hee; Park, Hahck Soo

    2014-07-01

    Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

  15. Successful Treatment of Severe Sympathetically Maintained Pain Following Anterior Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jae Hee

    2014-01-01

    Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

  16. Tolerance of the cervical spine to eccentric axial compression.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jarrod W; Ku, Grace S; Nuckley, David J; Ching, Randal P

    2002-11-01

    Cervical spine injury resulting from compressive impact loading is a particularly devastating musculoskeletal injury due to the frequency of neurologic involvement. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of axial eccentricity on the tolerance of the cervical spine. Two functional spinal unit segments (3 adjacent vertebra and their intervening discs and soft-tissues) were dissected from the lower cervical spine of twenty-four human cadaver cervical spines and randomly assigned to one of three loading groups. The eight specimens were tested to failure in compression, compression-flexion, and compression-extension under displacement control on a high-rate MTS load frame. The resulting six-axis loads were measured and evaluated by injury mechanism (group). Statistically distinct (p < 0.01) injury mechanisms, in terms of measured axial eccentricity, were produced by each of the eccentric axial compression inputs (compression-flexion, compression-extension, and compression). The axial force at failure for the compression and compression-extension loading environments were nearly equal and significantly (p < 0.01) larger (4-times) than their counterpart in the compression-flexion group. Failure data were compared with the neck injury criteria (Nij) recently proposed by the NHTSA using the 50th percentile male and 5th percentile female injury reference values. The compression and compression-extension mechanisms produced Nij values near 1.0. The compression-flexion series resulted in significantly lower Nij values at failure (approx. 0.3, p < 0.01). The results of this study provide tolerance data for the cervical spine subjected to different compressive loading environments and may be used to enhance injury reference computations facilitating neck injury prevention. PMID:17096237

  17. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernndez-de-Las-Peas, Csar; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  18. Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma of the cervical spine in a child: A case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Mehrotra, Anant; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Srivastava, Arun; Jaiswal, Sushila; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case of 15 years male child who presented with neck pain and progressive ascending quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lytic mass involving C5 and C6 vertebra with soft tissue extension. Surgical excision of mass done using anterior cervical approach. Postoperatively, patient showed improvement in spasticity and power. Histopathological examination of mass was suggestive of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). At 6 months follow-up, patient was improving without any evidence of recurrence. Only 12 cases of JXG of spine have been reported till date including only four cases involving the cervical spine and among these four cases only two were of pediatric age group. PMID:25767592

  19. Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma of the cervical spine in a child: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bhaisora, Kamlesh Singh; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Mehrotra, Anant; Sahu, Rabi Narayan; Srivastava, Arun; Jaiswal, Sushila; Behari, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a case of 15 years male child who presented with neck pain and progressive ascending quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lytic mass involving C5 and C6 vertebra with soft tissue extension. Surgical excision of mass done using anterior cervical approach. Postoperatively, patient showed improvement in spasticity and power. Histopathological examination of mass was suggestive of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). At 6 months followup, patient was improving without any evidence of recurrence. Only 12 cases of JXG of spine have been reported till date including only four cases involving the cervical spine and among these four cases only two were of pediatric age group. PMID:25767592

  20. Chiropractic and Neck Pain: Conservative Care of Cervical Pain, Injury

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that causes pain. Your doctor will feel your spine, note its curvature and alignment, and feel for muscle spasm. A check of your shoulder area is also in order. During the neurological exam, your ... to improve the mobility of the spine and to restore range of motion; it can ...

  1. Loading rate effect on mechanical properties of cervical spine ligaments.

    PubMed

    Trajkovski, Ana; Omerovic, Senad; Krasna, Simon; Prebil, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of cervical spine ligaments are of great importance for an accurate finite element model when analyzing the injury mechanism. However, there is still little experimental data in literature regarding fresh human cervical spine ligaments under physiological conditions. The focus of the present study is placed on three cervical spine ligaments that stabilize the spine and protect the spinal cord: the anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The ligaments were tested within 24-48 hours after death, under two different loading rates. An increase trend in failure load, failure stress, stiffness and modulus was observed, but proved not to be significant for all ligament types. The loading rate had the highest impact on failure forces for all three ligaments (a 39.1% average increase was found). The observed increase trend, compared to the existing increase trends reported in literature, indicates the importance of carefully applying the existing experimental data, especially when creating scaling factors. A better understanding of the loading rate effect on ligaments properties would enable better case-specific human modelling. PMID:25307779

  2. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty for cervical spine metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Benvenutti-Regato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background Vertebroplasty (VP) and kyphoplasty (KP) are two minimally invasive techniques used to relieve pain and restore stability in metastatic spinal disease. However, most of these procedures are performed in the thoracolumbar spine, and there is limited data on outcomes after VP/KP for cervical metastases. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of VP and KP for treating pain in patients with cervical spine metastases. Methods A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the PubMed and Medline databases. Only studies that reported five or more patients treated with VP/KP in the cervical spine were included. Levels of evidence and grades of recommendation were established based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines. Data was pooled to perform a meta-analysis for pain relief and complication rates. Results Six studies (all level 4 studies) met the inclusion criteria, representing 120 patients undergoing VP/KP at 135 vertebrae; the most common addressed level was C2 in 83 cases. The average volume of injected cement was 2.5 ± 0.5 milliliters at each vertebra. There were 22 asymptomatic cement leaks (16%; 95% CI, 9.8% - 22.2%) most commonly occurring in the paraspinal soft tissue. There were 5 complications (4%; 95% CI, 0.5% - 7.5%): 3 cases of mild odynophagia, 1 case of occipital neuralgia secondary to leak, and 1 case of stroke secondary to cement embolism. Pain relief was achieved in 89% of cases (range: 80 - 100%). The calculated average pain score decreased significantly from 7.6 ± 0.9 before surgery to 1.9 ± 0.8 at last evaluation (p=0.006). Conclusion Although the calculated complication rate after VP/KP in the cervical spine is low (4%) and the reported pain relief rate is approximately 89%, there is lack of high-quality evidence supporting this. Future randomized controlled trials are needed. PMID:26913227

  3. [Cervical spine osteochondroma presenting with torticollis and hemiparesis].

    PubMed

    Castro-Castro, Julin; Rodio-Padn, Jon; Touceda-Bravo, Alberto; Castro-Bouzas, Daniel; Pinzn-Milln, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Osteochondromas are slow-growing benign bone tumors that are located frequently in the long bones. Approximately 1-4% of them occur in the spine. Solitary spinal osteochondromas may produce a wide variety of symptoms depending on their location and relationship to associated structures. We report a case of a 74-year old woman who was admitted to our hospital with complaints of progressive left hemibody weakness and cervicalgia. Neurological examination disclosed mild left-sided hemiparesis and left torticollis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed an expansive lesion affecting the left C3-C4 facet joint. The patient underwent a posterior C3 and C4 hemilaminectomy, complete excision of the lesion and instrumented posterior cervical fixation. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma. After surgery her symptoms improved progressively with no neurological sequels. PMID:24139102

  4. A Case of Cervical Spine Tuberculosis in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Trilok C; Kumar, Savit; Chauhan, Vikas; Pandey, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of cervical spine is an extremely rare entity in infants with only few case reports available in the literature. The diagnosis is often delayed due to less dramatic effects of paraplegia or quadriplegia in an infant as compared to older paediatric population. Along with clinical and laboratory investigations, imaging plays a crucial role in defining the extent of involvement, evaluation of complications, providing suitable differential diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment. Tuberculosis typically involves the discovertebral complex while involvement of isolated vertebral body or multiple vertebrae without involving the intervertebral discs is much less common. We present such an unusual case of cervical spine tuberculosis in an infant involving a single vertebral body without adjacent intervertebral disc involvement complicated with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and communicating hydrocephalus. The early medical intervention in this case resulted in early diagnosis, active treatment and resultant near normal recovery. PMID:26894144

  5. A Case of Cervical Spine Tuberculosis in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Singh, S N; Bhatt, Trilok C; Kumar, Savit; Chauhan, Vikas; Pandey, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis of cervical spine is an extremely rare entity in infants with only few case reports available in the literature. The diagnosis is often delayed due to less dramatic effects of paraplegia or quadriplegia in an infant as compared to older paediatric population. Along with clinical and laboratory investigations, imaging plays a crucial role in defining the extent of involvement, evaluation of complications, providing suitable differential diagnosis and monitoring response to treatment. Tuberculosis typically involves the discovertebral complex while involvement of isolated vertebral body or multiple vertebrae without involving the intervertebral discs is much less common. We present such an unusual case of cervical spine tuberculosis in an infant involving a single vertebral body without adjacent intervertebral disc involvement complicated with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and communicating hydrocephalus. The early medical intervention in this case resulted in early diagnosis, active treatment and resultant near normal recovery. PMID:26894144

  6. The Effect of the Cervical Orthosis on Swallowing Physiology and Cervical Spine Motion During Swallowing.

    PubMed

    Mekata, Kojiro; Takigawa, Tomoyuki; Matsubayashi, Jun; Toda, Kazukiyo; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yasuo

    2016-02-01

    Cervical orthosis is used to immobilize the neck in various disorders such as trauma and post-operation. However, it is still uncertain how cervical orthosis restricts the degree of movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and how they affect swallowing physiology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these issues using the Philadelphia() Collar. We conducted videofluorography of swallowing in 39 healthy subjects (23 men, 16 women; mean age of 34.3years) with and without cervical orthosis. To compare the two conditions regarding the cervical spine motion, we determined the angular and positional changes of the occipital bone (C0) and each cervical vertebra (C1-C7) from the oral phase to the pharyngeal phase. Similarly, to compare swallowing physiology, we assessed the start and end times and the durations of soft palate elevation, rapid hyoid anterosuperior movement, epiglottis inversion, closure of the laryngeal vestibule, and pharyngoesophageal segment (PES) opening. Finally, we compared the transit times of contrast agent in the two conditions. The respective extensions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.31, 0.07, and 0.05 (mean) with cervical orthosis, and the respective flexions of C1, C2, and C3 were 0.98, 1.42, and 0.85 (mean) without. These results suggested that cervical orthosis restricted the flexion of C1-C3. Analysis of swallowing physiology revealed that the average durations of hyoid anterosuperior elevation, epiglottic inversion, and PES opening were prolonged by 0.09, 0.19, and 0.05s, respectively. In conclusion, the cervical orthosis restricted the movement of the cervical spine during swallowing and changed swallowing physiology. PMID:26607160

  7. Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your pain- ful lower neck, it is the equivalent of forward bending at the waist that so ... tucking position. But this new position places the weight of your head di- rectly over your supporting ...

  8. Occurrence of cervical spine injuries during the rugby scrum.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, M J; Akpata, T; Laughlin, W; Levy, A S

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs came together (engagement), and 13 (36%) occurred when the scrum collapsed. Twenty-eight (78%) hookers, seven (19%) props, and one (3%) second-row player were injured. Twenty (56%) hookers and three (8%) props were hurt during engagement. Eight hookers (22%), four props (11%), and one second-row player (3%) were injured when the scrum collapsed. Significantly more injuries occurred during engagement than during collapse, and hookers were injured significantly more than props. We conclude that in the rugby scrum in the U.S., the hooker suffers most of the cervical spine injuries (78% in this study) and this position is by far the most vulnerable. This study should be used to develop rugby law (rule) changes and educate players, coaches, and referees in United States rugby. PMID:9548109

  9. Subaxial cervical spine trauma: evaluation and surgical decision-making.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-02-01

    Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To discuss the evaluation and management of subaxial cervical spine trauma (C3-7). Methods?A literature review of the main imaging modalities, classification systems, and nonsurgical and surgical treatment performed. Results?Computed tomography and reconstructions allow for accurate radiologic identification of subaxial cervical spine trauma in most cases. Magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized to evaluate the stabilizing discoligamentous complex, the nerves, and the spinal cord. The Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) is a new system that aids in injury classification and helps guide the decision-making process of conservative versus surgical treatment. Though promising, the SLIC system requires further validation. When the decision for surgical treatment is made, early decompression (less than 24 hours) has been associated with better neurologic recovery. Surgical treatment should be individualized based on the injury characteristics and surgeon's preferences. Conclusions?The current state of subaxial cervical spine trauma is one of great progress. However, many questions remain unanswered. We need to continue to account for the individual patient, surgeon, and hospital circumstances that effect decision making and care. PMID:24494184

  10. Biomechanical evaluation of posterior screw fixation in cadaveric cervical spines.

    PubMed

    Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Currier, Bradford L; Neale, Patricia G; Hokari, Yukitaka; Berglund, Lawrence J; Larson, Dirk R; Fisher, Dean R; An, Kai-Nan

    2003-06-01

    Sixteen fresh-frozen spines from cadavers (C4-T1) were randomized on the basis of dual energy xray absorptiometry analysis of bone mineral density. The specimens were subjected to physiologic loads (cervical rods secured to the spine with lateral mass screws in C5 and pedicle screws in C7. The constructs differed only in the presence or absence of a transverse connector between the rods, presence or absence of lateral mass screws in C6, and unicortical or bicortical lateral mass screws. Insertional screw torque was higher in specimens with greater bone mineral density. Pedicle screws had greater torque than lateral mass screws. Posterior cervical spine rod fixation provided an equivalent stability by use of either unicortical or bicortical lateral mass screws. A transverse stabilizer between the rods reduces the number of lateral mass screws needed in posterior cervical spinal rod systems. Repeated stability tests, even when done with physiologic loads, may compromise the screw-bone interface. This effect is most pronounced in specimens that have low bone mineral density. PMID:12782855

  11. Dysphagia Secondary to Anterior Osteophytes of the Cervical Spine.

    PubMed

    Egerter, Alexander C; Kim, Eric S; Lee, Darrin J; Liu, Jonathan J; Cadena, Gilbert; Panchal, Ripul R; Kim, Kee D

    2015-10-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier disease involves hyperostosis of the spinal column. Hyperostosis involving the anterior margin of the cervical vertebrae can cause dysphonia, dyspnea, and/or dysphagia. However, the natural history pertaining to the risk factors remain unknown. We present the surgical management of two cases of dysphagia secondary to cervical hyperostosis and discuss the etiology and management of DISH based on the literature review. Methods?This is a retrospective review of two patients with DISH and anterior cervical osteophytes. We reviewed the preoperative and postoperative images and clinical history. Results?Two patients underwent anterior cervical osteophytectomies due to severe dysphagia. At more than a year follow-up, both patients noted improvement in swallowing as well as their associated pain. Conclusion?The surgical removal of cervical osteophytes can be highly successful in treating dysphagia if refractory to prolonged conservative therapy. PMID:26430607

  12. Dysphagia Secondary to Anterior Osteophytes of the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Egerter, Alexander C.; Kim, Eric S.; Lee, Darrin J.; Liu, Jonathan J.; Cadena, Gilbert; Panchal, Ripul R.; Kim, Kee D.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or Forestier disease involves hyperostosis of the spinal column. Hyperostosis involving the anterior margin of the cervical vertebrae can cause dysphonia, dyspnea, and/or dysphagia. However, the natural history pertaining to the risk factors remain unknown. We present the surgical management of two cases of dysphagia secondary to cervical hyperostosis and discuss the etiology and management of DISH based on the literature review. Methods?This is a retrospective review of two patients with DISH and anterior cervical osteophytes. We reviewed the preoperative and postoperative images and clinical history. Results?Two patients underwent anterior cervical osteophytectomies due to severe dysphagia. At more than a year follow-up, both patients noted improvement in swallowing as well as their associated pain. Conclusion?The surgical removal of cervical osteophytes can be highly successful in treating dysphagia if refractory to prolonged conservative therapy. PMID:26430607

  13. Enchondroma of the cervical spine in young woman: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dong Mun; Paeng, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Enchondroma is a type of benign cartilaginous bone tumor. Enchondroma of the spine is very rare. There are only a few cases of enchondromas located in the lamina of the cervical spine have been reported. Therefore, we report a case of enchondroma in the cervical spine. A 24-year-old female patient presented with a history of neck pain, restriction of neck movement, pain and numbness along the right scapula, and weakness accompanied by wasting of the right hand. Presumptive diagnoses included bony tumors such as an aneurysmal bone cyst or a giant cell tumor. Radiologic examinations revealed a round tumor in the right lamina of C4 with extracortical extension and foramen of C4-5. C4 right hemilaminectomy and facetectomy were performed with near complete removal of the tumor. On histological examination, the tumor was confirmed to be an enchondroma. At the 6-month follow-up, a computed tomography scan showed no recurrence with good alignment. PMID:26425170

  14. Enchondroma of the cervical spine in young woman: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dong Mun; Paeng, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Enchondroma is a type of benign cartilaginous bone tumor. Enchondroma of the spine is very rare. There are only a few cases of enchondromas located in the lamina of the cervical spine have been reported. Therefore, we report a case of enchondroma in the cervical spine. A 24-year-old female patient presented with a history of neck pain, restriction of neck movement, pain and numbness along the right scapula, and weakness accompanied by wasting of the right hand. Presumptive diagnoses included bony tumors such as an aneurysmal bone cyst or a giant cell tumor. Radiologic examinations revealed a round tumor in the right lamina of C4 with extracortical extension and foramen of C4-5. C4 right hemilaminectomy and facetectomy were performed with near complete removal of the tumor. On histological examination, the tumor was confirmed to be an enchondroma. At the 6-month follow-up, a computed tomography scan showed no recurrence with good alignment. PMID:26425170

  15. [Cervical myelopathy after low grade distortion of the cervical spine. Possible association with pre-existing spondylosis of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Aurich, M; Hofmann, G O; Gras, F M

    2015-04-01

    A patient with spondylosis deformans of the cervical spine with no neurological deficits developed rapidly progressive tetraparesis 1 day after a whiplash injury due to a car accident (rear end collision), although initially there were no clinical symptoms. Surgical decompression and spondylodesis led to relief of the neurological deficits. This case demonstrates that even a low grade whiplash injury (grade 1) can cause severe neurological symptoms later and that a degenerative disease of the spine is a predisposing factor. PMID:25336350

  16. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Behari, S; Banerji, D; Trivedi, P; Jain, V K; Chhabra, D K

    2001-12-01

    The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA) accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing for a simultaneous arthrodesis and instrumentation during the primary surgical procedure. Experience of five patients with high cervical extradural compression, who underwent surgery using this approach between 1994 and 1999, is presented. The surgical procedures included excision of ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (n=2); excision of prolapsed disc and osteophytes (n=2); and excision of a vertebral body neoplasm (n=1). Following the procedure, vertebral arthrodesis was achieved using an iliac graft in all the patients. Only one patient with vertebral body neoplasm required an additional anterior cervical plating procedure for stabilisation the construct. The complications included transient respiratory insufficiency and neurological deterioration in two patients; and, pharyngeal fistula and donor site infection in one patient. PMID:11799405

  17. Acute hemorrhage within intradural extramedullary schwannoma in cervical spine presenting with quadriparesis.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Das, Pulin Bihari; Sarangi, Gouri Sankar; Mohanty, Sureswar

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma with acute hemorrhage is rarely seen. A 44-years-old male patient presented with complaint of neck pain and acute onset of quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his cervical spine revealed evidence of an intradural extramedullary tumor with intratumoral acute hemorrhage. He was operated in emergency and the mass was found to be schwannoma with acute hemorrhage. Post operatively the patient improved significantly. Though schwannomas show microscopic intratumoral hemorrhage and necrosis at times, schwannoma with acute hemorrhage resulting acute onset of neurological deficit is very uncommon. PMID:25972715

  18. Adverse events associated with anterior cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Alan H; Riew, K Daniel; Yoo, J U; Ching, Alexander; Birchard, Keith R; Kranenburg, Andy J; Hart, Robert A

    2008-12-01

    Anterior cervical procedures for neurologic decompression and fusion, including cervical diskectomy and cervical corpectomy, are commonly performed by orthopaedic surgeons and spinal neurosurgeons. These procedures are highly successful in treating most patients with persistent pain and neurologic symptoms that have not responded to nonsurgical methods. Adverse events occur infrequently, but several have been described, including esophageal injury, vertebral artery injury, dural tear, postoperative airway compromise, spinal cord injury, hematoma, dysphagia, dysphonia, and graft dislodgement. Newer procedures, such as cervical total disk replacement and the use of bone morphogenetic protein as a supplement to fusion, have raised unique concerns. Appropriate strategies must be utilized to avoid these adverse events, and the treating surgeon should have an understanding of how to detect and manage such events when they do arise. PMID:19056921

  19. Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Selopranoto, U S; Soo, M Y; Fearnside, M R; Cummine, J L

    1997-04-01

    Although ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine is an uncommon condition, its strong prevalence among the Japanese and non-Japanese Asians is well known. Genetic predisposition coupled with ageing and an imbalance in bone-seeking hormones are some actiological factors postulated in recent years. Imaging is directed at showing the calcified mass, cord compression and any attendant damage, as the latter are important prognostic factors. We describe 6 cases of OPLL of the cervical spine seen at Westmead Hospital between 1979 and 1994. Of the 4 patients presenting with disabling compressive myelopathy, 3 made significant recovery following surgical decompression. Characteristic plain film features manifesting as a dense calcified linear structure along the course of the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) were present in 5 patients, including 1 who was asymptomatic. Computed tomography (CT) was invaluable in demonstrating the full extent of the disease in all 5 symptomatic patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was helpful in excluding myelomalacia in 2 patients prior to successful surgery. The myelopathy caused by cervical OPLL remains rare, affecting mainly middle aged males of Asiatic and European extraction. PMID:18638957

  20. Lateral mass fixation in subaxial cervical spine: anatomic review.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-Elw

    2012-03-01

    Introduction?The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective?This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical computed tomography (CT) scans to minimize as much as possible complications of cervical lateral mass screw placement such as vertebral artery or nerve root injuries, facet joint violations, or inadequate placement. Methods?Forty normal cervical CT scans, obtained from the emergency unit as part of the trauma workup, were included in this study plus 10 cervical cadaveric specimens obtained from the Alexandria Neuro-anatomy laboratory. There were three fixed parameters for screw insertion in this study. First, the point of screw insertion was the midpoint of the lateral mass; it was the crossing point between the sagittal and axial planes of the posterior cortex of the lateral mass. Second, the direction of the screw in the craniocaudal plane was 30 degrees cranially to avoid facet joint penetration. Third, the exit point of the screw was located on the ventral cortex of the lateral mass just lateral to the root of the transverse process in the midaxial cut of each lateral mass, to make a sound bicortical fixation without injuring the vertebral artery or the nerve root. The selected screw trajectory in this study was the line drawn between the inlet and exit points. The depth and width of the lateral mass of the cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 were measured as well as the angle of screw trajectory from the sagittal plane. All these measures were applied on the cadaveric specimens to make sure that no injury to the vertebral artery, nerve root, or facet joint occurred. Results?As regards the collected measurements of the lateral mass of all subaxial cervical vertebrae, the study revealed that the average depth of the lateral mass was 12.83??1.28 mm. The average width of the lateral mass was 11.92??0.96 mm. The average divergent angle of bicortical screw insertion without injury to the vertebral artery or the nerve root was 19.51??1.83 degrees. As regard the cadaveric specimens, based on all the collected measurements taken from the CT scans, there was no reported injury to the vertebral arteries or nerve roots or penetration to the facet joints. Conclusion?Lateral mass fixation can be applied easily and safely for all levels of subaxial cervical spine from C3 to C6 with the following parameters: (1) the point of entry is the midpoint of the lateral mass; (2) the screw trajectory is directed 30 degrees cranially and 20 degrees laterally; (3) the screw length is 13 to 15 mm. PMID:24353945

  1. Lateral Mass Fixation in Subaxial Cervical Spine: Anatomic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-elw

    2012-01-01

    Introduction?The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective?This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical computed tomography (CT) scans to minimize as much as possible complications of cervical lateral mass screw placement such as vertebral artery or nerve root injuries, facet joint violations, or inadequate placement. Methods?Forty normal cervical CT scans, obtained from the emergency unit as part of the trauma workup, were included in this study plus 10 cervical cadaveric specimens obtained from the Alexandria Neuro-anatomy laboratory. There were three fixed parameters for screw insertion in this study. First, the point of screw insertion was the midpoint of the lateral mass; it was the crossing point between the sagittal and axial planes of the posterior cortex of the lateral mass. Second, the direction of the screw in the craniocaudal plane was 30 degrees cranially to avoid facet joint penetration. Third, the exit point of the screw was located on the ventral cortex of the lateral mass just lateral to the root of the transverse process in the midaxial cut of each lateral mass, to make a sound bicortical fixation without injuring the vertebral artery or the nerve root. The selected screw trajectory in this study was the line drawn between the inlet and exit points. The depth and width of the lateral mass of the cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 were measured as well as the angle of screw trajectory from the sagittal plane. All these measures were applied on the cadaveric specimens to make sure that no injury to the vertebral artery, nerve root, or facet joint occurred. Results?As regards the collected measurements of the lateral mass of all subaxial cervical vertebrae, the study revealed that the average depth of the lateral mass was 12.83??1.28 mm. The average width of the lateral mass was 11.92??0.96 mm. The average divergent angle of bicortical screw insertion without injury to the vertebral artery or the nerve root was 19.51??1.83 degrees. As regard the cadaveric specimens, based on all the collected measurements taken from the CT scans, there was no reported injury to the vertebral arteries or nerve roots or penetration to the facet joints. Conclusion?Lateral mass fixation can be applied easily and safely for all levels of subaxial cervical spine from C3 to C6 with the following parameters: (1) the point of entry is the midpoint of the lateral mass; (2) the screw trajectory is directed 30 degrees cranially and 20 degrees laterally; (3) the screw length is 13 to 15 mm. PMID:24353945

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine segmental motion in rotation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiong; Wu, Zi-xiang; Han, Bao-jun; Yan, Ya-bo; Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The movements of the cervical spine during head rotation are too complicated to measure using conventional radiography or computed tomography (CT) techniques. In this study, we measure three-dimensional segmental motion of cervical spine rotation in vivo using a non-invasive measurement technique. Material and methods Sixteen healthy volunteers underwent three-dimensional CT of the cervical spine during head rotation. Occiput (Oc) – T1 reconstructions were created of volunteers in each of 3 positions: supine and maximum left and right rotations of the head with respect to the bosom. Segmental motions were calculated using Euler angles and volume merge methods in three major planes. Results Mean maximum axial rotation of the cervical spine to one side was 1.6° to 38.5° at each level. Coupled lateral bending opposite to lateral bending was observed in the upper cervical levels, while in the subaxial cervical levels, it was observed in the same direction as axial rotation. Coupled extension was observed in the cervical levels of C5-T1, while coupled flexion was observed in the cervical levels of Oc-C5. Conclusions The three-dimensional cervical segmental motions in rotation were accurately measured with the non-invasive measure. These findings will be helpful as the basis for understanding cervical spine movement in rotation and abnormal conditions. The presented data also provide baseline segmental motions for the design of prostheses for the cervical spine. PMID:23847675

  3. Strain rate dependent properties of younger human cervical spine ligaments.

    PubMed

    Mattucci, Stephen F E; Moulton, Jeffrey A; Chandrashekar, Naveen; Cronin, Duane S

    2012-06-01

    The cervical spine ligaments play an essential role in limiting the physiological ranges of motion in the neck; however, traumatic loading such as that experienced in automotive crash scenarios can lead to ligament damage and result in neck injury. The development of detailed neck models to evaluate the response and the potential for injury requires accurate ligament mechanical properties at relevant loading rates. The objective of this study was to measure the mechanical properties of the cervical spine ligaments, by performing tensile tests at elongation rates relevant to car crash scenarios, using younger specimens (?50 years), in simulated in vivo conditions, and to provide a comprehensive investigation of gender and spinal level effects. The five ligaments investigated were the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, capsular ligament, ligamentum flavum, and interspinous ligament. Ligaments were tested in tension at quasi-static (0.5s(-1)), medium (20s(-1)) and high (150-250s(-1)) strain rates. The high strain rates represented typical car crash scenarios as determined using an existing cervical spine finite element model. In total, 261 ligament tests were performed, with approximately even distribution within elongation rate, spinal level, and gender. The measured force-displacement data followed expected trends compared to previous studies. The younger ligaments investigated in this study demonstrated less scatter, and were both stiffer and stronger than comparable data from older specimens reported in previous studies. Strain rate effects were most significant, while spinal level effects were limited. Gender effects were not significant, but consistent trends were identified, with male ligaments having a higher stiffness and failure force than female ligaments. PMID:22520433

  4. Cervical Spine Motion during Transfer and Stabilization Techniques.

    PubMed

    Shrier, Ian; Boissy, Patrick; Lebel, Karina; Boulay, John; Segal, Eli; Delaney, J Scott; Vacon, L Charlene; Steele, Russell J

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To compare paramedics' ability to minimize cervical spine motion during patient transfer onto a vacuum mattress with two stabilization techniques (head squeeze vs. trap squeeze) and two transfer methods (log roll with one assistant (LR2) vs. 3 assistants (LR4)). Methods. We used a crossover design to minimize bias. Each lead paramedic performed 10 LR2 transfers and 10 LR4 transfers. For each of the 10 LR2 and 10 LR4 transfers, the lead paramedic stabilized the cervical spine using the head squeeze technique five times and the trap squeeze technique five times. We randomized the order of the stabilization techniques and LR2/LR4 across lead paramedics to avoid a practice or fatigue effect with repeated trials. We measured relative cervical spine motion between the head and trunk using inertial measurement units placed on the forehead and sternum. Results. On average, total motion was 3.9 less with three assistants compared to one assistant (p = 0.0002), and 2.8 less with the trap squeeze compared to the head squeeze (p = 0.002). There was no interaction between the transfer method and stabilization technique. When examining specific motions in the six directions, the trap squeeze generally produced less lateral flexion and rotation motion but allowed more extension. Examining within paramedic differences, some paramedics were clearly more proficient with the trap squeeze technique and others were clearly more proficient with the head squeeze technique. Conclusion. Paramedics performing a log roll with three assistants created less motion compared to a log roll with only one assistant, and using the trap squeeze stabilization technique resulted in less motion than the head squeeze technique but the clinical relevance of the magnitude remains unclear. However, large individual differences suggest future paramedic training should incorporate both best evidence practice as well as recognition that there may be individual differences between paramedics. PMID:25076192

  5. Evaluation of morbidity, mortality and outcome following cervical spine injuries in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Murphy, M; Connolly, P; O'Byrne, J

    2008-04-01

    We analysed the morbidity, mortality and outcome of cervical spine injuries in patients over the age of 65 years. This study was a retrospective review of 107 elderly patients admitted to our tertiary referral spinal injuries unit with cervical spine injuries between 1994 and 2002. The data was acquired by analysis of the national spinal unit database, hospital inpatient enquiry system, chart and radiographic review. Mean age was 74 years (range 66-93 years). The male to female ratio was 2.1:1 (M = 72, F = 35). The mean follow-up was 4.4 years (1-9 years) and mean in-hospital stay was 10 days (2-90 days). The mechanism of injury was a fall in 75 and road traffic accident in the remaining 32 patients. The level involved was atlanto-axial in 44 cases, sub-axial in 52 cases and the remaining 11 had no bony injury. Multilevel involvement occurred in 48 patients. C2 dominated the single level injury and most of them were type II odontoid fractures. Four patients had complete neurology, 27 had incomplete neurology, and the remaining 76 had no neurological deficit. Treatment included cervical orthosis in 67 cases, halo immobilization in 25, posterior stabilization in 12 patients and anterior cervical fusion in three patients. The overall complication rate was 18.6% with an associated in-hospital mortality of 11.2%. The complications included loss of reduction due to halo and Minerva loosening, non-union and delayed union among conservatively treated patients, pin site and wound infection, gastrointestinal bleeding and complication due to associated injuries. Among the 28.9% patients with neurological involvement, 37.7% had significant neurological recovery. Outcome was assessed using a cervical spine outcome questionnaire from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Sixty-seven patients (70%) completed the form, 20 patients (19%) were deceased at review and 8 patients (7%) were uncontactable. Functional disability was more marked in the patients with neurologically deficit at time of injury. Outcome of the injury was related to increasing age, co-morbidity and the severity of neurological deficit. Injuries of the cervical spine are not infrequent occurrence in the elderly and occur with relatively minor trauma. Neck pain in the elderly patients should be thoroughly evaluated to exclude C2 injuries. Most patients can be managed in an orthosis but unstable injuries require rigid external immobilization or surgical stabilization. PMID:18196293

  6. Evaluation of morbidity, mortality and outcome following cervical spine injuries in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, M.; Connolly, P.; OByrne, J.

    2008-01-01

    We analysed the morbidity, mortality and outcome of cervical spine injuries in patients over the age of 65years. This study was a retrospective review of 107 elderly patients admitted to our tertiary referral spinal injuries unit with cervical spine injuries between 1994 and 2002. The data was acquired by analysis of the national spinal unit database, hospital inpatient enquiry system, chart and radiographic review. Mean age was 74years (range 6693years). The male to female ratio was 2.1:1 (M=72, F=35). The mean follow-up was 4.4years (19years) and mean in-hospital stay was 10days (290days). The mechanism of injury was a fall in 75 and road traffic accident in the remaining 32 patients. The level involved was atlanto-axial in 44 cases, sub-axial in 52 cases and the remaining 11 had no bony injury. Multilevel involvement occurred in 48 patients. C2 dominated the single level injury and most of them were type II odontoid fractures. Four patients had complete neurology, 27 had incomplete neurology, and the remaining 76 had no neurological deficit. Treatment included cervical orthosis in 67 cases, halo immobilization in 25, posterior stabilization in 12 patients and anterior cervical fusion in three patients. The overall complication rate was 18.6% with an associated in-hospital mortality of 11.2%. The complications included loss of reduction due to halo and Minerva loosening, non-union and delayed union among conservatively treated patients, pin site and wound infection, gastrointestinal bleeding and complication due to associated injuries. Among the 28.9% patients with neurological involvement, 37.7% had significant neurological recovery. Outcome was assessed using a cervical spine outcome questionnaire from Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Sixty-seven patients (70%) completed the form, 20 patients (19%) were deceased at review and 8 patients (7%) were uncontactable. Functional disability was more marked in the patients with neurologically deficit at time of injury. Outcome of the injury was related to increasing age, co-morbidity and the severity of neurological deficit. Injuries of the cervical spine are not infrequent occurrence in the elderly and occur with relatively minor trauma. Neck pain in the elderly patients should be thoroughly evaluated to exclude C2 injuries. Most patients can be managed in an orthosis but unstable injuries require rigid external immobilization or surgical stabilization. PMID:18196293

  7. Assessment of neck pain and cervical mobility among female computer workers at Hail University.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Walaa S; Hamza, Hayat H; ElSais, Walaa M

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of neck pain among computer workers at Hail University, Saudi Arabia and to compare the cervical range of motion (ROM) of female computer workers suffering from neck pain to the cervical ROM of healthy female computer workers. One hundred and seventy-six female volunteers between 20 and 46 years of age were investigated. Fifty-six of these volunteers were staff members, 22 were administrators and 98 were students. The Cervical Range of Motion (CROM) instrument was used to measure the ROM of the cervical spine. A questionnaire was used to assess participants for the presence of neck pain. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, and the level of significant was set at p < .05 for all statistical tests. There was a high prevalence of neck pain (75%) among computer workers at Hail University, particularly among students. There were significant differences in cervical lateral flexion, rotation to the right side and protraction range between the pain and pain-free groups. Our results demonstrated that cervical ROM measurements, particularly cervical lateral flexion, rotation and protraction, could be useful for predicting changes in head and neck posture after long-term computer work. PMID:26327269

  8. A Mathematical Model of the Cervical Spine Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

    2011-09-01

    The general purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable laboratory tool to evaluate the cervical spine mobility in normal conditions. The paper proposes an approximation function to model the variation in time of movement angles and angular velocities. The measurements have been performed using a Zebris ultrasound-based measuring system in Motion Laboratory of the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara. The approximation functions were compared with the recorded data series and graphically plotted as both time and phase diagram representation.

  9. Epithelioid Sarcoma in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chungnam; Kim, Nara

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare and highly malignant soft tissue neoplasm that most commonly occurs in the long bones. This uncommon tumor has a poor clinical outcome, and the modality of its treatment has not yet been fully established. The authors report an extremely rare presentation of epithelioid sarcoma in the cervical spine, along with its clinical progression, imaging, and pathology. The patient underwent three surgical procedures and adjuvant radiochemical management. He survived for 25 months with a good general condition and adapted well to his social activity. Systemic metastasis was not found, but the patient died of respiratory failure due to direct tracheal invasion of the tumor. PMID:26512275

  10. Epithelioid Sarcoma in the Cervical Spine: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chungnam; Choe, Woo Jin; Kim, Nara

    2015-09-01

    Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare and highly malignant soft tissue neoplasm that most commonly occurs in the long bones. This uncommon tumor has a poor clinical outcome, and the modality of its treatment has not yet been fully established. The authors report an extremely rare presentation of epithelioid sarcoma in the cervical spine, along with its clinical progression, imaging, and pathology. The patient underwent three surgical procedures and adjuvant radiochemical management. He survived for 25 months with a good general condition and adapted well to his social activity. Systemic metastasis was not found, but the patient died of respiratory failure due to direct tracheal invasion of the tumor. PMID:26512275

  11. Cervical Spine Functional Anatomy and the Biomechanics of Injury Due to Compressive Loading

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, Erik E; Floyd, R. T; Cendoma, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide a foundation of knowledge concerning the functional anatomy, kinematic response, and mechanisms involved in axial-compression cervical spine injury as they relate to sport injury. Data Sources: We conducted literature searches through the Index Medicus, SPORT Discus, and PubMed databases and the Library of Congress from 19752003 using the key phrases cervical spine injury, biomechanics of cervical spine, football spinal injuries, kinematics of the cervical spine, and axial load. Data Synthesis: Research on normal kinematics and minor and major injury mechanisms to the cervical spine reveals the complex nature of movement in this segment. The movement into a single plane is not the product of equal and summative movement between and among all cervical vertebrae. Instead, individual vertebrae may experience a reversal of motion while traveling through a single plane of movement. Furthermore, vertebral movement in 1 plane often requires contributed movement in 1 or 2 other planes. Injury mechanisms are even more complex. The reaction of the cervical spine to an axial-load impact has been investigated using cadaver specimens and demonstrates a buckling effect. Impact location and head orientation affect the degree and level of resultant injury. Conclusions/Recommendations: As with any joint of the body, our understanding of the mechanisms of cervical spine injury will ultimately serve to reduce their occurrence and increase the likelihood of recognition and immediate care. However, the cervical spine is unique in its normal kinematics compared with joints of the extremities. Injury biomechanics in the cervical spine are complex, and much can still be learned about mechanisms of the cervical spine injury specific to sports. PMID:16284634

  12. Sensorimotor function of the cervical spine in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Artz, Neil J.; Adams, Michael A.; Dolan, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Sensorimotor mechanisms are important for controlling head motion. However, relatively little is known about sensorimotor function in the cervical spine. This study investigated how age, gender and variations in the test conditions affect measures of position sense, movement sense and reflex activation in cervical muscles. Methods Forty healthy volunteers (19M/21F, aged 19–59 years) participated. Position sense was assessed by determining repositioning errors in upright and flexed neck postures during tests performed in 25%, 50% and 75% cervical flexion. Movement sense was assessed by detecting thresholds to passive flexion and extension at velocities between 1 and 25°s− 1. Reflexes were assessed by determining the latency and amplitude of reflex activation in trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Reliability was evaluated from intraclass correlation coefficients. Findings Mean repositioning errors ranged from 1.5° to 2.6°, were greater in flexed than upright postures (P = 0.006) and in people aged over 25 years (P = 0.05). Time to detect head motion decreased with increasing velocity (P < 0.001) and was lower during flexion than extension movements (P = 0.002). Reflexes demonstrated shorter latency (P < 0.001) and greater amplitude (P = 0.009) in trapezius compared to sternocleidomastoid, and became slower and weaker with age. None of the measures were influenced by gender. Reliability was good for movement sense measures, but was influenced by the test conditions when assessing position sense. Interpretation Increased repositioning errors and slower reflexes in older subjects suggest that sensorimotor function in the cervical spine becomes impaired with age. In position sense tests, reliability was influenced by the test conditions with mid-range flexion movements, performed in standing, providing the most reliable measurements. PMID:25686675

  13. Reliability assessment of a novel cervical spine deformity classification system.

    PubMed

    Ames, Christopher P; Smith, Justin S; Eastlack, Robert; Blaskiewicz, Donald J; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Schwab, Frank; Bess, Shay; Kim, Han Jo; Mundis, Gregory M; Klineberg, Eric; Gupta, Munish; O'Brien, Michael; Hostin, Richard; Scheer, Justin K; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fu, Kai-Ming G; Hart, Robert; Albert, Todd J; Riew, K Daniel; Fehlings, Michael G; Deviren, Vedat; Lafage, Virginie

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Despite the complexity of cervical spine deformity (CSD) and its significant impact on patient quality of life, there exists no comprehensive classification system. The objective of this study was to develop a novel classification system based on a modified Delphi approach and to characterize the intra- and interobserver reliability of this classification. METHODS Based on an extensive literature review and a modified Delphi approach with an expert panel, a CSD classification system was generated. The classification system included a deformity descriptor and 5 modifiers that incorporated sagittal, regional, and global spinopelvic alignment and neurological status. The descriptors included: "C," "CT," and "T" for primary cervical kyphotic deformities with an apex in the cervical spine, cervicothoracic junction, or thoracic spine, respectively; "S" for primary coronal deformity with a coronal Cobb angle ? 15; and "CVJ" for primary craniovertebral junction deformity. The modifiers included C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), horizontal gaze (chin-brow to vertical angle [CBVA]), T1 slope (TS) minus C2-7 lordosis (TS-CL), myelopathy (modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association [mJOA] scale score), and the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-Schwab classification for thoracolumbar deformity. Application of the classification system requires the following: 1) full-length standing posteroanterior (PA) and lateral spine radiographs that include the cervical spine and femoral heads; 2) standing PA and lateral cervical spine radiographs; 3) completed and scored mJOA questionnaire; and 4) a clinical photograph or radiograph that includes the skull for measurement of the CBVA. A series of 10 CSD cases, broadly representative of the classification system, were selected and sufficient radiographic and clinical history to enable classification were assembled. A panel of spinal deformity surgeons was queried to classify each case twice, with a minimum of 1 intervening week. Inter- and intrarater reliability measures were based on calculations of Fleiss k coefficient values. RESULTS Twenty spinal deformity surgeons participated in this study. Interrater reliability (Fleiss k coefficients) for the deformity descriptor rounds 1 and 2 were 0.489 and 0.280, respectively, and mean intrarater reliability was 0.584. For the modifiers, including the SRS-Schwab components, the interrater (round 1/round 2) and intrarater reliabilities (Fleiss k coefficients) were: C2-7 SVA (0.338/0.412, 0.584), horizontal gaze (0.779/0.430, 0.768), TS-CL (0.721/0.567, 0.720), myelopathy (0.602/0.477, 0.746), SRS-Schwab curve type (0.590/0.433, 0.564), pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (0.554/0.386, 0.826), pelvic tilt (0.714/0.627, 0.633), and C7-S1 SVA (0.071/0.064, 0.233), respectively. The parameter with the poorest reliability was the C7-S1 SVA, which may have resulted from differences in interpretation of positive and negative measurements. CONCLUSIONS The proposed classification provides a mechanism to assess CSD within the framework of global spinopelvic malalignment and clinically relevant parameters. The intra- and interobserver reliabilities suggest moderate agreement and serve as the basis for subsequent improvement and study of the proposed classification. PMID:26273762

  14. Laryngeal dislocation after ventral fusion of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jenny; Winkler, Dietrich; Münscher, Adrian; Tank, Sascha

    2013-05-01

    We report on a 70-year-old patient who underwent ventral fusion of the cervical spine (C3/4 and C4/5) for spinal canal stenosis performed by the neurosurgery department. The patient suffered an exceedingly rare complication of the surgery - laryngeal dislocation. Had the deformed laryngeal structures been overlooked and the patient extubated as usual after surgery, reintubation would have been impossible due to the associated swelling, which might have had disastrous consequences. Leftward dislocation of the larynx became apparent post-operatively, but prior to extubation. Extubation was therefore postponed and a subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan revealed entrapment of laryngeal structures within the osteosynthesis. A trial of repositioning using microlaryngoscopy performed by otolaryngology (ears, nose and throat) specialists failed, making open surgical revision necessary. At surgery, the entrapped laryngeal tissue was successfully mobilised. Laryngeal oedema developed despite prompt repositioning; thus, necessitating tracheotomy and long-term ventilation. Laryngeal dislocation may be an unusual cause of post-operative neck swelling after anterior cervical spine surgery and should be considered in the differential diagnosis if surgical site haematoma and other causes have been ruled out. Imaging studies including CT of the neck may be needed before extubation to confirm the suspicion and should be promptly obtained to facilitate specific treatment. PMID:23983289

  15. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy due to the Ochronotic Arthropathy of the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Yuan, Qiang; He, Da

    2016-01-01

    Ochronosis is a musculoskeletal manifestation of alkaptonuria, a rare hereditary metabolic disorder occurs due to the absence of homogentisic acid oxidase and leading to various systemic abnormalities related to deposition of homogentisic acid pigmentation (ochronotic pigmentation). The present case reports the clinical features, radiographic findings, treatments and results of a cervical spondylotic myelopathy woman patient due to the ochronotic arthropathy of the cervical spine. The patient aged 62 years was presented with gait disturbance and hand clumsiness. Physical examination, X-rays, computed tomography and lab results of the urine sample confirmed the presence of ochronosis with the involvement of the cervical spine. The patient underwent a modified cervical laminoplasty due to multi-segment spinal cord compression. The postoperative follow-up showed a good functional outcome with patient satisfaction. The present study concludes the conditions and important diagnostic and surgical aspects of a patient. It is necessary to identify the condition clinically and if cord compression is observed, appropriate surgical interventions needs to be instituted. PMID:26885289

  16. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Cantu, Robert C; Chalmers, David J

    2002-01-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine are among the most serious injuries occurring as a result of participation in rugby. Outcomes of such injuries range from complete recovery to death, depending on the degree of spinal cord damage sustained. Much information has been gained regarding the mechanisms and frequency of such injuries, from case reports and case series studies. The most commonly reported mechanism of injury has been hyperflexion of the cervical spine, resulting in fracture dislocation of C4-C5 or C5-C6. Tracking both the trends of incidence of spinal injuries, and the effectiveness of injury prevention initiatives has proved difficult because of a lack of properly conducted epidemiological studies. Within the constraints of the research published to date, it appears that hookers and props have been at disproportionate risk of cervical spine injury, predominantly because of injuries sustained during scrummaging. While the scrum was the phase of play most commonly associated with spinal injuries throughout the 1980s in most rugby playing countries, there has been a trend through the 1990s of an increasing proportion of spinal injuries occurring in the tackle situation. The majority of injuries have occurred early in the season, when grounds tend to be harder, and players are lacking both practice and physical conditioning for the physical contact phases of the sport. A number of injury prevention measures have been launched, including changes to the laws of the game regarding scrummaging, and education programmes aimed at enforcing safe techniques and eliminating illegal play. Calls for case-registers and effective epidemiological studies have been made by researchers and physicians in most countries where rugby is widespread, but it appears to be only recently that definite steps have been made towards this goal. Well-designed epidemiological studies will be able to provide more accurate information about potential risk factors for injury such as age, grade, position, gender and ethnicity. Research into the long-term effects of participation in rugby on the integrity of the spinal column is warranted. PMID:12141883

  17. Minimum 2-year outcome of cervical laminoplasty with deep extensor muscle-preserving approach: impact on cervical spine function and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Sudo, Hideki; Takahata, Masahiko; Ohshima, Shigeki; Hojo, Yoshihiro; Minami, Akio

    2009-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, two surgical methods of conventional open-door laminoplasty and deep extensor muscle-preserving laminoplasty were allocated for the treatment of cervical myelopathy, and were specifically compared in terms of axial pain, cervical spine function, and quality of life (QOL) with a minimum follow-up period of 2 years. Eighty-four patients were divided into two groups and received either a conventional open-door laminoplasty (CL group) or laminoplasty using a deep extensor muscle-preserving approach (MP group). The latter approach was performed by preserving multifidus and semispinalis cervicis attachments followed by open-door laminoplasty and re-suture of the bisected spinous processes at each decompression level. The average follow-up period was 38 months (2553 months). The preoperative and follow-up evaluations included the original Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, the new tentative JOA score including cervical spine function and QOL, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) of axial pain. Radiological analyses included cervical lordosis and flexionextension range of motion (flexext ROM) (C27), and deep extensor muscle areas on MR axial images. The JOA recovery rates were statistically equivalent between two groups. The MP group demonstrated a statistically superior cervical spine function (84% vs 63%) and QOL (61% vs 45%) when compared to the CL group at final follow-up (P<0.05). The average VAS scores at final follow-up were 2.3 and 4.9 in MP and CL groups (P<0.05). The cervical lordosis and flexext ROM were statistically equivalent. The percent deep muscle area on MRI demonstrated a significant atrophy in CL group compared to that in MP group (56% vs 88%; P<0.01). Laminoplasty employing the deep extensor muscle-preserving approach appeared to be effective in reducing the axial pain and deep muscle atrophy as well as improving cervical spine function and QOL when compared to conventional open-door laminoplasty. PMID:19214599

  18. Intubation Biomechanics: Laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion during intubation with Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Hindman, Bradley J.; Santoni, Brandon G.; Puttlitz, Christian M.; From, Robert P.; Todd, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation in the presence of cervical spine instability may put patients at risk of cervical cord injury. Nevertheless, the biomechanics of intubation (cervical spine motion as a function of applied force) have not been characterized. This study characterized and compared the relationship between laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion using two laryngoscopes hypothesized to differ in force. Methods Fourteen adults undergoing elective surgery were intubated twice (Macintosh, Airtraq). During each intubation, laryngoscope force, cervical spine motion, and glottic view were recorded. Force and motion were referenced to a pre-intubation baseline (stage 1) and were characterized at three stages: stage 2 (laryngoscope introduction); stage 3 (best glottic view); stage 4 (endotracheal tube in trachea). Results Maximal force and motion occurred at stage 3, and differed between the Macintosh and Airtraq: 1) Force: 48.815.8 vs. 10.42.8 N, respectively; P=0.0001; 2) occiput-C5 extension: 29.58.5 vs. 19.18.7 degrees, respectively; P=0.0023. Between stages -2 and -3, the motion/force ratio differed between Macintosh and Airtraq: 0.50.2 vs. 2.01.4 degrees/N, respectively; P=0.0006. Discussion The relationship between laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion is: 1) non-linear and 2) differs between laryngoscopes. Differences between laryngoscopes in motion/force relationships are likely due to: 1) laryngoscope-specific cervical extension needed for intubation, 2) laryngoscope-specific airway displacement/deformation needed for intubation, and 3) cervical spine and airway tissue viscoelastic properties. Cervical spine motion during endotracheal intubation is not directly proportional to force. Low force laryngoscopes cannot be assumed to result in proportionally low cervical spine motion. PMID:24739996

  19. Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the cervical spine causing a C6 compression fracture: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SUN, ZHENZHONG; WANG, HENG; YANG, HUILIN; JIANG, WEIMIN

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor derived from smooth muscle cells, which commonly metastasizes to the lungs, liver, kidney, brain and skin. The current study presents the case of a 42-year-old male who presented with progressive neck pain and numbness of the left arm. Spinal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteolytic lesions of numerous vertebrae (C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, T1 and T2). With regard to the C6 vertebra, total destruction of the vertebral body resulted in vertebral collapse and subsequent spinal cord compression. The patient underwent an anterior C6 corpectomy, reconstruction with a mesh cage filled with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and open PMMA infusion to C5 and C7. The surgical procedure significantly alleviated the symptoms and obtained a reliable reconstruction. The clinical follow-up examination at 13 months was uneventful with the exception of mild numbness of the left hand since the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of leiomyosarcoma recurrence presenting in the cervical spine, and the present study provides insight into the use of a surgical technique that has rarely been used in the cervical spine. PMID:24959258

  20. Maintenance of graft compression in the adult cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Ciaran; Bourlion, Maurice; Leroy, Xavier; Petit, Dominique; Vanacker, Gerard; McEvoy, Linda; Nagaria, Jabir

    2006-08-01

    It is generally advised that the graft inserted in adult cervical spine should be pre-loaded with a compressive force or that the screws are inserted in a divergent orientation, in order to maximise compression and the chance of graft incorporation (Truumees et al. in Spine 28:1097-1102, 2003). However, there is little evidence that a compressive force is maintained once the force applicator has been removed, or that the divergent screws enhance compression. This study compared the maintenance of applied pre-load force, across cervical spine graft, between standard anterior plating technique with pre-load and divergent screws and a novel plate technique, which allows its application prior to removal of the force applicator. Six intact adult cadaveric human cervical spines were exposed by standard surgical technique. A Casper type distracter was inserted across the disc space of interest, the disc was removed. In 14 experiments, following the disc removal, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was inserted under distraction, together with a strain gauge pressure transducer. A resting output from the transducer was recorded. The voltage output has a linear relationship with compressive force. A standardised compressive force was applied across the graft through the "Casper type" distracter/compressor (7.5 kg, torque). The pre-load compressive force was measured using a torque drill. Then two different procedures were used in order to compare the final applied strain on the bone graft. In eight experiments (procedure 1), the "Casper type" distracter/compressor was removed and a standard anterior cervical plate with four divergent screws was inserted. In six experiments (procedure 2), a novel plate design was inserted prior to removal of the distracter/compressor, which is not possible with the standard plate design. A final compressive force across the graft was measured. For the standard plate construct (procedure 1), the applied compression force is significantly greater than resting (SO/SC)--P=0.01, but the compression force is not maintained once the compressor is removed (SO/SR)--P=0.27. Final bone graft compression after plate insertion is not significantly different to the resting state (SO/SF)--P=0.16 (Wilcoxon's sign test for paired observation). Application of the plate tended to offload the graft; the final compressive force is 170+/-100% less than the resting force. None of the applied force was maintained (mean 9.5+/-8.8%). For the new plate (procedure 2), the end compressive force (SF) measured across the graft was greater than the resting force (SO) (P<0.001). Further, the novel plate application increased the compressive force on the graft by 712+/-484%. The final bone graft compression using a novel plate, which allows its application prior to removal of the force applicator, is significant (SO/SF)--P=0.01. Here, 77+/-10% of the applied pre-load was maintained. The difference between the plates is significant (P<0.001). Conclusions are as follows: (1) Applied pre-load is not maintained across a graft once the force applicator is removed. (2) Divergent screws with a plate do not compress graft and rather tend to offload it. (3) Compressive force may be maintained if the plate is applied prior to the force applicator removal. PMID:16421744

  1. Gelfoam-induced Swallowing Difficulty after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joo Chul; Park, Kwan Ho

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is not common. Gelfoam is one of the most commonly used topical hemostatic agents. But, in the partially moistened state, air retained in its pores may result in excessive expansion on contact with liquid. The onset of swallowing difficulty after anterior cervical spine surgery due to appling gelfoam is a rare complication. A 77-year-old man with swallowing difficulty was admitted to our hospital and we diagnosed him as DISH confirmed by radiological study. After removing the DISH, patient's symptom was relieved gradually. However, on postoperative day (POD) 7, the symptom recurred but lesser than the preoperative state. We confirmed no hematoma and esophageal perforation on the operation site. We observed him closely and controlled the diet. Three months later, he had no symptom of swallowing difficulty, and was able to be back on a regular diet, including solid foods. We present a complication case of swallowing difficulty occurring by gelfoam application. PMID:24757468

  2. Three Dimensional Movements Of The Upper Cervical Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjabi, Manohar M.; Dvorak, Jiri; Duranceau, Joanne; Yamamoto, Isao

    1989-04-01

    Ten fresh cadaveric whole cervical spine specimens (occiput to C7) were studied using well established techniques to document the movements in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation. Pure moments of maximum 1.5 newton meters were applied incrementally and three dimensional movements of the bones were recorded using stereophotogrammetry. Each moment was applied individually and in a three load/unload cycles. The motion measurements were made on the third load cycle. Parameters of neutral zone, elastic zone and range of motion were computed. Neutral zones for flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and right/left axial rotation were respectively: 1.1, 1.5 and 1.6 (occiput-C1); and 3.2, 1.2 and 29.6 degrees (C1-C2). Ranges of motion for flexion, extension, lateral bending (one side) and axial rotation (one side) were respectively: 3.5, 21.0, 5.5 and 7.2 degrees (occiput-Cl joint) and 11.5, 10.9, 6.7 and 38.9 degrees (CI-CZ joint). The highest intervertebral motion in the spine was the axial rotation at the Cl-C2 joint, neutral zone constituting 75% of this motion.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF LIGAMENTOUS INJURY IN THE HUMAN LOWER CERVICAL SPINE

    PubMed Central

    Leahy, P Devin; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2012-01-01

    Damage is often sustained by the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and ligamentum flavum LF) in the cervical spine subsequent to whiplash or other cervical trauma. These ligaments afford substantial cervical stability when healthy, but the ability of the ALL and LF to stabilize the spine when injured is not as conclusively studied. In order to address this issue, the current study excised ALL and LF tissues from cadaveric spines and experimentally simulated whiplash-type damage to the isolated ligaments. Stiffnesses and toe region lengths were measured for both the uninjured and damaged states. These ligamentous mechanical properties were then inputted into a previously-validated finite element (FE) model of the cervical spine and the kinematic effects of various clinically relevant combinations of ligamentous injury were predicted. The data indicated three and five-fold increases in toe region length for the LF and ALL injury variants, respectively. These toe length distensions resulted in FE predictions of supra-physiologic ranges of motion, and these motions were comparable to spines with no ligamentous support. Finally, a set of cadaveric cervical spine ligament-sectioning experiments confirmed the FE predictions and supported the finding that partial injury to the relevant ligaments produces equivalent cervical kinematic signatures to spines that have completely compromised ALL and LF tissues. PMID:22939289

  4. Deceleration during 'real life' motor vehicle collisions a sensitive predictor for the risk of sustaining a cervical spine injury?

    PubMed Central

    Elbel, Martin; Kramer, Michael; Huber-Lang, Markus; Hartwig, Erich; Dehner, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background The predictive value of trauma impact for the severity of whiplash injuries has mainly been investigated in sled- and crash-test studies. However, very little data exist for real-life accidents. Therefore, the predictive value of the trauma impact as assessed by the change in velocity of the car due to the collision (?V) for the resulting cervical spine injuries were investigated in 57 cases after real-life car accidents. Methods ?V was determined for every car and clinical findings related to the cervical spine were assessed and classified according to the Quebec Task Force (QTF). Results In our study, 32 (56%) subjects did not complain about symptoms and were therefore classified as QTF grade 0; 25 (44%) patients complained of neck pain: 8 (14%) were classified as QTF grade I, 6 (10%) as QTF grade II, and 11 (19%) as QTF grade IV. Only a slight correlation (r = 0.55) was found between the reported pain and ?V. No relevant correlation was found between ?V and the neck disability index (r = 0.46) and between ?V and the QTF grade (r = 0.45) for any of the collision types. There was no ?V threshold associated with acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the prognosis of a cervical spine injury. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that ?V is not a conclusive predictor for cervical spine injury in real-life motor vehicle accidents. This is of importance for surgeons involved in medicolegal expertise jobs as well as patients who suffer from whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) after motor vehicle accidents. Trial registration The study complied with applicable German law and with the principles of the Helsinki Declaration and was approved by the institutional ethics commission. PMID:19267940

  5. Treatment of a Patient with Cervical Radiculopathy Using Thoracic Spine Thrust Manipulation, Soft Tissue Mobilization, and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Michael

    2008-01-01

    While there is currently little evidence to suggest which non-operative treatment approach is best for the management of patients with cervical radiculopathy, emerging evidence suggests that these patients benefit from a multimodal treatment approach. The purpose of this case report is to describe the physical therapy management of a patient with cervical radiculopathy. Diagnosis was based on the patient's meeting three of the four criteria in the diagnostic test cluster currently used to identify patients with cervical radiculopathy. Treatment included thrust manipulation of the thoracic spine, soft tissue mobilization, and therapeutic exercise. After three visits, patient-perceived disability, as measured by the Patient-Specific Functional Scale, improved from 5/10 to 10/10. The Numeric Pain Rating Score decreased from 4.66/10 to 0/10. The patient rated his improvement as a very great deal better on the Global Rating of Change Scale. These clinically meaningful improvements were maintained at the 14-week follow-up. While a cause-and-effect relationship may not be established from a case report, a multimodal approach including thoracic spine manipulation, soft tissue mobilization, and therapeutic exercise was associated with decreased pain and perceived disability in a patient with cervical radiculopathy. Further research is needed to investigate benefits of the components of this approach. PMID:19119401

  6. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  7. Exercise to Boost Spine Muscles Can Ease Back Pain, Study Suggests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Exercise to Boost Spine Muscles Can Ease Back Pain, Study Suggests Clinical trial review shows motor control ... and support the spine can help reduce lower back pain, a new study suggests. This type of program -- ...

  8. Discal cysts of the cervical spine in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Byung-Jae; Jung, Yechan; Park, Sangjun; Lee, Kichang

    2015-12-30

    Discal cysts, which lie directly over intervertebral discs, are rare. Two old dogs with tetraparesis were referred to our facility. In both animals, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intraspinal extradural cystic mass lesions that were dorsal to degenerative intervertebral discs at the C3-C4 level. These lesions had low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A ventral slot approach was used to perform surgical decompression, after which the symptoms improved remarkably. Discal cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with cervical pain and tetraparesis. One effective treatment for discal cysts is surgical intervention. PMID:26040615

  9. Discal cysts of the cervical spine in two dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Byung-Jae; Jung, Yechan; Park, Sangjun

    2015-01-01

    Discal cysts, which lie directly over intervertebral discs, are rare. Two old dogs with tetraparesis were referred to our facility. In both animals, magnetic resonance imaging revealed intraspinal extradural cystic mass lesions that were dorsal to degenerative intervertebral discs at the C3-C4 level. These lesions had low signal intensity on T1-weighted images, and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images. A ventral slot approach was used to perform surgical decompression, after which the symptoms improved remarkably. Discal cysts should be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with cervical pain and tetraparesis. One effective treatment for discal cysts is surgical intervention. PMID:26040615

  10. Estimation of CSF flow resistance in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Mardal, K-A; Rutkowska, G; Linge, S; Haughton, V

    2013-02-01

    Chiari I patients have increased CSF velocities in the foramen magnum due hypothetically to increased pressure gradients or reduced flow resistance. We calculated flow resistance in the cervical spinal canal in a group of subjects with and without the Chiari malformation. Eight subjects including healthy volunteers and Chiari I patients were studied. From 3D high resolution MR images of the cervical spine mathematical models of the subarachnoid spaces were created by means of standard programs for segmentation and discretization. Oscillatory flow through the subarachnoid space was simulated. Cross-sectional area of the subarachnoid space was computed at each level from C1 through C4 and the length of this spinal canal segment was measured. Peak caudad CSF flow velocity at each level was plotted against cross-section area. CSF volumetric flux and resistance were calculated for each subject. The correlation between velocity and resistance was calculated. In all subjects, peak velocities increased progressively from C1 to C4 by 0.6 to 0.7 cm/s per level. Spinal canal areas diminished from C1 to C5 in each subject at a rate of -0.25 to -0.29 cm(2) per level. Resistance averaged 4.3 pascal/ml/s in the eight subjects; 3.8 pascal/ml/s in patients with tonsilar herniation and 6.0 pascal/ml/s in volunteers. Velocity correlated inversely with resistance (R(2) = 0.6). CSF velocities correlated inversely with the flow resistance in the upper cervical spinal canal. Resistance tends to be lower in Chiari I patients than in healthy volunteers. PMID:23859177

  11. Severe neurologic manifestations from cervical spine instability in spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marleen; Campos-Xavier, Ana Belinda; Mittaz-Crettol, Lauréane; Valadares, Eugenia Ribeiro; Carvalho, Daniel; Speck-Martins, Carlos Eduardo; Nampoothiri, Sheela; Alanay, Yasemin; Mihci, Ercan; van Bever, Yolande; Garcia-Segarra, Nuria; Cavalcanti, Denise; Mortier, Geert; Bonafé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2012-08-15

    Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia (SMMD; OMIM 613330) is a dysostosis/dysplasia caused by recessive mutations in the homeobox-containing gene, NKX3-2 (formerly known as BAPX1). Because of the rarity of the condition, its diagnostic features and natural course are not well known. We describe clinical and radiographic findings in six patients (five of which with homozygous mutations in the NKX3-2 gene) and highlight the unusual and severe changes in the cervical spine and the neurologic complications. In individuals with SMMD, the trunk and the neck are short, while the limbs, fingers and toes are disproportionately long. Radiographs show a severe ossification delay of the vertebral bodies with sagittal and coronal clefts, missing ossification of the pubic bones, large round "balloon-like" epiphyses of the long bones, and presence of multiple pseudoepiphyses at all metacarpals and phalanges. Reduced or absent ossification of the cervical vertebrae leads to cervical instability with anterior or posterior kinking of the cervical spine (swan neck-like deformity, kyknodysostosis). As a result of the cervical spine instability or deformation, five of six patients in our series suffered cervical cord injury that manifested clinically as limb spasticity. Although the number of individuals observed is small, the high incidence of cervical spine deformation in SMMD is unique among skeletal dysplasias. Early diagnosis of SMMD by recognition of the radiographic pattern might prevent of the neurologic complications via prophylactic cervical spine stabilization. PMID:22791571

  12. Identifying inflammatory targets for biologic therapies for spine pain.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Lloydine J; Vo, Nam; Kang, James D

    2011-06-01

    The costs associated with treating spine-related conditions are enormous and are trending upward. Current methods employed to treat inflammatory-mediated pain are targeted at alleviating symptoms, rather than correcting the underlying cause of disease. It is clear that a biochemical basis for inflammatory-mediated intervertebral disk, facet joint, and nerve pain exists. Biologic therapies that address the underlying cause of pain could potentially decrease the costs associated with treating spine pathology. MMPs, IL-1, TNF- ?, IL-6, NGF, bradykinin, prostaglandins, and nitric oxide are implicated in much of the catabolic effects seen in the pathogenesis of inflammatory-mediated pain and are good targets for inhibition. The anticatabolic and anabolic effects of TIMPs, BMPs, TGF- ?, and IGF-1 are targets already shown to favorably impact disk matrix homeostasis. With rapid advances in biomedical technology, these interventions may be available for clinical use in the near future. PMID:21703568

  13. Marked functional improvement after combined chemoradiotherapy for cervical spine glioblastoma causing quadriparesis in an adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Peter Kar Han; Lee, Gabriel; Bynevelt, Michael; Nowak, Anna K

    2014-01-01

    Primary spinal glioblastoma (GBM) is a rare spinal tumour and is considered to have poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent boy with a cervical spine GBM presenting with neck pain and right upper limb weakness. Initial spinal MRI demonstrated a 4.5?cm lesion extending from C2 to C5 suspicious for demyelination. Despite high-dose corticosteroids, his weakness progressed resulting in quadriparesis. Subsequent laminectomy and biopsy confirmed spinal GBM. Shortly after surgery the patient continued to deteriorate and was essentially bedbound. Standard chemoradiotherapy as per the Stupp protocol, together with multimodal rehabilitation, resulted in substantial functional improvement within 6?weeks of initiation. Continued functional improvement was observed for a period of 11?months. Although an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of 4 would normally preclude chemoradiotherapy, a prolonged response to treatment and return to independent function were observed. PMID:24518393

  14. Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Cervical Spine: A Review on the Role of Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gillick, John L.; Wainwright, John; Das, Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease affecting a significant percentage of the population. The cervical spine is often affected in this disease and can present in the form of atlantoaxial instability (AAI), cranial settling (CS), or subaxial subluxation (SAS). Patients may present with symptoms and disability secondary to these entities but may also be neurologically intact. Cervical spine involvement in RA can pose a challenge to the clinician and the appropriate role of surgical intervention is controversial. The aim of this paper is to describe the pathology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnostic evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis in the cervical spine in order to provide a better understanding of the indications and options for surgery. Both the medical and surgical treatment options for RA have improved, so has the prognosis of the cervical spine disease. With the advent of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), fewer patients are presenting with cervical spine manifestations of RA; however, those that do, now have improved surgical techniques available to them. We hope that, by reading this paper, the clinician is able to better evaluate patients with RA in the cervical spine and determine in which patients surgery is indicated. PMID:26351458

  15. Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Safriel, Yair Ang, Roberto; Ali, Muhammed

    2008-03-15

    Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualized using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered.

  16. Pain Sensitivity Subgroups in Individuals With Spine Pain: Potential Relevance to Short-Term Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bialosky, Joel E.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster analysis can be used to identify individuals similar in profile based on response to multiple pain sensitivity measures. There are limited investigations into how empirically derived pain sensitivity subgroups influence clinical outcomes for individuals with spine pain. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate empirically derived subgroups based on pressure and thermal pain sensitivity in individuals with spine pain and (2) to examine subgroup influence on 2-week clinical pain intensity and disability outcomes. Design A secondary analysis of data from 2 randomized trials was conducted. Methods Baseline and 2-week outcome data from 157 participants with low back pain (n=110) and neck pain (n=47) were examined. Participants completed demographic, psychological, and clinical information and were assessed using pain sensitivity protocols, including pressure (suprathreshold pressure pain) and thermal pain sensitivity (thermal heat threshold and tolerance, suprathreshold heat pain, temporal summation). A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was used to create subgroups based on pain sensitivity responses. Differences in data for baseline variables, clinical pain intensity, and disability were examined. Results Three pain sensitivity cluster groups were derived: low pain sensitivity, high thermal static sensitivity, and high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity. There were differences in the proportion of individuals meeting a 30% change in pain intensity, where fewer individuals within the high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity group (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval=0.1, 0.8) achieved successful outcomes. Limitations Only 2-week outcomes are reported. Conclusions Distinct pain sensitivity cluster groups for individuals with spine pain were identified, with the high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity group showing worse clinical outcome for pain intensity. Future studies should aim to confirm these findings. PMID:24764070

  17. Experimentally induced central sensitization in the cervical spine evokes postural stiffening strategies in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Andrew H; Srbely, John Z; Zettel, John L

    2015-02-01

    Dysequilibrium of cervicogenic origin can result from pain and injury to cervical paraspinal tissues post-whiplash; however, the specific physiological mechanisms still remain unclear. Central sensitization is a neuradaptive process which has been clinically associated with conditions of chronic pain and hypersensitivity. Strong links have been demonstrated between pain hypersensitivity and postural deficits post-whiplash; however, the precise mechanisms are still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms of cervicogenic disequilibrium by investigating the effect of experimentally induced central sensitization in the cervical spine on postural stability in young healthy adults. Sixteen healthy young adults (7 males (22.61.13 years) and 9 females (222.69 years)) performed 30-s full-tandem stance trials on an AMTI force plate under normal and centrally sensitized conditions. The primary outcome variables included the standard deviation of the center of pressure (COP) position in medio-lateral (M-L) and antero-posterior (A-P) directions; sway range of the COP in M-L and A-P directions and the mean power frequency (MPF) of the COP and horizontal ground shear forces. Variability and sway range of the COP decreased with experimental induction of central sensitization, accompanied by an increase in MPF of COP displacement in both M-L and A-P directions, suggesting an increase in postural stiffening post-sensitization versus non-sensitized controls. Future studies need to further explore this relationship in clinical (whiplash, chronic pain) populations. PMID:25670652

  18. Short Term Results After Local Application of Steroids and Anesthetics in Patients with Painful Spine Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hadziahmetovic, Narcisa Vavra; Aganovic, Damir; Kadic, Aldijana; Biscevic, Mirza

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Spinal pain is the most common of all chronic pain disorders. Imaging studies can be used to determine whether a pathological process is associated with the patients symptoms. Objective: To determine the short-term efficiency of local instillation of steroids in patients with painful spine conditions. Materials and methods: A prospective study included 35 patients with diagnosis of lumbar or cervical radiculopathy, or cervical and lumbar syndrome at the Department for the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department for the Orthopedics and Traumatology, and Department for the Neurosurgery, Clinical Canter University of Sarajevo (KCUS). A clinical examination, visual pain scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were performed prior to the needle procedure and seven days after it. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used for comparison of pre and post-interventional results. This procedure was done for the first time in our region. Results: The males and females were equally represented in this study (17:18). The patients were 29 to 80 years old. The highest number of patients have been between 40-60 years, older then that have been 44,2% of patients, and younger only 8,5%. Patients have complained about the radicular pain along the legs or arms or back or neck pain. Most of them had disc herniation57,14%, 8,57% had bulging disc, 8,57% had spinal canal stenosis, 5,71% had fasetarthrosis, rest of them had combination of those conditions. There was a statistically significant difference between the value of ODI score before procedure and 7 days later (2610:1612; p<0,001). The difference was also statistically significant in VAS values (71:11; p <0,001). Discussion: Our study suggests that needle instillation of steroid and lidocaine is effective in short-term pain occurs in different painful spine conditions (Sy cervicale, lumbare and radiculopathy). It is valuable alternative to the classic methods of physical and drug therapy. It can also postpone surgical treatment, and it is very useful in situations of diffuse degenerative changes when is very important to define exact source of pain, like for instance in hip-spine syndrome. PMID:24937937

  19. A review of functional outcome measures for cervical spine disorders: literature review

    PubMed Central

    Bussires, Andr

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the reliability, validity and usefulness of three outcome measures: cervical ranges of motion, sagittal neck muscle strength and presence or absence of the flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP) in the neck. The literature search included the Index Medicus and computerized database of MEDLINE for relevant material. Articles were selected if they contained primary data on neck range of motion, sagittal muscle strength and FRP. The results of 59 articles and 2 textbooks were analyzed. Normative values of cervical ROM have been reported in healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 74 years. The extent of degrees of motion lost per year did not differ between male or female subjects, but females started with higher degrees of active range of motion, which they maintained throughout life. Instrumented methods of recording muscle strength have included strain gauge dynamometers and modified sphygmomanometers. Parameters such as gender, age and stature were also observed to have important effects on muscle strength. The ratio of extension to flexion maximum isometric peak force has been estimated to range between 1.40-1.70 in normal subjects. Therefore, the extensor muscles of the neck are approximately 40% stronger then the neck flexor muscles. Evidence suggested that neck pain sufferers have weaker neck flexors than normal subjects. The FRP refers to the absence of myoelectrical activity in extensor muscles upon full forward flexion and has been documented in the cervical spine of asymptomatic subjects. In conclusion, inclinometric methods used for measurements of cervical range of motion were found to be safe, effective and reliable. The Cervical Range of Motion Device appeared to be well suited for clinical practice. The ratio of cervical extension-flexion maximum isometric voluntary contraction has been determined in asymptomatic subjects. The presence of the FRP in the neck has also been observed in normals. Future study is needed to investigate the functional limitations relating to acute and chronic mechanical neck pain which account for a portion of total neck disability.

  20. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia after Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Karen K.; Arnold, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Review. Objective?Postoperative oropharyngeal dysphagia is one of the most common complications following anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). We review and summarize recent literature in order to provide a general overview of clinical signs and symptoms, assessment, incidence and natural history, pathophysiology, risk factors, treatment, prevention, and topics for future research. Methods?A search of English literature regarding dysphagia following anterior cervical spine surgery was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. The search was focused on articles published since the last review on this topic was published in 2005. Results?Patients who develop dysphagia after ACSS show significant alterations in swallowing biomechanics. Patient history, physical examination, X-ray, direct or indirect laryngoscopy, and videoradiographic swallow evaluation are considered the primary modalities for evaluating oropharyngeal dysphagia. There is no universally accepted objective instrument for assessing dysphagia after ACSS, but the most widely used instrument is the Bazaz Dysphagia Score. Because dysphagia is a subjective sensation, patient-reported instruments appear to be more clinically relevant and more effective in identifying dysfunction. The causes of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS are multifactorial, involving neuronal, muscular, and mucosal structures. The condition is usually transient, most often beginning in the immediate postoperative period but sometimes beginning more than 1 month after surgery. The incidence of dysphagia within one week after ACSS varies from 1 to 79% in the literature. This wide variance can be attributed to variations in surgical techniques, extent of surgery, and size of the implant used, as well as variations in definitions and measurements of dysphagia, time intervals of postoperative evaluations, and relatively small sample sizes used in published studies. The factors most commonly associated with an increased risk of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS are: more levels operated, female gender, increased operative time, and older age (usually >60 years). Dysphagic patients can learn compensatory strategies for the safe and effective passage of bolus material. Certain intraoperative and postoperative techniques may decrease the incidence and/or severity of oropharyngeal dysphagia after ACSS. Conclusions?Large, prospective, randomized studies are required to confirm the incidence, prevalence, etiology, mechanisms, long-term natural history, and risk factors for the development of dysphagia after ACSS, as well as to identify prevention measures. Also needed is a universal outcome measurement that is specific, reliable and valid, would include global, functional, psychosocial, and physical domains, and would facilitate comparisons among studies. Results of these studies can lead to improvements in surgical techniques and/or perioperative management, and may reduce the incidence of dysphagia after ACSS. PMID:24436882

  1. A 73-Year-Old Male with Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis Presenting as Urosepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kakarlapudi, H.; Speirs, S.; Lal, A.P.; Alaie, D.; Petrillo, R.; Ashraf, M.B.; Kolanuvada, B.; Bhargava, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is a serious debilitating infection if not detected early. Involvement of cervical vertebrae is usually seen in the presence of specific risk factors. Urinary tract infection commonly spreads to the lumbar vertebrae. This is a case presentation of an elderly male who, in the absence of specific risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis, presented with symptoms of urinary tract infection and was found to have cervical spine osteomyelitis. PMID:26715867

  2. Fusion versus disk replacement for degenerative conditions of the lumbar and cervical spine: quid est testimonium?

    PubMed

    Kishen, Thomas J; Diwan, Ashish D

    2010-04-01

    This article compares the outcomes following spinal fusion and disk replacement for degenerative conditions of the lumbar and cervical spine. The short-term outcomes of lumbar and cervical total disk replacement are equivalent to that following spinal fusion. Long-term follow-up studies of total disk replacement are necessary to confirm its potential benefit in reducing or preventing adjacent level degeneration. Also discussed is the philosophy of the surgical management of degenerative conditions of the lumbar and cervical spine. PMID:20399356

  3. Influence of facet joint angles and asymmetric disk collapse on degenerative olisthesis of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Pellengahr, C; Pfahler, M; Kuhr, M; Hohmann, D

    2000-07-01

    This study examined the facet angles of the joint facets of the intervertebral joints, the anterior and posterior heights of the intervertebral disks, and cervical lordosis as possible parameters of olisthesis. Lateral radiographs of the cervical spine in 123 patients were examined, and parameters were correlated to anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis in each segment. Results indicate anterolisthesis is caused by a decrease of the facet angles of the caudal joint facets. This process is favored by loss of anterior height of the intervertebral disks and a flattened position of the cervical spine. Loss of posterior height of the intervertebral disks promotes retrolisthesis. PMID:10917245

  4. Mandible, maxilla and cervical spine--a functional unit?

    PubMed

    Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Thieme, K M; Weber, S; Fanghanel, J; Dumont, C; Spassov, A; Hahn, W; Ihlow, D; Nagerl, H

    2008-11-01

    The motion patterns of mandibular points were recorded in vivo in closed, free movements of the mandible parallel to the sagittal-vertical plane. The points ran along loops which were valued by their area and length. All points whose loops included the same area under regarding the sense of circulation formed a straight line. Lines belonging to different areas were parallel. When the absolute areas of the oops were plotted for particular points a hollow depression with two minima resulted. The point that showed the lowest minimum in the depression corresponded to the position of the neuromuscular mandibular axis of rotation. The points running along equal loop lengths formed elliptical lines with a minimum below the condyle. The lines of constant loop area and loop length were overlaid with lateral radiographs, to match the patterns of motion with anatomical structures. The mandibular axis of rotation lay mostly cranial anterior of the condyle whereas the point with the shortest path lay mainly below this axis point, inside the bony structures. The row of teeth in the maxilla was found to be located below the line of minimal loop lengths. The cervical spine was arranged along the depression of the minimal absolute areas. PMID:19075327

  5. Imaging of acute cervical spine injuries: review and outlook.

    PubMed

    Tins, B J; Cassar-Pullicino, V N

    2004-10-01

    Advances in imaging technology have been successfully applied in the emergency trauma setting with great benefit providing early, accurate and efficient diagnoses. Gaps in the knowledge of imaging acute spinal injury remain, despite a vast wealth of useful research and publications on the role of CT and MRI. This article reviews in a balanced manner the main questions that still face the attending radiologist by embracing the current and evolving concepts to help define and provide answers to the following; Imaging techniques -- strengths and weaknesses; what are the implications of a missed cervical spine injury?; who should be imaged?; how should they be imaged?; spinal immobilisation -- help or hazard?; residual open questions; what does all this mean?; and what are the implications for the radiologist? Although there are many helpful guidelines, the residual gaps in the knowledge base result in incomplete answers to the questions posed. The identification of these gaps in knowledge however should act as the initiating stimulus for further research. All too often there is a danger that the performance and productivity of the imaging modalities is the main research focus and not enough attention is given to the two fundamental prerequisites to the assessment of any imaging technology -- the clinical selection criteria for imaging and the level of expertise of the appropriate clinician interpreting the images. PMID:15451345

  6. Subjective outcome assessments for cervical spine pathology: A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Diane N.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Subjective outcome assessment instruments may be used to determine whether changes occur as a result of a particular treatment intervention. Since 1991, 11 outcome assessment instruments either specific to or validated for use with cervical spine pathologies have been developed and their psychometric properties critically assessed. Though a systematic review of this subject was published in 2002, it included an analysis of only 5 measures available at that time. Objective To present a description of each of the 11 measures and briefly compare their psychometric properties, reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change. Methods Computer-based searches of MEDLINE and CINAHL were performed to capture all data relevant to the eleven outcome assessment tools currently available. Results Data regarding descriptions, reliability and validity of 11 outcome measures were found and collated. Conclusion The choice of which outcome measurement to use becomes a matter of preference based on the particular patient population each clinician treats, the ease of use for the patient and ease of scoring for the clinician, and the domains that are most relevant to a particular patient. PMID:19674654

  7. A comparison of cervical spine movement during laryngoscopy using the Airtraq or Macintosh laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Y; Fujita, A; Seo, N; Sugimoto, H

    2008-06-01

    The Airtraq laryngoscope has an oropharyngeal airway-shaped blade that provides a non-line-of-sight view of the glottis. The configuration of the blade should mean that less movement of the cervical spine is required during laryngeal visualisation. We compared the degree of cervical spine movement in laryngoscopy performed using the Airtraq and conventional Macintosh laryngoscope. In 20 patients requiring general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation, we measured cervical spine movement using radiography in the same patient during consecutive procedures using the two laryngoscopes. Although significant movement of the cervical spine from baseline was noted during all procedures (p < 0.05), cervical spinal extension with the Airtraq was 29% less than that measured during Macintosh laryngoscopy between the occiput and C4, and 44% less at the C3/C4 motion segment (p < 0.05). Anterior deviations of the vertebral bodies from baseline were 32%, 35%, 38% and 40% less at the atlas, C2, C3, and C4 vertebrae, respectively, during Airtraq laryngoscopy than those measured during Macintosh laryngoscopy (p < 0.01). Our study demonstrated that laryngoscopy using the Airtraq laryngoscope involves less movement of the cervical spine compared to conventional procedures using a Macintosh laryngoscope. PMID:18477276

  8. Quantifying cervical-spine curvature using Bézier splines.

    PubMed

    Klinich, Kathleen D; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2012-11-01

    Knowledge of the distributions of cervical-spine curvature is needed for computational studies of cervical-spine injury in motor-vehicle crashes. Many methods of specifying spinal curvature have been proposed, but they often involve qualitative assessment or a large number of parameters. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative method of characterizing cervical-spine curvature using a small number of parameters. 180 sagittal X-rays of subjects seated in automotive posture with their necks in neutral, flexed, and extended postures were collected in the early 1970s. Subjects were selected to represent a range of statures and ages for each gender. X-rays were reanalyzed using advanced technology and statistical methods. Coordinates of the posterior margins of the vertebral bodies and dens were digitized. Bézier splines were fit through the coordinates of these points. The interior control points that define the spline curvature were parameterized as a vector angle and length. By defining the length as a function of the angle, cervical-spine curvature was defined with just two parameters: superior and inferior Bézier angles. A classification scheme was derived to sort each curvature by magnitude and type of curvature (lordosis versus S-shaped versus kyphosis; inferior or superior location). Cervical-spine curvature in an automotive seated posture varies with gender and age but not stature. Average values of superior and inferior Bézier angles for cervical spines in flexion, neutral, and extension automotive postures are presented for each gender and age group. Use of Bézier splines fit through posterior margins offers a quantitative method of characterizing cervical-spine curvature using two parameters: superior and inferior Bézier angles. PMID:23387791

  9. Theoretical increase of thyroid cancer induction from cervical spine multidetector computed tomography in pediatric trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Muchow, Ryan D.; Egan, Kelly R.; Peppler, Walter W.; Anderson, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The trend of increasing cervical spine multidirectional computed tomography (MDCT) imaging of pediatric trauma patients is characteristic of the overall dramatic increase in computed tomography utilization in the United States. The purpose of this study is to compare the amount of radiation a pediatric trauma patient absorbs to the thyroid from plain radiographs and MDCT of the cervical spine and to express risk by calculation of theoretical thyroid cancer induction. METHODS A retrospective evaluation of pediatric trauma patients admitted from October 1, 2004, to October 31, 2009, was performed at an academic, Level I trauma center. Inclusion criteria were Level I/II trauma patients, cervical spine imaging performed at our institution, and age <18 years. Absorbed thyroid radiation was calculated for patients receiving plain radiographs or MDCT. Thyroid cancer risk was calculated using the 2006 Biological Effects on Ionizing Radiation VII report. RESULTS Six hundred seventeen patients met inclusion criteria: 224 received cervical spine radiographs and 393 received cervical spine MDCT. The mean thyroid radiation absorbed from radiographs was 0.90 mGy for males and 0.96 mGy for females compared with 63.6 mGy (males) and 64.2 mGy (females) receiving MDCT (p < 0.001). The median excess relative risk of thyroid cancer induction from one cervical spine MDCT in males was 13.0% and females was 25.0%, compared with 0.24% (males) and 0.51% (females) for radiographs (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS The significant difference in radiation that MDCT delivers to the pediatric trauma patient when compared with plain radiographs should temper routine use of computed tomography in pediatric cervical spine clearance algorithms. PMID:22327982

  10. Cervical Spine Motion in Football Players During 3 Airway-Exposure Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Richard; Luchies, Carl; Frens, Margaret Abfall; Hughes, Wendy; Sturmfels, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Immediate rescue breathing, or cardiopulmonary resuscitation, may be necessary for the cervical spine-injured football player without removal of the helmet. The purpose of our study was to compare 2 pocket-mask insertion techniques with a face-mask rotation technique to determine which allowed the quickest initiation of rescue breathing with the least cervical spine motion. Design and Setting: In a biomechanics laboratory, 3 airway-preparation techniques were tested: chin-insertion technique (pocket mask inserted between the chin and face mask), eye-hole-insertion technique (pocket mask inserted through the face mask eye hole), and screwdriver technique (side loop straps removed using manual screwdriver followed by mask rotation). Subjects: One athletic trainer team and 12 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III football players. Measurements: Time to initiate rescue breathing and induced helmet motion. Results: Both pocket-mask techniques allowed quicker initiation of rescue breathing. Cervical spine anterior-posterior displacement was greater for the chin technique than for the screwdriver or eye-hole techniques. Lateral translation was greater for the screwdriver technique than for either pocket-mask technique. Peak displacement from initial cervical spine position was greater for the chin technique than for the eye-hole technique. Conclusions: Both pocket-mask techniques allowed quicker initiation of rescue breathing than did rotation of the face mask via loop strap screw removal. The eye-hole insertion technique was faster and produced less cervical spine motion than the other 2 techniques. Each technique produced significantly smaller amounts of cervical spine displacement than that caused by cutting face-mask loop straps as reported earlier. We suggest a protocol for field management of cervical spine injuries in football players. PMID:12937431

  11. Factors influencing surgical outcome after anterior stabilization of the cervical spine with heterogeneous material

    PubMed Central

    Petridis, Athanasios K.; Sechting, Sabrina; Budde, Michael; Doukas, Alexandros; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Mehdorn, Hubertus Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion through an anterior approach with polymethylacrylate is a well-established neurosurgical technique in the treatment of cervical spine degeneration. However, questions still remain concerning the post-surgical outcome. Factors influencing surgical outcome that could help to predict which patients need further post-surgical treatment and what to expect after surgery are the subject of numerous studies. In the present study, we retrospectively collected data from patients who had undergone intervertebral fusion and defined which pre-operative factors could influence the surgical outcome. Between 1993 and 1997, 379 patients were surgically treated with the ventral fusion technique in our hospital. In 2006, we sent a questionnaire to the patients and 164 responses were received. We identified pre-operative presence of severe pain, hypesthesia, palsy and gait disturbance as negative predictive factors, whereas age, body mass index, pre-operative physical strain and the cervical segment involved did not seem to influence prognosis. In conclusion, identifying pre-operative factors which influence prognosis after intervetebral fusion will help predict postoperative outcome. PMID:24765459

  12. Cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease: a radiologic finding potentially confused with child abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Suvimol C.; Dwyer, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Menkes disease is an X-linked recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, a copper-transporting ATPase. Certain radiologic findings reported in this condition overlap with those caused by child abuse. However, cervical spine defects simulating cervical spine fracture, a known result of nonaccidental pediatric trauma, have not been reported previously in this illness. Objective To assess the frequency of cervical spine anomalies in Menkes disease after discovery of an apparent C2 posterior arch defect in a child participating in a clinical trial. Materials and methods We examined cervical spine radiographs obtained in 35 children with Menkes disease enrolled in a clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Results Four of the 35 children with Menkes disease had apparent C2 posterior arch defects consistent with spondylolysis or incomplete/delayed ossification. Conclusion Defects in C2 were found in 11% of infants and young children with Menkes disease. Discovery of cervical spine defects expands the spectrum of radiologic findings associated with this condition. As with other skeletal abnormalities, this feature simulates nonaccidental trauma. In the context of Menkes disease, suspicions of child abuse should be considered cautiously and tempered by these findings to avoid unwarranted accusations. PMID:22825777

  13. [Functional disorders and functional diseases in the region of the upper cervical spine particularly regarding the cervical joints. Current status and clinical relevance].

    PubMed

    Kayser, R; Heyde, C E

    2006-03-01

    Functional disorders of the upper cervical spine may be responsible for or the primary cause of persistent complaints following an injury or illness. Functional disorders involving the cervical joints, especially C0/C1 and C1/2 but also the C2/3 junction are of particular clinical relevance. Range of motion assessment is extremely important for the diagnosis of joint disorders. Hypomobility or "blockade" can be diagnosed using special examination techniques that, in many cases, can be extended for direct manual therapy. Periarticular structures involved in these dysfunctional processes, especially muscles and fasciae, must also be examined and treated. Clinical manifestations may include locally restricted muscle extensibility (e.g., trigger points, tension or muscle shortening) with zones of radiating pain as well as referred problems distal to the primary lesion. Functional disorders in the region of the upper cervical spine may be accompanied by various types of reflexive compensatory problems. Although they must be diagnosed separately, these disorders frequently respond to the manual therapy techniques used to treat the underlying functional problem. Even if the exact correlations to functional medicine cannot be scientifically demonstrated in every case, functional assessment and treatment techniques are, in our view, a useful addition to the armamentarium for orthopedic diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16411125

  14. Immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction for fracture-dislocation of lower cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Shen, Hui-liang; Feng, Ming-Li; Zhang, Wen-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine is a severe traumatic lesion, most frequently resulting in tetraplegia. Treatment is usually painful and time consuming. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical curative effect of immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction for fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine. Twelve cases of traumatic lower cervical spinal fracture-dislocation were retrospectively analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011. The injury level was C4/C5 in 4, C5/C6 in 5, and C6/C7 in 3 patients. The spinal cord function grades according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (2000 edition amended) before operation were as follows: grade A in 2 cases, grade B in 2 cases, grade C in 5 cases, grade D in 2 cases, and grade E in 1 case. On admission, all patients underwent immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction by circumferential fixation/fusion. The spinal cord function grades according to American Spinal Injury Association after operation were as follows: grade A in 1 case, grade B in 1 case, grade C in 3 cases, grade D in 3 cases, and grade E in 4 cases. All 12 patients showed evidence of stability at the instrumented level on the final follow-up examination (mean follow-up, 3.7 y). Immediate reduction under general anesthesia followed by a single-stage combined anteroposterior spinal reconstruction is a safe and reliable way of treating patients with lower cervical spine fracture-dislocations. PMID:24335725

  15. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Alters Whole-Spine Sagittal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yi, Seong; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has become a common spine procedure, however, there have been no previous studies on whole spine alignment changes after cervical fusion. Our purpose in this study was to determine whole spine sagittal alignment and pelvic alignment changes after ACDF. Materials and Methods Forty-eight patients who had undergone ACDF from January 2011 to December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and pelvic parameters were measured preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores and Neck Disability Index (NDI) values. Results Forty-eight patients were grouped according to operative method (cage only, cage & plate), operative level (upper level: C3/4 & C4/5; lower level: C5/6 & C6/7), and cervical lordosis (high lordosis, low lordosis). All patients experienced significant improvements in VAS scores and NDI values after surgery. Among the radiologic parameters, pelvic tilt increased and sacral slope decreased at 12 months postoperatively. Only the high cervical lordosis group showed significantly-decreased cervical lordosis and a shortened SVA postoperatively. Correlation tests revealed that cervical lordosis was significantly correlated with SVA and that SVA was significantly correlated with pelvic tilt and sacral slope. Conclusion ACDF affects whole spine sagittal alignment, especially in patients with high cervical lordosis. In these patients, alteration of cervical lordosis to a normal angle shortened the SVA and resulted in reciprocal changes in pelvic tilt and sacral slope. PMID:26069131

  16. Development and validation of a 10-year-old child ligamentous cervical spine finite element model.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liqiang; Li, Guangyao; Mao, Haojie; Marek, Stanley; Yang, King H

    2013-12-01

    Although a number of finite element (FE) adult cervical spine models have been developed to understand the injury mechanisms of the neck in automotive related crash scenarios, there have been fewer efforts to develop a child neck model. In this study, a 10-year-old ligamentous cervical spine FE model was developed for application in the improvement of pediatric safety related to motor vehicle crashes. The model geometry was obtained from medical scans and meshed using a multi-block approach. Appropriate properties based on review of literature in conjunction with scaling were assigned to different parts of the model. Child tensile force-deformation data in three segments, Occipital-C2 (C0-C2), C4-C5 and C6-C7, were used to validate the cervical spine model and predict failure forces and displacements. Design of computer experiments was performed to determine failure properties for intervertebral discs and ligaments needed to set up the FE model. The model-predicted ultimate displacements and forces were within the experimental range. The cervical spine FE model was validated in flexion and extension against the child experimental data in three segments, C0-C2, C4-C5 and C6-C7. Other model predictions were found to be consistent with the experimental responses scaled from adult data. The whole cervical spine model was also validated in tension, flexion and extension against the child experimental data. This study provided methods for developing a child ligamentous cervical spine FE model and to predict soft tissue failures in tension. PMID:23817769

  17. A systematic review of the use of expandable cages in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Lo, Sheng-Fu; Kosztowski, Thomas A; Goodwin, C Rory; Lina, Ioan A; Locke, John E; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Expandable vertebral body replacement cages (VBRs) have been widely used for reconstruction of the thoracolumbar spine following corpectomy. However, their use in the cervical spine is less common, and currently, no expandable cages on the market are cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on the use of expandable cages in the treatment of cervical spine pathology with a focus on fusion rates, deformity correction, complications, and indications. A comprehensive Medline search was performed, and 24 applicable articles were identified and included in this review. The advantages of expandable cages include greater ease of implantation with less risk of damage to the end plate, less intraoperative manipulation of the device, and potentially greater control over lordosis. They may be particularly advantageous in cases with poor bone quality, such as patients with osteoporosis or metastatic tumors that have been radiated. However, there is a potential risk of overdistraction, which is increased in the cervical spine, their minimum height limits their use in cases with collapsed vertebra, and the amount of hardware in the expansion mechanism may limit the surface area available for fusion. The use of expandable VBRs are a valuable tool in the armamentarium for reconstruction of the anterior column of the cervical spine with an acceptable safety profile. Although expandable cervical cages are clearly beneficial in certain clinical situations, widespread use following all corpectomies is not justified due to their significantly greater cost compared to structural bone grafts or non-expandable VBRs, which can be utilized to achieve similar clinical outcomes. PMID:26212700

  18. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical, metabolic, and kinematic spinal changes in the lumbar spine may aid further development of countermeasures to prevent lumbar back pain in microgravity and reduce the incidence of HNPs post-flight.

  19. Congenital spine deformities: a new screening indication for blunt cerebrovascular injuries after cervical trauma?

    PubMed

    Capone, Christine; Burjonrappa, Sathyaprasad

    2010-12-01

    Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVI) carry significant morbidity if not diagnosed and treated early. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed to recognize the injury patterns associated with this condition and to order the requisite imaging studies needed to diagnose it accurately. We report of BCVI associated with a congenital cervical spine malformation after blunt trauma. We recommend inclusion of cervical spine malformations to the current Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma screening criteria for BCVI and explain our rationale for the same. PMID:21129564

  20. The role of the cervical spine in post-concussion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Cameron M; Vernon, Howard; Leddy, John J; Baldwin, Bradley A

    2015-07-01

    While much is known regarding the pathophysiology surrounding concussion injuries in the acute phase, there is little evidence to support many of the theorized etiologies to post-concussion syndrome (PCS); the chronic phase of concussion occurring in ? 10-15% of concussed patients. This paper reviews the existing literature surrounding the numerous proposed theories of PCS and introduces another potential, and very treatable, cause of this chronic condition; cervical spine dysfunction due to concomitant whiplash-type injury. We also discuss a short case-series of five patients with diagnosed PCS having very favorable outcomes following various treatment and rehabilitative techniques aimed at restoring cervical spine function. PMID:26138797

  1. A prospective study of the radiological changes in the cervical spine in early rheumatoid disease.

    PubMed Central

    Winfield, J; Cooke, D; Brook, A S; Corbett, M

    1981-01-01

    The cervical spine radiographs of 100 patients with early rheumatoid disease were studied annually, on a prospective basis, for a mean follow-up period of 7 years 2 months. Atlantoaxial subluxation developed in 12 patients. The subluxation was more frequent in females, more severe in patients with progressive, seropositive, erosive rheumatoid disease, and more marked in patients treated with oral corticosteroids. Subaxial subluxation, affecting upper cervical disc levels, occurred in a further 20 patients. Three patients developed vertical subluxation. The mobility of the cervical spine affects the degree of subluxation achieved, and when assessing serial films for subluxation it may be necessary to measure the cervical spine flexion before deciding whether subluxation has progressed or not. Over 80% of the patients with subluxation developed the first evidence of subluxation within 2 years of disease onset. Subluxation in the cervical spine is not, therefore, a late complication of rheumatoid disease. During the follow-up period none of the patients developed neurological signs. PMID:7224682

  2. Chronic lumbar spine and radicular pain: pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Anthony H; Murrey, Daniel B

    2002-04-01

    The lumbar spine forms the foundation and infrastructure of an organic skyscraper equipped with the physiologic capacity to act as a crane for lifting and a crankshaft for walking. Subjected to aging like other "human machinery," the lumbar spine adapts to the wear and tear of gravity and biomechanical loading through structural and neurochemical changes. Many of the changes are maladaptive, resulting in pain, physical and functional disability, and altered neurophysiologic circuitry. Some compensatory reactions are constructive, but others cause more interference with the organism's capacity to cope. A conceptional understanding of the multifaceted structural, biomechanical, biochemical, medical, and psychosocial influences that compose this mix elucidates the complexity of applying effective treatments. PMID:11872180

  3. Current status of bone graft options for anterior interbody fusion of the cervical and lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Chau, Anthony Minh Tien; Xu, Lileane Liang; Wong, Johnny Ho-Yin; Mobbs, Ralph Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) are common surgical procedures for degenerative disc disease of the cervical and lumbar spine. Over the years, many bone graft options have been developed and investigated aimed at complimenting or substituting autograft bone, the traditional fusion substrate. Here, we summarise the historical context, biological basis and current best evidence for these bone graft options in ACDF and ALIF. PMID:23743981

  4. Comparison of hemodynamic responses to intubation: Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscope versus McCoy laryngoscope in presence of rigid cervical collar simulating cervical immobilization for traumatic cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Nitesh; Purohit, Shobha; Kalra, Poonam; Lall, Tarun; Khare, Avneesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intubation is known to cause an exaggerated hemodynamic response in the form of tachycardia, hypertension, and dysrhythmias. In cervical spine instability, intubation has to be performed using cervical immobilization to prevent exacerbation of spinal cord injuries. Application of rigid cervical collar may reduce cervical spine movements, but it hinders tracheal intubation with a standard laryngoscope. The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic responses to fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB) and McCoy laryngoscope in patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia with rigid cervical collar simulating cervical spine immobilization in the situation of cervical trauma. Methods: Thirty-two patients in the age range 2050 years, of American Society of Anaesthesiologist I-II, and of either sex undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated into each group. There were two groups according to the technique used for intubation: Group A (flexible FOB) and Group B (McCoy laryngoscope). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded at baseline, intraoperatively, immediately before and after induction, and immediately after intubation. Thereafter, every min for next 5 min. Statistical Analysis: Intergroup comparison of categorical data was done by Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Intergroup comparison of quantitative data was done by the parametric test (unpaired t-test), and probability was considered to be significant if <0.05. Results: Due to intubation response, HR and blood pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05) above preoperative values in McCoy group as compared to the fiberoptic group. Conclusion: We suggest that the flexible FOB is an effective and better method of intubation in a situation like traumatic cervical spine injury and provides stable hemodynamics. PMID:26712970

  5. Assessment of cervical spine movement during laryngoscopy with Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Kajal; Rao, Madhusudan; Mandal, Arup Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Truview laryngoscope provides an indirect view of the glottis and will cause less cervical spine movement since a ventral lifting force will not be required to visualize the glottis compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover study to assess the degree of movement of cervical spine during endotracheal intubation with Truview laryngoscope was conducted in 25 adult ASA-I patients. After a standard anesthetic technique laryngoscopy was performed twice in each patient using in turn both the Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes. A baseline radiograph with the head and neck in a neutral position was followed by a second radiograph taken during each laryngoscopy. An experienced radiologist analyzed and measured the cervical movement. Results: Significant cervical spine movement occurred at all segments when compared to the baseline with both the Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes (P < 0.001). However, the movement was significantly less with Truview compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope at C0C1 (21%; P = 0.005) and C1C2 levels (32%; P = 0.009). The atlantooccipital distance (AOD) traversed while using Truview laryngoscope was significantly less than with Macintosh blade (26%; P = 0.001). Truview blade produced a better laryngoscopic view (P = 0.005) than Macintosh blade, but had a longer time to laryngoscopy (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Truview laryngoscope produced a better laryngoscopic view of glottis as compared with Macintosh laryngoscopy. It also produced significantly less cervical spine movement at C0C1 and C1C2 levels than with Macintosh laryngoscope in patients without cervical spine injury and without manual in-line stabilization (MILS). Further studies are warranted with Truview laryngoscope using MILS. PMID:24106352

  6. Distal Junctional Disease after Occipitothoracic Fusion for Rheumatoid Cervical Disorders: Correlation with Cervical Spine Sagittal Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Tanouchi, Tetsu; Shimizu, Takachika; Fueki, Keisuke; Ino, Masatake; Toda, Naofumi; Manabe, Nodoka; Itoh, Kanako

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective radiographic study. Objective?We have performed occipitothoracic (OT) fusion for severe rheumatoid cervical disorders since 1991. In our previous study, we reported that the distal junctional disease occurred in patients with fusion of OT4 or longer due to increased mechanical stress. The present study further evaluated the association between the distal junctional disease and the cervical spine sagittal alignment. Methods?Among 60 consecutive OT fusion cases between 1991 and 2010, 24 patients who underwent OT5 fusion were enrolled in this study. The patients were grouped based on whether they developed postoperative distal junctional disease (group F) or not (group N). We measured pre- and postoperative OC2, C2C7, and OC7 angles and evaluated the association between these values and the occurrence of distal junctional disease. Results?Seven (29%) of 24 patients developed adjacent-level vertebral fractures as distal junctional disease. In group F, the mean pre- and postoperative OC2, C2C7, and OC7 angles were 12.1 and 16.8, 7.2 and 11.2, and 19.4 and 27.9 degrees, respectively. In group N, the mean pre- and postoperative OC2, C2C7, and OC7 angles were 15.9 and 15.0, 4.9 and 5.8, and 21.0 and 20.9 degrees, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups. The difference in the OC7 angle (postoperative angle???preoperative angle) in group F was significantly larger than that in group N (p?=?0.04). Conclusion?Excessive correction of the OC7 angle (hyperlordotic alignment) is likely to cause postoperative distal junctional disease following the OT fusion. PMID:26430590

  7. Controlled Laboratory Comparison Study of Motion With Football Equipment in a Destabilized Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, MaryBeth; DiPaola, Matthew J.; DiPaola, Christian P.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Conrad, Bryan P.; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have shown that there are better alternatives to log rolling patients with unstable spinal injuries, although this method is still commonly used for placing patients onto a spine board. No previous studies have examined transfer maneuvers involving an injured football player with equipment in place onto a spine board. Purpose To test 3 different transfer maneuvers of an injured football player onto a spine board to determine which method most effectively minimizes spinal motion in an injured cervical spine model. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Five whole, lightly embalmed cadavers were fitted with shoulder pads and helmets and tested both before and after global instability was surgically created at C5-C6. An electromagnetic motion analysis device was used to assess the amount of angular and linear motion with sensors placed above and below the injured segment during transfer. Spine-boarding techniques evaluated were the log roll, the lift and slide, and the 8-person lift. Results The 8-person lift technique resulted in the least amount of angular and linear motion for all planes tested as compared with the lift-and-slide and log-roll techniques. This reached statistical significance for lateral bending (P = .031) and medial-lateral translation (P = .030) when compared with the log-roll maneuver. The lift-and-slide technique was significantly more effective at reducing motion than the log roll for axial rotation (P = .029) and lateral bending (P = .006). Conclusion The log roll resulted in the most motion at an unstable cervical injury as compared with the other 2 spine-boarding techniques examined. The 8-person lift and lift-and-slide techniques may both be more effective than the log roll at reducing unwanted cervical spine motion when spine boarding an injured football player. Reduction of such motion is critical in the prevention of iatrogenic injury. PMID:26535397

  8. Is radiography justified for the evaluation of patients presenting with cervical spine trauma?

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharopoulos, Nicholas; Chatzakis, Georgios; Damilakis, John

    2009-10-15

    Conventional radiography has been for decades the standard method of evaluation for cervical spine trauma patients. However, currently available helical multidetector CT scanners allow multiplanar reconstruction of images, leading to increased diagnostic accuracy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative benefit/risk ratio between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography and between cervical spine CT and cervical spine radiography, followed by CT as an adjunct for positive findings. A decision analysis model for the determination of the optimum imaging technique was developed. The sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography were obtained by dedicated meta-analysis. Lifetime attributable risk of mortal cancer from CT and radiography was calculated using updated organ-specific risk coefficients and organ-absorbed doses. Patient organ doses from radiography were calculated using Monte Carlo techniques, simulated exposures performed on an anthropomorphic phantom, and thermoluminescence dosimetry. A prospective patient study was performed regarding helical CT scans of the cervical spine. Patient doses were calculated based on the dose-length-product values and Monte Carlo-based CT dosimetry software program. Three groups of patient risk for cervical spine fracture were incorporated in the decision model on the basis of hypothetical trauma mechanism and clinical findings. Radiation effects were assessed separately for males and females for four age groups (20, 40, 60, and 80 yr old). Effective dose from radiography amounts to 0.050 mSv and from a typical CT scan to 3.8 mSv. The use of CT in a hypothetical cohort of 10{sup 6} patients prevents approximately 130 incidents of paralysis in the low risk group (a priori fracture probability of 0.5%), 500 in the moderate risk group (a priori fracture probability of 2%), and 5100 in the high risk group (a priori fracture probability of 20%). The expense of this CT-based prevention is 15-32 additional radiogenic lethal cancer incidents. According to the decision model calculations, the use of CT is more favorable over the use of radiography alone or radiography with CT by a factor of 13, for low risk 20 yr old patients, to a factor of 23, for high risk patients younger than 80 yr old. The radiography/CT imaging strategy slightly outperforms plain radiography for high and moderate risk patients. Regardless of the patient age, sex, and fracture risk, the higher diagnostic accuracy obtained by the CT examination counterbalances the increase in dose compared to plain radiography or radiography followed by CT only for positive radiographs and renders CT utilization justified and the radiographic screening redundant.

  9. Fatal Isolated Cervical Spine Injury in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gelalis, Ioannis D.; Lykissas, Marios G.; Dimou, Apostolos A.; Giannoulis, Dionysios K.; Beris, Alexandros E.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?The purpose of the present case report was to present a patient with a history of ankylosing spondylitis who sustained a dislocation of C6 on C7 and died soon after his presentation in the emergency room (ER). Methods?An 88-year-old man was brought to the ER due to a neck injury secondary to a fall. Imaging of the cervical spine revealed anterior dislocation of C6 on C7 and the characteristic bamboo spine of ankylosing spondylitis. Results?The patient died within 30 minutes due to respiratory insufficiency. Conclusion?Isolated cervical spine injuries in patients with ankylosing spondylitis can be fatal. A high degree of clinical suspicion, thorough imaging with computed tomography, and meticulous handling are required in this patient population. PMID:26131398

  10. Single stage transforaminal retrojugular tumor resection: The spinal keyhole for dumbbell tumors in the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Bobinski, Lukas; Henchoz, Yves; Sandu, Kishore; Duff, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dumbbell tumors are defined as having an intradural and extradural component with an intermediate component within an expanded neural foramen. Complete resection of these lesions in the subaxial cervical spine is a challenge, and it has been achieved through a combined posterior/anterior or anterolateral approach. This study describes a single stage transforaminal retrojugular (TFR) approach for dumbbell tumors resection in the cervical spine. Methods: This is a retrospective review of a series of 17 patients treated for cervical benign tumors, 4 of which were true cervical dumbbell tumors operated by a simplified retrojugular approach. The TFR approach allows a single stage gross total resection of both the extraspinal and intraspinal/intradural components of the tumor, taking advantage of the expanded neural foramen. All patients were followed clinically and radiologically with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Gross total resection was confirmed in all four patients by postoperative MRI. Minimal to no bone resection was performed. No fusion procedure was performed and no delayed instability was seen. At follow up, one patient had a persistent mild hand weakness and Horners syndrome following resection of a hemangioblastoma of the C8 nerve root. The other three patients were neurologically normal. Conclusions: The TFR approach appears to be a feasible surgical option for single stage resection in selective cases of dumbbell tumors of the cervical spine. PMID:25883845

  11. Detecting Facet Joint and Lateral Mass Injuries of the Subaxial Cervical Spine in Major Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Ian; Dalzell, Kristian; Deverall, Hamish; Freeman, Brian J.C.; Morris, Stephen A.C.; Sandler, Simon J.I.; Williams, Richard; Yau, Y.H.; Goss, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Radiologic imaging measurement study. Purpose To assess the accuracy of detecting lateral mass and facet joint injuries of the subaxial cervical spine on plain radiographs using computed tomography (CT) scan images as a reference standard; and the integrity of morphological landmarks of the lateral mass and facet joints of the subaxial cervical spine. Overview of Literature Injuries of lateral mass and facet joints potentially lead to an unstable subaxial cervical spine and concomitant neurological sequelae. However, no study has evaluated the accuracy of detecting specific facet joint injuries. Methods Eight spinal surgeons scored four sets of the same, randomly re-ordered, 30 cases with and without facet joint injuries of the subaxial cervical spine. Two surveys included conventional plain radiographs series (test) and another two surveys included CT scan images (reference). Facet joint injury characteristics were assessed for accuracy and reliability. Raw agreement, Fleiss kappa, Cohen's kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient statistics were used for reliability analysis. Majority rules were used for accuracy analysis. Results Of the 21 facet joint injuries discerned on CT scan images, 10 were detected in both plain radiograph surveys (sensitivity, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.70). There were no false positive facet joint injuries in either of the first two X-ray surveys (specificity, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.63-1.0). Five of the 11 cases with missed injuries had an injury below the lowest visible articulating level on radiographs. CT scan images resulted in superior inter- and intra-rater agreement values for assessing morphologic injury characteristics of facet joint injuries. Conclusions Plain radiographs are not accurate, nor reliable for the assessment of facet joint injuries of the subaxial cervical spine. CT scans offer reliable diagnostic information required for the detection and treatment planning of facet joint injuries. PMID:26097647

  12. Rehabilitation program for traumatic chronic cervical pain associated with unsteadiness: a single case study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Champagne, Annick; Cadieux, Rosalie; Descarreaux, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Neck problems are often recurring or chronic. After pain, unsteadiness and balance problems are among the most frequent symptoms reported by chronic neck pain (CNP) patients. Altered sensorimotor control of the cervical spine and sensorimotor integration problems affecting postural control have been observed in CNP patients. Very few data are available regarding the post-intervention effects of rehabilitation programs on postural control in CNP. Case presentation This is a case study of a traumatic CNP patient (a 45-year old female) with postural unsteadiness who participated in an 8-week rehabilitation program combining therapeutic exercises with spinal manipulative therapy. Pre-intervention data revealed that the postural control system was challenged when postural control sensory inputs were altered, particularly during the head-extended-backward condition. Post-intervention centre of pressure measurements indicated a drastic reduction in postural sway during trials with changes in neck orientation. Conclusion This case report indicates that an 8-week rehabilitation program combining therapeutic exercises with spinal manipulative therapy may have had an effect on improvement of postural control in a trauma CNP patient with unsteadiness. These results warrant further studies to investigate the relationships between pain amelioration, sensorimotor control of the cervical spine, muscle fitness and postural steadiness. PMID:19014706

  13. Neutral lumbar spine sitting posture in pain-free subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Dea, Patrick; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Clifford, Amanda; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2010-12-01

    Sitting is a common aggravating factor in low back pain (LBP), and re-education of sitting posture is a common aspect of LBP management. However, there is debate regarding what is an optimal sitting posture. This pilot study had 2 aims; to investigate whether pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral sitting posture (slight lumbar lordosis and relaxed thorax); and to compare perceptions of neutral sitting posture to habitual sitting posture (HSP). The lower lumbar spine HSP of seventeen pain-free subjects was initially recorded. Subjects then assumed their own subjectively perceived ideal posture (SPIP). Finally, 2 testers independently positioned the subjects into a tester perceived neutral posture (TPNP). The inter-tester reliability of positioning in TPNP was very good (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.91, mean difference = 3% of range of motion). A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that HSP was significantly more flexed than both SPIP and TPNP (p <0.05). There was no significant difference between SPIP and TPNP (p > 0.05). HSP was more kyphotic than all other postures. This study suggests that pain-free subjects can be reliably positioned in a neutral lumbar sitting posture. Further investigation into the role of neutral sitting posture in LBP subjects is warranted. PMID:20638321

  14. Vertebroplasty as a Treatment for Primary Benign or Metastatic Cervical Spine Lesions: Up to One Year of Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, G; Vassallo, P; Ambrosanio, G; Zeccolini, F; Lavanga, A; Varelli, C; Fabozzi, G; Izzo, R; Muto, M

    2010-03-01

    This paper illustrates the validity of vertebroplasty (VP) in patients with primary benign or metastatic lesion in the cervical spine. From January 2006 to December 2007, ten consecutive patients were treated with VP for a total of ten vertebral bodies: two symptomatic vertebral haemangiomas at C5 and C4.3, multiple myeloma at C2 (two cases) and one case at C4, five patients with vertebral metastasis from breast or lung cancer at C2, C4 (three cases) and C5. All the patients complained of pain resistant to continuous medical management. All procedures were performed under general anaesthesia by anterolateral approach under CT or fluoroscopy control with manual dislocation of the carotid axis. A transoral approach under fluoroscopy was performed to treat the C2 lesion. Bone biopsy was never performed. VP was performed to prevent fracture after implantation of a double discal prothesis in two patients. For patients with multiple myeloma, VP was performed to prevent new vertebral fracture. VP was performed before of radiotherapy in three patients with metastasis, and just after radiotherapy in two. Two metastatic patients were lost at one year follow-up due to death from systematic diffusion. Results were evaluated on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODS). A successful outcome was observed with a complete resolution or partial reduction of pain in 90% of patients 24-72 hours after VP. At 12 months follow-up, we recorded a reduction of four points in the VAS evaluation and a 45% reduction in the ODS score. No extravertebral vascular or discal cement leakage was observed. At 12 months, X-ray follow-up showed a stable result. Percutaneous treatment with VP for benign or malignant cervical spine lesions is a valuable, mini-invasive and quick method that allows a complete and enduring resolution of painful vertebral symptoms without fracture of the adjacent or distal vertebral bodies. PMID:24148339

  15. Cervical zygapophysial (facet) joint pain: effectiveness of interventional management strategies.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic facet joint nerve blocks have been utilized in the diagnosis of cervical facet joint pain in patients without disk herniation or radicular pain due to a lack of reliable noninvasive diagnostic measures. Therapeutic interventions include intra-articular injections, facet joint nerve blocks and radiofrequency neurotomy. The diagnostic accuracy and effectiveness of facet joint interventions have been assessed in multiple diagnostic accuracy studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic reviews in managing chronic neck pain. This assessment shows there is Level II evidence based on a total of 11 controlled diagnostic accuracy studies for diagnosing cervical facet joint pain in patients without disk herniation or radicular pain utilizing controlled diagnostic blocks. Due to significant variability and internal inconsistency regarding prevalence in a heterogenous population; despite 11 studies, evidence is determined as Level II. Prevalence ranged from 36% to 67% with at least 80% pain relief as the criterion standard with a false-positive rate ranging from 27% to 63%. The evidence is Level II for the long-term effectiveness of radiofrequency neurotomy and facet joint nerve blocks in managing cervical facet joint pain. There is Level III evidence for cervical intra-articular injections. PMID:26653406

  16. Kinematics of the cervical spine: effects of multiple total laminectomy and facet wiring.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Clark, C R; Harris, K G; Schulte, K R

    1988-01-01

    The effect of multiple-level total laminectomies followed by stabilization on the load-deformation behavior of the cervical spine is described. Fresh human ligamentous cervical spines (C2-T2) were potted and clinically relevant load types applied via a loading frame attached to the C-2 vertebra of the specimen. A set of three infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were attached rigidly to each of five vertebrae (C3-7) to record their spatial locations after each load step application, using a Selspot II system. The specimen was tested again after total laminectomy performed on C5. The supraspinous, interspinous, and flavum ligaments between the C4-5 and C5-6 motion segments were cut; thereafter, the vertebral arch was removed. The specimen testing was resumed after inducing injury at C-6 in a similar fashion. The specimen was stabilized, using a facet wiring construct, across the C4-7 segment before testing for the final time. The load-deformation data of the injured and stabilized tests were normalized with regard to the corresponding results of the intact test. In flexion-extension mode, an increase in motion of about 10% after laminectomies was observed. Facet wiring was found to be an effective technique to stabilize injured cervical spines (approximately equal to 80% reduction in motion, compared with intact spines, was observed. PMID:3379514

  17. Delayed presentation of a cervical spine fracture dislocation with posterior ligamentous disruption in a gymnast.

    PubMed

    Momaya, Amit; Rozzelle, Curtis; Davis, Kenny; Estes, Reed

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine injuries are uncommon but potentially devastating athletic injuries. We report a case of a girl gymnast who presented with a cervical spine fracture dislocation with posterior ligamentous disruption several days after injury. To our knowledge, this type of presentation with such severity of injury in a gymnast has not been reported in the literature. The patient was performing a double front tuck flip and sustained a hyperflexion, axial-loading injury. She experienced mild transient numbness in her bilateral upper and lower extremities lasting for about 5 minutes, after which it resolved. The patient was neurologically intact during her clinic visit, but she endorsed significant midline cervical tenderness. Plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging of the cervical spine revealed a C2-C3 fracture dislocation. She underwent posterior open reduction followed by C2-C3 facet arthrodesis and internal fixation. This case highlights the importance of very careful evaluations of neck injuries and the maintenance of high suspicion for significant underlying pathology. PMID:24945477

  18. Extensive cervical spine and foregut anomaly in ‘serpentine syndrome’

    PubMed Central

    Dargan, D.; McMorrow, A.; Bourke, T.W.; McCallion, W.A.; Verner, A.M.; Lyons, J.; McConnell, R.S.; Lundy, C.T.; Eames, N.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We report an extremely rare and challenging combination of congenital anomalies. Only five similar cases have been described in the English language medical literature to date. PRESENTATION OF CASE A male infant was born at 30+5 weeks gestation by emergency caesarian section. Cervical spine rachischisis, shortened oesophagus, intrathoracic stomach, atretic duodenum and absent spleen were noted, in addition to respiratory insufficiency. Gastrointestinal re-anastomosis, particularly oesophageal lengthening, was not feasible at the initial thoracotomy. Surgical stabilization of the cervical spine was unlikely to be successful until two years of age. Asplenia predisposed the infant to sepsis from encapsulated organisms, and recurrent respiratory infections occurred. DISCUSSION A close relationship exists between the upper gastrointestinal tract and cervical spine during embryonic development. An embryonic aberration at this level could account for all the deformities present in this infant. Tethering of the embryonic cervical oesophagus to the somites in the first trimester, preventing foregut elongation, and producing ischaemia at the coeliac axis, is suggested as the aetiology. CONCLUSION This case presented a challenge to the multi-disciplinary team involved in his management and prompted extensive consultation with international experts. After considerable counseling of the parents, care was directed towards palliation. PMID:23567544

  19. Whiplash-associated disorders impairment rating: neck disability index score according to severity of MRI findings of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether reported pain and functional disability in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) patients is associated with lesions to specific soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, as assessed by MRI. Pre-selected structures for MRI assessment included the alar ligaments, the transverse ligament, the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. The questionnaire employed was a modification of the Oswestry Low Back Pain Index. It was comprised of ten single items related to pain and activity of daily living. Ninety-two whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. WAD patients reported significantly more pain and functional disability than the controls, both for total score and each of the ten single items. In the WAD patients, MRI lesions to the alar ligaments showed the most consistent association to the reported pain and disability. Lesions to other structures often occurred in combination with lesions to the alar ligaments. Lesions to the transverse ligament and to the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane also appeared to be related to the NDI score, although the association was weaker than for the alar ligament. The disability score increased with increasing number of abnormal (grade 2-3) structures. These results indicate that symptoms and complaints among WAD patients can be linked with structural abnormalities in ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine, in particular the alar ligaments. PMID:15853463

  20. A systematic review of the need for MRI for the clearance of cervical spine injury in obtunded blunt trauma patients after normal cervical spine CT.

    PubMed

    James, Iyore Ao; Moukalled, Ahmad; Yu, Elizabeth; Tulman, David B; Bergese, Sergio D; Jones, Christian D; Stawicki, Stanislaw Pa; Evans, David C

    2014-10-01

    Clearance of cervical spine injury (CSI) in the obtunded or comatose blunt trauma patient remains controversial. In patients with unreliable physical examination and no evidence of CSI on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine (CS-MRI) is the typical follow-up study. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that CS-MRI is unnecessary with negative findings on a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scan. This review article systematically analyzes current literature to address the controversies surrounding clearance of CSI in obtunded blunt trauma patients. A literature search through MEDLINE database was conducted using all databases on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) for keywords: "cervical spine injury," "obtunded," and "MRI." The search was limited to studies published within the last 10 years and with populations of patients older than 18 years old. Eleven studies were included in the analysis yielding data on 1535 patients. CS-MRI detected abnormalities in 256 patients (16.6%). The abnormalities reported on CS-MRI resulted in prolonged rigid c-collar immobilization in 74 patients (4.9%). Eleven patients (0.7%) had unstable injury detected on CS-MRI alone that required surgical intervention. In the obtunded blunt trauma patient with unreliable clinical examination and a normal CT scan, there is still a role for CS-MRI in detecting clinically significant injuries when MRI resources are available. However, when a reliable clinical exam reveals intact gross motor function, CS-MRI may be unnecessary. PMID:25400384

  1. A systematic review of the need for MRI for the clearance of cervical spine injury in obtunded blunt trauma patients after normal cervical spine CT

    PubMed Central

    James, Iyore AO; Moukalled, Ahmad; Yu, Elizabeth; Tulman, David B; Bergese, Sergio D; Jones, Christian D; Stawicki, Stanislaw PA; Evans, David C

    2014-01-01

    Clearance of cervical spine injury (CSI) in the obtunded or comatose blunt trauma patient remains controversial. In patients with unreliable physical examination and no evidence of CSI on computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine (CS-MRI) is the typical follow-up study. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that CS-MRI is unnecessary with negative findings on a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scan. This review article systematically analyzes current literature to address the controversies surrounding clearance of CSI in obtunded blunt trauma patients. A literature search through MEDLINE database was conducted using all databases on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) for keywords: cervical spine injury, obtunded, and MRI. The search was limited to studies published within the last 10 years and with populations of patients older than 18 years old. Eleven studies were included in the analysis yielding data on 1535 patients. CS-MRI detected abnormalities in 256 patients (16.6%). The abnormalities reported on CS-MRI resulted in prolonged rigid c-collar immobilization in 74 patients (4.9%). Eleven patients (0.7%) had unstable injury detected on CS-MRI alone that required surgical intervention. In the obtunded blunt trauma patient with unreliable clinical examination and a normal CT scan, there is still a role for CS-MRI in detecting clinically significant injuries when MRI resources are available. However, when a reliable clinical exam reveals intact gross motor function, CS-MRI may be unnecessary. PMID:25400384

  2. Correlation between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical outcome after cervical laminoplasty for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Kyu; Shin, Dong Ah; Yi, Seong; Kim, Keung Nyun; Shin, Hyun Chul; Yoon, Do Heum; Ha, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes after cervical laminoplasty in patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). METHODS Fifty consecutive patients who underwent a cervical laminoplasty for OPLL between January 2012 and January 2013 and who were followed up for at least 1 year were analyzed in this study. Standing plain radiographs of the cervical spine, CT (midsagittal view), and MRI (T2-weighted sagittal view) were obtained (anteroposterior, lateral, flexion, and extension) pre- and postoperatively. Cervical spine alignment was assessed with the following 3 parameters: the C2-7 Cobb angle, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), and T-1 slope minus C2-7 Cobb angle. The change in cervical sagittal alignment was defined as the difference between the post- and preoperative C2-7 Cobb angles, C2-7 SVAs, and T-1 slope minus C2-7 Cobb angles. Outcome assessments (visual analog scale [VAS], Oswestry Neck Disability Index [NDI], 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36], and Japanese Orthopaedic Association [JOA] scores) were obtained in all patients pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS The average patient age was 56.3 years (range 38-72 years). There were 34 male patients and 16 female patients. Cervical laminoplasty for OPLL helped alleviate radiculomyelopathy. Compared with the preoperative scores, improvement was seen in postoperative VAS and JOA scores. After laminoplasty, 35 patients had kyphotic changes, and 15 had lordotic changes. However, cervical sagittal alignment after laminoplasty was not significantly associated with clinical outcomes in terms of postoperative improvement of the JOA score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.633; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.817; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.554), the SF-36 score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.554; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.793; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.829), the VAS neck score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.263; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.716; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.497), or the NDI score (C2-7 Cobb angle: p = 0.568; C2-7 SVA: p = 0.279; T-1 slope minus C2-7 lordosis: p = 0.966). Similarly, the change in cervical sagittal alignment was not related to the JOA (p = 0.604), SF-36 (p = 0.308), VAS neck (p = 0.832), or NDI (p = 0.608) scores. CONCLUSIONS Cervical laminoplasty for OPLL improved radiculomyelopathy. Cervical laminoplasty increased the probability of cervical kyphotic alignment. However, cervical sagittal alignment and clinical outcomes were not clearly related. PMID:26431070

  3. Surgical Therapy of Cervical Spine Fracture in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Ce; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhou, Shengyuan; Jia, Lianshun

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to explore surgical treatments and assess the effects based on the features of cervical spine fracture in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to summarize the experiences in perioperative management. Retrospective analysis was performed in 25 AS patients with cervical spine fracture treated in our hospital from January 2011 to December 2013. The patients were divided according to fracture segments, including 4 cases at C4 to C5, 8 cases at C5 to C6, and 13 cases at C6 to C7. Among them, 12 belonged to I type, 5 to II type, and 8 to III type based on the improved classification method for AS cervical spine fracture. The Subaxial Cervical Spine Injury Classification score for these patients was 7.2??1.3, and the assessment of their neurological function states showed 6 patients (24%) were in American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A grade, 1 (4%) in ASIA B grade, 3 (12%) in ASIA C grade, 12 (48%) in ASIA D grade, and 3 (12%) in ASIA E grade. Surgical methods contained simple anterior approach alone, posterior approach alone, and combined posterior-anterior or anterior-posterior approach. The average duration of patients' hospital stay was 38.6??37.6, and the first surgical methods were as follows: anterior approach alone on 6 cases, posterior surgery alone on 9 cases, and combined posterior-anterior or anterior-posterior approach on 10 patients. The median segments of fixation and fusion were 4.1??1.4 sections. Thirteen patients developed complications. During 2 to 36 months of postoperative follow-up, 1 patient died of respiratory failure caused by pulmonary infections 2 months after leaving hospital. At the end of the follow-up, bone graft fusion was achieved in the rest of patients, and obvious looseness or migration of internal fixation was not observed. In addition, the preoperative neurological injury in 12 patients (54.5%) was also alleviated in different levels. AS cervical spine fracture, an unstable fracture, should be treated with operation, and satisfactory effects will be achieved after the individualized surgical treatment according to the improved classification method for AS cervical spine fracture. PMID:26554765

  4. THE RIDDELLTM RIPKORD SYSTEM FOR SHOULDER PAD REMOVAL IN A CERVICAL SPINE INJURED ATHLETE: A PARADIGM SHIFT

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Danny; Hoogenboom, Barb

    2011-01-01

    Since the inception of the term Sports Medicine Athletic Trainers, Sports Physical Therapists, Paramedics, and Emergency Room Physicians have faced a number of challenges when it comes to providing care to an equipment laden athlete suspected of having a cervical spine or serious head injury. The same equipment that is designed to protect the player may significantly impede the medical team when it comes to diagnosing and treating cervical spine and head injuries. Incorrectly removing the helmet and shoulder pads from a football player with a cervical spine injury, may lead to unwanted motion of the cervical spine during removal. It is the purpose of this article to review the current concepts relating to equipment removal and to introduce a novel system for quick and easy removal of football shoulder pads called the RiddellRipKord system. PMID:21712941

  5. The riddell ripkord system for shoulder pad removal in a cervical spine injured athlete: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Kordecki, Michael; Smith, Danny; Hoogenboom, Barb

    2011-06-01

    Since the inception of the term Sports Medicine Athletic Trainers, Sports Physical Therapists, Paramedics, and Emergency Room Physicians have faced a number of challenges when it comes to providing care to an equipment laden athlete suspected of having a cervical spine or serious head injury. The same equipment that is designed to protect the player may significantly impede the medical team when it comes to diagnosing and treating cervical spine and head injuries. Incorrectly removing the helmet and shoulder pads from a football player with a cervical spine injury, may lead to unwanted motion of the cervical spine during removal. It is the purpose of this article to review the current concepts relating to equipment removal and to introduce a novel system for quick and easy removal of football shoulder pads called the RiddellRipKord system. PMID:21712941

  6. Pedicle Reduction Osteotomy in the Upper Cervical Spine: Technique, Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Post, Nicholas; Cooper, Colin S.; Pivec, Robert; Paulino, Carl B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a case report of the correction of a degenerative cervical 45-degree kyphosis centered at C4 with a single stage PSO. Summary of Background Data Correction of a fixed cervical kyphosis is a surgical challenge that is frequently managed with a combination of anterior and posterior surgical procedures. An alternative the three stage operation is a single stage pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO). A PSO releases the posterior, middle and anterior columns of the spine by resecting the facet joints, pedicles, and a portion of the vertebral body at the apex of a kyphosis through a posterior approach. Methods This was a case report of a patient who had degenerative cervical 45 degree kyphosis and was corrected with a single stage pedicle subtraction osteotomy. We did a literature review to provide information on current techniques to treat these patients. Results With careful resection of the lateral mass and decompression of the vertebral artery by removal of the posterior margin of the foramen transversarium the upper cervical pedicles can be accessed and a PSO can be performed. The vertebral arteries were not obstructed or kinked with posterior reduction of the PSO in this case. Conclusions A closing wedge PSO is a useful tool for correcting fixed kyphotic deformities in the upper cervical spine. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term outcomes in these patients. PMID:26609512

  7. Extrication, immobilization and radiologic investigation of patients with cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Karbi, O A; Caspari, D A; Tator, C H

    1988-01-01

    Most cervical spine injuries are due to motor vehicle accidents. Proper extrication of the victims is vital; the ideal device should be easily assembled and applied, should facilitate removal of victims from automobile seats without changing the body's position, must not hinder airway access or the performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, must accommodate all types of patients, including children and obese or pregnant patients, and must completely immobilize the patient, especially if hyperextension is suspected. Current methods of immobilization, such as the use of a soft collar and sandbags, allow neck extension; the short board protects against extension but interferes with airway access. Newer devices are discussed in this article. Injuries of the upper cervical spine are less common but more serious than those of the lower portion and usually involve the vertebral arch. Radiologic examination of the first and second cervical vertebrae and the seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae should be emphasized. If lateral and anteroposterior views do not reveal abnormal findings and injury is still suspected, oblique views and computed or conventional tomography should be used. Cervical spinal cord injuries can be minimized or prevented if proper early management is applied. PMID:3046734

  8. Intradural, extramedullary amyloidoma involving cervical and thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Smitherman, Adam D; Fung, Kar-Ming; Glenn, Chad A; Martin, Michael D

    2015-06-01

    We present the case of a 46-year-old woman with insidious lower extremity paralysis and bowel and bladder disruption found to have an intradural, extramedullary amyloidoma from the levels of C4-T4. To our knowledge, this is the first known reported case of amyloidoma occurring in this location. Solitary amyloidoma of the spine is a rare entity typically manifesting as an extradural tumor with bony involvement. PMID:25778386

  9. Connective tissue, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s), and head and cervical pain.

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco; Morlino, Silvia; Ghibellini, Giulia; Celletti, Claudia; Camerota, Filippo; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an umbrella term for a growing group of hereditary disorders of the connective tissue mainly manifesting with generalized joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, and vascular and internal organ fragility. In contrast with other well known heritable connective tissue disorders with severe cardiovascular involvement (e.g., Marfan syndrome), most EDS patients share a nearly normal life span, but are severely limited by disabling features, such as pain, fatigue and headache. In this work, pertinent literature is reviewed with focus on prevalence, features and possible pathogenic mechanisms of headache in EDSs. Gathered data are fragmented and generally have a low level of evidence. Headache is reported in no less than 1/3 of the patients. Migraine results the most common type in the hypermobility type of EDS. Other possibly related headache disorders include tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, headache attributed to spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leakage, headache secondary to Chiari malformation, cervicogenic headache and neck-tongue syndrome, whose association still lacks of reliable prevalence studies. The underlying pathogenesis seems complex and variably associated with cardiovascular dysautonomia, cervical spine and temporomandibular joint instability/dysfunction, meningeal fragility, poor sleep quality, pain-killer drugs overuse and central sensitization. Particular attention is posed on a presumed subclinical cervical spine dysfunction. Standard treatment is always symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. Assessment and management procedures are discussed in order to put some basis for ameliorating the actual patients' needs and nurturing future research. PMID:25655119

  10. [Stress analysis of cervical spine C4-C6 under frontal impact load].

    PubMed

    Xue, Qiang; Ding, Mei

    2014-02-01

    In order to check the neck response and injury during motor vehicle accidents, we developed a detailed finite element model for human cervical spine C4-C6. This model consisted of cortical bone, cancellous bone, annulus, nucleus, ligaments and articular facet, and it also set up contact in the contacting parts for simulating the movement perfectly under frontal impact. This model could be used for stress and strain distribution after the frontal impact load was applied on this model. During the process of frontal impact, the most displacement simulated data were in the interval range of experimental data. The experimental results showed that this model for the human cervical spine C4-C6 simulated the movement under the frontal impact with fidelity, and reflected the impact dynamics response on the whole. PMID:24804497

  11. Infantile tumoral calcinosis of the cervical spine presenting as torticollis.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Ali; Diehn, Felix E; Luetmer, Patrick H; Lane, John I; Fritchie, Karen; Larson, A Noelle

    2016-01-01

    The computed tomography (CT) and MRI findings of infantile tumoral calcinosis and the utility of image-guided biopsy are demonstrated. A 5-month old presented with torticollis and a calcified cervical spinal mass. The radiologic appearance suggested a malignant neoplasm, prompting CT-guided biopsy, which diagnosed tumoral calcinosis. We hope to increase awareness of this entity and describe image-guided biopsy as a way to avoid morbidity associated with open biopsy. PMID:26520701

  12. Cervical Spine Chondroma Compressing Spinal Cord: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yoon Hwan; Park, Sung-Hye; Chung, Chun Kee

    2015-01-01

    Chondromas are benign tumor of cartilaginous tissue that is rarely found in spine. The authors document a rare case of a 72 year old male patient with a cervical spinal chondroma compressing the spinal cord. The patient had symptoms of motor and sensory deficits, dysphagia and dysarthria. C1 and C2 laminotomy was done and the spinal tumor was removed. The patient gradually recovered from his previous symptom after the surgery. PMID:26834817

  13. Chordomas: their CT appearance in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.E.; Lepke, R.A.; Lindfors, K.K.; Pagani, J.J.; Hirschy, J.C.; Hayman, L.A.; Momose, K.J.; McGinnis, B.

    1984-12-01

    The authors reviewed 25 CT scans of 21 patients who had chordomas in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. Nine patients were studied at the time of initial presentation and 12 after after tumor recurrence. All scans showed vertebral body destruction coupled with an associated soft tissue mass located anteriorly or laterally. Additional CT findings included septated areas of low attenuation within the tumor, amorphous soft tissue calcification, tumor extensions into the spinal canal, disk space involvement, and contrast enhancement.

  14. Role of posterior elements in the disc bulging of a degenerated cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Solitro, Giovanni F.; Siemionow, Kris; Drucker, David; Upadhyay, Ashish; Patel, Priyesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have been developed to characterize the mechanical behavior of the intervertebral disc specifically for the lumbar spine and there have been limited studies done on the cervical spine with the goal to evaluate the strength of the cervical spine under compression without any information on the bulging of the intervertebral discs. The goal of the current study is to examine the deformation response of the cervical intervertebral disc classified with grade III or greater degeneration and analyze the relationship between axial deformation and anterior and posterior bulge under compression up to 550 N. Methods Each specimen was compressed for 3 cycles to a maximum load of 550N in steps of 50 N. The bulge was measured using Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs on an intact spinal segment, spinal segment with post laminectomy, and spinal segment post facetectomy. Results The anterior budge for an intact spinal segment shows a change of slope at loads of 262N66N. For a physiological load of 250N the vertical displacement or spine segment height was reduced by 10.1% for an intact segment and 8.78% for the laminectomy and facetectomy configurations with F = 0.159 (Fcrit = 3.89) with no statistical difference observed. For the post laminectomy there was a decrease of 35% in anterior bulge compared to the intact specimen. Conclusions Our results show that for grade III disc degeneration the cervical segments bulging for both the laminectomy and facetectomy procedures are not significantly different. In post laminectomy the average anterior and posterior bulges are similar to the average anterior and posterior bulge post facetectomy. PMID:26056628

  15. Airway management with the Laryngeal Tube Suction II in a patient with cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Genzwuerker, Harald V; Tsagogiorgas, C; Hinkelbein, J; Beck, G

    2005-05-01

    Supraglottic airway devices may offer alternative strategies for securing the airway in patients with cervical spine injuries. A case of airway management with the LTS II, a modified version of the laryngeal tube suction, in a patient with a paramedian atlas fracture scheduled for decompression of a haematoma on the forehead is described. Device insertion was successful in the first attempt and a gastric tube was inserted without problems. Ventilation was uneventful, no complaints were stated after surgery. PMID:15866406

  16. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p?=?0.0055), CVT (p?=?0.0003), OPT (p?cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  17. Epidemiology, pathomechanics, and prevention of athletic injuries to the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S

    1985-06-01

    Athletic injuries to the cervical spine associated with quadriplegia most commonly occur as a result of axial loading. Whether it be a football player striking an opponent with the top or crown of his helmet, a poorly executed dive into a shallow body of water where the subject strikes his head on the bottom, or a hockey player pushed into the boards head first, the fragile cervical spine is compressed between the rapidly decelerated head and the continued momentum of the body. Appropriate rule changes recognizing this mechanism have resulted in a reduction of football quadriplegia by two-thirds. Presumably, educational efforts designed to inform the public of the dangers of diving would have a similar effect. The predominance of the axial loading mechanism is not as clearly defined in trampoline and minitrampoline injuries. However, both of these devices are dangerous when used in the best of circumstances, and their use has no place in recreational, educational, or competitive gymnastics. The emergence of severe cervical spine injuries resulting from ice hockey is recognized. Methods, based on sound scientific evidence, to modify the games so as to prevent these injuries are lacking. PMID:3894866

  18. Application of full-scale three-dimensional models in patients with rheumatoid cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Jun; Matsubara, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Muneyoshi; Tanaka, Nobuhiko; Iguchi, Hirotaka; Furuya, Aiharu; Okamoto, Hideki; Wada, Ikuo; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2008-05-01

    Full-scale three-dimensional (3D) models offer a useful tool in preoperative planning, allowing full-scale stereoscopic recognition from any direction and distance with tactile feedback. Although skills and implants have progressed with various innovations, rheumatoid cervical spine surgery remains challenging. No previous studies have documented the usefulness of full-scale 3D models in this complicated situation. The present study assessed the utility of full-scale 3D models in rheumatoid cervical spine surgery. Polyurethane or plaster 3D models of 15 full-sized occipitocervical or upper cervical spines were fabricated using rapid prototyping (stereolithography) techniques from 1-mm slices of individual CT data. A comfortable alignment for patients was reproduced from CT data obtained with the patient in a comfortable occipitocervical position. Usefulness of these models was analyzed. Using models as a template, appropriate shape of the plate-rod construct could be created in advance. No troublesome Halo-vests were needed for preoperative adjustment of occipitocervical angle. No patients complained of dysphasia following surgery. Screw entry points and trajectories were simultaneously determined with full-scale dimensions and perspective, proving particularly valuable in cases involving high-riding vertebral artery. Full-scale stereoscopic recognition has never been achieved with any existing imaging modalities. Full-scale 3D models thus appear useful and applicable to all complicated spinal surgeries. The combination of computer-assisted navigation systems and full-scale 3D models appears likely to provide much better surgical results. PMID:18247063

  19. A Study to Analyses Pattern and Treatment of Upper Cervical Spine Injuries Experience From Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Younis; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Gani, Naseemul; Gupta, Anil; Singh, Dara; Gul, Snobar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The literature regarding the different patterns of upper cervical spine injuries, their appropriate management, and management development of such injuries is scarce in the world. Objectives: The current study aimed to present the experience regarding the high velocity trauma of upper cervical spine injuries. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients (22 males, 8 females) with upper cervical spine injuries were treated and followed-up for an average of 24 months. The corresponding data were analyzed with respect to various types of injuries and different treatment modalities used to treat such patients keeping the basic healthcare facilities in view. Results: The clinical as well as radiological outcomes of the treatment of such injuries were mostly achievable with minimum facilities in India, with only few complications. Conclusions: Managing such patients needs a proper transport facility, proper care during transport, appropriate evaluation in the hospital and prompt conservative or operative treatment. Treatment is usually safe and effective by well trained professionals with good clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:26543839

  20. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    PubMed

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players. PMID:9475983

  1. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Peter H. Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  2. Comparative effectiveness of McCoy laryngoscope and CMAC® videolaryngoscope in simulated cervical spine injuries

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Divya; Bala, Indu; Gandhi, Komal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Videolaryngoscopes are increasingly being used in potentially difficult airway. McCoy laryngoscope provides definitive advantage over conventional laryngoscopes in cervical spine patients. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the CMAC® videolaryngoscope with the McCoy Laryngoscope in patients with a cervical collar. Material and Methods: Sample size of at least 22 patients in each group was calculated using Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) score as the primary outcome. 60 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients requiring tracheal intubation for elective surgery were randomly allocated into the McCoy group (n = 30) and the CMAC® videolaryngoscope group (n = 30). Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl 2 mcg/kg, propofol 2-3 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. A rigid collar was applied to immobilize the cervical spine. Comparative data on the IDS scale, Cormack-Lehane (CL) laryngoscopic view, time taken for glottis visualization, time taken to pass endotracheal tube, total time to intubate, number of optimizing maneuvers and hemodynamic variables were recorded in the two groups. Results: IDS score was significantly less in the CMAC® group compared to the McCoy group (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 1 [0-1] vs. 4 [3-6], P < 0.05). CMAC® videolaryngoscope required significantly less time for glottic visualization with median (IQR), 5 (5-7) versus 14 (8-15), P = 0.000 in McCoy laryngoscope, 29 (96.7%) patients in the CMAC® group had Modified CL Grade I compared with 16 (53.3%) patients in McCoy group. The hemodynamic variables, number of optimizing maneuvers and incidence of side effects were comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: CMAC® videolaryngoscope forms an effective tool for the airway management of cervical spine patients with a cervical collar.

  3. EMS Adherence to a Pre-hospital Cervical Spine Clearance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, Raynard J.; Miller, Kenneth; Langdorf, Mark I.; Johnson, David

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the degree of adherence to a cervical spine (c-spine) clearance protocol by pre-hospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel by both self-assessment and receiving hospital assessment, to describe deviations from the protocol, and to determine if the rate of compliance by paramedic self-assessment differed from receiving hospital assessment. Methods: A retrospective sample of pre-hospital (consecutive series) and receiving hospital (convenience sample) assessments of the compliance with and appropriateness of c-spine immobilization. The c-spine clearance protocol was implemented for Orange County EMS just prior to the AprilNovember 1999 data collection period. Results: We collected 396 pre-hospital and 162 receiving hospital data forms. From the pre-hospital data sheet, the percentage deviation from the protocol was 4.0% (16/396). Only one out of 16 cases that did not comply with the protocol was due to over immobilization (0.2%). The remaining 15 cases were under immobilized, according to protocol. Nine of the under immobilized cases (66%) that should have been placed in c-spine precautions met physical assessment criteria in the protocol, while the other five cases met mechanism of injury criteria. The rate of deviations from protocol did not differ over time. The receiving hospital identified 8.0% (13/162; 6/l6 over immobilized, 7/16 under immobilized) of patients with deviations from the protocol; none was determined to have actual c-spine injury. Conclusion: The implementation of a pre-hospital c-spine clearance protocol in Orange County was associated with a moderate overall adherence rate (96% from the pre-hospital perspective, and 9250 from the hospital perspective. p = .08 for the two evaluation methods). Most patients who deviated from protocol were under immobilized. but no c-spine injuries were missed. The rate of over immobilization was better than previously reported, implying a saving of resources. PMID:20852696

  4. Global and regional kinematics of the cervical spine during upper cervical spine manipulation: a reliability analysis of 3D motion data.

    PubMed

    Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Beyer, Benot; Sobczak, Stphane; Salvia, Patrick; Feipel, Vronique

    2014-10-01

    Studies reporting spine kinematics during cervical manipulation are usually related to continuous global head-trunk motion or discrete angular displacements for pre-positioning. To date, segmental data analyzing continuous kinematics of cervical manipulation is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate upper cervical spine (UCS) manipulation invitro. This paper reports an inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis of kinematics during high velocity low amplitude manipulation of the UCS. Integration of kinematics into specific-subject 3D models has been processed as well for providing anatomical motion representation during thrust manipulation. Three unembalmed specimens were included in the study. Restricted dissection was realized to attach technical clusters to each bone of interest (skull, C1-C4 and sternum). During manipulation, bone motion data was computed using an optoelectronic system. The reliability of manipulation kinematics was assessed for three experimented practitioners performing two trials of 3 repetitions on two separate days. During UCS manipulation, average global head-trunk motion ROM (SD) were 145, 357 and 148 for lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively. For regional ROM (C0-C2), amplitudes were 105, 305 and 164 for the same respective motions. Concerning the reliability, mean RMS ranged from 1 to 4 and from 3 to 6 for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. The present results confirm the limited angular displacement during manipulation either for global head-trunk or for UCS motion components, especially for axial rotation. Additionally, kinematics variability was low confirming intra- and inter-practitioners consistency of UCS manipulation achievement. PMID:24920337

  5. Airway management in a patient of ankylosing spondylitis with traumatic cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nilesh; Bindra, Ashish; Mahajan, Charu; Yadav, Naveen

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic cervical lesions compressing the spinal cord pose a significant risk of exacerbating the existing neurological condition during tracheal intubation and subsequent positioning. Preexisting ankylosing spondylitis with spinal column involvement renders the spinal column more rigid and introduces difficulty in airway management of the patient with traumatic cervical spinal cord. To improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement, awake fibreoptic intubation (FOI) is considered the gold standard technique for airway management in such cases. Attaining appropriate position for intubation was challenge in this case due to rigid curvature of the ankylosed spinal column. To prevent neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and attaining appropriate position was of prime concern. Optimal sedation with self-positioning by the patient in a comfortable posture is quite imperative and assures both airway as well as neurological protection in such expected difficult situations. We report the use of dexmedetomidine for self-positioning and awake FOI in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis having traumatic cervical spine who was otherwise neither able to co-operative nor able to give appropriate position for FOI. PMID:26240557

  6. Minimally invasive central corpectomy for ossified posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Yoshitaka; Mizuno, Junichi; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yasunobu; Kubota, Keiichi; Watanabe, Sadayoshi; Matsuoka, Hidenori; Numazawa, Shinichi; Tomii, Masato; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive central corpectomy (MICC) for cervical segmental ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is described. The procedure of MICC includes upper- or lower-half central corpectomy of the involved cervical spine, transdiscal decompression of the adjacent disc level, dissection and partial removal of the OPLL, removal of the OPLL behind the vertebral body via these windows, and fusion with cylindrical titanium cages. Anterior plate fixation is not necessary. From January 2008 to December 2009 we surgically treated three patients with cervical OPLL by MICC. All three patients showed remarkable improvement of their symptoms within a few days after the operation. No neurological or radiological complication was observed during that period. MICC is beneficial in avoiding complete corpectomy and long fusion, usage of an anterior plate, and usage of a large external orthosis. MICC also reduces the risk of postoperative esophageal perforation due to a screw backing out of the plate. PMID:20888772

  7. A Unique Case of Primary Ewing's Sarcoma of the Cervical Spine in a 53-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Marshall T.; Flouty, Oliver E.; Close, Liesl N.; Reddy, Chandan G.; Howard, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) is a rare presentation, representing only 15% of all primary Ewing's sarcoma cases. Even more uncommon is EES presenting as a primary focus in the spinal canal. These rapidly growing tumors often present with focal neurological symptoms of myelopathy or radiculopathy. There are no classic characteristic imaging findings and thus the physician must keep a high index of clinical suspicion. Diagnosis can only be definitively made by histopathological studies. In this report, we discuss a primary cervical spine EES in a 53-year-old man who presented with a two-month history of left upper extremity pain and acute onset of weakness. Imaging revealed a cervical spinal canal mass. After undergoing cervical decompression, histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma. A literature search revealed fewer than 25 reported cases of primary cervical spine EES published in the past 15 years and only one report demonstrating this pathology in a patient older than 30 years of age (age = 38). Given the low incidence of this pathology presenting in this age group and the lack of treatment guidelines, each patient's plan should be considered on a case-by-case basis until further studies are performed to determine optimal evidence based treatment. PMID:25802527

  8. The need to add motor evoked potential monitoring to somatosensory and electromyographic monitoring in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM), utilizing somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and electromyography (EMG), was introduced to cervical spine surgery in the late 1980's. However, as SEP only provided physiological data regarding the posterior cord, new motor deficits were observed utilizing SEP alone. This prompted the development of motor evoked potential monitoring (MEP) which facilitated real-time assessment of the anterior/anterolateral spinal cord. Although all three modalities, SEP, EMG, and MEP, are routinely available for IONM of cervical spine procedures, MEP are not yet routinely employed. The purpose of this review is to emphasize that MEP should now routinely accompany SEP and EMG when performing IONM of cervical spine surgery. Interestingly, one of the most common reasons for malpractice suits involving the cervical spine, is quadriparesis/quadriplegia following a single level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Previously, typical allegations in these suits included; negligent surgery, lack of informed consent, failure to diagnose/treat, and failure to brace. Added to this list, perhaps, as the 5th most reason for a suit will be failure to monitor with MEP. This review documents the value of MEP monitoring in addition to SEP and EMG monitoring in cervical spine surgery. The addition of MEP0 should minimize major motor injuries, and more accurately and reliably detect impending anterior cord deterioration that may be missed with SEP monitoring alone. PMID:24340237

  9. Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ? 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (? 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

  10. Pain Relief in Cervical Dystonia with Botulinum Toxin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Cattai, Lgia; Teive, Hlio Afonso Ghizoni

    2015-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by intermittent or sustained muscle contractions that cause abnormal, usually repetitive, movements and postures. Dystonic movements can be tremulous and twisting and often follow a pattern. They are frequently associated with overflow muscle activation and may be triggered or worsened by voluntary action. Most voluntary muscles can be affected and, in the case of the neck muscles, the condition is referred to as cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of dystonia. The high incidence of pain distinguishes CD from other focal dystonias and contributes significantly to patient disability and low quality of life. Different degrees of pain in the cervical region are reported by more than 60% of patients, and pain intensity is directly related to disease severity. Botulinum toxin (BoNT) is currently considered the treatment of choice for CD and can lead to an improvement in pain and dystonic symptoms in up to 90% of patients. The results for BoNT/A and BoNT/B are similar. The complex relationship between pain and dystonia has resulted in a large number of studies and more comprehensive assessments of dystonic patients. When planning the application of BoNT, pain should be a key factor in the choice of muscles and doses. In conclusion, BoNT is highly effective in controlling pain, and its analgesic effect is sustained for a long time in most CD patients. PMID:26110508

  11. Pain Flare Is a Common Adverse Event in Steroid-Naïve Patients After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Prospective Clinical Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Andrew; Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON ; Zeng, Liang; Zhang, Liying; Lochray, Fiona; Korol, Renee; Loblaw, Andrew; Chow, Edward; Sahgal, Arjun; Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of pain flare after spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in steroid-naïve patients and identify predictive factors. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients were treated with spine SBRT between February 2010 and April 2012. All patients had their pain assessed at baseline, during, and for 10 days after SBRT using the Brief Pain Inventory. All pain medications were recorded daily and narcotics converted to an oral morphine equivalent dose. Pain flare was defined as a 2-point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake, a 25% increase in analgesic intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score, or if corticosteroids were initiated at any point during or after SBRT because of pain. Results: The median age and Karnofsky performance status were 57.5 years (range, 27-80 years) and 80 (range, 50-100), respectively. Eighteen patients were treated with 20-24 Gy in a single fraction, whereas 23 patients were treated with 24-35 Gy in 2-5 fractions. Pain flare was observed in 68.3% of patients (28 of 41), most commonly on day 1 after SBRT (29%, 8 of 28). Multivariate analysis identified a higher Karnofsky performance status (P=.02) and cervical (P=.049) or lumbar (P=.02) locations as significant predictors of pain flare. In those rescued with dexamethasone, a significant decrease in pain scores over time was subsequently observed (P<.0001). Conclusions: Pain flare is a common adverse event after spine SBRT and occurs most commonly the day after treatment completion. Patients should be appropriately consented for this adverse event.

  12. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  13. Gunshot-caused Facial Injury Combined with Lower Cervical Spine Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Ye, CY; Zhu, MY; Yuan, JD; Ten, HL

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year old male patient was wounded by a pistol. As shown in computed tomography (CT) scanning images, there was comminuted fracture of the left mandible and the bullet was found in the left side behind the sixth cervical vertebra. After the patient was hospitalized, the debridement was done in the emergency room and the operation of open reduction and internal fixation for comminuted fracture of left mandible was performed successfully. Eighteen days later, the patient was taken to surgery for anterior cervical decompression and fusion with autogenous iliac bone grafting for the sixth cervical vertebra. Postoperative follow-up of the patient over two years indicated that the left biceps muscle strength was recovered to level 4. Gunshot wound to the face associated with injury of the low cervical spine has the possibility of survival. It is safe to treat facial wounds early in the patient's treatment course, even if the bullet remains in the cervical vertebral body and there is neurological function damage. PMID:25429487

  14. Image Segmentation and Analysis of Flexion-Extension Radiographs of Cervical Spines

    PubMed Central

    Enikov, Eniko T.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new analysis tool for cervical flexion-extension radiographs based on machine vision and computerized image processing. The method is based on semiautomatic image segmentation leading to detection of common landmarks such as the spinolaminar (SL) line or contour lines of the implanted anterior cervical plates. The technique allows for visualization of the local curvature of these landmarks during flexion-extension experiments. In addition to changes in the curvature of the SL line, it has been found that the cervical plates also deform during flexion-extension examination. While extension radiographs reveal larger curvature changes in the SL line, flexion radiographs on the other hand tend to generate larger curvature changes in the implanted cervical plates. Furthermore, while some lordosis is always present in the cervical plates by design, it actually decreases during extension and increases during flexion. Possible causes of this unexpected finding are also discussed. The described analysis may lead to a more precise interpretation of flexion-extension radiographs, allowing diagnosis of spinal instability and/or pseudoarthrosis in already seemingly fused spines.

  15. Segmentation and feature extraction of cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    1999-05-01

    As part of an R&D project in mixed text/image database design, the National Library of Medicine has archived a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine which were collected as part of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). To make this image data available and usable to a wide audience, we are investigating techniques for indexing the image content by automated or semi-automated means. Indexing of the images by features of interest to researchers in spine disease and structure requires effective segmentation of the vertebral anatomy. This paper describes work in progress toward this segmentation of the cervical spine images into anatomical components of interest, including anatomical landmarks for vertebral location, and segmentation and identification of individual vertebrae. Our work includes developing a reliable method for automatically fixing an anatomy-based coordinate system in the images, and work to adaptively threshold the images, using methods previously applied by researchers in cardioangiography. We describe the motivation for our work and present our current results in both areas.

  16. Congenital stenosis and adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Belding, Jon; Schnaser, Erik; Rowan, Andrew; Moffitt, Gable; Weaver, John; Reich, Michael S; Bechtel, Chris; Xie, Ke; Gande, Abhiram; Hohl, Justin; Braly, Brett; Hilibrand, Alan; Kang, James D

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) is reported in 25% of patients at 10 years postoperatively. Debate continues as to whether this degeneration is due to the natural history of the disk or the changed biomechanics after ACF. This study explored whether congenital stenosis predisposes patients to an increased incidence of ASD after ACF. A retrospective review of 635 patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy was performed; 364 patients had complete records for review. Patients underwent 1- to 5-level ACF (94 one-level, 145 two-level, 79 three-level, 45 four-level, and 1 five-level). Radiographs were evaluated for bony congenital stenosis using validated parameters, and ASD was measured according to Hilibrand's criteria and correlated with symptomatic ASD. Congenital stenosis was found in 21.7% of patients and radiographic ASD in 33.5%, with a significant association between these parameters. However, symptomatic ASD occurred in 11.8% of patients; no association between congenital stenosis and symptomatic ASD or myelopathy and ASD was found. Clinical results demonstrated excellent or good Robinson scores in 86.2% of patients and Odom scores in 87% of patients. Despite mostly excellent to good outcomes, symptomatic ASD is common after ACF. Although congenital stenosis appears to increase the incidence of radiographic ASD, it does not appear to predict symptomatic ASD. PMID:24093699

  17. 14-Year-Old Boy With Mild Antecedent Neck Pain in Setting of Acute Trauma: A Rare Case of Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma of the Spine.

    PubMed

    Skunda, Raymond; Puckett, Timothy; Martin, Michael; Sanclement, Jose; Peterson, Jo Elle

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with neck pain after a football accident. Imaging revealed a discrete, expansile, lytic, radiolucent mass extending anterior from the left C2 vertebral body. The differential diagnosis for this mass is broad and includes both benign and malignant lesions. A thorough history and physical examination, along with selective imaging and a tissue sample, are essential in making the correct diagnosis. We report a case of benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient, present the diagnostic dilemma involved in diagnosing BFH, and review the literature to compare the characteristics of BFH with those of other benign bone lesions. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of BFH in the cervical spine of a pediatric patient. PMID:26991583

  18. An accurate finite element model of the cervical spine under quasi-static loading.

    PubMed

    del Palomar, A Pérez; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M

    2008-01-01

    Cervical disc injury due to impact has been observed in clinical and biomechanical investigations; however, there is a lack of data that helps to elucidate the mechanisms of disc injury during these collisions. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the behavior of the cervical spine under different types of loading situations. A three dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multi-level cervical spine segment (C0-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data and applied to study the internal stresses and strains of the intervertebral discs under quasi-static loading conditions. The intervertebral discs were treated as nonlinear, anisotropic and incompressible subjected to large deformations. The model accuracy was validated by comparing it with previously published experimental and numerical results for different movements. It was shown that the use of a fiber reinforced model to describe the behavior of the annulus of the discs would predict higher maximum shear strains than an isotropic one, being therefore important the use of complex constitutive models in order to be able to detect the appearance of injured zones, since those strains and stresses are supposed to be related with damage to soft tissues. Several movements were analyzed: flexion, extension and axial rotation, obtaining that the maximum shear stresses in the disc were higher for a flexo-extension movement. PMID:18061196

  19. Surgical treatment for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    An, Howard S; Al-Shihabi, Laith; Kurd, Mark

    2014-07-01

    Although classically associated with patients of East Asian origin, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) may cause myelopathy in patients of any ethnic origin. Degeneration of the PLL is followed by endochondral ossification, resulting in spinal cord compression. Specific genetic polymorphisms and medical comorbidities have been implicated in the development of OPLL. Patients should be evaluated with a full history and neurologic examination, along with cervical radiographs. Advanced imaging with CT and MRI allows three-dimensional evaluation of OPLL. Minimally symptomatic patients can be treated nonsurgically, but patients with myelopathy or severe stenosis are best treated with surgical decompression. OPLL can be treated via an anterior (ie, corpectomy and fusion) or posterior (ie, laminectomy and fusion or laminoplasty) approach, or both. The optimal approach is dictated by the classification and extent of OPLL, cervical spine sagittal alignment, severity of stenosis, and history of previous surgery. Anterior surgery is associated with superior outcomes when OPLL occupies >50% to 60% of the canal, despite increased technical difficulty and higher complication rates. Posterior surgery is technically easier and allows decompression of the entire cervical spine, but patients may experience late deterioration because of disease progression. PMID:24966248

  20. Dynamic changes of the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine assessed with kinetic magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sayit, E; Daubs, M D; Aghdasi, B; Montgomery, S R; Inoue, H; Wang, C J; Wang, B J; Phan, K H; Scott, T P

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to quantify changes in thickness of the ligamentum flavum (LF) associated with motion of the cervical spine and to compare the thickness of the LF at each cervical level using kinetic magnetic resonance imaging (kMRI). Two hundred fifty-seven symptomatic patients (129 men; 128 women) underwent kMRI in neutral, flexion, and extension positions. Midsagittal images were digitally marked and electronically analyzed by spine surgeons. Thickness of LF in the cervical region from C2-3 to C7-T1 was measured in all three positions. LF at C7-T1 was significantly thicker than C2-3 to C6-7 in neutral, flexion, and extension positions (p < 0.05). LF was significantly thicker in extension than in flexion at C3-4 to C6-7. LF thickness increases with extension and decreases with flexion. LF is uniquely thick at C6-7 and at C7-T1 in the extension position, which may predispose these levels to cord compression syndromes and associated neuropathies. PMID:24436854

  1. Neuromodulation of the cervical spinal cord in the treatment of chronic intractable neck and upper extremity pain: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Ricardo; Kramer, Jeffery; Benyamin, Ramsin

    2007-03-01

    Electrical spinal neuromodulation in the form of spinal cord stimulation is currently used for treating chronic painful conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome, diabetic neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, peripheral ischemia, low back pain, and other conditions refractory to more conservative treatments. To date, there are very few published reports documenting the use of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of head/neck and upper limb pain. This paper reports a case series of 5 consecutive patients outlining the use of spinal cord stimulation to treat upper extremity pain. All subjects had previously undergone cervical fusion surgery to treat chronic neck and upper limb pain. Patients were referred following failure of the surgery to manage their painful conditions. Spinal cord stimulators were placed in the cervical epidural space through a thoracic needle placement. Stimulation parameters were adjusted to capture as much of the painful area(s) as possible. In total, 4 out of 5 patients moved to implantation. In all cases, patients reported significant (70-90%) reductions in pain, including axial neck pain and upper extremity pain. Interestingly, 2 patients with associated headache and lower extremity pain obtained relief after paresthesia-steering reportedly covered those areas. Moreover, 2 patients reported that cervical spinal cord stimulation significantly improved axial low back pain. Patients continue to report excellent pain relief up to 9 months following implantation. This case series documents the successful treatment of neck and upper extremity pain following unsuccessful cervical spine fusion surgery. Given this initial success, prospective, controlled studies are warranted to more adequately assess the long term utility and cost effectiveness of electrical neuromodulation treatment of chronic neck and upper extremity pain. PMID:17387353

  2. Imaging diagnosis-magnetic resonance imaging pulsatility artifact in the canine cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Gabriela S; Robertson, Ian D; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Thrall, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile venous flow in the internal vertebral venous plexus of the cervical spine can lead to vertical, linear T2-hyperintensities in the spinal cord at the cranial aspect of C3 and C4 in transverse T2-weighted images in large breed dogs that are not accompanied by ghosting. The artifact is more conspicuous in pre- and postcontrast transverse T1-weighted images and is accompanied by ghosting in that sequence, typical of a pulsatility artifact. A flow-related artifact was confirmed as the cause for this appearance by noting its absence after either exchange of phase and frequency encoding direction or by flow compensation. Care should be exercised to avoid misdiagnosing this pulsatility artifact seen in transverse T2-weighted images of the midcervical spine in large dogs as an intramedullary lesion when T1-images or phase-swap images are not available to confirm its artifactual origin. PMID:21554480

  3. Three-dimensional intervertebral kinematics in the healthy young adult cervical spine during dynamic functional loading.

    PubMed

    Anderst, William J; Donaldson, William F; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the intervertebral kinematics of the young, healthy cervical spine during dynamic, three-dimensional, functional loading. Intervertebral motion was characterized by the range of motion (ROM) and the helical axis of motion (HAM). Biplane radiographs of the cervical spine were collected at 30 images/s as 29 participants (20-35 yr) performed dynamic flexion\\extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Vertebral motion (C1-T1 in flexion\\extension, C3-T1 in lateral bending and axial rotation) was tracked with sub-millimeter accuracy using a validated volumetric model-based tracking process that matched subject-specific CT-based bone models to the radiographs. Flexion\\extension ROM was smallest at the C2-C3 motion segment (12.72.6) and largest at the C5-C6 motion segment (19.73.7). During head lateral bending and axial rotation, the intervertebral bending ROM was greater than the rotation ROM at every motion segment. The HAM demonstrated differences among motion segments and among movements. During flexion\\extension, the helical axis of motion was directed nearly perpendicular to the sagittal plane for the C2-C3 through C7-T1 motion segments. During lateral bending, the angle between the HAM and the transverse plane progressively increased from the C6-C7 motion segment (approximately 22) to the C3-C4 motion segment (approximately 40). During axial rotation, the angle between the transverse plane and the HAM was approximately 42 at the C3-C4 through C5-C6 motion segments, and approximately 32 at the C6-C7 motion segment. This study provides valuable reference data for evaluating the effects of age, degeneration, and surgical procedures on cervical spine kinematics during three-dimensional dynamic functional loading. PMID:25814180

  4. [Extended melanocytic tumor of the cervical spine. Apropos of a case of melanotic schwannoma].

    PubMed

    Krichen, H; Daghfous, M S; Mrabet, A; Douik, M; Slimane, N; Forest, M

    1993-01-01

    A case of melanotic tumour was described localized close to the right cervical spine, destroying C6 and C7 vertebral bodies and pedicles, on a 27 years old woman. Histological and immunohistochemical findings, correlated with clinical and X-rays data, led up to the diagnosis of a melanotic schwannoma. Six years after the beginning of the illness, the outcome was preceded by a local vertebral involvement without metastasis and paradoxically with a good general state. The tumoral localization and the finding of nervous structures allowed to evoke a development from a cervical nerve root. On histological basis, we propose to classify this tumour along the new concept described by the Mayo Clinic pathologists team, under the name of psammomatous melanotic schwannoma. Some authors evoke a congenital outset in a context of endocrine disorders. PMID:8397544

  5. Airway Compromise Due to Wound Hematoma Following Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Mark A; Aidlen, Jessica Pelow; Daniels, Alan H; Thakur, Nikhil A; Caiati, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    One of the most serious adverse events associated with anterior cervical spine surgery is wound hematoma resulting in airway compromise. The reported incidence of this postoperative complication has varied from 0.2% to 1.9%. Obstruction of the airway secondary to bleeding presents a challenging clinical scenario given the rapidity of onset, distorted anatomy of the upper respiratory tract, urgent need to act and potential for catastrophic consequences. This high-risk, life-threatening clinical scenario requires specialized knowledge and a well-designed treatment protocol to achieve a positive outcome. In this review, we report a case of airway compromise secondary to wound hematoma following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, followed by a review of relevant literature, anatomy, etiologic factors and diagnostic considerations. We also propose guidelines for the prevention and management of postoperative airway obstruction due to wound hematoma. PMID:22431955

  6. [Severe airway distress following cervical spine operation: retrospective breakdown of the chain of errors].

    PubMed

    Paul, C; Ladra, A; Pillai, V; Böttiger, B W; Spöhr, F; Keller, K; Zarghooni, K

    2011-09-01

    A 71-year-old female patient received a prothesis due to a cervical disc prolapsed and bleeding into the collar soft tissues occurred postoperatively. Following a computed tomography examination severe peracute respiratory decompensation occurred while administering topical anesthesia to the pharynx in order to perform fiber optic intubation. Endotracheal intubation using conventional laryngoscopy was unsuccessful and the patient required immediate cricothyroidotomy. As an on-site cricothyrotomy set to establish a secure airway was not available the decision was taken to perform surgical cricothyroidotomy. As a conclusion to this life-threatening event in the case of symptoms, such as dyspnea, dysphonia and dysphagia after operations of the cervical spine the airway has to be secured early and according to the local algorithm. PMID:21728049

  7. Cervical Spine Immobilization in Sports Related Injuries: Review of Current Guidelines and a Case Study of an Injured Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Bhamra, JS; Morar, Y; Khan, WS; Deep, K; Hammer, A

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spine immobilization is an essential component of the ATLS system. Inadequate training in the management of trauma calls and failure of early recognition can have disastrous consequences. Pre-hospital personnel are routinely involved more in the assessment and stabilization of patients in comparison to other health care professionals. This case study and review highlights the importance of early recognition, assessment and correct stabilization of cervical spine injuries both in the field and during the initial assessment in hospital. Inadequate assessment, immobilization and lack of standard guidelines on the management of suspected cervical spine trauma can result in secondary injury. Regular assessment and training of pre-hospital and medical personnel is essential to the proper management of these potentially devastating injuries. PMID:23248726

  8. A selected annotated bibliography of the core biomedical literature pertaining to stroke, cervical spine, manipulation and head/neck movement

    PubMed Central

    Gotlib, Allan C.; Thiel, Haymo

    1985-01-01

    This manuscripts purpose was to establish a knowledge base of information related to stroke and the cervical spine vascular structures, from both historical and current perspectives. The scientific biomedical literatures both indexed (ie. Index Medicus, CRAC) and non-indexed literature systems were scanned and the pertinent manuscripts were annotated. Citation is by occurence in the literature so that historical trends may be viewed more easily. No analysis of the reference material is offered. Suggested however is that: 1. complications to cervical spine manipulation are being recognized and reported with increasing frequency, 2. a cause and effect relationship between stroke and cervical spine manipulation has not been established, 3. a screening mechanism that is valid, reliable and reasonable needs to be established.

  9. Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: A Spectrum of Related Disorders Affecting the Aging Spine.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, Lindsay; Goldstein, Christina L; Arnold, Paul; Harrop, James; Hilibrand, Alan; Nouri, Aria; Fehlings, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Cervical spinal cord dysfunction can result from either traumatic or nontraumatic causes, including tumors, infections, and degenerative changes. In this article, we review the range of degenerative spinal disorders resulting in progressive cervical spinal cord compression and propose the adoption of a new term, degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). DCM comprises both osteoarthritic changes to the spine, including spondylosis, disk herniation, and facet arthropathy (collectively referred to as cervical spondylotic myelopathy), and ligamentous aberrations such as ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. This review summarizes current knowledge of the pathophysiology of DCM and describes the cascade of events that occur after compression of the spinal cord, including ischemia, destruction of the blood-spinal cord barrier, demyelination, and neuronal apoptosis. Important features of the diagnosis of DCM are discussed in detail, and relevant clinical and imaging findings are highlighted. Furthermore, this review outlines valuable assessment tools for evaluating functional status and quality of life in these patients and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. Other topics of this review include epidemiology, the prevalence of degenerative changes in the asymptomatic population, the natural history and rates of progression, risk factors of diagnosis (clinical, imaging and genetic), and management strategies. PMID:26378358

  10. MR and CT image fusion of the cervical spine: a noninvasive alternative to CT-myelography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yangqiu; Mirza, Sohail K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Haynor, David R.

    2005-04-01

    CT-Myelography (CTM) is routinely used for planning surgery for degenerative disease of the spine, but its invasive nature, significant potential morbidity, and high costs make a noninvasive substitute desirable. We report our work on evaluating CT and MR image fusion as an alternative to CTM. Because the spine is only piecewise rigid, a multi-rigid approach to the registration of spinal CT and MR images was developed (SPIE 2004), in which the spine on CT images is first segmented into separate vertebrae, each of which is then rigidly registered with the corresponding vertebra on MR images. The results are then blended to obtain fusion images. Since they contain information from both modalities, we hypothesized that fusion images would be equivalent to CTM. To test this we selected 34 patients who had undergone MRI and CTM for degenerative disease of the cervical spine, and used the multi-rigid approach to produce fused images. A clinical vignette for each patient was created and presented along with either CT/MR fusion images or CTM images. A group of spine surgeons are asked to formulate detailed surgical plans based on each set of images, and the surgical plans are compared. A similar study assessing diagnostic agreement is being performed with neuroradiologists, who also assess the accuracy of registration. Our work to date has demonstrated the feasibility of segmentation and multi-rigid fusion in clinical cases and the acceptability of the questionnaire to physicians. Preliminary analysis of one surgeon's and one neuroradiologist"s evaluation has been performed.

  11. The Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Robert W; Molinari, Christine

    2016-02-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective There is a paucity of literature describing the use of bone graft substitutes to achieve fusion in the pediatric cervical spine. The outcomes and complications involving the off-label use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in the pediatric cervical spine are not clearly defined. The purpose of this article is to report successful fusion without complications in two pediatric patients who had instrumented occipitocervical fusion using low-dose BMP-2. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the patients were followed for 5 years. Two patients under 10 years of age with upper cervical instability were treated with occipitocervical instrumented fusion using rigid occipitocervical fixation techniques along with conventionally available low-dose BMP-2. A Medline and PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms "bone morphogenetic protein," "BMP," "rh-BMP2," "bone graft substitutes," and "pediatric cervical spine." Results Solid occipitocervical fusion was achieved in both pediatric patients. There were no reported perioperative or follow-up complications. At 5-year follow-up, radiographs in both patients showed successful occipital cervical fusion without evidence of instrumentation failure or changes in the occipitocervical alignment. To date, there are few published reports on this topic. Complications and the appropriate dosage application in the pediatric posterior cervical spine remain unknown. Conclusions We describe two pediatric patients with upper cervical instability who achieved successful occipital cervical fusion without complication using off-label BMP-2. This report underscores the potential for BMP-2 to achieve successful arthrodesis of the posterior occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients. Use should be judicious as complications and long-term outcomes of pediatric BMP-2 use remain undefined in the existing literature. PMID:26835215

  12. Potential misinterpretation of cervical spondylosis with cord compression caused by metallic artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M; Benjamin, V; Kricheff, I I

    1990-07-01

    Tiny metallic particles produced by the contact of untempered surgical instruments with a diamond drill produce magnetic susceptibility artifacts that can both limit the diagnostic quality of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine and cause diagnostic error. A case of cervical pseudospondylosis with apparent cord compression due to such an artifact is presented. The source of these metallic particles is considered, and the nature of the susceptibility artifact is discussed. PMID:2377269

  13. The Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein in Pediatric Cervical Spine Fusion Surgery: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Molinari, Robert W.; Molinari, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective There is a paucity of literature describing the use of bone graft substitutes to achieve fusion in the pediatric cervical spine. The outcomes and complications involving the off-label use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 in the pediatric cervical spine are not clearly defined. The purpose of this article is to report successful fusion without complications in two pediatric patients who had instrumented occipitocervical fusion using low-dose BMP-2. Methods A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the patients were followed for 5 years. Two patients under 10 years of age with upper cervical instability were treated with occipitocervical instrumented fusion using rigid occipitocervical fixation techniques along with conventionally available low-dose BMP-2. A Medline and PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms “bone morphogenetic protein,” “BMP,” “rh-BMP2,” “bone graft substitutes,” and “pediatric cervical spine.” Results Solid occipitocervical fusion was achieved in both pediatric patients. There were no reported perioperative or follow-up complications. At 5-year follow-up, radiographs in both patients showed successful occipital cervical fusion without evidence of instrumentation failure or changes in the occipitocervical alignment. To date, there are few published reports on this topic. Complications and the appropriate dosage application in the pediatric posterior cervical spine remain unknown. Conclusions We describe two pediatric patients with upper cervical instability who achieved successful occipital cervical fusion without complication using off-label BMP-2. This report underscores the potential for BMP-2 to achieve successful arthrodesis of the posterior occipitocervical junction in pediatric patients. Use should be judicious as complications and long-term outcomes of pediatric BMP-2 use remain undefined in the existing literature. PMID:26835215

  14. A discussion of the issue of football helmet removal in suspected cervical spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Segan, R D; Cassidy, C; Bentkowski, J

    1993-01-01

    In some areas, it is a commonly accepted emergency medical technician protocol to remove a helmet during the initial management of suspected cervical spine injures. After a comprehensive survey of relevant literature, four primary reasons why Emergency Medical Services professionals would desire to remove a helmet emerge. Sources suggest that the presence of a helmet might: 1) interfere with immobilization of the athlete; 2) interfere with the ability to visualize injuries; 3) cause hyperflexion of the cervical spine; and 4) prevent proper airway management during a cardiorespiratory emergency. Many available protocols are designed for the removal of closed chamber motorcycle helmets that do not have removable face masks. There are a great number of differing viewpoints regarding this issue. The varying viewpoints are results of the failure of many emergency medical technician management protocols to address the unique situation presented by a football helmet. We: 1) demonstrate that football helmet removal is potentially dangerous and unnecessary, 2) suggest that cardiorespiratory emergencies can be effectively managed without removing the helmet, and 3) provide sports medicine professional with information that may be used to establish a joint Emergency Medical Services/Sports Medicine emergency action plan. PMID:16558244

  15. The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S; Vegso, J J; O'Neill, M J; Sennett, B

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Preliminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and National Federation of High School Athletic Associations (NFHSAA) implemented rule changes banning "spearing" and the use of the top of the helmet as the initial point of contact in striking an opponent during a tackle or block. Between 1976 and 1987, as a result of these rule changes, the Registry has documented a dramatic decrease in both the total number of cervical spine injuries and those resulting in quadriplegia at both the high school and college level. It is suggested that development and implementation of similar preventative measures based on clearly defined injury mechanisms would decrease injury rates in diving, rugby, ice hockey, trampolining, wrestling, and other high-risk sports as well. PMID:2301692

  16. Mechanical testing of an absorbable hybrid fusion cage for the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kauth, Theresa; Hopmann, Christian; Kujat, Bernd; Bach, Friedrich W; Welke, Bastian; Hurschler, Christof; Kalla, Katharina; Daentzer, Dorothea

    2012-10-01

    Conventional fusion devices ("cages") are often used to join two vertebrae of the human spine and generally remain in the body for a lifetime and can theoretically lead to any complications. Therefore, an absorbable hybrid fusion cage consisting of a magnesium skeleton infiltrated with an absorbable polymer [poly-?-caprolactone (PCL)] has been developed. The primary objective of the cage is to ensure an adequate stiffness of the disc space directly after the operation and to encourage the ingrowth of the new bone tissue to secure long life stability. Once a sufficiently rigid bone connection is formed, the implant should be absorbed. The purpose of this first study on the new absorbable fusion cage was to investigate the mechanical properties in vitro. Tensile tests were performed with tensile specimens type 1BA according to DIN EN ISO 527 made of PCL foamed using controlled expansion of saturated polymers (CESP). Furthermore, cyclic compression tests and compression tests with steady movement were performed with different designs of the new cage. Compression tests were also performed with vertebral endplates of ovine cadaveric spines. Foaming of PCL resulted in a modulus of elasticity of 135 MPa, which is approximately one third of unfoamed PCL. The results indicate that the initial compression strength of the implants should be adequate for the implantation in the cervical spine. PMID:25854662

  17. Cervical radicular pain: the role of interlaminar and transforaminal epidural injections.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Diwan, Sudhir; Hirsch, Joshua A; Smith, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Chronic neck pain and cervical radicular pain are relatively common in the adult population. Treatment for chronic radicular pain recalcitrant to conservative management includes surgical management as well as interventional techniques with epidural injections utilizing either an interlaminar approach or transforaminal approach. Although there have been multiple systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials of cervical interlaminar epidural injections, the literature is sparse in reference to cervical transforaminal epidural injections. Overall, there is good evidence for the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections in managing cervical disc herniation and fair evidence in managing central spinal stenosis and postsurgery syndrome. The evidence is poor, however, for cervical transforaminal epidural injections. Complications with cervical interlaminar epidural injections are rare, but more commonly occur with transforaminal epidural injections and can be fatal. Emerging concepts in pain include further randomized trials; proper placebo design; focus on control design (either active control or placebo control); and appropriate methodologic quality assessment and evidence synthesis. PMID:24338702

  18. Influence of varying compressive loading methods on physiologic motion patterns in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kevin M; Yan, Yiguo; Debski, Richard E; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Kang, James D; Tashman, Scott

    2016-01-25

    The human cervical spine supports substantial compressive load in-vivo arising from muscle forces and the weight of the head. However, the traditional in-vitro testing methods rarely include compressive loads, especially in investigations of multi-segment cervical spine constructs. Various methods of modeling physiologic loading have been reported in the literature including axial forces produced with inclined loading plates, eccentric axial force application, follower load, as well as attempts to individually apply/model muscle forces in-vitro. The importance of proper compressive loading to recreate the segmental motion patterns exhibited in-vivo has been highlighted in previous studies. However, appropriate methods of representing the weight of head and muscle loading are currently unknown. Therefore, a systematic comparison of standard pure moment with no compressive loading versus published and novel compressive loading techniques (follower load- FL, axial load- AL, and combined load- CL) was performed. The present study is unique in that a direct comparison to continuous cervical kinematics over the entire extension to flexion motion path was possible through an ongoing intra-institutional collaboration. The pure moment testing protocol without compression or with the application of follower load was not able to replicate the typical in-vivo segmental motion patterns throughout the entire motion path. Axial load or a combination of axial and follower load was necessary to mimic the in-vivo segmental contributions at the extremes of the extension-flexion motion path. It is hypothesized that dynamically altering the compressive loading throughout the motion path is necessary to mimic the segmental contribution patterns exhibited in-vivo. PMID:26708967

  19. Cervical mobilisation: concurrent effects on pain, sympathetic nervous system activity and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M; Jull, G; Wright, A

    2001-05-01

    Recent findings that spinal manual therapy (SMT) produces concurrent hypoalgesic and sympathoexcitatory effects have led to the proposal that SMT may exert its initial effects by activating descending inhibitory pathways from the dorsal periaqueductal gray area of the midbrain (dPAG). In addition to hypoalgesic and sympathoexcitatory effects, stimulation of the dPAG in animals has been shown to have a facilitatory effect on motor activity. This study sought to further investigate the proposal regarding SMT and the PAG by including a test of motor function in addition to the variables previously investigated. Using a condition randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind, repeated measures design, 30 subjects with mid to lower cervical spine pain of insidious onset participated in the study. The results indicated that the cervical mobilisation technique produced a hypoalgesic effect as revealed by increased pressure pain thresholds on the side of treatment (P=0.0001) and decreased resting visual analogue scale scores (P=0.049). The treatment technique also produced a sympathoexcitatory effect with an increase in skin conductance (P<0.002) and a decrease in skin temperature (P=<0.02). There was a decrease in superficial neck flexor muscle activity (P<0.0002) at the lower levels of a staged cranio-cervical flexion test. This could imply facilitation of the deep neck flexor muscles with a decreased need for co-activation of the superficial neck flexors. The combination of all findings would support the proposal that SMT may, at least initially, exert part of its influence via activation of the PAG. PMID:11414776

  20. The accuracy of the Oculus Rift virtual reality head-mounted display during cervical spine mobility measurement.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Chen, Karen B; Lin, Jia-Hua; Radwin, Robert G

    2015-02-26

    An inertial sensor-embedded virtual reality (VR) head-mounted display, the Oculus Rift (the Rift), monitors head movement so the content displayed can be updated accordingly. While the Rift may have potential use in cervical spine biomechanics studies, its accuracy in terms of cervical spine mobility measurement has not yet been validated. In the current study, a VR environment was designed to guide participants to perform prescribed neck movements. The cervical spine kinematics was measured by both the Rift and a reference motion tracking system. Comparison of the kinematics data between the Rift and the tracking system indicated that the Rift can provide good estimates on full range of motion (from one side to the other side) during the performed task. Because of inertial sensor drifting, the unilateral range of motion (from one side to neutral posture) derived from the Rift is more erroneous. The root-mean-square errors over a 1-min task were within 10° for each rotation axis. The error analysis further indicated that the inertial sensor drifted approximately 6° at the beginning of a trial during the initialization. This needs to be addressed when using the Rift in order to more accurately measure cervical spine kinematics. It is suggested that the front cover of the Rift should be aligned against a vertical plane during its initialization. PMID:25636855

  1. Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

    1993-06-01

    The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

  2. Inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Trijffel, E; Anderegg, Q; Bossuyt, P M M; Lucas, C

    2005-11-01

    A systematic review was conducted to determine inter-examiner reliability of passive assessment of segmental intervertebral motion in the cervical and lumbar spine as well as to explore sources of heterogeneity. Passive assessment of motion is used to decide on treatments for neck and low-back pain patients. Inter-examiner reliability has been a matter of debate, resulting in questions about professional credibility and accountability. A structured search for relevant studies in MEDLINE and CINAHL was followed by extensive reference tracing and hand searching. Studies presenting estimates of reliability for individual motion segments were included. No language restrictions were imposed. Study quality was assessed using criteria derived from the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement and a quality assessment tool for studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews (QUADAS). Study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction were performed by two reviewers independently. Qualitative analyses and additional subgroup analyses were conducted. Nineteen studies were included. Two studies satisfied criteria for external and internal validity, of which one found fair to moderate reliability. Assessment of motion segments C1-C2 and C2-C3 almost consistently reached at least fair reliability. Overall, inter-examiner reliability was poor to fair. However, most studies were found to be of poor methodological quality. We propose explicit recommendations for the conduct and reporting of future research. PMID:15994114

  3. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 37 Final Diagnosis: Vertebral artery dissection Symptoms: Neck pain and focal neurological deficits Medication: No previous Clinical Procedure: Endovascular thrombectomy Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. Case Report: A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. Conclusions: In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  4. Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

    1980-01-01

    Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

  5. Cervical total disk replacement: complications and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Salari, Behnam; McAfee, Paul C

    2012-01-01

    Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion for neurologic deficits, radicular arm pain, and neck pain refractory to conservative management are successful. The approach and procedure were first described in 1955 and have become the anterior cervical standard of care for orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. Advancements and innovations have addressed disease processes of the cervical spine with motion-preserving technology. The possibility of obtaining anterior cervical decompression while maintaining adjacent segment motion led to the advent of cervical total disk replacement. The Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 cervical devices with other investigational device exemption trials under way. PMID:22082633

  6. Development of a parametric finite element model of lower cervical spine in sagital plane.

    PubMed

    Haghpanahi, Mohammad; Mapar, Reza

    2006-01-01

    A parametric 2D finite element model was developed for lower cervical spine (C3-C7) in sagital plane in this research. Being parametric, this model facilitates making changes in the geometrical sizes as well as omitting or modifying some parts of it in order to build a new model with special purposes. Application of geometrical parameters, the values of which differ from one vertebra to the other one due to each one's morphology, utilizes deriving equations which define geometrical shape of the model of both soft tissue and hard tissue. Then a macro is programmed with Ansys parametric design language (APDL), which runs under FEA software, ANSYS9.0. As the result, a good fit was observed when validated the model with existed experimental results in sagital plane. The comparison shows more reliable results out of this 2D model than cited 3D complex models in flexion and extension. PMID:17945664

  7. Cervical spine degenerative changes (narrowed intervertebral disc spaces and osteophytes) in coal miners.

    PubMed

    Zejda, Jan E; Stasiw, Bart?omiej

    2003-01-01

    A series of 685 x-ray films of the cervical spine obtained in coal miners was analyzed to explore the occurrence of narrowed disc spaces and osteophytes in this occupational group, and to examine the association of x-ray changes with age, duration of employment, and duration of occupational exposure to hand-arm vibration. All data were extracted from individual medical files of coal miners examined for suspected hand-arm vibration-related disorders in 1989-1999 at the Occupational Medicine Center in Katowice. The narrowed intervertebral disc spaces were found in 188 coal miners (26.9%) and osteophytes in 332 coal miners (47.5%). The occurrence of degenerative changes in coal miners was similar to that observed in a small group of 68 blue-collar workers (no exposure to hand-arm vibration) employed in the coal industry. Univariate comparisons showed that narrowed intervertebral disc spaces and osteophytes were more frequent among older subjects and among subjects with longer duration of employment. The prevalence of changes also showed some relationship with the number of years of exposure to hand-arm vibration. The results of logistic regression analysis confirmed statistically significant effect of age, but not of other factors included in the model. When both x-ray changes were grouped together (a combined dependent variable) age remained the only statistically significant explanatory variable. The findings do not support the view that the examined degenerative changes in the cervical spine are more prevalent in coal miners and depend on duration of physical work or local exposure to hand-arm vibration in this occupational group. PMID:12705717

  8. Conversion paralysis after cervical spine arthroplasty: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Boudissa, M; Castelain, J E; Boissire, L; Mariey, R; Pointillart, V; Vital, J M

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of conversion paralysis after cervical spine arthroplasty performed in a 45-year-old woman to treat cervico-brachial neuralgia due to a left-sided C6-C7 disc herniation. Upon awakening from the anaesthesia, she had left hemiplegia sparing the face, with normal sensory function. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain ruled out a stroke. MRI of the spinal cord showed artefacts from the cobalt-chrome prosthesis that precluded confident elimination of mechanical spinal cord compression. Surgery performed on the same day to substitute a cage for the prosthesis ruled out spinal cord compression, while eliminating the source of MRI artefacts. Findings were normal from follow-up MRI scans 1 and 15days later, as well as from neurophysiological testing (electromyogram and motor evoked potentials). The deficit resolved fully within the next 4days. A psychological assessment revealed emotional distress related to an ongoing divorce. The most likely diagnosis was conversion paralysis. Surgeons should be aware that conversion disorder might develop after a procedure on the spine, although the risk of litigation requires re-operation. Familiarity with specific MRI sequences that minimise artefacts can be valuable. A preoperative psychological assessment might improve the detection of patients at high risk for conversion disorder. PMID:26194210

  9. Primary leptomeningeal melanoma of the cervical spine mimicking a meningioma-a case report.

    PubMed

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2014-08-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2-C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

  10. Primary Leptomeningeal Melanoma of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Meningioma—A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K.; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2–C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

  11. Multirigid registration of MR and CT images of the cervical spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.

    2004-05-01

    We present our work on fusion of MR and CT images of the cervical spine. To achieve the required registration accuracy of approximately 1mm, the spine is treated as a collection of rigid vertebrae, and a separate rigid body transformation applied to each (Hawkes). This in turn requires segmentation of the CT datasets into separate vertebral images, which is difficult because the narrow planes separating adjacent vertebrae are parallel to the axial plane of the CT scans. We solve this problem by evolving all the vertebral contours simultaneously using a level set method, and use contour competition to estimate the position of the vertebral edges when a clean separation between adjacent vertebrae is not seen. Contour competition is based in turn on the vertical scan principle: no part of a given vertebra is vertically below any part of an inferior vertebra. Once segmentation is complete, the individual rigid body transforms are then estimated using mutual information maximization, and the CT images of the vertebrae superimposed on the MR scans. The resultant fused images contain the bony detail of CT and the soft tissue discrimination of MR and appear to be diagnostically equivalent, or superior, to CT myelograms. A formal test of these conclusions is planned for the next phase of our work.

  12. Inertial sensor real-time feedback enhances the learning of cervical spine manipulation: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical Spinal Manipulation (CSM) is considered a high-level skill of the central nervous system because it requires bimanual coordinated rhythmical movements therefore necessitating training to achieve proficiency. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of real-time feedback on the performance of CSM. Methods Six postgraduate physiotherapy students attending a training workshop on Cervical Spine Manipulation Technique (CSMT) using inertial sensor derived real-time feedback participated in this study. The key variables were pre-manipulative position, angular displacement of the thrust and angular velocity of the thrust. Differences between variables before and after training were investigated using t-tests. Results There were no significant differences after training for the pre-manipulative position (rotation p = 0.549; side bending p = 0.312) or for thrust displacement (rotation p = 0.247; side bending p = 0.314). Thrust angular velocity demonstrated a significant difference following training for rotation (pre-training mean (sd) 48.9°/s (35.1); post-training mean (sd) 96.9°/s (53.9); p = 0.027) but not for side bending (p = 0.521). Conclusion Real-time feedback using an inertial sensor may be valuable in the development of specific manipulative skill. Future studies investigating manipulation could consider a randomized controlled trial using inertial sensor real time feedback compared to traditional training. PMID:24942483

  13. Best evidence in multimodal pain management in spine surgery and means of assessing postoperative pain and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-06-01

    Multimodal approaches to pain management have arisen with the goal of improving postoperative pain and reducing opioid analgesic use. We performed a comprehensive literature review to determine grades of recommendation for commonly used agents in multimodal pain management and provide a best practice guideline. To evaluate common drugs used in multimodal treatment of pain, a search was performed on English language publications on Medline (PubMed; National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA). Manuscripts were rated as Level I-V according to the North American Spine Society's (NASS) standardized levels of evidence tables. Grades of recommendation were assigned for each drug based on the NASS Clinical Guidelines for Multidisciplinary Spine Care. There is good (Grade A) evidence gabapentinoids, acetaminophen, neuraxial blockade and extended-release local anesthetics reduce postoperative pain and narcotic requirements. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that preemptive analgesia and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) result in reduced postoperative pain. There is insufficient and/or conflicting (Grade I) evidence that muscle relaxants and ketamine provide a significant reduction in postoperative pain or narcotic usage. There is fair (Grade B) evidence that short-term use of NSAID result in no long-term reduction in bone healing or fusion rates. Comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of perioperative pain control can be accomplished through the use of validated measures. Multimodal pain management protocols have consistently been demonstrated to allow for improved pain control with less reliance on opioids. There is good quality evidence that supports many of the common agents utilized in multimodal therapy, however, there is a lack of evidence regarding optimal postoperative protocols or pathways. PMID:25766366

  14. A game of two discs: a case of non-contiguous and occult cervical spine injury in a rugby player

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, Michael D.; Piggot, Robert; Jaddan, Mutaz; McCabe, John P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to highlight the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elucidating serious and occult injuries in a single case of hyperflextion injury of a patient cervical spine (C-Spine). A chart and radiology review was performed to establish the sequence of care and how the results of imaging studies influenced the clinical management in this trauma case. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities of the C-Spine revealed bilateral C4/C5 facetal subluxation with no obvious fractures; however, the MR imaging of the C-Spine revealed a non-contiguous and occult injury to C6/C7 disc with a posterior annular tear and associated disc extrusion. This altered the operative intervention that was initially planned. MR imaging proved an invaluable diagnostic addition in this particular case of cervical trauma in a rugby player following a hyperflextion injury, by revealing a serious non-contiguous and occult injury of the C-Spine. PMID:26980714

  15. A game of two discs: a case of non-contiguous and occult cervical spine injury in a rugby player.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Piggot, Robert; Jaddan, Mutaz; McCabe, John P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to highlight the application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in elucidating serious and occult injuries in a single case of hyperflextion injury of a patient cervical spine (C-Spine). A chart and radiology review was performed to establish the sequence of care and how the results of imaging studies influenced the clinical management in this trauma case. Plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) imaging modalities of the C-Spine revealed bilateral C4/C5 facetal subluxation with no obvious fractures; however, the MR imaging of the C-Spine revealed a non-contiguous and occult injury to C6/C7 disc with a posterior annular tear and associated disc extrusion. This altered the operative intervention that was initially planned. MR imaging proved an invaluable diagnostic addition in this particular case of cervical trauma in a rugby player following a hyperflextion injury, by revealing a serious non-contiguous and occult injury of the C-Spine. PMID:26980714

  16. MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).

    PubMed

    Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

    2013-03-01

    Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis. PMID:23404316

  17. The Occupancy of the Components in the Cervical Spine and Their Changes with Extension and Flexion.

    PubMed

    Say?t, Emrah; Aghdasi, Bayan; Daubs, Michael D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objectives?The kinematics of the cervical spine has been investigated by many researchers. However, the occupancy of the disk bulges, spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and the rest of the canal as well as the changes of these structures with motion have not yet been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate these dynamic changes. Methods?The kinetic magnetic resonance images of 248 patients (124 men and 124 women) were evaluated, and the occupancy of each structure for each cervical level at neutral, flexion, and extension were calculated. Results?Whole canal anteroposterior (AP) diameters showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C4-C5 and C5-C6 levels (p?cervical spine for each level was revealed by this study. In addition, the dynamic changes in the cervical spine with flexion and extension were seen to have different characteristics for each level. PMID:26430594

  18. The Occupancy of the Components in the Cervical Spine and Their Changes with Extension and Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Say?t, Emrah; Aghdasi, Bayan; Daubs, Michael D.; Wang, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective case series. Objectives?The kinematics of the cervical spine has been investigated by many researchers. However, the occupancy of the disk bulges, spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and the rest of the canal as well as the changes of these structures with motion have not yet been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate these dynamic changes. Methods?The kinetic magnetic resonance images of 248 patients (124 men and 124 women) were evaluated, and the occupancy of each structure for each cervical level at neutral, flexion, and extension were calculated. Results?Whole canal anteroposterior (AP) diameters showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C4C5 and C5C6 levels (p?cervical spine for each level was revealed by this study. In addition, the dynamic changes in the cervical spine with flexion and extension were seen to have different characteristics for each level. PMID:26430594

  19. SpineData a Danish clinical registry of people with chronic back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice; Jensen, Tue Secher; Albert, Hanne B; Schittz-Christensen, Berit; Manniche, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Background Large-scale clinical registries are increasingly recognized as important resources for quality assurance and research to inform clinical decision-making and health policy. We established a clinical registry (SpineData) in a conservative care setting where more than 10,000 new cases of spinal pain are assessed each year. This paper describes the SpineData registry, summarizes the characteristics of its clinical population and data, and signals the availability of these data as a resource for collaborative research projects. Methods The SpineData registry is an Internet-based system that captures patient data electronically at the point of clinical contact. The setting is the government-funded Medical Department of the Spine Centre of Southern Denmark, Hospital Lillebaelt, where patients receive a multidisciplinary assessment of their chronic spinal pain. Results Started in 2011, the database by early 2015 contained information on more than 36,300 baseline episodes of patient care, plus the available 6-month and 12-month follow-up data for these episodes. The baseline questionnaire completion rate has been 93%; 79% of people were presenting with low back pain as their main complaint, 6% with mid-back pain, and 15% with neck pain. Collectively, across the body regions and measurement time points, there are approximately 1,980 patient-related variables in the database across a broad range of biopsychosocial factors. To date, 36 research projects have used data from the SpineData registry, including collaborations with researchers from Denmark, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Brazil. Conclusion We described the aims, development, structure, and content of the SpineData registry, and what is known about any attrition bias and cluster effects in the data. For epidemiology research, these data can be linked, at an individual patient level, to the Danish population-based registries and the national spinal surgery registry. SpineData also has potential for the conduct of cohort multiple randomized controlled trials. Collaborations with other researchers are welcome. PMID:26316820

  20. Narrative review of the in vivo mechanics of the cervical spine after anterior arthrodesis as revealed by dynamic biplane radiography.

    PubMed

    Anderst, William

    2016-01-01

    Arthrodesis is the standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine and is performed over 150,000 times annually in the United States. The primary long-term concern after this surgery is adjacent segment disease (ASD), defined as new clinical symptoms adjacent to a previous fusion. The incidence of adjacent segment disease is approximately 3% per year, meaning that within 10 years of the initial surgery, approximately 25% of cervical arthrodesis patients require a second procedure to address symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. Despite the high incidence of ASD, until recently, there was little data available to characterize in vivo adjacent segment mechanics during dynamic motion. This manuscript reviews recent advances in our knowledge of adjacent segment mechanics after cervical arthrodesis that have been facilitated by the use of dynamic biplane radiography. The primary observations from these studies are that current in vitro test paradigms often fail to replicate in vivo spine mechanics before and after arthrodesis, that intervertebral mechanics vary among cervical motion segments, and that joint arthrokinematics (i.e., the interactions between adjacent vertebrae) are superior to traditional kinematics measurements for identifying altered adjacent segment mechanics after arthrodesis. Future research challenges are identified, including improving the biofidelity of in vitro tests, determining the natural history of in vivo spine mechanics, conducting prospective longitudinal studies on adjacent segment kinematics and arthrokinematics after single and multiple-level arthrodesis, and creating subject-specific computational models to accurately estimate muscle forces and tissue loading in the spine during dynamic activities. 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:22-30, 2016. PMID:26331480

  1. Cervical spine injuries resulting from diving accidents in swimming pools: outcome of 34 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gouader, Ismail; Bousquet, Philippe; Draper, Louisa; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries after diving into private swimming pools can lead to dramatic consequences. We reviewed 34 patients hospitalized in our center between 1996 and 2006. Data was collected from their initial admission and from follow-up appointments. The injuries were sustained by young men in 97% (mean age 27) and the majority happened during the summer (88%). Fractures were at C5C7 in 70%. American Spinal Injury Association class (ASIA) on admission was A for 8 patients, B for 4, C for 4, D for 1, and E for 17. There were 23 surgical spine stabilizations. Final ASIA class was A for 6 patients, B for 1, C for 3, D for 5, and E for 18. The mean duration of hospitalization was 21.3days in our neurosurgical center (mean overall cost: 36,000Euros/patient) plus 10.6months in rehabilitation center for the 15 patients admitted who had an ASIA class A to C. Mean overall direct cost for a patient with class A is almost 300,000Euros, compared to around 10,000Euros for patients with class D and E. In addition, a profound impact on personal and professional life was seen in many cases including 11 divorces and 7 job losses. Dangerous diving into swimming pools can result in spinal injuries with drastic consequences, including permanent physical disability and a profound impact on socio-professional status. Moreover, there are significant financial costs to society. Better prevention strategies should be implemented to reduce the impact of this public health problem. PMID:19956985

  2. Cervical spine injuries resulting from diving accidents in swimming pools: outcome of 34 patients.

    PubMed

    Borius, Pierre-Yves; Gouader, Ismail; Bousquet, Philippe; Draper, Louisa; Roux, Franck-Emmanuel

    2010-04-01

    Cervical spine injuries after diving into private swimming pools can lead to dramatic consequences. We reviewed 34 patients hospitalized in our center between 1996 and 2006. Data was collected from their initial admission and from follow-up appointments. The injuries were sustained by young men in 97% (mean age 27) and the majority happened during the summer (88%). Fractures were at C5-C7 in 70%. American Spinal Injury Association class (ASIA) on admission was A for 8 patients, B for 4, C for 4, D for 1, and E for 17. There were 23 surgical spine stabilizations. Final ASIA class was A for 6 patients, B for 1, C for 3, D for 5, and E for 18. The mean duration of hospitalization was 21.3 days in our neurosurgical center (mean overall cost: 36,000 Euros/patient) plus 10.6 months in rehabilitation center for the 15 patients admitted who had an ASIA class A to C. Mean overall direct cost for a patient with class A is almost 300,000 Euros, compared to around 10,000 Euros for patients with class D and E. In addition, a profound impact on personal and professional life was seen in many cases including 11 divorces and 7 job losses. Dangerous diving into swimming pools can result in spinal injuries with drastic consequences, including permanent physical disability and a profound impact on socio-professional status. Moreover, there are significant financial costs to society. Better prevention strategies should be implemented to reduce the impact of this public health problem. PMID:19956985

  3. Risk factors for cervical spine injury among patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Tomoko; Faul, Mark; Sasser, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of cervical spine injury (CSI) is difficult in patients with an altered level of consciousness as a result of a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with TBI and older adults are at increased risk for CSI. This study examined the various risk factors for CSI among trauma patients with TBI and whether adults who were older (?55 years) were at higher risk for CSI when they sustained a fall-related TBI. Materials and Methods: Data used was the 2007 National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), National Sample Project (NSP) for adults who sustained a TBI. This dataset contains 2007 admission records from 82 level I and II trauma centers. Logistic regression was used to identify potential risk factors for CSI and to test for interaction between age and injury mechanism. Additional model variables included gender, race, Glasgow Coma Score, multiple severe injuries, hypotension and respiratory distress. Results: An analysis of the NTDB NSP identified 187,709 adults with TBI, of which 16,078 were diagnosed with a concomitant CSI. In motor vehicle traffic injuries, the older age group had significantly higher odds of CSI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26 [1.15-1.39]). In fall-related injuries the older age group did not have a higher odds of CSI compared to the younger age group. Skull/face fracture, other spine fracture/dislocation, upper limb injury, thorax injury, and hypotension were significantly associated with CSI. Pelvic injuries had an inverse association with CSI (OR = 0.60 [0.54-0.67]). Black had significantly higher odds of CSI compared to Whites (OR = 1.25 [1.07-1.46]). Conclusion: The identification of associated injuries and factors may assist physicians in evaluating CSI in patients with TBI. PMID:24339657

  4. LMA C Trach aided endotracheal intubation in simulated cases of cervical spine injury: A series of 30 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Deepshikha C.; Jha, Pramila S.; Trivedi, Lopa P.; Doshi, Shilpa M.; Modia, Brijesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) C Trach is a novel device designed to intubate trachea without conventional laryngoscopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of C trach in the simulated scenario of cervical spine injury where conventional laryngoscopy is not desirable. Methods: This prospective pilot study was carried out in 30 consenting adults of either gender, ASAPS I or II, scheduled for surgery requiring endotracheal intubation. An appropriate sized rigid cervical collar was positioned around the patient's neck to restrict the neck movements and simulate the scenario of cervical spine injury. After induction of anesthesia, various technical aspects of C Trach facilitated endotracheal intubation, changes in hemodynamic variables, and complications were recorded. Results: Mask ventilation was easy in all the patients. Successful insertion of C Trach was achieved in 27 patients at first attempt, while 3 patients required second attempt. Majority of patients required one of the adjusting maneuvers to obtain acceptable view of glottis (POGO score >50%). Intubation success rate was 100% with 26 patients intubated at first attempt and the rest required second attempt. Mean intubation time was 69.827.40 sec. With experience, significant decrease in mean intubation time was observed in last 10 patients as compared to first 10 (4615.77 sec vs. 101.322.91 sec). Minor mucosal injury was noted in four patients. Conclusion: LMA C Trach facilitates endotracheal intubation under direct vision and can be a useful technique in patients with cervical spine injury with cervical collar in situ. PMID:23956717

  5. Quantification of Pediatric Cervical Growth: Anatomical Changes in the Sub-Axial Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jae; Hong, Jae Taek; Kim, Jong Tae

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to provide normal values of the pediatric sub-axial cervical spinal canal and vertebral body growth pattern using computed tomographic scans, a total of 318 patients less than 10 years old were included. Methods The growth of the vertebral body and canal space was investigated using four different age groups. The Torg ratio (TR) was calculated and all patients were classified into a low TR group and a high TR group according to a cutoff value of 1.0. To account for spinal curvature, the C3-7 angle was measured. Results Very little axial expansion and growth in height were observed (2.9 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively), and the spinal canal increments (1.8 mm) were much smaller than the dimensions of the vertebral body. The mean TR values were 1.030.14 at the C3 vertebral level, 1.020.13 at C4, 1.050.13 at C5, 1.040.13 at C6, and 1.020.12 at C7 in all patients. The mean sub-axial angle (C3-7) was 7.910.6 (range: -17-47). Conclusion The upper sub-axial spinal canal continuously increased in size compared to the lower sub-axial spine after 8 years of age. Considerable decrements in the TR was found after late childhood compared to younger ages. Generally, there were no significant differences between boys and girls in vertical length of the cervical vertebrae. However, the axial dimension of the vertebral body and the spinal canal space varied according to gender. PMID:25810858

  6. Dexmedetomidine provides optimum conditions during awake fiberoptic intubation in simulated cervical spine injury patients

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Pooja; Dixit, Madhu Bala; Dang, Aashish; Gupta, Vibhuti

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: We undertook this study to assess if a small-dose of dexmedetomidine (DEX) for conscious sedation during awake fiberoptic intubation (AFOI) in simulated cervical spine injury (CSI) patients provides optimum conditions and fulfills the need of postintubation neurological examination required in such patients. The aim was to assess the efficacy of DEX on arousability and patient's comfort during AFOI in simulated CSI patients. Material and Methods: In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, 100 American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I-II patients aged between 18 and 65 years scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia underwent AFOI under conscious sedation with DEX. After locally anesthetizing the airway and applying a cervical collar, patients either received DEX 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by 0.7 μg/kg/h maintenance infusion or normal saline in the same dose and rate during AFOI. Targeted sedation (Ramsay sedation score [RSS] ≥2) during AFOI was maintained with midazolam [MDZ] in both groups. Statistical Analysis was performed using unpaired Student's t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon-w test. Results: The total number of patients requiring MDZ and the mean dose of MDZ required to achieve targeted sedation (RSS ≥2) was significantly less in DEX group compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). Similarly, patient satisfaction score, heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure and respiratory parameters were significantly better in DEX group (P < 0.001). Postintubation arousability in the two groups was comparable (P = 0.29). Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine provides optimum sedation without compromising airway or hemodynamic instability with better patient tolerance and satisfaction for AFOI. It also preserves patient arousability for the postintubation neurological assessment. PMID:27006542

  7. Office evaluation of spine and limb pain: spondylotic radiculopathy and other nonstructural mimickers.

    PubMed

    Watson, James

    2011-02-01

    Low back and neck pain, with or without radiculopathy, are one of the most common reasons for referral to an outpatient neurology practice. Determining appropriate treatment relies on establishing an accurate diagnosis of the etiology of the spine or limb pain. The author reviews structural radiculopathies as a result of diskogenic and spondylotic etiologies with an emphasis on the clinical approach and evaluation of these patients (including imaging and electrodiagnostics), identifying management altering neurogenic mimickers of structural radiculopathies (such as infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic myeloradiculitis and radiculoplexopathies), and stratifying patients for treatment. PMID:21321836

  8. Negative effects of smoking, workers compensation, and litigation on pain/disability scores for spine patients

    PubMed Central

    Prasarn, Mark L.; Horodyski, Mary B.; Behrend, Caleb; Wright, John; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: When initiating treatment for patients with spinal disorders, we examined the impact of smoking, workers compensation, and litigation on disability and pain scores. Methods: With Institutional Review Board approval, the medical records of 13,704 consecutive patients with spinal disorders treated at two university spine centers were reviewed. Particular attention was focused on the pretreatment impact of three variables: smoking, workers compensation, and litigation. All patients completed a questionnaire that included a modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), a visual analog pain scale (VAS) and a history of smoking, workers compensation, and/or litigation issues. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni (when appropriate) was used to analyze the data. Results: ODI scores significantly correlated with a smoking history: Current Smoker > Previous Smoker > Never Smoked (44.22 > 38.11 > 36.02, respectively). Pain scores and ODI scores had a direct correlation to workers compensation and litigation status. Workers compensation, litigation and smoking combined created even higher scores. There was no significant difference between previous smokers and nonsmokers. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a history of smoking, workers compensation, and/or litigation, considered alone or worse, combined, negatively impacted outcomes for patients seeking treatment at our spine centers. For optimal outcomes in spine patients, cessation of smoking and treatment of attendant psychological and social factors prove critical. PMID:23248756

  9. Clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing cervical spine surgery: an analysis of National Database of Rheumatic Diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who underwent cervical spine surgery using a multicenter observational database. Methods We obtained data from a nationwide observational cohort database of patients with rheumatic diseases (National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa)) for the fiscal years 2003 to 2011. A total of 39 out of 60 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery for a RA-related cause and whose data were available for two consecutive years (to assess the preoperative patient status) were chosen as cases. Patients with a non-RA-related cause of surgery (e.g., trauma) were excluded. First, we compared the patient characteristics between the cases and total patients in the same fiscal year. Next, 106 eligible controls, who were defined as RA patients enrolled in the same fiscal year as the case subjects, who were matched for age, gender and disease duration (within 1year), were selected. We compared the demographic data between the two groups. We also calculated the percentage of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery (surgeries/total number of patients) in fiscal years 2003 to 2011. Results Although the proportion of patients using biologics linearly increased during study period, the percentage of patients undergoing cervical spine surgeries remained unchanged, at approximately 0.15%. These cases had more tender joints (3 vs. 1, p?cervical spine surgery have a higher disease activity (as represented by the DAS28-CRP) and are more functionally disabled (as represented by the MHAQ) than control patients. PMID:24925126

  10. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted. A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level. In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

  11. Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma of cervical spine: a case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Suguna Belur; Prasad, Sruthi

    2015-03-01

    Osteoblastomas are rare benign but sometimes aggressive primary bone tumors (1%), usually seen in males in the 2nd decade. Osteoblastomas, occurring in the spine, constitute a medical emergency due to impending cord compression. Hence a rapid and simple diagnostic modality, such as fine-needle aspiration (FNA) plays an important role in clinical decision making. Cytological diagnosis of osteoblastoma is rare. We report a case of a young female patient presenting with a swelling in the left cervical paravertebral region. The X-ray findings were non-diagnostic and the patient was sent for an FNA. Aspiration yielded moderately cellular hemorrhagic smears with plasmacytoid cells, spindle cells, and osteoclastic giant cells in a background of matrix material. A diagnosis favoring osteoblastoma was made. The CT scan findings were in agreement with the cytological diagnosis and the lesion was excised. Histopathological examination confirmed the same. We describe here, the clinical and cytological features of osteoblastoma with their differential diagnosis, along with review of the literature. FNA can be used as an important tool in the pre-operative diagnosis of osteoblastoma. PMID:24853790

  12. Does posture of the cervical spine influence dorsal neck muscle activity when lifting?

    PubMed

    Peolsson, Anneli; Marstein, Eivind; McNamara, Timothy; Nolan, Damien; Sjaaberg, Espen; Peolsson, Michael; Jull, Gwendolen; O'Leary, Shaun

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that postural orientations of the neck, such as flexed or forward head postures, are associated with heightened activity of the dorsal neck muscles. While these studies describe the impact of variations in neck posture alone, there is scant literature regarding the effect of neck posture on muscle activity when combined with upper limb activities such as lifting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different neck postures on the activity of the different layers of the dorsal neck muscles during a lifting task. Ultrasound measurements of dorsal neck muscle deformation were compared over two time points (rest, during lift) during a lifting task performed in three different neck postural conditions (neutral, flexed and forward head posture) in 21 healthy subjects. Data were analysed by post-process speckle tracking analysis. Results demonstrated significantly greater muscle deformation induced by flexed and forward head postures, compared to the neutral posture, for all dorsal neck muscles at rest (p<0.05). Significant condition by time interactions associated with the lift was observed for four out of the five dorsal muscles (p<0.02). These findings demonstrate that posture of the cervical spine influenced the level of muscle deformation not only at rest, but also when lifting. The findings of the study suggest that neck posture should be considered during the evaluation or design of lifting activities as it may contribute to excessive demands on dorsal neck muscles with potential detrimental consequences. PMID:23880061

  13. Hyperextension soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine--a review.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G

    1996-01-01

    While a full understanding of continuing symptoms following a soft tissue hyperextension injury of the cervical spine remains elusive, recent research has shown that the explanation may lie with occult lesions beyond the musculoskeletal structures of the neck. The balance of the roles of injury, psychological factors, and the effects of litigation has shifted towards the former. However this injury would be unique if the latter two played only a minor role in determining recovery. It seems likely that among the large numbers of patients presenting with symptoms after hyperextension soft tissue injuries, a proportion will have occult bone, joint, or intervertebral disc lesions. Improvements in medical imaging techniques may allow better definition of these specific injuries and the development of more appropriate treatment. The search for a central nervous system lesion in humans continues and until this is demonstrated, many will dispute the existence of an organic brain syndrome. Evidence for significant injury to the temporomandibular joints, ear, and ophthalmic system has been found and this may be amenable to specialist intervention. While there is little evidence for effective treatments of the established injury, reduction in related disability appears most likely to be achieved by prevention. Improvements in automobile design, with particular reference to head restraints, could limit the cost to society of this common and disabling injury. PMID:8821214

  14. Concurrent cervical and craniofacial pain. A review of empiric and basic science evidence.

    PubMed

    Browne, P A; Clark, G T; Kuboki, T; Adachi, N Y

    1998-12-01

    Because many patients present themselves for treatment with both craniofacial and craniocervical pain, 2 questions arise: (1) What are the sensory and motor consequences of dysfunction in either of these areas on the other? (2) Do craniofacial and craniocervical pain have a similar cause? These questions formed the impetus for this review article. The phenomenon of concurrent pain in craniofacial and cervical structures is considered, and clinical reports and opinions are presented regarding theories of cervical-to-craniofacial and craniofacial-to-cervical pain referral. Because pain referral between these 2 areas requires anatomic and functional connectivity between trigeminally and cervically innervated structures, basic neurophysiologic and neuroanatomic literature is reviewed. The published data clearly demonstrate neurophysiologic and structural convergence of cervical sensory and muscle afferent inputs onto trigeminal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Moreover, changes in metabolic activity and blood flow in the brainstem and cervical dorsal horn of the spinal cord in both monkeys and cats have been demonstrated after electric stimulation of the V1-innervated superior sagittal sinus. In conclusion, the animal experimental data support the findings of human empiric and experimental studies, which suggest that strong connectivity exists between trigeminal and cervical motor and sensory responses. PMID:9868716

  15. The status of temporomandibular and cervical spine education in credentialed orthopedic manual physical therapy fellowship programs: a comparison of didactic and clinical education exposure

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Stephen M; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Courtney, Carol A; Sizer, Phillip S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to establish a baseline of physical therapist education on temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related topics during credentialed orthopedic manual physical therapy fellowship training and compare it to cervical spine disorders education. Method: An online survey was distributed electronically to each fellowship program credentialed by the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) and recognized by the Academy of Orthopedic Manual Physical Therapists (AAOMPT). Data were analyzed to compare overall exposure to TMD educational content, including a direct comparison of TMD and cervical spine disorders education. Results: The response rate was 79%. Thirteen programs (87%) reported providing both didactic and clinical training on both TMD and cervical spine disorders. Didactic education for cervical spine disorders ranged from 16–20 hours to over 25 hours, whereas TMD hours ranged from 0 to 6–10 hours. Clinical education for cervical spine disorders ranged from 11–15 hours to over 25 hours, whereas TMD hours ranged from 0 to 6–10 hours. The number of hours of exposure during didactic training and the number of patients exposed to during clinical training were significantly different when comparing TMD to cervical spine disorders exposure (P<0.0001). Discussion: The data indicate a lack of uniformity between credentialed fellowship programs in orthopedic manual physical therapy with respect to the extent to which programs expose trainees to evaluation and management of TMD. There is consistency in that all programs provided more training on cervical spine disorders than TMD. Despite a high level of clinical specialization, fellows-in-training receive minimal TMD education. PMID:26674266

  16. The effect of lateral eccentricity on failure loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions of the cervical spine in axial loading.

    PubMed

    Van Toen, C; Melnyk, A D; Street, J; Oxland, T R; Cripton, P A

    2014-03-21

    Current neck injury criteria do not include limits for lateral bending combined with axial compression and this has been observed as a clinically relevant mechanism, particularly for rollover motor vehicle crashes. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of lateral eccentricity (the perpendicular distance from the axial force to the centre of the spine) on peak loads, kinematics, and spinal canal occlusions of subaxial cervical spine specimens tested in dynamic axial compression (0.5 m/s). Twelve 3-vertebra human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in two groups: low and high eccentricity with initial eccentricities of 1 and 150% of the lateral diameter of the vertebral body. Six-axis loads inferior to the specimen, kinematics of the superior-most vertebra, and spinal canal occlusions were measured. High speed video was collected and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to define the time of injury. The effects of eccentricity on peak loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions were evaluated using unpaired Student t-tests. The high eccentricity group had lower peak axial forces (1544 629 vs. 4296 1693 N), inferior displacements (0.2 1.0 vs. 6.6 2.0 mm), and canal occlusions (27 5 vs. 53 15%) and higher peak ipsilateral bending moments (53 17 vs. 3 18 Nm), ipsilateral bending rotations (22 3 vs. 1 2), and ipsilateral displacements (4.5 1.4 vs. -1.0 1.3 mm, p<0.05 for all comparisons). These results provide new insights to develop prevention, recognition, and treatment strategies for compressive cervical spine injuries with lateral eccentricities. PMID:24411098

  17. The effects of core muscle release technique on lumbar spine deformation and low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myounggi; Song, Changho; Jo, Younggwan; Ha, Donghun; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the core muscle release technique on correction of lumbar deformation and alleviation of low back pain. [Subjects] Ninety patients diagnosed with lumbar deformation and low back pain participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were divided into three groups according to method of treatment. The first group was treated with the core muscle release technique (CRT), the second group was treated with general exercise, and the third group was treated with electrotherapy. The core muscle release technique group received 50-minute of the core muscle release technique 5 times a week for 2 weeks, and the participants in this group were instructed not to receive any other treatments. After the 2 weeks of treatment, the patients were reexamined. The general exercise group performed Williams flexion exercises and McKenzie extension exercises 5 times a week for 2 weeks. The electrotherapy group was treated by application of electrotherapy with an interferential current therapy machine (TM-301. TOPMED. Seongnam, Republic of Korea) to the abdominal muscles and back muscles of the lumbar region. [Results] The data suggest that the core muscle release technique, general exercise, and electrotherapy all helped to decrease the alignment angle and VAS score. Of these treatment methods, however, the core muscle release technique was the most effective for treatment of lumbar spine deformation and low back pain. [Conclusion] The core muscle release technique was most effective for correction of lumbar spine deformation and pain alleviation. PMID:26157254

  18. Dystrophic calcinosis with both a huge calcified mass in the cervical spine and calcification in the chest wall in a patient with rheumatoid overlap syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kei; Takaoka, Hirokazu; Iyama, Ken-Ichi

    2014-06-01

    Dystrophic calcinosis in soft tissue occurs in damaged or devitalized tissues in the presence of normal calcium and phosphorous metabolism. It is often noted in subcutaneous tissues in patients with collagen vascular diseases and may involve a relatively localized area or be widespread. A 74-year-old Japanese woman with an overlap of rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, and systemic sclerosis developed a huge tumor-like mass at the atlanto-axial vertebral joint region that caused severe cervical pain and difficulty in activities of daily living. She also had subcutaneous dystrophic calcification in the soft tissue of the chest wall. Calcinosis associated with systemic sclerosis is a well-recognized phenomenon, but a destructive paraspinal tumor in the cervical spine associated with overlap syndrome is extremely unique. Because calcinosis in spinal locations can be complicated by neurological involvement, patients with progressive symptoms may require surgical intervention. Surgical resection and biological therapy improved this patient's life and activities of daily living. Calcinosis is common in the conditions reviewed here, and different agents have been used for treatment. However, calcinosis management is poorly organized and lacks an accepted classification, systematic studies, and clinical therapeutic trials. The association of calcinosis and collagen vascular diseases is clinically and etiologically important. Although a combination of calcinosis and rheumatoid overlap syndrome is rare, various collagen vascular diseases may occur simultaneously. A perceptive diagnostic approach toward these diseases is critical, and early diagnosis and treatment are needed to prevent dystrophic calcinosis. PMID:24894107

  19. Hybrid lateral mass screw sublaminar wire construct: A salvage technique for posterior cervical fixation in pediatric spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Quinn, John C; Patel, Nitesh V; Tyagi, Rachana

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel salvage technique for pediatric subaxial cervical spine fusion in which lateral mass screw fixation was not possible due to anatomic constraints. The case presentation details a 4-year-old patient with C5-C6 flexion/distraction injury with bilateral jumped facets. Posterior cervical fixation was attempted; however, lateral mass fracture occurred during placement of screws. Using a wire-screw construct, an attempt was made to provide stable fixation. The patient was followed post-operatively for assessment of outcomes. After the patient had progressive kyphosis following initial closed reduction and external orthosis, internal reduction with fusion/fixation was performed. Lateral mass fracture occurred during placement of lateral mass screws. After placement of a sub-laminar wire-lateral mass screw construct, intra-operative evaluation determined stability. Post-operatively, the procedure resulted in stable fixation with evidence of bony fusion on follow-up. Pediatric subaxial cervical spine instrumentation provides rigid fixation however is technically difficult due to anatomic and instrumentation related constraints. In the presented patient, the wire-screw construct resulted in stable fixation and bony fusion on follow-up. A modified sublaminar wire-lateral mass screw construct is an example of a salvage technique that provides immediate stability in the event of instrumentation related lateral mass fracture. PMID:26541322

  20. Peculiarities and Patterns of Cervical Spine Injuries in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Series of 84 Patients from a Single Institute.

    PubMed

    Babu, R Arun; Arivazhagan, Arimappamagan; Devi, B Indira; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Sampath, Somanna; Chandramouli, B A

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries occur infrequently in children but are associated with significant disability and mortality. A retrospective analysis was performed of 84 consecutive pediatric spine injuries treated at our institute from January 2002 to December 2011. The mean age was 14.7 years. There were 18 patients (21%) in group A (0-12 years) and 66 patients (79%) in group B (13-18 years). Overall, injury was more common in boys (ratio of 6:1). Trivial fall was the predominant cause in group A and fall from height in group B. There were 30 children (36%) with injuries of the upper cervical spine, 53 (63%) with injuries of the lower cervical spine and 1 patient (1%) with a combined injury of upper cervical spine and thoracic spine. Overall, 22% of the group A children and 67% of the group B patients had more severe injuries (Frankel grades A, B and C); 21% (18/84) were treated by surgical fusion. Where follow-up was available, 17 out of 22 children (77%) had good outcome (Frankel grade >C). In conclusion, mechanisms and patterns of injury in children are age related and the majority of the children had good outcome. PMID:26509260

  1. Clinical decision-making in the management of cervical spine derangement: a case study survey using a patient vignette

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Tracy; Kelly, Christina; Murphy, Erin; Whissel, Paul; Brown, Michael; Schenk, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neck pain is one of the most common, potentially disabling, and costly musculoskeletal conditions seen in outpatient physical therapy (PT). Clinical decision-making involves referral or the selection of intervention based on the results of the PT examination. Despite evidence that suggests that treatment based classification is most efficacious, it is hypothesized that examination and intervention may be heavily influenced by post-graduate training experiences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze which tests, measures, and interventions are most commonly selected by physical therapists (PTs) holding a credential from the McKenzie Institute and those holding the McKenzie credential plus the credential of Fellow of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (FAAOMPT). Their responses were based on a simulated case vignette involving a patient with a presentation of cervical spine disk derangement. Methods: A survey administered through Survey Monkey was sent to 714 members of the McKenzie Institute who are certified or hold a diploma in mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) or these credentials with the addition of Fellowship credentialing (MDT+FAAOMPT). Of the 714 surveyed PTs, 83 completed the survey for a response rate of 11.6%. As the PTs were given further information regarding the patient, they were asked to progress through a clinical decision-making process by indicating their sequence of examination techniques, and then indicating which interventions would be performed based on the results of the examination. Results: A descriptive analysis was conducted to determine the most common sequences chosen by the PTs based on their training. To perform the analysis, only respondents who completed the survey were included: clinicians with MDT credentials, (n?=?77), and clinicians with both the MDT and FAAOMPT credentials (MDT+FAAOMPT), (n?=?6). Initially, the most common examination chosen regardless of credential was postural analysis. After receiving additional information regarding the patient's posture, the majority of clinicians in each of the three groups then chose active range of motion (AROM). However, after additional information was given, the majority of the MDT group chose repeated end range cervical movements as their next examination measure, and the FAAOMPT group varied. The majority of the FAAOMPT group continued to assess the patient through an entire examination sequence, while the majority of the MDT group discontinued testing. A descriptive analysis of the intervention sequences depicted a trend toward direction of preference (DP) exercises for the MDT group (80.3%), and passive movements or mobilization exercises for the FAAOMPT group. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that PTs with post-graduate training through the McKenzie Institute or through Orthopaedic Manual Physical Therapy (OMPT) Fellowship training may demonstrate an inherent bias toward their advanced training in the assessment and treatment of acute cervical derangement. Although no significant findings can be reported secondary to sample size limitations, future studies may be performed to further explore this topic. PMID:24976755

  2. Estimated Probability of a Cervical Spine Injury During an ISS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes historical data, cohort data, and external simulations as input factors to provide estimates of crew health, resource utilization and mission outcomes. The Cervical Spine Injury Module (CSIM) is an external simulation designed to provide the IMM with parameter estimates for 1) a probability distribution function (PDF) of the incidence rate, 2) the mean incidence rate, and 3) the standard deviation associated with the mean resulting from injury/trauma of the neck. Methods: An injury mechanism based on an idealized low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax of an ISS crewmember was used as the simulated mission environment. As a result of this impact, the cervical spine is inertially loaded from the mass of the head producing an extension-flexion motion deforming the soft tissues of the neck. A multibody biomechanical model was developed to estimate the kinematic and dynamic response of the head-neck system from a prescribed acceleration profile. Logistic regression was performed on a dataset containing AIS1 soft tissue neck injuries from rear-end automobile collisions with published Neck Injury Criterion values producing an injury transfer function (ITF). An injury event scenario (IES) was constructed such that crew 1 is moving through a primary or standard translation path transferring large volume equipment impacting stationary crew 2. The incidence rate for this IES was estimated from in-flight data and used to calculate the probability of occurrence. The uncertainty in the model input factors were estimated from representative datasets and expressed in terms of probability distributions. A Monte Carlo Method utilizing simple random sampling was employed to propagate both aleatory and epistemic uncertain factors. Scatterplots and partial correlation coefficients (PCC) were generated to determine input factor sensitivity. CSIM was developed in the SimMechanics/Simulink environment with a Monte Carlo wrapper (MATLAB) used to integrate the components of the module. Results: The probability of generating an AIS1 soft tissue neck injury from the extension/flexion motion induced by a low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax was fitted with a lognormal PDF with mean 0.26409, standard deviation 0.11353, standard error of mean 0.00114, and 95% confidence interval [0.26186, 0.26631]. Combining the probability of an AIS1 injury with the probability of IES occurrence was fitted with a Johnson SI PDF with mean 0.02772, standard deviation 0.02012, standard error of mean 0.00020, and 95% confidence interval [0.02733, 0.02812]. The input factor sensitivity analysis in descending order was IES incidence rate, ITF regression coefficient 1, impactor initial velocity, ITF regression coefficient 2, and all others (equipment mass, crew 1 body mass, crew 2 body mass) insignificant. Verification and Validation (V&V): The IMM V&V, based upon NASA STD 7009, was implemented which included an assessment of the data sets used to build CSIM. The documentation maintained includes source code comments and a technical report. The software code and documentation is under Subversion configuration management. Kinematic validation was performed by comparing the biomechanical model output to established corridors.

  3. Influence of cervical spine stabilization via Stiff Neck on the postural system in healthy patients: compensation or decompensation of the postural system?

    PubMed

    Schikora, N; Eysel-Gosepath, Katrin; Klünter, H; Delank, S; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2010-10-01

    Functional and structural disorders of the cervical spine are often regarded as the cause of non-specific vertigo. Pathogenetically, disorders of proprioceptive connections between neck muscles and vestibular cores as well as the proprioceptors in the cervical facette joints are presumed. According to a study by Hülse and Hölzl (HNO 48:295-301, 1), after manual therapeutic intervention in patients with functional disorders of the cervical spine 50% of the probands stated a significant reduction of their vertigo. This was backed up in posturography, which documented an improvement in vestibulospinal reactions. To date, the effects of artificial as well as surgical stabilization of the cervical spine on the balance system have not been explored yet. In a first pilot study, we examined the influence of artificial stabilization of the cervical spine via cervical collar Stiff Neck, manufactured by Ambu/Perfit ACE] on the balance system of 20 healthy probands. For this purpose, a posturography (Balance Master Systems, NeuroCom, Clackamas, OR, USA) was applied to 20 healthy probands (10 males, 10 females) with a mean age of 35 years who had no prior spine pathology. Posturography was analyzed under static and dynamic test situations with and without Stiff Neck cervical collar. The results were compared statistically to the Wilcoxon test. In the static test situation of the modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance, a significantly improved standing stability occurred. In none of the dynamic tests did fixation of the cervical spine by Stiff Neck cuff lead to a measurable impairment of the movement coordination. All probands felt subjectively more stable when wearing the Stiff Neck. In healthy probands, a fixation of the cervical spine leads to a stabilization of the postural balance situation. This fixation seems to be helpful in compensating the malfunction of other components of balance information. In a next step, this same model of analysis is applied to patients with cervical instability. Standing stability and movement coordination before and after cervical fusion are being explored. PMID:20443016

  4. Clinical results of patients with subaxial cervical spine trauma treated according to the SLIC score

    PubMed Central

    Joaquim, Andrei F.; Ghizoni, Enrico; Tedeschi, Helder; da Cruz, Halisson Y. F.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) system has been developed to improve injury classification and guide surgical decision making yet clinical validation remains necessary. Methods We evaluated the validity and safety of the SLIC system prospectively in patients treated for subaxial cervical spine trauma (SCST) between 2009 and 2012. Patients with four or more points were surgically treated, whereas patients with less than 4 points were conservatively managed. Outcome measures Neurological status was assessed as the primary outcome of successful treatment. Results Non-surgical group Twenty-three patients were treated non-surgically, 14 (61%) of them with some follow-up at our institution. Follow-up ranged from 3 to 5 months (mean of 4.42; median 4). The SLIC score ranged from 0 to 6 points (mean and median of 1). One patient with a SLIC of 6 points refused surgery. Surgical group: Twenty-five patients were operated, but follow-up after hospital discharge was obtained in 23 (92%) patients (range from 1 to 24 months, mean of 5.82 months). The SLIC score in this group ranged from 4 to 9 points (mean and median of 7). No patients had neurological worsening. Eight of 13 patients with incomplete deficits had some improvement in American Spinal Injury Association score. Conclusions This is the first prospective application of the SLIC system. With regard to our primary outcome, neurological status, the SLIC system was found to be a safe and effective guide in the surgical treatment of SCST. PMID:24090539

  5. Sacral decubitus after cervical spine injury: a case report and suggestions for avoiding such wounds.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Alan S

    2014-06-01

    Sacral decubitus ulcers after cervical spine injuries are particularly debilitating wounds. An illustrative case is presented here and strategies are proposed that may help reduce the incidence of this type of wound. These include early involvement in the patient's care by a wound prevention specialist and the incorporation of a cholera cot design into the spinal transport board with a hole to completely offload the sacral tissue and permit the drainage of stool. Because intermittent visual inspection of skin is probably inadequate to detect the first sign of impending complications, there is a need for technology to objectively assess the status of skin's integrity so a computer program could automatically adjust the pressure on the patient's skin and alert the doctor. Sophisticated equipment that measures mattress pressure on skin is now widely available; sensors of this type could be situated on top of a quilt of miniature air bags (ie, smart cubes) so that individual computer-controlled areas of the quilt could be deflated to offload pressure as required. In the future, probes capable of measuring CO2 production, electrical resistance, or even polarization spectroscopy might be interspersed among the cubes so that ongoing skin viability and integrity could also be monitored. Finally, if the middle model, which proposes that pressure damage starts deep in the middle of the tissue overlying the sacrum before spreading to the skin, proves to be correct and the ground zero for some decubitus really is in the sacral fat, then even more advanced monitoring will be required such as implantable biosensors, and treatment plans might require hyperbaric oxygen or even preemptive liposuction of necrotic fat. PMID:25856216

  6. Prevalence of the Fibromyalgia Phenotype in Spine Pain Patients Presenting to a Tertiary Care Pain Clinic and the Potential Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Chad M.; Goesling, Jenna; Tsodikov, Alex; Meraj, Taha S.; Wasserman, Ronald A.; Clauw, Daniel J.; Hassett, Afton L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Injections for spinal pain have high failure rates, emphasizing the importance of patient selection. It is possible that detecting the presence of a fibromyalgia-like phenotype could aid in prediction, because in these individuals a peripheral injection would not address pain due to alterations in central neurotransmission. We hypothesized that spine pain patients meeting survey criteria for fibromyalgia would be phenotypically distinct from those who do not meet criteria. Methods 548 patients with a primary spine pain diagnosis were studied. All patients completed validated self-report questionnaires, including the Brief Pain Inventory, PainDETECT, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, measures of physical function, and the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Results 42% met survey criteria for fibromyalgia (FM+). When compared with criteria negative patients, FM+ patients were more likely to be younger, unemployed, receiving compensation, have greater pain intensity, pain interference and neuropathic pain descriptors, as well as higher levels of depression and anxiety, and lower level of physical function (p < 0.0001 for each comparison). Gender, neuropathic pain, pain interference, physical function, and anxiety were independently predictive of fibromyalgia status in a multivariate analysis (p < 0.01, all variables). ROC analysis showed the strength of association of 0.81 as measured by the cross-validated C-statistic. Conclusion Using the survey criteria for fibromyalgia, we demonstrated profound phenotypic differences in a spine pain population. Although centralized pain cannot be confirmed with a survey alone, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia may help explain a portion of the variability of responses to spine interventions. PMID:24022710

  7. Spine day 2012: spinal pain in Swiss school children epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The key to a better understanding of the immense problem of spinal pain seems to be to investigate its development in adolescents. Based on the data of Spine Day 2012 (an annual action day where Swiss school children were examined by chiropractors on a voluntary basis for back problems), the aim of the present study was to gain systematic epidemiologic data on adolescent spinal pain in Switzerland and to explore risk factors per gender and per spinal area. Method Data (questionnaires and physical examinations) of 836 school children were descriptively analyzed for prevalence, recurrence and severity of spinal pain. Of those, 434 data sets were included in risk factor analysis. Using logistic regression analysis, psycho-social parameters (presence of parental back pain, parental smoking, media consumption, type of school bag) and physical parameters (trunk symmetry, posture, mobility, coordination, BMI) were analyzed per gender and per spinal area. Results Prevalence of spinal pain was higher for female gender in all areas apart from the neck. With age, a steep increase in prevalence was observed for low back pain (LBP) and for multiple pain sites. The increasing impact of spinal pain on quality of life with age was reflected in an increase in recurrence, but not in severity of spinal pain. Besides age and gender, parental back pain (Odds ratio (OR)=3.26, p=0.011) and trunk asymmetry (OR=3.36, p=0.027) emerged as risk factors for spinal pain in girls. Parental smoking seemed to increase the risk for both genders (boys: OR=2.39, p=0.020; girls: OR=2.19, p=0.051). Risk factor analysis per spinal area resulted in trunk asymmetry as risk factor for LBP (OR=3.15, p=0.015), while parental smoking increased the risk for thoracic spinal pain (TSP) (OR=2.83, p=0.036) and neck pain (OR=2.23, p=0.038). The risk for TSP was further enhanced by a higher BMI (OR=1.15, p=0.027). Conclusion This study supports the view of adolescent spinal pain as a bio-psycho-social problem that should be investigated per spinal area, age and gender. The role of trunk asymmetry and passive smoking as risk factors as well as the association between BMI and TSP should be further investigated, preferably in prospective studies. PMID:24094041

  8. Manual in-line stabilization for acute airway management of suspected cervical spine injury: historical review and current questions.

    PubMed

    Manoach, Seth; Paladino, Lorenzo

    2007-09-01

    Direct laryngoscopy with manual in-line stabilization is standard of care for acute trauma patients with suspected cervical spine injury. Ethical and methodologic constraints preclude controlled trials of manual in-line stabilization, and recent work questions its effectiveness. We searched MEDLINE, Index Medicus, Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Database, and article reference lists. According to this search, we present an ancestral review tracing the origins of manual in-line stabilization and an analysis of subsequent studies evaluating the risks and benefits of the procedure. All manual in-line stabilization data came from trials of uninjured patients, cadaveric models, and case series. The procedure was adopted because of reasonable inference from the benefits of stabilization during general care of spine-injured patients, weak empirical data, and expert opinion. More recent data indicate that direct laryngoscopy and intubation are unlikely to cause clinically significant movement and that manual in-line stabilization may not immobilize injured segments. In addition, manual in-line stabilization degrades laryngoscopic view, which may cause hypoxia and worsen outcomes in traumatic brain injury. Patients intubated in the emergency department with suspected cervical spine injury often have traumatic brain injury, but the incidence of unstable cervical lesions in this group is low. The limited available evidence suggests that allowing some flexion or extension of the head is unlikely to cause secondary injury and may facilitate prompt intubation in difficult cases. Despite the presumed safety and efficacy of direct laryngoscopy with manual in-line stabilization, alternative techniques that do not require direct visualization warrant investigation. Promising techniques include intubation through supraglottic airways, along with video laryngoscopes, optical stylets, and other imaging devices. PMID:17337093

  9. 78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... needed to adjudicate the claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical... the results of medical examination and related to the claimant's diagnosis of a cervical...

  10. Quality of systematic reviews: an example of studies comparing artificial disc replacement with fusion in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Tashani, Osama A; El-Tumi, Hanan; Aneiba, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artificial disc replacement (C-ADR) is now an alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Many studies have evaluated the efficacy of C-ADR compared with ACDF. This led to a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses to evaluate the evidence of the superiority of one intervention against the other. The aim of the study presented here was to evaluate the quality of these reviews and meta-analyses. Medline via Ovid, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched using the keywords: (total disk replacement, prosthesis, implantation, discectomy, and arthroplasty) AND (cervical vertebrae, cervical spine, and spine) AND (systematic reviews, reviews, and meta-analysis). Screening and data extraction were conducted by two reviewers independently. Two reviewers then assessed the quality of the selected reviews and meta-analysis using 11-item AMSTAR score which is a validated measurement tool to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews. Screening of full reports of 46 relevant abstracts resulted in the selection of 15 systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses as eligible for this study. The two reviewers' inter-rater agreement level was high as indicated by kappa of >0.72. The AMSTAR score of the reviews ranged from 3 to 11. Only one study (a Cochrane review) scored 100% (AMSTAR 11). Five studies scored below (AMSTAR 5) indicating low-quality reviews. The most significant drawbacks of reviews of a score below 5 were not using an extensive search strategy, failure to use the scientific quality of the included studies appropriately in formulating a conclusion, not assessing publication bias, and not reporting the excluded studies. With a significant exception of a Cochrane review, the methodological quality of systematic reviews evaluating the evidence of C-ADR versus ACDF has to be improved. PMID:26205640

  11. Kinesiophobia in Pre-Operative Patients with Cervical Discopathy and Coexisting Degenerative Changes in Relation to Pain-Related Variables, Psychological State and Sports Activity

    PubMed Central

    Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; G?owacki, Jakub; Shadi, Milud; Walczak, Micha?; G?owacki, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background No research group has ever investigated the level of kinesiophobia in a well defined group of preoperative patients treated due to cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease, confirmed by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. We aimed to investigate the degree of kinesiophobia and the differences in pain-related and psychosocial characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia, in relation to factors commonly associated with neck pain. Material/Methods Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes were assessed pre-surgically. The mean pain duration was 31.7 SD 34.0 months. Patients completed the Polish versions of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-PL) on 2 occasions, and the following once: Neck Disability Index (NDI-PL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-PL). Results A high level of kinesiophobia was indicated in 81.5% and 87.7% of patients in first and second completion, respectively. Patients with high and low kinesiophobia differ in regards to the recreation section of NDI-PL (p=0.012), gender (p=0.043), and sports activity (p=0.024). Correlations were identified between TSK-PL and marital status (p=0.023) and sports activity (p=0.024). Conclusions Kinesiophobia levels are higher in patients with chronic cervical pain before surgical treatment. Fear of movement tends to be higher in women and among patients avoiding sports recreation before surgical treatment. Although sports activity and socio-demographic data are predictors of kinesiophobia, psychological, pain-related, and clinical data are not. These findings should be considered when planning rehabilitation after surgical treatment of cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes. PMID:25598197

  12. Case report: airway and concurrent hemodynamic management in a neonate with oculo-auriculo-vertebral (Goldenhar) syndrome, severe cervical scoliosis, interrupted aortic arch, multiple ventricular septal defects, and an unstable cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Char, Danton S; Gipp, Melanie; Boltz, M Gail; Williams, Glyn D

    2012-09-01

    We report the challenging case of a 1-week-old, term, 2.4 kg neonate with Goldenhar syndrome (including microcephaly, left microtia, left facial palsy, dextro-scoliosis of the cervical spine, and cervico-thoracic levoscoliosis), multiple ventricular septal defects, a type B interrupted aortic arch, a large patent ductus arteriosis, and radiographic and clinical signs concerning for an unstable cervical spine. Our anesthesia team was consulted for perioperative management of this patient during her surgical repair. This case report describes the use of the Air-Q size 1 laryngeal airway (LA) to assist fiberoptic intubation in an ASA 4 neonate with cardiac disease, an anticipated difficult airway with the addition of an unstable cervical spine, as well as the anesthetic techniques used to maintain hemodynamic stability while the airway was secured. PMID:22834469

  13. Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-22

    Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

  14. Cervical Spine Motion During Football Equipment-Removal Protocols: A Challenge to the All-or-Nothing Endeavor

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Bradley; Cendoma, Michael; Gdovin, Jacob; Cooney, Kevin; Bruening, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    Context The National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete recommended the all-or-nothing endeavor, which involves removing or not removing both helmet and shoulder pads, from equipment-laden American football and ice hockey athletes. However, in supporting research, investigators have not considered alternative protocols. Objective To measure cervical spine movement (head relative to sternum) produced when certified athletic trainers (ATs) use the all-or-nothing endeavor and to compare these findings with the movement produced using an alternative pack-and-fill protocol, which involves packing the area under and around the cervical neck and head with rolled towels. Design Crossover study. Setting Movement analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight male collegiate football players (age = 21.4 1.4 years; height = 1.87 0.02 m; mass = 103.6 12.5 kg). Intervention(s) Four ATs removed equipment under 4 conditions: removal of helmet only followed by placing the head on the ground (H), removal of the helmet only followed by pack-and-fill (HP), removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by placing the head on the ground (HS), and removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by pack-and-fill (HSP). Motion capture was used to track the movement of the head with respect to the sternum during equipment removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured head movement relative to sternum movement (translations and rotations). We used 4 4 analyses of variance with repeated measures to compare discrete motion variables (changes in position and total excursions) among protocols and ATs. Results Protocol HP resulted in a 0.1 0.6 cm rise in head position compared with a 1.4 0.3 cm drop with protocol HS (P < .001). Protocol HP produced 4.9 less total angular excursion (P < .001) and 2.1 cm less total vertical excursion (P < .001) than protocol HS. Conclusions The pack-and-fill protocol was more effective than shoulder pad removal in minimizing cervical spine movement throughout the equipment-removal process. This study provides evidence for including the pack-and-fill protocol in future treatment recommendations when helmet removal is necessary for on-field care. PMID:24377964

  15. Laryngoscope and a New Tracheal Tube Assist Lightwand Intubation in Difficult Airways due to Unstable Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cai-neng; Ma, Wu-hua; Wei, Jian-qi; Wei, Hua-feng; Cen, Qing-yun; Cai, Qing-xiang; Cao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The WEI Jet Endotracheal Tube (WEI JET) is a new tracheal tube that facilitates both oxygenation and ventilation during the process of intubation and assists tracheal intubation in patients with difficult airway. We evaluated the effectiveness and usefulness of the WEI JET in combination with lightwand under direct laryngoscopy in difficult tracheal intubation due to unstable cervical spine. Methods Ninety patients with unstable cervical spine disorders (ASA I-III) with general anaesthesia were included and randomly assigned to three groups, based on the device used for intubation: lightwand only, lightwand under direct laryngoscopy, lightwand with WEI JET under direct laryngoscopy. Results No statistically significant differences were detected among three groups with respect to demographic characteristics and C/L grade. There were statistically significant differences between three groups for overall intubation success rate (p = 0.015) and first attempt success rate (p = 0.000). The intubation time was significantly longer in the WEI group (110.8±18.3 s) than in the LW group (63.3±27.5 s, p = 0.000) and DL group (66.7±29.4 s, p = 0.000), but the lowest SpO2 in WEI group was significantly higher than other two groups (p<0.01). The WEI JET significantly reduced successful tracheal intubation attempts compared to the LW group (p = 0.043). The severity of sore throat was similar in three groups (p = 0.185). Conclusions The combined use of WEI JET under direct laryngoscopy helps to assist tracheal intubation and improves oxygenation during intubation in patients with difficult airway secondary to unstable spine disorders. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14005141 PMID:25803435

  16. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of four fixation techniques for distractiveflexion injury stage 3 of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Thomas; Cunningham, Bryan W.; Mcafee, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Anterior plate fixation has been reported to provide satisfactory results in cervical spine distractive flexion (DF) injuries stages 1 and 2, but will result in a substantial failure rate in more unstable stage 3 and above. The aim of this investigation was to determine the biomechanical properties of different fixation techniques in a DF-3 injury model where all structures responsible for the posterior tension band mechanism are torn. Methods The multidirectional three-dimensional stiffness of the subaxial cervical spine was measured in eight cadaveric specimens with a simulated DF-3 injury at C5C6, stabilized with four different fixation techniques: anterior plate alone, anterior plate combined with posterior wire, transarticular facet screws, and a pedicle screwrod construct, respectively. Results The anterior plate alone did not improve stability compared to the intact spine condition, thus allowing considerable range of motion around all three cardinal axes (p > 0.05). The anterior plate combined with posterior wire technique improved flexionextension stiffness (p = 0.023), but not in axial rotation and lateral bending. When the anterior plate was combined with transarticular facet screws or with a pedicle screwsrod instrumentation, the stability improved in flexionextension, lateral bending, and in axial rotation (p < 0.05). Conclusions These findings imply that the use of anterior fixation alone is insufficient for fixation of the highly unstable DF-3 injury. In these situations, the use of anterior fixation combined with a competent posterior tension band reconstruction (e.g. transarticular screws or a posterior pedicle screwsrod device) improves segmental stability. PMID:25742755

  17. Value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring to reduce neurological complications in patients undergoing anterior cervical spine procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Muralidharan, Aditya; Loke, Yoon K; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of reports of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and to assess the value of intraoperative monitoring (IOM), including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials and electromyography, in anterior cervical procedures. A search was conducted to collect a small database of relevant papers using key words describing disorders and procedures of interest. The database was then shortlisted using selection criteria and data was extracted to identify complications as a result of anterior cervical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy and outcome analysis on a continuous scale. In the 22 studies that matched the screening criteria, only two involved the use of IOM. The average sample size was 173 patients. In procedures done without IOM a mean change in Japanese Orthopaedic Association score of 3.94 points and Nurick score by 1.20 points (both less severe post-operatively) was observed. Within our sub-group analysis, worsening myelopathy and/or quadriplegia was seen in 2.71% of patients for studies without IOM and 0.91% of patients for studies with IOM. Variations persist in the existing literature in the evaluation of complications associated with anterior cervical spinal procedures. Based on the review of published studies, sufficient evidence does not exist to make recommendations regarding the use of different IOM modalities to reduce neurological complications during anterior cervical procedures. However, future studies with objective measures of neurological deficits using a specific IOM modality may establish it as an effective and reliable indicator of injury during such surgeries. PMID:26677786

  18. [Structural changes on hands as predicative factors of structural changes in the cervical spine and atlantoaxial joint in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Kikanovi?, ahza; Kapidi?-Bai?, Nedima; Hoti?-HadiefendiC, Asja; Dananovi?, Devad

    2014-01-01

    Determination of changes in the cervical spine of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is important. Although they are often clinically asymptomatic, during exercise therapy complications, or even death, may occur. The aim of the study was to determine the factors which indicate changes in the cervical spine and atlantoaxial joint (AA) in patients with RA, as well as the association between those changes and changes occurring on the hands. The study included 80 patients with RA who were divided into two groups according to the duration of the disease (up to 10 years and more than 10 years). Structural changes in the hands and cervical spine were monitored by ordinary radiography. Structural changes in the cervical spine were found in both groups of patients without a statistically significant difference between them (p = 0.165). The AA joint was more often deformed in patients with a longer duration of the disease (p = 0.012). The changes on the hands were worse in patients who had the disease for longer than 10 years (p = 0.002), and they correlated with AA subluxation (p = 0.002) and luxation (p = 0.004), as well as with an erosion of the cervical s pine (p = 0.000). According to our findings, in order to recognize changes in the cervical spine, patients with RA must be regularly monitored radiographically, and monitoring should be mandatory in patients who had a longer duration of the disease as well as those with more advanced structural changes on the hands. PMID:25509830

  19. Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection for Painful Spasticity in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun; Chun, Seong Min; Park, Hee Won; Bang, Moon Suk

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 53-year-old male with traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). He could not maintain a standing position because of painful spasticity in his lower limbs. A magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography indicated chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, explaining his chronic low back pain before the injury. For diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes, transforaminal epidural steroid injection (ESI) to the right L5 root was performed. After the intervention, the spasticity decreased and his ambulatory function improved. This case illustrates that lumbar radiculopathy concomitant with a cervical SCI can produce severe spasticity and it can be dramatically improved by ESI. PMID:26361605

  20. Effects of using a device for self-measurement of cervical ROM on neck pain of computer user

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using a device for the self-measurement of cervical range of motion on neck pain experienced by a computer user. [Subject] A 39-year-old male subject with neck pain caused by working on a computer was selected for the study. [Methods] The instrument was developed for the study, and that the instrument is used to self-measure cervical range of movement. The subject was trained in self-measurement procedures and a self-exercise program for two months, and pain was controlled through self-assessment and a program. The pressure pain threshold for the upper trapezius muscle, and cervical ranges of motion were measured prior to and after the 2-month period of pain control. [Results] At the conclusion of self-measurement and the self-exercise program, the pressure pain threshold was higher than the initial pressure pain threshold, and all cervical ranges of motion increased compared to the initial cervical ranges of motion. [Conclusion] This result shows that the self-management device for cervical ROM is an effective tool for pain management for computer users with cervical pain. PMID:26834388

  1. A novel design for application of pure moments in-vitro: application to the kinematic analysis of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Caravaggi, Paolo; Chaudary, Saad; Uko, Linda; Chen, Linda; Khamsi, Babak; Vives, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The simple and cost-effective cable-pulley apparatus proposed by Crawford et al. (1995) has been long and widely used to assess the kinematics and biomechanics of the spine in-vitro. A major limitation of that fixed-ring system relies on the manual readjustment of the cable guides, which is required to maintain parallelism of the tension-cables during spine rotations. While several solutions have since been suggested to improve this loading approach, their implementation may be challenging for research groups with limited resources. In this study we propose an upgrade to the traditional fixed-ring design which aims to improve its usability while retaining the simplicity. The main novelty of this setup is the coupling of a through-hole along the diameter of the pulley with a rod fixated to the top of the spine. The coupling allows relative translation of the pulley along the rod's axis, thus permitting readjustment of the tension-cables' orientation with minimal manual intervention. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by measuring intervertebral kinematics in three 7-vertebra cervical spines. During sagittal and frontal-plane rotations, tension-cables parallelism could be easily and quickly restored by pushing the pulley along the rod's axis. The measured intervertebral rotations were consistent with data from the literature. The interspecimen standard deviation of the total range of motion ranged between 2.1 and 9.6 across all loading configurations. The simple and light mobile-pulley fixture presented in this study has shown to be easy to use and its application may represent a viable alternative to the original fixed-ring design. PMID:23375725

  2. Cervical spine collar clearance in the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient: A systematic review and practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mayur B.; Humble, Stephen S.; Cullinane, Daniel C.; Day, Matthew A.; Jawa, Randeep S.; Devin, Clinton J.; Delozier, Margaret S.; Smith, Lou M.; Smith, Miya A.; Capella, Jeannette M.; Long, Andrea M.; Cheng, Joseph S.; Leath, Taylor C.; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Haut, Elliott R.; Como, John J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND With the use of the framework advocated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group, our aims were to perform a systematic review and to develop evidence-based recommendations that may be used to answer the following PICO [Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcomes] question: In the obtunded adult blunt trauma patient, should cervical collar removal be performed after a negative high-quality cervical spine (C-spine) computed tomography (CT) result alone or after a negative high-quality C-spine CT result combined with adjunct imaging, to reduce peri-clearance events, such as new neurologic change, unstable C-spine injury, stable C-spine injury, need for post-clearance imaging, false-negative CT imaging result on re-review, pressure ulcers, and time to cervical collar clearance? METHODS Our protocol was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews on August 23, 2013 (Registration Number: CRD42013005461). Eligibility criteria consisted of adult blunt trauma patients 16 years or older, who underwent C-spine CT with axial thickness of less than 3 mm and who were obtunded using any definition. Quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis was not possible because of pre-post, partial-cohort, quasi-experimental study design limitations and the consequential incomplete diagnostic accuracy data. RESULTS Of five articles with a total follow-up of 1,017 included subjects, none reported new neurologic changes (paraplegia or quadriplegia) after cervical collar removal. There is a worst-case 9% (161 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of stable injuries and a 91% negative predictive value of no injury, after coupling a negative high-quality C-spine CT result with 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging, upright x-rays, flexion-extension CT, and/or clinical follow-up. Similarly, there is a best-case 0% (0 of 1,718 subjects in 11 studies) cumulative literature incidence of unstable injuries after negative initial imaging result with a high-quality C-spine CT. CONCLUSION In obtunded adult blunt trauma patients, we conditionally recommend cervical collar removal after a negative high-quality C-spine CT scan result alone. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Systematic review, level III. PMID:25757133

  3. Spine Surgery in Athletes With Low Back Pain-Considerations for Management and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Burgmeier, Robert J.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2014-01-01

    While degenerative lumbar spine conditions are common in the general population, there are unique considerations when diagnosed in high-level athletes. Genetic factors have been identified as a more significant contributor to the development of degenerative disc disease than occupational risks, however, some have postulated that the incessant training of young, competitive athletes may put them at a greater risk for accelerated disease. The evidence-based literature regarding lumbar disc herniation in elite athletes suggests that it is reasonable to expect excellent clinical outcomes and successful return-to-sport after either operative or non-operative treatment regardless of sport played. However, those athletes who require repetitive torque on their lumbar spines may have poorer long-term outcomes if surgical treatment is required for this condition. Painful spondylolysis in the athlete can often be treated successfully with non-operative treatment, however, if surgery is required, pars repair techniques provides a motion-sparing alternative that may lead to successful return to sport. PMID:25741419

  4. Comparison of the use of McCoy and TruView EVO2 laryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jiju; Sequeira, Trevor; Upadya, Madhusudan

    2012-01-01

    Context: The cervical spine has to be stabilized in patients with suspected cervical spine injury during laryngoscopy and intubation by manual in-line axial stabilization. This has the propensity to increase the difficulty of intubation. An attempt has been made to compare TruView EVO2 and McCoy with cervical spine immobilization, which will aid the clinician in choosing an appropriate device for securing the airway with an endotracheal tube (ETT) in the clinical scenario of trauma. Aims: To compare the effectiveness of TruView EVO2 and McCoy laryngoscopes when performing tracheal intubation in patients with neck immobilization using manual in-line axial cervical spine stabilization. Settings and design: K. M. C. Hospital, Mangalore, This was a randomized control clinical trial. Methods: Sixty adult patients of either sex of ASA physical status 1 and 2 who were scheduled to undergo general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were studied. Comparison of intubation difficulty score (IDS), hemodynamic response, Cormack and Lehane grade, duration of the tracheal intubation and rate of successful placement of the ETT in the trachea between TruView EVO2 and McCoy laryngoscopes was performed. Results: The results demonstrated that TruView has a statistically significant less IDS of 0.33 compared with an IDS of 1.2 for McCoy. TruView also had a better Cormack and Lehane glottic view (CL 1 of 77% versus 40%) and less hemodynamic response. Conclusions: The TruView blade is a useful option for tracheal intubation in patients with suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:23162398

  5. A comparison of McCoy, TruView, and Macintosh laryngoscopes for tracheal intubation in patients with immobilized cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Neerja; Arora, Suman; Panda, Nidhi B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical spine immobilization results in a poor laryngeal view on direct laryngoscopy leading to difficulty in intubation. This randomized prospective study was designed to compare the laryngeal view and ease of intubation with the Macintosh, McCoy, and TruView laryngoscopes in patients with immobilized cervical spine. Materials and Methods: 60 adult patients of ASA grade I-II with immobilized cervical spine undergoing elective cervical spine surgery were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, and vecuronium and maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups to achieve tracheal intubation with Macintosh, McCoy, or TruView laryngoscopes. When the best possible view of the glottis was obtained, the Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopy grade and the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) score were assessed. Other measurements included the intubation time, the intubation difficulty score, and the intubation success rate. Hemodynamic parameters and any airway complications were also recorded. Results: TruView reduced the intubation difficulty score, improved the Cormack and Lehane glottic view, and the POGO score compared with the McCoy and Macintosh laryngoscopes. The first attempt intubation success rate was also high in the TruView laryngoscope group. However, there were no differences in the time required for successful intubation and the overall success rates between the devices tested. No dental injury or hypoxia occurred with either device. Conclusion: The use of a TruView laryngoscope resulted in better glottis visualization, easier tracheal intubation, and higher first attempt success rate as compared to Macintosh and McCoy laryngoscopes in immobilized cervical spine patients. PMID:24843330

  6. Screening via CT angiogram after traumatic cervical spine fractures: narrowing imaging to improve cost effectiveness. Experience of a Level I trauma center.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Megan M; Smith, Gabriel A; Tanenbaum, Joseph; Lubelski, Daniel; Seicean, Andreea; Pace, Jonathan; Benzel, Edward C; Mroz, Thomas E; Steinmetz, Michael P

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Screening for vertebral artery injury (VAI) following cervical spine fractures is routinely performed across trauma centers in North America. From 2002 to 2007, the total number of neck CT angiography (CTA) studies performed in the Medicare population after trauma increased from 9796 to 115,021. In the era of cost-effective medical care, the authors aimed to evaluate the utility of CTA screening in detecting VAI and reduce chances of posterior circulation strokes after traumatic cervical spine fractures. METHODS A retrospective review of all patients presenting with cervical spine fractures to Northeast Ohio's Level I trauma institution from 2002 to 2012 was performed. RESULTS There was a total of 1717 cervical spine fractures in patients presenting to Northeast Ohio's Level I trauma institution between 2002 and 2012. CTA screening was performed in 732 patients, and 51 patients (0.7%) were found to have a VAI. Fracture patterns with increased odds of VAI were C-1 and C-2 combined fractures, transverse foramen fractures, and subluxation of adjacent vertebral levels. Ten posterior circulation strokes were identified in this patient population (0.6%) and found in only 4 of 51 cases of VAI (7.8%). High-risk fractures defined by Denver Criteria, VAI, and antiplatelet treatment of VAI were not independent predictors of stroke. CONCLUSIONS Cost-effective screening must be reevaluated in the setting of blunt cervical spine fractures on a case-by-case basis. Further prospective studies must be performed to elucidate the utility of screening for VAI and posterior circulation stroke prevention, if identified. PMID:26613284

  7. Immediate effects of thoracic manipulation in patients with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Joshua A; Childs, John D; McRae, Meghann; Palmer, Jessica A; Stowell, Thomas

    2005-05-01

    Mechanical neck pain is a common occurrence in the general population resulting in a considerable economic burden. Often physical therapists will incorporate manual therapies directed at the cervical spine including joint mobilization and manipulation into the management of patients with cervical pain. Although the effectiveness of mobilization and manipulation of the cervical spine has been well documented, the small inherent risks associated with these techniques has led clinicians to frequently utilize manipulation directed at the thoracic spine in this patient population. It is hypothesized that thoracic spine manipulation may elicit similar therapeutic benefits as cervical spine manipulation while minimizing the magnitude of risk associated with the cervical technique. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial was to investigate the immediate effects of thoracic spine manipulation on perceived pain levels in patients presenting with neck pain. The results suggest that thoracic spine manipulation results in immediate analgesic effects in patients with mechanical neck pain. Further studies are needed to determine the effects of thoracic spine manipulation in patients with neck pain on long-term outcomes including function and disability. PMID:15922233

  8. Tracheal intubation using the ILMA, C-Trach or McCoy laryngoscope in patients with simulated cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, H; Bozkurt, M

    2006-07-01

    A study of 90 patients was undertaken to compare intubation success rates of using either ILMA, C-Trach or McCoy laryngoscope in patients with simulated cervical spine injury. Insertion and intubation success rates, time taken to achieve intubation, airway complications and haemodynamic parameters were recorded. Insertion of ILMA and C-Trach was successful at the first attempt in all patients. Intubation success rates were higher in the C-Trach (100%) and McCoy (100%) groups than in the ILMA (87%) group. Total intubation time was significantly longer in the ILMA (63 s, SD 36.5) group than in the C-Trach (41 s, SD 15.8) and McCoy (30 s, SD 7.4) groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, respectively). There were no significant differences in haemodynamic parameters among the groups at any time. PMID:16792615

  9. Impact of McKenzie Method Therapy Enriched by Muscular Energy Techniques on Subjective and Objective Parameters Related to Spine Function in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Paweł; Wendt, Michał; Waszak, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Maciej; Cieślik, Krystyna; Trzaska, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Background The high incidence and inconsistencies in diagnostic and therapeutic process of low back pain (LBP) stimulate the continuing search for more efficient treatment modalities. Integration of the information obtained with various therapeutic methods and a holistic approach to the patient seem to be associated with positive outcomes. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of combined treatment with McKenzie method and Muscle Energy Technique (MET), and to compare it with the outcomes of treatment with McKenzie method or standard physiotherapy in specific chronic lumbar pain. Material/Methods The study included 60 men and women with LBP (mean age 44 years). The patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 therapeutic groups, which were further treated with: 1) McKenzie method and MET, 2) McKenzie method alone, or 3) standard physiotherapy for 10 days. The extent of spinal movements (electrogoniometry), level of experienced pain (Visual Analogue Scale and Revised Oswestry Pain Questionnaire), and structure of the spinal discs (MRI) were examined prior to the intervention, immediately thereafter, and 3 months after the intervention. Results McKenzie method enriched with MET had the best therapeutic outcomes. The mobility of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine normalized at levels corresponding to 87.1%, 66.7%, and 95% of respective average normative values. Implementation of McKenzie method, both alone and combined with MET, was associated with a significant decrease in Oswestry Disability Index, significant alleviation of pain (VAS), and significantly reduced size of spinal disc herniation. Conclusions The combined method can be effectively used in the treatment of chronic LBP. PMID:26418868

  10. Positional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for People With Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome or Suspected Craniovertebral or Cervical Spine Abnormalities: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited disorder affecting the connective tissue. EDS can manifest with symptoms attributable to the spine or craniovertebral junction (CVJ). In addition to EDS, numerous congenital, developmental, or acquired disorders can increase ligamentous laxity in the CVJ and cervical spine. Resulting abnormalities can lead to morbidity and serious neurologic complications. Appropriate imaging and diagnosis is needed to determine patient management and need for complex surgery. Some spinal abnormalities cause symptoms or are more pronounced while patients sit, stand, or perform specific movements. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) allows imaging of the spine or CVJ with patients in upright, weight-bearing positions and can be combined with dynamic maneuvers, such as flexion, extension, or rotation. Imaging in these positions could allow diagnosticians to better detect spinal or CVJ abnormalities than recumbent MRI or even a combination of other available imaging modalities might allow. Objectives To determine the diagnostic impact and clinical utility of pMRI for the assessment of (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS and (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people. Data Sources A literature search was performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid Embase, and EBM Reviews, for studies published from January 1, 1998, to September 28, 2014. Review Methods Studies comparing pMRI to recumbent MRI or other available imaging modalities for diagnosis and management of spinal or CVJ abnormalities were reviewed. All studies of spinal or CVJ imaging in people with EDS were included as well as studies among people with suspected major CVJ or cervical spine abnormalities (cervical or craniovertebral spine instability, basilar invagination, cranial settling, cervical stenosis, spinal cord compression, Chiari malformation). Results No studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusions We did not identify any evidence that assessed the diagnostic impact or clinical utility of pMRI for (a) craniovertebral or spinal abnormalities among people with EDS or (b) major craniovertebral or cervical spine abnormalities among symptomatic people relative to currently available diagnostic modalities. PMID:26366238

  11. Guidelines for return to contact or collision sport after a cervical spine injury.

    PubMed

    Cantu, R C; Bailes, J E; Wilberger, J E

    1998-01-01

    Pro football is a violent, dangerous sport. To play it other than violently would be "imbecilic," according to the late Vince Lombardi. Many sports hold the potential for serious permanent spine and spinal cord injury. Fortunately, the incidence of catastrophic spine and spinal cord injuries has dramatically declined in the past 10 to 15 years. This decline is, in part, attributable to the development of sports-related spine injury registries, the education of the pathomechanics of these injuries, and the implementation of appropriate preventive measures. This article focuses on sports-related spinal cord and nerve injuries, ranging from the mild "stinger" syndrome to complete quadriplegia, with emphasis on recommendations for return to competition. PMID:9475978

  12. Is Polymethyl Methacrylate a Viable Option for Salvaging Lateral Mass Screw Failure in the Subaxial Cervical Spine?

    PubMed Central

    Gallizzi, Michael A.; Kuhns, Craig A.; Jenkins, Tyler J.; Pfeiffer, Ferris M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Biomechanical analysis of lateral mass screw pullout strength. Objective?We compare the pullout strength of our bone cementrevised lateral mass screw with the standard lateral mass screw. Methods?In cadaveric cervical spines, we simulated lateral mass screw cutouts unilaterally from C3 to C7. We salvaged fixation in the cutout side with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Cortoss cement (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States), allowed the cement to harden, and then drilled and placed lateral mass screws back into the cement-augmented lateral masses. On the contralateral side, we placed standard lateral mass screws into the native, or normal lateral, masses and then compared pullout strength of the cement-augmented side to the standard lateral mass screw. For pullout testing, each augmentation group was fixed to a servohydraulic load frame and a specially designed pullout fixture was attached to each lateral mass screw head. Results?Quick-mix PMMA-salvaged lateral mass screws required greater force to fail when compared with native lateral mass screws. Cortoss cement and PMMA standard-mix cement-augmented screws demonstrated less strength of fixation when compared with control-side lateral mass screws. Attempts at a second round of cement salvage of the same lateral masses led to more variations in load to failure, but quick-mix PMMA again demonstrated greater load to failure when compared with the nonaugmented control lateral mass screws. Conclusion?Quick-mix PMMA cement revision equips the spinal surgeon with a much needed salvage option for a failed lateral mass screw in the subaxial cervical spine. PMID:25649421

  13. Is polymethyl methacrylate a viable option for salvaging lateral mass screw failure in the subaxial cervical spine?

    PubMed

    Gallizzi, Michael A; Kuhns, Craig A; Jenkins, Tyler J; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

    2015-02-01

    Study Design Biomechanical analysis of lateral mass screw pullout strength. Objective We compare the pullout strength of our bone cement-revised lateral mass screw with the standard lateral mass screw. Methods In cadaveric cervical spines, we simulated lateral mass screw "cutouts" unilaterally from C3 to C7. We salvaged fixation in the cutout side with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Cortoss cement (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States), allowed the cement to harden, and then drilled and placed lateral mass screws back into the cement-augmented lateral masses. On the contralateral side, we placed standard lateral mass screws into the native, or normal lateral, masses and then compared pullout strength of the cement-augmented side to the standard lateral mass screw. For pullout testing, each augmentation group was fixed to a servohydraulic load frame and a specially designed pullout fixture was attached to each lateral mass screw head. Results Quick-mix PMMA-salvaged lateral mass screws required greater force to fail when compared with native lateral mass screws. Cortoss cement and PMMA standard-mix cement-augmented screws demonstrated less strength of fixation when compared with control-side lateral mass screws. Attempts at a second round of cement salvage of the same lateral masses led to more variations in load to failure, but quick-mix PMMA again demonstrated greater load to failure when compared with the nonaugmented control lateral mass screws. Conclusion Quick-mix PMMA cement revision equips the spinal surgeon with a much needed salvage option for a failed lateral mass screw in the subaxial cervical spine. PMID:25649421

  14. Distal bimelic amyotrophy (DBMA): Phenotypically distinct but identical on cervical spine MR imaging with brachial monomelic amyotrophy/Hirayama disease.

    PubMed

    Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Nalini, Atchayaram; Singh, Ravinder-Jeet; Saini, Jitender; Prasad, Chandrajit; Polavarapu, Kiran; Thennarasu, Kandavel

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize the MR imaging features in a large and distinct series of distal bimelic amyotrophy (DBMA) from India. We utilized a retrospective and prospective study on 26 cases. Results demonstrated that upper limb distal muscle wasting and weakness was predominantly symmetrical in onset. Mean age at onset was 20.9 7.0 years, mean duration 83.0 102.6 months. MRI carried out in 22 patients with flexion studies showed forward displacement of posterior dura in 19 (86.4%). Crescent shaped epidural enhancement on contrast was seen in 20/24 cases (83.3%), and bilateral T2W hyperintensities of cord in17 (65.4%) - symmetrical in15 cases. Maximum hyperintensity was noted at C5-C6, C6-C7 levels. Cord atrophy was noted in 24 (92.3%) cases (most affected: C5-C6, C6-C7) - symmetrical atrophy in 21cases. Cervical spine straightening occurred in six (23.1%) cases and reversal of lordosis in 15 (57.7%). In conclusion, this study confirms that DBMA is phenotypically distinct but pathophysiologically the same as brachial monomelic amyotrophy (BMMA) on MR imaging. Typical MRI features were seen in all. It is important to differentiate this disorder from ALS, which could present at a younger age as often seen among Indians. The clinical and MR imaging features are highly suggestive that DBMA, as with BMMA/Hirayama disease, occurs due to dynamic alterations at the cervical spine level. PMID:25967543

  15. Painful cervical dystonia triggered by the extension wire of a deep brain stimulator.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, F; Picozzi, P; Franzin, A; Martinelli, V; Comi, G; Volonte, M A

    2012-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be complicated by adverse events, which are generally classified as surgical-hardware or stimulation-related. Here we report the onset of a painful cervical dystonia probably triggered by the extension wire of a subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS device in a woman suffering from advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Two months after implantation of the STN-DBS device, our patient developed a painful cervical dystonia, which was not responsive to neurostimulation or to medication. No sign of infections or fibrosis was detected. A patch test with the components of the device was performed, revealing no hypersensibility. The patient was referred back to surgery to reposition the pulse generator in the contralateral subclavian region. A deeper channeling of the wire extensions produced a complete remission of the painful dystonia. PMID:22954791

  16. Breast size, thoracic kyphosis & thoracic spine pain - association & relevance of bra fitting in post-menopausal women: a correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Menopause would seem to exist as a period of accelerated changes for women and their upper torso mechanics. Whether these anthropometric changes reflect changes in pain states remains unclear. Plausible mechanisms of pain exist for the independent and combined effect of increasing breast size and thoracic kyphosis. Bra fit has the potential to change when the anthropometric measures (chest circumference and bust circumference) used to determine bra size change, such as postmenopausally. Identifying an association between breast size, thoracic kyphosis and thoracic spine pain in postmenopausal women and identifying the relevance of bra fit to this association may be of importance to the future management and education of post-menopausal women presenting clinically with thoracic spine pain. Methods A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-one postmenopausal bra-wearing women were recruited. Measures included breast size (Triumph International), thoracic kyphosis (flexible curve), bra fitted (Y/N) and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and tenderness on palpation (posteroanterior pressure testing). These measures were collected in one session at a physiotherapy clinic. Results The majority of the women in this study were overweight or obese and wearing an incorrect sized bra. Pain was significantly related to breast size, body weight and BMI at mid thoracic levels (T7-8). In contrast self-reported thoracic pain was not correlated with age or index of kyphosis (thoracic kyphosis). Women with thoracic pain were no more likely to have their bra professionally fitted whereas women with a higher BMI and larger breasts were more likely to have their bra professionally fitted. Conclusion The findings of this study show that larger breasts and increased BMI are associated with thoracic pain in postmenopausal women. This is unrelated to thoracic kyphosis. Increasing breast size and how a bra is worn may have biomechanical implications for the loaded thoracic spine and surrounding musculature. Post-menopause women present with a spectrum of anthropometrical changes that have the potential to contribute to altered biomechanics and affect pain states in the thoracic spine. PMID:23816160

  17. Semi-automatic delineation of the spino-laminar junction curve on lateral x-ray radiographs of the cervical spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Benjamin; Phillips, Michael; Knapp, Karen; Appelboam, Andy; Reuben, Adam; Slabaugh, Greg

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of the cervical spine using x-ray radiography is an important task when providing emergency room care to trauma patients suspected of a cervical spine injury. In routine clinical practice, a physician will inspect the alignment of the cervical spine vertebrae by mentally tracing three alignment curves along the anterior and posterior sides of the cervical vertebral bodies, as well as one along the spinolaminar junction. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to semi-automatically delineate the spinolaminar junction curve, given a single reference point and the corners of each vertebral body. From the reference point, our method extracts a region of interest, and performs template matching using normalized cross-correlation to find matching regions along the spinolaminar junction. Matching points are then fit to a third order spline, producing an interpolating curve. Experimental results demonstrate promising results, on average producing a modified Hausdorff distance of 1.8 mm, validated on a dataset consisting of 29 patients including those with degenerative change, retrolisthesis, and fracture.

  18. [Usefulness of computerized myelotomography in the diagnosis of discopathy of the cervical spine].

    PubMed

    Kotwica, Z; Kasprzak, P; Chmielowski, M

    1992-01-01

    The authors compared the results of preoperative computer-assisted myelography (CAM) with surgical findings in 45 patients with suspected cervical disc disease. In 98% CAM gave full and proper diagnosis confirmed by surgery. Only in one patient, the preoperative diagnosis was extraspinal tumour, and surgery revealed prolapsed nucleus pulposus lying freely on the anterior wall of the dural sac. In authors's opinion, CAM is sufficient for planning of surgical treatment in cervical disc disease, and other radiological studies, myelography or nuclear magnetic resonance tomography are usually not necessary. PMID:1407293

  19. Cervical Laminoplasty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatments for Spinal Pain Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artificial Disc Replacement Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic ... Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy Spinal Fusion ... Medicine Cervical Laminoplasty What is ...

  20. The role of zygapophysial joint orientation and uncinate processes in controlling motion in the cervical spine.

    PubMed Central

    Milne, N

    1991-01-01

    Five linear and 2 angular measurements on each of C3 to T1 in a sample of 67 human skeletons were used to examine 3 hypotheses about the function of uncinate processes and zygapophysial joints in the cervical vertebral column. The material was sexed and each vertebra was rated for pathological changes. The effects of gender and pathology on the measures was assessed. The upper 4 vertebrae studied had the largest disc-facet angles, supporting the view that the articular facet orientation is responsible for the greater intervertebral disc translation occurring during sagittal motion in the neck. These upper 4 vertebrae also have the largest uncinate processes, and this observation supports the hypothesis that uncinate processes function to guide and control the anteroposterior translation which occurs during sagittal motion. The 3rd hypothesis that uncinate processes function to facilitate axial rotation is not supported by the recorded interfacet angles which appear to promote axial rotation only in the lower 4 vertebrae. Two further hypothesis are suggested. First, that the interfacet angle is responsible for controlling how strictly lateral flexion and axial rotation are coupled in cervical motion segments. Second, the suggestion is made that the high frequency of pathological change seen at the disc margins of the middle cervical vertebrae may be a result of the unusual combination of disc-facet and interfacet angles permitting more degrees of freedom than the cervical intervertebral discs can withstand. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 6 PMID:1810926

  1. The effect of cervical spine isometric contract-relax technique on hamstring extensibility.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Drew; Fryer, Gary; McLaughlin, Patrick

    2003-03-01

    Objectives: To re-investigate the effect of a cervical isometric contract-relax technique on hamstring extensibility and examine the duration of any treatment effect.Methods: Forty asymptomatic participants were randomly assigned equally to either an experimental or control group. Both groups underwent pre and post hamstring extensibility measurements using passive knee extension with the thigh maintained at 90 degrees of hip flexion, with the examiner blinded to treatment allocation of the participants. Torque was measured with a hand held dynamometer to maintain consistent force in pre and post measurements. The experimental group received an upper cervical isometric contract-relax treatment. A digital camera recorded the knee extension angles and the images were computer analysed to determine hamstring extensibility.Results: A split plot ANOVA (SPANOVA) revealed no significant hamstring extensibility differences between or within the groups, immediately or at 30 minutes.Conclusion: The cervical isometric contract-relax treatment produced no significant effect to the extensibility of the hamstring. This study does not support the use of cervical techniques to alter hamstring extensibility. PMID:17987201

  2. Withdrawal rates as a consequence of disclosure of risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The risk associated with cervical manipulation is controversial. Research in this area is widely variable but as yet the risk is not easily quantifiable. This presents a problem when informing the patient of risks when seeking consent and information may be withheld due to the fear of patient withdrawal from care. As yet, there is a lack of research into the frequency of risk disclosure and consequent withdrawal from manipulative treatment as a result. This study seeks to investigate the reality of this and to obtain insight into the attitudes of chiropractors towards informed consent and disclosure. Methods Questionnaires were posted to 200 UK chiropractors randomly selected from the register of the General Chiropractic Council. Results A response rate of 46% (n = 92) was achieved. Thirty-three per cent (n = 30) respondents were female and the mean number of years in practice was 10. Eighty-eight per cent considered explanation of the risks associated with any recommended treatment important when obtaining informed consent. However, only 45% indicated they always discuss this with patients in need of cervical manipulation. When asked whether they believed discussing the possibility of a serious adverse reaction to cervical manipulation could increase patient anxiety to the extent there was a strong possibility the patient would refuse treatment, 46% said they believed this could happen. Nonetheless, 80% said they believed they had a moral/ethical obligation to disclose risk associated with cervical manipulation despite these concerns. The estimated number of withdrawals throughout respondents' time in practice was estimated at 1 patient withdrawal for every 2 years in practice. Conclusion The withdrawal rate from cervical manipulation as a direct consequence of the disclosure of associated serious risks appears unfounded. However, notwithstanding legal obligations, reluctance to disclose risk due to fear of increasing patient anxiety still remains, despite acknowledgement of moral and ethical responsibility. PMID:20977721

  3. Varicella-Zoster-Mediated Radiculitis Reactivation following Cervical Spine Surgery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Drazin, Doniel; Hanna, George; Shweikeh, Faris; Jeswani, Sunil; Lovely, Leah; Sokolov, Richard; Liu, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are neurotropic viruses that can be reactivated after a surgical or stressful intervention. Although such cases are uncommon, consequences can be debilitating, and variable treatment responses merit consideration. We describe a 41-year-old male with a history of varicella-mediated skin eruptions, who presented with continuing right arm pain, burning, and numbness in a C6 dermatomal distribution following a C5-6 anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and epidural steroid injections. The operative course was uncomplicated and he was discharged home on postoperative day 1. Approximately ten days after surgery, the patient presented to the emergency department complaining of severe pain in his right upper extremity and a vesicular rash from his elbow to his second digit. He was started on Acyclovir and discharged home. On outpatient follow-up, his rash had resolved though his pain continued. The patient was started on a neuromodulating agent for chronic pain. This case adds to the limited literature regarding this rare complication, brings attention to the symptoms for proper diagnosis and treatment, and emphasizes the importance of prompt antiviral therapy. We suggest adding a neuromodulating agent to prevent long-term sequelae and resolve acute symptoms. PMID:24251050

  4. In vivo three-dimensional intervertebral kinematics of the subaxial cervical spine during seated axial rotation and lateral bending via a fluoroscopy-to-CT registration approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Wang, Ting-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Shih-Jung; Shih, Ting-Fang

    2014-10-17

    Accurate measurement of the coupled intervertebral motions is helpful for understanding the etiology and diagnosis of relevant diseases, and for assessing the subsequent treatment. No study has reported the in vivo, dynamic and three-dimensional (3D) intervertebral motion of the cervical spine during active axial rotation (AR) and lateral bending (LB) in the sitting position. The current study fills the gap by measuring the coupled intervertebral motions of the subaxial cervical spine in ten asymptomatic young adults in an upright sitting position during active head LB and AR using a volumetric model-based 2D-to-3D registration method via biplane fluoroscopy. Subject-specific models of the individual vertebrae were derived from each subject's CT data and were registered to the fluoroscopic images for determining the 3D poses of the subaxial vertebrae that were used to obtain the intervertebral kinematics. The averaged ranges of motion to one side (ROM) during AR at C3/C4, C4/C5, C5/C6, and C6/C7 were 4.2, 4.6, 3.0 and 1.3, respectively. The corresponding values were 6.4, 5.2, 6.1 and 6.1 during LB. Intervertebral LB (ILB) played an important role in both AR and LB tasks of the cervical spine, experiencing greater ROM than intervertebral AR (IAR) (ratio of coupled motion (IAR/ILB): 0.23-0.75 in LB, 0.34-0.95 in AR). Compared to the AR task, the ranges of ILB during the LB task were significantly greater at C5/6 (p=0.008) and C6/7 (p=0.001) but the range of IAR was significantly smaller at C4/5 (p=0.02), leading to significantly smaller ratios of coupled motions at C4/5 (p=0.0013), C5/6 (p<0.001) and C6/7 (p=0.0037). The observed coupling characteristics of the intervertebral kinematics were different from those in previous studies under discrete static conditions in a supine position without weight-bearing, suggesting that the testing conditions likely affect the kinematics of the subaxial cervical spine. While C1 and C2 were not included owing to technical limitations, the current results nonetheless provide baseline data of the intervertebral motion of the subaxial cervical spine in asymptomatic young subjects under physiological conditions, which may be helpful for further investigations into spine biomechanics. PMID:25218506

  5. Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

  6. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yujin; Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-06-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  7. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement. PMID:26161360

  8. In vivo kinematics of the cervical spine. Part I: Development of a roentgen stereophotogrammetric technique using metallic markers and assessment of its accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Harris, K G; Nassif, J; Goel, V K; Clark, C R

    1993-12-01

    A technique for simultaneous roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RS) was developed, and its accuracy was assessed. In vitro models fabricated from dried cadaveric C4 and C5 vertebrae were used to simulate the motion behavior of the cervical spine. Metallic markers made of Vitallium beads (diameter < 0.3 mm) were implanted into the posterior and anterior surfaces of each vertebra at surgically accessible locations to simulate the bead placement for both posterior and anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine. A series of roentgen stereo pairs were obtained to systematically assess the accuracy (validity) of displacement measurements in anteroposterior (AP) translation, axial rotation, and flexion/extension. In addition, the effects of soft tissue density on the accuracy of the system were investigated by obtaining a series of roentgen stereo pairs with the experimental model immersed in a water bath. The coordinates of the metallic markers on the radiographs were then digitized by two raters who were not informed of the actual motion (i.e., blind study). The results indicated a high accuracy throughout the study. Overall root mean square errors were 0.07 mm for AP translation, 0.08 degrees for axial rotation, and 0.14 degrees for flexion/extension. The corresponding accuracy estimates (R2 values by linear regression analysis) were very high (0.992, 0.998, and 0.995) when the measurement results were compared with the actual displacements. The water bath did not affect measurement accuracy, indicating that soft tissue density should have little effect on the accuracy of the technique for in vivo applications. This system appears to be an accurate and reliable method for assessment of simulated in vivo cervical spine motion, regardless of the rater. The technique has been further used in in vivo assessment of cervical spine kinematics in one patient to confirm the efficacy of the developed technique. PMID:8130401

  9. Impact responses of the cervical spine: A computational study of the effects of muscle activity, torso constraint, and pre-flexion.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Roger W; Sganga, Jake; Cutcliffe, Hattie; Bass, Cameron R 'Dale'

    2016-02-29

    Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models, which are predicated on a better understanding of the neck response during dynamic loading. Previous studies have shown that the tolerance of the neck is dependent on its initial position and its buckling behavior. This study uses a computational model to examine three important factors hypothesized to influence the loads experienced by vertebrae in the neck under compressive impact: muscle activation, torso constraints, and pre-flexion angle of the cervical spine. Since cadaver testing is not practical for large scale parametric analyses, these factors were studied using a previously validated computational model. On average, simulations with active muscles had 32% larger compressive forces and 25% larger shear forces-well in excess of what was expected from the muscle forces alone. In the short period of time required for neck injury, constraints on torso motion increased the average neck compression by less than 250N. The pre-flexion hypothesis was tested by examining pre-flexion angles from neutral (0) to 64. Increases in pre-flexion resulted in the largest increases in peak loads and the expression of higher-order buckling modes. Peak force and buckling modality were both very sensitive to pre-flexion angle. These results validate the relevance of prior cadaver models for neck injury and help explain the wide variety of cervical spine fractures that can result from ostensibly similar compressive loadings. They also give insight into the mechanistic differences between burst fractures and lower cervical spine dislocations. PMID:26874970

  10. Influence of neck pain on cervical movement in the sagittal plane during smartphone use

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Man-Sig

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Smartphone use reportedly changes posture. However, how neck posture is altered in smartphone users with neck pain is unknown. This study examined changes in the posture of young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) when using a smartphone. [Subjects] Thirteen control subjects and 14 subjects with MNP who used smartphones were recruited. [Methods] The upper cervical (UC) and lower cervical (LC) angles in the sagittal plane were measured using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system while the seated subjects used a smartphone for 5 min. [Results] During smartphone use, the MNP group exhibited greater UC and LC flexion angles than the control group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP are more careful and more frequently utilize a neutral neck posture than young adults without MNP when using a smartphone while sitting. PMID:25642027

  11. The Effect of Power Nordic Walking on Spine Deformation and Visual Analog Pain Scale in Elderly Women with Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoo-Sung; Lee, Sung-No; Sung, Dong-Hun; Choi, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Tae Dong; Park, Gi Duck

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether Nordic walking exercise can relieve low back pain and change the spine shape in elderly women. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly women with chronic low back pain from N University in Chungcheong-do, South Korea, were enrolled. [Methods] The participants were asked to walk in an upright posture, with the head upright and looking forward. The Nordic poles were held close to the body. When a foot was moved forward, the arm on the other side lifted the Nordic pole and moved it forward. The participants were using the Nordic pole when walked on the track with their arms lifted above their shoulders. The type of shoes worn during walking was not considered. [Results] One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the presence of significant differences between the measures of spine deformation and VAS. [Conclusion] Chronic low back pain, a complaint often received from elderly women, was reduced by pole-induced power walking reduction on the balance of the spine and back of this important exercise program is presented as a guideline. PMID:25435707

  12. The effect of power nordic walking on spine deformation and visual analog pain scale in elderly women with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoo-Sung; Lee, Sung-No; Sung, Dong-Hun; Choi, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Tae Dong; Park, Gi Duck

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether Nordic walking exercise can relieve low back pain and change the spine shape in elderly women. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly women with chronic low back pain from N University in Chungcheong-do, South Korea, were enrolled. [Methods] The participants were asked to walk in an upright posture, with the head upright and looking forward. The Nordic poles were held close to the body. When a foot was moved forward, the arm on the other side lifted the Nordic pole and moved it forward. The participants were using the Nordic pole when walked on the track with their arms lifted above their shoulders. The type of shoes worn during walking was not considered. [Results] One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the presence of significant differences between the measures of spine deformation and VAS. [Conclusion] Chronic low back pain, a complaint often received from elderly women, was reduced by pole-induced power walking reduction on the balance of the spine and back of this important exercise program is presented as a guideline. PMID:25435707

  13. Airway Management with Cervical Spine Immobilisation: A Comparison between the Macintosh Laryngoscope, Truview Evo2, and Totaltrack VLM Used by Novices—A Manikin Study

    PubMed Central

    Gaszyński, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Airway management in patients with suspected cervical spine injury plays an important role in the pathway of care of trauma patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate three different airway devices during intubation of a patient with reduced cervical spine mobility. Forty students of the third year of emergency medicine studies participated in the study (F = 26, M = 14). The time required to obtain a view of the entry to the larynx and successful ventilation time were recorded. Cormack-Lehane laryngoscopic view and damage to the incisors were also assessed. All three airway devices were used by each student (a novice) and they were randomly chosen. The mean time required to obtain the entry-to-the-larynx view was the shortest for the Macintosh laryngoscope 13.4 s (±2.14). Truview Evo2 had the shortest successful ventilation time 35.7 s (±9.27). The best view of the entry to the larynx was obtained by the Totaltrack VLM device. The Truview Evo2 and Totaltrack VLM may be an alternative to the classic Macintosh laryngoscope for intubation of trauma patients with suspected injury to the cervical spine. The use of new devices enables achieving better laryngoscopic view as well as minimising incisor damage during intubation.

  14. Impact on image quality when a variety of x-ray source detector distances are considered for the arthritic cervical spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Maria; Brennan, Patrick C.; Rainford, Louise A.; Last, Jason; Ryan, John T.

    2008-03-01

    The unavoidable distance between the cervical spine and the image receptor presents measurable levels of geometric unsharpness, which hinders arthritic scoring. The current work explores the impact on the visualisation of important arthritic indicators by increasing the distance between the X-ray source and image detector (SID) from the commonly employed 150cm. Lateral cervical spine images were acquired of an osteoarthritic human cadaver using a DR imaging system. All exposures were taken at 65kVp using automatic exposure control and various SID distances from 150 to 210cm. Four experienced clinicians assessed the images by means of visual grading analysis, using objective criteria based on normal anatomic features and arthritic indicators. A statistically significant improvement in image quality was observed with images acquired at 210cm compared with those acquired at 150cm and 180cm (p<0.05), with values of 56.0 (SE=1.105), 50.85 (SE=1.415) and 65.35 (SE=0.737) respectively. All images with a SID of 210cm scored higher for visually sharp reproduction of the spinous processes, facet joints, intervertebral disc spaces and trabecular bone pattern compared with both 180cm and 150cm. Results indicate that total image quality and visualisation of specific anatomical features is improved in cervical spine radiographs when traditionally employed SID distances are increased.

  15. Effect of Preoperative Nerve Block on Postthyroidectomy Headache and Cervical Pain: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Sunil Malla Bujar; Kishore, Kamal; Mishra, Saroj Kanta; Agarwal, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amit; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of greater occipital nerve (GON) block and bilateral superficial cervical plexuses (BSCP) blocks in alleviating postoperative occipital headache and posterior neck pain after thyroidectomy. This randomized prospective study consisted of 75 women undergoing total thyroidectomy. Patients were randomized into three groups: Group I (n = 25): patients receiving GON, Group II (n = 25): patients receiving bilateral (BSCP) blocks, and Group III (n = 25): patients receiving no block. Assessment of occipital headache, posterior neck, and incision site pains was made at 12 hours and 24 hours after extubation by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). In comparison to Group III significantly fewer patients in Groups I and II experienced occipital headache at 12 (p = 0.006) and 24 hours (p = 0.005) and also posterior neck pain at 24 hours (p = 0.003). Mean VAS scores at 12 and 24 hours for occipital headache (p = 0.003 and p = 0.041) and posterior neck pain (p = 0.015 and p = 0.008) were significantly lower in Group I. The differences between Groups II and III were not significant except for the occipital headache at 12 hours. The efficacy of GON block is superior to BSCP blocks in alleviating postthyroidectomy occipital headache and posterior cervical pain.

  16. Odontoid process metastasis of bronchial carcinoma as a rare cause for nonmechanical neck pain: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Christina Carolin; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Schofer, Markus Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Introduction About 10% of spinal metastases are found in the cervical level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for early detection of spinal metastases. The decision whether cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging is requested or not must be made clinically, taking into consideration the patients' detailed pain history. Case presentation The case of an 85-year-old patient with a long history of neck pain caused by known multi-level cervical spine degeneration is presented. As conservative treatment became ineffective, he was sent for surgery. Pain character had changed from mechanical to nonmechanical. Therefore, new cervical Magnetic resonance imaging was requested, showing unexpected odontoid process osteolysis. Unknown lung cancer with adrenal and pancreatic metastases was revealed by further investigations. Conclusion Detailed pain characterization can already indicate the correct diagnosis. In case of new onset cervical neck pain, magnetic resonance imaging should be performed soon, if pain is characterized as nonmechanical. PMID:19830057

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Thrombosis Secondary to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection with Symptom Onset Following Cervical Spine Manipulation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Ronni; Dalby, Rikke Beese; Hjort, Niels; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Karabegovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Vertebral artery (VA) dissection (VAD) has been described following neck injury and can be associated with stroke, but the causal association with cervical spine manipulation therapy (cSMT) is controversial. The standard treatment for VAD is antithrombotic medical therapy. To highlight the considerations of an endovascular approach to VAD, we present a critical case of bilateral VAD causing embolic occlusion of the basilar artery (BA) in a patient with symptom debut following cSMT. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old woman presented with acute onset of neurological symptoms immediately following cSMT in a chiropractic facility. Acute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ischemic lesions in the right cerebellar hemisphere and occlusion of the cranial part of the BA. Angiography depicted bilateral VAD. Symptoms remitted after endovascular therapy, which included dilatation of the left VA and extraction of thrombus from the BA. After 6 months, the patient had minor sensory and cognitive deficits. CONCLUSIONS In severe cases, VAD may be complicated by BA thrombosis, and this case highlights the importance of a fast diagnostic approach and advanced intravascular procedure to obtain good long-term neurological outcome. Furthermore, this case underlines the need to suspect VAD in patients presenting with neurological symptoms following cSMT. PMID:26647210

  18. Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine: technical and clinical observations

    SciTech Connect

    Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Boumphrey, F.; Starnes, D.; Duchesneau, P.M.

    1983-12-01

    Seventy-two patients were examined to determine the clinical potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine. MRI using different pulse sequences was compared with plain radiography, high-resolution computed tomography, and myelography. There were 35 normal patients; pathologic conditions studied included canal stenosis, herniated disk, metastatic tumor, neurofibroma, trauma, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, arteriovenous malformation, and rheumatoid arthritis. MRI provided sharply defined anatomic delineation and tissue characterization. It was diagnostic in syringomyelia and Chiari malformation and was useful in the evaluation of trauma and spinal canal block from any cause. MRI was sensitive to degenerative disk disease and infection. The spin-echo technique, with three pulse sequence variations, seems very promising. A short echo time (TE) produces the best signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Lengthening the TE enhances differentiation of various tissues by their signal intensity, whil the combined increase of TE and recovery time (TR) produces selective enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity.

  20. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:26957772

  1. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:26957772

  2. Effect of intermittent, supine cervical traction on the myoelectric activity of the upper trapezius muscle in subjects with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Jette, D U; Falkel, J E; Trombly, C

    1985-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the myoelectric activity of the upper trapezius muscle before, during, and after intermittent, supine cervical traction. Twelve people with diagnosed disease or injury of the cervical spine served as subjects. Electromyographic recordings were taken from the upper trapezius muscle with bipolar surface electrodes. The subjects were treated with 20 minutes of intermittent, cervical traction at a force of 8% of their body weight. Recordings were taken with the subjects in the supine position before the traction, during one pull and release phase of the 10th and 20th minutes of traction, and after completion of the traction treatment. An analysis of variance with repeated measures showed no significant differences in the myoelectrical activity during the six time periods measured. The results of this study do not support the clinical use of intermittent, supine traction to produce cervical muscle relaxation. PMID:4023062

  3. Development and Validation of a Statistical Shape Modeling-Based Finite Element Model of the Cervical Spine Under Low-Level Multiple Direction Loading Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bredbenner, Todd L.; Eliason, Travis D.; Francis, W. Loren; McFarland, John M.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3–T1) computed tomography data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft-tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, SSM methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps toward describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures. PMID:25506051

  4. Just a drop of cement: a case of cervical spine bone aneurysmal cyst successfully treated by percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate cement.

    PubMed

    Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Riouallon, Guillaume; Cormier, Evelyne; Bonaccorsi, Raphael; Pascal-Mousselard, Hugues; Chiras, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign hemorrhagic tumor, commonly revealed by local pain. The best treatment for this lesion is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with chronic neck pain revealing an ABC of the third cervical vertebra. After percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement, the patient experienced significant clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:25526916

  5. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization group (n=20). [Methods] Each group underwent MBPMA or mobilization three times a week for four weeks. The effects of MBPMA and mobilization on cervical lordosis, FHP, and cervical ROM were analyzed by radiography. [Results] MBPMA was effective in increasing the cervical lordosis, cervical extension ROM (CER), and ranges of flexion and extension motion (RFEM) and in decreasing FHP. Mobilization was effective in increasing CER and decreasing FHP. [Conclusion] MBPMA can be utilized as an effective method for decreasing FHP and improving cervical lordosis and cervical ROM. PMID:26157273

  6. Multiplanar CT of the spine

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

  7. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (?50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 3739 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  8. [Cervical fractures in autopsy records].

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafa?; Wilmanowska, Anita; Gos, Tomasz; Smoczy?ski, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the autopsy records of 1872 cases of death because of politrauma, gunshot wounds and suicidal hanging. The analysis included causes and frequency of cervical spine fractures, their most common localisation, architecture of bone destruction and their influence on cervical cord. The most common cause of cervical spine injury was motor vehicle accidents. We examined 82 specimens with traumatic fractures of cervical spine obtained from accident victims. About half of the injuries occurred in upper cervical spine. The most common fracture localisation was C2 with dens fracture as the most frequent injury. The most common spinal cord lesion was complete rupture mainly at the upper cervical spine level. PMID:14564791

  9. Anterior Microsurgical Approach to Ventral Lower Cervical Spine Meningiomas: Indications, Surgical Technique and Long Term Outcome.

    PubMed

    Fraioli, Mario F; Marciani, Maria G; Umana, Giuseppe E; Fraioli, Bernardo

    2015-08-01

    Ventral lower cervical spinal meningiomas with posterior displacement of the spinal cord are rare and anterior approach has been rarely reported in the literature. The authors present their experience about eight patients operated through anterior microsurgical approach. Exposure of meningiomas was achieved through one or two corpectomies, according to meningioma extension. Tumour removal was performed thanks to the aid of a dedicated ultrasonic aspirator, and intraoperative evoked potentials were employed. Particular care was taken with the materials adopted for reconstruction of the anterior dural plane, to avoid postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak. Vertebral fusion and stabilization were achieved by tantalum cage or titanium graft in case of one or two corpectomies respectively; anterior titanium plate fixed with screws was applied in all patients. Extent of tumour removal was related to the presence of a conserved arachnoidal plane between the tumour and the spinal cord: total removal was achieved in 2 patients, while gross total removal in the other six ones. Postoperative neurological outcome, which was favourable in all patients, was related mostly to preoperative neurologic status. No recurrence after total removal and no remnant growth after gross total removal occurred during an average follow-up period of 6, 7 years. PMID:26269613

  10. Pneumocephalus leading to the diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid leak and esophageal perforation after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Boone, Christine E; Pendleton, James; Elder, Benjamin D; Wei, Zhikui; Hsu, Wesley; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F

    2016-04-01

    Pneumocephalus is a collection of air within in the intracranial cavity, most commonly seen following traumatic injury or cranial surgeries. Esophageal injury and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak are rare complications that may occur following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We present a novel case of pneumocephalus arising from unrestricted leakage of CSF via coincident esophageal injury and durotomy in a patient who underwent an ACDF after trauma. A 21-year-old man presented to an outside hospital with C5/C6 subluxation, complete spinal cord injury, and quadriplegia from a motor vehicle accident. He underwent an ACDF, during which a CSF leak was observed. He was then transferred to our institution for rehabilitation and tracheostomy placement 1week after the ACDF surgery. Following the tracheostomy, the patient developed intractable fevers and nonspecific symptoms. A CT scan demonstrated frontal pneumocephalus without mass effect. Air was found in the retropharyngeal space. There were no accumulations of CSF in the neck. Extravasation of contrast around instrumentation at C5/C6 on a cine esophagogram demonstrated an esophageal perforation at that level. Pneumocephalus may form when large volumes of CSF escape from the intracranial space and air is drawn into the space by the negative pressure. In this unusual case, the esophageal perforation promoted the formation of the pneumocephalus. Treatment included closure of both defects, disrupting the suspected communication between the intracranial space and the esophagus. PMID:26778810

  11. Solitary Cervical Neurenteric Cyst in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Doo Yong; Lee, Ho Jin; Shin, Myung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Spinal neurenteric cysts are uncommon congenital lesions, furthermore solitary neurenteric cysts of the upper cervical spine are very rare. A 15-year-old boy having an intraspinal neurenteric cyst located at cervical spine presented with symptoms of neck pain and both shoulders pain for 2 months. Cervical spine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated an intradural extramedullary cystic mass at the C1-3 level without enhancement after gadolinium injection. There was no associated malformation on the MR imaging, computed tomography, and radiography. Hemilaminectomy at the C1-3 levels was performed and the lesion was completely removed through a posterior approach. Histological examination showed the cystic wall lined with ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium containing mucinous contents. Neurenteric cyst should be considered in the diagnosis of spinal solitary cystic mass. PMID:25733997

  12. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  13. Assessing Incidence and Risk Factors of Cervical Spine Injury in Blunt Trauma Patients Using the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Wolfe, Luke; Tinkoff, Glenn; Duane, Therese M

    2015-09-01

    Despite the potentially devastating impact of missed cervical spine injuries (CI), there continues to be a large disparity in how institutions attempt to make the diagnosis. To better streamline the approach among institutions, understanding incidence and risk factors across the country is paramount. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of CI using the National Trauma Databank for 2008 and 2009. We performed a retrospective review of the National Trauma Databank for 2008 and 2009 comparing patients with and without CI. We then performed subset analysis separating injury by patients with and without fracture and ligamentous injury. There were a total of 591,138 patients included with a 6.2 per cent incidence of CI. Regression found that age, Injury Severity Score, alcohol intoxication, and specific mechanisms of motor vehicle crash (MVC), motorcycle crash (MCC), fall, pedestrian stuck, and bicycle were independent risk factors for overall injury (P < 0.0001). Patients with CI had longer intensive care unit (8.5 12.5 vs 5.1 7.7) and hospital lengths of stay (days) (9.6 14.2 vs 5.3 8.1) and higher mortality (1.2 per cent vs 0.3%), compared with those without injury (P < 0.0001). There were 33,276 patient with only fractures for an incidence of 5.6 per cent and 1875 patients with ligamentous injury. Just over 6 per cent of patients suffer some form of CI after blunt trauma with the majority being fractures. Higher Injury Severity Score and MVC were consistent risk factors in both groups. This information will assist in devising an algorithm for clearance that can be used nationally allowing for more consistency among trauma providers. PMID:26350665

  14. Incidence and Predictive Factors of Pain Flare After Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Secondary Analysis of Phase 1/2 Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Hubert Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Wang, Xin S.; Chang, Eric L.; Rhines, Laurence D.; Tatsui, Claudio E.; Amini, Behrang; Wang, Xin A.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Brown, Paul D.; Ghia, Amol J.

    2014-11-15

    Purpose/Objective(s): To perform a secondary analysis of institutional prospective spine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) trials to investigate posttreatment acute pain flare. Methods and Materials: Medical records for enrolled patients were reviewed. Study protocol included baseline and follow-up surveys with pain assessment by Brief Pain Inventory and documentation of pain medications. Patients were considered evaluable for pain flare if clinical note or follow-up survey was completed within 2 weeks of SBRT. Pain flare was defined as a clinical note indicating increased pain at the treated site or survey showing a 2-point increase in worst pain score, a 25% increase in analgesic intake, or the initiation of steroids. Binary logistic regression was used to determine predictive factors for pain flare occurrence. Results: Of the 210 enrolled patients, 195 (93%) were evaluable for pain flare, including 172 (88%) clinically, 135 (69%) by survey, and 112 (57%) by both methods. Of evaluable patients, 61 (31%) had undergone prior surgery, 57 (29%) had received prior radiation, and 34 (17%) took steroids during treatment, mostly for prior conditions. Pain flare was observed in 44 patients (23%). Median time to pain flare was 5 days (range, 0-20 days) after the start of treatment. On multivariate analysis, the only independent factor associated with pain flare was the number of treatment fractions (odds ratio = 0.66, P=.004). Age, sex, performance status, spine location, number of treated vertebrae, prior radiation, prior surgery, primary tumor histology, baseline pain score, and steroid use were not significant. Conclusions: Acute pain flare after spine SBRT is a relatively common event, for which patients should be counseled. Additional study is needed to determine whether prophylactic or symptomatic intervention is preferred.

  15. The effect of thoracic spine mobilization and stabilization exercise on the muscular strength and flexibility of the trunk of chronic low back pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Seong-Rae; Kim, Kyung; Park, Sun-Ja; Kim, Kyung

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate whether thoracic spine mobilization added to stabilization exercises increases the muscular strength and range of motion of the thoracic vertebrae of chronic low-back pain patients. [Subjects] This study enrolled 20 patients with chronic low back pain, who were divided into two groups. Ten subjects were randomly selected for the stabilization exercise group and the remaining 10 subjects received thoracic spine mobilization in addition to performing the stabilization exercises. [Methods] The patients performed stabilization exercises and received thoracic spine mobilization for 12 weeks. The range of motion and isometric muscular strength of the vertebrae of all subjects were measured before and after the intervention. [Results] In the comparison of muscular strength before and after the intervention, the change in muscular strength of the trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 16.0±7.4 Nm, and that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 34.2±7.6 Nm, a significant difference in each group. In the post-intervention intergroup comparison, the muscular strength of trunk flexors in the stabilization exercise group was 111.1±16.9 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 125.9±11.3 Nm, a significant difference. Also, the muscular strength of the trunk extensors in the stabilization exercise group was 148.9±31.8 Nm, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 182.9±37.2 Nm, a significant difference. The thoracic spine flexion in the stabilization exercise group was 29.8±9 degrees, while that of the thoracic spine mobilization group was 38.7±6.9 degrees, a significant difference. However, there was no significant difference in lumbar flexion values between the two groups. [Conclusion] Thoracic spine mobilization added to a stabilization exercise increased the muscular strength of patients with chronic low back pain. PMID:26834367

  16. Immediate effects of lower cervical spine manipulation on handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy of asymptomatic basketball players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Kelley M.; Ward, John; Coats, Jesse; Nobert, Jeannique; Amonette, William; Dyess, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to collect preliminary information for a study to determine the immediate effects of a single unilateral chiropractic manipulation to the lower cervical spine on handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy in asymptomatic male recreational basketball players. Methods For this study, 24 asymptomatic male recreational right-handed basketball players (age = 26.3 9.2 years, height = 1.81 0.07 m, body mass = 82.6 10.4 kg [mean SD]) underwent baseline dominant handgrip isometric strength and free-throw accuracy testing in an indoor basketball court. They were then equally randomized to receive either (1) diversified left lower cervical spine chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) at C5/C6 or (2) placebo CMT at C5/C6 using an Activator adjusting instrument on zero force setting. Participants then underwent posttesting of isometric handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy. A paired-samples t test was used to make within-group pre to post comparisons and between-group pre to post comparisons. Results No statistically significant difference was shown between either of the 2 basketball performance variables measured in either group. Isometric handgrip strength marginally improved by 0.7 kg (mean) in the CMT group (P = .710). Free-throw accuracy increased by 13.2% in the CMT group (P = .058). The placebo CMT group performed the same or more poorly during their second test session. Conclusions The results of this preliminary study showed that a single lower cervical spine manipulation did not significantly impact basketball performance for this group of healthy asymptomatic participants. A slight increase in free-throw percentage was seen, which deserves further investigation. This pilot study demonstrates that a larger study to evaluate if CMT affects handgrip strength and free-throw accuracy is feasible. PMID:24396315

  17. SU-E-I-51: Use of Blade Sequences in Cervical Spine MR Imaging for Eliminating Motion, Truncation and Flow Artifacts

    SciTech Connect

    Mavroidis, P; Lavdas, E; Kostopoulos, S; Ninos, C; Strikou, A; Glotsos, D; Vlachopoulou, A; Oikonomou, G; Economopoulos, N; Roka, V; Sakkas, G; Tsagkalis, A; Batsikas, G; Statkahis, S; Papanikolaou, N

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of the BLADE technique to eliminate motion, truncation, flow and other artifacts in Cervical Spine MRI compared to the conventional technique. To study the ability of the examined sequences to reduce the indetention and wrap artifacts, which have been reported in BLADE sagittal sequences. Methods: Forty consecutive subjects, who had been routinely scanned for cervical spine examination using four different image acquisition techniques, were analyzed. More specifically, the following pairs of sequences were compared: a) T2 TSE SAG vs. T2 TSE SAG BLADE and b) T2 TIRM SAG vs. T2 TIRM SAG BLADE. A quantitative analysis was performed using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and relative contrast (ReCon) measures. A qualitative analysis was also performed by two radiologists, who graded seven image characteristics on a 5-point scale (0:non-visualization; 1:poor; 2:average; 3:good; 4:excellent). The observers also evaluated the presence of image artifacts (motion, truncation, flow, indentation). Results: Based on the findings of the quantitative analysis, the ReCON values of the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid)/SC (spinal cord) between TIRM SAG and TIRM SAG BLADE were found to present statistical significant differences (p<0.001). Regarding motion and truncation artifacts, the T2 TSE SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TSE SAG and the T2 TIRM SAG BLADE was superior compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Regarding flow artifacts, T2 TIRM SAG BLADE eliminated more artifacts compared to the T2 TIRM SAG. Conclusion: The use of BLADE sequences in cervical spine MR examinations appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and trancation artifacts. Furthermore, BLADE sequences are proposed to be used in the standard examination protocols based on the fact that a significantly improved image quality could be achieved.

  18. Comparison of Four Airway Devices on Cervical Spine Alignment in Cadaver Models of Global Ligamentous Instability at C1-2

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Adam L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of advanced airway management on cervical spine alignment in patients with upper cervical spine instability are uncertain. Methods To examine the potential for mechanical disruption during endotracheal intubation in cadavers with unstable cervical spines, we performed a prospective observational cohort study with three cadaver subjects. We created an unstable, type II odontoid fracture with global ligamentous instability at C1-2 in lightly embalmed cadavers, followed by repetitive intubations with four different airway devices (Airtraq laryngoscope, Lightwand, intubating LMA, and Macintosh laryngoscope) while manual in-line stabilization was applied. Motion analysis data were collected using an electromagnetic device to assess the degree of angular movement in three axes (flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending) during the intubation trials with each device. Intubation was performed by either an emergency medical technician or attending anesthesiologist. Results Overall, 153 intubations were recorded with the four devices. The Lightwand technique resulted in significantly less flexion extension and axial rotation at C1-2 than with the intubating LMA (mean difference in flexion-extension 3.2 degrees [95% CI 0.9 to 5.5], p=0.003; mean difference in axial rotation 1.6 degrees [95% CI 0.3 to 2.8], p=0.01 and Macintosh laryngoscope (mean difference in flexion extension 3.1 degrees [95% CI 0.8 to5.4], p=0.005; mean difference in axial rotation 1.4 degrees [95% CI 0.1 to 2.6], p=0.03. Conclusions In cadavers with instability at C1-2, the Lightwand technique produced less motion than the Macintosh and intubating LMA. PMID:23354337

  19. Tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A comparison of McGrath video laryngoscope and Truview EVO2 laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    Bhola, Ruchi; Bhalla, Swaran; Gupta, Radha; Singh, Ishwar; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Literature suggests that glottic view is better when using McGrath Video laryngoscope and Truview in comparison with McIntosh blade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of McGrath Video laryngoscope in comparison with Truview laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in patients with simulated cervical spine injury using manual in-line stabilisation. Methods: This prospective randomised study was undertaken in operation theatre of a tertiary referral centre after approval from the Institutional Review Board. A total of 100 consenting patients presenting for elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to undergo intubation using McGrath Video laryngoscope (n = 50) or Truview (n = 50) laryngoscope. In all patients, we applied manual-in-line stabilisation of the cervical spine throughout the airway management. Statistical testing was conducted with the statistical package for the social science system version SPSS 17.0. Demographic data, airway assessment and haemodynamics were compared using the Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The time to successful intubation was less with McGrath video laryngoscope when compared to Truview (30.02 s vs. 38.72 s). However, there was no significant difference between laryngoscopic views obtained in both groups. The number of second intubation attempts required and incidence of complications were negligible with both devices. Success rate of intubation with both devices was 100%. Intubation with McGrath Video laryngoscope caused lesser alterations in haemodynamics. Conclusions: Both laryngoscopes are reliable in case of simulated cervical spine injury using manual-in-line stabilisation with 100% success rate and good glottic view. PMID:25024468

  20. Botulinum toxin type A combined with cervical spine manual therapy for masseteric hypertrophy in a patient with Alzheimer-type dementia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Villafañe, Jorge H.; Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; Pillastrini, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to present the findings of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and cervical spine manual therapy to address masseter muscle spasticity in a patient with Alzheimer-type dementia. Case Report A 78-year-old woman with bilateral spasticity of the masseteric regions for 2 years was referred for physiotherapy. She had trismus and bruxism, and could neither close nor open her mouth normally; thus, she was unable to be fed orally in a normal manner. Intervention and Outcome The patient underwent combined treatment with BoNT-A and cervical spine manual therapy. A medical physician (neurologist) performed the BoNT-A injections into 2 points at the center of the lower third of the masseter muscle. A physical therapist performed manual therapy interventions targeted at the cervical spine. Manual therapy started the day after the BoNT-A injection and continued for 5 sessions per week for a total period of 2 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured including spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), functionality (Barthel Index), and jaw opening. Outcomes were conducted at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment, and at 2-month follow-up session after finishing the treatment. The patient improved in all of the outcomes at the end of treatment, and these results were maintained during the follow-up. After treatment, the patient was able to feed with minimal caregiver dependency because oral feeding was possible. Conclusion The patient in this study responded positively to a combination of BoNT-A and manual therapy, resulting in decreased masseter muscles spasticity and improved trismus and bruxism. PMID:23843761

  1. Cine phase-contrast MRI measurement of CSF flow in the cervical spine: a pilot study in patients with spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negahdar, MJ; Shakeri, M.; McDowell, E.; Wells, J.; Vitaz, T.; Harkema, S.; Amini, A.

    2011-03-01

    MRI velocimetry (also known as phase-contrast MRI) is a powerful tool for quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in various regions of the brain and craniospinal junction and has been accepted as a diagnostic tool to assist with the diagnosis of certain conditions such as hydrocephalus and chiari malformations. Cerebrospinal fluid is continually produced in the ventricles of the brain, flows through the ventricular system and then out and around the brain and spinal cord and is reabsorbed over the convexity of the brain. Any disease process which either impedes the normal pattern of flow or restricts the area where flow occurs can change the pattern of these waveforms with the direction and velocity of flow being determined by the pressure transmitted from the pulsation of the heart and circulation of blood within the central nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that phase-contrast MRI could eventually be used as a diagnostic aid in determining the degree of spinal cord compression following injury to the cervical or thoracic spine. In this study, we examined CSF flow in 3 normal subjects and 2 subjects with non-acute injuries in the cervical spine using Cine phasecontrast MRI. CSF flow analysis was performed using an in-house developed software. The flow waveform was calculated in both normal subjects (n=3) as well as subjects with spinal cord injury in the cervical spine (n=2). The bulk flow at C2 was measured to be 0.30 +/- 0.05 cc, at 5 cm distal to C2, it was 0.19+/- 0.07 cc, and at 10 cm distal to C2, it was 0.17+/- 0.05 cc. These results were in good agreement with previously published results. In patients with spinal cord injury, at the site of injury in the cervical spine, bulk flow was found to be 0.08 +/- 0.12 cc, at 5 cm proximal to the site of injury it was found to be 0.18 +/- 0.07 cc, and at 5 cm distal to the site of injury, it was found to be 0.12 +/- 0.01 cc.

  2. Face validity of VIS-Ed: a visualization program for teaching medical students and residents the biomechanics of cervical spine trauma.

    PubMed

    Courteille, Olivier; Ho, Johnson; Fahlstedt, Madelen; Fors, Uno; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Hedman, Leif; Möller, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This RCT study aimed to investigate if VIS-Ed (Visualization through Imaging and Simulation - Education) had the potential to improve medical student education and specialist training in clinical diagnosis and treatment of trauma patients. The participants' general opinion was reported as high in both groups (lecture vs. virtual patient (VP)). Face validity of the VIS-Ed for cervical spine trauma was demonstrated and the VP group reported higher stimulation and engagement compared to the lecture group. No significant difference in the knowledge test between both groups could be observed, confirming our null hypothesis that VIS-Ed was on par with a lecture. PMID:23400137

  3. Botulinum Toxin Type A Injections for Cervical and Shoulder Girdle Myofascial Pain Using an Enriched Protocol Design

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Andrea L.; Wu, Irene I.; Ferrante, F. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional condition of muscle pain and stiffness and is classically characterized by the presence of trigger points in affected musculature. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been shown to have antinociceptive properties and elicit sustained muscle relaxation, thereby possibly affording even greater relief than traditional strategies. Our goal in this study was to determine whether direct injection of BoNT-A into painful muscle groups is effective for cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain. Methods An enriched protocol design was used wherein 114 patients with cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain underwent injection of BoNT-A to determine their response to the drug. Fifty-four responders were then enrolled in a twelve-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain scales and quality of life measures were assessed at baseline and at routine follow-up visits until completion of the study after 26 weeks. Results Injection of BoNT-A into painful muscle groups improved average visual numerical pain scores in subjects who received a second dose of BoNT-A compared to placebo (p = 0.019 (0.26, 2.78)). Subjects who received a second dose of BoNT-A had a reduced number of headaches per week (p = 0.04 (0.07, 4.55)). Brief Pain Inventory interference scores for general activity and sleep were improved (p = 0.046 (0.038, 3.7) and 0.02 (0.37, 4.33), respectively) in those who received a second dose of BoNT-A. Conclusion Botulinum toxin type A injected directly into painful muscle groups improves average pain scores and certain aspects of quality of life in patients suffering from severe cervical and shoulder girdle myofascial pain. PMID:24842179

  4. Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were pain on cervical spine, cervical pain, ruptured cervical disk, cervical disc disorder, stiffness of the neck, cervical disk, whiplash injury, cervicalgia, posterior cervical pain, neck disability, Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP), and Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD). Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patients condition. PMID:25780714

  5. [Management of patients with simple cervical distortions].

    PubMed

    Foletti, G; Regli, F

    1995-11-11

    Common distortion of the cervical spine without evidence of neurological or osteoligamentary damage is a frequent consequence of indirect head and neck trauma. The mechanism of the injury (called "whiplash", "coup de lapin", or "Schleudertrauma") does not imply direct trauma to the head or neck. In the acute phase, common distortion of the cervical spine requires treatment. Rapid management may avoid or considerably reduce the chronic pain syndrome with the characteristic chronic tension-like headache. The chronic pain and the numerous associated functional disorders are not well understood: certain factors favour central and peripheral dysfunction and others emphasize the importance of extra-trauma phenomena. In our opinion, extra-trauma phenomena would explain the invalidating nature of pain in a small number of patients. Management of these chronic patients requires a multidisciplinary approach aimed at helping the patient overcome the inconveniences of this condition. PMID:8545369

  6. Cervical and shoulder postural assessment of adolescents between 15 and 17 years old and association with upper quadrant pain

    PubMed Central

    Ruivo, Rodrigo M.; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Carita, Ana I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature that provides evidence of cervical and shoulder postural alignment of 15 to 17-year-old adolescents and that analyzes sex differences. Objectives: To characterize the postural alignment of the head and shoulder in the sagittal plane of 15 to 17-year-old Portuguese adolescents in natural erect standing and explore the relationships between three postural angles and presence of neck and shoulder pain. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two secondary schools in Portugal. 275 adolescent students (153 females and 122 males) aged 15 to 17 were evaluated. Sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were measured with photogrammetry and PAS software. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Shoulder Assessment (ASES) was used to assess shoulder pain, whereas neck pain was self-reported with a single question. Results: Mean values of sagittal head, cervical, and shoulder angles were 17.25.7, 47.45.2, and 51.48.5, respectively. 68% of the participants revealed protraction of the head, whereas 58% of them had protraction of the shoulder. The boys showed a significantly higher mean cervical angle, and adolescents with neck pain revealed lower mean cervical angle than adolescents without neck pain. 53% of the girls self-reported regular neck pain, contrasting with 19% of the boys. Conclusions: This data shows that forward head and protracted shoulder are common postural disorders in adolescents, especially in girls. Neck pain is prevalent in adolescents, especially girls, and it is associated with forward head posture. PMID:25054381

  7. A Randomized Trial of Chiropractic Manipulation and Mobilization for Patients With Neck Pain: Clinical Outcomes From the UCLA Neck-Pain Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Eric L.; Morgenstern, Hal; Harber, Philip; Kominski, Gerald F.; Yu, Fei; Adams, Alan H.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study compared the relative effectiveness of cervical spine manipulation and mobilization for neck pain. Methods. Neck-pain patients were randomized to the following conditions: manipulation with or without heat, manipulation with or without electrical muscle stimulation, mobilization with or without heat, and mobilization with or without electrical muscle stimulation. Results. Of 960 eligible patients, 336 enrolled in the study. Mean reductions in pain and disability were similar in the manipulation and mobilization groups through 6 months. Conclusions. Cervical spine manipulation and mobilization yield comparable clinical outcomes. PMID:12356613

  8. Geriatric Trauma Patients With Cervical Spine Fractures due to Ground Level Fall: Five Years Experience in a Level One Trauma Center

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Coppola, Marco; Robinson, Richard D.; Scribner, James T.; Vithalani, Veer; de Moor, Carrie E.; Gandhi, Raj R.; Burton, Mandy; Delaney, Kathleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been found that significantly different clinical outcomes occur in trauma patients with different mechanisms of injury. Ground level falls (GLF) are usually considered minor trauma with less injury occurred in general. However, it is not uncommon that geriatric trauma patients sustain cervical spine (C-spine) fractures with other associated injuries due to GLF or less. The aim of this study is to determine the injury patterns and the roles of clinical risk factors in these geriatric trauma patients. Methods Data were reviewed from the institutional trauma registry of our local level 1 trauma center. All patients had sustained C-spine fracture(s). Basic clinical characteristics, the distribution of C-spine fracture(s), and mechanism of injury in geriatric patients (65 years or older) were compared with those less than 65 years old. Furthermore, different clinical variables including age, gender, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood alcohol level, and co-existing injuries were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression in geriatric trauma patients due to GLF and internally validated by random bootstrapping technique. Results From 2006 - 2010, a total of 12,805 trauma patients were included in trauma registry, of which 726 (5.67%) had sustained C-spine fracture(s). Among all C-spine fracture patients, 19.15% (139/726) were geriatric patients. Of these geriatric patients 27.34% (38/139) and 53.96% (75/139) had C1 and C2 fractures compared with 13.63% (80/587) and 21.98% (129/587) in young trauma patients (P < 0.001). Of geriatric trauma patients 13.67% (19/139) and 18.71% (26/139) had C6 and C7 fractures compared with 32.03% (188/587) and 41.40% (243/587) in younger ones separately (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 53.96% (75/139) geriatric patients had sustained C-spine fractures due to GLF with more upper C-spine fractures (C1 and C2). Only 3.2% of those had positive blood alcohol levels compared with 52.9% of younger patients (P < 0.001). In addition, 6.34% of geriatric patients due to GLF had intracranial pathology (ICP) which was one of the most common co-injuries with C-spine fractures. Logistic regression analysis showed the adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 (age) and 91.57 (male) in geriatric GLF patients to predict this co-injury pattern of C-spine fracture and ICP. Conclusion Geriatric patients tend to sustain more upper C-spine fractures than non-geriatric patients regardless of the mechanisms. GLF or less not only can cause isolated C-spines fracture(s) but also lead to other significant injuries with ICP as the most common one in geriatric patients. Advanced age and male are two risk factors that can predict this co-injury pattern. In addition, it seems that alcohol plays no role in the cause of GLF in geriatric trauma patients. PMID:23519239

  9. Safety Eevaluation of Free-Hand Lateral Mass Screw Fixation in the Subaxial Cervical Spine; Evaluation of 1256 Screws.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Suk; Suk, Kyung-Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Lee, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2014-11-01

    Study Design. Prospective studyObjective. To evaluate the safety of the lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation.Summary of Background Data. LMS fixation has been known to have risk of injury to vertebral artery, nerve root, or facet joints.Methods. A consecutive series of 178 patients undergoing planned LMS fixation were studied. Screw fixation was performed by free hand technique. Entry point of screws was 2mm medial from the center of the lateral mass. Planned divergent angle of the screw was 30 degrees. Bicortical fixation was tried in all cases. After the surgery, 3 dimensional CT scan of the cervical spine was performed in all patients. We checked number of screws in each level, divergent angle of the screws, and violation of foramen transversarium (FT), intervertebral foramen or facet joint by screws. Reliability test was performed.Results. Total 1256 screws were fixed with 269 at C3, 318 at C4, 331 at C5, and 338 screws at C6. Mean divergent angle of the screws were 34.7/33.1 degrees at C3, 33.9/32.1 at C4, 34.7/32.7 at C5, and 33.6/30.7 at C6. Incidence of FT violation was 0.876%. FT violation was most common at C6 (6/11 violations). Mean divergent angle in cases of FT violation was 15.0 degrees and was significantly smaller than that of safe cases. There was no injury to vertebral artery. There was no violation of intervertebral foramen. Incidence of facet violation was 1.433%. 17 facet violations were within fusion segment. Only one screw violated healthy facet. Facet violation was most common at C3 (12/18 violations).Conclusion. LMS fixation was safe stabilizing technique with very low incidence of violation of FT, intervertebral foramen, and facet. There is a possibility of FT violation if the divergent angle was small. FT violation was most common at C6. Facet violation was most common at C3. PMID:25341994

  10. Spinal alignment, mobility of the hip and thoracic spine and prevalence of low back pain in young elite cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Alricsson, Marie; Björklund, Glenn; Cronholm, Martin; Olsson, Oscar; Viklund, Peter; Svantesson, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between spinal alignment, mobility of the hips and the thoracic spine and low back pain in adolescent cross-country skiers. Cohort of 51 elite cross-country skiers from a cross-country skiing high school in Sweden participated in the study. Sagittal spinal alignment, active range of motion in flexion, extension and rotation of the thoracic spine as well as passive and active extension of the hips were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire regarding training, competition, skiing technique and occurrence of low back pain. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict pain score based on thoraco-lumbar relation, with a significant (P<0.05) regression equation of y=−0.069x+2.280 (standard error of estimate, 0.034). Participants with greater lordosis than kyphosis were more likely to suffer from low back pain than subjects without this offset. Thoracic mobility and passive or active hip extension showed no correlation with low back pain. Sagittal spinal alignment seems to be related with low back pain among young elite cross-country skiers. This study shows that range of motion of the thoracic spine and hips do not have an effect on the prevalence of low back pain in this population. PMID:26933656

  11. Influence of anthropometry on the kinematics of the cervical spine and the risk of injury in sled tests in female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dehner, Christoph; Schick, Sylvia; Arand, Markus; Elbel, Martin; Hell, Wolfram; Kramer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of anthropometric data on the kinematics of the cervical spine and the risk factors for sustaining a neck injury during rear-end collisions occurring in a sled test. A rear-end collision with a velocity change (DeltaV) of 6.3 km/h was simulated in a sled test with eight healthy female subjects. The study analysed the association of anthropometric data with the initial distance between the head and the head restraint, defined kinematic characteristics, the neck injury criterion (NIC) and the neck injury criterion minor (NICmin). The head circumference is negatively associated (r=-0.598) with the initial distance between the head and the head restraint, the maximal head extension (r=-0.687) and the maximal dorsal angular head acceleration (r=-0.633). The body weight (r=0.800), body height (r=0.949) and thorax circumference (r=0.632) are positively associated with the maximal ventral head translation. The neck length correlates positively with the NIC (r=0.826) and negatively with the NICmin (r=-0.797). Anthropometric factors influence the kinematics of the cervical spine and the risk of injury. A high risk of injury may be assumed for individuals with a small head circumference, long neck, tall body height and high body weight. PMID:18606260

  12. Mechanisms involved in extraterritorial facial pain following cervical spinal nerve injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying orofacial pain abnormalities after cervical spinal nerve injury. Nocifensive behavior, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) expression and astroglial cell activation in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal dorsal horn (C1-C2) neurons were analyzed in rats with upper cervical spinal nerve transection (CNX). Results The head withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin and head withdrawal latency to heating of the lateral facial skin were significantly lower and shorter respectively in CNX rats compared to Sham rats. These nocifensive effects were apparent within 1 day after CNX and lasted for more than 21 days. The numbers of pERK-like immunoreactive (LI) cells in superficial laminae of Vc and C1-C2 were significantly larger in CNX rats compared to Sham rats following noxious and non-noxious mechanical or thermal stimulation of the lateral facial skin at day 7 after CNX. Two peaks of pERK-LI cells were observed in Vc and C1-C2 following mechanical and heat stimulation of the lateral face. The number of pERK-LI cells in C1-C2 was intensity-dependent and increased when the mechanical and heat stimulations of the face were increased. The decrements of head withdrawal latency to heat and head withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation were reversed during intrathecal (i.t.) administration of MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor PD98059. The area of activated astroglial cells was significantly higher in CNX rats (at day 7 after CNX). The heat and mechanical nocifensive behaviors were significantly depressed and the number of pERK-LI cells in Vc and C1-C2 following noxious and non-noxious mechanical stimulation of the face was also significantly decreased following i.t. administration of the astroglial inhibitor fluoroacetate. Conclusions The present findings have demonstrated that mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia occur in the lateral facial skin after CNX and also suggest that ERK phosphorylation of Vc and C1-C2 neurons and astroglial cell activation are involved in orofacial extraterritorial pain following cervical nerve injury. PMID:21310020

  13. The Cervical Spine of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Regionalization in Their S-Shaped Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.; Wagner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Background Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. Methodology/Principal findings X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola) and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1−C14). The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14) formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. Conclusions/Significance A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3–7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further characterize morphology and the potential movements associated with it. PMID:24651767

  14. Alternative intubation techniques vs Macintosh laryngoscopy in patients with cervical spine immobilization: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Suppan, L.; Tramr, M. R.; Niquille, M.; Grosgurin, O.; Marti, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Immobilization of the cervical spine worsens tracheal intubation conditions. Various intubation devices have been tested in this setting. Their relative usefulness remains unclear. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing any intubation device with the Macintosh laryngoscope in human subjects with cervical spine immobilization. The primary outcome was the risk of tracheal intubation failure at the first attempt. Secondary outcomes were quality of glottis visualization, time until successful intubation, and risk of oropharyngeal complications. Results. Twenty-four trials (1866 patients) met inclusion criteria. With alternative intubation devices, the risk of intubation failure was lower compared with Macintosh laryngoscopy [risk ratio (RR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.350.80]. Meta-analyses could be performed for five intubation devices (Airtraq, Airwayscope, C-Mac, Glidescope, and McGrath). The Airtraq was associated with a statistically significant reduction of the risk of intubation failure at the first attempt (RR 0.14; 95% CI 0.060.33), a higher rate of CormackLehane grade 1 (RR 2.98; 95% CI 1.944.56), a reduction of time until successful intubation (weighted mean difference ?10.1 s; 95% CI ?3.2 to ?17.0), and a reduction of oropharyngeal complications (RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.060.93). Other devices were associated with improved glottis visualization but no statistically significant differences in intubation failure or time to intubation compared with conventional laryngoscopy. Conclusions. In situations where the spine is immobilized, the Airtraq device reduces the risk of intubation failure. There is a lack of evidence for the usefulness of other intubation devices. PMID:26133898

  15. Role of facet joints in spine pain and image-guided treatment: a review.

    PubMed

    Bykowski, J L; Wong, W H W

    2012-09-01

    Chronic low back and neck pain remain prevalent medical concerns, with much debate regarding the effective evaluation and treatment. Facet disease has been implicated as a source of axial nonradiating low back pain. We discuss patient evaluation, the role of imaging, current and emerging image-guided therapies for facet-related pain, and the increasing importance of outcome-related research in this arena. PMID:21940805

  16. A Case Report of Locked-in Syndrome Due to Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissection After Cervical Spine Manipulation Treated by Arterial Embolectomy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Jiang-Qiong; Yin, Bo; Fu, Fang-Wang; Shao, Sheng-Min; Lin, Yan; Dong, Qi-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Qing

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly spinal manipulative therapies for the relief of cervical spine-related conditions worldwide, but its use remains controversial. CSM may carry the potential for serious neurovascular complications, primarily due to vertebral artery dissection (VAD) and subsequent vertebrobasilar stroke. Here, we reported a rare case of locked-in syndrome (LIS) due to bilaterial VAD after CSM treated by arterial embolectomy.A 36-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with numbness and weakness of limbs after treating with CSM for neck for half an hour. Gradually, although the patient remained conscious, he could not speak but could communicate with the surrounding by blinking or moving his eyes, and turned to complete quadriplegia, complete facial and bulbar palsy, dyspnea at 4 hours after admission. He was diagnosed with LIS. Then, the patient was received cervical and brain computed tomography angiography that showed bilateral VAD. Aortocranial digital subtraction angiography showed vertebrobasilar thrombosis, blocking left vertebral artery, and stenosis of right vertebral artery. The patient was treated by using emergency arterial embolectomy and followed by antiplatelet therapy and supportive therapy in the intensive care unit and a general ward. Twenty-seven days later, the patient's physical function gradually improved and discharged but still left neurological deficit with muscle strength grade 3/5 and hyperreflexia of limbs.Our findings suggested that CSM might have potential severe side-effect like LIS due to bilaterial VAD, and arterial embolectomy is an important treatment choice. The practitioner must be aware of this complication and should give the patients informed consent to CSM, although not all stroke cases temporally related to SCM have pre-existing craniocervical artery dissection. PMID:26844510

  17. Reproducibility of cervical range of motion in patients with neck pain

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Jan Lucas; Pool, Jan JM; van Mameren, Henk; Devill, Walter JLM; Assendelft, Willem JJ; de Vet, Henrica CW; de Winter, Andrea F; Koes, Bart W; Bouter, Lex M

    2005-01-01

    Background Reproducibility measurements of the range of motion are an important prerequisite for the interpretation of study results. The aim of the study is to assess the intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility of the measurement of active Range of Motion (ROM) in patients with neck pain using the Cybex Electronic Digital Inclinometer-320 (EDI-320). Methods In an outpatient clinic in a primary care setting 32 patients with at least 2 weeks of pain and/or stiffness in the neck were randomly assessed, in a test- retest design with blinded raters using a standardized measurement protocol. Cervical flexion-extension, lateral flexion and rotation were assessed. Results Reliability expressed by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was 0.93 (lateral flexion) or higher for intra-rater reliability and 0.89 (lateral flexion) or higher for inter-rater reliability. The 95% limits of agreement for intra-rater agreement, expressing the range of the differences between two ratings were -2.5 11.1 for flexion-extension, -0.1 10.4 for lateral flexion and -5.9 13.5 for rotation. For inter-rater agreement the limits of agreement were 3.3 17.0 for flexion-extension, 0.5 17.0 for lateral flexion and -1.3 24.6 for rotation. Conclusion In general, the intra-rater reproducibility and the inter-rater reproducibility were good. We recommend to compare the reproducibility and clinical applicability of the EDI-320 inclinometer with other cervical ROM measures in symptomatic patients. PMID:16351719

  18. Surgical treatment of cervical unilateral locked facet in a 9-year-old boy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Cobanoglu, Mutlu; Enercan, Meric; Yilar, Sinan; Hamzaoglu, Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Most of the cervical spine injuries in the pediatric population are typically seen in the upper cervical region. Unilateral cervical facet dislocation (UFD) in subaxial region is a rare injury in pediatric population. In this paper, a rare case of delayed locked UFD in a 9-year-old boy with rare injury mechanism treated surgically is reported. Clinical and radiological findings were described. The patient with C6-7 UFD without neurologic deficit was underwent open reduction and internal fixation via anterior and posterior combined approaches. Significant improvement of pain and free motion in cervical spine was obtained. There was no complication during the follow up. Only three case reports presented about the lower cervical spine injury with UFD under the age of 10 were found in the literature. PMID:25788821

  19. Effect of laser acupuncture versus traditional acupuncture in neck pain of cervical spondylosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kharbotly, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Alyaa A.; Mohammed, Mouchira A.; El-Masry, Manal R.; Daoud, Eitedal M.; Hassan, Nagwa; Abdel-Wahab, Khaled G.; Helmy, Ghada; Mostafa, Taymour

    2014-02-01

    This prospective cohort study aimed to compare the efficiency of laser versus traditional acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis (CS) pain. Forty female patients were randomized into two equal groups that received 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks. Group A received needle acupuncture therapy with electrical stimulation for 20 min at standard acupoints, ear points and Ashi point on the average 3 points. Group B received low level laser therapy (LLLT) acupuncture at the same acupoints. The results demonstrated that tenderness disappeared in 65% of patients in group A and 75% of patients in group B with improved percentage of 85.5% and 89.2%. Pain on VAS related to direction of motion at 6 directions was improved in all cases where with improvement percentage 76.45% and 85.88%. Pain on VAS at rest was improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 80.41% and 84.28%. NDIQ score improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 69.78% and 73.77%. Follow up of VAS after 6 months from the last session revealed persistent improvement in 55% of patients of group A vs 80% of patients of group B. Mean serum TNF-α was decreased in 85% of patients of group A vs 95% of patients of group B where serum beta endorphins was increased in all patients. It is concluded that both modes of treatment for CS gave improvement regarding pain intensity, disability and quality of life being more evident in LLLT followed for 6 months supported with improved serum TNFα and beta endorphin.

  20. Interventional Spine Procedures for Management of Chronic Low Back PainA Primer

    PubMed Central

    Iannuccilli, Jason D.; Prince, Ethan A.; Soares, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition. Percutaneous fluoroscopic-guided interventions are safe and effective procedures for the management of chronic low back pain, which can be performed in an outpatient setting. Interventional radiologists already possess the technical skills necessary to perform these interventions effectively so that they may be incorporated into a busy outpatient practice. This article provides a basic approach to the evaluation of patients with low back pain, as well as a review of techniques used to perform the most common interventions using fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:24436553

  1. Cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiri, Rahman; Frilander, Heikki; Sainio, Markku; Karvala, Kirsi; Sovelius, Roope; Vehmas, Tapio; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2015-02-01

    To assess the associations of acceleration force indicators (aircraft type and flight hours) with cervical and lumbar pain and radiological degeneration among fighter pilots. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched until October 2013. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review and 20 in the meta-analysis. There were no differences in the prevalence of neck pain (pooled OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.33), cervical disc degeneration (OR=1.26, CI 0.81 to 1.96), low back pain (OR=0.80, CI 0.47 to 1.38) or lumbar disc degeneration (OR=0.87, CI 0.67 to 1.13) between fighter pilots and helicopter or transport/cargo pilots. Moreover, the prevalence of cervical (OR=1.14, CI 0.61 to 2.16) or lumbar (OR=1.05, CI 0.49 to 2.26) disc degeneration did not differ between fighter pilots and non-flying personnel. Most studies did not control their estimates for age and other potential confounders. Among high-performance aircraft pilots, exposure to the highest G-forces was associated with a higher prevalence of neck pain compared with exposure to lower G-forces (pooled OR=3.12, CI 2.08 to 4.67). The studies on the association between flight hours and neck pain reported inconsistent findings. Moreover, looking back over the shoulder (check six) was the most common posture associated with neck pain. Fighter pilots exposed to high G-forces may be at a greater risk for neck pain than those exposed to low G-forces. This finding should be confirmed with better control for confounding. Awkward neck posture may be an important factor in neck pain among fighter pilots. PMID:25180267

  2. Cervical dystonia and pain: characteristics and treatment patterns from CD PROBE (Cervical Dystonia Patient Registry for Observation of OnabotulinumtoxinA Efficacy).

    PubMed

    Charles, P David; Adler, Charles H; Stacy, Mark; Comella, Cynthia; Jankovic, Joseph; Manack Adams, Aubrey; Schwartz, Marc; Brin, Mitchell F

    2014-07-01

    To compare profiles of subjects with and without cervical dystonia (CD)-associated pain, to evaluate the contribution of pain and the motor component of CD on quality of life, and to compare the initial botulinum toxin treatment paradigm between pain groups, baseline data were used from the CD Patient Registry for Observation of OnabotulinumtoxinA Efficacy (CD PROBE), a multicenter, prospective, observational registry designed to capture real-world practices and outcomes for onabotulinumtoxinA CD treatment. Subjects were divided into no/mild pain [Pain Numeric Rating Scale (PNRS) score 0-3] and moderate/severe pain groups (PNRS score 4-10). Descriptive and differential statistics were utilized to compare groups. 1,037 subjects completed the first treatment session, reported baseline botulinum toxin status, and completed baseline PNRS. Those with no/mild pain were significantly older at baseline. Those subjects with moderate/severe pain had higher Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale Severity (17.75.1 vs. 16.25.6, p<0.0001) and Disability (12.76.1 vs. 7.55.6, p<0.0001). CD subjects with moderate/severe pain received a higher mean dose (177.382.9 vs. 158.067.1U, p=0.0001) of onabotulinumtoxinA and were injected in more muscles (4.11.4 vs. 3.71.2, p<0.0001) at initial treatment. CD PROBE clearly demonstrates the frequency of pain in CD and substantiates its importance when determining an optimal treatment paradigm. Future analyses of CD PROBE will further our understanding of the treatment patterns and outcomes related to onabotulinumtoxinA therapy for this disabling condition. PMID:24752807

  3. Chiropractic management of a patient with lumbar spine pain due to synovial cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cox, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to report the findings resulting from chiropractic care using flexion distraction spinal manipulation for a patient with low back and radicular pain due to spinal stenosis caused by a synovial cyst. Case Report A 75-year-old man presented with low back pain radiating to the right anterior thigh and down the left posterior leg of 3 years' duration. Physical and imaging examinations showed a synovial cystinduced spinal stenosis at the right L3-L4 level and bilateral L4-L5 spinal stenosis. Intervention and Outcomes Flexion distraction spinal manipulation and physiological therapeutics were applied at the levels of stenosis. After 4 visits, the patient noted total absence of the right and left lower extremity pain and no adverse reaction to treatment. After 3 months of treatment and 16 visits, his low back and buttock pain were minimal; and he had no leg pain. Conclusion Lumbar synovial cyst and stenosisgenerated low back and radicular pain was 80% relieved in a 75-year-old man following Cox flexion distraction spinal manipulation. PMID:22942836

  4. Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Trial Comparing Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc to Anterior Discectomy and Fusion in the Treatment of Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyun W.; Davis, Reginald; Gaede, Steven; Hoffman, Greg; Kim, Kee; Nunley, Pierce D.; Peterson, Daniel; Rashbaum, Ralph; Stokes, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating symptomatic cervical disc degeneration. Cervical total disc replacements (TDRs) have emerged as an alternative for some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new TDR device compared with ACDF for treating single-level cervical disc degeneration. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. A total of 245 patients were treated (164 TDR: 81 ACDF). The primary outcome measure was overall success based on improvement in Neck Disability Index (NDI), no subsequent surgical interventions, and no adverse events (AEs) classified as major complications. Secondary outcome measures included SF-12, visual analog scale (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, patient satisfaction, radiographic range of motion, and adjacent level degeneration. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The hypothesis was that the TDR success rate was non-inferior to ACDF at 24 months. Results Overall success rates were 73.6% for TDR and 65.3% for ACDF, confirming non-inferiority (p < 0.0025). TDR demonstrated earlier improvements with significant differences in NDI scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, and VAS neck pain and SF-12 PCS scores at 6 weeks (p<0.05). Operative level range of motion in the TDR group was maintained throughout follow-up. Radiographic evidence of inferior adjacent segment degeneration was significantly greater with ACDF at 12 and 24 months (p < 0.05). AE rates were similar. Conclusions Mobi-C TDR is a safe and effective treatment for single-level disc degeneration, producing outcomes similar to ACDF with less adjacent segment degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level I. Clinical relevance: This study adds to the literature supporting cervical TDR as a viable option to ACDF in appropriately selected patients with disc degeneration. PMID:25694918

  5. Comparison of Clinical Efficacy Between Interlaminar and Transforaminal Epidural Injection in Patients With Axial Pain due to Cervical Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Transforaminal (TF) approach is preferred by physician to interlaminar (IL) approach because it can deliver injectates directly around nerve root and dorsal root ganglion, which is regarded as main pain sources. Axial neck pain is originated from sinuvertebral nerve located in ventral epidural spaces, which has been described to be related to central or paramedian disc herniation. It is very questionable that TF injection is also more effective than IL injection in the patients with axial neck or interscapular pain. This study was to evaluate clinical efficacy of cervical epidural injection in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation and to compare the clinical outcomes between TF and IL approaches. Fifty-six and 52 patients who underwent IL and TF epidural injections, respectively, for axial neck/interscapular pain due to central or paramedian cervical disc herniation were included. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were compared between both groups at 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Successful pain relief was defined if a 50% or more reduction of NRS score was achieved in comparison with pretreatment one. Successful functional improvement was defined if at least a 40% reduction of NDI was obtained. Overall, 79 (73.1%) and 57 (52.8%) among 108 patients showed successful pain relief at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. Seventy-six (70.4%) and 52 (48.1%) had successful functional improvement at 2 and 8 weeks, respectively. The IL and TF groups showed no significant difference in proportion of successful results of NRS 2 weeks (73.2% vs 67.3%) and 8 weeks (48.2% vs 48.1%). Also, no significant difference was obtained in proportion of successful NDI between 2 groups at 2 weeks (75.0% vs 71.2%) and 8 weeks (53.6% vs 51.9%). Cervical epidural injection showed favorable results in 2 weeks and moderate results in 8 weeks in patients with axial pain due to cervical disc herniation. IL and TF showed no significant difference in clinical efficacy. Considering TF was relevant to more serious side effects, IL was more recommendable in these patients. PMID:26825899

  6. Single-stage Anterior and Posterior Fusion Surgery for Correction of Cervical Kyphotic Deformity Using Intervertebral Cages and Cervical Lateral Mass Screws: Postoperative Changes in Total Spine Sagittal Alignment in Three Cases with a Minimum Follow-up of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    OGIHARA, Satoshi; KUNOGI, Junichi

    The surgical treatment of cervical kyphotic deformity remains challenging. As a surgical method that is safer and avoids major complications, the authors present a procedure of single-stage anterior and posterior fusion to correct cervical kyphosis using anterior interbody fusion cages without plating, as illustrated by three consecutive cases. Case 1 was a 78-year-old woman who presented with a dropped head caused by degeneration of her cervical spine. Case 2 was a 54-year-old woman with athetoid cerebral palsy. She presented with cervical myelopathy and cervical kyphosis. Case 3 was a 71-year-old woman with cervical kyphotic deformity following a laminectomy. All three patients underwent anterior release and interbody fusion with cages and posterior fusion with cervical lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation. Postoperative radiographs showed that correction of kyphosis was 39 in case 1, 43 in case 2, and 39 in case 3. In all three cases, improvement of symptoms was established without major perioperative complications, solid fusion was achieved, and no loss of correction was observed at a minimum follow-up of 61 months. We also report that preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment was improved after corrective surgery for cervical kyphosis and was maintained at the latest follow-up in all three cases. The combination of anterior fusion cages and LMS is considered a safe and effective procedure in cases of severe cervical kyphotic deformity. Preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment improved, accompanied by correction of cervical kyphosis, and was maintained at last follow-up in all three cases. PMID:26119893

  7. The Nijmegen Decision Tool for Chronic Low Back Pain. Development of a Clinical Decision Tool for Secondary or Tertiary Spine Care Specialists

    PubMed Central

    van Hooff, Miranda L.; van Loon, Jan; van Limbeek, Jacques; de Kleuver, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, low back pain has the greatest burden of all diseases. When back pain persists, different medical specialists are involved and a lack of consensus exists among these specialists for medical decision-making in Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP). Objective To develop a decision tool for secondary or tertiary spine care specialists to decide which patients with CLBP should be seen by a spine surgeon or by other non-surgical medical specialists. Methods A Delphi study was performed to identify indicators predicting the outcome of interventions. In the preparatory stage evidence from international guidelines and literature were summarized. Eligible studies were reviews and longitudinal studies. Inclusion criteria: surgical or non-surgical interventions and persistence of complaints, CLBP-patients aged 18–65 years, reported baseline measures of predictive indicators, and one or more reported outcomes had to assess functional status, quality of life, pain intensity, employment status or a composite score. Subsequently, a three-round Delphi procedure, to reach consensus on candidate indicators, was performed among a multidisciplinary panel of 29 CLBP-professionals (>five years CLBP-experience). The pre-set threshold for general agreement was ≥70%. The final indicator set was used to develop a clinical decision tool. Results A draft list with 53 candidate indicators (38 with conclusive evidence and 15 with inconclusive evidence) was included for the Delphi study. Consensus was reached to include 47 indicators. A first version of the decision tool was developed, consisting of a web-based screening questionnaire and a provisional decision algorithm. Conclusions This is the first clinical decision tool based on current scientific evidence and formal multidisciplinary consensus that helps referring the patient for consultation to a spine surgeon or a non-surgical spine care specialist. We expect that this tool considerably helps in clinical decision-making spine care, thereby improving efficient use of scarce sources and the outcomes of spinal interventions. PMID:25133645

  8. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Wiktor, ?ukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of "halo-vest" system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of "halo-vest" traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656

  9. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Wiktor, ?ukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of halo-vest system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of halo-vest traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656

  10. Predominant Leg Pain Is Associated With Better Surgical Outcomes in Degenerative Spondylolisthesis and Spinal Stenosis: Results from the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Blood, Emily; Lurie, Jon; Abdu, William; Sengupta, Dilip; Frymoyer, John W.; Weinstein, James

    2010-01-01

    Study Design As-treated analysis of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT). Objective To compare baseline characteristics and surgical and nonoperative outcomes in degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients stratified by predominant pain location (i.e. leg vs. back). Summary of Background Data Evidence suggests that degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and spinal stenosis (SpS) patients with predominant leg pain may have better surgical outcomes than patients with predominant low back pain (LBP). Methods The DS cohort included 591 patients (62% underwent surgery), and the SpS cohort included 615 patients (62% underwent surgery). Patients were classified as leg pain predominant, LBP predominant or having equal pain according to baseline pain scores. Baseline characteristics were compared between the three predominant pain location groups within each diagnostic category, and changes in surgical and nonoperative outcome scores were compared through two years. Longitudinal regression models including baseline covariates were used to control for confounders. Results Among DS patients at baseline, 34% had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 40% had equal pain. Similarly, 32% of SpS patients had predominant leg pain, 26% had predominant LBP, and 42% had equal pain. DS and SpS patients with predominant leg pain had baseline scores indicative of less severe symptoms. Leg pain predominant DS and SpS patients treated surgically improved significantly more than LBP predominant patients on all primary outcome measures at one and two years. Surgical outcomes for the equal pain groups were intermediate to those of the predominant leg pain and LBP groups. The differences in nonoperative outcomes were less consistent. Conclusions Predominant leg pain patients improved significantly more with surgery than predominant LBP patients. However, predominant LBP patients still improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment. PMID:21124260

  11. The Effect of a New Neck Support Tying Method Using Thera-Band on Cervical ROM and Shoulder Muscle Pain after Overhead Work.

    PubMed

    Yoo, In-Gyu; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] This study proposed a new neck support tying (NST) method using Thera-Band for the prevention of neck and shoulder pain in workers doing overhead work. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the new NST method using Thera-Band on cervical ROM and shoulder pain after overhead work. [Subjects] Fourteen male subjects were recruited. [Methods] This study measured the cervical ROM and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the upper and middle trapezius (UT and MT) muscles after the control and NST groups had performed overhead work. [Results] The cervical flexion, extension, and lateral flexion angles of the NST group were significantly larger than those of the control group. The PPTs of UT and MT of the NST group were significantly higher than those of the control group [Conclusion] The NST prevented ROM reduction and pain in the cervical and shoulder regions. PMID:24259866

  12. Health care burden of cervical spine fractures in the United States: analysis of a nationwide database over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Baaj, Ali A; Uribe, Juan S; Nichols, Tann A; Theodore, Nicholas; Crawford, Neil R; Sonntag, Volker K H; Vale, Fernando L

    2010-07-01

    OBJECT The objective of this work was to search a national health care database of patients diagnosed with cervical spine fractures in the US to analyze discharge, demographic, and hospital charge trends over a 10-year period. METHODS Clinical data were derived from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 1997 through 2006. The NIS is maintained by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and represents a 20% random stratified sample of all discharges from nonfederal hospitals within the US. Patients with cervical spine fractures with and without spinal cord injury (SCI) were identified using the appropriate ICD-9-CM codes. The volume of discharges, length of stay (LOS), hospital charges, total national charges, discharge pattern, age, and sex were analyzed. National estimates were calculated using the HCUPnet tool. RESULTS Approximately 200,000 hospitalizations were identified. In the non-SCI group, there was a 74% increase in hospitalizations and charges between 1997 and 2006, but LOS changed minimally. There was no appreciable change in the rate of in-hospital mortality (< 3%), but discharges home with home health care and to skilled rehabilitation or nursing facilities increased slightly. In the SCI group, hospitalizations and charges increased by 29 and 38%, respectively. There were no significant changes in LOS or discharge status in this group. Spinal cord injury was associated with increases in LOS, charges, and adverse outcomes compared with fractures without SCI. Total national charges associated with both groups combined exceeded $1.3 billion US in 2006. CONCLUSIONS During the studied period, increases in hospitalizations and charges were observed in both the SCI and non-SCI groups. The percentage increase was higher in the non-SCI group. Although SCI was associated with higher adverse outcomes, there were no significant improvements in immediate discharge status in either group during the 10 years analyzed. PMID:20594019

  13. Spontaneous regression of cervical disc herniation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong Rok; Choi, Chan Young

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous regression of cervical disc herniation is a rare, and such reports are few. A 39 year-old woman complained of severe neck pain associated with tingling and numbness of right upper extremity. The MRI of the cervical spine revealed a posterior disc extrusion at the C4-C5 level in the right para-central location. The patient was treated with conservative management without any surgical treatment. The patient's symptoms were significant improvement. After two years later, we performed follow-up cervical MRI that revealed significant spontaneous regression of the C4-C5 intervertebral disc extrusion. PMID:25620984

  14. Understanding why the thoracic region is the 'Cinderella' region of thespine.

    PubMed

    Heneghan, N R; Rushton, A

    2016-02-01

    The thoracic spine has for a long time been the 'Cinderella' region of the spine. There has been a lesser research focus to the thoracic region compared with the cervical and lumbar spine, and there continues to be a limited understanding of the aetiology and epidemiology of a range of neuromusculoskeletal presentations which have an anatomical connection to the thoracic spine. This paper firstly, provides a critical evaluation of the available evidence to provide some understanding for this under-exploration of the thoracic spine. Secondly the paper provides an evaluation of an emerging interest in this spinal region, with a body of evidence supporting the use of thoracic spine manipulation in the management of upper quadrant presentations. This has been linked to the theory of regional interdependence with the thoracic spine being viewed as a silent contributor to clinical presentations where a pain source lies elsewhere. Finally, a case for further research is made. Identified gaps in the current evidence base include, aetiology and epidemiology of thoracic spine pain and thoracic spine dysfunction, and to investigate mechanisms of action of currently used interventions. PMID:26189592

  15. Use of McKenzie cervical protocol in the treatment of radicular neck pain in a machine operator

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Sundeep

    2003-01-01

    A case of mechanical neck pain with radiation into the upper extremity in a 53-year-old man is presented. The use of standard chiropractic manipulative therapy was not an option due to patient apprehension. A reduction of symptoms was reported with certain spinal movements. This made the patient a candidate for the use of spinal loading strategies as described by McKenzie. The application of McKenzie cervical therapy resulted in improved symptoms and function in this individual. The McKenzie protocol, and its use in the management of neck pain, is discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  16. Cervical spine surgery in patients with diastrophic dysplasia: Case report with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jasiewicz, Barbara; Potaczek, Tomasz; Duda, S?awomir; T?siorowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Cervical kyphosis in diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a very dangerous deformity which may lead to compression of neural structures resulting in tetraplegia or even. Treatment of this deformity is usually surgical, but no long-term follow-up studies are presented in the literature. Authors present a case of two children with DTD who underwent anterior corpectomy due to severe cervical kyphosis. The kyphotic deformity was corrected and the normal spinal canal width was restored. The effects of the correction remained stable for respectively 6 and 10 years of the follow-up period. The unique follow-up confirms that this type of intervention leads to an effective and long lasting results. Significant cervical kyphosis in patients suffering from DTD may be treated surgically using anterior approach even in young children with a favorable and lasting results. PMID:26692703

  17. Biomechanics of the flexion of spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, H. K.; Aurora, T. S.

    1991-03-01

    Low back pain is a common problem and it involves different kinds of injury to the spine. In this article the forces and torques experienced by the spine are examined in order to understand, and possibly avoid, low back pain.

  18. Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).

    PubMed

    Gmez-Olivencia, Asier; Carretero, Jos Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Rodrguez-Garca, Laura; Garca-Gonzlez, Rebeca; Martnez, Ignacio

    2007-07-01

    In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis. PMID:17467038

  19. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. Results The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Conclusion Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI. PMID:26175589

  20. THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT

    PubMed Central

    Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

  1. Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

    2013-01-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

  2. Adaptation of muscles of the lumbar spine to sudden imbalance in patients with lower back pain caused by military training

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Jian-guo; Ye, Hong; Liu, Zhi-rong; Zheng, Long-bao; Ni, Zhi-ming; Fan, Liang-quan; Wang, Jian; Hou, Zhen-hai

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to investigate the effects of sudden load changes (expected and unexpected imbalance) on the activity of muscles of the lumbar spine and their central motor control strategy in military personnel with or without chronic low back pain (LBP). Design Bilateral sudden imbalance was examined (2נ2 factorial design). Setting The 117th PLA Hospital, Hangzhou, China Participants Twenty-one male subjects with lower back pain and 21 male healthy control subjects were active members of the Nanjing Military Region land forces. Outcome measures Independent variables: LBP vs. healthy controls and imbalance anticipation (expected and unexpected imbalance). Dependent variables: rapid reaction time (RRT) and intensity of rapid reaction (IRR) of bilateral lumbar (L3L4) erector spinae (ES), lumbar (L5S1) multifidus (MF), and abdominal external oblique muscles. Results Under expected or unexpected sudden imbalance conditions, subjects with LBP demonstrated significantly greater IRR than healthy controls in ipsilateral and contralateral ES and MF, respectively (P<0.05 for all). IRR of contralateral ES was significantly larger than that of the ipsilateral ES. A significant group effect of RRT of both ipsilateral and contralateral ES muscles and a significant time expectation effect on RRT of contralateral MF muscles were also observed. RRT of the contralateral ES muscles was significantly lower than that of the ipsilateral ES muscles (P<0.001). Conclusions Sudden imbalance prolonged RRT of selected trunk muscles in patients with chronic LBP. The activation amplitude increased. The results may provide a theoretical basis for a study on the pathogenesis of chronic LBP. PMID:24621023

  3. What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

  4. EVALUATION OF TERMINAL VERTEBRAL PLATE ON CERVICAL SPINE AT DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND ITS CORRELATION WITH INTERVERTEBRAL DISC THICKNESS

    PubMed Central

    Luiz Vieira, Juliano Silveira; da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Nogueira Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Zambelli Ramalho, Leandra Náira; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate, by means of histomorphometry, terminal vertebral plate thickness, intervertebral disc thickness and its correlation on different age groups, seeking to identify its correlation. Methods: C4-C5 and C5-C6 cervical segments removed from human cadavers of both genders were assessed and divided into five groups of 10-year age intervals, from 21 years old. TVP and intervertebral disc thickness evaluation was made by means of histomorphometry of histological slides stained with hematoxylin and eosyn. Lower C4 TVP, upper C5 TVP, and upper C6 TVP de were compared between each other and to the interposed intervertebral disc thickness between relevant TVP. Results: The thickness of terminal vertebral plates adjacent to the same ID did not show statistic differences. However, the comparison of upper and lower vertebral plates thickness on the same cervical vertebra (C5), showed statistical difference on all age groups studied. We found a statistical correlation coefficient above 80% between terminal vertebral plate and adjacent intervertebral disc, with a proportional thickness reduction of both structures on the different cervical levels studied, and also on the different age groups assessed. Conclusion: Terminal vertebral plate shows a morphologic correlation with the intervertebral disc next to it, and does not show correlation with the terminal vertebral plate on the same vertebra.

  5. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine ...

  6. A comparison of two non-thrust mobilization techniques applied to the C7 segment in patients with restricted and painful cervical rotation

    PubMed Central

    Creighton, Doug; Gruca, Mark; Marsh, Douglas; Murphy, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Cervical mobilization and manipulation have been shown to improve cervical range of motion and pain. Rotatory thrust manipulation applied to the lower cervical segments is associated with controversy and the potential for eliciting adverse reactions (AR). The purpose of this clinical trial was to describe two translatory non-thrust mobilization techniques and evaluate their effect on cervical pain, motion restriction, and whether any adverse effects were reported when applied to the C7 segment. Methods: This trial included 30 participants with painful and restricted cervical rotation. Participants were randomly assigned to receive one of the two mobilization techniques. Active cervical rotation and pain intensity measurements were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Within group comparisons were determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and between group comparisons were analyzed using the Mann–Whitney U test. Significance was set at P = 0.05. Results: Thirty participants were evaluated immediately after one of the two mobilization techniques was applied. There was a statistically significant difference (improvement) for active cervical rotation after application of the C7 facet distraction technique for both right (P = 0.022) and left (P = 0.022) rotation. Statistically significant improvement was also found for the C7 facet gliding technique for both right (P = 0.022) and left rotation (P = 0.020). Pain reduction was statistically significant for both right and left rotation after application of both techniques. Both mobilization techniques produced similar positive effects and one was not statistically superior to the other. Discussion: A single application of both C7 mobilization techniques improved active cervical rotation, reduced perceived pain, and did not produce any AR in 30 patients with neck pain and movement limitation. These two non-thrust techniques may offer clinicians an additional safe and effective manual intervention for patients with limited and painful cervical rotation. A more robust experimental design is recommended to further examine these and similar cervical translatory mobilization techniques. PMID:25395829

  7. The management of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joint pain.

    PubMed

    Ogoke, B A

    2000-07-01

    Headaches secondary to atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints are often associated with suboccipital pain and aggravated by lateral rotation of the cervical spine and/or flexion or extension of the cervical spine. They are frequently under-diagnosed using traditional radiological evaluation including plain X-rays, computerized tomographic scan, and magnetic resonance imaging. While the natural history of most acute atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joint inflammation is resolution over a 2-to-4-week period with conservative management, however, when chronicity sets in, resolution is difficult to achieve using conservative measures, and interventional pain management procedures may be indicated. This review will describe the anatomy of the upper cervical spine, clinical presentation of atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joint involvement, and various modalities of treatment, including conservative and interventional modalities. PMID:16906186

  8. A Biomechanical Comparison of Three Different Posterior Fixation Constructs Used for C6C7 Cervical Spine Immobilization: A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    HONG, Jae Taek; QASIM, Muhammad; ESPINOZA ORAS, Alejandro A.; NATARAJAN, Raghu N.; AN, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The intralaminar screw construct has been recently introduced in C6C7 fixation. The aim of the study is to compare the stability afforded by three different C7 posterior fixation techniques using a three-dimensional finite element model of a C6C7 cervical spine motion segment. Finite element models representing three different cervical anchor types (C7 intralaminar screw, C7 lateral mass screw, and C7 pedicle screw) were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the three screw techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. ROM for pedicle screw construct was less than the lateral mass screw construct and intralaminar screw construct in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in all the three screw constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in pedicle screw construct was less than the lateral mass screw construct and intralaminar screw construct in all loading modes. This study demonstrated that the pedicle screw fixation is the strongest instrumentation method for C6C7 fixation. Pedicle screw fixation resulted in least stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex. However, if pedicle fixation is not favorable, the laminar screw can be a better option compared to the lateral mass screw because the stress around the pedicle-vertebral body complex and ROM predicted for laminar screw construct was smaller than those of lateral mass screw construct. PMID:24418790

  9. Cervical spondylosis. An update.

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, B M; Weinstein, P R

    1996-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is caused by degenerative disc disease and usually produces intermittent neck pain in middle-aged and elderly patients. This pain usually responds to activity modification, neck immobilization, isometric exercises, and medication. Neurologic symptoms occur infrequently, usually in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. For these patients, magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred initial diagnostic study. Because involvement of neurologic structures on imaging studies may be asymptomatic, consultation with a neurologist is advised to rule out other neurologic diseases. In most cases of spondylotic radiculopathy, the results of conservative treatment are so favorable that surgical intervention is not considered unless pain persists or unless there is progressive neurologic deficit. If indicated, a surgical procedure may be done through the anterior or posterior cervical spine; results are gratifying, with long-term improvement in 70% to 80% of patients. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is the most serious and disabling condition of this disease. Because many patients have nonprogressive minor impairment, neck immobilization is a reasonable treatment in patients presenting with minor neurologic findings or in whom an operation is contraindicated. This simple remedy will result in improvement in 30% to 50% of patients. Surgical intervention is indicated for patients presenting with severe or progressive neurologic deficits. Anterior cervical approaches are generally preferred, although there are still indications for laminectomy. Surgical results are modest, with good initial results expected in about 70% of patients. Functional outcome noticeably declines with long-term follow-up, which raises the question of whether, and how much, surgical treatment affects the natural course of the disease. Prospective randomized studies are needed to answer these questions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8855684

  10. Randomized comparative trial of cervical block protocols for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of polyps and myomas

    PubMed Central

    Lukes, Andrea S; Roy, Kelly H; Presthus, James B; Diamond, Michael P; Berman, Jay M; Konsker, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of two cervical block protocols for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine polyps and myomas using the MyoSure device. Patients and methods This was a randomized, comparative treatment trial conducted by five private Obstetrics and Gynecology practices in the USA. Forty premenopausal women aged 18 years and older were randomized to receive either a combination para/intracervical block protocol of 37 cc local anesthetic administered at six injections sites in association with the application of topic 1% lidocaine gel, or an intracervical block protocol of 22 cc local anesthetic administered at three injections sites without topical anesthetic, for pain management during hysteroscopic removal of intrauterine polyps and/or a single type 0 or type 1 submucosal myoma ?3 cm. The main outcomes were a composite measure of procedure-related pain and pain during the postoperative recovery period, assessed by the Wong-Baker Faces Rating Scale (0= no pain to 10= maximum pain). The lesion characteristics, procedure time, and adverse events were summarized. Results A total of 17 polyps and eight myomas were removed in the para/intracervical block group, with diameters of 1.30.5 cm and 1.80.8 cm, respectively. In the intracervical block group, 25 polyps with a mean diameter of 1.20.7 cm and 7 myomas with a mean diameter of 1.90.9 cm were removed. The mean tissue resection time was 1.22.0 minutes and 1.21.4 minutes for the para/intracervical and intracervical block groups, respectively. The mean composite procedure-related pain score was low for both cervical block protocols, 1.31.4 in the para/intracervical block group vs 2.11.5 in the intracervical block group. During the postoperative recovery period, the mean pain scores were 0.30.7 vs 1.21.7 for the para/intracervical and intracervical block groups, respectively. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusion The MyoSure procedure for removal of polyps and myomas was well tolerated, with low pain scores reported for both the para/intracervical and intracervical block protocols. PMID:26543383

  11. Influence of setup errors on spinal cord dose and treatment plan quality for cervical spine tumours: a phantom study for photon IMRT and heavy charged particle radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karger, Christian P.; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Didinger, Bernd H.; Debus, Jrgen; Jkel, Oliver

    2003-10-01

    Tumours partly surrounding the cervical spine may be treated by conformal radiotherapy (RT) using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) with photons or heavy charged particle RT. For both, a high setup accuracy is required to spare the radiosensitive spinal cord, if a high dose is to be delivered. A phantom study was performed to determine the variation of the dose to the spinal cord surface by predefined setup errors. The measured doses were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning programme. The influence of systematic setup errors on characteristic parameters of the treatment plan quality was quantified. The largest variation of the mean and maximum doses to the spinal cord due to setup errors was significantly larger for carbon ions than for IMRT (mean: 11.9% versus 3.9%, max: 29.2% versus 10.8% of the prescribed dose). For the comparison of measured and calculated doses, mean deviations of 3% (IMRT) and 6% (carbon ions) of the prescribed dose were obtained. These deviations have to be considered, when the spinal cord dose is assessed from the treatment plan and they may also influence the dose prescription. Carbon ions yield better values for coverage (99.9% versus 93.1%) and conformality (110% versus 126%) of the PTV as compared to IMRT, while the spinal cord is better spared. Dose distributions produced with carbon ions, however, are more sensitive to setup errors, which have to be considered during treatment.

  12. A pilot evaluation of an educational program that offers visualizations of cervical spine injuries: medical students' self-efficacy increases by training.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Leif; Fahlstedt, Madelen; Schlickum, Marcus; Mller, Hans; von Holst, Hans; Fellnder-Tsai, Li

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study, a new method for visualization through imaging and simulation (VIS-Ed) for teaching diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine trauma was formatively evaluated. The aims were to examine if medical students' self-efficacy would change by training using VIS-Ed, and if so these changes were related to how they evaluated the session, and the user interface (UI) of this program. Using a one-group, pre-post course test design 43 Swedish medical students (4th year, 17 males, 26 females) practiced in groups of three participants. Overall the practice and the UI were considered as positive experiences. They judged VIS-Ed as a good interactive scenario-based educational tool. All students' self-efficacy increased significantly by training (p?

  13. The Effect of Various Types of Motorcycle Helmets on Cervical Spine Injury in Head Injury Patients: A Multicenter Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mau-Roung; Chu, Shu-Fen; Tsai, Shin-Han; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The relationship between cervical spine injury (CSI) and helmet in head injury (HI) patients following motorcycle crashes is crucial. Controversy still exists; therefore we evaluated the effect of various types of helmets on CSI in HI patients following motorcycle crashes and researched the mechanism of this effect. Patients and Methods. A total of 5225 patients of motorcycle crashes between 2000 and 2009 were extracted from the Head Injury Registry in Taiwan. These patients were divided into case and control groups according to the presence of concomitant CSI. Helmet use and types were separately compared between the two groups and the odds ratio of CSI was obtained by using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. We observed that 173 (3.3%) of the HI patients were associated with CSI. The HI patients using a helmet (odds ratio (OR) = 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19?0.49), full-coverage helmet (0.19, 0.10?0.36), and partial-coverage helmet (0.35, 0.21?0.56) exhibited a significantly decreased rate of CSI compared with those without a helmet. Conclusion. Wearing full-coverage and partial-coverage helmets significantly reduced the risk of CSI among HI patients following motorcycle crashes. This effect may be due to the smooth surface and hard padding materials of helmet. PMID:25705663

  14. Assessment of the calcification of the nuchal ligament and osteophytes of the cervical spine in obstructive sleep apnoea subjects and snorers.

    PubMed

    Ando, E; Shigeta, Y; Nejima, J; Yamanaka, H; Hirai, S; Ogawa, T; Clark, G T; Enciso, R

    2016-02-01

    The previous reports suggest that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is related to metabolic syndrome, mineral metabolism disorders and cardiovascular disease. In addition, a possible relationship between obesity and the calcification of ligaments has been implied. However, the potential link between OSA and the calcification of ligaments has not been directly studied. In this present study, to investigate the potential link between OSA and the calcification of ligaments, we examined the prevalence of the calcification of ligaments in OSA patients and the relationship between these findings and OSA severity. Eighty consecutive patients (60 males, 20 females) diagnosed as OSA or a heavy snorer based on full-night polyso-mnography were retrospectively recruited from May 2006 to July 2008. Each patient underwent cephalometric imaging examination before the arrangement of an oral appliance. One calibrated observer (YS) reviewed the cephalometric images for the presence of calcification of the nuchal ligament and osteophytes of the cervical spine. The prevalence of calcification of the nuchal ligament in OSA patients and snorers was 463% (males: 52%, females: 30%) There was a significant positive correlation between the severity of OSA (AHI) and the calcification of the nuchal ligament before and after adjusting for BMI. The prevalence of the calcification of the nuchal ligament in OSA subjects and snorers was higher than in previous studies with non-OSA subjects. In addition, it is suggested that the severity of OSA correlates with the presence of calcification of the nuchal ligament. PMID:26432778

  15. Immediate effects of a thoracic spine thrust manipulation on the autonomic nervous system: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Sillevis, Rob; Cleland, Joshua; Hellman, Madeleine; Beekhuizen, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation has been shown to be effective for the management of neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of a T3T4 spinal thrust manipulation on autonomic nervous system activity in subjects with chronic cervical pain. An additional aim was to determine if the manipulation resulted in an immediate pain relief in patients with chronic neck pain when compared to a placebo intervention. One hundred subjects with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned to receive either a thoracic thrust manipulation or a placebo intervention. The Friedmans test was used to evaluate the change in pupil diameter within both groups. The Wilcoxen signed-ranks test was used to explore pupil changes over time and to make paired comparisons of the pupil change between the groups. The MannWhitney U test was used to compare the change in pain perception for the chronic cervical pain group subjects receiving either the thrust manipulation or the placebo intervention. The results demonstrated that manipulation did not result in a change in sympathetic activity. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the subjects pain perception (P?=?0.961) when comparing the effects of the thrust manipulation to the placebo intervention within this group of subjects with chronic neck pain. The clinical impression of this study is that manipulation of the thoracic spine may not be effective in immediately reducing pain in patients with chronic neck pain. PMID:22131791

  16. A case report of rod migration into cerebellum through foramen magnum after lateral mass fixation of cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kiran, Belsare; Sharma, Ayush; Prashant, Gedam; Parekh, Aseem

    2016-04-01

    We report on a rare case of connecting rod migration into the posterior cranial fossa after posterior cervical decompression and lateral mass screw fixation. A 55-year-old male patient who was operated on for ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament complained of sudden-onset giddiness followed by loss of consciousness one and half year following surgery. CT scan showed migration of left-sided connecting rod into the right cerebellum through foramen magnum. The patient was operated on for rod removal but he sustained a cardiorespiratory arrest and died on the eighth postoperative day. Autopsy confirmed damage to the right cerebellum due to rod migration. The clinician should be aware that superior rod migration is a rare but potentially disastrous complication. Regular follow-up with radiological evaluation should be done to look for implant loosening, migration, and non-union even in asymptomatic patients. The implant should be subsequently removed after it has served its purpose. PMID:26748502

  17. The Impact of Spinal Cord Nerve Roots and Denticulate Ligaments on Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cervical Spine

    PubMed Central

    Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R. Shane; Bunck, Alexander C.; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (∼6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS. PMID:24710111

  18. CT-Guided Epidural/Perineural Injections in Painful Disorders of the Lumbar Spine:Short- and Extended-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Gebhard; Vetter, Sylvia; Goettmann, Dieter; Strecker, Ernst-Peter

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Evaluation of short- and extended-term results of repeated epidural/perineural injections (EDT/PRT) of corticoids in painful afflictions of the lumbar spine. Methods: Thirty-two patients who had persistent radicular or low back pain for more than 6 weeks were treated with CT-guided injection therapy. By EDT/PRT, 40 mg of triamcinolonacetonid was injected either periradicularly or by a direct intraspinal epidural method at intervals of 3 weeks. Altogether, 140 EDT/PRT were performed in 32 patients (mean 4.4, range 2-8). In nine patients partial facet joint denervation with 1-2 ml of 50% alcohol solution was combined with EDT/PRT to reduce low back pain. Before and after treatment and at follow-up (mean 9.6 months), treatment success was evaluated on a visual analog scale and by physical examination (good = >50% improvement, moderate = 20%-50%, no improvement <20%).Results: Short-term (end of therapy) good or moderate improvement was achieved in 91% of patients, extended-term (mean 9.6 months) in 56%. Regarding certain subgroups, those with disc herniations of the lumbar spine showed a better outcome with good or moderate improvement in 95% short-term and 69% extended-term than those with spinal stenosis who had 72% short-term and 28% long-term. Conclusion: Results indicate that CT-guided EDT/PRT in combination with partial facet joint denervation is a safe and effective outpatient treatment.

  19. Is a single low dose of intrathecal morphine a useful adjunct to patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative pain control following lumbar spine surgery? A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Yen, David; Turner, Kim; Mark, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies addressing intrathecal morphine (ITM) use following spine surgery have been published either involving the pediatric population, using mid- to high-dose ITM, or not in conjunction with morphine patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). OBJECTIVES: To determine whether low-dose ITM is a useful adjunct to PCA for postoperative pain control following elective lumbar spine surgery in adults. METHODS: Thirty-two patients were enrolled in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, and received either ITM or intrathecal placebo. Postoperatively, all patients were given a PCA pump and observed for the first 24 h in a step-down unit. Measurements of: total PCA morphine consumed in the first 24 h; intensity of pain; pruritus; nausea at 4 h, 8 h and 24 h; time to first ambulation; length of hospital stay; and occurrences of respiratory depression were recorded. RESULTS: The total PCA use was significantly lower in the ITM group. There were lower average pain scores in the ITM group, which increased to that of the intrathecal placebo group over 24 h; however, this failed to attain statistical significance. There were no differences in nausea, pruritus, time to first ambulation or hospital length stay. There were no cases of respiratory depression in either group. CONCLUSIONS: ITM may be a useful adjunct to PCA, but did not decrease time to ambulation or length of stay. PMID:25996764

  20. Internal morphology of human facet joints: comparing cervical and lumbar spine with regard to age, gender and the vertebral core

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Zanker, Daniel; Wolfram, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Back pain constitutes a major problem in modern societies. Facet joints are increasingly recognised as a source of such pain. Knowledge about the internal morphology and its changes with age may make it possible to include the facets more in therapeutic strategies, for instance joint replacements or immobilisation. In total, 168 facets from C6/7 and L4/5 segments were scanned in a micro-computed tomography. Image analysis was used to investigate the internal morphology with regard to donor age and gender. Additional data from trabecular bone of the vertebral core allowed a semi-quantitative comparison of the morphology of the vertebral core and the facets. Porosity and pore spacing of the cortical sub-chondral bone does not appear to change with age for either males or females. In contrast, bone volume fraction decreases in females from approximately 0.4 to 0.2 , whereas it is constant in males. Trabecular thickness decreases during the ageing process in females and stays constant in males , whereas trabecular separation increases during the ageing process in both genders. The results of this study may help to improve the understanding of pathophysiological changes in the facet joints. Such results could be of value for understanding back pain and its treatment. PMID:22257304

  1. Low Level Laser Therapy for Patients with Cervical Disk Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Okuni, Ikuko; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Harada, Takashi; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Ohshiro, Toshio; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Musya, Yoshiro

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic shoulder joint pain, elbow, hand and finger pain, and low back pain. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic neck pain. Materials and Methods: Over a 3 year period, 26 rehabilitation department outpatients with chronic neck pain, diagnosed as being caused by cervical disk hernia, underwent treatment applied to the painful area with a 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device delivering at 830 nm in continuous wave, 20.1 J/cm2/point, and three shots were given per session (1 treatment) with twice a week for 4 weeks. Results: 1. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (p<0.001). 2. After treatment, no significant differences in cervical spine range of motion were observed. 3. Discussions with the patients revealed that in order to receive continued benefits from treatment, it was important for them to be taught how to avoid postures that would cause them neck pain in everyday life. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that LLLT was an effective form of treatment for neck and back pain caused by cervical disk hernia, reinforced by postural training. PMID:24511189

  2. Two-Year Follow-Up Results of Fluoroscopic Cervical Epidural Injections in Chronic Axial or Discogenic Neck Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of axial or discogenic pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Summary of Background Data: Cervical discogenic pain without disc herniation is a common cause of suffering and disability in the adult population. Once conservative management has failed and facet joint pain has been excluded, cervical epidural injections may be considered as a management tool. Despite a paucity of evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the most commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic axial or disc-related neck pain. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain as determined by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of the 2 treatment groups. Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL), whereas Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL or 6 mg of nonparticulate betamethasone. The primary outcome measure was ? 50% improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included numeric rating scale (NRS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional improvement (? 50%) was present at the end of 2 years in 73% of patients receiving local anesthetic only and 70% receiving local anesthetic with steroids. In the successful group of patients, however, defined as consistent relief with 2 initial injections of at least 3 weeks, significant improvement was illustrated in 78% in the local anesthetic group and 75% in the local anesthetic with steroid group at the end of 2 years. The results reported at the one-year follow-up were sustained at the 2-year follow-up. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and functioning in patients with chronic discogenic or axial pain that is function-limiting and not related to facet joint pain. PMID:24578607

  3. Paraplegia following cervical epidural catheterization using loss of resistance technique with air: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yun Jeong; Han, Kyung Ream; Park, Hyung Bae; Kim, Chan; Nam, Si Gweon

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of paraplegia without neurologic deficit of upper extremities following cervical epidural catheterization using air during the loss of resistance technique. A 41-year-old woman diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome had upper and lower extremity pain. A thoracic epidural lead was inserted for a trial spinal cord stimulation for treating lower extremity pain and cervical epidural catheterization was performed for treating upper extremity pain. Rapidly progressive paraplegia developed six hours after cervical epidural catheterization. Spine CT revealed air entrapment in multiple thoracic intervertebral foraminal spaces and surrounding epidural space without obvious spinal cord compression before the decompressive operation, which disappeared one day after the decompressive operation. Her paraplegia symptoms were normalized immediately after the operation. The presumed cause of paraplegia was transient interruption of blood supply to the spinal cord through the segmental radiculomedullary arteries feeding the spinal cord at the thoracic level of the intervertebral foramen caused by the air. PMID:26885305

  4. Paraplegia following cervical epidural catheterization using loss of resistance technique with air: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Yun Jeong; Park, Hyung Bae; Kim, Chan; Nam, Si Gweon

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of paraplegia without neurologic deficit of upper extremities following cervical epidural catheterization using air during the loss of resistance technique. A 41-year-old woman diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome had upper and lower extremity pain. A thoracic epidural lead was inserted for a trial spinal cord stimulation for treating lower extremity pain and cervical epidural catheterization was performed for treating upper extremity pain. Rapidly progressive paraplegia developed six hours after cervical epidural catheterization. Spine CT revealed air entrapment in multiple thoracic intervertebral foraminal spaces and surrounding epidural space without obvious spinal cord compression before the decompressive operation, which disappeared one day after the decompressive operation. Her paraplegia symptoms were normalized immediately after the operation. The presumed cause of paraplegia was transient interruption of blood supply to the spinal cord through the segmental radiculomedullary arteries feeding the spinal cord at the thoracic level of the intervertebral foramen caused by the air. PMID:26885305

  5. Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians. Methods Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random sample of primary care physicians in Scotland and north England. The outcome measures were clinical behaviour (referral rates for lumbar spine x-rays), behavioural simulation (lumbar spine x-ray referral decisions based upon scenarios), and behavioural intention (general intention to refer for lumbar spine x-rays in patients with low back pain). Explanatory variables were the constructs within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), Common Sense Self-Regulation Model (CS-SRM), Operant Learning Theory (OLT), Implementation Intention (II), Weinstein's Stage Model termed the Precaution Adoption Process (PAP), and knowledge. For each of the outcome measures, a generalised linear model was used to examine the predictive value of each theory individually. Linear regression was used for the intention and simulation outcomes, and negative binomial regression was used for the behaviour outcome. Following this 'theory level' analysis, a 'cross-theoretical construct' analysis was conducted to investigate the combined predictive value of all individual constructs across theories. Results Constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT predicted behaviour; however, the theoretical models did not fit the data well. When predicting behavioural simulation, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 11.6%, SCT 12.1%, OLT 8.1%, and II 1.5% of the variance, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, CS-SRM and II explained 16.5% of the variance in simulated behaviours. When predicting intention, the proportion of variance explained by individual theories was TPB 25.0%, SCT 21.5%, CS-SRM 11.3%, OLT 26.3%, PAP 2.6%, and knowledge 2.3%, and in the cross-theory analysis constructs from TPB, SCT, CS-SRM, and OLT explained 33.5% variance in intention. Together these results suggest that physicians' beliefs about consequences and beliefs about capabilities are likely determinants of lumbar spine x-ray referrals. Conclusions The study provides evidence that taking a theory-based approach enables the creation of a replicable methodology for identifying factors that predict clinical behaviour. However, a number of conceptual and methodological challenges remain. PMID:21619689

  6. [Cervical radiculopathy].

    PubMed

    Kuijper, B

    2014-10-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a common cause of pain in the arm. It is caused by nerve root compression in the neck, as a consequence of a herniated disc, or spondyliotic foraminal stenosis. It causes severe pain, especially during the first few weeks, and paraesthesias in the forearm and hand. Patients also suffer from neck pain and loss of strength in the relevant arm. The arm pain can be exacerbated by certain movements of the head; these should be avoided as much as possible. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and physical examination. The pain generally disappears without active patient treatment. A semi-rigid cervical collar is recommended to accelerate pain relief. In cases of persistent pain, surgery will be considered. In such cases an MRI should be performed to show the cause and level of nerve root compression. PMID:26185991

  7. Simultaneous Three-Dimensional Analysis of Cervical Spine Kinematics in the Axial and Sagittal Views during a Simulated Frontal Impact: Differences between Tensed and Relaxed States

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Masataka; Ejima, Susumu; Ito, Daisuke; Nishino, Tomofumi; Kitajima, Sou; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective experimental study on humans. Purpose To determine whether postural differences during a low-speed impact are observed in the sagittal and axial views, particularly in a relaxed state. Overview of Literature: Three-dimensional motion capture systems have been used to analyze posture and head-neck-torso kinematics in humans during a simulated low-speed impact, yet little research has focused on the axial view. Since a seatbelt asymmetrically stabilizes a drivers right shoulder and left lower waist into the seat, it potentially creates movement in the axial view. Methods Three healthy adult men participated in the experimental series, which used a low-speed sled system. The acceleration pulse created a full sine shape with a maximum acceleration of 8.0 m/s2 at 500 ms, during which the kinematics were evaluated in relaxed and tensed states. The three-dimensional motion capture system used eight markers to record and analyze body movement and head-neck-torso kinematics in the sagittal and axial views during the low-speed impact. Head and trunk rotation angles were also calculated. Results Larger movements were observed in the relaxed than in the tensed state in the sagittal view. The cervical and thoracic spine flexed and extended, respectively, in the relaxed state. In the axial view, larger movements were also observed in the relaxed state than in the tensed state, and the left shoulder rotated. Conclusions During simulated frontal impact, the rotation angle between the head and trunk was significantly larger in the relaxed state. Therefore, we recommend also observing movement in the axial view during impact tests. PMID:26713119

  8. Active range of motion as an indicator for ligament and membrane lesions in the upper cervical spine after a whiplash trauma.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2007-04-01

    In the present study, we examined whether active range of neck motion (AROM) differed between persons with and without a diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder type 2 (WAD2) and explored whether magnetic resonance (MR)-verified lesions of specific ligaments or membranes at the craniovertebral junction was associated with increased or decreased motion in any particular direction among the WAD2 patients. A CROM goniometer was used for registration of flexion, extension, side bending (left and right) and rotation (left and right), respectively. The neck structures considered were the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. Our study comprised 87 WAD2 patients and 29 control persons without any known neck injury. For comparing mean values of AROM between the groups, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. WAD patients had on average a shorter range of active motion for all movements compared with the control group. The difference was statistically significant for all measures considered, except side bending to the left. Among the WAD patients, increasing severity of lesions to the alar ligaments was associated with a decrease in maximal flexion and rotation. A similar pattern was seen for lesions to the transverse ligament, but the trend test was not significant. An abnormal posterior atlanto-occipital membrane was associated with shorter range of left rotation, with a significant trend test both in analyses with and without adjustment for lesions to other structures. No significant association was found in relation to lesions to the tectorial membrane, but very few persons had such lesions. These findings indicate that soft tissue lesions may affect neck motion as reflected by AROM. However, since lesions to different structures seem to affect the same movement, AROM alone is not a sufficient indicator for soft-tissue lesions to specific structure in the upper cervical spine. PMID:17439353

  9. Head position and impact direction in whiplash injuries: associations with MRI-verified lesions of ligaments and membranes in the upper cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2005-11-01

    In the present study, we compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine between whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) patients and population-based control persons, and examined whether MRI-verified abnormalities in WAD patients were related to accident-related factors hypothesized to be of importance for severity of injury. A total of 92 whiplash patients and 30 control persons, randomly drawn, were included. Information on the accident-related factors (i.e., head position and impact direction) was obtained by a questionnaire that was answered within 1 week after the accident. The MRI examination was performed 2-9 (mean 6) years after the accident. Focus was on MRI abnormalities of the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and posterior atlanto-occipital membranes, graded 0-3. For all neck structures, the whiplash patients had more high-grade lesions (grade 2 or 3) than the control persons (Chi-square test, p < 0.055). An abnormal alar ligament was most common (66.3% graded 2 or 3). Whiplash patients who had been sitting with their head/neck turned to one side at the moment of collision more often had high-grade lesions of the alar and transverse ligaments (p < 0.001, p = 0.040, respectively). Severe injuries to the transverse ligament and the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane were more common in front than in rear end collisions (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, the difference in MRI-verified lesions between WAD patients and control persons, and in particular the association with head position and impact direction at time of accident, indicate that these lesions are caused by the whiplash trauma. PMID:16305317

  10. Clinical assessment techniques for detecting ligament and membrane injuries in the upper cervical spine region--a comparison with MRI results.

    PubMed

    Kaale, Bertel Rune; Krakenes, Jostein; Albrektsen, Grethe; Wester, Knut

    2008-10-01

    In this study we examined whether results from a clinical test of passive mobility of soft tissue structures in the upper cervical spine, corresponded with signs of physical injuries, as judged by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results were based on examinations of 122 study participants, 92 with and 30 without a diagnosis of whiplash-associated disorder, type 2. The structures considered were the alar and the transverse ligaments, and the tectorial and the posterior atlanto-occipital membranes. Ordinary and weighted kappa coefficients were used as a measure of agreement, whereas McNemar's test was used for evaluating differences in rating. The clinical classification and the MRI examination both comprised four response categories (grades 0-3), with 0 representing a normal structure, and 3 indicating a structure with pronounced abnormality. In our sample, an abnormal clinical test reflected a hyper- rather than hypo-mobility. Considering all four-response categories, the kappa coefficient indicated moderate agreement (range 0.45-0.60) between the clinical and the MRI classification. The results for the membranes appeared somewhat better than for the ligaments. When there was disagreement, the classifications obtained by the clinical test were significantly lower than the MRI grading, but mainly within one grade difference. When combining grade 0-1 (normal) and 2-3 (abnormal), the agreement improved considerably (range 0.70-0.90). Although results from the clinical test seem to be slightly more conservative than the MRI assessment, we believe that a clinical test can serve as valuable clinical tool in the assessment of WAD patients. However, further validity- and reliability studies are needed. PMID:17936054

  11. Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report

    PubMed Central

    Dugoni, D.E.; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; Tarantino, R.; Ruggeri, A.G.; Delfini, R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. PRESENTATION OF CASE In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1–C5 laminectomy and a C2–C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4–C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. DISCUSSION Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. CONCLUSION The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. PMID:25462050

  12. Cervical dystonia following exposure to high-G forces.

    PubMed

    Clark, J B

    1990-10-01

    Injuries to the cervical region have been associated with high-G loads sustained during air combat maneuvering (ACM) in high performance fighter aircraft. The spectrum of injuries ranges from mild neck pain to musculoskeletal strain, injury to the nerve roots or spinal cord, and fracture of the cervical spine. A 36-year-old fighter pilot with 2,800 h in tactical jet aircraft developed progressive cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis), following an ACM flight. The patient was successfully treated with local intramuscular injections of botulinum toxin into the affected cervical muscles, resulting in total relief of his spasmodic torticollis. The aeromedical considerations of this rare complication of exposure to G forces in high performance aircraft are discussed. PMID:2241735

  13. Surgical Outcome for Hemodialysis-Related Upper Cervical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Yasuaki; Kato, Yoshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To investigate the surgical outcome for hemodialysis-related upper cervical lesions. Overview of Literature Surgical outcome of lower cervical lesions in patients undergoing hemodialysis has been reported. However, surgical outcome for upper cervical lesions in hemodialysis patients is unclear. Methods Upper cervical lesions in nine patients undergoing hemodialysis were surgically treated. Mean age at surgery was 61.6 years (range, 52-68 years), and the mean follow-up period was 45.4 months (range, 2-98 months). Patients had undergone hemodialysis for an average of 25.3 years (range, 16-40 years) at surgery. Seven patients with destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) of the upper cervical spine were treated with atlantoaxial or occipitocervical fixation. Two patients with retro-odontoid pseudotumors were treated with C1 posterior arch resection alone. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores for cervical myelopathy, postoperative complications, postoperative radiography, and preoperative and postoperative occipital pain were evaluated. Results Mean preoperative and postoperative JOA score was 3.7 and 8.1, respectively. The seven patients with DSA had severe preoperative occipital pain that disappeared postoperatively. Postoperative radiography showed solid bone union in DSA cases and no instability in pseudotumor cases. Conclusions Satisfactory surgical outcome was observed for hemodialysis-related upper cervical lesions. PMID:26435787

  14. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  15. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  16. A case of symptomatic cervical perineural (Tarlov) cyst: clinical manifestation and management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keewon; Chun, Se Woong; Chung, Sun G

    2012-01-01

    Perineural (Tarlov) cysts are most often found in the sacral region and are rare in the cervical spine. Although they are usually asymptomatic, a small number of those at the lumbosacral level have been known to produce localized or radicular pain. Few reports are available on symptomatic perineural cysts in the cervical spine and it has not been discussed how they should be managed. We present here a case of cervical perineural cysts with persistent radicular pain where the pain was adequately managed with repetitive transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). The patient had experienced intractable pain in the posterior neck and left upper extremity for more than 7years. The nature of the pain was cramping and a tingling sensation, which was aggravated in the supine position. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a perineural cyst in the neural foramen of left C7 root. The patient underwent three repetitive TFESIs targeted at the root. Each injection provided incremental relief, which lasted more than 6months. Follow-up image revealed shrinkage of the cyst. This case illustrates in detail the clinical manifestation of a rare symptomatic perineural cyst in the cervical region and to our knowledge is the first to report the beneficial effect of repetitive TFESI. PMID:21830055

  17. Analysis of the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and two-dimensional conventional radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma with involvement of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, HAO; WANG, GENGMING; SONG, HONGWEI; XU, HONGBO; ZHANG, YAJUN; ZHOU, YUFU; CAI, HANFEI; DUAN, SHIMIAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical efficacy and side-effects of two-dimensional conventional radiotherapy (2D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in 53 NPC patients with cervical spine involvement, without distant metastases. In total, 53 patients were enrolled in the present study, with 24 being treated with IMRT and 29 being treated with 2D-CRT. All 53 patients received platinum-based concurrent chemotherapy and 46 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy subsequent to radiation. The patients were clinically staged according to the seventh edition of the UICC and AJCC staging systems. Overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) rates were calculated. The 3- and 5-year OS rates were 87.7% and 45.5% in the IMRT-treated group and 65.5% and 9.1% in the 2D-CRT-treated group (P=0.01). The 3- and 5-year LPES rates were 87.4% and 69.9% in the IMRT-treated group compared with 49.4% and 9.4% in the 2D-CRT-treated group, respectively (P=0.00). The 3- and 5-year DMFS rates were 94.4 and 40.8% in the IMRT-treated group and 79.8 and 30.4% in the 2D-CRT-treated group (P=0.13). N stage (P=0.00) and radiotherapy methods (P=0.01) were relevant to the OS and LPFS rates, it also revealed a significant difference when the DMFS rates were analyzed in N stage. The incidence of dry mouth in the IMRT group was significantly lower (P=0.01), but there was no statistically significant difference in acute oropharyngeal mucositis or myelosuppression. IMRT had significant advantages in local control and OS compared with conventional 2D-CRT, but IMRT failed to reduce the incidence of distant metastasis. PMID:26722233

  18. Safety of cervical spine manipulation: are adverse events preventable and are manipulations being performed appropriately? A review of 134 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Puentedura, Emilio J; March, Jessica; Anders, Joe; Perez, Amber; Landers, Merrill R; Wallmann, Harvey W; Cleland, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly utilized intervention, but its use remains controversial. Purpose To retrospectively analyze all available documented case reports in the literature describing patients who had experienced severe adverse events (AEs) after receiving CSM to determine if the CSM was used appropriately, and if these types of AEs could have been prevented using sound clinical reasoning on the part of the clinician. Data sources PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched for case reports between 1950 and 2010 of AEs following CSM. Study selection Case reports were included if they were peer-reviewed; published between 1950 and 2010; case reports or case series; and had CSM as an intervention. Articles were excluded if the AE occurred without CSM (e.g. spontaneous); they were systematic or literature reviews. Data extracted from each case report included: gender; age; who performed the CSM and why; presence of contraindications; the number of manipulation interventions performed; initial symptoms experienced after the CSM; and type of resultant AE. Data synthesis Based on the information gathered, CSMs were categorized as appropriate or inappropriate, and AEs were categorized as preventable, unpreventable, or unknown. Chi-square analysis with an alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine if there was a difference in proportion between six categories: appropriate/preventable, appropriate/unpreventable, appropriate/unknown, inappropriate/preventable, inappropriate/unpreventable, and inappropriate/unknown. Results One hundred thirty four cases, reported in 93 case reports, were reviewed. There was no significant difference in proportions between appropriateness and preventability, P?=?.46. Of the 134 cases, 60 (44.8%) were categorized as preventable, 14 (10.4%) were unpreventable and 60 (44.8%) were categorized as unknown. CSM was performed appropriately in 80.6% of cases. Death resulted in 5.2% (n?=?7) of the cases, mostly caused by arterial dissection. Limitations There may have been discrepancies between what was reported in the cases and what actually occurred, since physicians dealing with the effects of the AE, rather than the clinician performing the CSM, published many of the cases. Conclusions This review showed that, if all contraindications and red flags were ruled out, there was potential for a clinician to prevent 44.8% of AEs associated with CSM. Additionally, 10.4% of the events were unpreventable, suggesting some inherent risk associated with CSM even after a thorough exam and proper clinical reasoning. PMID:23633885

  19. Conservative management of a cervical ligamentum flavum hematoma: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Algattas, Hanna; Kimmell, Kristopher T.; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Maurer, Paul K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous epidural hematoma arising from the ligamentum flavum is a rare cause of acute spinal cord compression. There are only four reports in the cervical spine literature, and all were managed with surgery. Here, we describe an acute case of a spontaneous epidural hematoma arising from the ligamentum flavum in the cervical spine successfully managed without surgery. Case Description: A 69-year-old woman with a cervical spine epidural hematoma contained within the ligamentum flavum presented with paroxysmal neck pain and stiffness without a history of trauma. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a posterolateral epidural hematoma contained within the ligamentum flavum. As the patient was intact, she was managed conservatively with cervical orthosis. Three months later, she was symptom-free, and the hematoma resolved on the follow-up MRI study. Conclusion: Spontaneous epidural hematoma arising from ligamentum flavum is a rare cause of spinal cord compression. Previous reports have described success with surgical decompression. However, initial observation and conservative management may be successful as illustrated in this case.

  20. Degenerative Changes of Spine in Helicopter Pilots

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Won; Jeong, Ho Joong; Sim, Young Joo; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Im, Hyoung June

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between whole body vibration (WBV) induced helicopter flights and degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Methods We examined 186 helicopter pilots who were exposed to WBV and 94 military clerical workers at a military hospital. Questionnaires and interviews were completed for 164 of the 186 pilots (response rate, 88.2%) and 88 of the 94 clerical workers (response rate, 93.6%). Radiographic examinations of the cervical and the lumbar spines were performed after obtaining informed consent in both groups. Degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines were determined using four radiographs per subject, and diagnosed by two independent, blinded radiologists. Results There was no significant difference in general and work-related characteristics except for flight hours and frequency between helicopter pilots and clerical workers. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine were significantly more prevalent in the helicopter pilots compared with control group. In the cervical spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) was associated with degenerative changes. And in the lumbar spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) and age were associated with degenerative changes. Conclusion Accumulated flight hours were associated with degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines in helicopter pilots. PMID:24236259

  1. Tumors of the spine.

    PubMed

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-02-18

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  2. Tumors of the spine

    PubMed Central

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Kaya, Murat; Selcuk, Esref; Yalniz, Erol

    2016-01-01

    Spine tumors comprise a small percentage of reasons for back pain and other symptoms originating in the spine. The majority of the tumors involving the spinal column are metastases of visceral organ cancers which are mostly seen in older patients. Primary musculoskeletal system sarcomas involving the spinal column are rare. Benign tumors and tumor-like lesions of the musculoskeletal system are mostly seen in young patients and often cause instability and canal compromise. Optimal diagnosis and treatment of spine tumors require a multidisciplinary approach and thorough knowledge of both spine surgery and musculoskeletal tumor surgery. Either primary or metastatic tumors involving the spine are demanding problems in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Spinal instability and neurological compromise are the main and critical problems in patients with tumors of the spinal column. In the past, only a few treatment options aiming short-term control were available for treatment of primary and metastatic spine tumors. Spine surgeons adapted their approach for spine tumors according to orthopaedic oncologic principles in the last 20 years. Advances in imaging, surgical techniques and implant technology resulted in better diagnosis and surgical treatment options, especially for primary tumors. Also, modern chemotherapy drugs and regimens with new radiotherapy and radiosurgery options caused moderate to long-term local and systemic control for even primary sarcomas involving the spinal column. PMID:26925382

  3. Cervical and scapulothoracic stabilization exercises with and without connective tissue massage for chronic mechanical neck pain: A prospective, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Celenay, Seyda Toprak; Kaya, Derya Ozer; Akbayrak, Turkan

    2016-02-01

    This study was planned to assess and compare the effectiveness of cervical and scapulothoracic stabilization exercise treatment with and without connective tissue massage (CTM) on pain, anxiety, and the quality of life in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain (MNP). Sixty patients with chronic MNP (18-65 years) were recruited and randomly allocated into stabilization exercise with (Group 1, n=30) and without the CTM (Group 2, n=30). The program was carried out for 12 sessions, 3 days/week in 4 weeks. Pain intensity with Visual Analog Scale, pressure pain threshold with digital algometer (JTech Medical Industries, ZEVEX Company), level of anxiety with Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and quality of life with Short Form-36 were evaluated before and after the treatment. After the program, pain intensity and the level of anxiety decrease, physical health increase in Group 1 and 2 were found (p<0.05). Pressure pain threshold and mental health increase were detected in only Group 1 (p<0.05). The intergroup comparison showed that significant difference in pain intensity at night, pressure pain threshold, state anxiety and mental health were seen in favor of Group 1 (p<0.05). The study suggested that stabilization exercises with and without the CTM might be a useful treatment for patients with chronic MNP. However, stabilization exercises with CTM might be superior in improving pain intensity at night, pressure pain threshold, state anxiety and mental health compared to stabilization exercise alone. PMID:26211422

  4. Charcot Spine and Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Loriaut, Philippe; Rozenberg, Sylvie; Boyer, Patrick; Dallaudire, Benjamin; Khiami, Frederic; Sariali, Elhadi; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues

    2014-01-01

    Charcot spine is rare condition whose association with Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been reported yet. The authors reported the cases of two patients with PD who developed Charcot spine. Both patients presented with a history of back pain and bilateral radicular leg pain. They had complete clinical and radiological assessment. Lumbar spine was involved in both patients. Clinical features and response to treatment were described. In the first case, circumferential fusion and stabilization were performed on the dislocated vertebral levels. A solid and stable fusion of the spine was obtained with satisfactory clinical outcome. Surgical treatment has been recommended to the other patient. In both cases, no other neurological etiology was found to account for Charcot spine. In conclusion, Charcot spine is associated with several neurological affections but has not previously been reported in association with Parkinson's disease. PMID:25165591

  5. Destructive Dural Ectasia of Dorsal and Lumbar Spine with Cauda Equina Syndrome in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoydonck, Marijke; de Vlam, Kurt; Westhovens, Rene; Luyten, Frank P; Lories, Rik J

    2010-01-01

    We present a patient with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis complicated with cauda equina syndrome. The patient suffered from increasing pain in the leg with reduced sensitivity and extremely cold feet associated with incontinence. Diagnostic workup revealed dural ectasia, arachnoiditis and a spinal inflammatory mass leading to extensive vertebral bone destruction. Of interest, this was not only found in the lumbar spine region (which is typical in cases of cauda equina syndrome associated with ankylosing spondylitis) but also in the lower cervical spine (C7) and upper dorsal spine. Moreover, the bone destructive phenotype of this complication of long-standing AS contrasts with the usual characteristics of new bone formation and ankylosis. As initial treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs was not sufficiently successful, infliximab therapy was started which resulted in manifest clinical improvement as chronic pain, incontinence and laboratory signs of inflammation progressively disappeared. PMID:21331306

  6. Morphological changes of cervical facet joints in elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kettler, A.; Werner, K.

    2007-01-01

    To better understand the role of facet joint degeneration in chronic neck and back pain epidemiological and morphological data are needed. For the cervical spine, however, such data are rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the degree of cartilage degeneration of cervical facet joints with respect to spinal level and age, to investigate whether any region of the joint surface is more often affected by degeneration and to determine the localisation of osteophytes. A total of 128 left-sided facet surfaces from 15 fresh frozen cervical spine specimens (5992years) including in maximum C2C7 were inspected in a way to ensure a direct comparability to data reported for the lumbar spine. First, the macroscopic degree of cartilage degeneration was determined and correlated to spinal level and age. Then, each facet surface was divided into five regions (anterior, posterior, lateral, medial and central) to check whether cartilage degeneration occurs more often in any of these regions. Finally, the localisation of osteophytes was determined. The results showed that the mean degree of cartilage degeneration was 2.8 (0.6) on a scale from Grade 1 (no degeneration) to 4 (severe degeneration). None of all 128 facet surfaces was classified as Grade 1. All spinal levels had about the same degree of degeneration (in mean 2.53.0). The youngest age group (<70years) had a somewhat lower degree of degeneration (2.6) than the oldest (?90years) (3.1). Cartilage defects were found all over the joint surfaces, none of the five regions was more often affected than the others. Least osteophytes were found on the medial border of the facet joints. In conclusion, the prevalence of cervical facet joint degeneration is probably very high in individuals aged 50years and more, with a tendency to increase in severity with age. All levels of the middle and lower cervical spine were affected to almost the same degree, whereas in the lumbar spine an increase in degeneration towards the lower levels was reported. Also, in the cervical spine in most cases the cartilage was evenly degenerated all over the joint surface while in the lumbar spine certain regions were reported to be affected predominantly. PMID:17426992