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1

The association between cervical spine curvature and neck pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative changes of the cervical spine are commonly accompanied by a reduction or loss of the segmental or global lordosis,\\u000a and are often considered to be a cause of neck pain. Nonetheless, such changes may also remain clinically silent. The aim\\u000a of this study was to examine the correlation between the presence of neck pain and alterations of the normal

D. Grob; H. Frauenfelder; A. F. Mannion

2007-01-01

2

Axial pain after posterior cervical spine surgery: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior operative approach has been the standard treatment for cervical compressive myelopathy, and axial pain after laminoplasty\\u000a or laminectomy as a postoperative complication is now gradually receiving more and more attention. The objective of this study\\u000a was to provide a systematic review of the current understanding of axial pain after cervical laminoplasty and laminectomy,\\u000a and summarize clinical features, influence factors

Shan-Jin Wang; Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2011-01-01

3

An occult cervical spine fracture.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old athlete developed neck pain after being dropped on his head with his neck flexed while recreationally wrestling. Initial cervical spine radiographs were negative, but he continued to have neck and arm pain, especially after heading a wet soccer ball. Two months after the initial injury, he had a positive Spurling test; cervical spine CT then revealed a parasagittal linear fracture through the body of C-7. The patient avoided contact and collision activities and had no further physical problems. For patients who suffer cervical spine trauma, adequate visualization of the cervical spine can help prevent catastrophic outcomes. PMID:20086882

Khosla, R

1997-12-01

4

Comparison of Modic Changes in the Lumbar and Cervical Spine, in 3167 Patients with and without Spinal Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Context There are few comparisons of Modic changes (MCs) in the lumbar and cervical spine. Purpose Compare the prevalence of MCs in the lumbar and cervical spine, and determine how MC prevalence depends on spinal pain, age, disc degeneration, spinal level, and the presence or absence of kyphosis. Study Design Retrospective clinical survey. Materials and Methods Magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were compared from five patient groups: 1. 1223 patients with low-back pain/radiculopathy only; 2. 1023 patients with neck pain/radiculopathy only; 3. 497 patients with concurrent low-back and neck symptoms; 4. 304 asymptomatic subjects with lumbar MRIs; and 5. 120 asymptomatic subjects with cervical MRIs. Results The prevalence of MCs was higher in those with spinal pain than in those without, both in the lumbar spine (21.0% vs 10.5%) and cervical spine (8.8% vs 3.3%). Type II MCs were most common and Type III were least common in all groups. The prevalence of lumbar MCs in people with back pain was little affected by the presence of concurrent neck pain, and the same was true for the prevalence of cervical MCs in people with neck pain with or without concurrent back pain. When symptomatic patients were reclassified into two groups (back pain, neck pain), the prevalence of lumbar MCs in people with back pain was greater than that of cervical MCs in people with neck pain. The prevalence of lumbar and cervical MCs increased with age, disc degeneration, (descending) spinal level, and increased kyphosis. Conclusions There is a significantly higher prevalence of MCs in patients with back and neck pain. The reported association with increased kyphosis (flat back) is novel. PMID:25506944

Jian, Chen; Mamuti, Maiwulanjiang; Jun-hui, Liu; Zhi, Shan; Chong-yan, Wang; Shunwu, Fan; Zhao, Fengdong

2014-01-01

5

The cervical spine in juvenile chronic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: In patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) the cervical spine is often affected, leading to pain and functional limitations.Purpose: To describe the frequency of the radiographic abnormalities in the cervical spine of a large series of patients with JCA, examined after skeletal maturity.Study design: Consecutive patients with JCA, who had cervical spine radiographs available taken at adult age

Kari Laiho; Anneli Savolainen; Hannu Kautiainen; Pertti Kekki; Markku Kauppi

2002-01-01

6

The initial effects of a cervical spine manipulative physiotherapy treatment on the pain and dysfunction of lateral epicondylalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manipulative therapy is frequently used in the management of musculoskeletal pain. A frequently reported clinical feature of this treatment is the immediacy with which it appears to initiate improvement in pain and function. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, repeated measures design was employed to study the initial effects of a cervical spine treatment technique in a group of 15

Bill Vicenzino; David Collins; Anthony Wright

1996-01-01

7

Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

2013-01-01

8

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be done? Important: If you have had an accident that started your neck pain or if ...

9

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the cervical spine in children is essential to avoid pitfalls, recognize normal variants and identify children at risk of developing cervical spine instability and undertake the appropriate treatment. PMID:19308585

El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

2008-01-01

10

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

2014-01-01

11

Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive approaches and operative techniques are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of cervical spine disorders. Minimally invasive spine surgery attempts to decrease iatrogenic muscle injury, decrease pain, and speed postoperative recovery with the use of smaller incisions and specialized instruments. This article explains in detail minimally invasive approaches to the posterior spine, the techniques for posterior cervical foraminotomy and arthrodesis via lateral mass screw placement, and anterior cervical foraminotomy. Complications are also discussed. Additionally, illustrated cases are presented detailing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques. PMID:22082636

Celestre, Paul C; Pazmiño, Pablo R; Mikhael, Mark M; Wolf, Christopher F; Feldman, Lacey A; Lauryssen, Carl; Wang, Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

12

Clearing the cervical spine in critically injured patients: a comprehensive C-spine protocol to avoid unnecessary delays in diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clearing the cervical spine in polytrauma patients still presents a challenge to the trauma team. The risk of an overlooked cervical spine injury is substantial since these patients show painful and life-threatening injuries to one or more organ systems so that clinical examination is usually not reliable. A generally approved guideline to assess the cervical spine in polytrauma patients might

Patrick Platzer; Manuela Jaindl; Gerhild Thalhammer; Stefan Dittrich; Thomas Wieland; Vilmos Vecsei; Christian Gaebler

2006-01-01

13

Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.  

PubMed

Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

2014-11-01

14

Cervical spine arterio venous malformation  

PubMed Central

We present an unusual case of a young patient who presented to our emergency department with a history of sudden onset of pain on the left side of the neck and numbness to the left arm after lifting a small weight. Patient continued to work as normal for approximately 30?min after the event and then attended the emergency department as numbness in the left arm was not resolving. On examination there was no sensorymotor deficit in the lower limbs but neurological deficits were found in the upper limbs which made us suspect a diagnosis of cervical spine injury/brachial plexus. The patient then rapidly developed numbness in both upper and lower limbs and eventually became aphasic and developed a rapid, shallow respiration and was unable to maintain the airway. The patient was then intubated and ventilated. The patient was then transferred to a neurosurgical centre after the relevant investigations was found to have an arteriovenous malformation of spinal cord. PMID:23349172

Parla, Giridhar; Ameh, Victor

2013-01-01

15

Cervical spine: sport injuries biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved and detailed 3-D FE model of human cervical spine was created using digitized geometric measurement. The model was validated with the in-vivo studies of Moroney [5], Panjabi [6] and Fuller [7]. Clinical instability of the spine for two cases involving flexion and compression loading (simulating injuries in motorcycle vaulting, football and diving accidents) were analyzed. The instability was

Abraham Tchako; Ali M. Sadegh

2005-01-01

16

Cervical spine injury: tiger attack.  

PubMed

Reports of tiger attacks in the United States are rare. This article presents a case of a young woman who was violently attacked by a Siberian tiger and sustained penetrating trauma to the neck, cervical spine, and bilateral lower extremities. This article presents both diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients who may present with similar injuries. Animal bites from large animals are prone to infection in 10% to 20% of cases. Most infections are polymicrobial, with Pasteurella multicida being the most common isolate. Animal bites also mandate consideration of tetanus and rabies prophylaxis. The decision to administer postexposure rabies prophylaxis is dependent on the type of animal involved, whether the exposure was provoked, the local epidemiology of rabies, and the availability of the animal for observation or testing. Assessment of patients with cervical spine injury requires knowledge of possible associated injuries. Evaluation involves assessment of plain radiographs and computed tomography for evaluation of the cervical spine for bony injury. Furthermore, computed angiography is advantageous to noninvasively evaluate carotid or vertebral artery injury at the same setting in patients with deep cervical puncture wounds. Surgical treatment of unstable cervical spine fractures with lateral mass screw and rod fixation has been reported in the literature to have superior biomechanical properties compared to anterior and posterior instrumentation and fusion. In recent clinical studies, the use of lateral mass screws for traumatic injury of the cervical spine has been associated with excellent maintenance of alignment and minimal complications. PMID:19226051

Anderson, Meredith; Utter, Philip; Szatkowski, Jan; Patrick, Todd; Duncan, William; Turner, Norman; Dekutoski, Mark

2008-12-01

17

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

MedlinePLUS

... Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in ... If You Have Questions What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

18

Cervical Spine Immobilization Device for Emergency Response  

E-print Network

Cervical Spine Immobilization Device for Emergency Response Alperen Degirmenci1 , Benjamin Goldberg Medical Center 1 Background Cervical spine injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality-collar) is used to stabilize a patient's cervical spine and head in a neutral position. However, in many cases

19

Progressive dysphagia and neck pain due to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of the cervical spine: a case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is considered an underdiagnosed and mostly asymptomatic nonprimary osteoarthritis. The etiology of DISH remains unknown and the validated diagnostic criteria are absent. This condition is still recognized radiologically only. Rarely, large projecting anterior osteophytes result in esophageal impingement and distortion leading to dysphagia. We report the case of progressive dysphagia and neck pain due to DISH of the cervical spine in a 70-year-old man, which was surgically removed with excellent postoperative results and complete resolution of symptoms. Imaging studies, surgical findings, and histopathological examinations were used to support the diagnosis. The patient was successfully treated with total excision of the anterior osteophytes with no evidence of recurrence 12 months after surgery. In this report, we also discuss the clinical features and perioperative considerations in combination with a literature review. Our patient illustrates that clinicians should be aware of this rare clinical manifestation as the presenting feature of DISH in cervical spine. Surgical decompression through osteophytectomy is effective for patients who fail conservative treatment. PMID:24729695

Zhang, Chao; Ruan, Dike; He, Qing; Wen, Tianyong; Yang, Pushan

2014-01-01

20

Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

1997-01-01

21

Clearing the Cervical Spine in Polytrauma Patients: Current Standards in Diagnostic Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:  Clearing the cervical spine in polytrauma patients still presents a challenge for the trauma team. The risk of an overlooked\\u000a cervical spine injury is substantial since these patients show painful and lifethreatening injuries to one or more organ systems\\u000a so that clinical examination is usually not reliable. A generally approved guideline to assess the cervical spine in polytrauma\\u000a patients might

Patrick Platzer; Gerhild Thalhammer; Manuela Jaindl; Stefan Dittrich; Vilmos Vecsei; Christian Gaebler

2006-01-01

22

Transoral crossbow injury to the cervical spine: an unusual case of penetrating cervical spine injury.  

PubMed

The complexity of missile injuries to the cervical spine has increased as the technology that causes these injuries has become more sophisticated. Management requires adaptation of conventional neurosurgical approaches to the cervical spine in an effort to limit neurological deficit and establish stability. We report an unusual case of a 19-year-old man who suffered transoral penetration of the cervical spine by an arrow released by a crossbow at close range. PMID:2067619

Salvino, C K; Origitano, T C; Dries, D J; Shea, J F; Springhorn, M; Miller, C J

1991-06-01

23

Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, quantitative studies on the significance of disorders of the upper cervical spine as a cause of vertigo or impaired hearing do not exist. We examined the cervical spines of 67 patients who presented with symptoms of dizziness. Prior to the orthopaedic examination, causes of vertigo relating to the field of ENT and neurology had been ruled out. Fifty patients of the above-mentioned group were studied. They followed the outlined treatment protocol with physical therapy and were available for 3 months of follow-up. Thirty-one patients, hereinafter referred to as group A, were diagnosed with dysfunctions of the upper cervical spine. Nineteen patients, hereinafter referred to as group B, did not show signs of dysfunction. Cervical spine dysfunctions were documented as published by Bischoff. In group A dysfunctions were found at level C1 in 14 cases, at level C2 in 6 cases and at level C3 in 4 cases. In seven cases more than one upper cervical spine motion segment was affected. Dysfunctions were treated and resolved with mobilising and manipulative techniques of manual medicine. Regardless of cervical spine findings seen at the initial visit, group A and B patients received intensive outpatient physical therapy. At the final 3-month follow-up, 24 patients of group A (77.4%) reported an improvement of their chief symptom and 5 patients were completely free of vertigo. Improvement of vertigo was recorded in 5 group B patients (26.3%); however, nobody in group B was free of symptoms. We concluded that a functional examination of motion segments of the upper cervical spine is important in diagnosing and treating vertigo, because a non-resolved dysfunction of the upper cervical spine was a common cause of long-lasting dizziness in our population. PMID:9548360

Galm, R; Rittmeister, M; Schmitt, E

1998-01-01

24

Pediatric cervical spine injuries: a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cervical spine injuries can be life-altering issues in the pediatric population. The aim of the present paper was to review\\u000a this literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusions  A comprehensive knowledge of the special anatomy and biomechanics of the spine of children is essential in diagnosis and treating\\u000a issues related to spine injuries.

Martin Mortazavi; Pankaj A. Gore; Steve Chang; R. Shane Tubbs; Nicholas Theodore

2011-01-01

25

Airway management in cervical spine injury  

PubMed Central

To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

2014-01-01

26

Fractures of the articular processes of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Fractures of the articular processes occurred in 16 (20.8%) of 77 patients with cervical spine fractures as demonstrated by multidirectional tomography. Plain films demonstrated the fractures in only two patients. Acute cervical radiculopathy occurred in five of the patients with articular process fractures (superior process, two cases; inferior process, three cases). Persistent neck pain occurred in one other patient without radiculopathy. Three patients suffered spinal cord damage at the time of injury, which was not the result of the articular process fracture itself. In the other seven cases, no definite sequelae occurred. However, disruption of the facet joint may predispose to early degenerative joint disease and chronic pain; unilateral or bilateral facet dislocation was present in five patients. In patients with cervical trauma who develop cervical radiculopathy, tomography should be performed to evaluate the articular processes.

Woodring, J.H.; Goldstein, S.J.

1982-08-01

27

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

1997-09-15

28

Management of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sport has been significantly reduced over the past 3 decades, the injury warrants continued attention because of the altered quality of life that often accompanies such an injury. The purpose of our literature review was to provide athletic trainers with an understanding of the mechanisms, anatomical structures, and complications often associated with sport-related cervical spine injury. We also present the most current recommendations for management and treatment of these potentially catastrophic injuries. Data Sources: A review of the most pertinent literature between 1970 and 2005 was conducted using MEDLINE and the search terms spinal cord injury, cervical spine injury, neurosurgical trauma, cervical spinal stenosis, and catastrophic spine injury. Data Synthesis: Flexion of the head places the cervical spine into a straight line and prevents the neck musculature from assisting in force absorption. This mechanism is the primary cause of cervical fracture, dislocation, and quadriplegia. The most serious of the syndromes described in the literature involves a complete spinal cord injury with transverse myelopathy. This injury typically results in total loss of spinal function below the level of the lesion. Conclusions/Recommendations: Spinal trauma may result in a variety of clinical syndromes, according to the type and severity of the impact and bony displacement, as well as subsequent secondary insults such as hemorrhage, ischemia, and edema. Athletic trainers should be prepared to promptly recognize these potentially catastrophic injuries and follow the recommendations of the Inter-Association Task Force for the Appropriate Care of the Spine Injured Athlete in managing such injuries. PMID:17597954

Bailes, Julian E; Petschauer, Meredith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marano, Gary

2007-01-01

29

Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1982-05-01

30

Reconstitution of lost cervical spine function: management strategies  

PubMed Central

The cervical spine (CS) is the most vulnerable part of the whole spine because it has least protection. This is due to its high mobility (few bone, but largely muscle and joint support) which is associated with a high injury risk. The anatomical characteristics are based on evolutionary biological reasons, i.e. humans had to be able to freely controlling the surrounding space with their eyes and to have permanent postural control by an upright position of the head. The cervical spine, its joint and the surrounding muscles are highly interconnected (e.g. direct neuronal projections into the brain stem, connections to the TMJ, Head's zones with projections to the skin surface). Moreover, the spinal pain memory store can lead to a variets of multi-facette clinical pictures. In addition to reversible disorders of the cervical spine, posttraumatic disorders play a major role. The therapy options available include physiotherapy, drug therapy and surgical measures. However, a multidisciplinary approach is most favourable. PMID:22073068

Ernst, Arne; Niedeggen, Andreas

2005-01-01

31

Thoracic and lower cervical spine involvement in a case of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of spine involvement in a severe case of rheumatoid arthritis treated with corticosteroids. First, the patient developed acute back pain, related to costovertebral joints arthritis at levels T9-T10. Then, neck pain and cord involvement yielded to diagnosis of cervical interapophyseal joints arthritis; there was a C5-C6 subluxation which necessitated surgical treatment. The conjunction of these two rheumatoid localizations is an uncommon feature. Study by the CT scan is valuable when rheumatoid arthritis of the spine is suspected. Lower cervical spine subluxation, even severe, may be well tolerated. Surgery is necessary when there is medullary involvement. PMID:2772485

Benhamou, C L; Roux, C; Viala, J F; Gervais, T

1989-01-01

32

Cervical spine rotation and lateral flexion combined motion in the examination of the thoracic outlet.  

PubMed

The axial rotation and simultaneous lateral flexion of the cervical spine is kinesiologically related to the movements of the upper thoracic spine. Five brachialgia patients were found to have a hypomobile first rib on the painful side in a cineradiographic study. The kinesiologic finding was the following: when the neutrally positioned cervical spine was first maximally rotated passively away from the painful side, the passive lateral flexion was restricted in this position. This can be due to the first thoracic transverse process bumping against the subluxated first rib. This test of cervicothoracic mobility is useful in the examination of the thoracic outlet function. PMID:2327890

Lindgren, K A; Leino, E; Hakola, M; Hamberg, J

1990-04-01

33

Tapia Syndrome after Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Tapia syndrome is a rare entity characterized by unilateral paralysis of the tongue and vocal cord caused by Xth and XIIth cranial nerve lesions. However, there has been no report of Tapia syndrome immediately following spine surgery. A 47-year-old man underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy for cervical stenosis. The surgery took about 117 minutes and it was uneventful. Postoperatively he developed hoarseness of voice during speech, with deviation of tongue protrusion. On laryngoscopic examination, paralysis of the left side of the tongue and the soft palate was found and complete palsy of the left vocal cord was noted. After excluding surgical cause and craniocervical lesion, a clinical diagnosis of Tapia syndrome was made. Here we report a rare case of Tapia syndrome developed after posterior approach for cervical spine surgery and discuss the possible mechanisms of this uncommon syndrome. PMID:24891858

Kang, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min

2013-01-01

34

78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability...

2013-06-17

35

78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be...2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...65452

2013-10-31

36

Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 2. Cervical spine soft tissue responses and biomechanical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The responses and contributions of the soft tissue structures of the human neck are described with a focus on mathematical modeling. Spinal ligaments, intervertebral discs, zygapophysial joints, and uncovertebral joints of the cervical spine are included. Finite element modeling approaches have been emphasized. Representative data relevant to the development and execution of the model are discussed. A brief description

Narayan Yoganandan; Srirangam Kumaresan; Frank A Pintar

2001-01-01

37

Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 1  

SciTech Connect

The normal cervical spine may appear abnormal due to several factors, namely: The complexity of the cervical vertebra, the normal variation, the superimposition of the adjacent vertebrae, and the superimposition of structures outside the spine such as the craniofacial and laryngeal structures.

Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

1982-03-01

38

Intramedullary hydatid cyst of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease (Echinococcosis) is a common parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus mainly in sheep-raising areas of the world. Liver, lungs and brain are the predominantly involved organs. However, 0.5-1% of the hydatid disease involves the spine and in 90% of the cases it is confined to the bone and the epidural space. Although intramedullary involvement is extremely rare, in this report, we present a 55-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with a cervical intramedullary hydatid cyst during magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical vertebrae. Accordingly, we imply that particularly in endemic areas, hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of spinal mass lesions. PMID:23183479

Senol, M G; Güney, Mehmet; Tekeli, H; Kendirli, M T; Kendirli, Hakan; Tansel, Mustafa; Kaya, S; Turhan, V; Vedat, Turhan; Sonmez, G; Güner, Sonmez; Saracoglu, M

2012-01-01

39

Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

2014-01-01

40

Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

41

[Cervical spine injuries in stable lower cervical spine with spinal stenosis].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the neurological outcome of spinal cord injuries in the traumatized cervical spine with a stenosis of the spinal medullary canal. From 1992 to 1999 we treated 145 spinal cord injuries and/or injuries with an unstable cervical spine, 138 were treated operatively, in 7 patients we found an injury of the spinal cord with a stable cervical spine and a stenosis of the spinal medullary canal. The radiological diagnostics consisted of anterioposterior X-rays of the cervical spine, an X-ray view of the dens axis and a stress roentgenogramm in extension and flection. An MRI was performed within the first 12 hours after the accident. The stenosis of the spinal medullary canal was evaluated by the quotient of the mid-sagittal diameter of the spinal medullary canal as well as the vertebral body (Torg-quotient) and ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. Pathological changed values were found in 4 patients within 2 segments and in 3 patients within 3 segments. In the T2-turbospin echo sequence hyperintense lesions of the spinal cord, accordingly to an edema were found in 6 patients. The neurological evaluation was performed according to the "Standard Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injuries". Treatment of these 7 patients was performed conservatively, consisting of NSAR as well as Methyl-Prednisolon according to the pattern of NASCIS-II and III. The follow-up was performed after 12 to 18 months. We evaluated the X-rays in anterioposterior and lateral view, stress roentgenogramms and neurological status. Radiological findings showed stable conditions of the cervical spine with block vertebras and increased osteophytes. The neurological outcome was evaluated according to the "Motor-Score" and showed an improvement from 8 to 63 points within 13 months in one case. In 6 cases, the average "Motor-Score" of 78 increased to 100 points within 2 to 5 months after injury. Most defunctionalization symptoms were found in the upper extremities. Disturbances in fine motor movement were unable to be examined with the "Motor-Score". We can conclude that spinal cord injuries in stable cervical spines with stenosis of the spinal medullary canal can be treated conservatively with a good outcome. A regression of the neurological deficiency can be expected within 2 to 5 months, but even after one year, deficiency regression is possible. PMID:11968545

Schweighofer, F; Stockenhuber, N; Bratschitsch, G; Raith, J

2002-02-01

42

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty Relieves Pain in Metastatic Cervical Fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Percutaneous vertebroplasty is currently an alternative for treating vertebral fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine,\\u000a providing both pain control and vertebral stabilization. In the cervical spine, however, percutaneous vertebroplasty is technically\\u000a challenging because of the complex anatomy of this region.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We evaluated the technical feasibility, complication rate, and ability of percutaneous vertebroplasty to provide pain relief\\u000a in patients with

S. Masala; G. C. Anselmetti; M. Mammucari; T. Volpi; G. Simonetti

2011-01-01

43

Multiple subluxations and comminuted fracture of the cervical spine in a sheep.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old, 13.5 kg, female Corriedale sheep was referred to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, with a history of traumatic injury of the cervical spine followed by non-ambulatoric tetraparesis that occurred 2 weeks before being admitted to the hospital. At admission, malalignment of the cervical spine with the cranial part of the neck deviating to the right was noted. Neurological examinations identified the absence of postural reactions in both forelimbs, mildly decreased spinal reflexes, and normal reaction to pain perception tests. Radiography revealed malalignment of the cervical vertebrae with subluxations at C1-C2 and C2-C3, and a comminuted fracture of the caudal aspect of C2. The sheep was euthanized due to a presumed poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathological findings confirmed injuries of the cervical spine from C1 to C3, which were consistent with the clinical finding of tetraparesis in this case. This paper presents a rare case of multiple subluxations of the cervical spine caused by blunt force trauma in a young sheep. These results highlight the importance of an astute clinical diagnosis for such an acute cervical spine trauma and the need for prompt surgical correction for similar cases in the future. PMID:25626484

Lin, C-C; Chen, K-S; Lin, Y-L; Chan, J P-W

2015-02-17

44

Load moments and myoelectric activity when the cervical spine is held in full flexion and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained joint load in extreme positions (namely maximally flexed or extended positions) has been described as causing pain. The aim of the present study is to analyse eight different sitting work postures with respect to extreme positions, and to assess the mechanical load and the levels of muscular activity arising in defined extreme positions of the cervical spine. Ten healthy

KARIN HARMS-RINGDAHL; JAN EKHOLM; KRISTINA SCHÜLDT; GUNNAR NÉMETH; ULF P. ARBORELIUS

1986-01-01

45

Sheep Cervical Spine Biomechanics: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal models are often used to make the transition from scientific concepts to clinical applications. The sheep model has emerged as an important model in spine biomechanics. Although there are several experimental biomechanical studies of the sheep cervical spine, only a limited number of computational models have been developed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a C2-C7 sheep cervical spine finite element (FE) model to study the biomechanics of the normal sheep cervical spine. Methods The model was based on anatomy defined using medical images and included nonlinear material properties to capture the high flexibility and large neutral zone of the sheep cervical spine. The model was validated using comprehensive experimental flexibility testing. Ten adult sheep cervical spines, from C2-C7, were used to experimentally ascertain overall and segmental flexibility to ±2 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The ranges of motion predicted by the computational model were within one standard deviation of the respective experimental motions throughout the load cycle, with the exception of extension and lateral bending. The model over- and under predicted the peak motions in extension and lateral bending, respectively. Nevertheless, the model closely represents the range of motion and flexibility of the sheep cervical spine. Discussion This is the first multilevel model of the sheep cervical spine. The validated model affords additional biomechanical insight into the intact sheep cervical spine that cannot be easily determined experimentally. The model can be used to study various surgical techniques, instrumentation, and device placement, providing researchers and clinicians insight that is difficult, if not impossible, to gain experimentally. PMID:25328473

DeVries Watson, Nicole A; Gandhi, Anup A; Fredericks, Doug C; Smucker, Joseph D; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

46

Modern posterior screw techniques in the pediatric cervical spine  

PubMed Central

Treatment of children with cervical spine disorders requiring fusion is a challenging endeavor for a variety of reasons. The size of the patients, the corresponding abnormal bony anatomy, the inherent ligamentous laxity of children, and the relative rarity of the disorders all play a part in difficulty of treatment. The benefits of modern posterior cervical instrumentation in children, defined as rigid screw-rod systems, have been shown to be many including: improved arthrodesis rates, diminished times in halo-vest immobilization, and improved reduction of deformities. The anatomy of children and the corresponding pathology seen frequently is at the upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction given the relatively large head size of children and the horizontal facets at these regions predisposing them to instability or deformity. Posterior screw fixation, while challenging, allows for a rigid base to allow for fusion in these upper cervical areas which are predisposed to pseudarthrosis with non-rigid fixation. A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the cervical spine, the morphology of the cervical spine, and the available screw options is paramount for placing posterior cervical screws in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss both the anatomical and clinical descriptions related to posterior screw placement in the cervical spine in children. PMID:24829871

Hedequist, Daniel J

2014-01-01

47

Gout Initially Mimicking Rheumatoid Arthritis and Later Cervical Spine Involvement  

PubMed Central

Gout is clinically characterized by episodes of monoarthritis, but if not treated properly, it can lead to a chronic polyarthritis, which may eventually mimic rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We present the case of a 59-year-old man, with a history of symmetrical polyarthritis of the large and small joints with later development of subcutaneous nodules, which was initially misdiagnosed as RA, being treated with prednisone and methotrexate for a long period of time. He complained of occipital pain and paresthesia in his left upper limb, and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the presence of an expansive formation in the cervical spine with compression of the medulla. He was admitted for spinal decompressive surgery and the biopsy specimen demonstrated a gouty tophus. Chronic gout can mimic RA and rarely involves the axial skeleton, and thus its correct diagnosis and the implementation of adequate therapy can halt the development of such damaging complications. PMID:25574418

Nunes, Eduardo Araújo Santana; Rosseti, Adroaldo Guimarães; Ribeiro, Daniel Sá; Santiago, Mittermayer

2014-01-01

48

Multiple muscle force simulation in axial rotation of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To produce axial rotation of the cervical spine in vitro bycoordinated application of eight simulated muscle forces.Design. Biomechanical testing of the cervical spine by controlled pneumatics.Background. Some muscle simulation experiments have been performed in vitro in the lumbar spine but data generally are lacking for this testing mode in the cervical spine. Thus, physiological biomechanical behavior in this region

P. Bernhardt; H. J. Wilke; K. H. Wenger; B. Jungkunz; A. Böhm; L. E. Claes

1999-01-01

49

Vertebral Artery Injuries Following Chiropractic Cervical Spine Manipulation —Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients undergoing cervical spinal manipulations for nonneurologic diseases and with no previous neurologic signs or symptoms all developed significant neurologic deficits, one fatal, following manipulations of the cervical spine. Both the literature and the authors' series show that a number of patients have a prodrome prior to the onset of neurologic changes. There is no established therapy for the

Robert Raskind; Charles M. North

1990-01-01

50

Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment  

PubMed Central

Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a holistic intraoral appliance (OA) on cervical spine alignment and subjective symptom severity. Design. An observational study on case series with holistic OA therapy. Setting. An outpatient clinic for holistic temporomandibular joint (TMJ) therapy under the supervision of the Pain Center, CHA Biomedical center, CHA University. Subjects. Ambulatory patients presenting with diverse chief complaints in the holistic TMJ clinic. Main Measures. Any immediate change in the curvature of cervical spine and the degree of atlantoaxial rotation was investigated in the images of simple X-ray and computed tomography of cervical spine with or without OA. Changes of subjective symptom severity were also analyzed for the holistic OA therapy cases. Results. A total of 59 cases were reviewed. Alignment of upper cervical spine rotation showed an immediate improvement (P < 0.001). Changes of subjective symptom severity also showed significant improvement (P < 0.05). Conclusion. These cases revealed rudimentary clinical evidence that holistic OA therapy may be related to an alleviated symptom severity and an improved cervical spinal alignment. These results show that further researches may warrant for the holistic TMJ therapy. PMID:23935655

Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Joo Kang; Jung, Soo Chang; Lee, Hwang-woo; Yin, Chang Shik; Lee, Young Jin

2013-01-01

51

Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis and Epidural Abscess after Chemoradiotherapy for Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Osteomyelitis of mandible as a delayed adverse event following radiation therapy has been widely reported; however, osteomyelitis of the cervical spine has rarely been reported. In this study, we reported our experience with a case of cervical spine osteomyelitis and epidural abscess after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for hypopharyngeal carcinoma. The case involved a 68-year old man who underwent radical CCRT after a diagnosis of stage IVb, T4bN2cM0 posterior hypopharyngeal wall carcinoma. At 7 months after completing the initial therapy, the patient complained of severe pain in the neck and both shoulders and reduced muscular strength in the extremities. A large defect was found on the mucosa of posterior hypopharyngeal wall. On cervical magnetic resonance imaging, cervical spine osteomyelitis and an epidural abscess were observed. Because antimicrobial therapy was not effective, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was administered. Abscess reduction and improvement of the mucosal defect were observed. Because cervical spine complications after CCRT can be fatal upon worsening, adequate attention must be given. PMID:24711945

Watanabe, Jun; Hashimoto, Shigehisa; Takahashi, Sugata

2014-01-01

52

Fusion following lateral mass reconstruction in the cervical spine.  

PubMed

OBJECT Recently, aggressive surgical techniques and a push toward en bloc resections of certain tumors have resulted in a need for creative spinal column reconstruction. Iatrogenic instability following these resections requires a thoughtful approach to adequately transfer load-bearing forces from the skull and upper cervical spine to the subaxial spine. METHODS The authors present a series of 7 cases in which lateral mass reconstruction with a cage or fibular strut graft was used to provide load-bearing support, including 1 case of bilateral cage placement. RESULTS The authors discuss the surgical nuances of en bloc resection of high cervical tumors and explain their technique for lateral mass cage placement. Additionally, they provide their rationale for the use of these constructs throughout the craniocervical junction and subaxial spine. CONCLUSIONS Lateral mass reconstruction provides a potential alternative or adjuvant method of restoring the load-bearing capabilities of the cervical spine. PMID:25431961

Clarke, Michelle J; Zadnik, Patricia L; Groves, Mari L; Sciubba, Daniel M; Witham, Timothy F; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

2015-02-01

53

Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders  

PubMed Central

Anaesthesiologists are often involved in the management of patients with cervical spine disorders. Airway management is often implicated in the deterioration of spinal cord function. Most evidence on neurological deterioration resulting from intubation is from case reports which suggest only association, but not causation. Most anaesthesiologists and surgeons probably believe that the risk of spinal cord injury (SCI) during intubation is largely due to mechanical compression produced by movement of the cervical spine. But it is questionable that the small and brief deformations produced during intubation can produce SCI. Difficult intubation, more frequently encountered in patients with cervical spine disorders, is likely to produce greater movement of spine. Several alternative intubation techniques are shown to improve ease and success, and reduce cervical spine movement but their role in limiting SCI is not studied. The current opinion is that most neurological injuries during anaesthesia are the result of prolonged deformation, impaired perfusion of the cord, or both. To prevent further neurological injury to the spinal cord and preserve spinal cord function, minimizing movement during intubation and positioning for surgery are essential. The features that diagnose laryngoscopy induced SCI are myelopathy present on recovery, short period of unconsciousness, autonomic disturbances following laryngoscopy, cranio-cervical junction disease or gross instability below C3. It is difficult to accept or refute the claim that neurological deterioration was induced by intubation. Hence, a record of adequate care at laryngoscopy and also perioperative period are important in the event of later medico-legal proceedings.

Durga, Padmaja; Sahu, Barada Prasad

2014-01-01

54

Cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disorder that can compromise the cervical spine in up to 80% of the cases. The most common radiological presentations of cervical involvement are atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS), cranial settling and subaxial subluxation (SAS). We performed a systematic review in the PubMed Database of articles published later 2005 to evaluate the prevalence, progression and risk factors for cervical spine involvement in RA patients. Articles were classified according to their level of evidence. Our literature review reported a wide range in the prevalence of cervical spine disease, probably explained by the different studied populations and disease characteristics. Uncontrolled RA is probably the main risk factor for developing a spinal instability. Adequate treatment with DMARD and BA can prevent development of cervical instabilities but did not avoid progression of a pre-existing injury. MRI is the best radiological method for diagnosis cervical spine involvement. AAS is the most common form of RA. Long term radiological follow-up is necessary to diagnosis patients with late instabilities and monitoring progression of diagnosed injuries. PMID:25151973

Joaquim, Andrei F; Appenzeller, Simone

2014-12-01

55

Risk Factors for Vertebral Artery Injuries in Cervical Spine Trauma  

PubMed Central

Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (i.e. involvement of carotid and vertebral arteries) are increasingly being recognized in setting of cervical spine trauma/fractures and are associated with high incidence of stroke/morbidity and mortality. The incidence of vertebral artery injuries (VAI) is more common than previously thought and regular screening is seldom performed. However there exists no screening criteria and conflicting reports exists between spine and trauma literature. Many clinicians do not routinely screen/evaluate patients presenting with cervical spine trauma for potential VAI. This article provides a brief summary of existing evidence regarding the incidence of VAI in the background of cervical trauma/fractures. The type and fracture pattern that is associated with a high risk of VAI warranting mandatory screening/further work-up is discussed. A brief overview of diagnostic modalities and their respective sensitivity/specificity along with available treatment options is also summarized. PMID:25317310

Dabke, Harshad V.

2014-01-01

56

Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

1996-04-01

57

Maladaptive dendritic spine remodeling contributes to diabetic neuropathic pain.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathic pain imposes a huge burden on individuals and society, and represents a major public health problem. Despite aggressive efforts, diabetic neuropathic pain is generally refractory to available clinical treatments. A structure-function link between maladaptive dendritic spine plasticity and pain has been demonstrated previously in CNS and PNS injury models of neuropathic pain. Here, we reasoned that if dendritic spine remodeling contributes to diabetic neuropathic pain, then (1) the presence of malformed spines should coincide with the development of pain, and (2) disrupting maladaptive spine structure should reduce chronic pain. To determine whether dendritic spine remodeling contributes to neuropathic pain in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, we analyzed dendritic spine morphology and electrophysiological and behavioral signs of neuropathic pain. Our results show changes in dendritic spine shape, distribution, and shape on wide-dynamic-range (WDR) neurons within lamina IV-V of the dorsal horn in diabetes. These diabetes-induced changes were accompanied by WDR neuron hyperexcitability and decreased pain thresholds at 4 weeks. Treatment with NSC23766 (N(6)-[2-[[4-(diethylamino)-1-methylbutyl]amino]-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]-2-methyl-4,6-quinolinediamine trihydrochloride), a Rac1-specific inhibitor known to interfere with spine plasticity, decreased the presence of malformed spines in diabetes, attenuated neuronal hyperresponsiveness to peripheral stimuli, reduced spontaneous firing activity from WDR neurons, and improved nociceptive mechanical pain thresholds. At 1 week after STZ injection, animals with hyperglycemia with no evidence of pain had few or no changes in spine morphology. These results demonstrate that diabetes-induced maladaptive dendritic spine remodeling has a mechanistic role in neuropathic pain. Molecular pathways that control spine morphogenesis and plasticity may be promising future targets for treatment. PMID:22593049

Tan, Andrew M; Samad, Omar A; Fischer, Tanya Z; Zhao, Peng; Persson, Anna-Karin; Waxman, Stephen G

2012-05-16

58

Radiographic Clearance of Blunt Cervical Spine Injury: Plain Radiograph or Computed Tomography Scan?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the roles of cervical spine radiographs (CSR) and computed tomography of the cervical spine (CTC) in the exclusion of cervical spine injury for adult blunt trauma patients. Methods: At the authors' institution, all adult blunt trauma patients with phys- ical findings of posterior midline neck ten- derness, altered mental status, or

Margaret M. Griffen; Eric R. Frykberg; Andrew J. Kerwin; Miren A. Schinco; Joseph J. Tepas; Kathleen Rowe; Jennifer Abboud

2003-01-01

59

Multidetector CT of blunt cervical spine trauma in adults.  

PubMed

A number of new developments in cervical spine imaging have transpired since the introduction of 64-section computed tomographic (CT) scanners in 2004. An increasing body of evidence favors the use of multidetector CT as a stand-alone screening test for excluding cervical injuries in polytrauma patients with obtundation. A new grading scale that is based on CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings, the cervical spine Subaxial Injury Classification and Scoring (SLIC) system, is gaining acceptance among spine surgeons. Radiographic measurements described for the evaluation of craniocervical distraction injuries are now being reevaluated with the use of multidetector CT. Although most patients with blunt trauma are now treated nonsurgically, evolution in the understanding of spinal stability, as well as the development of new surgical techniques and hardware, has driven management strategies that are increasingly favorable toward surgical intervention. It is therefore essential that radiologists recognize findings that distinguish injuries with ligamentous instability or a high likelihood of nonfusion that require surgical stabilization from those that are classically stable and can be treated with a collar or halo vest alone. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of cervical spine injuries, from the craniocervical junction through the subaxial spine, and present the most widely used grading systems for each injury type. PMID:25384284

Dreizin, David; Letzing, Michael; Sliker, Clint W; Chokshi, Falgun H; Bodanapally, Uttam; Mirvis, Stuart E; Quencer, Robert M; Munera, Felipe

2014-01-01

60

Optimal computed-tomographic techniques for cervical spine imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors compare various techniques for optimal computed-tomographic imaging of the cervical spine and find that no single method is adequate for visualizing all anatomic structures. Thin sections are needed to obtain images of intervertebral disks, but thick sections are preferred to obtain images of the spinal cord. Spatial resolution is more important than contrast resolution when imaging the vertebrae. Small-body calibration is recommended for adequate cervical spine visualization, although some artifacts can be minimized when large-body calibration is used.

Orrison, W.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin Health Science Center, Madison); Johansen, J.G.; Eldevik, O.P.; Haughton, V.M.

1982-07-01

61

Cervical spine surgery in the ancient and medieval worlds.  

PubMed

The early historical literature on cervical spine surgery lacks printed material for review, and we can rely only on pathological material from the prehistoric period that has survived as a result of anthropological investigations. After the introduction of Egyptian and early Hellenic medicine, some written material became available. This paper reviews these materials, from both books and manuscripts, in an effort to understand the development of cervical spine surgery from the perspectives of the personalities involved and the early surgical practices used. The review thus considers the following five eras of medicine: 1) prehistoric; 2) Egyptian and Babylonian; 3) Greek and early Byzantine; 4) Middle Eastern; and 5) medieval. PMID:17961063

Goodrich, James Tait

2007-01-01

62

[Literature review of whiplash injuries of the cervical spine].  

PubMed

The paper presents the latest information in world literature on whiplash injury of the cervical spine. This injury has been noted through history, mentioned as early as Ancient Egypt, and prevalent in the 19 century, the time before using the car, until today. The mechanism of injury is described, as well as treatment, and news in view of the frequency of injuries in different parts of the world and the impact of socio-cultural, economic, ethnic and geographic factors. Impacts of traffic laws, automobile production and automobile seats that would indicate the possibility of prevention as a result of a whiplash injury of the cervical spine are also presented. PMID:22165082

Pavi?, Roman

2011-01-01

63

Successful Treatment of Severe Sympathetically Maintained Pain Following Anterior Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Sympathetic dysfunction is one of the possible complications of anterior spine surgery; however, it has been underestimated as a cause of complications. We report two successful experiences of treating severe dysesthetic pain occurring after anterior spine surgery, by performing a sympathetic block. The first patient experienced a burning and stabbing pain in the contralateral upper extremity of approach side used in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and underwent a stellate ganglion block with a significant relief of his pain. The second patient complained of a cold sensation and severe unexpected pain in the lower extremity of the contralateral side after anterior lumbar interbody fusion and was treated with lumbar sympathetic block. We aimed to describe sympathetically maintained pain as one of the important causes of early postoperative pain and the treatment option chosen for these cases in detail. PMID:25289130

Woo, Jae Hee

2014-01-01

64

Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the vertebral ... spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily activities ...

65

Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 2  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of the structure of the cervical spine as well superimposition by the parts of adjacent vertebrae, as well as other structures may cause some abnormalities to be overlooked. Among those abnormalities are, the short sagittal diameter, neoplasm in the cancellous part of the vertebral bodies, spurs in the apophyseal joints, trauma, infection and others.

Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

1982-03-01

66

The radiology of acute cervical spine trauma. Second edition  

SciTech Connect

The edition, includes extensive coverage of computed tomography (including 3-D CT) and magnetic resonance imaging applications. Organization by mechanism of injury makes specific information easy to locate; coverage includes chapters on hyperextension injuries, injuries involving diverse or poorly understood mechanisms, and a useful classification system of acute cervical spine injuries.

Harris, J.H. Jr.; Edeiken-Monroe, B.S.

1987-01-01

67

Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

2014-06-01

68

Symptomatic Solitary Osteochondroma of the Subaxial Cervical Spine in a 52-Year-Old Patient  

PubMed Central

Osteochondromas are the most common benign tumors of the bone. They mostly arise from the appendicular skeleton and present clinically in the second or third decade of life. Ostechondromas arising from the subaxial cervical spine and presenting after the 5th decade of life are extremely rare. We report a 52-year-old male patient who presented with numbness and subjective weakness of left upper and lower limbs and neck pain, and had lobulated bony hard fixed swelling in the right lower cervical paraspinal region. Radiological images revealed a bony swelling arising from C4 and C5 lamina with a cartilaginous cap and intraspinal extension. Excision biopsy with stabilisation of the spine was performed. Histopathalogical examination of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of osteochondroma. We conclude surgical excision of such rare tumors, including the cartilaginous cap as well as the intraspinal component can reliably produce a good clinical outcome. PMID:24596611

Amritanand, Rohit; Krishnan, Venkatesh; David, Kenny Samuel

2014-01-01

69

Spontaneous regression after extensive recurrence of a pediatric cervical spine aneurysmal bone cyst.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst is a pseudotumoral lesion. Complete resection prior to selective arterial embolization seems to be the treatment of choice for the more extensive and destructive lesions. In these cases maintaining stability of the cervical spine is critical. This can be very challenging in children and adolescents in whom the axial skeleton is still growing. In this case a young girl presented with a voluminous cervical aneurysmal bone cyst encaging both vertebral arteries and spinal cord. The lesion was treated with aggressive surgical resection, followed by cervical vertebral fusion with instrumentation. After nine months the patient referred no pain and no neurological deficit. MRI scans showed an extensive local recurrence. The family of the young girl refused any other therapy and any other followup. The patients returned to our attention after five years with no pain and neurological deficit. Cervical spine radiographs and MRI scans showed a complete regression of the extensive local recurrence. In the literature, the possibility of spontaneous regression of residual part or local recurrence is reported. The case of this young girl provided the chance to attend a spontaneous regression in an extensive recurrence of aneurismal bone cyst. PMID:24707421

Brembilla, Carlo; Lanterna, Luigi Andrea; Bosisio, Michela; Gritti, Paolo; Risso, Andrea; Signorelli, Antonio; Biroli, Francesco

2014-01-01

70

Extensive cervical spine and foregut anomaly in ‘serpentine syndrome’  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION We report an extremely rare and challenging combination of congenital anomalies. Only five similar cases have been described in the English language medical literature to date. PRESENTATION OF CASE A male infant was born at 30+5 weeks gestation by emergency caesarian section. Cervical spine rachischisis, shortened oesophagus, intrathoracic stomach, atretic duodenum and absent spleen were noted, in addition to respiratory insufficiency. Gastrointestinal re-anastomosis, particularly oesophageal lengthening, was not feasible at the initial thoracotomy. Surgical stabilization of the cervical spine was unlikely to be successful until two years of age. Asplenia predisposed the infant to sepsis from encapsulated organisms, and recurrent respiratory infections occurred. DISCUSSION A close relationship exists between the upper gastrointestinal tract and cervical spine during embryonic development. An embryonic aberration at this level could account for all the deformities present in this infant. Tethering of the embryonic cervical oesophagus to the somites in the first trimester, preventing foregut elongation, and producing ischaemia at the coeliac axis, is suggested as the aetiology. CONCLUSION This case presented a challenge to the multi-disciplinary team involved in his management and prompted extensive consultation with international experts. After considerable counseling of the parents, care was directed towards palliation. PMID:23567544

Dargan, D.; McMorrow, A.; Bourke, T.W.; McCallion, W.A.; Verner, A.M.; Lyons, J.; McConnell, R.S.; Lundy, C.T.; Eames, N.W.A.

2013-01-01

71

The immediate effects of upper thoracic translatoric spinal manipulation on cervical pain and range of motion: a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of translatoric spinal manipulation (TSM) on cervical pain and cervical active motion restriction when applied to upper thoracic (T1-T4) segments. Active cervical rotation range of motion was measured re- and post-intervention with a cervical inclinometer (CROM), and cervical pain status was monitored before and after manipulation with a Faces Pain Scale. Study participants included a sample of convenience that included 32 patients referred to physical therapy with complaints of pain in the mid-cervical region and restricted active cervical rotation. Twenty-two patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group and ten were assigned to the control group. Pre- and post-intervention cervical range of motion and pain scale measurements were taken by a physical therapist assistant who was blinded to group assignment. The experimental group received TSM to hypomobile upper thoracic segments. The control group received no intervention. Paired t-tests were used to analyze within-group changes in cervical rotation and pain, and a 2-way repeated-measure ANOVA was used to analyze between-group differences in cervical rotation and pain. Significance was accepted at p = 0.05. Significant changes that exceeded the MDC(95) were detected for cervical rotation both within group and between groups with the TSM group demonstrating increased mean (SD) in right rotation of 8.23 degrees (7.41 degrees ) and left rotation of 7.09 degrees (5.83 degrees ). Pain levels perceived during post-intervention cervical rotation showed significant improvement during right rotation for patients experiencing pain during bilateral rotation only (p=.05). This study supports the hypothesis that spinal manipulation applied to the upper thoracic spine (T1-T4 motion segments) significantly increases cervical rotation ROM and may reduce cervical pain at end range rotation for patients experiencing pain during bilateral cervical rotation. PMID:19119394

Krauss, John; Creighton, Doug; Ely, Jonathan D; Podlewska-Ely, Joanna

2008-01-01

72

Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema Associated with Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to present information regarding the diagnosis and emergent treatment of NPPE, and to review the previous literature regarding this serious complication. PMID:25558327

Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2014-01-01

73

Negative pressure pulmonary edema associated with anterior cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

We report a very rare case of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) that occurred immediately after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The patient was a 25-year-old man who sustained a facet fracture-dislocation of C5 during a traffic accident. After ACDF, he developed NPPE and needed mechanical ventilation. Fortunately, he recovered fully within 24 hours. NPPE is a rare postoperative complication that may occur after cervical spine surgery. The aims of this report are to present information regarding the diagnosis and emergent treatment of NPPE, and to review the previous literature regarding this serious complication. PMID:25558327

Shigematsu, Hideki; Yoneda, Masana; Tanaka, Yasuhito

2014-12-01

74

Intermediate grade meningeal melanocytoma of cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare, benign melanotic tumor of the leptomeninges, which occurs anywhere in the cranial or spinal\\u000a regions but most commonly in supratentorial and thoracic spine regions. The literature on this entity consists of case reports;\\u000a therefore, there is no agreement on the most effective therapy of this tumor, although total excision seems to be the best\\u000a therapeutic

Mostafa El-Khashab; Korgun Koral; Daniel C. Bowers; Sarah Johnson-Welch; Dale Swift; Farideh Nejat

2009-01-01

75

Pediatric cervical spine trauma imaging: a practical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine trauma in children is rare and the diagnosis can be challenging due to anatomical and biomechanical differences\\u000a as compared to adults. A variety of algorithms have been used in adults to accurately diagnose injuries, but have not been\\u000a fully studied in pediatric patients. In this article we review suggested imaging protocols and the general characteristics,\\u000a types of injuries,

Alexia M. Egloff; Nadja Kadom; Gilbert Vezina; Dorothy Bulas

2009-01-01

76

The adult cervical spine: implications for airway management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaesthetists are responsible for the management of the airway in patients with unstable cervical spines. Unfortunately, the\\u000a anaesthetic literature does not contain a recent, critical analysis of the current medical literature to aid anaesthetists\\u000a attending such patients. This review is intended to serve such a purpose. Using the Index Medicus as a guide, 30 years of\\u000a medical literature were reviewed,

Edward T. Crosby; Anne Lui

1990-01-01

77

Gunshot wound to the upper cervical spine leading to instability  

PubMed Central

Gunshot wounds (GSW) to the cervical spine leading to instability are rare. Also, the presence of vital vascular and neurological structures in the surround area lead to death or severe disability in the vast majority of cases. In this brief report, we present a rare case of C1 fracture due to GSW leading to instability of the atlanto-occipital joint in a neurologically intact patient. PMID:24753780

Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson Luis; Menendez, Djalma Felipe; Brock, Roger Schmidt; Andrade, Almir Ferreira De; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen

2014-01-01

78

Intradural extramedullary tuberculoma of the cervical spine. Case report.  

PubMed

A case is reported of a 45-year-old man who developed quadriplegia following a trivial motor-vehicle accident. Investigation including computerized tomography (CT) of the cervical spine revealed a large calcified lesion displacing the spinal cord and nerve roots, which proved to be a tuberculoma. The case is unusual in regard to the age of the patient, the size, location, and nature of the lesion, the mode of presentation, and the delineation of the lesion by CT scanning. PMID:6689720

Compton, J S; Dorsch, N W

1984-01-01

79

Stroke following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the clinical course and neuroradiological findings of ten patients aged 27–46 years, with ischemic stroke secondary\\u000a to vertebral artery dissection (VAD; n = 8) or internal carotid artery dissection (CAD; n = 2), all following chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. The following observations were made: (a) All patients\\u000a had uneventful medical histories, no or only mild vascular

Andreas Hufnagel; Alexander Hammers; Paul-Walter Schönle; Klaus-Dieter Böhm; Georg Leonhardt

1999-01-01

80

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma in cervical spine: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) in the spinal column is extremely rare. Here, we report and characterize the case of xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine. A 18-year-old male presented with neck pain for 3 months, along with progressive quadriparesis and sensory loss of 2 months duration with urinary retention. Motor examination revealed spastic quadriparesis with power of 2/5 in all the 4 limbs. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) spine with contrast showed a dorsally placed intradural extramedullary lesion at the level of C2-C4 vertebral body. The lesion, measuring 2.9x1.7x1.4 cm, was isointense on T1WI, hypointense on T2WI, and enhanced homogenously on contrast. He underwent an emergency C2-C4 laminectomy and complete excision of the lesion. At 3-month follow-up, he was asymptomatic except for mild neck pain. MRI scan of the cervical spine done at follow-up, revealed complete excision of tumor without any residual lesion. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed a polymorphous population of sheets of bloated pale foamy histiocytes (xanthoma cells), numerous admixed mature lymphocytes and several Touton giant cells. The cells were positive for CD68, a histiocytic marker, and negative for CD1a (excludes LCH) and S-100 (excludes RDD). PMID:24535803

Konar, Subhas; Pandey, Paritosh; Yasha, T C

2014-01-01

81

Head and cervical spine posture in behaving rats: implications for modeling human conditions involving the head and cervical spine.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to define the temporal and spatial (postural) characteristics of the head and cervical vertebral column (spine) of behaving rats in order to better understand their suitability as a model to study human conditions involving the head and neck. Time spent in each of four behavioral postures was determined from video tape recordings of rats (n?=?10) in the absence and presence of an intruder rat. Plain film radiographic examination of a subset of these rats (n?=?5) in each of these postures allowed measurement of head and cervical vertebral column positions adopted by the rats. When single they were quadruped or crouched most (?80%) of the time and bipedal either supported or free standing for only ?10% of the time. The introduction of an intruder significantly (P?cervical spine was orientated (median, 25-75 percentile) near vertical (18.8°, 4.2°-30.9°) when quadruped, crouched (15.4°, 7.6°-69.3°) and bipedal supported (10.5°, 4.8°-22.6°) but tended to be less vertical oriented when bipedal free standing (25.9°, 7.7°-39.3°). The range of head positions relative to the cervical spine was largest when crouched (73.4°) and smallest when erect free standing (17.7°). This study indicates that, like humans, rats have near vertical orientated cervical vertebral columns but, in contrast to humans, they displace their head in space by movements at both the cervico-thoracic junction and the cranio-cervical regions. Anat Rec, 298:455-462, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25219425

Griffin, C; Choong, W Y; Teh, W; Buxton, A J; Bolton, P S

2015-02-01

82

Subaxial Cervical Spine Trauma: Evaluation and Surgical Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Literature review. Objective?To discuss the evaluation and management of subaxial cervical spine trauma (C3–7). Methods?A literature review of the main imaging modalities, classification systems, and nonsurgical and surgical treatment performed. Results?Computed tomography and reconstructions allow for accurate radiologic identification of subaxial cervical spine trauma in most cases. Magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized to evaluate the stabilizing discoligamentous complex, the nerves, and the spinal cord. The Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) is a new system that aids in injury classification and helps guide the decision-making process of conservative versus surgical treatment. Though promising, the SLIC system requires further validation. When the decision for surgical treatment is made, early decompression (less than 24 hours) has been associated with better neurologic recovery. Surgical treatment should be individualized based on the injury characteristics and surgeon's preferences. Conclusions?The current state of subaxial cervical spine trauma is one of great progress. However, many questions remain unanswered. We need to continue to account for the individual patient, surgeon, and hospital circumstances that effect decision making and care. PMID:24494184

Joaquim, Andrei F.; Patel, Alpesh A.

2013-01-01

83

Local and global subaxial cervical spine biomechanics after single-level fusion or cervical arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

An experimental in vitro biomechanical study was conducted on human cadaveric spines to evaluate the motion segment (C4–C5) and global subaxial cervical spine motion after placement of a cervical arthroplasty device (Altia TDI™,Amedica, Salt Lake City, UT) as compared to both the intact spine and a single-level fusion. Six specimens (C2–C7) were tested in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation under a ± 1.5 Nm moment with a 100 N axial follower load. Following the intact spine was tested; the cervical arthroplasty device was implanted at C4–C5 and tested. Then, a fusion using lateral mass fixation and an anterior plate was simulated and tested. Stiffness and range of motion (ROM) data were calculated. The ROM of the C4–C5 motion segment with the arthroplasty device was similar to that of the intact spine in flexion/extension and slightly less in lateral bending and rotation, while the fusion construct allowed significantly less motion in all directions. The fusion construct caused broader effects of increasing motion in the remaining segments of the subaxial cervical spine, whereas the TDI did not alter the adjacent and remote motion segments. The fusion construct was also far stiffer in all motion planes than the intact motion segment and the TDI, while the artificial disc treated level was slightly stiffer than the intact segment. The Altia TDI allows for a magnitude of motion similar to that of the intact spine at the treated and adjacent levels in the in vitro setting. PMID:19585159

Finn, Michael A.; Daubs, Michael; Patel, Alpesh; Bachus, Kent N.

2009-01-01

84

The Effect of Protective Equipment on Cervical Spine Alignment in Collegiate Lacrosse Players  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Contact sports place athletes at risk for cervical spine injury. Protective helmets and shoulder pads worn by football and ice hockey athletes alter cervical spine alignment. The effect of helmet and shoulder pads on neck alignment in lacrosse athletes is not known.Hypothesis: Helmets and shoulder pads worn by lacrosse athletes alter cervical spine alignment.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Sagittal

Paul S. Sherbondy; Jay N. Hertel; Wayne J. Sebastianelli

2006-01-01

85

Helmet Fit and Cervical Spine Motion in Collegiate Men's Lacrosse Athletes Secured to a Spine Board  

PubMed Central

Abstract Context: Proper management of cervical spine injuries in men's lacrosse players depends in part upon the ability of the helmet to immobilize the head. Objective: To determine if properly and improperly fitted lacrosse helmets provide adequate stabilization of the head in the spine-boarded athlete. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Eighteen healthy collegiate men's lacrosse players. Intervention(s): Participants were asked to move their heads through 3 planes of motion after being secured to a spine board under 3 helmet conditions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Change in range of motion in the cervical spine was calculated for the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes for both head-to-thorax and helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 helmet conditions (properly fitted, improperly fitted, and no helmet). Results: Head-to-thorax range of motion with the properly fitted and improperly fitted helmets was greater than in the no-helmet condition (P < .0001). In the sagittal plane, range of motion was greater with the improperly fitted helmet than with the properly fitted helmet. No difference was observed in helmet-to-thorax range of motion between properly and improperly fitted helmet conditions. Head-to-thorax range of motion was greater than helmet-to-thorax range of motion in all 3 planes (P < .0001). Conclusions: Cervical spine motion was minimized the most in the no-helmet condition, indicating that in lacrosse players, unlike football players, the helmet may need to be removed before stabilization. PMID:20446833

Petschauer, Meredith A.; Schmitz, Randy; Gill, Diane L.

2010-01-01

86

Psychometric properties of the Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire and its relationship to standard assessment tools used in spine research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Cervical Spine Outcomes Questionnaire (CSOQ), a disease-specific outcomes instrument, has not been systematically compared with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) or the Neck Disability Index (NDI).

Richard L. Skolasky; Lee H. Riley; Todd J. Albert

2007-01-01

87

[Aneurysmal bone cysts. First description of the extensive destruction of the upper cervical spine].  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cysts are not counted among the classic malignant tumors, although they are destructive locally as blood filled reactive bone lesions. Typically, they are found in the metaphysis of the long bones, while localizations on the spine are rare. A 16-year-old female patient presented with unspecific, progressive neck pain which had been present for half a year. The initial x-ray showed no noticeable pathology whatsoever. Subsequently, the complete destruction of the first cervical vertebrae was found. The tumor had completely infiltrated and completely surrounded the spinal chord. A combined approach was used as therapy: resection of the dorsal tumor portion with occipitocervical spondylodesis (C0-C4) and postoperative radiation of the remaining ventral portions. Currently, the patient is free of complaints and recurrence. The differential diagnosis of an aneurysmal bone cyst should also be considered in cases of unspecific cervical vertebral complaints in adolescents that are not otherwise explainable. PMID:17431575

Frangen, T M; Pennekamp, W; Kuhnen, C; Kiriyanthan, G; Muhr, G; Nicolas, V; Schinkel, C

2007-07-01

88

Cervical Spine Motion during Transfer and Stabilization Techniques.  

PubMed

Abstract Objectives. To compare paramedics' ability to minimize cervical spine motion during patient transfer onto a vacuum mattress with two stabilization techniques (head squeeze vs. trap squeeze) and two transfer methods (log roll with one assistant (LR2) vs. 3 assistants (LR4)). Methods. We used a crossover design to minimize bias. Each lead paramedic performed 10 LR2 transfers and 10 LR4 transfers. For each of the 10 LR2 and 10 LR4 transfers, the lead paramedic stabilized the cervical spine using the head squeeze technique five times and the trap squeeze technique five times. We randomized the order of the stabilization techniques and LR2/LR4 across lead paramedics to avoid a practice or fatigue effect with repeated trials. We measured relative cervical spine motion between the head and trunk using inertial measurement units placed on the forehead and sternum. Results. On average, total motion was 3.9° less with three assistants compared to one assistant (p = 0.0002), and 2.8° less with the trap squeeze compared to the head squeeze (p = 0.002). There was no interaction between the transfer method and stabilization technique. When examining specific motions in the six directions, the trap squeeze generally produced less lateral flexion and rotation motion but allowed more extension. Examining within paramedic differences, some paramedics were clearly more proficient with the trap squeeze technique and others were clearly more proficient with the head squeeze technique. Conclusion. Paramedics performing a log roll with three assistants created less motion compared to a log roll with only one assistant, and using the trap squeeze stabilization technique resulted in less motion than the head squeeze technique but the clinical relevance of the magnitude remains unclear. However, large individual differences suggest future paramedic training should incorporate both best evidence practice as well as recognition that there may be individual differences between paramedics. PMID:25076192

Shrier, Ian; Boissy, Patrick; Lebel, Karina; Boulay, John; Segal, Eli; Delaney, J Scott; Vacon, L Charlene; Steele, Russell J

2015-01-01

89

Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN AND SETTING: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. SUBJECTS: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 +/- 2.5 years, height = 181.0 +/- 5.8 cm, weight = 90 +/- 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). MEASUREMENTS: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r =.53, P <.01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r (2) =.58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r (2) =.48). Also, the spinal canal (r (2) =.66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r (2) =.23). CONCLUSIONS: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

Tierney, Ryan T; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G; Straub, Stephen J; Sitler, Michael R

2002-06-01

90

Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design and Setting: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. Subjects: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 ± 2.5 years, height = 181.0 ± 5.8 cm, weight = 90 ± 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). Measurements: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. Results: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r = .53, P < .01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r?2 = .58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r?2 = .48). Also, the spinal canal (r?2 = .66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r?2 = .23). Conclusions: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

Tierney, Ryan T.; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G.; Straub, Stephen J.; Sitler, Michael R.

2002-01-01

91

Calibration of an instrumented treatment table for measuring manual therapy forces applied to the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual therapy techniques are commonly used to treat musculoskeletal neck disorders, but little is known about the manual forces applied during cervical spine treatment. Forces may vary between practitioners, and this may affect patient outcomes. This study reports the development of an instrumented treatment table and its calibration for measuring posteroanterior-directed forces applied during cervical spine mobilisation.A treatment table surface

Suzanne J. Snodgrass; Darren A. Rivett; Val J. Robertson

2008-01-01

92

Results and outcome of neurosurgical treatment for extradural metastases in the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary ¶Metastatic lesions are the most common spinal extradural tumours. Significant advances in their neurosurgical management have been made in the last two decades. This retrospective study was undertaken to summarise the long-term results of surgery and the outcome of patients with cervical spine metastases. Sixty-two patients with cervical spine metastases who underwent instrumented spinal surgery at a single centre

V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; W. Burkert

2003-01-01

93

A Mathematical Model of the Cervical Spine Movement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable laboratory tool to evaluate the cervical spine mobility in normal conditions. The paper proposes an approximation function to model the variation in time of movement angles and angular velocities. The measurements have been performed using a Zebris ultrasound-based measuring system in Motion Laboratory of the "Politehnica" University of Timisoara. The approximation functions were compared with the recorded data series and graphically plotted as both time and phase diagram representation.

Toth-Tascau, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan; Menyhardt, Karoly; Rosu, Serban; Rusu, Lucian; Vigaru, Cosmina

2011-09-01

94

In Vivo Kinematics of Normal, Degenerative, Fused and Disk-Replaced Cervical Spines Jan Goffin, MD,1  

E-print Network

In Vivo Kinematics of Normal, Degenerative, Fused and Disk-Replaced Cervical Spines Jan Goffin, MD of Mines Golden, CO #12;INTRODUCTION Cervical spine disorders are often associated with degenerative motion in the neck. Surgical treatment of cervical spine degenerative disorders most commonly involves

Hoff, William A.

95

Summary of the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on the acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sports is low compared with other injuries. However, cervical spine injuries necessitate delicate and precise management, oft en involving the combined efforts of a variety of health care providers. The outcome of a catastrophic cervical spine injury depends on the efficiency of this management process and timeliness of transfer to a controlled

Erik E. Swartz; Laura C. Decoster; Susan A. Norkus; Barry P. Boden; Kevin N. Waninger; Robb S. Rehberg

2009-01-01

96

[Traumatic damage to the lower cervical spine--a diagnostic problem?].  

PubMed

Even today fractures and dislocations of the lower cervical spine are usually not recognized, or the interpretation of the results of the diagnostic procedures is not correct. These diagnostic failures are often caused by an incomplete representation of the cervical spine in the conventional radiograms, particularly in the lateral projection. Beyond that, the interpretation of the results of the neurological examination of patients with motoric or sensoric deficits after spine injury can be incorrect. Ignorance of the distribution of the segmental innervation of the upper extremities could lead to the wrong diagnosis of paraplegia in a tetraplegic patient. Two patients with injuries of the lower cervical spine are reported, in whom these problems led to an incorrect diagnosis. With regard to these cases we propose a standard diagnostic procedure for the clinical and radiological emergency examination of patients with neurological deficits after spine injury. The technical possibilities of obtaining correct radiographs of the lower cervical spine are described in detail. PMID:8928015

Volkmann, R; Badke, A; Winter, E; Höntzsch, D

1996-07-01

97

Bone morphogenetic protein in complex cervical spine surgery: A safe biologic adjunct?  

PubMed Central

The advent of recombinant DNA technology has substantially increased the intra-operative utilization of biologic augmentation in spine surgery over the past several years after the Food and Drug Administration approval of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) class of molecules for indications in the lumbar spine. Much less is known about the potential benefits and risks of the “off-label” use of BMP in the cervical spine. The history and relevant literature pertaining to the use of the “off-label” implantation of the BMP class of molecules in the anterior or posterior cervical spine are reviewed and discussed. Early prospective studies of BMP-2 implantation in anterior cervical spine constructs showed encouraging results. Later retrospective studies reported potentially “life threatening complications” resulting in a 2007 public health advisory by the FDA. Limited data regarding BMP-7 in anterior cervical surgery was available with one group reporting a 2.4% early (< 30 d) complication rate (brachialgia and dysphagia). BMP use in the decompressed posterior cervical spine may result in neurologic or wound compromise according to several retrospective reports, however, controlled use has been reported to increase fusion rates in select complex and pediatric patients. There were no cases of de novo neoplasia related to BMP implantation in the cervical spine. BMP-2 use in anterior cervical spine surgery has been associated with a high early complication rate. Definitive recommendations for BMP-7 use in anterior cervical spine surgery cannot be made with current clinical data. According to limited reports, select complex patients who are considered “high risk” for pseudoarthrosis undergoing posterior cervical or occipitocervical arthrodesis or children with congenital or traumatic conditions may be candidates for “off-label” use of BMP in the context of appropriate informed decision making. At the present time, there are no high-level clinical studies on the outcomes and complication rates of BMP implantation in the cervical spine. PMID:23610751

Lebl, Darren R

2013-01-01

98

Finite element analysis of the cervical spine: a material property sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study determined the effect of variations in the material properties of the cervical spinal components on the output of the finite element analysis (external and internal responses of the cervical spine) under physiologic load vectors.Design. A three-dimensional (3D) anatomically accurate finite element model comprising of the C4-C5-C6 cervical spine unit including the three vertebrae, two interconnecting intervertebral discs,

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

1999-01-01

99

Morphological character of cervical spine for anterior transpedicular screw fixation  

PubMed Central

Background: Anterior cervical interbody grafts/cages combined with a plate were frequently used in multilevel discectomies/corpectomies. In order to avoid additional posterior stabilization in patients who undergo anterior reconstructive surgery, an anterior cervical transpedicular screw fixation, which offers higher stability is desirable. We investigated in this study the anatomical (morphologic) characters for cervical anterior transpedicular screw fixation. Materials and Methods: Left pedicle parameters were measured on computed tomography (CT) images based on 36 cervical spine CT scans from healthy subjects. The parameters included outer pedicle width (Distance from lateral to medial pedicle surface in the coronal plane), outer pedicle height (OPH) (Distance from upper to lower pedicle surface in the sagittal plane), maximal pedicle axis length (MPAL), distance transverse insertion point (DIP), distance of the insertion point to the upper end plate (DIUP), pedicle sagittal transverse angle (PSTA) and pedicle transverse angle (PTA) at C3 to C7. Results: The values of outer pedicle width and MPAL in males were larger than in females from C3 to C7. The OPH in males was larger than in females at C3 to C6, but there was no difference at C7. The DIP and PTA were significantly greater in males than in females at C3, but there was no difference in the angle at C4-7. The PSTA was not statistically different between genders at C3, 4, 7, but this value in males was larger than females at C5, 6. The DIUP was significantly greater in males at C3, 4, 6, 7 but was non significant at C5. Conclusions: The placement of cervical anterior transpedicular screws should be individualized for each patient and based on a detailed preoperative planning. PMID:24379459

Zhou, Rong-Ping; Jiang, Jian; Zhan, Zi-Chun; Zhou, Yang; Liu, Zhi-Li; Yin, Qing-Shui

2013-01-01

100

[Injuries of the cervical spine in patients with ankylosing spondylitis].  

PubMed

A brittle and rigid, osteoporotic and injury prone "bamboo" spine which develops as a result of transformation of the normal spine in the final stage of Bekhterev's disease contains normal neural elements. Unstable fractures occur frequently even after a minimal injury and the morbidity and mortality is significantly higher than in the group of routine injuries of the cervical, spine, in particular as a result of pulmonary complications. Diagnosis of the fracture based on simple X-ray pictures is difficult, CT examination is essential. The authors present an account on their experience with three patients. They draw attention to problems of skeletal traction when the spinal axis is altered by disease and to risks associated with semiconservative treatment. The authors therefore recommend traction with a minimal load and with subsequent early decompression and stabilization by a combined anterior and posterior approach in a single session. By this approach secondary affection of neural structures in unstable fractures can be prevented, and early rehabilitation with verticalization without restriction of respiratory excursions by an orthesis then significantly reduces the risk of pulmonary complications. PMID:11265347

Vaverka, M; Hrabálek, L

2001-01-01

101

Validation of an EMG-driven, graphically based isometric musculoskeletal model of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

EMG-driven musculoskeletal modeling is a method in which loading on the active and passive structures of the cervical spine may be investigated. A model of the cervical spine exists; however, it has yet to be criterion validated. Furthermore, neck muscle morphometry in this model was derived from elderly cadavers, threatening model validity. Therefore, the overall aim of this study was to modify and criterion validate this preexisting graphically based musculoskeletal model of the cervical spine. Five male subjects with no neck pain participated in this study. The study consisted of three parts. First, subject-specific neck muscle morphometry data were derived by using magnetic resonance imaging. Second, EMG drive for the model was generated from both surface (Drive 1: N=5) and surface and deep muscles (Drive 2: N=3). Finally, to criterion validate the modified model, net moments predicted by the model were compared against net moments measured by an isokinetic dynamometer in both maximal and submaximal isometric contractions with the head in the neutral posture, 20 deg of flexion, and 35 deg of extension. Neck muscle physiological cross sectional area values were greater in this study when compared to previously reported data. Predictions of neck torque by the model were better in flexion (18.2% coefficient of variation (CV)) when compared to extension (28.5% CV) and using indwelling EMG did not enhance model predictions. There were, however, large variations in predictions when all the contractions were compared. It is our belief that further work needs to be done to improve the validity of the modified EMG-driven neck model examined in this study. A number of factors could potentially improve the model with the most promising probably being optimizing various modeling parameters by using methods established by previous researchers investigating other joints of the body. PMID:18532863

Netto, Kevin J; Burnett, Angus F; Green, Jonathon P; Rodrigues, Julian P

2008-06-01

102

Chiropractic management of postoperative spine pain: a report of 3 cases  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case series is to describe chiropractic care including spinal manipulation for 3 patients with postsurgical spine pain. Clinical features Three patients with postsurgical spine pain (1 cervical fusion, 1 lumbar discectomy, and 1 lumbar laminectomy) presented for chiropractic treatment at a major US medical center. Treatment included spinal manipulation and/or flexion-distraction mobilization based on patient response to joint loading strategies. Intervention and outcomes Two patients were treated with high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation; and 1 patient was treated with flexion-distraction mobilization. Treatment frequency and duration were 4 treatments over 4 weeks for case 1, 17 treatments over 7 years for case 2, and 5 treatments over 5 weeks for case 3. Subjective improvement was noted using numeric pain scores and functional changes; and upon completion, the patients reported being “satisfied” with their overall outcome. One episode of transient benign soreness was noted by 1 patient. No additional adverse events or effects were noted. Conclusion In these 3 cases, patients with postsurgical spine pain responded positively to chiropractic care. Spinal manipulation/mobilization was tolerated without significant adverse effects. PMID:24396317

Coulis, Christopher M.; Lisi, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

103

Osteochondroma of the cervical spine: Report of two cases in preadolescent males  

SciTech Connect

Although considered to be rare in the spine, osteochondromas are in fact found there as often as other benign bone tumors. Three percent of all osteochondromas occur in the spine, while forty percent of osteoblastomas are to be found there. Yet, because osteochondromas are so much more common overall than osteoblastomas, their actual occurrences in the spine can be expected to be equal. Two cases of osteochondroma of the cervical spine, one of which was diagnosed by computed tomography, are reported.

Novick, G.S.; Pavlov, H.; Bullough, P.G.

1982-03-01

104

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Acute Management of the Cervical Spine–Injured Athlete  

PubMed Central

Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, team physicians, emergency responders, and other health care professionals with recommendations on how to best manage a catastrophic cervical spine injury in the athlete. Background: The relative incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sports is low compared with other injuries. However, cervical spine injuries necessitate delicate and precise management, often involving the combined efforts of a variety of health care providers. The outcome of a catastrophic cervical spine injury depends on the efficiency of this management process and the timeliness of transfer to a controlled environment for diagnosis and treatment. Recommendations: Recommendations are based on current evidence pertaining to prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in sport; emergency planning and preparation to increase management efficiency; maintaining or creating neutral alignment in the cervical spine; accessing and maintaining the airway; stabilizing and transferring the athlete with a suspected cervical spine injury; managing the athlete participating in an equipment-laden sport, such as football, hockey, or lacrosse; and considerations in the emergency department. PMID:19478836

Swartz, Erik E; Boden, Barry P; Courson, Ronald W; Decoster, Laura C; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Norkus, Susan A; Rehberg, Robb S; Waninger, Kevin N

2009-01-01

105

Efectos hipoalgésicos y de movilidad cervical tras la manipulación vertebral cervical o la manipulación vertebral dorsal en pacientes con cervicalgia mecánica subaguda: estudio piloto  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo compare the immediate effects on neck pain, active cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds after a single cervical or thoracic spine manipulation in patients with subacute mechanical neck pain.

R. Ortega Santiago; O. R. Martínez Segura; A. I. de la Llave Rincón; J. D. Pérez Bruzón; C. Fernández de las Peñas

106

Maintenance of graft compression in the adult cervical spine.  

PubMed

It is generally advised that the graft inserted in adult cervical spine should be pre-loaded with a compressive force or that the screws are inserted in a divergent orientation, in order to maximise compression and the chance of graft incorporation (Truumees et al. in Spine 28:1097-1102, 2003). However, there is little evidence that a compressive force is maintained once the force applicator has been removed, or that the divergent screws enhance compression. This study compared the maintenance of applied pre-load force, across cervical spine graft, between standard anterior plating technique with pre-load and divergent screws and a novel plate technique, which allows its application prior to removal of the force applicator. Six intact adult cadaveric human cervical spines were exposed by standard surgical technique. A Casper type distracter was inserted across the disc space of interest, the disc was removed. In 14 experiments, following the disc removal, an autologous iliac crest bone graft was inserted under distraction, together with a strain gauge pressure transducer. A resting output from the transducer was recorded. The voltage output has a linear relationship with compressive force. A standardised compressive force was applied across the graft through the "Casper type" distracter/compressor (7.5 kg, torque). The pre-load compressive force was measured using a torque drill. Then two different procedures were used in order to compare the final applied strain on the bone graft. In eight experiments (procedure 1), the "Casper type" distracter/compressor was removed and a standard anterior cervical plate with four divergent screws was inserted. In six experiments (procedure 2), a novel plate design was inserted prior to removal of the distracter/compressor, which is not possible with the standard plate design. A final compressive force across the graft was measured. For the standard plate construct (procedure 1), the applied compression force is significantly greater than resting (SO/SC)--P=0.01, but the compression force is not maintained once the compressor is removed (SO/SR)--P=0.27. Final bone graft compression after plate insertion is not significantly different to the resting state (SO/SF)--P=0.16 (Wilcoxon's sign test for paired observation). Application of the plate tended to offload the graft; the final compressive force is 170+/-100% less than the resting force. None of the applied force was maintained (mean 9.5+/-8.8%). For the new plate (procedure 2), the end compressive force (SF) measured across the graft was greater than the resting force (SO) (P<0.001). Further, the novel plate application increased the compressive force on the graft by 712+/-484%. The final bone graft compression using a novel plate, which allows its application prior to removal of the force applicator, is significant (SO/SF)--P=0.01. Here, 77+/-10% of the applied pre-load was maintained. The difference between the plates is significant (P<0.001). Conclusions are as follows: (1) Applied pre-load is not maintained across a graft once the force applicator is removed. (2) Divergent screws with a plate do not compress graft and rather tend to offload it. (3) Compressive force may be maintained if the plate is applied prior to the force applicator removal. PMID:16421744

Bolger, Ciaran; Bourlion, Maurice; Leroy, Xavier; Petit, Dominique; Vanacker, Gerard; McEvoy, Linda; Nagaria, Jabir

2006-08-01

107

Giant cervical spine osteochondroma in an adolescent female.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma or osteocartolaginous exostosis is by far the most common benign bone tumour, which accounts for 35% to 50% of benign bone neoplasms and 10% to 15% of all primary bone tumours. Osteochondroma represents a developmental enchondromatous hyperplasia which leads to formation of cartilage capped bony protrusions on bony surfaces. We present a case report of a 14-year- old female, who presented to us with a hard, gradually progressing, large painless swelling, over the left side of her neck. Swelling was nontender, extending from dorsal to ventral aspect, measuring 6 x 8 cm. Therefore, we are interested in introducing our case to medical fraternity, in which a giant lower cervical spine osteochondroma was seen in an adolescent female patient. PMID:24995199

Huda, N; Julfiqar, M; Pant, Ajay; Jameel, Tariq

2014-05-01

108

Giant Cervical Spine Osteochondroma in an Adolescent Female  

PubMed Central

Osteochondroma or osteocartolaginous exostosis is by far the most common benign bone tumour, which accounts for 35% to 50% of benign bone neoplasms and 10% to 15% of all primary bone tumours. Osteochondroma represents a developmental enchondromatous hyperplasia which leads to formation of cartilage capped bony protrusions on bony surfaces. We present a case report of a 14-year- old female, who presented to us with a hard, gradually progressing, large painless swelling, over the left side of her neck. Swelling was nontender, extending from dorsal to ventral aspect, measuring 6 x 8 cm. Therefore, we are interested in introducing our case to medical fraternity, in which a giant lower cervical spine osteochondroma was seen in an adolescent female patient. PMID:24995199

Huda, N.; Pant, Ajay; Jameel, Tariq

2014-01-01

109

THE EFFECTS OF LIGAMENTOUS INJURY IN THE HUMAN LOWER CERVICAL SPINE  

PubMed Central

Damage is often sustained by the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and ligamentum flavum LF) in the cervical spine subsequent to whiplash or other cervical trauma. These ligaments afford substantial cervical stability when healthy, but the ability of the ALL and LF to stabilize the spine when injured is not as conclusively studied. In order to address this issue, the current study excised ALL and LF tissues from cadaveric spines and experimentally simulated whiplash-type damage to the isolated ligaments. Stiffnesses and toe region lengths were measured for both the uninjured and damaged states. These ligamentous mechanical properties were then inputted into a previously-validated finite element (FE) model of the cervical spine and the kinematic effects of various clinically relevant combinations of ligamentous injury were predicted. The data indicated three and five-fold increases in toe region length for the LF and ALL injury variants, respectively. These toe length distensions resulted in FE predictions of supra-physiologic ranges of motion, and these motions were comparable to spines with no ligamentous support. Finally, a set of cadaveric cervical spine ligament-sectioning experiments confirmed the FE predictions and supported the finding that partial injury to the relevant ligaments produces equivalent cervical kinematic signatures to spines that have completely compromised ALL and LF tissues. PMID:22939289

Leahy, P Devin; Puttlitz, Christian M

2012-01-01

110

Pain Sensitivity Subgroups in Individuals With Spine Pain: Potential Relevance to Short-Term Clinical Outcome  

PubMed Central

Background Cluster analysis can be used to identify individuals similar in profile based on response to multiple pain sensitivity measures. There are limited investigations into how empirically derived pain sensitivity subgroups influence clinical outcomes for individuals with spine pain. Objective The purposes of this study were: (1) to investigate empirically derived subgroups based on pressure and thermal pain sensitivity in individuals with spine pain and (2) to examine subgroup influence on 2-week clinical pain intensity and disability outcomes. Design A secondary analysis of data from 2 randomized trials was conducted. Methods Baseline and 2-week outcome data from 157 participants with low back pain (n=110) and neck pain (n=47) were examined. Participants completed demographic, psychological, and clinical information and were assessed using pain sensitivity protocols, including pressure (suprathreshold pressure pain) and thermal pain sensitivity (thermal heat threshold and tolerance, suprathreshold heat pain, temporal summation). A hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis was used to create subgroups based on pain sensitivity responses. Differences in data for baseline variables, clinical pain intensity, and disability were examined. Results Three pain sensitivity cluster groups were derived: low pain sensitivity, high thermal static sensitivity, and high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity. There were differences in the proportion of individuals meeting a 30% change in pain intensity, where fewer individuals within the high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity group (adjusted odds ratio=0.3; 95% confidence interval=0.1, 0.8) achieved successful outcomes. Limitations Only 2-week outcomes are reported. Conclusions Distinct pain sensitivity cluster groups for individuals with spine pain were identified, with the high pressure and thermal dynamic sensitivity group showing worse clinical outcome for pain intensity. Future studies should aim to confirm these findings. PMID:24764070

Bialosky, Joel E.; Robinson, Michael E.

2014-01-01

111

Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

112

Three Dimensional Movements Of The Upper Cervical Spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten fresh cadaveric whole cervical spine specimens (occiput to C7) were studied using well established techniques to document the movements in flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation. Pure moments of maximum 1.5 newton meters were applied incrementally and three dimensional movements of the bones were recorded using stereophotogrammetry. Each moment was applied individually and in a three load/unload cycles. The motion measurements were made on the third load cycle. Parameters of neutral zone, elastic zone and range of motion were computed. Neutral zones for flexion/extension, right/left lateral bending and right/left axial rotation were respectively: 1.1, 1.5 and 1.6 (occiput-C1); and 3.2, 1.2 and 29.6 degrees (C1-C2). Ranges of motion for flexion, extension, lateral bending (one side) and axial rotation (one side) were respectively: 3.5, 21.0, 5.5 and 7.2 degrees (occiput-Cl joint) and 11.5, 10.9, 6.7 and 38.9 degrees (CI-CZ joint). The highest intervertebral motion in the spine was the axial rotation at the Cl-C2 joint, neutral zone constituting 75% of this motion.

Panjabi, Manohar M.; Dvorak, Jiri; Duranceau, Joanne; Yamamoto, Isao

1989-04-01

113

Hematogenous pyogenic facet joint infection of the subaxial cervical spine. A report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Two cases of hematogenous, pyogenic, subaxial cervical facet joint infection are reported, and the literature is reviewed. Infection of the cervical facet joint is a rarely diagnosed condition; only one case has been reported in the literature. Lumbar facet joint infections are also rare but more commonly reported. Approximately one fourth of facet joint infections in the lumbar spine are complicated by epidural abscess formation, which can lead to a neurological deficit. Because of the paucity of reports on cervical facet joint infections, the clinical characteristics of this entity are not well known. Both patients presented with an acute onset of unilateral neck pain that radiated into the ipsilateral shoulder. Frank radicular pain was initially absent. Unilateral upper-extremity motor weakness that was attributed to associated epidural abscess or granulation tissue formation was also demonstrated in both patients. Leukocyte count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated in both cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was necessary to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Staphylococcus aureus was identified as the offending pathogen in both cases. Decompressive surgery and antibiotic therapy were required to cure the condition. One patient recovered completely and the other sustained a permanent motor deficit. Hematogenous cervical facet joint infection is a rare clinical entity that has many characteristics in common with the more-common lumbar homolog. All three reported cases, however, have been complicated by epidural abscess or granulation tissue formation that has led to a neurological deficit. This finding suggests that a facet joint infection in the cervical spine may have a less benign clinical course than that in the lumbar spine. PMID:11453416

Muffolerro, A J; Nader, R; Westmark, R M; Nauta, H J; Garges, K J; Hadjipavlou, A G

2001-07-01

114

Respiratory dysfunction in patients with chronic neck pain - influence of thoracic spine and chest mobility.  

PubMed

Patients with chronic neck pain exhibit various musculoskeletal deficits and respiratory dysfunction. As there is a link between thoracic and cervical spine motion, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thoracic spine and chest mobility with respiratory function and neck disability. Nineteen patients with chronic neck pain (7 male, 46.6 ± 10.5 years) and 19 healthy subjects (7 male, 46.5 ± 9.9 years) participated. Spirometry was conducted to determine maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax). Thoracic spine mobility was measured using the Spinal Mouse(®). Chest expansion was assessed by subtracting chest circumference during maximal inspiration and expiration. Neck function was investigated by examining range of motion, forward head posture, neck flexor muscle synergy endurance and self-assessment (Neck disability index (NDI)). Correlation analyses and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted using MVV, Pimax and Pemax as independent variables. Thoracic spine mobility during flexion and chest expansion correlated significantly to MVV (r = 0.45 and 0.42), all neck motions (r between 0.39 and 0.59) and neck muscle endurance (rS = 0.36). Pemax and Pimax were related to NDI (r = -0.58 and -0.46). In the regression models, chest expansion was the only significant predictor for MVV, and Pemax was determined by neck muscle endurance. These results suggest that chronic neck pain patients should improve the endurance of the neck flexor muscles and thoracic spine and chest mobility. Additionally, these patients might benefit from respiratory muscle endurance training, possibly by increasing chest mobility and Pemax. PMID:24835338

Wirth, B; Amstalden, M; Perk, M; Boutellier, U; Humphreys, B K

2014-10-01

115

Short Term Results After Local Application of Steroids and Anesthetics in Patients with Painful Spine Conditions  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: Spinal pain is the most common of all chronic pain disorders. Imaging studies can be used to determine whether a pathological process is associated with the patient’s symptoms. Objective: To determine the short-term efficiency of local instillation of steroids in patients with painful spine conditions. Materials and methods: A prospective study included 35 patients with diagnosis of lumbar or cervical radiculopathy, or cervical and lumbar syndrome at the Department for the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department for the Orthopedics and Traumatology, and Department for the Neurosurgery, Clinical Canter University of Sarajevo (KCUS). A clinical examination, visual pain scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were performed prior to the needle procedure and seven days after it. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used for comparison of pre and post-interventional results. This procedure was done for the first time in our region. Results: The males and females were equally represented in this study (17:18). The patients were 29 to 80 years old. The highest number of patients have been between 40-60 years, older then that have been 44,2% of patients, and younger only 8,5%. Patients have complained about the radicular pain along the legs or arms or back or neck pain. Most of them had disc herniation–57,14%, 8,57% had bulging disc, 8,57% had spinal canal stenosis, 5,71% had fasetarthrosis, rest of them had combination of those conditions. There was a statistically significant difference between the value of ODI score before procedure and 7 days later (26±10:16±12; p<0,001). The difference was also statistically significant in VAS values (7±1:1±1; p <0,001). Discussion: Our study suggests that needle instillation of steroid and lidocaine is effective in short-term pain occurs in different painful spine conditions (Sy cervicale, lumbare and radiculopathy). It is valuable alternative to the classic methods of physical and drug therapy. It can also postpone surgical treatment, and it is very useful in situations of diffuse degenerative changes when is very important to define exact source of pain, like for instance in hip-spine syndrome. PMID:24937937

Hadziahmetovic, Narcisa Vavra; Aganovic, Damir; Kadic, Aldijana; Biscevic, Mirza

2014-01-01

116

Effective Spine Triage: Patterns of Pain  

PubMed Central

Background The most common cause of recurring lost time from work, low back pain is a huge burden on society. Medical training dictates that we must establish a cause for pain before we can treat it and then base our treatment on a recognized and agreed-upon pathology. But in the overwhelming majority of low back pain cases, the issue is nothing more than a minor mechanical malfunction, the inevitable consequence of normal wear and tear. The severity of the pain does not reflect the benign nature of the underlying problem and its limited extent makes a definitive diagnosis impossible. One important component of the solution is improved spinal triage. Using patterns or syndromes in the initial assessment of low back pain is gaining renewed interest and clinical acceptance. Methods Identifying a patient's pain pattern is achieved primarily through an assessment of the patient's history. The patient interview begins with a series of questions to determine the specific syndrome. A subsequent physical examination supports or refutes the findings in history. Combining information from the history with the findings of the physical examination, the clinician has the ability to rule out a number of potentially grim diagnoses. Results More than 90% of back pain patients have benign mechanical problems and their pain can be classified into 4 distinct patterns: 2 back-dominant patterns and 2 leg-dominant patterns. Conclusion A clinical perspective capable of recognizing a defined syndrome at first contact will lead to a better outcome. Most patients with low back pain can be treated successfully with simple, pattern-specific, noninvasive primary management. Patients without a pattern and those who do not respond as anticipated require further investigation and specialized care. PMID:24688339

Hall, Hamilton

2014-01-01

117

Gadolinium Use in Spine Pain Management Procedures for Patients with Contrast Allergies: Results in 527 Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Introduction. To review the safety and efficacy of gadolinium in spine pain management procedures in patients at high risk for a contrast reaction and who are not suitable candidates for the use of standard non-ionic contrast. Methods. We reviewed records over a 61-month period of all image-guided spinal pain management procedures where patients had allergies making them unsuitable candidates for standard non-ionic contrast and where gadolinium was used to confirm needle tip placement prior to injection of medication. Results. Three hundred and four outpatients underwent 527 procedures. A spinal needle was used in all but 41 procedures. Gadolinium was visualized using portable C-arm fluoroscopy in vivo allowing for confirmation of needle tip location. The gadolinium dose ranged from 0.2 to 10 ml per level. The highest dose received by one patient was 15.83 ml intradiscally during a three-level discogram. Three hundred and one patients were discharged without complication or known delayed complications. One patient had documented intrathecal injection but without sequelae and 2 patients who underwent cervical procedures experienced seizures requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Both the latter patients were discharged without any further complications. Conclusion. Based on our experience we recommend using gadolinium judiciously for needle tip confirmation. We feel more confident using gadolinium in the lumbar spine and in cervical nerve blocks. Gadolinium should probably not be used as an injectate volume expander. The indications for gadolinium use in cervical needle-guided spine procedures are less clear and use of a blunt-tipped needle should be considered.

Safriel, Yair [Yale University School of Medicine, Neuroradiology Section, Department of Radiology (United States)], E-mail: safriel@yale.edu; Ang, Roberto [Center for Diagnostic Imaging (United States); Ali, Muhammed [Kaiser Permanente Woodland Hills Medical Center (United States)

2008-03-15

118

Commentary: Incorporating new technology into spine care: the case of resorbable cervical plates.  

PubMed

Commentary on: Lebl DR, Bono CM, Metkar US, et al. Bioabsorbable anterior cervical plate fixation for single-level degenerative disorders: early clinical and radiographic experience. Spine J 2011;11:1002-8 (in this issue). PMID:22122833

Truumees, Eeric

2011-11-01

119

PATTERNS OF INJURY TO THE CERVICAL SPINE RELATED TO THE DIRECTION AND MAGNITUDE OF IMPACT TO THE HEAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to determine, for fatally injured car and truck occupants, if there were patterns of injury to the cervical spine, which could be related to the direction, and magnitude of the impact to the head. A detailed examination of the cervical spine was carried out in 43 cases. The spine was removed at post mortem

G. A. Ryan; J. T. Taylor; A. Moore

120

Cervical spine trauma radiography: comparison of general and musculoskeletal radiologists, with emphasis on number of views  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the number of views necessary to evaluate trauma patients for suspected cervical spine fractures, comparing\\u000a general and musculoskeletal radiologists. At separate sittings, independently and blindly, two musculoskeletal (MSKR) and\\u000a two general (GR) radiologists evaluated sets of cervical spine images on a 1- to 5-point confidence scale for the presence\\u000a of fracture in 68 trauma patients. First they evaluated

S. Basak; M. E. Schweitzer; L. Parker; D. Karasick; S. Karasick; R. Shah; D. Weishaupt

2001-01-01

121

MRI of giant cell turmor of the tendon sheath in the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

The authors present a case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) in the cervical spine, not previously described in the radiologic literature. Diagnostic imaging includes plain film radiographs, bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI. Only one case of tenosynoviaI giant cell tumor of the cervical spine has been reported. The radiological features of this tumor are described along with a brief review of GCTTS. 6 refs., 3 figs.

Bui-Mansfield, L.T.; Youngberg, R.A.; Coughlin, W.; Choolijian, D. [Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA (United States)] [Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, WA (United States)

1996-01-01

122

When to suspect head injury or cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma?  

PubMed Central

Background: The global status report of the World Health Organization (WHO) on road safety suggested that India is leading in road traffic accidents in the world. According to the report on road accidents in India in 2010 by the Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, New Delhi, Kerala ranked third in accidents per lakh population and second in persons injured per lakh population. As the face, brain, and cervical spine are in close proximity with one another, associated injuries can be suspected. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the severity of head, cervical spine, and facial injury and incidence of facial injury in patients with head and/or cervical spine injury. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over a period of one year. The study population included all patients having computed tomography (CT)-demonstrable head injury, radiographic evidence of cervical spine injury, and associated head or cervical spine injury with facial injury. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test using statistical package SPSS. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 124 patients, 59 (47.6%) had facial injuries. As severity of head injury increased, the number of facial injuries decreased. Statistically, no significant association between facial and head injury was seen. A statistically significant association between dentoalveolar involvement and cervical spine injury was seen (P < 0.001). The proportion of injuries in patients with cervical spine injuries alone was significantly lower in the frontal (P = 0.001) and orbital (P = 0.004) regions and higher in the mandibular region (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Midface injuries were more commonly associated with head injuries. Decreased facial involvement leads to increased severity of head injury. Simple injuries of the cervical spine were more commonly associated with facial injuries. PMID:25097643

Rahman, Sajjad A.; Chandrasala, Soumithran

2014-01-01

123

Pitfalls and complications in the treatment of cervical spine fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Patients with ankylosing spondylitis are at significant risk for sustaining cervical spine injuries following trauma predisposed by kyphosis, stiffness and osteoporotic bone quality of the spine. The risk of sustaining neurological deficits in this patient population is higher than average. The present review article provides an outline on the specific injury patterns in the cervical spine, diagnostic algorithms and specific treatment modalities dictated by the underlying disease in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. An emphasis is placed on the risks and complication patterns in the treatment of these rare, but challenging injuries. PMID:18538019

Heyde, Christoph-E; Fakler, Johannes K; Hasenboehler, Erik; Stahel, Philip F; John, Thilo; Robinson, Yohan; Tschoeke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph

2008-01-01

124

Geometric and mechanical properties of human cervical spine ligaments.  

PubMed

This study characterized the geometry and mechanical properties of the cervical ligaments from C2-T1 levels. The lengths and cross-sectional areas of the anterior longitudinal ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, joint capsules, ligamentum flavum, and interspinous ligament were determined from eight human cadavers using cryomicrotomy images. The geometry was defined based on spinal anatomy and its potential use in complex mathematical models. The biomechanical force-deflection, stiffness, energy, stress, and strain data were obtained from 25 cadavers using in situ axial tensile tests. Data were grouped into middle (C2-C5) and lower (C5-T1) cervical levels. Both the geometric length and area of cross section, and the biomechanical properties including the stiffness, stress, strain, energy, and Young's modulus, were presented for each of the five ligaments. In both groups, joint capsules and ligamentum flavum exhibited the highest cross-sectional area (p < 0.005), while the longitudinal ligaments had the highest length measurements. Although not reaching statistical significance, for all ligaments, cross-sectional areas were higher in the C5-T1 than in the C2-C5 group; and lengths were higher in the C2-C5 than in the C5-T1 group with the exception of the flavum (Table 1 in the main text). Force-deflection characteristics (plots) are provided for all ligaments in both groups. Failure strains were higher for the ligaments of the posterior (interspinous ligament, joint capsules, and ligamentum flavum) than the anterior complex (anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments) in both groups. In contrast, the failure stress and Young's modulus were higher for the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments compared to the ligaments of the posterior complex in the two groups. However, similar tendencies in the structural responses (stiffness, energy) were not found in both groups. Researchers attempting to incorporate these data into stress-analysis models can choose the specific parameter(s) based on the complexity of the model used to study the biomechanical behavior of the human cervical spine. PMID:11192384

Yoganandan, N; Kumaresan, S; Pintar, F A

2000-12-01

125

Treatment of tuberculosis of the cervical spine: operative versus nonoperative.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed 15 children (four with paralysis) and 39 adults (10 with paralysis) with tuberculosis of the cervical spine to assess the drug responses, disease arrest, and healing times. Ten children and 13 adults were treated nonoperatively, while anterior débridement was performed in five children (two with paralysis) and anterior radical surgery in 26 adults (10 with paralysis). Triple chemotherapy (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol [or pyrazinamide for children]) was given to all patients for 12 months. The tuberculosis began to arrest after 3 months of chemotherapy and healed within 12 months. Spontaneous fusion occurred in all adults but only two of the 10 children. Surgical fusion was achieved within 12 to 16 weeks in adults. In nonoperated patients, an initial kyphosis of 12 degrees progressed to 17 degrees at final followup in the children and an initial kyphosis of 9 degrees progressed to 13 degrees in 13 adults. In operated patients, the initial kyphosis of 13 degrees in adults became 2 degrees at the time of the fusion, while the initial kyphosis of 14 degrees in the five children progressed to 18 degrees. Patients with paraplegia recovered completely within 14 days on average (range, 1-42 days) after treatment. Recovery was gradual in the nonoperative group, while it occurred within 3 days in the operative group. PMID:17414165

Moon, Myung-Sang; Moon, Jeong-Lim; Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Young-Wan

2007-07-01

126

Comparison of Upper Cervical Flexion and Cervical Flexion Angle of Computer Workers with Upper Trapezius and Levator Scapular Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually. PMID:24648646

Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

127

Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical, metabolic, and kinematic spinal changes in the lumbar spine may aid further development of countermeasures to prevent lumbar back pain in microgravity and reduce the incidence of HNPs post-flight.

Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

2013-05-01

128

Immediate Reduction Under General Anesthesia and Single-staged Anteroposterior Spinal Reconstruction for Fracture-Dislocation of Lower Cervical Spine.  

PubMed

Fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine is a severe traumatic lesion, most frequently resulting in tetraplegia. Treatment is usually painful and time consuming. This retrospective study evaluated the clinical curative effect of immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction for fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine. Twelve cases of traumatic lower cervical spinal fracture-dislocation were retrospectively analyzed from January 2006 to December 2011. The injury level was C4/C5 in 4, C5/C6 in 5, and C6/C7 in 3 patients. The spinal cord function grades according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (2000 edition amended) before operation were as follows: grade A in 2 cases, grade B in 2 cases, grade C in 5 cases, grade D in 2 cases, and grade E in 1 case. On admission, all patients underwent immediate reduction under general anesthesia and single-staged anteroposterior spinal reconstruction by circumferential fixation/fusion. The spinal cord function grades according to American Spinal Injury Association after operation were as follows: grade A in 1 case, grade B in 1 case, grade C in 3 cases, grade D in 3 cases, and grade E in 4 cases. All 12 patients showed evidence of stability at the instrumented level on the final follow-up examination (mean follow-up, 3.7 y). Immediate reduction under general anesthesia followed by a single-stage combined anteroposterior spinal reconstruction is a safe and reliable way of treating patients with lower cervical spine fracture-dislocations. PMID:24335725

Shen, Yu; Shen, Hui-Liang; Feng, Ming-Li; Zhang, Wen-Bo

2013-12-11

129

Selective Cervical Spine Radiography in Blunt Trauma: Methodology of the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fear of failure to identify cervical spine injury has led to extremely liberal use of radiography in patients with blunt trauma and remotely possible neck injury. A number of previous retrospective and small prospective studies have tried to address the question of whether any clinical criteria can identify patients, from among this group, at sufficiently low risk that cervical spine

Jerome R Hoffman; Allan B Wolfson; Knox Todd; William R Mower

1998-01-01

130

Radiation therapy for chordomas of the base of skull and cervical spine: Patterns of failure and outcome after relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the patterns of failure and outcome following relapse of chordomas of the base of skull and cervical spine.Methods and Materials: Between November 1975 and October 1993, 204 patients were treated for chordoma of the base of skull or cervical spine, of which 63 have developed relapse. These 63 patients constitute the main focus of this study. Forty-five

Marcio A. Fagundes; Eugen B. Hug; Norbert J. Liebsch; William Daly; Jimmy Efird; John E. Munzenrider

1995-01-01

131

Laminar hook instrumentation in the cervical spine. An experimental study on the relation of hooks to the spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several anterior and posterior methods are today available for stabilization of the cervical spine. Factors such as level and degree of instability, method of decompression, bone quality, length of fixation and safety factors influence the choice of method for a particular patient. The use of laminar hooks in the cervical spine has been restricted by fear of cord compression with

T. Fagerström; R. Hedlund; P. Bancel; R. Robert; B. Dupas

2001-01-01

132

Summary of the National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on the acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete.  

PubMed

The incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sports is low compared with other injuries. However, cervical spine injuries necessitate delicate and precise management, often involving the combined efforts of a variety of health care providers. The outcome of a catastrophic cervical spine injury depends on the efficiency of this management process and timeliness of transfer to a controlled environment for diagnosis and treatment. The objective of the National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) position statement on the acute care of the cervical spine-injured athlete is to provide the certified athletic trainer, team physician, emergency responder, and other health care professionals with recommendations on how to best manage a catastrophic cervical spine injury in an athlete. Recommendations are based on current evidence pertaining to prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of cervical spine injuries in sport; emergency planning and preparation to increase management efficiency; maintaining or creating neutral alignment in the cervical spine; accessing and maintaining the airway; stabilizing and transferring the athlete with a suspected cervical spine injury; managing the athlete participating in an equipment-laden sport such as football, hockey, or lacrosse; and imaging considerations in the emergency department. PMID:20048537

Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Boden, Barry P; Waninger, Kevin N; Courson, Ronald W; Horodyski, Marybeth; Rehberg, Robb S

2009-12-01

133

[Mode-of-action of manual medicine in the cervical spine].  

PubMed

Manual medicine aims at diagnosing and treating different disorders of the musculoskeletal system. It is a multidisciplinary approach with special emphasis on reversible disorders of the joints, muscles and ligaments. This treatment conception includes chirotherapy, physical therapy and drug treatment. The spine, an in particular the cervical spine, is treated primarily for joint disorders characterized by a variety of symptoms (e.g.headache, vertigo, dizziness, blurred vision). Manual medicine should be an integral part of modern clinical otolaryngology. PMID:14521153

Ernst, A; Seidl, R O; Todt, I

2003-09-01

134

Effects of Visual Display Terminal Works on Cervical Movement Pattern in Patients with Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study examined changes in the onset of neck movement in young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) during visual display terminal (VDT) work. [Subjects] Ten control subjects and 10 subjects with MNP who were VDT workers were recruited. The upper (UC) and lower cervical (LC) spine angles in the sagittal plane were collected using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system during VDT work for 5?min. [Results] The MNP group had faster movement initiation in the UC and LC compared with the control group during VDT work. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP should be cautious when performing VDT work while sitting. PMID:25140089

Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Oh, Jae-Seop

2014-01-01

135

Clinical application of combined fixation in the cervical spine using posterior transfacet screws and pedicle screws.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical application of combined fixation in the cervical spine using posterior transfacet and pedicle screws. Ten patients with cervical disorders requiring stabilization were treated from May 2006 to December 2008. The operative details varied depending on indication, the need for decompression, and the number of levels to be included in the spinal construct. Radiographic analysis of the fusion was performed after surgery. A total of 23 transfacet screws were inserted at or caudal to the C4/5 facet. A total of 21 pedicle screws were placed. All patients underwent operative treatment without neurovascular complications. Fusion was achieved in all patients. When performed appropriately, the method of using posterior transfacet screws in the caudal cervical joints combined with pedicle screw fixation in the cephalic cervical spine is reliable and deserves more widespread use. PMID:23232101

Liu, Guanyi; Ma, Weihu; Xu, Rongming; Godinsky, Ryan; Sun, Shaohua; Feng, Jianxiang; Zhao, Liujun; Hu, Yong; Zhou, Leijie; Liu, Jiayong

2013-04-01

136

Reproducibility and instrument validity of a new ultrasonography-based system for measuring cervical spine kinematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To report instrument validity of CMS 70P, a new ultrasonography-based system for spatial kinematic analysis of the spine and its application in studying the reproducibility of cervical motion findings in healthy subjects.Background. Reproducibility of cervical motion has been investigated using various instruments and consisting in most cases of short test–retest time intervals of between minutes to days.Methods. Performance of

Zeevi Dvir; Tamara Prushansky

2000-01-01

137

Assessment of cervical spine movement during laryngoscopy with Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes  

PubMed Central

Background: Truview laryngoscope provides an indirect view of the glottis and will cause less cervical spine movement since a ventral lifting force will not be required to visualize the glottis compared to Macintosh laryngoscope. Materials and Methods: A randomized crossover study to assess the degree of movement of cervical spine during endotracheal intubation with Truview laryngoscope was conducted in 25 adult ASA-I patients. After a standard anesthetic technique laryngoscopy was performed twice in each patient using in turn both the Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes. A baseline radiograph with the head and neck in a neutral position was followed by a second radiograph taken during each laryngoscopy. An experienced radiologist analyzed and measured the cervical movement. Results: Significant cervical spine movement occurred at all segments when compared to the baseline with both the Macintosh and Truview laryngoscopes (P < 0.001). However, the movement was significantly less with Truview compared to the Macintosh laryngoscope at C0–C1 (21%; P = 0.005) and C1–C2 levels (32%; P = 0.009). The atlantooccipital distance (AOD) traversed while using Truview laryngoscope was significantly less than with Macintosh blade (26%; P = 0.001). Truview blade produced a better laryngoscopic view (P = 0.005) than Macintosh blade, but had a longer time to laryngoscopy (P = 0.04). Conclusion: Truview laryngoscope produced a better laryngoscopic view of glottis as compared with Macintosh laryngoscopy. It also produced significantly less cervical spine movement at C0–C1 and C1–C2 levels than with Macintosh laryngoscope in patients without cervical spine injury and without manual in-line stabilization (MILS). Further studies are warranted with Truview laryngoscope using MILS. PMID:24106352

Bhardwaj, Neerja; Jain, Kajal; Rao, Madhusudan; Mandal, Arup Kumar

2013-01-01

138

Treatment for Lateral Flexion Fracture Dislocation of the Cervical Spine: Report of Two Cases  

PubMed Central

The injury mechanism of traumatic cervical spine injury varies, and Allen et al. divide cervical spine injuries into 6 types based on the direction of external force at the time of injury. In this report, we present 2 cases as Lateral Flexion Stage 2. A 51-year-old male (Case 1) was injured in a traffic accident. His conscious level was JCS III-200, and he was found to have a Frankel Grade of B. X-ray revealed a C5/6 fracture dislocation injury of Lateral Flexion Stage 2. We were unable to obtain good reduction. We planned to perform posterior fusion using a cervical spine pedicle screw but could not perform the procedure due to the patient’s poor general condition. A 32-year-old male (Case 2) was injured as a result of being hit by a steel sheet. He had Frankel Grade D paralysis. X-ray revealed a C5/6 fracture dislocation injury of Lateral Flexion Stage 2. We did not perform manual reduction. We performed posterior fixation, anterior decompression and anterior fixation. Bone union was confirmed, and the patient was able to return to work. In cases of this type of fracture dislocation of the cervical spine, the supporting structures of the spinal column circumferentially rupture and induce high instability. Since closed reduction is sometimes difficult and involves risk, strong internal fixation might be recommended.

Shiina, Itsuo; Hioki, Shigeru; Kamada, Hiroshi; Amano, Kuniaki; Noguchi, Hiroshi

2010-01-01

139

The epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic, pathologic, biomechanical, and cinema tographic data on head and neck injuries occurring in tackle football have been compiled since 1971 by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry. Pre liminary analysis performed in 1975 indicated that the majority of serious cervical spine football injuries were caused by axial loading. Based on this observation, the National Collegiate Athletic Association

Joseph S. Torg; Joseph J. Vegso; Mary Jane ONeill; Brian Sennett

1990-01-01

140

Fibrous dysplasia of the cervical spine presenting as a pathological fracture.  

PubMed

Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is an uncommon benign fibro-osseous abnormality of bone, of unknown aetiology and equal sex incidence, which is most commonly restricted to one bone (monostotic FD: MFD, 70%). Less commonly multiple bones are affected (polyostotic FD: PFD, 27%). Vertebral involvement is uncommon (4%), but more common with PFD (7 - 24%) than MFD (1%). Of 20 cases of FD involving the cervical spine, only three have represented MFD. Unlike cases associated with PFD, all cases presented with acute neck pain without significant neurological impairment after minor trauma. We present the case of a 35-year-old male with MFD who developed a pathological fracture of C3 following minor trauma. Radiographs showed collapse and typical 'ground glass' lucency of C3. CT revealed replacement of C3 cancellous bone by hypodense tissue extending into the right lateral mass. The cortex was thinned and fractured, and encroached upon the right foramen transversarium and spinal canal. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated hypo-intensity on both T1 and T2, with uniform contrast enhancement. Subtotal excision was achieved via an anterior C3 corpectomy, with residual FD left within the right lateral mass. Stability was achieved utilizing an iliac crest strut autograft, C2-4 plate-and-screws, and mobilization in a halo frame for 3 months. At 18 months, he remained asymptomatic and without deficit. Radiography, CT and MRI confirmed graft fusion without FD invasion, but with residual right lateral mass FD unchanged in size. PMID:15799160

Marshman, L A G; David, K M; O'Donovan, D G; Chawda, S J

2004-10-01

141

Inter-examiner reliability in assessing passive intervertebral motion of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Passive intervertebral motion of the cervical spine was assessed independently by two physical therapists. The therapists had equal backgrounds concerning education and clinical experience. Sixty-one patients seeking care for cervical problems at a private clinic were included in the study where three segments of the cervical spine and the mobility of the first rib were graded as stiff or not stiff. Data were analysed by percentage agreement and kappa coefficient which indicates inter-examiner reliability greater than expected by chance. Results demonstrated inter-examiner reliability of between 70 and 87% and kappa coefficients ranging between 0.28 and 0.43 considered to be only 'fair to moderate'. PMID:10903585

Smedmark, V; Wallin, M; Arvidsson, I

2000-05-01

142

Altered Co-contraction of Cervical Muscles in Young Adults with Chronic Neck Pain during Voluntary Neck Motions  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Muscle co-contraction is important in stabilizing the spine. The aim of this study was to compare cervical muscle co-contraction in adults with and without chronic neck pain during voluntary movements. [Subjects and Methods] Surface electromyography of three paired cervical muscles was measured in fifteen young healthy subjects and fifteen patients with chronic neck pain. The subjects performed voluntary neck movements in the sagittal and coronal plane at slow speed. The co-contraction ratio was defined as the normalized integration of the antagonistic electromyography activities divided by that of the total muscle activities. [Results] The results showed that the co-contraction ratio of patients was greater during flexion movement, lesser during extension movement, slightly greater during right lateral bending, and slightly lesser during left lateral bending compared with in the controls. [Conclusion] The results suggested that neck pain patients exhibit greater antagonistic muscle activity during flexion and dominate-side bending movements to augment spinal stability, while neuromuscular control provides relatively less protection in the opposite movements. This study helps to specify the changes of the stiffness of the cervical spine in neck pain patients and provides a useful tool and references for clinical assessment of neck disorders. PMID:24764639

Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Liu, Wen-Yu; Wang, Shwu-Fen; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chuang, Yu-Fen

2014-01-01

143

Chiropractic and Neck Pain: Conservative Care of Cervical Pain, Injury  

MedlinePLUS

... this flexibility makes the neck very susceptible to pain and injury. The neck’s susceptibility to injury is ... normal aging, and everyday wear and tear. Neck pain can be very bothersome, and it can have ...

144

Neurological recovery after surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningoceles extending to lumbar spine associated with previous brachial plexus injury.  

PubMed

The authors describe a case of 28-year-old man who presented with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy due to the giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine at 10 years after previous brachial plexus injury. To evaluate the communicating tract between pseudomeningocele and subarachnoidal space, the multidetector-row helical CT with simultaneous myelography was performed preoperatively. The surgical treatment in the cervical spine included the resection of pseudomeningocele and the repair of dural defects communicating into the cyst following multi-level laminoplasty and foraminotomies. At 6 years after surgery, the significant neurologic recovery and complete obliteration of cysts in the whole spine area were maintained. This serves as the first report describing the significant neurologic recovery after the surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine after previous brachial plexus injury. PMID:20383537

Kotani, Yoshihisa; Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Terae, Satoshi; Hisada, Yukiyoshi; Minami, Akio

2010-07-01

145

Neurological recovery after surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningoceles extending to lumbar spine associated with previous brachial plexus injury  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of 28-year-old man who presented with cervical myelopathy and lumbar radiculopathy due to the giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine at 10 years after previous brachial plexus injury. To evaluate the communicating tract between pseudomeningocele and subarachnoidal space, the multidetector-row helical CT with simultaneous myelography was performed preoperatively. The surgical treatment in the cervical spine included the resection of pseudomeningocele and the repair of dural defects communicating into the cyst following multi-level laminoplasty and foraminotomies. At 6 years after surgery, the significant neurologic recovery and complete obliteration of cysts in the whole spine area were maintained. This serves as the first report describing the significant neurologic recovery after the surgical treatment of giant cervical pseudomeningocele extending to the lumbar spine after previous brachial plexus injury. PMID:20383537

Abumi, Kuniyoshi; Ito, Manabu; Terae, Satoshi; Hisada, Yukiyoshi; Minami, Akio

2010-01-01

146

Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections  

PubMed Central

Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ? 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (? 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

2012-01-01

147

Cervical spine injuries in children: A review of 103 patients treated consecutively at a level 1 pediatric trauma center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Cervical spine (C-spine) injuries occur infrequently in children but may be associated with significant disability and mortality. The purpose of this study was to review the experience of a level 1 pediatric trauma center to determine the epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms, levels, types of injury, comorbid factors, and outcomes associated with these potentially devastating injuries. Methods: A retrospective analysis

Rebeccah L. Brown; Margie A. Brunn; Victor F. Garcia

2001-01-01

148

Pain and Tissue-Interface Pressures During Spine-Board Immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objectives: Although spine boards are one of the main EMS means of immobilization and transportation, few studies have addressed the discomfort and potential harmful consequences of using this common EMS tool. We compared the levels of pain and tissue-interface (contact) pressures in volunteers immobilized on spine boards with and without interposed air mattresses.Design: Prospective crossover study. Setting: Emergency department

William H Cordell; Jason C Hollingsworth; Michael L Olinger; Steven J Stroman; David R Nelson

1995-01-01

149

Cervical Spine Motion During Tracheal Intubation with Manual In-Line Stabilization: Direct Laryngoscopy versus GlideScope Videolaryngoscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The optimal tracheal intubation technique for patients with potential cervical (C) spine injury remains controversial. Using continuous cinefluoroscopy, we conducted a prospective study comparing C-spine movement during intuba- tion using direct laryngoscopy (DL) or GlideScope® videolaryngoscopy (GVL), with uninterrupted manual in-line stabilization of the head by an assistant. METHODS: Twenty patients without C-spine pathology were studied. After induc- tion

Arnaud Robitaille; Stephan R. Williams; Marie-Helene Tremblay; Francois Guilbert; Melanie Theriault

150

Chordomas: their CT appearance in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine  

SciTech Connect

The authors reviewed 25 CT scans of 21 patients who had chordomas in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine. Nine patients were studied at the time of initial presentation and 12 after after tumor recurrence. All scans showed vertebral body destruction coupled with an associated soft tissue mass located anteriorly or laterally. Additional CT findings included septated areas of low attenuation within the tumor, amorphous soft tissue calcification, tumor extensions into the spinal canal, disk space involvement, and contrast enhancement.

Meyer, J.E.; Lepke, R.A.; Lindfors, K.K.; Pagani, J.J.; Hirschy, J.C.; Hayman, L.A.; Momose, K.J.; McGinnis, B.

1984-12-01

151

Teardrop fractures of the lower cervical spine: classification and analysis of 54 cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tear-drop fractures, as described by Schneider and Kahn, are by definition unstable injuries, since both bony and ligamentous\\u000a elements are involved in such lesions. Fifty-four patients having sustained the above-mentioned injury were treated in our\\u000a Orthopaedic Department during the last 36 years, representing the 8.1% of all cervical spine injuries. Those patients, 45\\u000a men and 9 women, of a mean age

D. S. Korres; I. S. Benetos; D. S. Evangelopoulos; M. Athanasssacopoulos; P. Gratsias; O. Papamichos; G. C. Babis

2007-01-01

152

Kinematic analysis of the lower cervical spine in the protracted and retracted neck flexion positions  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to analyze lower cervical spine kinematics in protracted and retracted neck flexion positions in healthy people. [Subjects and Methods] The craniovertebral angle (CVA) and intervertebral body angles of the lower cervical spine of 10 healthy individuals were analyzed using fluoroscopy in a neutral sitting with the head in the neutral (N), protracted (Pro), and retracted (Ret) positions and with the neck in full flexion with the head in the neutral (N-fx), protracted (Pro-fx), and retracted (Ret-fx) positions. [Results] There were significant differences in the CVA and intervertebral body angle at the C3–4 level, and the Ret position showed the highest values followed by the N and Pro positions. Regarding the intervertebral body angle at the C4–5 level, the Pro position showed a higher value than the N and Ret positions. At the C6–7 level, the Pro position showed the lowest value compared with the N and Ret positions. In the CVA, the Ret-fx position showed a higher value than the N-fx and Ret-fx positions. [Conclusion] The results suggest that in the neutral sitting position, protraction is an ineffective posture due to overstress of the C6–7 segment, which is placed in a hyperflexed position at this level. Instead, retraction is the recommend posture for the patient with C6–7 degeneration, which makes for a more flexed position in the upper cervical spine and a less flexed position in the lower cervical spine.

Park, So Hyun

2015-01-01

153

Reactive arthritis of the temporomandibular joints and cervical spine in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis is frequently seen in children with chronic arthritis. It has rarely been described in a non-infectious acute setting. We report a case of reactive arthritis isolated to the TMJs and cervical spine. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old Native American boy hospitalized for treatment of lymphadenitis and aseptic meningitis had an incidental brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Bita Arabshahi; Kevin M Baskin; Randy Q Cron

2007-01-01

154

Ultrasound imaging of cervical spine motion for extreme acceleration environments  

E-print Network

Neck and back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints in personnel in variable acceleration environments such as astronauts and military pilots. Ultrasound is known for dynamic imaging and diagnostic ...

Buckland, Daniel Miller

2011-01-01

155

Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

Ahn, Peter H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)], E-mail: phahn@mdanderson.org; Ahn, Andrew I. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

2009-02-01

156

High rotation rate behavior of cervical spine segments in flexion and extension.  

PubMed

Numerical finite element (FE) models of the neck have been developed to simulate occupant response and predict injury during motor vehicle collisions. However, there is a paucity of data on the response of young cervical spine segments under dynamic loading in flexion and extension, which is essential for the development or validation of tissue-level FE models. This limitation was identified during the development and validation of the FE model used in this study. The purpose of this study was to measure the high rotation rate loading response of human cervical spine segments in flexion and extension, and to investigate a new tissue-level FE model of the cervical spine with the experimental data to address a limitation in available data. Four test samples at each segment level from C2-C3 to C7-T1 were dissected from eight donors and were tested to 10 deg of rotation at 1 and 500 deg/s in flexion and extension using a custom built test apparatus. There was strong evidence (p < 0.05) of increased stiffness at the higher rotation rate above 4 deg of rotation in flexion and at 8 deg and 10 deg of rotation in extension. Cross-correlation software, Cora, was used to evaluate the fit between the experimental data and model predictions. The average rating was 0.771, which is considered to demonstrate a good correlation to the experimental data. PMID:25070575

Barker, Jeffrey B; Cronin, Duane S; Chandrashekar, Naveen

2014-12-01

157

Do design variations in the artificial disc influence cervical spine biomechanics? A finite element investigation.  

PubMed

Various ball and socket-type designs of cervical artificial discs are in use or under investigation. Many artificial disc designs claim to restore the normal kinematics of the cervical spine. What differentiates one type of design from another design is currently not well understood. In this study, authors examined various clinically relevant parameters using a finite element model of C3-C7 cervical spine to study the effects of variations of ball and socket disc designs. Four variations of ball and socket-type artificial disc were placed at the C5-C6 level in an experimentally validated finite element model. Biomechanical effects of the shape (oval vs. spherical ball) and location (inferior vs. superior ball) were studied in detail. Range of motion, facet loading, implant stresses and capsule ligament strains were computed to investigate the influence of disc designs on resulting biomechanics. Motions at the implant level tended to increase following disc replacement. No major kinematic differences were observed among the disc designs tested. However, implant stresses were substantially higher in the spherical designs when compared to the oval designs. For both spherical and oval designs, the facet loads were lower for the designs with an inferior ball component. The capsule ligament strains were lower for the oval design with an inferior ball component. Overall, the oval design with an inferior ball component, produced motion, facet loads, implant stresses and capsule ligament strains closest to the intact spine, which may be key to long-term implant survival. PMID:19936805

Faizan, Ahmad; Goel, Vijay K; Garfin, Steven R; Bono, Christopher M; Serhan, Hassan; Biyani, Ashok; Elgafy, Hossein; Krishna, Manoj; Friesem, Tai

2012-06-01

158

Global and regional kinematics of the cervical spine during upper cervical spine manipulation: a reliability analysis of 3D motion data.  

PubMed

Studies reporting spine kinematics during cervical manipulation are usually related to continuous global head-trunk motion or discrete angular displacements for pre-positioning. To date, segmental data analyzing continuous kinematics of cervical manipulation is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate upper cervical spine (UCS) manipulation in vitro. This paper reports an inter- and intra-rater reliability analysis of kinematics during high velocity low amplitude manipulation of the UCS. Integration of kinematics into specific-subject 3D models has been processed as well for providing anatomical motion representation during thrust manipulation. Three unembalmed specimens were included in the study. Restricted dissection was realized to attach technical clusters to each bone of interest (skull, C1-C4 and sternum). During manipulation, bone motion data was computed using an optoelectronic system. The reliability of manipulation kinematics was assessed for three experimented practitioners performing two trials of 3 repetitions on two separate days. During UCS manipulation, average global head-trunk motion ROM (±SD) were 14 ± 5°, 35 ± 7° and 14 ± 8° for lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively. For regional ROM (C0-C2), amplitudes were 10 ± 5°, 30 ± 5° and 16 ± 4° for the same respective motions. Concerning the reliability, mean RMS ranged from 1° to 4° and from 3° to 6° for intra- and inter-rater comparisons, respectively. The present results confirm the limited angular displacement during manipulation either for global head-trunk or for UCS motion components, especially for axial rotation. Additionally, kinematics variability was low confirming intra- and inter-practitioners consistency of UCS manipulation achievement. PMID:24920337

Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Beyer, Benoît; Sobczak, Stéphane; Salvia, Patrick; Feipel, Véronique

2014-10-01

159

[Spontaneous ossification of the cervical spine after subtotal surgery spondylotic myelopathy].  

PubMed

Subtotal corporectomy without fusion (SCWF) is a misunderstood surgical procedure used in the treatment of spondylotic myelopathy. This clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficiency of the SCWF. Long term neurological status and cervical spine ossification were specially studied. Sixty-four patients, operated between 1990 and 2003, were evaluated. The average follow-up period was five years. To assess the severity of neurological symptoms, a functional seven-point classification scale was used. Discriminant analysis was applied as statistic. There was a significant correlation between outcome, functional preoperative score, age, duration of the compression and intramedullary lesion in NMR. After SCWF, no secondary cervical instability was observed. Conversely, we show, for the first time in the literature, that on the twenty-one patients who were the subject of late 3D CT scan, there exists a true rebuilding of the cervical bone with spontaneous fusion and respect of cervical cord decompression. We conclude that the SCWF is a safe and efficient treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. No fusion is required regardless of the number of levels, providing there is no preoperative instability. This surgical procedure which does not require any cervical immobilization considerably decreases surgical risks and costs imposed by the society. PMID:16465778

Born, J D

2005-01-01

160

The need to add motor evoked potential monitoring to somatosensory and electromyographic monitoring in cervical spine surgery  

PubMed Central

Intraoperative neural monitoring (IONM), utilizing somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) and electromyography (EMG), was introduced to cervical spine surgery in the late 1980's. However, as SEP only provided physiological data regarding the posterior cord, new motor deficits were observed utilizing SEP alone. This prompted the development of motor evoked potential monitoring (MEP) which facilitated real-time assessment of the anterior/anterolateral spinal cord. Although all three modalities, SEP, EMG, and MEP, are routinely available for IONM of cervical spine procedures, MEP are not yet routinely employed. The purpose of this review is to emphasize that MEP should now routinely accompany SEP and EMG when performing IONM of cervical spine surgery. Interestingly, one of the most common reasons for malpractice suits involving the cervical spine, is quadriparesis/quadriplegia following a single level anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Previously, typical allegations in these suits included; negligent surgery, lack of informed consent, failure to diagnose/treat, and failure to brace. Added to this list, perhaps, as the 5th most reason for a suit will be failure to monitor with MEP. This review documents the value of MEP monitoring in addition to SEP and EMG monitoring in cervical spine surgery. The addition of MEP0 should minimize major motor injuries, and more accurately and reliably detect impending anterior cord deterioration that may be missed with SEP monitoring alone. PMID:24340237

Epstein, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

161

Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES  

E-print Network

program of neck strengthening exercises as well as stretching exercises to increase flexibility and gentle stretching will help the muscles relax. Do not worry about headache development, unless direct Quick Treatment: Neck Pain See Your Healthcare Provider If Rehabilitation Exercises Rights and Wrongs

Virginia Tech

162

Myofibroma of the cervical spine presenting as brachialgia.  

PubMed

Myofibromas are rare, benign tumors of myofibroblasts. Their occurrence in adults, involving bone outside of the head and neck, is especially uncommon. The authors report the case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with left-sided brachialgia. Magnetic resonance imaging identified an expansile soft-tissue lesion of the C6-7 facet joint. En bloc resection via a left posterior midline approach was undertaken. Histopathological analysis confirmed the lesion to be a myofibroma. Brachialgia resolved following surgery and there is no evidence of recurrence at 20 months follow-up. Myofibroma is a rare cause of primary soft-tissue tumor of the spine. Surgical excision remains the mainstay of treatment. PMID:25303617

Davies, Benjamin M; du Plessis, Daniel; Gnanalingham, Kanna K

2014-12-01

163

Giant Ventral Midline Schwannoma of Cervical Spine : Agonies and Nuances  

PubMed Central

Pure ventral midline giant schwannoma is an extremely rare entity. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas commonly occur posterolateral or anterolateral to the spinal cord. A case of a pure midline ventrally situated giant pan cervical extramedullary schwannoma in an 18-year-old male patient with compressive myelopathy and sphincter involvement is presented. Spinal MR imaging showed a midline ventrally situated extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression extending from clivus to C7 vertebra. It was resected through a posterolateral approach. Histology was consistent with a schwannoma. Post operative MR imaging showed no evidence of the tumor. The radiological features, pathogenesis and surgical strategies in management of these difficult tumors are discussed and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. PMID:20617092

Chagla, Aadil; Goel, Atul

2010-01-01

164

Subarachnoid hematoma of the craniocervical junction and upper cervical spine after traumatic cerebral contusion: case report.  

PubMed

Spinal subarachnoid hematoma (SSH) is a rare condition, more commonly occurring after lumbar puncture for diagnostic or anesthesiological procedures. It has also been observed after traumatic events, in patients under anticoagulation therapy or in case of arteriovenous malformation rupture. In a very small number of cases no causative agent can be identified and a diagnosis of spontaneous SSH is established. The lumbar and thoracic spine are the most frequently involved segments and only seven cases of cervical spine SSH have been described until now. Differential diagnosis between subdural and subarachnoid hematoma is complex because the common neuroradiological investigations, including a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not enough sensitive to exactly define clot location. Actually, confirmation of the subarachnoid location of bleeding is obtained at surgery, which is necessary to resolve the fast and sometimes dramatic evolution of clinical symptoms. Nonetheless, there are occasional reports on successful conservative treatment of these lesions. We present a peculiar case of subarachnoid hematoma of the craniocervical junction, developing after the rupture of a right temporal lobe contusion within the adjacent arachnoidal spaces and the following clot migration along the right lateral aspect of the foramen magnum and the upper cervical spine, causing severe neurological impairment. After surgical removal of the hematoma, significant symptom improvement was observed. PMID:24067775

Di Rienzo, Alessandro; Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Alvaro, Lorenzo; Colasanti, Roberto; Moriconi, Elisa; Gladi, Maurizio; Nocchi, Niccolò; Scerrati, Massimo

2013-01-01

165

Segmentation and feature extraction of cervical spine x-ray images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an R&D project in mixed text/image database design, the National Library of Medicine has archived a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine which were collected as part of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). To make this image data available and usable to a wide audience, we are investigating techniques for indexing the image content by automated or semi-automated means. Indexing of the images by features of interest to researchers in spine disease and structure requires effective segmentation of the vertebral anatomy. This paper describes work in progress toward this segmentation of the cervical spine images into anatomical components of interest, including anatomical landmarks for vertebral location, and segmentation and identification of individual vertebrae. Our work includes developing a reliable method for automatically fixing an anatomy-based coordinate system in the images, and work to adaptively threshold the images, using methods previously applied by researchers in cardioangiography. We describe the motivation for our work and present our current results in both areas.

Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

1999-05-01

166

Success in Esophageal Perforation Repair with open-wound Management after Revision Cervical Spine Surgery - A Case Report.  

PubMed

Study Design. Case report.Objective. To share our successful experience in treating one case of esophageal perforation following anterior revision cervical spine surgery with open-wound managementSummary of Background Data. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment is widely adopted in the management of esophageal complications after anterior cervical spine surgery, but the management of wound after surgical repair of esophageal perforation is rarely discussed.Methods. One patient underwent revision anterior cervical spine surgery because of displaced hardware and poor alignment of cervical spine. Esophageal perforation was incurred intraoperatively and found on the first postoperative day. Repair surgery was carried out immediately afterwards. During the surgery, esophageal perforation was closed with a suture, and reinforced with a sternocleidomastoid muscle flap. The wound was loosely closed with aspirating drainage. Two days after the surgery, the patient began to show signs of recurrent esophageal leakage and severe secondary wound infection. The wound was then re-opened completely before a continuous irrigation and drainage system was positioned in place.Result. In twelve weeks, the esophageal perforation healed without complications or loosening of instrumentation.Conclusion. Open-wound management succeeded in this patient after surgical repair of esophageal perforation caused by revision anterior cervical spine surgery. PMID:25398037

Ji, Hongquan; Liu, Dandan; You, Weitao; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Zhongjun

2014-11-13

167

Pattern of premature degenerative changes of the cervical spine in patients with spasmodic torticollis and the impact on the outcome of selective peripheral denervation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To characterise the pattern of and risk factors for degenerative changes of the cervical spine in patients with spasmodic torticollis and to assess whether these changes affect outcome after selective peripheral denervation.?METHODS—Preoperative CT of the upper cervical spine of 34 patients with spasmodic torticollis referred for surgery were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the clinical findings. Degenerative changes were assessed for each joint separately and rated as absent, minimal, moderate, or severe. Patients were clinically assessed before surgery and 3 months postoperatively by an independent examiner using standardised clinical rating scales. For comparison of means a t test was carried out. To determine whether an association exists between the side of degenerative changes and type of spasmodic torticollis a ?2 test was used. Changes in severity, disability, and pain before and after surgery were calculated using a Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test.?RESULTS—Fourteen out of 34 patients had moderate or severe degenerative changes. They were predominantly found at the C2/C3 and C3/C4 level and were significantly more likely to occur on the side of the main direction of the spasmodic torticollis (p=0.015). There was no significant difference in age, sex, duration of torticollis, overall severity, degree of disability, or pain between the group with either no or minimal changes and the group with moderate or severe changes. However, in the second group the duration of inadequate treatment was longer (10.1 v 4.8 years; p=0.009), head mobility was more restricted (p=0.015), and head tremor was more severe (p=0.01). At 3 months postoperatively, patients with no or minimal degenerative changes showed a significant improvement in pain and severity whereas no difference was found in those with moderate or severe changes.?CONCLUSIONS—Patients with spasmodic torticollis have an increased risk of developing premature degenerative changes of the upper cervical spine that tend to be on the side towards which the head is turned or tilted and compromise outcome after surgery. Effective early treatment of spasmodic torticollis with botulinum toxin seems to have a protective effect. Patients with spasmodic torticollis and restricted head mobility who do not adequately respond to treatment should undergo imaging of the upper cervical spine. Patients with imaging evidence of moderate or severe degenerative changes seem to respond poorly to selective peripheral denervation.?? PMID:10727482

Chawda, S; Munchau, A; Johnson, D; Bhatia, K; Quinn, N; Stevens, J; Lees, A; Palmer, J

2000-01-01

168

Surgical treatment of spondylodiscitis in the cervical spine: a minimum 2-year follow-up.  

PubMed

Cervical spine spondylodiscitis is a rare, but serious manifestation of spinal infection. We present a retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients between 01/1994 and 12/1999 treated because of cervical spondylodiscitis. Mean age at the time of treatment was 59.7 (range 34-81) years, nine of them female. In all cases, diagnosis had been established with a delay. All patients in this series underwent surgery such as radical debridement, decompression if necessary, autologous bone grafting and instrumentation. Surgery was indicated if a neurological deficit, symptoms of sepsis, epidural abscess formation with consecutive stenosis, instability or severe deformity were present. Postoperative antibiotic therapy was carried out for 8-12 weeks. Follow-up examinations were performed a mean of 37 (range 24-63) months after surgery. Healing of the inflammation was confirmed in all cases by laboratory, clinical and radiological parameters. Spondylodesis was controlled radiologically and could be achieved in all cases. One case showed a 15 degrees kyphotic angle in the proximal adjacent segment. Spontaneous bony bridging of the proximal adjacent segment was observed in one patient. In the other cases the adjacent segments radiologically showed neither fusion nor infection related changes. Preoperative neurological deficits improved in all cases. Residual neurological deficits persisted in three of eight cases. The results indicate that spondylodiscitis in cervical spine should be treated early and aggressive to avoid local and systemic complications. PMID:16868782

Heyde, Christoph E; Boehm, Heinrich; El Saghir, Hesham; Tschöke, Sven K; Kayser, Ralph

2006-09-01

169

Failure properties and damage of cervical spine ligaments, experiments and modeling.  

PubMed

Cervical spine ligaments have an important role in providing spinal cord stability and restricting excessive movements. Therefore, it is of great importance to study the mechanical properties and model the response of these ligaments. The aim of this study is to characterize the aging effects on the failure properties and model the damage of three cervical spine ligaments: the anterior and the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. A total of 46 samples of human cadaveric ligaments removed within 24-48 h after death have been tested. Uniaxial tension tests along the fiber direction were performed in physiological conditions. The results showed that aging decreased the failure properties of all three ligaments (failure load, failure elongation). Furthermore, the reported nonlinear response of cervical ligaments has been modeled with a combination of the previously reported hyperelastic and damage model. The model predicted a nonlinear response and damage region. The model fittings are in agreement with the experimental data and the quality of agreement is represented with the values of the coefficient of determination close to 1. PMID:24389891

Trajkovski, Ana; Omerovi?, Senad; Hribernik, Marija; Prebil, Ivan

2014-03-01

170

Coexistence of neurofibroma and meningioma at exactly the same level of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

We report a case of the coexistence of different spinal tumors at the same level of the cervical spine, without neurofibromatosis (NF), which was successfully treated with surgery. A 72-year-old female presented with right upper-limb clumsiness and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural, extramedullary tumor mass at the right C3-4 level with extradural extension into the intervertebral foramen. The extradural tumor was removed, and the pathology showed neurofibroma. After incision of the dura, the intradural tumor was removed, and was identified as meningioma in the pathological report. The patient did not meet the criteria of NF. Coexistence of neurofibroma and meningioma at exactly the same level of the spine without NF is extremely rare. Exploration of the intradural space may be necessary after resection of an extradural tumor if the surgical finding does not correlate well with the preoperative images. PMID:25128077

Chen, Kai-Yuan; Wu, Jau-Ching; Lin, Shih-Cheih; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

2014-11-01

171

Radiographic characteristics of the hand and cervical spine in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva  

PubMed Central

Summary Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disabling heritable disorder of connective tissue characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in various extraskeletal sites. Early correct diagnosis of FOP is important to prevent additional iatrogenic harm or trauma. Congenital malformation of the great toes is a well-known diagnostic clue, but some patients show normal-appearing great toes. The thumb shortening and cervical spine abnormalities are other skeletal features often observed in FOP. This study aimed to address the quantitative assessment of these features in a cohort of patients with FOP, which potentially helps early diagnosis of FOP. Radiographs of the hand and cervical spine were retrospectively analyzed from a total of 18 FOP patients (9 males and 9 females) with an average age of 13.9 years (range 0.7–39.3 years). The elevated ratio of the second metacarpal bone to the distal phalanx of the thumb (> +1SD) was a consistent finding irrespective of the patient's age and gender. Infant FOP patients, in addition, exhibited an extremely high ratio of the second metacarpal bone to the first metacarpal bone (> +3SD). The height/depth ratio of the C5 vertebra increased in patients over 4 years of age (> +2SD). Additionally, the ratio of (height+depth) of the C5 spinous process to the C5 vertebral depth was markedly elevated in young patients (> +2SD). We quantitatively demonstrated the hand and cervical spine characteristics of FOP. These findings, which can be seen from early infancy, could be useful for early diagnosis of FOP even in patients without great toe abnormalities. PMID:25343126

Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Kamizono, Junji; Katagiri, Takenobu; Susami, Takafumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-01-01

172

Herniated Cervical Disc  

MedlinePLUS

... may be recommended if you have severe arm pain. These are injections of corticosteroid into the epidural space (the area ... muscles along the spine. While occasionally useful for pain control, trigger point injections do not help heal a herniated cervical disc. ...

173

Resolution of hypothyroidism after correction of somatovisceral reflex dysfunction by refusion of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Psychosis is a rare initial presentation of new-onset hypothyroidism. The author describes the case of a 29-year-old woman who presented with psychosis caused by hypothyroidism, or myxedema madness. Although the patient's psychosis resolved after standard monotherapy using levothyroxine sodium, her hypothyroidism persisted. Imaging of the patient's cervical spine showed that previous C5-C6 and C6-C7 fusions had failed. The failed fusions were corrected, and the patient's hypothyroidism resolved, suggesting that the somatovisceral reflex was the cause of the patient's hypothyroidism. Although somatovisceral reflex dysfunctions are rare, physicians should consider them as potential underlying causes of their patients' presenting medical conditions. PMID:25550492

Berkowitz, Murray R

2015-01-01

174

Airway obstruction due to tracheomalacia caused by innominate artery compression and a kyphotic cervical spine.  

PubMed

Tracheomalacia can cause variable degrees of intrathoracic airway obstruction and is an easily overlooked cause of respiratory distress in adults. Here, we report a case of acute respiratory failure in which subglottic stenosis was accidentally identified during endotracheal intubation. Subsequent bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the thorax and neck revealed tracheal compression with tracheomalacia caused by a tortuous innominate artery and a kyphotic cervical spine. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy with metal stent implantation, and her symptoms were alleviated. These findings outline the importance of precise diagnosis and interventions for preventing recurrent life-threatening respiratory failure in such cases. PMID:25639407

Liu, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Hong-Hau; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Chian, Chih-Feng; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Tsai, Chen-Liang

2015-02-01

175

[The value of magnetic resonance tomography in diagnosis and follow-up of cervical spine injuries].  

PubMed

We report upon 12 cases of magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spinal cord injuries, in 8 cases done within 24 h after the injury. We found haemorrhages in the spinal cord in 3 cases, compression of the spinal cord in 3, swelling of the spinal cord in 2, and transsection of the spinal cord and hematoma in the epidural space in 1 case each. A normal MR image was seen in a patient with a complete transverse lesion of the spinal cord. The other 4 MR examinations were carried out between 2 weeks and 8 months after injury or operation. In 2 of these trauma victims interbody fusion of the cervical spine was performed, and the neurological deficit was subsequently worse in both. In 1 patient the course of a haemorrhage within the spinal cord was monitored by MR imaging: 1 image revealed the treatment of a burst fracture of C-7 with an interposed flap from the greater omentum. PMID:1287842

Schweighofer, F; Ranner, G; Passler, J M; Wildburger, R; Hofer, H P

1992-12-01

176

Clinical Outcome in Patients with Early versus Delayed Decompression in Cervical Spine Trauma  

PubMed Central

Study Design Prospective observational study. Purpose To assess the clinical outcome after early versus late decompression for traumatic cervical cord injury. Overview of Literature Traumatic spinal cord injury is common globally with the most tragic outcomes in the cervical spine. Although recent studies have shown that early decompression results in more favourable outcome, its authority is yet to be established. Methods Study on 98 patients with a traumatic cervical cord injury was conducted over a period of 5 years. The patients who were operated on within 24 hours of the onset of the primary injury (n=34) were classified as the early group, and those who were operated on after 24 hours of the onset of the injury (n=64) were categorized as the late group. The outcome of both the groups was assessed using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) at the 6-month follow-up. Results The patients in the early group were operated on at a mean time of 18.4 hours (range, 13-24 hours) while patients were operated on at a mean time of 52.7 hours (range, 31-124 hours) in the late group. At the 6-month follow-up, 7 (23.3%) in the early group and 5 (8.7%) in the late group showed >2 grade improvement in the AIS. Conclusions The results of patients undergoing decompression within 24 hours of the injury are better than those who are operated on later. An attempt should be made to decompress the traumatic cervical spine early in all possible cases. PMID:25187859

Umerani, Muhammad Sohail; Sharif, Salman

2014-01-01

177

Vertebral pain in helicopter pilots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathological forms of spinal pain engendered by piloting helicopters were clinically studied. Lumbalgia and pathology of the dorsal and cervical spine are discussed along with their clinical and radiological signs and origins.

Auffret, R.; Delahaye, R. P.; Metges, P. J.; VICENS

1980-01-01

178

Destructive spondyloarthropathy of the cervical spine in long-term hemodialyzed patients: a five-year clinical radiological prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.?\\u000a Objective:   To describe the radiographic features and progression of cervical spine destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) in hemodialyzed\\u000a patients, and to evaluate the relationship between this disease and patient characteristics, biochemical values, and hemodialysis\\u000a duration. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients:   Standard radiographs, and lateral flexion and extension views of the cervical spine, were performed annually for 5 years in\\u000a 31 hemodialyzed patients who

Antonio Leone; Murali Sundaram; Alfonso Cerase; Nicola Magnavita; Luigi Tazza; Pasquale Marano

2001-01-01

179

Complex cervical spine neoplastic disease: reconstruction after surgery by using a vascularized fibular strut graft. Case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of an aggressive chordoma in the cervical spine of a 15-year-old girl who underwent radical resection followed by reconstruction using an anterior vascularized fibular strut graft and posterior arthrodesis prior to receiving immediate postoperative radiation therapy. The patient had successful graft incorporation 4 months postoperatively. The authors review the advantages of using vascularized fibular strut grafts for the treatment of multilevel cervical spine neoplastic disease and discuss the theoretical advantages of using vascularized grafts that tolerate therapeutic levels of radiation. PMID:10413139

Wright, N M; Kaufman, B A; Haughey, B H; Lauryssen, C

1999-01-01

180

Postoperative obstructing laryngeal edema in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis of cervical spine -A report of two cases-  

PubMed Central

Two cases were reported in which severe postoperative laryngeal edema were developed after the operation of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) of cervical spine. In the first case, sudden airway obstruction was developed in the general ward 6 hour after uneventful decompression surgery for osteophyte. In the second patient, an elective preoperative tracheostomy was performed before surgery but the tube could not be removed for 2 months because of laryngeal edema and decreased vocal cord mobility. It should be emphasized that this airway problem can develop during the postoperative as well as the preoperative period, especially in the case of anterior cervical spine surgery. PMID:21716570

Kim, Young-Soon; Chung, Yang Hoon; Kim, Eun Sang; Chung, Ik-Soo

2011-01-01

181

MR and CT image fusion of the cervical spine: a noninvasive alternative to CT-myelography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT-Myelography (CTM) is routinely used for planning surgery for degenerative disease of the spine, but its invasive nature, significant potential morbidity, and high costs make a noninvasive substitute desirable. We report our work on evaluating CT and MR image fusion as an alternative to CTM. Because the spine is only piecewise rigid, a multi-rigid approach to the registration of spinal CT and MR images was developed (SPIE 2004), in which the spine on CT images is first segmented into separate vertebrae, each of which is then rigidly registered with the corresponding vertebra on MR images. The results are then blended to obtain fusion images. Since they contain information from both modalities, we hypothesized that fusion images would be equivalent to CTM. To test this we selected 34 patients who had undergone MRI and CTM for degenerative disease of the cervical spine, and used the multi-rigid approach to produce fused images. A clinical vignette for each patient was created and presented along with either CT/MR fusion images or CTM images. A group of spine surgeons are asked to formulate detailed surgical plans based on each set of images, and the surgical plans are compared. A similar study assessing diagnostic agreement is being performed with neuroradiologists, who also assess the accuracy of registration. Our work to date has demonstrated the feasibility of segmentation and multi-rigid fusion in clinical cases and the acceptability of the questionnaire to physicians. Preliminary analysis of one surgeon's and one neuroradiologist"s evaluation has been performed.

Hu, Yangqiu; Mirza, Sohail K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Haynor, David R.

2005-04-01

182

Evaluation of monoenergetic imaging to reduce metallic instrumentation artifacts in computed tomography of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

OBJECT Monoenergetic imaging with dual-energy CT has been proposed to reduce metallic artifacts in comparison with conventional polychromatic CT. The purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate and define the optimal dual-energy CT imaging parameters for specific cervical spinal implant alloy compositions. METHODS Spinal fixation rods of cobalt-chromium or titanium alloy inserted into the cervical spine section of an Alderson Rando anthropomorphic phantom were imaged ex vivo with fast-kilovoltage switching CT at 80 and 140 peak kV. The collimation width and field of view were varied between 20 and 40 mm and medium to large, respectively. Extrapolated monoenergetic images were generated at 70, 90, 110, and 130 kiloelectron volts (keV). The standard deviation of voxel intensities along a circular line profile around the spine was used as an index of the magnitude of metallic artifact. RESULTS The metallic artifact was more conspicuous around the fixation rods made of cobalt-chromium than those of titanium alloy. The magnitude of metallic artifact seen with titanium fixation rods was minimized at monoenergies of 90 keV and higher, using a collimation width of 20 mm and large field of view. The magnitude of metallic artifact with cobalt-chromium fixation rods was minimized at monoenergies of 110 keV and higher; collimation width or field of view had no effect. CONCLUSIONS Optimization of acquisition settings used with monoenergetic CT studies might yield reduced metallic artifacts. PMID:25380537

Komlosi, Peter; Grady, Deborah; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Goode, Allen R; Judy, Patricia G; Shaffrey, Mark; Wintermark, Max

2015-01-01

183

Muscular response to tensile loading of the cervical facet joint capsule: A potential whiplash pain mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders are a major cause of neck pain. Although muscle damage sustained during whiplash exposure is expected to heal quickly, the cervical muscles may play a role in the development of chronic whiplash pain secondary to facet joint capsule (FJC) damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate cervical muscle response and changes in muscle recruitment

Nadia Oglan Azar

2009-01-01

184

Iso-C3D navigation assisted pedicle screw placement in deformities of the cervical and thoracic spine  

PubMed Central

Background: Pedicle screw instrumentation of the deformed cervical and thoracic spine is challenging to even the most experienced surgeon and associated with increased incidence of screw misplacement. Iso-C3D based navigation has been reported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement, however, there are very few studies assessing its efficacy in the presence of deformity. We conducted a study to evaluate the accuracy of Iso-C3D based navigation in pedicle screw fixation in the deformed cervical and thoracic spine. Materials and Methods: We inserted 98 cervical pedicle screws (18 patients) and 242 thoracic pedicle screws (17 patients) using Iso-C3D based navigation for deformities of spine due to scoliosis, ankylosing spondylitis, post traumatic and degenerative disorders. Two independent observers determined and graded the accuracy of screw placement from postoperative computed tomography (CT) scans. Results: Postoperative CT scans of the cervical spine showed 90.8% perfectly placed screws with 7 (7%) grade I pedicle breaches, 2 (2%) grade II pedicle breaches and one anterior cortex penetration (< 2mm). Five lateral pedicle breaches violated the vertebral artery foramen and three medial pedicle breaches penetrated the spinal canal; however, no patient had any neurovascular complications. In the thoracic spine there were 92.2% perfectly placed screws with only six (2%) grade II pedicle breaches, eight (3%) grade I pedicle breaches and five screws (2%) penetrating the anterior or lateral cortex. No neuro-vascular complications were encountered. Conclusion: Iso-C3D based navigation improves the accuracy of pedicle screw placement in deformities of the cervical and thoracic spine. The low incidence of pedicle breach implies increased safety for the patient. PMID:20419003

Rajan, Vinod V; Kamath, Vijay; Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Rajasekaran, S

2010-01-01

185

Cervical total disk replacement: complications and avoidance.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion for neurologic deficits, radicular arm pain, and neck pain refractory to conservative management are successful. The approach and procedure were first described in 1955 and have become the anterior cervical standard of care for orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. Advancements and innovations have addressed disease processes of the cervical spine with motion-preserving technology. The possibility of obtaining anterior cervical decompression while maintaining adjacent segment motion led to the advent of cervical total disk replacement. The Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 cervical devices with other investigational device exemption trials under way. PMID:22082633

Salari, Behnam; McAfee, Paul C

2012-01-01

186

Effect of occipitocervical fusion with screw-rod system for upper cervical spine tumor  

PubMed Central

Background Craniospinal junction tumors are rare but severe lesions. Surgical stabilization has been established to be an ideal treatment for upper cervical tumor pathology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a screw-rod system for occipitocervical fusion. Methods A total of 24 cases with C1 and C2 cervical tumor underwent occipitocervical fusion with Vertex screw-rod internal fixation from January 2005 to December 2012. Preoperative X-ray and MRI examinations were performed on all patients before the operation, after the operation, and during last follow-up. The JOA score was used to assess neurological function pre and postoperatively. Results All the patients were followed up for 6 to 42 months with an average of 24 months. The result of X-ray showed that bony fusion was successful in 18 patients at 3 months and 6 patients at 6 months of follow-ups. There was no deterioration of spinal cord injury. The JOA Scores of neurological function increased significantly. Conclusion The screw-rod system offers strong fixation and good fusion for occipitocervical fusion. It is an effective and reliable method for reconstruction of upper cervical spine tumor. PMID:24884456

2014-01-01

187

Outcome of posttraumatic fibromyalgia: A 3-year follow-up of 78 cases of cervical spine injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the outcome of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) after cervical spine injury. Methods: Seventy-eight of 102 (77%) patients with neck injury were recruited 3 years after the original study in 1996. Twenty of the original 22 patients with FMS were available for reevaluation in 1999. A count of 18 tender points was conducted by thumb palpation, and tenderness thresholds

Lily Neumann; Vladimir Zeldets; Arkady Bolotin; Dan Buskila

2003-01-01

188

Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

1993-06-01

189

Examination of cervical spine kinematics in complex, multiplanar motions after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and total disc replacement  

PubMed Central

Background The biomechanical behavior of total disc replacement (TDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) incomplex multiplanar motion is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ACDF or TDR significantly affects in vitro kinematics through a range of complex, multiplanar motions. Methods Seven human cervical spines from C4-7 were used for this study. Intact cervical motion segments with and without implanted TDR and ACDF were tested by use of unconstrained pure bending moment testing fixtures in 7 mechanical modes: axial rotation (AR); flexion/extension (FE); lateral bending (LB); combined FE and LB; combined FE and AR; combined LB and AR; and combined FE, LB, and AR. Statistical testing was performed to determine whether differences existed in range of motion (ROM) and stiffness among spinal segments and treatment groups for each mechanical test mode. Results ACDF specimens showed increased stiffness compared with the intact and TDR specimens (P < .001); stiffness was not found to be different between TDR and intact specimens. ACDF specimens showed decreased ROM in all directions compared with TDR and intact specimens at the treated level. For the coupled motion test, including AR, LB, and FE, the cranial adjacent level (C4/C5) for the intact specimens (2.7°) showed significantly less motion compared with both the TDR (6.1°, P = .009) and ACDF (6.8°, P = .002) treatment groups about the LB axis. Testing of the C4/C5 and C6/C7 levels in all other test modes yielded no significant differences in ROM comparisons, although a trend toward increasing ROM in adjacent levels in ACDF specimens compared with intact and TDR specimens was observed. Conclusions This study compared multiplanar motion under load-displacement testing of subaxial cervical motion segments with and without implanted TDR and ACDF. We found a trend toward increased motion in adjacent levels in ACDF specimens compared with TDR specimens. Biomechanical multiplanar motion testing will be useful in the ongoing development and evaluation of spinal motion–preserving implants.

Daniels, Alan H.; Paller, David J.; Feller, Ross J.; Thakur, Nikhil A.; Biercevicz, Alison M.; Palumbo, Mark A.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Madom, Ian A.

2012-01-01

190

Cervical spondylosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spondylosis is caused by chronic wear on the cervical spine. This includes the disks or cushions between the ... and the joints between the bones of the cervical spine. There may be abnormal growths or spurs on ...

191

Multirigid registration of MR and CT images of the cervical spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our work on fusion of MR and CT images of the cervical spine. To achieve the required registration accuracy of approximately 1mm, the spine is treated as a collection of rigid vertebrae, and a separate rigid body transformation applied to each (Hawkes). This in turn requires segmentation of the CT datasets into separate vertebral images, which is difficult because the narrow planes separating adjacent vertebrae are parallel to the axial plane of the CT scans. We solve this problem by evolving all the vertebral contours simultaneously using a level set method, and use contour competition to estimate the position of the vertebral edges when a clean separation between adjacent vertebrae is not seen. Contour competition is based in turn on the vertical scan principle: no part of a given vertebra is vertically below any part of an inferior vertebra. Once segmentation is complete, the individual rigid body transforms are then estimated using mutual information maximization, and the CT images of the vertebrae superimposed on the MR scans. The resultant fused images contain the bony detail of CT and the soft tissue discrimination of MR and appear to be diagnostically equivalent, or superior, to CT myelograms. A formal test of these conclusions is planned for the next phase of our work.

Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.

2004-05-01

192

Primary Leptomeningeal Melanoma of the Cervical Spine Mimicking a Meningioma—A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background and Importance?Primary leptomeningeal melanoma (PLM) is highly malignant and exceedingly rare. Due to its rarity, diagnostic and treatment paradigms have been slow to evolve. We report the first case of a PLM that mimics a cervical spine meningioma and then discuss the current clinical, radiologic, and pathologic diagnostic methodologies as well as expected outcomes related to this disease. Clinical Presentation?A 54-year-old woman presented a dural-based extramedullary solid mass ventral to the C2–C3 spinal cord causing spinal cord compression without cord signal changes, characteristic of meningioma. Intraoperative microscopic inspection revealed numerous black spots littering the surface of the dura; the tumor itself was yellow in appearance and had a soft consistency. Pathologic analysis of the specimen revealed a malignant melanin-containing tumor. No primary site was found, so a diagnosis of primary leptomeningeal melanoma was made, and the patient subsequently received interferon therapy. To date (2 years postoperatively), no local or systemic recurrence of the tumor has been identified. Conclusion?As with most rare tumors, case reports constitute the vast majority of references to PLM. Only an increased awareness and an extensive report of each individual case can help diagnose and clarify the nature of PLM. Clinicians need to be aware of such malignant conditions when diagnosing benign tumoral lesions of the spine such as meningiomas. PMID:25083399

Marx, Sascha; Fleck, Steffen K.; Manwaring, Jotham; Vogelgesang, Silke; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W.S.

2014-01-01

193

The relationship between cervical flexor endurance, cervical extensor endurance, VAS, and disability in subjects with neck pain  

PubMed Central

Background Several tests have been suggested to assess the isometric endurance of the cervical flexor (NFME) and extensors (NEE) muscles. This study proposes to determine whether neck flexors endurance is related to extensor endurance, and whether cervical muscle endurance is related to disability, pain amount and pain stage in subjects with neck pain. Methods Thirty subjects (18 women, 12 men, mean?±?SD age: 43?±?12 years) complaining of neck pain filled out the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Neck Pain and Disability Scale-Italian version (NPDS-I). They also completed the timed endurance tests for the cervical muscles. Results The mean endurance was 246.7?±?150 seconds for the NEE test, and 44.9?±?25.3 seconds for the NMFE test. A significant correlation was found between the results of these two tests (r?=?0.52, p?=?0.003). A positive relationship was also found between VAS and NPDS-I (r?=?0.549, p?=?0.002). The endurance rates were similar for acute/subacute and chronic subjects, whereas males demonstrated significantly higher values compared to females in NFME test. Conclusions These findings suggest that neck flexors and extensors endurance are correlated and that the cervical endurance is not significantly altered by the duration of symptoms in subjects with neck pain. PMID:24581272

2014-01-01

194

Spine Journal Twenty-five years with the biopsychosocial model of low back pain -is it time to  

E-print Network

Spine Journal Twenty-five years with the biopsychosocial model of low back pain - is it time to celebrate? A report from the Twelfth International Forum for Primary Care Research on Low Back Pain model of low back pain - is it time to celebrate? A report from the Twelfth International Forum

Royal Holloway, University of London

195

Inertial sensor real-time feedback enhances the learning of cervical spine manipulation: a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical Spinal Manipulation (CSM) is considered a high-level skill of the central nervous system because it requires bimanual coordinated rhythmical movements therefore necessitating training to achieve proficiency. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of real-time feedback on the performance of CSM. Methods Six postgraduate physiotherapy students attending a training workshop on Cervical Spine Manipulation Technique (CSMT) using inertial sensor derived real-time feedback participated in this study. The key variables were pre-manipulative position, angular displacement of the thrust and angular velocity of the thrust. Differences between variables before and after training were investigated using t-tests. Results There were no significant differences after training for the pre-manipulative position (rotation p?=?0.549; side bending p?=?0.312) or for thrust displacement (rotation p?=?0.247; side bending p?=?0.314). Thrust angular velocity demonstrated a significant difference following training for rotation (pre-training mean (sd) 48.9°/s (35.1); post-training mean (sd) 96.9°/s (53.9); p?=?0.027) but not for side bending (p?=?0.521). Conclusion Real-time feedback using an inertial sensor may be valuable in the development of specific manipulative skill. Future studies investigating manipulation could consider a randomized controlled trial using inertial sensor real time feedback compared to traditional training. PMID:24942483

2014-01-01

196

The use of intraoperative navigation for complex upper cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

Imaging guidance using intraoperative CT (O-arm surgical imaging system) combined with a navigation system has been shown to increase accuracy in the placement of spinal instrumentation. The authors describe 4 complex upper cervical spine cases in which the O-arm combined with the StealthStation surgical navigation system was used to accurately place occipital screws, C-1 screws anteriorly and posteriorly, C-2 lateral mass screws, and pedicle screws in C-6. This combination was also used to navigate through complex bony anatomy altered by tumor growth and bony overgrowth. The 4 cases presented are: 1) a developmental deformity case in which the C-1 lateral mass was in the center of the cervical canal causing cord compression; 2) a case of odontoid compression of the spinal cord requiring an odontoidectomy in a patient with cerebral palsy; 3) a case of an en bloc resection of a C2-3 chordoma with instrumentation from the occiput to C-6 and placement of C-1 lateral mass screws anteriorly and posteriorly; and 4) a case of repeat surgery for a non-union at C1-2 with distortion of the anatomy and overgrowth of the bony structure at C-2. PMID:24580006

Guppy, Kern H; Chakrabarti, Indro; Banerjee, Amit

2014-03-01

197

Surface Landmarks do not Correspond to Exact Levels of the Cervical Spine: References According to the Sex, Age and Height  

PubMed Central

Objective A general orientation along the cervical spine could be estimated by external landmarks, and it was useful, quick and less exposable to radiation, but, sometimes it gave reference confusion of target cervical level. The authors reviewed the corresponding between the neck external landmarks and cervical levels. Methods Totally 1,031 cervical lateral radiographs of different patients were reviewed in single university hospital. Its compositions were 534 of males and 497 females; 86 of second decades (10-19 years-old), 169 of third decades, 159 of fourth decades, 209 of fifth decades, 275 of sixth decades, and 133 of more than seventh decades (>60 years-old). Reference external landmarks (mandible, hyoid bone, thyroid cartilage, and cricothyroid membrane) with compounding factors were reviewed. Results The reference levels of cervical landmarks were C2.13 with mandible angle, C3.54 with hyoid bone, C5.12 with thyroid cartilage, and C6.01 with cricothyroid membrane. The reference levels of cervical landmarks were differently observed by sex, age, and somatometric measurement (height) accordingly mandible angle from C1 to C3, hyoid bone from disc level of C2 and C3 to C5, thyroid cartilage from disc level of C3 and C4 to C7, and cricothyroid membrane from C4 to disc level of C7 and T1. Conclusion Surface landmarks only provide general reference points, but not correspond to exact levels of the cervical spine. Intraoperative fluoroscopy ensures a more precise placement to the targeted cervical level. PMID:25346765

Oh, Chang Hyun; Ji, Gyu Yeul; Hyun, Dongkeun; Choi, Chun Gil; Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Jang, A Reum

2014-01-01

198

Effect of helmet wear on the incidence of head\\/face and cervical spine injuries in young skiers and snowboarders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate whether helmets increase the incidence and\\/or severity of cervical spine injury; decrease the incidence of head injury; and\\/or increase the incidence of collisions (as a reflection of adverse effects on peripheral vision and\\/or auditory acuity) among young skiers and snowboarders.Methods: During one ski season (1998–99) at a world class ski resort, all young skiers and snowboarders (<13

A J Macnab; T Smith; F A Gagnon; M Macnab

2002-01-01

199

A method to characterize average cervical spine ligament response based on raw data sets for implementation into injury biomechanics models.  

PubMed

Experimental testing on cervical spine ligaments provides important data for advanced numerical modeling and injury prediction; however, accurate characterization of individual ligament response and determination of average mechanical properties for specific ligaments has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Existing methods are limited by a number of arbitrary choices made during the curve fits that often misrepresent the characteristic shape response of the ligaments, which is important for incorporation into numerical models to produce a biofidelic response. A method was developed to represent the mechanical properties of individual ligaments using a piece-wise curve fit with first derivative continuity between adjacent regions. The method was applied to published data for cervical spine ligaments and preserved the shape response (toe, linear, and traumatic regions) up to failure, for strain rates of 0.5s(-1), 20s(-1), and 150-250s(-1), to determine the average force-displacement curves. Individual ligament coefficients of determination were 0.989 to 1.000 demonstrating excellent fit. This study produced a novel method in which a set of experimental ligament material property data exhibiting scatter was fit using a characteristic curve approach with a toe, linear, and traumatic region, as often observed in ligaments and tendons, and could be applied to other biological material data with a similar characteristic shape. The resultant average cervical spine ligament curves provide an accurate representation of the raw test data and the expected material property effects corresponding to varying deformation rates. PMID:25457171

Mattucci, Stephen F E; Cronin, Duane S

2015-01-01

200

The effect of minimally invasive posterior cervical approaches versus open anterior approaches on neck pain and disability  

PubMed Central

Background The choice of surgical approach to the cervical spine may have an influence on patient outcome, particularly with respect to future neck pain and disability. Some surgeons suggest that patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy and significant axial pain should be treated with an anterior interbody fusion because a posterior decompression alone may exacerbate the patients’ neck pain. To date, the effect of a minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression approach (miPCD) on neck pain has not been compared with that of an anterior cervical diskectomy or corpectomy with interbody fusion (ACF). Methods A retrospective review was undertaken of 63 patients undergoing either an miPCD (n = 35) or ACF (n = 28) for treatment of myelopathy or radiculopathy who had achieved a minimum of 6 months’ follow-up. Clinical outcomes were assessed by a patient-derived neck visual analog scale (VAS) score and the neck disability index (NDI). Outcomes were analyzed by use of (1) a threshold in which outcomes were classified as success (NDI < 40, VAS score < 4.0) or failure (NDI > 40, VAS score > 4.0) and (2) perioperative change in which outcomes were classified as success (?NDI ? – 15, ?VAS score ? – 2.0) or failure (?NDI < – 15, ?VAS score < –2.0). Groups were compared by use of ?2 tests with significance taken at P < .05. Results At last follow-up, the percentages of patients classified as successful using the perioperative change criteria were as follows: 42% for miPCD group versus 63% for ACF group based on neck VAS score (P = not significant [NS]) and 33% for miPCD group versus 50% for ACF group based on NDI (P < .05). At last follow-up, the percentages of patients classified as successful using the threshold criteria were as follows: 71% for miPCD group versus 82% for ACF group based on neck VAS score (P = NS) and 69% for miPCD group versus 68% for ACF group based on NDI (P = NS). Conclusions In this small retrospective analysis, miPCD was associated with similar neck pain and disability to ACF. Given the avoidance of cervical instrumentation and interbody fusion in the miPCD group, these results suggest that further comparative effectiveness study is warranted.

Steinberg, Jeffrey A.; German, John W.

2012-01-01

201

Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)  

MedlinePLUS

... nerve. The medical term for this condition is cervical radiculopathy. Understanding your spine and how it works can help you better understand cervical radiculopathy. Learn more about your spine online at Spine Basics: http://orthoinfo. org/topic. ...

202

Quantitative Analyses of Pediatric Cervical Spine Ossification Patterns Using Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to quantify ossification processes of the human pediatric cervical spine. Computed tomography images were obtained from a high resolution scanner according to clinical protocols. Bone window images were used to identify the presence of the primary synchondroses of the atlas, axis, and C3 vertebrae in 101 children. Principles of logistic regression were used to determine probability distributions as a function of subject age for each synchondrosis for each vertebra. The mean and 95% upper and 95% lower confidence intervals are given for each dataset delineating probability curves. Posterior ossifications preceded bilateral anterior closures of the synchondroses in all vertebrae. However, ossifications occurred at different ages. Logistic regression results for closures of different synchondrosis indicated p-values of <0.001 for the atlas, ranging from 0.002 to <0.001 for the axis, and 0.021 to 0.005 for the C3 vertebra. Fifty percent probability of three, two, and one synchondroses occurred at 2.53, 6.97, and 7.57 years of age for the atlas; 3.59, 4.74, and 5.7 years of age for the axis; and 1.28, 2.22, and 3.17 years of age for the third cervical vertebrae, respectively. Ossifications occurring at different ages indicate non-uniform maturations of bone growth/strength. They provide an anatomical rationale to reexamine dummies, scaling processes, and injury metrics for improved understanding of pediatric neck injuries PMID:22105393

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Lew, Sean M.; Rao, Raj D.; Rangarajan, Nagarajan

2011-01-01

203

Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis.  

PubMed

Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key PointsWhile many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted.A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level.In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

2013-01-01

204

Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union, there is currently little information in the literature pertaining to how such a study might be conducted. A significant decrease in the number of injuries recorded in matches can be achieved using a specific neck strengthening program at the elite level. In an elite rugby union team as investigated in this study a significant increase in neck strength is difficult to achieve in a short period of time such as five weeks. PMID:24149163

Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

2013-01-01

205

Clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing cervical spine surgery: an analysis of National Database of Rheumatic Diseases in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to examine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients who underwent cervical spine surgery using a multicenter observational database. Methods We obtained data from a nationwide observational cohort database of patients with rheumatic diseases (National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa)) for the fiscal years 2003 to 2011. A total of 39 out of 60 patients who underwent cervical spine surgery for a RA-related cause and whose data were available for two consecutive years (to assess the preoperative patient status) were chosen as cases. Patients with a non-RA-related cause of surgery (e.g., trauma) were excluded. First, we compared the patient characteristics between the cases and total patients in the same fiscal year. Next, 106 eligible controls, who were defined as RA patients enrolled in the same fiscal year as the case subjects, who were matched for age, gender and disease duration (within ±1 year), were selected. We compared the demographic data between the two groups. We also calculated the percentage of patients who underwent cervical spine surgery (surgeries/total number of patients) in fiscal years 2003 to 2011. Results Although the proportion of patients using biologics linearly increased during study period, the percentage of patients undergoing cervical spine surgeries remained unchanged, at approximately 0.15%. These cases had more tender joints (3 vs. 1, p?cervical spine surgery have a higher disease activity (as represented by the DAS28-CRP) and are more functionally disabled (as represented by the MHAQ) than control patients. PMID:24925126

2014-01-01

206

Optimization of three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Various parameters of the three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) sequence were evaluated to improve spatial resolution while maintaining T1 contrast and a short examination time in imaging of the cervical spine in volunteers. The most dramatic improvements in image resolution occurred by decreasing section thickness to 1.2 mm and increasing the in-plane matrix to 192 x 256, with a 230-mm field of view. The increase in imaging time due to the increased matrix was offset by the elimination of the preparation pulse and wait time, without dramatic changes in contrast-to-noise ratio or overall image quality. Optimum parameters included elimination of the preparation pulse and wait time, 12 degrees flip angle, 192 x 256 matrix, 1.2-mm section thickness, nonselective excitation (coronal acquisition), RF spoiling, and standard k-space ordering, for an examination time of 5 minutes 21 seconds. PMID:1627873

Ross, J S; Tkach, J A; Dillinger, J; Ruggieri, P M; Masaryk, T J; Modic, M T

1992-01-01

207

Radiographic Assessment of Effect of Congenital Monosegment Synostosis of Lower Cervical Spine between C2-C6 on Adjacent Mobile Segments  

PubMed Central

Study Design A prospective radiographic study of cervical spine with congenital monosegment fusion. Purpose To evaluate the effect of cervical synostosis on adjacent segments and the vertebral morphology. Overview of Literature There are numerous clinical studies of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after monosegment surgical fusion. However, there was no report on ASD in the cervical spine with congenital monosegment synostosis. Methods Radiograms of 52 patients, aged 5 to 90 years, with congenital monosegment synostosis (CMS) between C2 and C6, who complained of neck/shoulder discomfort or pain were studied. 51 were normally aligned and one was kyphotically aligned. Results Spondylosis was not found in the patients below 35 years of age. Only 12 out of 24 patients with normally aligned C2-3 synostosis had spondylosis in 19 more caudal segments, and only one at C3-4. A patient with kyphotic C2-3 had spondylolysis at C3-4. In 8 patients with C3-4 synostosis, spondylosis was found in only 9 caudal segments (4 at C4-5, 4 at C5-6, and 1 at C6-7). The caudate C4-5 disc was the most liable to degenerate in comparison with other caudate segments. Caudal corporal flaring and inwaisting of the synostotic vertebra were the features that were the most evident. In 2 of 9 C4-5 and 7 out of 10 C5-6 synostosis patients, spondylosis was found at the two adjacent cephalad and caudate segments, respectively. Only corporal inwaisting without flaring was found. In all cases, spondylosis was confined to the adjacent segments. More advanced spondylosis was found in the immediate caudal segment than the cephalad one. Conclusions It is concluded that spondylosis at the mobile segments in a synostotic spine is thought to be a fusion-related pathology rather than solely age-related disc degeneration. Those data suggested that CMS definitely precipitated the disc degeneration in the adjacent segments. PMID:25346814

Moon, Myung-Sang; Yoon, Min-Geun; Seo, Young Hoon; Lee, Bong-Jin; Moon, Hanlim; Kim, Sung-Sim

2014-01-01

208

Spine day 2012: spinal pain in Swiss school children– epidemiology and risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background The key to a better understanding of the immense problem of spinal pain seems to be to investigate its development in adolescents. Based on the data of Spine Day 2012 (an annual action day where Swiss school children were examined by chiropractors on a voluntary basis for back problems), the aim of the present study was to gain systematic epidemiologic data on adolescent spinal pain in Switzerland and to explore risk factors per gender and per spinal area. Method Data (questionnaires and physical examinations) of 836 school children were descriptively analyzed for prevalence, recurrence and severity of spinal pain. Of those, 434 data sets were included in risk factor analysis. Using logistic regression analysis, psycho-social parameters (presence of parental back pain, parental smoking, media consumption, type of school bag) and physical parameters (trunk symmetry, posture, mobility, coordination, BMI) were analyzed per gender and per spinal area. Results Prevalence of spinal pain was higher for female gender in all areas apart from the neck. With age, a steep increase in prevalence was observed for low back pain (LBP) and for multiple pain sites. The increasing impact of spinal pain on quality of life with age was reflected in an increase in recurrence, but not in severity of spinal pain. Besides age and gender, parental back pain (Odds ratio (OR)=3.26, p=0.011) and trunk asymmetry (OR=3.36, p=0.027) emerged as risk factors for spinal pain in girls. Parental smoking seemed to increase the risk for both genders (boys: OR=2.39, p=0.020; girls: OR=2.19, p=0.051). Risk factor analysis per spinal area resulted in trunk asymmetry as risk factor for LBP (OR=3.15, p=0.015), while parental smoking increased the risk for thoracic spinal pain (TSP) (OR=2.83, p=0.036) and neck pain (OR=2.23, p=0.038). The risk for TSP was further enhanced by a higher BMI (OR=1.15, p=0.027). Conclusion This study supports the view of adolescent spinal pain as a bio-psycho-social problem that should be investigated per spinal area, age and gender. The role of trunk asymmetry and passive smoking as risk factors as well as the association between BMI and TSP should be further investigated, preferably in prospective studies. PMID:24094041

2013-01-01

209

Fatal cervical spondyloarthropathy in a hemodialysis patient with systemic deposition of ?-microglobulin amyloid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Destructive spondyloarthropathy is a serious complication in patients with end-stage renal disease. We report a case of fatal cervical spondyloarthropathy in a patient on hemodialysis who presented with severe pain in the cervical area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine showed a soft tissue mass at the cervico-occipital hinge with spinal cord compression and destructive lesions of the

Farhad R. Danesh; Jens Klinkmann; Hidejiro Yokoo; Peter Ivanovich

1999-01-01

210

Motor Cortex Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Facial, Upper Extremity, and Throat Pain.  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type I); Trigeminal Neuralgia (Burchiel Type II); Trigeminal Neuropathic Pain; Trigeminal Deafferentation Pain; Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Types I and II, Involving the Upper Extremity); Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia; Upper Extremity Pain Due to Deafferentation of the Cervical Spine; Central Pain Syndromes

2014-12-17

211

Kinesiophobia in pre-operative patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes in relation to pain-related variables, psychological state and sports activity.  

PubMed

Background No research group has ever investigated the level of kinesiophobia in a well defined group of preoperative patients treated due to cervical discopathy and degenerative spine disease, confirmed by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. We aimed to investigate the degree of kinesiophobia and the differences in pain-related and psychosocial characteristics between patients with high and low levels of kinesiophobia, in relation to factors commonly associated with neck pain. Material and Methods Sixty-five consecutive patients with cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes were assessed pre-surgically. The mean pain duration was 31.7 SD 34.0 months. Patients completed the Polish versions of the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-PL) on 2 occasions, and the following once: Neck Disability Index (NDI-PL), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS-PL). Results A high level of kinesiophobia was indicated in 81.5% and 87.7% of patients in first and second completion, respectively. Patients with high and low kinesiophobia differ in regards to the recreation section of NDI-PL (p=0.012), gender (p=0.043), and sports activity (p=0.024). Correlations were identified between TSK-PL and marital status (p=0.023) and sports activity (p=0.024). Conclusions Kinesiophobia levels are higher in patients with chronic cervical pain before surgical treatment. Fear of movement tends to be higher in women and among patients avoiding sports recreation before surgical treatment. Although sports activity and socio-demographic data are predictors of kinesiophobia, psychological, pain-related, and clinical data are not. These findings should be considered when planning rehabilitation after surgical treatment of cervical discopathy and coexisting degenerative changes. PMID:25598197

Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; G?owacki, Jakub; Shadi, Milud; Walczak, Micha?; G?owacki, Maciej

2015-01-01

212

Development of spontaneous intracranial hypotension concurrent with grade IV mobilization of the cervical and thoracic spine: a case report.  

PubMed

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) has been clinically defined as the development of severe orthostatic headaches caused by an acute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Typically, intracranial hypotension occurs as a complication of lumbar puncture, but recent reports have identified cases caused by minor trauma. We report a case of SIH secondary to a dural tear caused by a cervical and thoracic spine mobilization. A 32-year-old woman with SIH presented with severe positional headaches with associated hearing loss and C6-8 nerve root distribution weakness. CSF opening pressure was less than 5cmH(2)O and showed no abnormalities in white blood cell count. Cranial, cervical, and thoracic magnetic resonance imaging revealed epidural and subdural collections of CSF with associated meningeal enhancement. Repeated computed tomography myelograms localized the leak to multiple levels of the lower cervical and upper thoracic spine. A conservative management approach of bedrest and increased caffeine intake had no effect on the dural tear. The headache, hearing loss, and arm symptoms resolved completely after 2 epidural blood patches were performed. Practitioners performing manual therapy should be aware of this rare, yet potential complication of spinal mobilizations and manipulations. PMID:17964890

Donovan, J Skye; Kerber, Charles W; Donovan, William H; Marshall, Lawrence F

2007-11-01

213

The Effect of Multi-Level Laminoplasty and Laminectomy on the Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Laminectomy has been regarded as a standard treatment for multi-level cervical stenosis. Concern for complications such as kyphosis has limited the indication of multi-level laminectomy; hence it is often augmented with an instrumented fusion. Laminoplasty has emerged as a motion preserving alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the multidirectional flexibility of the cervical spine in response to a plate-only open door laminoplasty, double door laminoplasty, and laminectomy using a computational model. A validated three-dimensional finite element model of a specimen-specific intact cervical spine (C2-T1) was modified to simulate each surgical procedure at levels C3-C6. An additional goal of this work was to compare the instrumented computational model to our multi-specimen experimental findings to ensure similar trends in response to the surgical procedures. Model predictions indicate that mobility was retained following open and double door laminoplasty with a 5.4% and 20% increase in flexion, respectively, compared to the intact state. Laminectomy resulted in 57% increase in flexion as compared to the intact state, creating a concern for eventual kyphosis - a known risk/complication of multi-level laminectomy in the absence of fusion. Increased disc stresses were observed at the altered and adjacent segments post-laminectomy in flexion. PMID:25328475

Kode, Swathi; Kallemeyn, Nicole A; Smucker, Joseph D; Fredericks, Douglas C; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

214

Influence of cervical spine stabilization via Stiff Neck on the postural system in healthy patients: compensation or decompensation of the postural system?  

PubMed

Functional and structural disorders of the cervical spine are often regarded as the cause of non-specific vertigo. Pathogenetically, disorders of proprioceptive connections between neck muscles and vestibular cores as well as the proprioceptors in the cervical facette joints are presumed. According to a study by Hülse and Hölzl (HNO 48:295-301, 1), after manual therapeutic intervention in patients with functional disorders of the cervical spine 50% of the probands stated a significant reduction of their vertigo. This was backed up in posturography, which documented an improvement in vestibulospinal reactions. To date, the effects of artificial as well as surgical stabilization of the cervical spine on the balance system have not been explored yet. In a first pilot study, we examined the influence of artificial stabilization of the cervical spine via cervical collar Stiff Neck, manufactured by Ambu/Perfit ACE] on the balance system of 20 healthy probands. For this purpose, a posturography (Balance Master Systems, NeuroCom, Clackamas, OR, USA) was applied to 20 healthy probands (10 males, 10 females) with a mean age of 35 years who had no prior spine pathology. Posturography was analyzed under static and dynamic test situations with and without Stiff Neck cervical collar. The results were compared statistically to the Wilcoxon test. In the static test situation of the modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance, a significantly improved standing stability occurred. In none of the dynamic tests did fixation of the cervical spine by Stiff Neck cuff lead to a measurable impairment of the movement coordination. All probands felt subjectively more stable when wearing the Stiff Neck. In healthy probands, a fixation of the cervical spine leads to a stabilization of the postural balance situation. This fixation seems to be helpful in compensating the malfunction of other components of balance information. In a next step, this same model of analysis is applied to patients with cervical instability. Standing stability and movement coordination before and after cervical fusion are being explored. PMID:20443016

Schikora, N; Eysel-Gosepath, Katrin; Klünter, H; Delank, S; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

2010-10-01

215

Symptom localization tests in the cervical spine: a descriptive study using imaging verification  

PubMed Central

The concept of isolation of a movement to a single specific spinal segment by blocking/stabilization is considered useful and important during both examination and treatment. This descriptive study endeavoured to determine whether a typical manual stabilizing procedure changes movement patterns in the cervical spine. Lateral radiographs were taken of five volunteers in active/assisted extension with and without manual fixation grasping with the thumb and fingers around the dorsal aspect of the neck at the level of the vertebral arch. Vertebral angular differences between the fixated and non-fixated movements were measured for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and analyzed for differences using a student t-test. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra-rater reliability were fair to moderate whereas inter-rater reliability was excellent. Although not statistically significant, the results showed that in relation to the active extension, the vertebra above the fixated vertebrae moved slightly less (mean?=??0.08°; SD?=?2.55) as did the vertebrae two levels above fixation (mean?=??0.11°; SD?=?2.13). Movements of the vertebrae below the fixation and two levels below the fixation were also reduced (mean?=??1.09°; SD?=?2.07) and (mean?=??0.65°; SD?=?1.85) respectively. The results suggest the possibility of a three-point bending of the spinal column during fixation and symptom localization during fixation may be a product of soft tissue tension and/or pressure from the fixating fingers. Further research is necessary, including a design that allows consistency among all participants which is appropriately powered. PMID:21655392

Schomacher, Jochen; Learman, Ken

2010-01-01

216

The Immediate Effects of Thoracic Spine and Rib Manipulation on Subjects with Primary Complaints of Shoulder Pain  

PubMed Central

Shoulder pain is a common orthopedic condition seen by physical therapists, with many potential contributing factors and proposed treatments. Although manual physical therapy interventions for the cervicothoracic spine and ribs have been investigated for this patient population, the specific effects of these treatments have not been reported. The purpose of this investigational study is to report the immediate effects of thoracic spine and rib manipulation in patients with primary complaints of shoulder pain. Using a test-retest design, 21 subjects with shoulder pain were treated during a single treatment session with high-velocity thrust manipulation to the thoracic spine or upper ribs. Post-treatment effects demonstrated a 51% (32mm) reduction in shoulder pain, a corresponding increase in shoulder range of motion (30°-38°), and a mean patient-perceived global rating of change of 4.2 (median 5). These immediate post-treatment results suggest that thoracic and rib manipulative therapy is associated with improved shoulder pain and motion in patients with shoulder pain, and further these interventions support the concept of a regional interdependence between the thoracic spine, upper ribs, and shoulder. PMID:20140154

Strunce, Joseph B.; Walker, Michael J.; Boyles, Robert E.; Young, Brian A.

2009-01-01

217

Impact of a multidisciplinary pain program for the management of chronic low back pain in patients undergoing spine surgery and primary total hip replacement: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Low back pain is a very common disorder. In this field chronic low back pain represents a special challenge. The management of chronic low back pain consists of a range of different intervention strategies. Usually operative intervention should be avoided if possible. However, there are constellations were surgical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain seems to be meaningful. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes after spine surgery and hip replacement in patients with chronic low back pain after undergoing a structured rehabilitation program including cognitive – behavioral therapy. Methods From January 1, 2007 to January 1, 2010 patients were indicated for total hip replacement (THA) or spine surgery after receiving inpatient multidisciplinary pain programs including cognitive – behavioral therapy at our orthopedic institute with a specialized unit for the rehabilitation of chronic pain patients. Indications for surgery were based on the synopsis of clinical and imaging findings and on positive effects after local injections during the multidisciplinary pain program. The tools for assessment included follow-up at 6 and 12 months and analyses of pain, chronicity, physical functioning and depression. Results Of the 256 patients admitted for multidisciplinary pain program, fifteen were indicated to benefit from a surgical intervention during multidisciplinary pain program. Ten patients received spine surgery. THA was indicated in five patients. In all cases, the peri- and postoperative clinical courses were uneventful. Only two of the patients subjected to spine surgery and three patients who had THA were improved after 12 months. One patient reported a worsened condition. All patients presented with good functional outcomes and normal radiological findings. Conclusions The indication for surgical intervention in patients with chronic low back pain and degenerative diseases must be critically assessed. THA in this cohort should focus on functional aspects, such as the improvement of range of motion, rather than the reduction of pain. Spine surgery in chronic low back pain patients after multidisciplinary pain program including cognitive – behavioral therapy cannot be recommended due to its questionable success. PMID:25473419

2014-01-01

218

Four lateral mass screw fixation techniques in lower cervical spine following laminectomy: a finite element analysis study of stress distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) techniques have been widely used for reconstructing and stabilizing the cervical spine; however, complications may result depending on the choice of surgeon. There are only a few reports related to LSF applications, even though fracture fixation has become a severe complication. This study establishes the three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine, and compares the stress distribution of the four LSF techniques (Magerl, Roy-Camille, Anderson, and An), following laminectomy -- to explore the risks of rupture after fixation. Method CT scans were performed on a healthy adult female volunteer, and Digital imaging and communication in medicine (Dicom) data was obtained. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio 12.0, Solidworks 2012, HyperMesh 10.1 and Abaqus 6.12 software programs were used to establish the intact model of the lower cervical spines (C3-C7), a postoperative model after laminectomy, and a reconstructive model after applying the LSF techniques. A compressive preload of 74 N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm was applied to the intact and reconstructive model, simulating normal flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The stress distribution of the four LSF techniques was compared by analyzing the maximum von Mises stress. Result The three-dimensional finite element model of the intact C3-C7 vertebrae was successfully established. This model consists of 503,911 elements and 93,390 nodes. During flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes, the intact model’s angular intersegmental range of motion was in good agreement with the results reported from the literature. The postoperative model after the three-segment laminectomy and the reconstructive model after applying the four LSF techniques were established based on the validated intact model. The stress distribution for the Magerl and Roy-Camille groups were more dispersive, and the maximum von Mises stress levels were lower than the other two groups in various conditions. Conclusion The LSF techniques of Magerl and Roy-Camille are safer methods for stabilizing the lower cervical spine. Therefore, these methods potentially have a lower risk of fixation fracture. PMID:25106498

2014-01-01

219

Melanotic schwannoma of the cervical spine progressing with pulmonary metastasis: case report.  

PubMed

Melanotic schwannoma (MS) is an unusual variant of nerve sheath neoplasm. Only 10% of these tumors will undergo malignant degeneration, with exceedingly rare reported metastasis. We present a 32-year-old woman with a 6-month history of cervical pain and left arm progressive weakness. Neurological examination showed a left upper limb radicular pain, with pyramidal syndrome at C5 level. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study highlighted an intradural extramedullary heterogeneous mass along the spinal cord at the C4-C5 level, slightly hyperintense with T1 and hypointense with T2-weighted sequences, invading the left neural foramen. The patient underwent C3-C5 laminectomy with total resection of a black tumor. In the postoperative period, a patent deficit of shoulder abduction ensued related to the nervous section. Microscopically, compactly fascicles of spindle-shaped cells with pleomorphic and hypercromatic nuclei, dark brown intracellular pigments, as well as some mitotic figures were seen. Immunohistochemical stains for S-100, Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), and vimentin were positive, with Ki-67 Labelling Index (LI) of 15% compatible with MS. Six months after radiotherapy she presents local recurrence and lung metastatic dissemination of the MS. She underwent left pulmonary segmentectomy, followed by chemotherapy and radiosurgery. The patient developed a febrile neutropenia and worsening of general status, and died after 3 months due to respiratory complications. MS are rare tumors with potential for local recurrence and distal metastasis. Complete surgical resection remains as the treatment of choice, once the uncommon cases with malignant progression shows low response to chemo and radiotherapy. PMID:24077273

Faria, Mário Henrique Girão; Dória-Netto, Ricardo Henrique; Osugue, Gustavo Jun; Queiroz, Luciano de Souza; Chaddad-Neto, Feres Eduardo

2013-01-01

220

The effect of balance training on cervical sensorimotor function and neck pain.  

PubMed

The authors' aim was to evaluate the effect of balance training on cervical joint position sense in people with subclinical neck pain. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to balance training or to stay active. Sensorimotor function was determined before and after 5 weeks of training by assessing the ability to reproduce the neutral head position and a predefined rotated head position. After balance training, the intervention group showed improved joint repositioning accuracy and decreased pain whereas no effects were observed in the control group. A weak correlation was identified between reduced neck pain intensity and improved joint repositioning. The present data demonstrate that balance training can effectively improve cervical sensorimotor function and decrease neck pain intensity. PMID:23663191

Beinert, Konstantin; Taube, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

221

The NASS\\/COSS\\/AAOS patient-based outcomes assessment cervical instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: A task force of North American spine Society (NASS), Council of Spine Societies (COSS) and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) developed a patient-based outcomes assessment instrument for the cervical spine adapted from the NASS lumber spine outcomes instrument. Areas covered included demographics, occupational and medical history, pain\\/disability, neurogenic symptoms, treatment expectations and satisfaction.Study design: A prospective

Bernard Pfeifer; Lawren Daltroy; Anne Holley Fossel

2002-01-01

222

Comparison of the C-MAC(®) and GlideScope(®) videolaryngoscopes in patients with cervical spine disorders and immobilisation.  

PubMed

In-line stabilisation of the neck can increase the difficulty of tracheal intubation with direct laryngoscopy. We randomly assigned 56 patients with cervical spine pathology scheduled for elective surgery to tracheal intubation using either the C-MAC(®) (n = 26) or GlideScope(®) (n = 30), when the head and neck were stabilised in-line. There was no significant difference in the median (IQR [range]) intubation times between the C-MAC (19 (14-35 [9-90]) s and the GlideScope (23, (15-32 [8-65]) s. The first-attempt failure rate for the C-MAC was 42% (95% CI 23-63%) compared with 7% (95% CI 1-22%) for the GlideScope, p = 0.002. The laryngeal view was excellent and comparable with both devices, with the C-MAC requiring significantly more attempts and optimising manoeuvers (11 vs 5, respectively, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in postoperative complaints e.g. sore throat, hoarseness and dysphagia. Both devices provided an excellent glottic view in patients with cervical spine immobilisation, but tracheal intubation was more often successful on the first attempt with the GlideScope. PMID:25265994

Brück, S; Trautner, H; Wolff, A; Hain, J; Mols, G; Pakos, P; Roewer, N; Lange, M

2015-02-01

223

Painful cervical lymphadenopathy: An unusual presentation of chikungunya  

PubMed Central

Chikungunya is an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquito that represents a major public health burden worldwide including India. The disease presents as sudden onset of high-grade fever, severe arthralgias, and rash. Here, we describe a case of a patient who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and myalgia and later was diagnosed as chikungunya. Lymphadenopathy has been described before as a less common symptom of chikungunya. But this is probably, the first case of chikungunya with cervical lymphadenopathy as a presenting feature. PMID:24600579

Keny, Mukundraj S; Pereira, Ian A; deSa, Sunita B; Gomes, Edwin J

2014-01-01

224

Cervical Spine Motion During Football Equipment-Removal Protocols: A Challenge to the All-or-Nothing Endeavor  

PubMed Central

Context The National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement on acute management of the cervical spine-injured athlete recommended the all-or-nothing endeavor, which involves removing or not removing both helmet and shoulder pads, from equipment-laden American football and ice hockey athletes. However, in supporting research, investigators have not considered alternative protocols. Objective To measure cervical spine movement (head relative to sternum) produced when certified athletic trainers (ATs) use the all-or-nothing endeavor and to compare these findings with the movement produced using an alternative pack-and-fill protocol, which involves packing the area under and around the cervical neck and head with rolled towels. Design Crossover study. Setting Movement analysis laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Eight male collegiate football players (age = 21.4 ± 1.4 years; height = 1.87 ± 0.02 m; mass = 103.6 ± 12.5 kg). Intervention(s) Four ATs removed equipment under 4 conditions: removal of helmet only followed by placing the head on the ground (H), removal of the helmet only followed by pack-and-fill (HP), removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by placing the head on the ground (HS), and removal of the helmet and shoulder pads followed by pack-and-fill (HSP). Motion capture was used to track the movement of the head with respect to the sternum during equipment removal. Main Outcome Measure(s) We measured head movement relative to sternum movement (translations and rotations). We used 4 × 4 analyses of variance with repeated measures to compare discrete motion variables (changes in position and total excursions) among protocols and ATs. Results Protocol HP resulted in a 0.1 ± 0.6 cm rise in head position compared with a 1.4 ± 0.3 cm drop with protocol HS (P < .001). Protocol HP produced 4.9° less total angular excursion (P < .001) and 2.1 cm less total vertical excursion (P < .001) than protocol HS. Conclusions The pack-and-fill protocol was more effective than shoulder pad removal in minimizing cervical spine movement throughout the equipment-removal process. This study provides evidence for including the pack-and-fill protocol in future treatment recommendations when helmet removal is necessary for on-field care. PMID:24377964

Jacobson, Bradley; Cendoma, Michael; Gdovin, Jacob; Cooney, Kevin; Bruening, Dustin

2014-01-01

225

Magnetic resonance imaging of the postoperative spine.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an excellent technique for evaluating the postoperative spine when the patient has chronic or recurrent symptoms. Potential causes of pain following lumbar surgery include arachnoiditis, stenosis, epidural fibrosis and disc herniations, pseudomeningocele, and infection. The postoperative cervical spine may be complicated by hematoma, canal or foraminal stenosis, disc herniation, and cord abnormality. This article reviews standard imaging protocols, the normal postoperative appearance of the spine, and the characteristic imaging findings for each of the abnormal postoperative conditions. PMID:11371319

Ross, J S

2000-01-01

226

The Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Allows Tracheal Intubation When the Cervical Spine Is Immobilized by a Rigid Collar  

PubMed Central

Summary An intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) facilitates tracheal intubation with the neck in neutral position, which is similar to the neck position maintained by a rigid cervical collar. However, a cervical collar virtually obliterates neck movement, even the small movements that normally facilitate airway insertion. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the ILMA facilitates tracheal intubation even in patients wearing a rigid cervical collar. In 50 cervical spine surgery patients with a rigid Philadelphia collar in place and 50 general surgery patients under general anaesthesia, we performed blind tracheal intubation via an ILMA. The time required for intubation, intubation success rate, and numbers and type of adjusting manoeuvres employed were recorded. Inter-incisor distance was significantly smaller (4.1 [0.8] cm vs. 4.6 [0.7] cm, mean [SD], P<0.01) and Mallampati scores were significantly greater (P<0.001) in the collared patients. ILMA insertion took longer (30 [25] vs. 22 [6] seconds), more patients required 2 insertion attempts (15 vs. 3; P<0.005), and ventilation adequacy with ILMA was worse (P<0.05) in collared patients. However, there were no significant differences between the collared and control patients in terms of total time required for intubation (60 [41] vs. 50 [30] seconds), number of intubation attempts, overall intubation success rate (96 vs. 98%), or the incidence of intubation complications. Blind intubation through an ILMA is thus a reasonable strategy for controlling the airway in patients who are immobilized with a rigid cervical collar, especially when urgency precludes a fiberoptic approach. PMID:15321932

Komatsu, Ryu; Nagata, Osamu; Kamata, Kotoe; Yamagata, Katsuyuki; Sessler, Daniel I.; Ozaki, Makoto

2005-01-01

227

Transnasal endoscopic approach to the pediatric craniovertebral junction and rostral cervical spine: case series and literature review.  

PubMed

The endoscopic transnasal approach to the rostral pediatric spine and craniovertebral junction is a relatively new technique that provides an alternative to the traditional transoral approach to the anterior pediatric spine. In this case series, the authors provide 2 additional examples of patients undergoing endoscopic transnasal odontoidectomies for ventral decompression of the spinal cord. Both patients would have required transection of the palate to undergo an effective transoral operation, which can be a cause of significant morbidity. In one case, transnasal decompression was initially incomplete, and decompression was successfully achieved via a second endoscopic transnasal operation. Both cases resulted in significant neurological recovery and stable long-term spinal alignment. The transnasal approach benefits from entering into the posterior pharynx at an angle that often reduces the length of postoperative intubation and may speed a patient's return to oral intake. Higher reoperation rates are a concern for many endoscopic approaches, but there are insufficient data to conclude if this is the case for this procedure. Further experience with this technique will provide a better understanding of the indications for which it is most effective. Transcervical and transoral endoscopic approaches have also been reported and provide additional options for pediatric anterior cervical spine surgery. PMID:23905952

Hickman, Zachary L; McDowell, Michael M; Barton, Sunjay M; Sussman, Eric S; Grunstein, Eli; Anderson, Richard C E

2013-08-01

228

Effects of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy and simvastatin treatment on cervical spine disease in mucopolysaccharidosis I dogs.  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by deficient ?-L-iduronidase activity, leading to the accumulation of poorly degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Children with MPS I exhibit high incidence of spine disease, including accelerated disc degeneration and vertebral dysplasia, which in turn lead to spinal cord compression and kyphoscoliosis. In this study we investigated the efficacy of neonatal enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), alone or in combination with oral simvastatin (ERT?+?SIM) for attenuating cervical spine disease progression in MPS I, using a canine model. Four groups were studied: normal controls; MPS I untreated; MPS I ERT-treated; and MPS I ERT?+?SIM-treated. Animals were euthanized at age 1 year. Intervertebral disc condition and spinal cord compression were evaluated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images and plain radiographs, vertebral bone condition and odontoid hypoplasia were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (µCT), and epiphyseal cartilage to bone conversion was evaluated histologically. Untreated MPS I animals exhibited more advanced disc degeneration and more severe spinal cord compression than normal animals. Both treatment groups resulted in partial preservation of disc condition and cord compression, with ERT?+?SIM not significantly better than ERT alone. Untreated MPS I animals had significantly lower vertebral trabecular bone volume and mineral density, whereas ERT treatment resulted in partial preservation of these properties. ERT?+?SIM treatment demonstrated similar, but not greater, efficacy. Both treatment groups partially normalized endochondral ossification in the vertebral epiphyses (as indicated by absence of persistent growth plate cartilage), and odontoid process size and morphology. These results indicate that ERT begun from a very early age attenuates the severity of cervical spine disease in MPS I, particularly for the vertebral bone and odontoid process, and that additional treatment with simvastatin does not provide a significant additional benefit over ERT alone. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24898323

Chiaro, Joseph A; O'Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Malhotra, Neil R; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

2014-12-01

229

A pilot study to determine the effects of a supine sacroiliac orthopedic blocking procedure on cervical spine extensor isometric strength?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if an orthopedic pelvic blocking procedure affects cervical spine extensor isometric strength. Methods Twenty-two participants were sequentially assigned into treatment and control groups. Treatment consisted of a 2-minute procedure using orthopedic blocks (padded wedges with a 45° incline) that were placed bilaterally under the ilia as determined by leg length assessment. Isometric strength measurements took place in 2 sessions with a day of rest between. The treatment group received therapy at the second session immediate to postisometric measures. Results Outcome measures were the pre- and posttreatment measurements of cervical isometric extension strength in pounds. The t tests showed no statistically significant difference between groups in isometric extension strength before treatment. One-way analysis of variance demonstrated a significant difference between groups after treatment (F1,21 = 7.174, P = .014). The treatment group demonstrated an average increase of 6.35 (8.18) lb in extensor strength. Conclusions The current study showed a statistically significant change in cervical isometric extensor strength after sacroiliac joint blocking. PMID:19646387

Giggey, Kristan; Tepe, Rodger

2009-01-01

230

Application of an asymmetric finite element model of the C2-T1 cervical spine for evaluating the role of soft tissues in stability.  

PubMed

Different finite element models of the cervical spine have been suggested for evaluating the roles of ligaments, facet joints, and disks in the stability of cervical spine under sagittal moments. However, no comprehensive study on the response of the full cervical spine that has used a detailed finite element (FE) model (C2-T1) that considers the asymmetry about the mid-sagittal plane has been reported. The aims of this study were to consider asymmetry in a FE model of the full cervical spine and to investigate the influences of ligaments, facet joints, and disk nucleus on the stability of the asymmetric model during flexion and extension. The model was validated against various published in vitro studies and FE studies for the three main loading planes. Next, the C4-C5 level was modified to simulate different cases to investigate the role of the soft tissues in segmental stability. The FE model predicted that excluding the interspinous ligament (ISL) from the index level would cause excessive instability during flexion and that excluding the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) or the ligamentum flavum (LF) would not affect segmental rotation. During extension, motion increased when the facet joints were excluded. The model without disk nucleus was unstable compared to the intact model at lower loads and exhibited a similar rotation response at higher loads. PMID:24641811

Erbulut, D U; Zafarparandeh, I; Lazoglu, I; Ozer, A F

2014-07-01

231

Cervical and thoracic spine injury from interactions with vehicle roofs in pure rollover crashes.  

PubMed

Around one third of serious injuries sustained by belted, non-ejected occupants in pure rollover crashes occur to the spine. Dynamic rollover crash test methodologies have been established in Australia and the United States, with the aims of understanding injury potential in rollovers and establishing the basis of an occupant rollover protection crashworthiness test protocol that could be adopted by consumer new car assessment programmes and government regulators internationally. However, for any proposed test protocol to be effective in reducing the high trauma burden resulting from rollover crashes, appropriate anthropomorphic devices that replicate real-world injury mechanisms and biomechanical loads are required. To date, consensus regarding the combination of anthropomorphic device and neck injury criteria for rollover crash tests has not been reached. The aim of the present study is to provide new information pertaining to the nature and mechanisms of spine injury in pure rollover crashes, and to assist in the assessment of spine injury potential in rollover crash tests. Real-world spine injury cases that resulted from pure rollover crashes in the United States between 2000 and 2009 are identified, and compared with cadaver experiments under vertical load by other authors. The analysis is restricted to contained, restrained occupants that were injured from contact with the vehicle roof structure during a pure rollover, and the role of roof intrusion in creating potential for spine injury is assessed. Recommendations for assessing the potential for spine injury in rollover occupant protection crash test protocols are made. PMID:23149322

Bambach, M R; Grzebieta, R H; McIntosh, A S; Mattos, G A

2013-01-01

232

Care related and transit neuronal injuries after cervical spine trauma: state of care and practice in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Suboptimal care during extraction and transfer after spinal trauma predisposes patients to additional spinal cord injury. This study examines the factors that contribute to care related and transit injuries and suggests steps to improve standard of care in spinal trauma patients in Nigeria. It is a questionnaire-based prospective study of patients admitted with cervical cord injury to two neurosurgical centers in Enugu, Nigeria, between March 2008 and October 2010. Demography, mechanism of injury, mode of extraction from the scene and transportation to first visited hospital, precautions taken during transportation, and treatment received before arriving at the neurosurgical unit were analyzed. There were 53 (77.9%) males, the mean age was 33.9 years, and 23.5% had concomitant head injury. Average delay was 3.5 h between trauma and presentation to initial care and 10.4 days before presentation to definitive care. Only 26.5% presented primarily to tertiary centers with trauma services. About 94.1% were extracted by passersby. None of the patients received cervical spine protection either during extrication or in the course of transportation to initial care, and 35.3% were sitting in a motor vehicle or supported on a motorbike during transport. Of the 43 patients transported lying down, 41.9% were in the back seat of a sedan, and only 11.8% were transported in an ambulance. Neurological dysfunction was first noticed after removal from the scene by 41.2% of patients, while 7.4% noticed it on the way to or during initial care. During subsequent transfer to definitive centers, only 36% had cervical support, although 78% were transported in ambulances. Ignorance of pre-hospital management of cervically injured patients exists in the general population and even among medical personnel and results in preventable injuries. There is need for urgent training, provision of paramedical services, and public enlightenment. PMID:23758277

Mezue, Wilfred C; Onyia, Ephraim; Illoabachie, Izuchukwu C; Chikani, Mark C; Ohaegbulam, Samuel C

2013-09-15

233

Total Disc Arthroplasty and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Cervical Spine: Competitive or Complimentary? Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Anterior cervical discectomy and arthrodesis has come to represent standard of care for patients with persistent radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms that have failed to improve with conservative treatments. One potential complication of the procedure is the accelerated degeneration of the vertebrae and the intervertebral discs adjacent to the level fused and the effects of fusion on those levels. The concern that fusion may be a contributing factor to accelerated adjacent segment degeneration led to increased interest in cervical disc replacement after anterior decompressive surgery. Several studies analyzing the short-term outcomes of the disc replacement procedure have been published since then, and the pros and cons of both procedures continue to remain a topic of debate among the scientific community. The analysis of published literature and our own experience has convinced us that the overall longer-term clinical outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and total disc replacement (TDR) in the general patient population are not significantly different in terms of symptomatic improvement, neurological improvement, and restoration to better quality of life. Age of the patients and number of affected levels may impact the outcomes and hence determine the choice of optimum procedure. To definitely compare the incidence of adjacent segment disease after these procedures, multi-institutional studies with predetermined and unanimously agreed upon clinical and radiological criteria should be undertaken and the results analyzed in an unbiased fashion. Until that time, it is reasonable to assume that ACDF as well as cervical TDR are both safe and effective procedures that may have outcome benefits in specific patient subgroups based upon demographics and clinical/radiological parameters at the time of surgery. PMID:24353966

Jawahar, Ajay; Nunley, Pierce

2012-01-01

234

Is polymethyl methacrylate a viable option for salvaging lateral mass screw failure in the subaxial cervical spine?  

PubMed

Study Design?Biomechanical analysis of lateral mass screw pullout strength. Objective?We compare the pullout strength of our bone cement-revised lateral mass screw with the standard lateral mass screw. Methods?In cadaveric cervical spines, we simulated lateral mass screw "cutouts" unilaterally from C3 to C7. We salvaged fixation in the cutout side with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) or Cortoss cement (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania, United States), allowed the cement to harden, and then drilled and placed lateral mass screws back into the cement-augmented lateral masses. On the contralateral side, we placed standard lateral mass screws into the native, or normal lateral, masses and then compared pullout strength of the cement-augmented side to the standard lateral mass screw. For pullout testing, each augmentation group was fixed to a servohydraulic load frame and a specially designed pullout fixture was attached to each lateral mass screw head. Results?Quick-mix PMMA-salvaged lateral mass screws required greater force to fail when compared with native lateral mass screws. Cortoss cement and PMMA standard-mix cement-augmented screws demonstrated less strength of fixation when compared with control-side lateral mass screws. Attempts at a second round of cement salvage of the same lateral masses led to more variations in load to failure, but quick-mix PMMA again demonstrated greater load to failure when compared with the nonaugmented control lateral mass screws. Conclusion?Quick-mix PMMA cement revision equips the spinal surgeon with a much needed salvage option for a failed lateral mass screw in the subaxial cervical spine. PMID:25649421

Gallizzi, Michael A; Kuhns, Craig A; Jenkins, Tyler J; Pfeiffer, Ferris M

2015-02-01

235

Three-dimensional analysis of cervical spine motion: reliability of a computer assisted magnetic tracking device compared to inclinometer  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the reliability and reproducibility of a magnetic tracking technique for the assessment of overall cervical spine motion (principal and coupled movements). Ten asymptomatic male volunteers with a mean age of 29.3 years (range 20–37 years) were included in the study. Flexion, extension, left and right lateral bending and left and right axial rotation were measured using a magnetic tracking device (MTD) mounted onto a custom head-piece. For rotational movements in the frontal and sagittal planes the results were compared with the measurements of two standard inclinometers. Intra-observer, inter-observer and intra-instrument reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient method. There were no significant differences for all motion measurements between the MTD and the inclinometer. High inter-observer reliability was found in flexion, extension, axial rotation and lateral bending indicating that the testing routine is applicable for different examiners. The intra-observer variability was high in flexion and extension, whereas in lateral bending the reliability coefficients were lower and displayed a fair to good reliability for most of the measurements with the MTD. The results of the MTD were found to be highly comparable with the inclinometer results with an inter-instrument correlation coefficient ranging from 0.88 to 0.99. The MTD is a reliable, reproducible method for three-dimensional motion analysis of the cervical spine and therefore a valuable method both for the clinical assessment of various degenerative and traumatic disorders and as a supplement of different therapeutic procedures and rehabilitation. PMID:19096884

DeFrate, Louis E.; Stafilas, Kosmas S.; Pakos, Emilios E.; Kang, James D.; Gilbertson, Lars G.

2008-01-01

236

Complete upper airway obstruction during awake fibreoptic intubation in patients with unstable cervical spine fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To describe the presentation and management of complete upper airway obstruction with life threatening arterial oxygen desaturation\\u000a that occurred during attempted awake fibreoptic intubation in two patients presenting with unstable C-spine injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical Feature  Complete upper airway obstruction occurred during awake fibreoptic intubation of two men (ASA II; 68 & 55 yr old) presenting\\u000a with unstable C-spine fractures. In both cases,

Glenn McGuire; Hossam El-Beheiry

1999-01-01

237

Influence of neck pain on cervical movement in the sagittal plane during smartphone use  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] Smartphone use reportedly changes posture. However, how neck posture is altered in smartphone users with neck pain is unknown. This study examined changes in the posture of young adults with and without mild neck pain (MNP) when using a smartphone. [Subjects] Thirteen control subjects and 14 subjects with MNP who used smartphones were recruited. [Methods] The upper cervical (UC) and lower cervical (LC) angles in the sagittal plane were measured using an ultrasound-based motion analysis system while the seated subjects used a smartphone for 5?min. [Results] During smartphone use, the MNP group exhibited greater UC and LC flexion angles than the control group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that young adults with MNP are more careful and more frequently utilize a neutral neck posture than young adults without MNP when using a smartphone while sitting. PMID:25642027

Kim, Man-Sig

2015-01-01

238

Chronic compression of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine is associated with abnormal discharge of middle cervical ganglion  

PubMed Central

There are abundant sympathetic nerve fibers in cervical posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PLL in the occurrence of sympathetic symptoms. Ten healthy adult beagles were selected and anesthetized to establish a PLL compression model by C4/5 discectomy, nucleus pulposus tissue replantation, and plate internal fixation. The middle cervical ganglia (MCG) activities were recorded before modeling, shortly after modeling, and two months after modeling. The waveform parameters and spectral densities of autonomic discharge of MCG among the three periods were compared. There was significant difference only in terms of the area of waveform per unit time between before and shortly after modeling. Abnormal discharge waveforms of MCG were detected in two months after modeling. The wave amplitude and waveform area per unit time in two months after modeling were increased significantly compared with those in shortly after modeling. Functional spectral decomposition found a significant increase in 100-250 Hz in two months after modeling. In conclusion, abnormal discharge of MCG caused by chronic compression of PLL may be one of the pathological basis of sympathetic nervous symptoms. PMID:25550947

Gu, Qingguo; Jiang, Dongjie; Wang, Xinwei; Chen, Deyu; Yuan, Wen

2014-01-01

239

Effects of Cervical Deep Muscle Strengthening in a Neck Pain: A Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2–3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6–7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-01-01

240

Effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening in a neck pain: a patient with klippel-feil syndrome.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2-3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6-7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-12-01

241

Reliability of Joint Mobility and Pain Assessment of the Thoracic Spine and Rib Cage in Asymptomatic Individuals  

PubMed Central

Despite the importance of correctly diagnosing a spinal dysfunction, limited research exists related to physical therapists' ability to reliably identify a joint exhibiting signs of dysfunction. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a thoracic spine and rib cage joint mobility and pain assessment between two experienced manipulative physical therapists. Nine healthy subjects (3 male, 6 female; ages 23–35) without history of mid- or low back pain participated. Posterior-to-anterior pressures were applied to the thoracic spine and rib articulations with anterior-to-posterior pressures applied to the costosternal joints of each subject by two examiners to evaluate joint mobility and pain provocation. Both examiners assessed all subjects twice and were blinded to subject identity. Kappa statistics were calculated using a strict and expanded definition of agreement to determine the between- and within-examiner reliability for each outcome. Intra-examiner reliability of joint mobility assessment ranged from slight to fair based on the strict agreement but improved to good when findings were compared across ± 1 spinal/rib level. Pain provocation reliability increased to very good under the expanded agreement; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to limited pain prevalence in the subject sample. Selected clinical prediction rules, applied to the care of individuals with back pain, characterize the patient's regional mobility simply as hypomobile, normal, or hypermobile; consequently, we feel the results of an expanded definition of agreement may be more appropriate for clinic practice. Further research is needed to determine the reliability in individuals with thoracic spine and rib cage symptoms. PMID:19771193

Heiderscheit, Bryan; Boissonnault, William

2008-01-01

242

Reliability of joint mobility and pain assessment of the thoracic spine and rib cage in asymptomatic individuals.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of correctly diagnosing a spinal dysfunction, limited research exists related to physical therapists' ability to reliably identify a joint exhibiting signs of dysfunction. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability of a thoracic spine and rib cage joint mobility and pain assessment between two experienced manipulative physical therapists. Nine healthy subjects (3 male, 6 female; ages 23-35) without history of mid- or low back pain participated. Posterior-to-anterior pressures were applied to the thoracic spine and rib articulations with anterior-to-posterior pressures applied to the costosternal joints of each subject by two examiners to evaluate joint mobility and pain provocation. Both examiners assessed all subjects twice and were blinded to subject identity. Kappa statistics were calculated using a strict and expanded definition of agreement to determine the between- and within-examiner reliability for each outcome. Intra-examiner reliability of joint mobility assessment ranged from slight to fair based on the strict agreement but improved to good when findings were compared across +/- 1 spinal/rib level. Pain provocation reliability increased to very good under the expanded agreement; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to limited pain prevalence in the subject sample. Selected clinical prediction rules, applied to the care of individuals with back pain, characterize the patient's regional mobility simply as hypomobile, normal, or hypermobile; consequently, we feel the results of an expanded definition of agreement may be more appropriate for clinic practice. Further research is needed to determine the reliability in individuals with thoracic spine and rib cage symptoms. PMID:19771193

Heiderscheit, Bryan; Boissonnault, William

2008-01-01

243

The Effect of Power Nordic Walking on Spine Deformation and Visual Analog Pain Scale in Elderly Women with Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine whether Nordic walking exercise can relieve low back pain and change the spine shape in elderly women. [Subjects] Sixteen elderly women with chronic low back pain from N University in Chungcheong-do, South Korea, were enrolled. [Methods] The participants were asked to walk in an upright posture, with the head upright and looking forward. The Nordic poles were held close to the body. When a foot was moved forward, the arm on the other side lifted the Nordic pole and moved it forward. The participants were using the Nordic pole when walked on the track with their arms lifted above their shoulders. The type of shoes worn during walking was not considered. [Results] One-way analysis of variance was used to determine the presence of significant differences between the measures of spine deformation and VAS. [Conclusion] Chronic low back pain, a complaint often received from elderly women, was reduced by pole-induced power walking reduction on the balance of the spine and back of this important exercise program is presented as a guideline. PMID:25435707

Park, Hoo-Sung; Lee, Sung-No; Sung, Dong-Hun; Choi, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Tae Dong; Park, Gi Duck

2014-01-01

244

Isolated mandibular condylar metastases: an uncommon manifestation of recurrent cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Bone metastases from recurrent cervical cancer is a rare scenario, with commonly involved sites being lumbar spine and pelvic bones report an extremely rare manifestation of cervical cancer recurrence presenting as a painful jaw swelling due to metastasis to the mandibular condyle. PMID:23575087

Puranik, Ameya D; Purandare, Nilendu C; Dua, Sumeet; Deodhar, Kedar; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

2013-01-01

245

Active range of motion in the cervical spine increases after spinal manipulation (toggle recoil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It has generally been assumed that spinal manipulation has the biomechanical effect of increasing spinal range of motion. Past research has shown that there are likely no lasting changes to passive range of motion, and it is unclear whether there is an increase in active range of motion after manipulation. Objective: To study changes in active cervical range of

Wayne Whittingham; Niels Nilsson

2001-01-01

246

Nomal Range of Motion of the Cervical Spine: An Initial Goniometric Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

I1 to 97 years. Measurements were taken by jive physical therapists with 7 to 30 years of clinical and teaching exppenence. Among male and female subjects of the same age, females had a greater AROM than did males for all AROMs except neck flexion. Among both males and females, each of the six cervical AROMs de- creased signijicantly with age.

James W Youdas; Tom R Garrett; Vera J Suman; Connle L Bogard; James R Carey

1992-01-01

247

Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

248

Optimal Use of the Halo-Vest Orthosis for Upper Cervical Spine Injuries  

PubMed Central

Purpose Upper cervical fractures can heal with conservative treatments such as halo-vest immobilization (HVI) and Minerva jackets without surgery. The most rigid of these, HVI, remains the most frequently used treatment in many centers despite its relatively high frequency of orthosis-related complications. We conducted this study to investigate the clinical outcome, effectiveness, patient satisfaction, and associated complications of HVI. Materials and Methods From April 1997 to December 2008, we treated 23 patients for upper cervical spinal injuries with HVI. For analysis, we divided high cervical fractures into four groups, including C1 fracture, C2 dens fracture, C2 hangman's fracture, and C1-2 associated fracture. We evaluated the clinical outcome, complications, and patient satisfaction through chart reviews and a telephone questionnaire. Results The healing rate for upper cervical fracture using HVI was 60.9%. In most cases, bony healing occurred within 16 weeks. Older patients required longer fusion time. We observed a 39.1% failure rate, and 60.9% of patients experienced complications. The most common complications were frequent pin loosening (34.8%; 8/23) and pin site infection (17.4%; 4/23). The HVI treatment failed in 66.7% of patients with pin site problems. The patient approval rate was 31.6%. Conclusion The HVI produced frequent complications and low patient satisfaction. Bony fusion succeeded in 60.9% of patients. Pin site complications showed a tendency to influence the outcome of HVI, and would be promptly addressed to prevent treatment failure if they develop. The decision to use HVI requires an explanation to the patient of potential complications and constant vigilance to prevent such complications and unsatisfactory outcomes. PMID:20635437

Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Tae Hong; Shin, Hyung Shik; Hwang, Yong Soon; Park, Sang Keun

2010-01-01

249

Impact on image quality when a variety of x-ray source detector distances are considered for the arthritic cervical spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unavoidable distance between the cervical spine and the image receptor presents measurable levels of geometric unsharpness, which hinders arthritic scoring. The current work explores the impact on the visualisation of important arthritic indicators by increasing the distance between the X-ray source and image detector (SID) from the commonly employed 150cm. Lateral cervical spine images were acquired of an osteoarthritic human cadaver using a DR imaging system. All exposures were taken at 65kVp using automatic exposure control and various SID distances from 150 to 210cm. Four experienced clinicians assessed the images by means of visual grading analysis, using objective criteria based on normal anatomic features and arthritic indicators. A statistically significant improvement in image quality was observed with images acquired at 210cm compared with those acquired at 150cm and 180cm (p<0.05), with values of 56.0 (SE=1.105), 50.85 (SE=1.415) and 65.35 (SE=0.737) respectively. All images with a SID of 210cm scored higher for visually sharp reproduction of the spinous processes, facet joints, intervertebral disc spaces and trabecular bone pattern compared with both 180cm and 150cm. Results indicate that total image quality and visualisation of specific anatomical features is improved in cervical spine radiographs when traditionally employed SID distances are increased.

Joyce, Maria; Brennan, Patrick C.; Rainford, Louise A.; Last, Jason; Ryan, John T.

2008-03-01

250

Spontaneous cervical intradural disc herniation.  

PubMed

Cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is a rare condition with very few case reports in the literature. We report a 64-year-old man who presented with sudden onset neck pain and rapidly progressing weakness in the left upper and lower limb. There was no history of trauma. MRI of the cervical spine showed a C6-C7 disc prolapse, for which he underwent a C6-C7 discectomy and fusion with bone graft through an anterior cervical approach. To our knowledge, all patients with a cervical IDH reported in the literature have a traumatic etiology. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first patient with a spontaneous cervical IDH. PMID:24210799

Warade, Abhijit G; Misra, Basant K

2014-05-01

251

4- and 5-level anterior fusions of the cervical spine: review of literature and clinical results  

PubMed Central

In the future, there will be an increased number of cervical revision surgeries, including 4- and more-levels. But, there is a paucity of literature concerning the geometrical and clinical outcome in these challenging reconstructions. To contribute to current knowledge, we want to share our experience with 4- and 5-level anterior cervical fusions in 26 cases in sight of a critical review of literature. At index procedure, almost 50% of our patients had previous cervical surgeries performed. Besides failed prior surgeries, indications included degenerative multilevel instability and spondylotic myelopathy with cervical kyphosis. An average of 4.1 levels was instrumented and fused using constrained (26.9%) and non-constrained (73.1%) screw-plate systems. At all, four patients had 3-level corpectomies, and three had additional posterior stabilization and fusion. Mean age of patients at index procedure was 54 years with a mean follow-up intervall of 30.9 months. Preoperative lordosis C2-7 was 6.5° in average, which measured a mean of 15.6° at last follow-up. Postoperative lordosis at fusion block was 14.4° in average, and 13.6° at last follow-up. In 34.6% of patients some kind of postoperative change in construct geometry was observed, but without any catastrophic construct failure. There were two delayed unions, but finally union rate was 100% without any need for the Halo device. Eleven patients (42.3%) showed an excellent outcome, twelve good (46.2%), one fair (3.8%), and two poor (7.7%). The study demonstrated that anterior-only instrumentations following segmental decompressions or use of the hybrid technique with discontinuous corpectomies can avoid the need for posterior supplemental surgery in 4- and 5-level surgeries. However, also the review of literature shows that decreased construct rigidity following more than 2-level corpectomies can demand 360° instrumentation and fusion. Concerning construct rigidity and radiolographic course, constrained plates did better than non-constrained ones. The discussion of our results are accompanied by a detailed review of literature, shedding light on the biomechanical challenges in multilevel cervical procedures and suggests conclusions. PMID:17605052

Koller, Heiko; Ferraris, Luis; Maier, Oliver; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Metz-Stavenhagen, Peter

2007-01-01

252

Is pressure pain sensitivity over the cervical musculature associated with neck disability in individuals with migraine?  

PubMed

The objective was to determine if disability due to neck pain is correlated with pressure pain sensitivity in the cervical muscles in patients with migraine. Thirty-two volunteers with migraine completed the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius and suboccipital muscles were also assessed. Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) and linear regression models (? < 0.05). Moderate negative correlations between NDI and PPT were obtained for the sternocleidomastoid (rs = -0.42; p = 0.001), upper trapezius (rs = -0.33; p = 0.001) and suboccipital muscles (rs = -0.41; p = 0.001). The linear regression revealed no association between NDI and PPT of sternocleidomastoid (? = 0.01; R(2) = 0.17), upper trapezius (? = 0.01; R(2) = 0.11) and suboccipital muscles (? = 0.02; R(2) = 0.17). NDI scores and PPT of the cervical muscles correlated moderately and was inversely proportional in patients with migraine, but the association was not linear, so both outcomes should be considered in the assessment of this population. PMID:25603745

Gonçalves, Maria Claudia; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Florencio, Lidiane Lima; Carvalho, Gabriela Ferreira; Dach, Fabíola; Fernández-De-Las-Penãs, Cesar; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora

2015-01-01

253

Objective Sonographic Measures for Characterizing Myofascial Trigger Points Associated With Cervical Pain  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine whether the physical properties and vascular environment of active myofascial trigger points associated with acute spontaneous cervical pain, asymptomatic latent trigger points, and palpably normal muscle differ in terms of the trigger point area, pulsatility index, and resistivity index, as measured by sonoelastography and Doppler imaging. Methods Sonoelastography was performed with an external 92-Hz vibration in the upper trapezius muscles in patients with acute cervical pain and at least 1 palpable trigger point (n = 44). The area of reduced vibration amplitude was measured as an estimate of the size of the stiff myofascial trigger points. Patients also underwent triplex Doppler imaging of the same region to analyze blood flow waveforms and calculate the pulsatility index of blood flow in vessels at or near the trigger points. Results On sonoelastography, active sites (spontaneously painful with palpable myofascial trigger points) had larger trigger points (mean ± SD, 0.57 ± 0.20 cm2) compared to latent sites (palpable trigger points painful on palpation; 0.36 ± 0.16 cm2) and palpably normal sites (0.17 ± 0.22 cm2; P < .01). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that area measurements could robustly distinguish between active, latent, and normal sites (areas under the curve, 0.9 for active versus latent, 0.8 for active versus normal, and 0.8 for latent versus normal, respectively). Doppler spectral waveform data showed that vessels near active sites had a significantly higher pulsatility index (median, 8.3) compared to normal sites (median, 3.0; P < .05). Conclusions The results presented in this study show that myofascial trigger points may be classified by area using sonoelastography. Furthermore, monitoring the trigger point area and pulsatility index may be useful in evaluating the natural history of myofascial pain syndrome. PMID:21968483

Ballyns, Jeffrey J.; Shah, Jay P.; Hammond, Jennifer; Gebreab, Tadesse; Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

2012-01-01

254

Corrective surgery for deformity of the upper cervical spine due to ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Rotational and flexion deformity of C1-C2 due to ankylosing spondylitis is rare. We did surgical correction in one such case by lateral release, resection of the posterior arch of C1 and mobilization of the vertebral arteries, wedge osteotomy of the lateral masses of C1 and internal fixation under general anesthesia. There were no vascular and neurological complications during the surgery. After operation the atlantoaxial rotational deformity was corrected and the normal cervical lordosis was restored. At 1 year followup his visual field and feeding became normal and internal fixation was stable. PMID:24741145

Lin, Bin; Zhang, Bi; Li, Zhu-mei; Li, Qiu-sheng

2014-01-01

255

High field, thin section nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of contiguous thin section (2 mm) imaging utilizing a high field (1.5 tesla magnetic resonance imaging)\\u000a (MR) system has remarkably improved the precision of spinal cord diagnosis. Imaging was performed using three-dimensional\\u000a data acquisition which generated twelve contiguous T1-weighted sections. Each section is reconstructed from a true 512×512\\u000a data matrix.\\u000a \\u000a Sixty patients with cervical cord lesions were

Gary J. Dee; Jaqueline A. Bello; Sadek K. Hilal

1986-01-01

256

Effectiveness of Postoperative Wound Drains in One- and Two-Level Cervical Spine Fusions  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical drains have historically been used to avoid postoperative wound and respiratory complications such as excessive edema, hematoma, infection, re-intubation, delayed extubation, or respiratory distress. Recently, some surgeons have ceased using drains because they may prolong hospital stay, operative time, or patient discomfort. The objective of this retrospective case-control series is to investigate the effectiveness of postoperative drains following one- and two-level cervical fusions. Methods A chart review was conducted at a single institution from 2010-2013. Outcome measures included operative time, hospital stay, estimated blood loss and incidence of wound complications (infection, hematoma, edema, and complications with wound healing or evacuation), respiratory complications (delayed extubation, re-intubation, and respiratory treatment), and overall complications (wound complications, respiratory complications, dysphagia, and other complications). Statistical analyses including independent samples t-test, chi-square, analysis of covariance, and linear regression were used to compare patients who received a postoperative drain to those who did not. Results The study population included 39 patients who received a postoperative drain and 42 patients who did not. There were no differences in demographics between the two groups. Patients with drains showed increased operative time (100.1 vs 69.3 min, p < 0.001), hospital stay (38.9 vs. 31.7 hrs, p = 0.021), and blood loss (62.7 vs 29.1 mL, p < 0.001) compared to patients without drains. The frequency of wound complications, respiratory complications, and overall complications did not vary significantly between groups. Conclusions/Level of Evidence Cervical drains may not be necessary for patients undergoing one- and two-level cervical fusion. While there were no differences in incidence of complications between groups, patients treated with drains had significantly longer operative time and length of hospital stay. Clinical relevance This could contribute to excessive costs for patients treated with drains, despite the lack of compelling evidence of the advantages of this treatment in the literature and in the current study.

Poorman, Caroline E.; Bianco, Kristina M.; Boniello, Anthony; Yang, Sun; Gerling, Michael C.

2014-01-01

257

Anomalous vertebral and posterior communicating arteries as a risk factor in instrumentation of the posterior cervical spine.  

PubMed

We investigated the incidence of anomalies in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis with three-dimensional CT angiography in 55 consecutive patients who had undergone an instrumented posterior fusion of the cervical spine. We recorded any peri-operative and post-operative complications. The frequency of congenital anomalies was 30.9%, abnormal vertebral artery blood flow was 58.2% and vertebral artery dominance 40%. The posterior communicating artery was occluded on one side in 41.8% of patients and bilaterally in 38.2%. Variations in the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis were not significantly related to the presence or absence of posterior communicating arteries. Importantly, 18.2% of patients showed characteristic variations in the Circle of Willis with unilateral vertebral artery stenosis or a dominant vertebral artery, indicating that injury may cause lethal complications. One patient had post-operative cerebellar symptoms due to intra-operative injury of the vertebral artery, and one underwent a different surgical procedure because of insufficient collateral circulation. Pre-operative assessment of the vertebral arteries and Circle of Willis is essential if a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation is to be carried out safely. PMID:24692624

Nagahama, K; Sudo, H; Abumi, K; Ito, M; Takahata, M; Hiratsuka, S; Kuroki, K; Iwasaki, N

2014-04-01

258

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. (continued on next page) Cervical Cancer Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Copyright © 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal cervical ...

259

Just a drop of cement: a case of cervical spine bone aneurysmal cyst successfully treated by percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate cement.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign hemorrhagic tumor, commonly revealed by local pain. The best treatment for this lesion is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with chronic neck pain revealing an ABC of the third cervical vertebra. After percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement, the patient experienced significant clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:25498806

Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Riouallon, Guillaume; Cormier, Evelyne; Bonaccorsi, Raphael; Pascal-Mousselard, Hugues; Chiras, Jacques

2014-01-01

260

Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine: technical and clinical observations  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-two patients were examined to determine the clinical potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine. MRI using different pulse sequences was compared with plain radiography, high-resolution computed tomography, and myelography. There were 35 normal patients; pathologic conditions studied included canal stenosis, herniated disk, metastatic tumor, neurofibroma, trauma, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia, arteriovenous malformation, and rheumatoid arthritis. MRI provided sharply defined anatomic delineation and tissue characterization. It was diagnostic in syringomyelia and Chiari malformation and was useful in the evaluation of trauma and spinal canal block from any cause. MRI was sensitive to degenerative disk disease and infection. The spin-echo technique, with three pulse sequence variations, seems very promising. A short echo time (TE) produces the best signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Lengthening the TE enhances differentiation of various tissues by their signal intensity, whil the combined increase of TE and recovery time (TR) produces selective enhancement of the cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity.

Modic, M.T.; Weinstein, M.A.; Pavlicek, W.; Boumphrey, F.; Starnes, D.; Duchesneau, P.M.

1983-12-01

261

A novel radiographic targeting guide for percutaneous placement of transfacet screws in the cervical spine with limited fluoroscopy: A cadaveric feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background We describe a technique for percutaneous transfacet screw placement in the cervical spine without the need for lateral-view fluoroscopy. Methods Previously established articular pillar morphometry was used to define the ideal trajectory for transfacet screw placement in the subaxial cervical spine. A unique targeting guide was developed to allow placement of Kirschner wires across the facet joint at 90° without the guidance of lateral-view fluoroscopy. Kirschner wires and cannulated screws were placed percutaneously in 7 cadaveric specimens. Placement of instrumentation was performed entirely under modified anteroposterior-view fluoroscopy. All specimens were assessed for acceptable screw placement by 2 fellowship-trained orthopaedic spine surgeons using computed tomography. Open dissection was used to confirm radiographic interpretation. Acceptable placement was defined as a screw crossing the facet joint, achieving purchase in the inferior and superior articular processes, and not violating critical structures. Malposition was defined as a violation of the transverse foramen, spinal canal, or nerve root or inadequate fixation. Results A total of 48 screws were placed. Placement of 45 screws was acceptable. The 3 instances of screw malposition included a facet fracture, a facet distraction, and a C6-7 screw contacting the C7 nerve root in a specimen with a small C7 superior articular process. Conclusions Our data show that with the appropriate radiographic technique and a targeting guide, percutaneous transfacet screws can be safely placed at C3-7 without the need for lateral-view fluoroscopy during the targeting phase. Because of the variable morphometry of the C7 lateral mass, however, care must be taken when placing a transfacet screw at C6-7. Clinical Relevance This study describes a technique that has the potential to provide a less invasive strategy for posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine. Further investigation is needed before this technique can be applied clinically.

Jackson, David M.; Karp, Jacqueline E.; O'Brien, Joseph R.; Anderson, D. Greg; Gelb, Daniel E.; Ludwig, Steven C.

2012-01-01

262

Development and Validation of a Statistical Shape Modeling-Based Finite Element Model of the Cervical Spine Under Low-Level Multiple Direction Loading Conditions  

PubMed Central

Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3–T1) computed tomography data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling (SSM) was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft-tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, SSM methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps toward describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures. PMID:25506051

Bredbenner, Todd L.; Eliason, Travis D.; Francis, W. Loren; McFarland, John M.; Merkle, Andrew C.; Nicolella, Daniel P.

2014-01-01

263

Comparison of Smith Petersen (SPO) vs. Pedicle Subtraction (PSO) vs. Anterior-Posterior Osteotomy (ATO) Types for the correction of Cervical Spine Deformities.  

PubMed

Study Design. Retrospective Case Controlled StudyObjective. To describe the amount of correction obtained with different types of osteotomies in the cervical spine when treating cervical deformity (CD).Summary of Background Data. Although the corrective power of various osteotomies in the thoracic and lumbar spine are well described, there are no reports in the literature on the corrective capabilities of osteotomies in the cervical spine to guide pre-op planning for cervical and cervicothoracic deformities.Methods. Pts who underwent cervical osteotomies for CD were identified in a 10 yr period from 2000-2010. Demographics, surgery type, osteotomy type [Smith-Petersen (SPO), Pedicle Subtraction Osteotomy (PSO), Anterior Osteotomy (ATO)], operative details and radiographs were collected for pre-op and ultimate post-op time points. Cervical lordosis (CL) and basion plumbline (BPL) were collected to assess angular and translational corrections.Results. A total of 61 pts had surgery for CD in the study period. The mean angular correction generated through 1 SPO was 10.1°/level (range 1.0°-24.9° per Level) and the mean translational correction was 1.8cm (range 0.5-4.0cm/SPO). A PSO generated a mean angular correction of 34.5° (range 28.2°- 80.0° / Level, max 1/case) per PSO and translational correction of 2.5cm per PSO (range 0.2-5.6cm). An ATO generated a mean angular correction of 17.1°/ osteotomy (range 3.5°-32.1°/level) and translational correction of 1.0cm/osteotomy (0.1-3.0cm/level, total 0.5-3cm total). Combined ATO & SPO w/ posterior cervical fusion generated a mean angular correction of 27.8°/ osteotomy (range 3.7°-66.7°/level) and translational correction of 2.6cm/osteotomy (range 0.2-7.0cm/level).Conclusion. Posteriorly based osteotomies provided better translational correction than anterior osteotomies. The angular correction achieved by one PSO was similar to ATO+SPOs. ATO + SPOs provided equal or better corrections than Isolated PSOs, with equal LOS and less EBL. PMID:25394319

Kim, Han Jo; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Riew, K Daniel

2014-11-11

264

Feasibility of Translaminar Screw Placement in Korean Population: Morphometric Analysis of Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Purpose To analyze the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement in Koran population, and compare the acceptance rate using previously reported data in American population. Materials and Methods The translaminar lengths, thickness, heights, and sagittal-diagonal measurements were performed. The feasibility analysis was performed using unilateral and bilateral 3.5 mm cervical screw placement on the CT scans within 0.5 mm of safety margin. We also performed radiographic analysis of the morphometric dimensions and the feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement at C3-C7. Results Korean population had similar or significantly shorter translaminar lengths and thickness (lengths and thickness in C7 among males; lengths in C6-C7 and thickness in C4 among females) than American population, but had similar or significantly longer translaminar heights and sagittal-diagonal measurements (heights in C3-C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C6 among males; heights in C7 and sagittal-diagonal measurements in C3-C7 among females). Unilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C4-C6 were significantly smaller between Korean and American female population. Bilaterally, translaminar screw acceptance rates in C3 and C5-C6 were significantly larger between Korean and American male population, but the rates in C3-C7 were similar between Korean and American female population. Conclusion The feasibility of unilateral and bilateral translaminar screw placement is different depending on different ethnics. Subaxial cervical unilateral translaminar screw placement among Korean male population and bilateral placement at C4-C7 among Korean female population are more acceptable than American population. PMID:25510760

Ji, Gyu Yeul; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Sang Hyuk; Kurniawan, Ferry; Lee, Junho; Jeon, Jae Kyun; Kim, Keung Nyun

2015-01-01

265

Vertebral Distraction during Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Causes Postoperative Neck Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective Vertebral distraction is routinely performed during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Overdistraction can injure the facet joints and may cause postoperative neck pain consequently. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of distraction force during ACDF. Methods This study included 24 consecutive patients with single level cervical disc disease undergoing single level ACDF. We measure the maximum torque just before the the arm of the Caspar retractor was suspended by the rachet mechanism by turning the lever on the movable arm using a torque meter. In order to turn the lever using the torque driver, we made a linear groove on the top of the lever. We compared the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between the high torque group (distraction force>6 kgf·cm) and the low torque group (distraction force?6 kgf·cm) at routine postoperative intervals of 1, 3, 5 days and 1, 3, 6 months. Results The VAS scores for posterior neck pain had a linear correlation with torque at postoperative 1st and 3rd days (y=0.99×-1.1, r2=0.82; y=0.77×-0.63, r2=0.73, respectively). VAS scores for posterior neck pain were lower in the low torque group than in the high torque group on both 1 and 3 days postoperatively (3.1±1.3, 2.6±1.0 compared with 6.0±0.6, 4.9±0.8, p<0.01). However, the difference in NDI scores was not statistically significant in all postoperative periods. Conclusion Vertebral distraction may cause posterior neck pain in the immediate postoperative days. We recommend not to distract the intervertebral disc space excessively with a force of more than 6.0 kgf·cm. PMID:23908702

Ha, Seung Man; Kim, Jeong Hoon; Oh, Seung Hun; Song, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyoung Ihl

2013-01-01

266

Multiplanar CT of the spine  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 16 chapters. Some of the topics are: CT of the Sacrum, The Postoperative Spine, Film Organizations and Case Reporting, Degeneration and Disc Disease of the Intervertebral Joint, Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, and Cervical and Thoracic Spine.

Rothman, S.L.G.; Glenn, W.V.

1985-01-01

267

Injection in the cervical facet joint for shoulder pain with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle.  

PubMed

The goal of this double-blinded, randomized, controlled study was to confirm the effectiveness of the cervical facet joint injection in treating shoulder pain with the myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle secondary to cervical facet lesion. Eighty-nine patients with chronic unilateral shoulder pain due to myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle received an injection to the C4-5 facet joint in the experimental group and to the corresponding unilateral multifidi muscle in the control group. Subjective pain intensity and pressure pain threshold of the myofascial trigger point were assessed, and the prevalence of endplate noise in the myofascial trigger point region was measured in 28 patients before, immediately after, and 1 month after the injection. Half of the patients in the experimental group, but none of the control patients, reported being completely pain free 1 month after the injection. Both the decrease in the pain intensity and the increase in pressure pain threshold were significantly more in the experimental group than in the control group either immediately or 1 month after the injection. There was no significant difference in the change of endplate noise prevalence between the 2 groups. This study demonstrates that intra-articular or peri-articular injection into the cervical facet joint region can effectively inactivate the upper trapezius myofascial trigger point secondary to the facet lesion. PMID:19708635

Tsai, Chien-Tsung; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern

2009-08-01

268

Pillow use: the behavior of cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Pillows are intended to support the head and neck in a neutral position to minimize biomechanical stresses on cervical structures whilst sleeping. Biomechanical stresses are associated with waking cervical symptoms. This paper adds to the scant body of research investigating whether different pillow types produce different types and frequencies of waking symptoms in asymptomatic subjects. Methods: A random-allocation block-design blinded field trial was conducted in a large South Australian regional town. Subjects were side-sleepers using one pillow only, and not receiving treatment for cervicothoracic problems. Waking cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain were recorded daily. Five experimental pillows (polyester, foam regular, foam contour, feather, and latex) were each trialed for a week. Subjects’ ‘own’ pillow was the control (a baseline week, and a washout week between each experimental pillow trial week). Subjects reported waking symptoms related to known factors (other than the pillow), and subjects could ‘drop out’ of any trial pillow week. Results: Disturbed sleep unrelated to the pillow was common. Waking symptoms occurring at least once in the baseline week were reported by approximately 20% of the subjects on their ‘own’ pillow. The feather trial pillow performed least well, producing the highest frequency of waking symptoms, while the latex pillow performed best. The greatest number of ‘drop outs’ occurred on the feather pillow. The foam contour pillow performed no better than the foam regular pillow. Conclusion: ‘Own’ pillows did not guarantee symptom-free waking, and thus were a questionable control. The trial pillows had different waking symptom profiles. Latex pillows can be recommended over any other type for control of waking headache and scapular/arm pain. PMID:21197317

Gordon, Susan J; Grimmer-Somers, Karen A; Trott, Patricia H

2010-01-01

269

Interactive cervical motion kinematics: Sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.  

PubMed

Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. PMID:25456272

Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

2014-10-14

270

An analysis of Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice guidelines for cervical spine evaluation in a series of patients with multiple imaging techniques.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective review of 124 consecutive patients who received all of the following studies between October 1998 and December 1999: three-view plain films (3VPF), full CT survey (CTS), and MRI of the cervical spine. We compared the EAST guidelines for 1) patients with persistent neck pain, 2) those with neurologic deficits (NDs), and 3) those who were obtunded in our study group to determine whether EAST recommendations would risk a significant missed injury rate. The average age was 28 years (range 5 months-78 years). There were 94 males and 30 females. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 16.8 and the mean Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) 10.87. The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle crash (58%) followed by falling (15%), auto versus pedestrian (9%), all-terrain vehicle accident (4%), assault (3%) and other (11%). For comparisons we identified a group of 33 patients with normal mental status and normal 3VPF. Twenty patients had MRI for persistent neck pain. Eleven of 20 had normal MRI. The nine abnormal MRIs showed: six ligamentous injuries, two cord compressions, and one nonligamentous soft-tissue injury. Thirteen of the 33 patients had MRI for ND. Six had normal MRI and all these NDs resolved. The remaining seven MRIs showed: two disc herniations, two cord contusions, one cord edema, one lumbar fracture, and one brachial plexus avulsion. We also examined a group of 51 obtunded patients with normal 3VPF. Thirty-six of 51 had normal CTS and MRI. Ten patients had an abnormal MRI, two an abnormal CTS, and three abnormal MRI and CTS. No obtunded patient with an adequate 3VPF had an injury identified below C2 using CTS and MRI. In the 10 patients with abnormal MRI the mean age was 28.4 years, the mean GCS 6.6 (P = 0.0025), and the mean ISS 24.3 (P = 0.03) (Wilcoxson two-sample test). The injuries identified by MRI were four disc herniations, two ligamentous injuries, two soft-tissue traumas, one meningeal tear, and one cord transection. Thirty per cent of patients with persistent neck pain had potentially unstable injuries not detected by 3VPF or CTS. Fifty-four per cent of patients with ND had abnormal MRI. Twenty-two per cent of obtunded patients with normal 3VPF and CTS had an abnormal MRI. These patients have a significantly lower GCS and a higher ISS. Six per cent of these injuries were potentially unstable. Our data support EAST guidelines for patients with persistent neck pain and ND. The guidelines for obtunded patients appear safe in detecting bony injury but may not be sensitive enough for unstable ligamentous injury and significant disc herniations. PMID:12079139

Ghanta, Manmohan K; Smith, Lou M; Polin, Richard S; Marr, Alan B; Spires, William V

2002-06-01

271

Effects of inertial load and cervical-spine orientation on a head-tracking task in the alert cat.  

PubMed

Simultaneous video-fluoroscopic and neck muscle EMG data were recorded from one cat performing +/-15 degrees sinusoidal (0.25 Hz) head-tracking movements in the sagittal plane in a standing body posture with two initial neck orientations and four inertial loads. Radio-opaque markers were inserted into the anterior/posterior and lateral aspects of the occipital ridge and C(1)-C(7) to measure vertebral displacement. Kinematic data were analyzed, and a computer model was applied to the data to characterize the limits of movement in the cervical spine and to estimate the moment arms of the neck muscles at different orientations of head-neck movement. For each initial neck orientation, the cat utilized a distinct set of vertebral alignments, relative joint movements, and muscle-activation patterns to achieve the same movement outcome. As inertial load increased, vertebral alignments and relative joint movements were constant with a vertically oriented neck but differed when the neck was more horizontally oriented. Different muscle-activation patterns were used to maintain the same kinematic pattern with increased inertial loads. Some muscle EMG response gains (rectus capitis major and splenius capitis) increased with increasing mass, while others (biventer cervicis and occipitoscapularis) demonstrated an initial increase and then a plateau. EMG phases were not affected by changing the mass of the system but were affected by changing neck orientation. The model predicted that muscle moment arms would vary little for the different vertebral alignments, suggesting a robust biomechanical system minimally compensates for small changes in task geometry. PMID:12520408

Statler, K D; Keshner, E A

2003-01-01

272

Osteogenic potentials of osteophytes in the cervical spine compared with patient matched bone marrow stromal cells  

PubMed Central

Background: Osteophytes that form adjacent to degenerated disc have osteogeic potential. Studies suggest that their formation is associated with mesenchymal precursors arising from the chondrosynovial junction. This study is aimed to determine the cellular aging and osteogenic differentiation potential of osteophyte-derived mesenchymal cells (oMSCs) when compared to patient-matched bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs). Materials and Methods: oMSCs and bMSCs were isolated from tissue samples during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery. Extensive expansion of cell cultures was performed and early and late passage cells (P4 and P9, respectively) were used to study cell senescence and telomerase activity. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation was applied to detect their osteogenic capacity. Results: The proliferation capacity of oMSCs in culture was superior to that of bMSCs and these cells readily underwent osteogenic differentiation. Our results showed that oMSCs had higher telomerase activity in late passages compared with bMSCs, although there was no significant difference in the telomerase activity in the early passages in either cell types. The telomerase activity was detectable only in early passage oMSCs and not in bMSCs. Conclusions: Our results indicate that oMSCs retain a level of telomerase activity in vitro, which may account for the relatively greater longevity of these cells, compared to bMSCs. Furthermore, when compared to bMSCs, oMSCs maintained a higher proliferative capacity and the same osteogenic capacity, which may offer new insights of tissue formation. PMID:24379461

Zhao, Pei; Ni, Weidong; Jiang, Dianming; Xiong, Wei; Li, Feng; Luo, Wei

2013-01-01

273

Tracheal intubation in patients with cervical spine immobilization: A comparison of McGrath® video laryngoscope and Truview EVO2® laryngoscope  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Literature suggests that glottic view is better when using McGrath® Video laryngoscope and Truview® in comparison with McIntosh blade. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of McGrath Video laryngoscope in comparison with Truview laryngoscope for tracheal intubation in patients with simulated cervical spine injury using manual in-line stabilisation. Methods: This prospective randomised study was undertaken in operation theatre of a tertiary referral centre after approval from the Institutional Review Board. A total of 100 consenting patients presenting for elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation were randomly assigned to undergo intubation using McGrath® Video laryngoscope (n = 50) or Truview® (n = 50) laryngoscope. In all patients, we applied manual-in-line stabilisation of the cervical spine throughout the airway management. Statistical testing was conducted with the statistical package for the social science system version SPSS 17.0. Demographic data, airway assessment and haemodynamics were compared using the Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The time to successful intubation was less with McGrath video laryngoscope when compared to Truview (30.02 s vs. 38.72 s). However, there was no significant difference between laryngoscopic views obtained in both groups. The number of second intubation attempts required and incidence of complications were negligible with both devices. Success rate of intubation with both devices was 100%. Intubation with McGrath Video laryngoscope caused lesser alterations in haemodynamics. Conclusions: Both laryngoscopes are reliable in case of simulated cervical spine injury using manual-in-line stabilisation with 100% success rate and good glottic view. PMID:25024468

Bhola, Ruchi; Bhalla, Swaran; Gupta, Radha; Singh, Ishwar; Kumar, Sunil

2014-01-01

274

Botulinum toxin type A combined with cervical spine manual therapy for masseteric hypertrophy in a patient with Alzheimer-type dementia: a case report  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this case study is to present the findings of combining botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and cervical spine manual therapy to address masseter muscle spasticity in a patient with Alzheimer-type dementia. Case Report A 78-year-old woman with bilateral spasticity of the masseteric regions for 2 years was referred for physiotherapy. She had trismus and bruxism, and could neither close nor open her mouth normally; thus, she was unable to be fed orally in a normal manner. Intervention and Outcome The patient underwent combined treatment with BoNT-A and cervical spine manual therapy. A medical physician (neurologist) performed the BoNT-A injections into 2 points at the center of the lower third of the masseter muscle. A physical therapist performed manual therapy interventions targeted at the cervical spine. Manual therapy started the day after the BoNT-A injection and continued for 5 sessions per week for a total period of 2 weeks. Clinical outcomes were measured including spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), functionality (Barthel Index), and jaw opening. Outcomes were conducted at baseline, 2 weeks after treatment, and at 2-month follow-up session after finishing the treatment. The patient improved in all of the outcomes at the end of treatment, and these results were maintained during the follow-up. After treatment, the patient was able to feed with minimal caregiver dependency because oral feeding was possible. Conclusion The patient in this study responded positively to a combination of BoNT-A and manual therapy, resulting in decreased masseter muscles spasticity and improved trismus and bruxism. PMID:23843761

Villafañe, Jorge H.; Fernandez-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; Pillastrini, Paolo

2012-01-01

275

Comparison of Four Airway Devices on Cervical Spine Alignment in Cadaver Models of Global Ligamentous Instability at C1-2  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of advanced airway management on cervical spine alignment in patients with upper cervical spine instability are uncertain. Methods To examine the potential for mechanical disruption during endotracheal intubation in cadavers with unstable cervical spines, we performed a prospective observational cohort study with three cadaver subjects. We created an unstable, type II odontoid fracture with global ligamentous instability at C1-2 in lightly embalmed cadavers, followed by repetitive intubations with four different airway devices (Airtraq laryngoscope, Lightwand, intubating LMA, and Macintosh laryngoscope) while manual in-line stabilization was applied. Motion analysis data were collected using an electromagnetic device to assess the degree of angular movement in three axes (flexion-extension, axial rotation and lateral bending) during the intubation trials with each device. Intubation was performed by either an emergency medical technician or attending anesthesiologist. Results Overall, 153 intubations were recorded with the four devices. The Lightwand technique resulted in significantly less flexion extension and axial rotation at C1-2 than with the intubating LMA (mean difference in flexion-extension 3.2 degrees [95% CI 0.9 to 5.5], p=0.003; mean difference in axial rotation 1.6 degrees [95% CI 0.3 to 2.8], p=0.01 and Macintosh laryngoscope (mean difference in flexion extension 3.1 degrees [95% CI 0.8 to5.4], p=0.005; mean difference in axial rotation 1.4 degrees [95% CI 0.1 to 2.6], p=0.03. Conclusions In cadavers with instability at C1-2, the Lightwand technique produced less motion than the Macintosh and intubating LMA. PMID:23354337

Wendling, Adam L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Conrad, Bryan P.; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R.

2014-01-01

276

Cine phase-contrast MRI measurement of CSF flow in the cervical spine: a pilot study in patients with spinal cord injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MRI velocimetry (also known as phase-contrast MRI) is a powerful tool for quantification of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in various regions of the brain and craniospinal junction and has been accepted as a diagnostic tool to assist with the diagnosis of certain conditions such as hydrocephalus and chiari malformations. Cerebrospinal fluid is continually produced in the ventricles of the brain, flows through the ventricular system and then out and around the brain and spinal cord and is reabsorbed over the convexity of the brain. Any disease process which either impedes the normal pattern of flow or restricts the area where flow occurs can change the pattern of these waveforms with the direction and velocity of flow being determined by the pressure transmitted from the pulsation of the heart and circulation of blood within the central nervous system. Therefore, we hypothesized that phase-contrast MRI could eventually be used as a diagnostic aid in determining the degree of spinal cord compression following injury to the cervical or thoracic spine. In this study, we examined CSF flow in 3 normal subjects and 2 subjects with non-acute injuries in the cervical spine using Cine phasecontrast MRI. CSF flow analysis was performed using an in-house developed software. The flow waveform was calculated in both normal subjects (n=3) as well as subjects with spinal cord injury in the cervical spine (n=2). The bulk flow at C2 was measured to be 0.30 +/- 0.05 cc, at 5 cm distal to C2, it was 0.19+/- 0.07 cc, and at 10 cm distal to C2, it was 0.17+/- 0.05 cc. These results were in good agreement with previously published results. In patients with spinal cord injury, at the site of injury in the cervical spine, bulk flow was found to be 0.08 +/- 0.12 cc, at 5 cm proximal to the site of injury it was found to be 0.18 +/- 0.07 cc, and at 5 cm distal to the site of injury, it was found to be 0.12 +/- 0.01 cc.

Negahdar, MJ; Shakeri, M.; McDowell, E.; Wells, J.; Vitaz, T.; Harkema, S.; Amini, A.

2011-03-01

277

Desarrollo de una nueva metodología para la valoración de la movilidad cervical basada en técnicas de fotogrametría  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe non-existence of objective, reliable and precise methods of functional valuation of the cervical spine mobility makes difficult the election of a suitable rehabilitation treatment and subsequent control of its evolution in affected patients of cervical pain. All this has raised the need of developing a new methodology of cervical mobility valuation based on video-photogrammetry techniques and to define the

J. M. Baydal-Bertomeu; M. P. Serra-Añó; D. Garrido-Jaén; J. López-Pascual; F. Matey; C. Gimeno; C. Soler; R. Dejoz

2007-01-01

278

Mechanical stability of the in vivo lumbar spine: implications for injury and chronic low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important mechanical function of the lumbar spine is to support the upper body by transmitting compressive and shearing forces to the lower body during the performance of everyday activities. To enable the successful transmission of these forces, mechanical stability of the spinal system must be assured. The purpose of this study was to develop a method and to quantify

J Cholewicki; SM McGill

1996-01-01

279

Effect of laser acupuncture versus traditional acupuncture in neck pain of cervical spondylosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This prospective cohort study aimed to compare the efficiency of laser versus traditional acupuncture in treating cervical spondylosis (CS) pain. Forty female patients were randomized into two equal groups that received 3 sessions / week for 4 weeks. Group A received needle acupuncture therapy with electrical stimulation for 20 min at standard acupoints, ear points and Ashi point on the average 3 points. Group B received low level laser therapy (LLLT) acupuncture at the same acupoints. The results demonstrated that tenderness disappeared in 65% of patients in group A and 75% of patients in group B with improved percentage of 85.5% and 89.2%. Pain on VAS related to direction of motion at 6 directions was improved in all cases where with improvement percentage 76.45% and 85.88%. Pain on VAS at rest was improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 80.41% and 84.28%. NDIQ score improved in all patients with improvement percentage of 69.78% and 73.77%. Follow up of VAS after 6 months from the last session revealed persistent improvement in 55% of patients of group A vs 80% of patients of group B. Mean serum TNF-? was decreased in 85% of patients of group A vs 95% of patients of group B where serum beta endorphins was increased in all patients. It is concluded that both modes of treatment for CS gave improvement regarding pain intensity, disability and quality of life being more evident in LLLT followed for 6 months supported with improved serum TNF? and beta endorphin.

El-Kharbotly, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Alyaa A.; Mohammed, Mouchira A.; El-Masry, Manal R.; Daoud, Eitedal M.; Hassan, Nagwa; Abdel-Wahab, Khaled G.; Helmy, Ghada; Mostafa, Taymour

2014-02-01

280

[Is there a correlation between back pain and stability of the lumbar spine in pregnancy? A model-based hypothesis].  

PubMed

During pregnancy approximately 50% of women suffer from low back pain (LBP), which significantly affects their everyday life. The pain could result in chronic insomnia, limit the pregnant women in their ability to work and produce a reduction of their physical activity. The etiology of the pain is still critically discussed and not entirely understood. In the literature different explanations for LBP are given and one of the most common reasons is the anatomical changes of the female body during pregnancy; for instance, there is an increase in the sagittal moments because of the enlarged uterus and fetus and the occurrence of hyperlordosis.The aim of this study was to describe how the anatomical changes in pregnant women affect the stability and the moments acting on the lumbar spine with the help of a simplified musculoskeletal model.A two-dimensional musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine in the sagittal plane consisting of five lumbar vertebrae was developed. The model included five centres of rotation and three antagonistic pairs of paraspinal muscles. The concept of altered acting torques during pregnancy was explored by varying the geometrical arrangements. The situations non-pregnant, pregnant and pregnant with hyperlordosis were considered for the model-based approach. These simulations were done dependent on the stability of the erect posture and local countertorques of every lumbar segment.In spite of the simplicity of the model and the musculoskeletal arrangement it was possible to maintain equilibrium of the erect posture at every lumbar spinal segment with one minimum physiological cross-sectional area of all paraspinal muscles. The stability of the musculoskeletal system depends on the muscular activity of the paraspinal muscles and diminishing the muscular activity causes unstable lumbar segments.The relationship between the non-pregnant and the pregnant simulations demonstrated a considerable increase of acting segmental countertorques. Simulating an increased lordosis for the pregnant situation in the sagittal plane substantially reduced these acting countertorques and therefore the demand on the segmental muscles.It is assumed that hyperlordosis is a physiological adaptation to the anatomical changes during pregnancy to minimize the segmental countertorques and therefore the demand on the segmental muscles.Further, it can be expected that an enhanced muscle activity caused by selective activity of lumbar muscles increases the stability of the lumbar spine and may improve the situation with LBP during pregnancy. PMID:22366932

Liebetrau, A; Puta, C; Schinowski, D; Wulf, T; Wagner, H

2012-02-01

281

Cervical synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Abstract Synovial cysts of the cervical spine are extremely rare. They can therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. We present an unusual case of acute symptomatology secondary to spontaneous haemorrhage into a cervical facet joint cyst. PMID:24801806

Attwell, Lukas; Elwell, Vivian A; Meir, Adam

2014-12-01

282

Osteoporosis and Your Spine  

MedlinePLUS

... When these bones break, they can cause pain, height loss and stopped or hunched posture, called kyphosis. ... start to have a curved spine and lose height. When there is no pain, many people do ...

283

Radiologic Assessment of Forward Head Posture and Its Relation to Myofascial Pain Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess head posture using cervical spine X-rays to find out whether forward head posture is related to myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) in neck and shoulder. Methods Eighty-eight participants who were diagnosed with MPS in neck and shoulder were evaluated in this study. Four parameters (distance among head, cervical spines, and shoulder, and cervical angle) were measured from lateral view of cervical spine X-ray. The location and number of trigger points in the neck and shoulder and symptom duration were evaluated for each patient. Results Both horizontal distances between C1 vertebral body and C7 spinous process and between the earhole and C7 vertebral body were negatively correlated with cervical angle reflecting cervical lordosis (p<0.05). Younger patients had significantly (p<0.05) less cervical angle with more forward head posture. There was no relationship between MPS (presence, location, and number of trigger points) and radiologic assessments (distance parameters and the cervical angle). Conclusion Forward head posture and reduced cervical lordosis were seen more in younger patients with spontaneous neck pain. However, these abnormalities did not correlate with the location or the number of MPS. Further studies are needed to delineate the mechanism of neck pain in patients with forward head posture.

Sun, An; Yeo, Han Gyeol; Kim, Tae Uk; Hyun, Jung Keun

2014-01-01

284

The Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paediatric spinal trauma is an uncommon form of injury. Spinal injuries in children and adolescents account for 1%–9% of total\\u000a reported spinal injuries. Spinal fractures represent 1%–2% of all paediatric fractures and the cervical spine is the commonest\\u000a region involved accounting for 60%–80% of paediatric spinal injuries (Kokoska et al. 2001). This in turn means that the average general radiologist

Radhesh Krishna Lalam; Victor N. Cassar-Pullicino; Prudencia N. M. Tyrrell

285

Spinal manipulative therapy versus Graston Technique in the treatment of non-specific thoracic spine pain: Design of a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background The one year prevalence of thoracic back pain has been estimated as 17% compared to 64% for neck pain and 67% for low back pain. At present only one randomised controlled trial has been performed assessing the efficacy of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) for thoracic spine pain. In addition no high quality trials have been performed to test the efficacy and effectiveness of Graston Technique® (GT), a soft tissue massage therapy using hand-held stainless steel instruments. The objective of this trial is to determine the efficacy of SMT and GT compared to a placebo for the treatment of non specific thoracic spine pain. Methods Eighty four eligible people with non specific thoracic pain mid back pain of six weeks or more will be randomised to one of three groups, either SMT, GT, or a placebo (de-tuned ultrasound). Each group will receive up to 10 supervised treatment sessions at the Murdoch University Chiropractic student clinic over a 4-week period. Treatment outcomes will be measured at baseline, one week after their first treatment, upon completion of the 4-week intervention period and at three, six and twelve months post randomisation. Outcome measures will include the Oswestry Back Pain Disability Index and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Intention to treat analysis will be utilised in the statistical analysis of any group treatment effects. Trial Registration This trial was registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 7th February 2008. Trial number: ACTRN12608000070336 PMID:18959807

Crothers, Amy; Walker, Bruce; French, Simon D

2008-01-01

286

The Cervical Spine of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Regionalization in Their S-Shaped Arrangement  

PubMed Central

Background Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. Methodology/Principal findings X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola) and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1?C14). The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14) formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. Conclusions/Significance A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3–7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further characterize morphology and the potential movements associated with it. PMID:24651767

Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.; Wagner, Hermann

2014-01-01

287

Interventional Spine Procedures for Management of Chronic Low Back Pain—A Primer  

PubMed Central

Chronic low back pain is a common clinical condition. Percutaneous fluoroscopic-guided interventions are safe and effective procedures for the management of chronic low back pain, which can be performed in an outpatient setting. Interventional radiologists already possess the technical skills necessary to perform these interventions effectively so that they may be incorporated into a busy outpatient practice. This article provides a basic approach to the evaluation of patients with low back pain, as well as a review of techniques used to perform the most common interventions using fluoroscopic guidance. PMID:24436553

Iannuccilli, Jason D.; Prince, Ethan A.; Soares, Gregory M.

2013-01-01

288

Development of the young spine questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain in children is common and early onset of back pain has been shown to increase the risk of back pain significantly in adulthood. Consequently, preventive efforts must be targeted the young population but research relating to spinal problems in this age group is scarce. Focus has primarily been on the working age population, and therefore specific questionnaires to measure spinal pain and its consequences, specifically aimed at children and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop a questionnaire for schoolchildren filling this gap. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – a conceptualisation, development and testing phase. The conceptualisation phase followed the Wilson and Cleary model and included questions regarding spinal prevalence estimates, pain frequency and intensity, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. Items from existing questionnaires and the “Revised Faces Pain Scale” (rFPS) were included during the development phase. The testing phase consisted of a mixed quantitative and qualitative iterative method carried out in two pilot tests using 4th grade children and focusing on assessment of spinal area location and item validity. Results The testing phase resulted in omission of the pain drawings and the questions and answer categories were simplified in several questions. Agreement between the questionnaire prevalence estimates and the interviews ranged between 83.7% (cervical pain today) and 97.9% (thoracic pain today). To improve the understanding of the spinal boundaries we added bony landmarks to the spinal drawings after pilot test I. This resulted in an improved sense of spinal boundary location in pilot test II. Correlations between the rFPS and the interview pain score ranged between 0.67 (cervical spine) and 0.79 (lumbar spine). Conclusions The Young Spine Questionnaire contains questions that assess spinal pain and its consequences. The items have been tested for content understanding and agreement between questionnaire scores and interview findings among target respondents. These preliminary results suggest that the YSQ is feasible, has content validity and is a well understood questionnaire to be used in studies of children aged 9 to 11 years. PMID:23758965

2013-01-01

289

Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. PRESENTATION OF CASE In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1–C5 laminectomy and a C2–C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4–C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. DISCUSSION Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. CONCLUSION The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. PMID:25462050

Dugoni, D.E.; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; Tarantino, R.; Ruggeri, A.G.; Delfini, R.

2014-01-01

290

The Nijmegen Decision Tool for Chronic Low Back Pain. Development of a Clinical Decision Tool for Secondary or Tertiary Spine Care Specialists  

PubMed Central

Background In Western Europe, low back pain has the greatest burden of all diseases. When back pain persists, different medical specialists are involved and a lack of consensus exists among these specialists for medical decision-making in Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP). Objective To develop a decision tool for secondary or tertiary spine care specialists to decide which patients with CLBP should be seen by a spine surgeon or by other non-surgical medical specialists. Methods A Delphi study was performed to identify indicators predicting the outcome of interventions. In the preparatory stage evidence from international guidelines and literature were summarized. Eligible studies were reviews and longitudinal studies. Inclusion criteria: surgical or non-surgical interventions and persistence of complaints, CLBP-patients aged 18–65 years, reported baseline measures of predictive indicators, and one or more reported outcomes had to assess functional status, quality of life, pain intensity, employment status or a composite score. Subsequently, a three-round Delphi procedure, to reach consensus on candidate indicators, was performed among a multidisciplinary panel of 29 CLBP-professionals (>five years CLBP-experience). The pre-set threshold for general agreement was ?70%. The final indicator set was used to develop a clinical decision tool. Results A draft list with 53 candidate indicators (38 with conclusive evidence and 15 with inconclusive evidence) was included for the Delphi study. Consensus was reached to include 47 indicators. A first version of the decision tool was developed, consisting of a web-based screening questionnaire and a provisional decision algorithm. Conclusions This is the first clinical decision tool based on current scientific evidence and formal multidisciplinary consensus that helps referring the patient for consultation to a spine surgeon or a non-surgical spine care specialist. We expect that this tool considerably helps in clinical decision-making spine care, thereby improving efficient use of scarce sources and the outcomes of spinal interventions. PMID:25133645

van Hooff, Miranda L.; van Loon, Jan; van Limbeek, Jacques; de Kleuver, Marinus

2014-01-01

291

Reliability and validity of spinal coordination patterns during treadmill walking in persons with thoracic spine pain – a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Persons with low back pain fail to show the same transition as healthy individuals from in-phase to anti-phase rotation of the thorax and pelvis as walking speed increases. The purpose of this study was to determine if the relative phase of the thorax and pelvis during walking was a reliable (within day test-retest) and valid measure for persons with thoracic pain. Methods The time series motion of the spine over C7, T8 and sacrum were measured at five treadmill walking speeds (0.67, 0.89, 1.12, 1.34, 1.56 m/s) in 19 persons with thoracic spine pain and 19 healthy control subjects. After a 20 minute rest, all tests were repeated. The average relative phases of the transverse plane rotation between C7-T8, C7-sacrum and T8-sacrum during a one-minute walk were calculated. The standard error of measurement (SEM) and the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to estimate test-retest reliability. Three-way repeated measures analyses of variance were performed to determine the influence of group, walking speed and session on the relative phases. Results The minimum transverse plane motion amplitudes, across all participants and speeds, for the C7-T8, C7-sacrum, and T8-sacrum were 2.9, 5.1 and 2.8 degrees, respectively. The C7-T8 relative phase changed little with speed. The C7-sacrum and T8-sacrum relative phases showed increases as subjects walked faster, but both groups had similar patterns of change. Only the C7-T8 relative phase at 0.67 and 0.89 m/s exhibited good reliability (ICC?>?0.80, SEM 4.2-5.7, no significant time effects) for both groups. The C7-T8 and T8-sacrum relative phases demonstrated significant group by speed effects. Conclusions The C7-T8 relative phase showed reasonable reliability and some discrimination between groups, but changes in response to walking speed were small. The T8-sacrum relative phase showed some discriminative ability, but reliability was not adequate. PMID:24321275

2013-01-01

292

Multi-center, Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Investigational Device Exemption Clinical Trial Comparing Mobi-C Cervical Artificial Disc to Anterior Discectomy and Fusion in the Treatment of Symptomatic Degenerative Disc Disease in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the gold standard for treating symptomatic cervical disc degeneration. Cervical total disc replacements (TDRs) have emerged as an alternative for some patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a new TDR device compared with ACDF for treating single-level cervical disc degeneration. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulated Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) study. A total of 245 patients were treated (164 TDR: 81 ACDF). The primary outcome measure was overall success based on improvement in Neck Disability Index (NDI), no subsequent surgical interventions, and no adverse events (AEs) classified as major complications. Secondary outcome measures included SF-12, visual analog scale (VAS) assessing neck and arm pain, patient satisfaction, radiographic range of motion, and adjacent level degeneration. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The hypothesis was that the TDR success rate was non-inferior to ACDF at 24 months. Results Overall success rates were 73.6% for TDR and 65.3% for ACDF, confirming non-inferiority (p < 0.0025). TDR demonstrated earlier improvements with significant differences in NDI scores at 6 weeks and 3 months, and VAS neck pain and SF-12 PCS scores at 6 weeks (p<0.05). Operative level range of motion in the TDR group was maintained throughout follow-up. Radiographic evidence of inferior adjacent segment degeneration was significantly greater with ACDF at 12 and 24 months (p < 0.05). AE rates were similar. Conclusions Mobi-C TDR is a safe and effective treatment for single-level disc degeneration, producing outcomes similar to ACDF with less adjacent segment degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level I. Clinical relevance: This study adds to the literature supporting cervical TDR as a viable option to ACDF in appropriately selected patients with disc degeneration.

Bae, Hyun W.; Davis, Reginald; Gaede, Steven; Hoffman, Greg; Kim, Kee; Nunley, Pierce D.; Peterson, Daniel; Rashbaum, Ralph; Stokes, John

2014-01-01

293

Cervical Angina  

PubMed Central

Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

2015-01-01

294

THE PROSTAGLANDIN E2 RECEPTOR, EP2, IS UPREGULATED IN THE DRG AFTER PAINFUL CERVICAL FACET JOINT INJURY IN THE RAT  

PubMed Central

Study Design This study implemented immunohistochemistry to assay prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor EP2 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of rats after painful cervical facet joint injury. Objective The objective of this study was to identify if inflammatory cascades are induced in association with cervical facet joint distraction-induced pain by investigating the time course of EP2 expression in the DRG. Summary of Background Data The cervical facet joint is a common source of neck pain and non-physiological stretch of the facet capsular ligament can initiate pain from the facet joint via mechanical injury. PGE2 levels are elevated in painful inflamed and arthritic joints, and PGE2 sensitizes joint afferents to mechanical stimulation. Although in vitro studies suggest the EP2 receptor subtype contributes to painful joint disease the EP2 response has not been investigated for any association with painful mechanical joint injury. Methods Separate groups of male Holtzman rats underwent either a painful cervical facet joint distraction injury or sham procedure. Bilateral forepaw mechanical allodynia was assessed, and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify EP2 expression in the DRG at days 1 and 7. Results Facet joint distraction induced mechanical allodynia that was significant (p<0.024) at all time points. Painful joint injury also significantly elevated total EP2 expression in the DRG at day 1 (p=0.009), which was maintained also at day 7 (p<0.001). Neuronal expression of EP2 in the DRG was only increased over sham levels at day 1 (p=0.013). Conclusions Painful cervical facet joint distraction induces an immediate and sustained increase of EP2 expression in the DRG, implicating peripheral inflammation in the initiation and maintenance of facet joint pain. The transient increase in neuronal EP2 suggests, as in other painful joint conditions, that after joint injury non-neuronal cells may migrate to the DRG, some of which likely express EP2. PMID:22789984

Kras, Jeffrey V.; Dong, Ling; Winkelstein, Beth A.

2012-01-01

295

Detailed modelling of the lumbar spine for investigation of low back pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comfort of car seats is becoming an increasingly important issue in the design of vehicles for professional use as well as for personal use. People using cars professionally, like drivers of taxis, trucks, and busses, often have to drive for prolonged periods sometimes leading to physical complaints, like e.g. low back pain. Apart from experimental investigations, virtual testing is becoming

E. de Rochefort; M. M. Verver; A. Grunendahl; H. G. Mooi; TNO Automotive; C. Butenweg; RWTH Aachen

296

Neurosurgery Spine Program The Spine Program continues to carry out local, investigator-  

E-print Network

Neurosurgery Spine Program Research: The Spine Program continues to carry out local, investigator of Cervical Myelopathy, a prospective study observing the gait of patients with a diagnosis of cervical on a neurosurgical spine waitlist. Several studies were conducted in partnership with the Rick Hansen Institute (RHI

Brownstone, Rob

297

Biomechanics of the flexion of spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low back pain is a common problem and it involves different kinds of injury to the spine. In this article the forces and torques experienced by the spine are examined in order to understand, and possibly avoid, low back pain.

Hobbs, H. K.; Aurora, T. S.

1991-03-01

298

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis  

PubMed Central

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5–6–7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis® cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen’s Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-01-01

299

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-07-01

300

The reliability of a novel magnetic resonance compatible electro-pneumatic device for delivering a painful pressure stimulus over the lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Chronic lower back pain (CLBP) is a significant public health problem in the USA. The complexity of CLBP necessitates an assessment tool that can objectively evaluate the aspects of CLBP that lead to disability. Here we present a novel means by which to provide pressure stimuli to the lumbar spine through the use of an electro-pneumatic circuit that can be used in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology to assess the cortical activity changes associated with CLBP. Methods: A test-retest experimental design was used to objectively quantify pressure pain sensitivity of the lumbar spine. Sensitivity was investigated through the identification of pressure pain thresholds of the lumbar spine using a multiple random staircase method (5-s stimuli) and continuous pain intensity rating (25-s stimuli). Results: Data presented here were consistent and reliable from day to day with an interclass-correlation coefficient (ICC) value of 0.913 for threshold values overall and individual ICC values of 0.652, 0.818, and 0.851 for mild, moderate, and intense thresholds, respectively. Linear regression analysis for longer trials indicated a large variation on day 1, R(2) values ranged from 0.222 to 0.882, however, the number of low correlation values decreased with only three subjects having R(2?)spine that mimics the palpatory technique used in clinical practice, and can be used in conjunction with fMRI to assess cortical response. PMID:25296367

Papuga, M Owen; Burke, Jeanmarie R; Dougherty, Paul E

2014-10-01

301

Low back pain in young female gymnasts and the effect of specific segmental muscle control exercises of the lumbar spine: a prospective controlled intervention study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prospective controlled intervention study. To evaluate a specific segmental muscle training program of the lumbar spine in\\u000a order to prevent and reduce low back pain in young female teamgym gymnasts. Teamgym is a team sport comprising three events:\\u000a trampette, tumbling and floor programme. In a recent study, it was found that teamgym gymnasts practice and compete despite\\u000a suffering from back

M. L. Harringe; J. S. Nordgren; I. Arvidsson; S. Werner

2007-01-01

302

Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

2013-01-01

303

Effect of Thoracic Stretching, Thoracic Extension Exercise and Exercises for Cervical and Scapular Posture on Thoracic Kyphosis Angle and Upper Thoracic Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thoracic stretching, a thoracic extension exercise and exercises for cervical and scapular posture on thoracic kyphosis angle and upper thoracic pain. [Subject] A 36-year-old male, who complained of upper thoracic pain at the T1–4 level with forward head and round shoulders, was the subject. [Methods] He performed thoracic stretching (session 1), a thoracic extension exercise (session 2), and muscle exercises for cervical and scapular posture (session 3). [Results] The upper thoracic pressure pain threshold increased after session 1, session 2, and session 3. The thoracic kyphosis angle decreased after session 1, session 2, and session 3. [Conclusion] We suggest that intervention for thoracic pain or kyphotic thoracic correction should use not only an approach for extending the thoracic muscles, but also an approach treating muscles in the cervical and scapular region. PMID:24396221

Yoo, Won-gyu

2013-01-01

304

Quantitative sensory testing somatosensory profiles in patients with cervical radiculopathy are distinct from those in patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish the somatosensory profiles of patients with cervical radiculopathy and patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain associated with heightened nerve mechanosensitivity (NSNAP). Sensory profiles were compared to healthy control (HC) subjects and a positive control group comprising patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) of thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity and responsiveness to repetitive noxious mechanical stimulation was performed in the maximal pain area, the corresponding dermatome and foot of 23 patients with painful C6 or C7 cervical radiculopathy, 8 patients with NSNAP in a C6/7 dermatomal pain distribution, 31 HC and 22 patients with FM. For both neck-arm pain groups, all QST parameters were within the 95% confidence interval of HC data. Patients with cervical radiculopathy were characterised by localised loss of function (thermal, mechanical, vibration detection P<.009) in the maximal pain area and dermatome (thermal detection, vibration detection, pressure pain sensitivity P<.04), consistent with peripheral neuronal damage. Both neck-arm pain groups demonstrated increased cold sensitivity in their maximal pain area (P<.03) and the foot (P<.009), and this was also the dominant sensory characteristic in patients with NSNAP. Both neck-arm pain groups differed from patients with FM, the latter characterised by a widespread gain of function in most nociceptive parameters (thermal, pressure, mechanical pain sensitivity P<.027). Despite commonalities in pain characteristics between the 2 neck-arm pain groups, distinct sensory profiles were demonstrated for each group. PMID:22980746

Tampin, Brigitte; Slater, Helen; Hall, Toby; Lee, Gabriel; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn

2012-12-01

305

3D MRI of the cervical spine: low flip angle FISP vs. Gd-DTPA TurboFLASH in degenerative disk disease.  

PubMed

The authors undertook this study to compare bright and dark CSF three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo (GE) MR techniques to answer the following questions: Could a single Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted GE volume sequence (with multiplanar reformats) be diagnostically equivalent for degenerative cervical disk disease to a standard sequence consisting of sagittal T1-weighted spin echo and axial low flip angle volume GE images (with reformatted images)? Does performing oblique coronal reformats perpendicular to the course of exiting cervical nerve roots improve diagnostic confidence over axial images alone? Thirty-one consecutive patients received a "routine" MR examination consisting of a sagittal T1-weighted spin echo and axial low flip angle volume sequence (FISP) [(35/7/5), 64 slices, 2 mm slice thickness, 192 x 256 matrix, 7.2 min]. Each patient was then given 0.1 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA intravenously, and reimaged with a T1-weighted volume GE sequence [(13/6/12), acquired as 128-1.2 mm coronal partitions, 192 x 256 matrix, 5.5 min]. Sequences were reconstructed on the standard diagnostic console in 1 mm increments. Sets of examinations (routine vs T1-weighted volume) were independently interpreted by three neuroradiologists for location, type, and severity of extradural degenerative disease. There was no strong or consistent trend for increased detection of disease by one imaging sequence over the other. For lateral disk disease, only 3% of the observations were in discordance. For disk disease, there was close agreement in the severity scores. All readers indicated that additional information was provided by the reformatted images more frequently with TurboFLASH (fast low angle shot) than with FISP. All readers indicated that increased confidence was provided by the reformatted images more frequently with TurboFLASH than with FISP. A single 3D contrast-enhanced TurboFLASH sequence is diagnostically equivalent to a set of two-dimensional T1-weighted sagittal spin echo and 3D axial low flip angle sequences for assessing the location and degree of cervical extradural degenerative disease. A screening examination of the cervical spine could be performed with a single contrast-enhanced 5.2 min study, and then relying on computer postprocessing to provide additional imaging planes. PMID:8419435

Ross, J S; Ruggieri, P M; Glicklich, M; Obuchowski, N; Dillinger, J; Masaryk, T J; Qu, Y; Modic, M T

1993-01-01

306

Biomechanical evaluation of a new modular rod-screw implant system for posterior instrumentation of the occipito-cervical spine: in-vitro comparison with two established implant systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Posterior instrumentation of the occipito-cervical spine has become an established procedure in a variety of indications.\\u000a The use of rod-screw systems improved posterior instrumentation as it allows optimal screw positioning adapted to the individual\\u000a anatomic situation. However, there are still some drawbacks concerning the different implant designs. Therefore, a new modular\\u000a rod-screw implant system has been developed to overcome some

M. Richter; H.-J. Wilke; P. Kluger; S. Neller; L. Claes; W. Puhl

2000-01-01

307

Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness of surgical stabilisation (spinal fusion) compared with intensive rehabilitation for patients with chronic low back pain. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 15 secondary care orthopaedic and rehabilitation centres across the United Kingdom. Participants 349 participants aged 18-55 with chronic low back pain of at least one year's duration who were considered candidates for

Jeremy Fairbank; Helen Frost; James Wilson-MacDonald; Ly-Mee Yu; Karen Barker

2005-01-01

308

Effects of contract-relax stretching procedures on active range of motion of the cervical spine in the transverse plane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine if a short regime of stretching exercises could affect cervical range of motion (RoM).Design. A single-blind trial design was adopted.Background. Stretching has become important with respect to sports as well as health care. Although much is surmised about the effects of stretching exercise on spinal RoM, little has been published, those that have using symptomatic subjects. Therefore

P. W. McCarthy; J. P. Olsen; I. H. Smeby

1997-01-01

309

What you need to know about ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament to optimize cervical spine surgery: A review  

PubMed Central

What are the risks, benefits, alternatives, and pitfalls for operating on cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)? To successfully diagnose OPLL, it is important to obtain Magnetic Resonance Images (MR). These studies, particularly the T2 weighted images, provide the best soft-tissue documentation of cord/root compression and intrinsic cord abnormalities (e.g. edema vs. myelomalacia) on sagittal, axial, and coronal views. Obtaining Computed Tomographic (CT) scans is also critical as they best demonstrate early OPLL, or hypertrophied posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL: hypo-isodense with punctate ossification) or classic (frankly ossified) OPLL (hyperdense). Furthermore, CT scans reveal the “single layer” and “double layer” signs indicative of OPLL penetrating the dura. Documenting the full extent of OPLL with both MR and CT dictates whether anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery is warranted. An adequate cervical lordosis allows for posterior cervical approaches (e.g. lamionplasty, laminectomy/fusion), which may facilitate addressing multiple levels while avoiding the risks of anterior procedures. However, without lordosis and with significant kyphosis, anterior surgery may be indicated. Rarely, this requires single/multilevel anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF), as this approach typically fails to address retrovertebral OPLL; single or multilevel corpectomies are usually warranted. In short, successful OPLL surgery relies on careful patient selection (e.g. assess comorbidities), accurate MR/CT documentation of OPLL, and limiting the pros, cons, and complications of these complex procedures by choosing the optimal surgical approach. Performing OPLL surgery requires stringent anesthetic (awake intubation/positioning) and also the following intraoperative monitoring protocols: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electromyography (EMG). PMID:24843819

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

310

Cervical kinematic training with and without interactive VR training for chronic neck pain - a randomized clinical trial.  

PubMed

Impairments in cervical kinematics are common in patients with neck pain. A virtual reality (VR) device has potential to be effective in the management of these impairments. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinematic training (KT) with and without the use of an interactive VR device. In this assessor-blinded, allocation-concealed pilot clinical trial, 32 participants with chronic neck pain were randomised into the KT or kinematic plus VR training (KTVR) group. Both groups completed four to six training sessions comprising of similar KT activities such as active and quick head movements and fine head movement control and stability over five weeks. Only the KTVR group used the VR device. The primary outcome measures were neck disability index (NDI), cervical range of motion (ROM), head movement velocity and accuracy. Kinematic measures were collected using the VR system that was also used for training. Secondary measures included pain intensity, TAMPA scale of kinesiophobia, static and dynamic balance, global perceived effect and participant satisfaction. The results demonstrated significant (p < 0.05) improvements in NDI, ROM (rotation), velocity, and the step test in both groups post-intervention. At 3-month post-intervention, these improvements were mostly sustained; however there was no control group, which limits the interpretation of this. Between-group analysis showed a few specific differences including global perceived change that was greater in the KTVR group. This pilot study has provided directions and justification for future research exploring training using kinematic training and VR for those with neck pain in a larger cohort. PMID:25066503

Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Takasaki, Hiroshi; Chen, Xiaoqi; Bet-Or, Yaheli; Treleaven, Julia

2015-02-01

311

Chordomas of the skull base and cervical spine: clinical outcomes associated with a multimodal surgical resection combined with proton-beam radiation in 40 patients.  

PubMed

Previous studies of chordoma have focused on either surgery, radiotherapy, or particular tumor locations. This paper reviewed the outcomes of surgery and proton radiotherapy with various tumor locations. Between 2001 and 2008, 40 patients with chordomas of the skull base and cervical spine had surgery at our hospital. Most patients received proton therapy. Their clinical course was reviewed. Age, sex, tumor location, timing of surgery, extent of resection, and chondroid appearance were evaluated in regard to the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The primary surgery (PS) group was analyzed independently. The extensive resection rate was 42.5%. Permanent neurological morbidity was seen in 3.8%. Radiotherapy was performed in 75% and the mean dose was 68.9 cobalt gray equivalents. The median follow-up was 56.5 months. The 5-year PFS and OS rates were 70% and 83.4%, respectively. Metastasis was seen in 12.5%. The tumor location at the cranio-cervical junction (CCJ) was associated with a lower PFS (P?=?0.007). In the PS group, a younger age and the CCJ location were related to a lower PFS (P?=?0.008 and P?

Yasuda, Muneyoshi; Bresson, Damien; Chibbaro, Salvatore; Cornelius, Jan F; Polivka, Marc; Feuvret, Loic; Takayasu, Masakazu; George, Bernard

2012-04-01

312

CT-Guided Epidural/Perineural Injections in Painful Disorders of the Lumbar Spine:Short- and Extended-Term Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Evaluation of short- and extended-term results of repeated epidural/perineural injections (EDT/PRT) of corticoids in painful afflictions of the lumbar spine. Methods: Thirty-two patients who had persistent radicular or low back pain for more than 6 weeks were treated with CT-guided injection therapy. By EDT/PRT, 40 mg of triamcinolonacetonid was injected either periradicularly or by a direct intraspinal epidural method at intervals of 3 weeks. Altogether, 140 EDT/PRT were performed in 32 patients (mean 4.4, range 2-8). In nine patients partial facet joint denervation with 1-2 ml of 50% alcohol solution was combined with EDT/PRT to reduce low back pain. Before and after treatment and at follow-up (mean 9.6 months), treatment success was evaluated on a visual analog scale and by physical examination (good = >50% improvement, moderate = 20%-50%, no improvement <20%).Results: Short-term (end of therapy) good or moderate improvement was achieved in 91% of patients, extended-term (mean 9.6 months) in 56%. Regarding certain subgroups, those with disc herniations of the lumbar spine showed a better outcome with good or moderate improvement in 95% short-term and 69% extended-term than those with spinal stenosis who had 72% short-term and 28% long-term. Conclusion: Results indicate that CT-guided EDT/PRT in combination with partial facet joint denervation is a safe and effective outpatient treatment.

Schmid, Gebhard [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Josef Hospital, University Hospital Bochum, Gudrunstrasse 56, D-44791 Bochum (Germany); Vetter, Sylvia; Goettmann, Dieter; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine and Interventional Radiology, Diakonissenkrankenhaus Karlsruhe-Rueppurr, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe-Rueppurr (Germany)

1999-11-15

313

A Predictive Logistic Regression Equation for Neck Pain in Helicopter Aircrew  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: While many studies have investigated neck strain in helicopter aircrew, no one study has used a comprehensive approach involving multivariate analysis of questionnaire data in combination with physiological results related to the musculature of the cervical spine. Methods: There were 40 aircrew members who provided questionnaire results detailing lifetime prevalence of neck pain, flight history, physical fitness results, and

M. F. Harrison; J. P. Neary; W. J. Albert; J. C. Croll

2012-01-01

314

Chest pain in focal musculoskeletal disorders.  

PubMed

The musculoskeletal system is a recognized source of chest pain. However, despite the apparently benign origin, patients with musculoskeletal chest pain remain under-diagnosed, untreated, and potentially continuously disabled in terms of anxiety, depression, and activities of daily living. Several overlapping conditions and syndromes of focal disorders, including Tietze syndrome, costochondritis, chest wall syndrome, muscle tenderness, slipping rib, cervical angina, and segmental dysfunction of the cervical and thoracic spine, have been reported to cause pain. For most of these syndromes, evidence arises mainly from case stories and empiric knowledge. For segmental dysfunction, clinical features of musculoskeletal chest pain have been characterized in a few clinical trials. This article summarizes the most commonly encountered syndromes of focal musculoskeletal disorders in clinical practice. PMID:20380955

Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Christensen, Henrik Wulff

2010-03-01

315

Influence of setup errors on spinal cord dose and treatment plan quality for cervical spine tumours: a phantom study for photon IMRT and heavy charged particle radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tumours partly surrounding the cervical spine may be treated by conformal radiotherapy (RT) using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) with photons or heavy charged particle RT. For both, a high setup accuracy is required to spare the radiosensitive spinal cord, if a high dose is to be delivered. A phantom study was performed to determine the variation of the dose to the spinal cord surface by predefined setup errors. The measured doses were compared to those calculated by the treatment planning programme. The influence of systematic setup errors on characteristic parameters of the treatment plan quality was quantified. The largest variation of the mean and maximum doses to the spinal cord due to setup errors was significantly larger for carbon ions than for IMRT (mean: 11.9% versus 3.9%, max: 29.2% versus 10.8% of the prescribed dose). For the comparison of measured and calculated doses, mean deviations of 3% (IMRT) and 6% (carbon ions) of the prescribed dose were obtained. These deviations have to be considered, when the spinal cord dose is assessed from the treatment plan and they may also influence the dose prescription. Carbon ions yield better values for coverage (99.9% versus 93.1%) and conformality (110% versus 126%) of the PTV as compared to IMRT, while the spinal cord is better spared. Dose distributions produced with carbon ions, however, are more sensitive to setup errors, which have to be considered during treatment.

Karger, Christian P.; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Didinger, Bernd H.; Debus, Jürgen; Jäkel, Oliver

2003-10-01

316

Applying psychological theories to evidence-based clinical practice: identifying factors predictive of lumbar spine x-ray for low back pain in UK primary care practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Psychological models predict behaviour in a wide range of settings. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of\\u000a a range of psychological models to predict the health professional behaviour 'referral for lumbar spine x-ray in patients\\u000a presenting with low back pain' by UK primary care physicians.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Psychological measures were collected by postal questionnaire survey from a random

Jeremy M Grimshaw; Martin P Eccles; Nick Steen; Marie Johnston; Nigel B Pitts; Liz Glidewell; Graeme Maclennan; Ruth Thomas; Debbie Bonetti; Anne Walker

2011-01-01

317

Operative management of traumatic cervical spine distraction and complete cord transection in a 3-year-old patient.  

PubMed

This report describes the presentation and operative treatment of a 3-year-old boy who survived a motor vehicle accident that resulted in a C6-7 distraction injury, complete avulsion of the spinal cord, and gross spinal instability. Only 5%-10% of all spinal cord and vertebral column injuries occur in children. Survival after such an injury is exceptionally rare in very young patients and is associated with severe neurological deficits. The authors discuss the substantial ethical challenges involved in the care of a patient with this injury. To their knowledge, only two other cases of survival have been reported in pediatric patients following motor vehicle trauma resulting in complete injury to the lower cervical spinal cord. PMID:25415253

Davern, Monica Salazar; Garg, Sumeet; Hankinson, Todd C

2014-11-21

318

The Impact of Spinal Cord Nerve Roots and Denticulate Ligaments on Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to play an important pathophysiological role in syringomyelia, Chiari I malformation (CM), and a role in intrathecal drug delivery. Yet, the impact that fine anatomical structures, including nerve roots and denticulate ligaments (NRDL), have on SSS CSF dynamics is not clear. In the present study we assessed the impact of NRDL on CSF dynamics in the cervical SSS. The 3D geometry of the cervical SSS was reconstructed based on manual segmentation of MRI images of a healthy volunteer and a patient with CM. Idealized NRDL were designed and added to each of the geometries based on in vivo measurments in the literature and confirmation by a neuroanatomist. CFD simulations were performed for the healthy and patient case with and without NRDL included. Our results showed that the NRDL had an important impact on CSF dynamics in terms of velocity field and flow patterns. However, pressure distribution was not altered greatly although the NRDL cases required a larger pressure gradient to maintain the same flow. Also, the NRDL did not alter CSF dynamics to a great degree in the SSS from the foramen magnum to the C1 level for the healthy subject and CM patient with mild tonsillar herniation (?6 mm). Overall, the NRDL increased fluid mixing phenomena and resulted in a more complex flow field. Comparison of the streamlines of CSF flow revealed that the presence of NRDL lead to the formation of vortical structures and remarkably increased the local mixing of the CSF throughout the SSS. PMID:24710111

Heidari Pahlavian, Soroush; Yiallourou, Theresia; Tubbs, R. Shane; Bunck, Alexander C.; Loth, Francis; Goodin, Mark; Raisee, Mehrdad; Martin, Bryn A.

2014-01-01

319

The optimized acupuncture treatment for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol of a multicentre randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain is one of the chief symptoms of cervical spondylosis (CS). Acupuncture is a well-accepted and widely used complementary therapy for the management of neck pain caused by CS. In this paper, we present a randomized controlled trial protocol evaluating the use of acupuncture for CS neck pain, comparing the effects of the optimized acupuncture therapy in real practice compared with sham and shallow acupuncture. Methods/Design This trial uses a multicentre, parallel-group, randomized, sham acupuncture and shallow acupuncture, controlled single-blind design. Nine hospitals are involved as trial centres. 945 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomly assigned to receive optimized acupuncture therapy, sham acupuncture or shallow acupuncture by a computerized central randomization system. The interventions past for 4 weeks with eight to ten treatments in total. The group allocations and interventions are concealed to patients and statisticians. The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ) is used as the primary outcome measure, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and The Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36) are applied as secondary outcome measures. The evaluation is performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at the end of the first month and the third month during follow-up. The statistical analyses will include baseline data comparison and repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for primary and secondary outcomes of group and time differences. Adverse events (AEs) will be reported if they occur. Discussion This trial is a multicentre randomized control trial (RCT) on the efficacy of acupuncture for CS neck pain and has a large sample size and central randomization in China. It will strictly follow the CONSORT statement and STRICTA extension guideline to report high-quality study results. By setting the control groups as sham and shallow acupuncture, this study attempts to reveal the effects of real acupuncture versus placebo or non-classic acupuncture treatment and evaluate whether classic Chinese medical acupuncture is effective on CS neck pain. This study will provide evidence for the effects of acupuncture on CS neck pain. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-00000184. PMID:22776567

2012-01-01

320

A stress fracture of the lumbar spine in a professional rugby player  

PubMed Central

In modern rugby, the spine is subjected to great physical pressure, with an increased number of impacts, on both the cervical and the lumbar spine. This case report illustrates overuse injuries of the lumbar spine in international professional rugby players. A 32?year?old sportsman had been practising rugby for 24 years and was playing for a championship level French team when he started suffering from a right lateral pain in the lumbosacral spine. A CT scan showed a unilateral isthmolysis and a coronal irregular fracture of the right pars interarticularis of L5. This led to discussion of (1) the importance of the decision on the date of return to playing rugby and (2) the future of professional rugby players with chronic spinal injuries. PMID:17138643

Castinel, Bernard H; Adam, Philippe; Prat, Christophe

2007-01-01

321

Minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using tubular retractor: The technical note and early clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this work is to present a novel decompression technique that approaches cervical spine posteriorly, but through minimal invasive method using tubular retractor avoiding detachment of posterior musculature. Methods: Six patients underwent minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using the tubular retractor system and surgical microscope. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system and deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression could be accomplished. This approach also allows safe docking of the retractor system on the lateral mass, thus avoiding the cervical spinal canal during exposure. A standard operating microscope was used with ×10 magnification and 400 mm focal length. The hospital charts, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and follow-up records of all the patients were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by neurological status and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain. Results: There was no significant complication related to operation. The follow-up time was 4-12 months (mean, 9 months). Muscle weakness improved in all patients; sensory deficits resolved in four patients and improved in two patients. Analysis of the mean VAS for radicular pain and VAS for neck pain showed significant improvement. Conclusions: The preliminary experiences with good clinical outcome seem to promise that this minimally invasive technique is a valid alternative option for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24778922

Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Shin, Myeong-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik

2014-01-01

322

Neck Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... your arm? Yes You may have a HERNIATED CERVICAL DISK, when part of the center portion of the spine presses against a nerve. It may also be from MUSCLE SPASM. See your doctor. Use over-the-counter medicine, such as ... may be from DEGENERATIVE CERVICAL ARTHRITIS, a disorder that affects the bones and ...

323

SPINE Volume 32, Number 19, pp 20922098 2007, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.  

E-print Network

to Measure Cervical Spine Motion Over Extended Periods of Time Faiz I. Syed, MS, Ashish L. Oza, MS, Ray. Objective. To develop and validate a motion sensor system for measuring cervical spine motion over ex to estimate cervical spine motion. These have mostly been carried out in a laboratory setting performing

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

324

SPINE Volume 26, Number 17, pp 19041909 2001, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.  

E-print Network

in the cervical spine. Further, it is not clear how subject size, gender, and neck geometry relate to variations at different locations in the cervical spine. Results. When moments were resolved about axes through cervical spine to the mastoid process. Conclusions. Moments in three dimensions were quantified with regard

Delp, Scott

325

SPINE Volume 33, Number 17, pp 18821888 2008, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins  

E-print Network

of healthy young adults. Continuous motion monitoring of the cervical spine performed outside of a laboratory: cervical spine, kinematics, mechanics, ar- tificial disc, continuous motion monitoring. Spine 2008; 33SPINE Volume 33, Number 17, pp 1882­1888 ©2008, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Annual Frequency

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

326

Whole exome sequencing implicates PTCH1 and COL17A1 genes in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine in Chinese patients.  

PubMed

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) of the cervical spine is a complex multifactorial disease. Patients with OPLL commonly present with symptoms in their 40s or 50s. The genetic basis of OPLL remains poorly understood. Exome capture combined with massively parallel DNA sequencing has been proposed as an efficient strategy to search for disease-causing genes of both monogenic and multigenic disorders. To identify candidate pathogenic genes associated with OPLL, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on two unrelated southern Chinese OPLL patients. The entire DNA coding region of the candidate genes was amplified by PCR and Sanger sequenced. The common single nucleotide polymorphisms were analyzed by association studies. WES revealed p.T265S/PTCH1, p.P1232L/PTCH1, and p.T902S/COL17A1 mutants in the two female cases with mixed OPLL. These were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. p.P1232L/PTCH1, p.N1374D/COL17A1 and p.T902S/COL17A1 were subsequently identified in three males with continuous OPLL and one female with mixed OPLL. The association studies indicated that the SNPs rs805698 and rs4918079 in COL17A1 were significantly associated with OPLL. This study suggests that WES may be a practical approach to revealing significant genetic involvement in OPLL. Variants of the PTCH1 and COL17A1 genes may contribute to the development of OPLL. PMID:24668667

Wei, W; He, H-L; Chen, C-Y; Zhao, Y; Jiang, H L; Liu, W-T; Du, Z F; Chen, X-L; Shi, S Y; Zhang, X N

2014-01-01

327

Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

2014-01-01

328

The Relationship of Forward Head Posture and Rounded Shoulders with Neck Pain in Iranian Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Office workers spend a long period of time behind a computer during working hours. The relation between the posture of sitting during work with computer and neck pain is still debatable. Even though some researchers claim a significant difference in head posture between patients with neck pain and pain-free participants, the FHP (forward head posture) has not always been associated with neck pain in literature. So, the purpose of this study was to discover the relationship between neck pain and improper posture in the head, cervicothoracic spine and shoulders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to explore the relationships between neck pains, sagittal postures of cervical and thoracic spine and shoulders among office workers in two positions, straight looking forward and working position. 46 subjects without neck pain and 55 subjects with neck pain were evaluated using a photographic method. Thoracic and cervical postures were measured by the HT (High Thoracic), CV (Craniovertebral) angles respectively. Shoulder’s posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane by the acromion protrusion. Results: HT and CV angles were positively correlated with the presence of neck pain only in working position (p< 0.05). In straight looking forward position there was no significant difference between the two groups statistically (p>0.05). The difference of shoulder protrusion between symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was not significant. Conclusion: FHP and thoracic kyphosis were accompanied with neck pain. But shoulder posture was not correlated with neck pain. PMID:25250268

Nejati, Parisa; Lotfian, Sara; Moezy, Azar; Moezy, Azar; Nejati, Mina

2014-01-01

329

A rare differential diagnosis to occupational neck pain: bilateral stylohyoid syndrome  

PubMed Central

Chronic neck pain is widely prevalent and a common source of disability in the working-age population. Etiology of chronic neck pain includes neck sprain, mechanical or muscular neck pain, myofascial pain syndrome, postural neck pain as well as pain due to degenerative changes. We report the case of a 42 year old secretary, complaining about a longer history of neck pain and limited movement of the cervical spine. Surprisingly, the adequate radiologic examination revealed a bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex. Her symptoms remained intractable from conservative treatment consisting of anti-inflammatory medication as well as physical therapy. Hence the patient was admitted to surgical resection of the ossified stylohyoid ligament complex. Afterwards she was free of any complaints and went back to work. Therefore, ossification of the stylohyoid ligament complex causing severe neck pain and movement disorder should be regarded as a rare differential diagnosis of occupational related neck pain. PMID:16800878

Kirchhoff, Gertrud; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Buhmann, Sonja; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Lenz, Miriam; Vogel, Tobias; Kichhoff, Rainer Maria

2006-01-01

330

Destructive Dural Ectasia of Dorsal and Lumbar Spine with Cauda Equina Syndrome in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis  

PubMed Central

We present a patient with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis complicated with cauda equina syndrome. The patient suffered from increasing pain in the leg with reduced sensitivity and extremely cold feet associated with incontinence. Diagnostic workup revealed dural ectasia, arachnoiditis and a spinal inflammatory mass leading to extensive vertebral bone destruction. Of interest, this was not only found in the lumbar spine region (which is typical in cases of cauda equina syndrome associated with ankylosing spondylitis) but also in the lower cervical spine (C7) and upper dorsal spine. Moreover, the bone destructive phenotype of this complication of long-standing AS contrasts with the usual characteristics of new bone formation and ankylosis. As initial treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs was not sufficiently successful, infliximab therapy was started which resulted in manifest clinical improvement as chronic pain, incontinence and laboratory signs of inflammation progressively disappeared. PMID:21331306

Van Hoydonck, Marijke; de Vlam, Kurt; Westhovens, Rene; Luyten, Frank P; Lories, Rik J

2010-01-01

331

Open Access Destructive Dural Ectasia of Dorsal and Lumbar Spine with Cauda Equina Syndrome in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis  

E-print Network

Abstract: We present a patient with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis complicated with cauda equina syndrome. The patient suffered from increasing pain in the leg with reduced sensitivity and extremely cold feet associated with incontinence. Diagnostic workup revealed dural ectasia, arachnoiditis and a spinal inflammatory mass leading to extensive vertebral bone destruction. Of interest, this was not only found in the lumbar spine region (which is typical in cases of cauda equina syndrome associated with ankylosing spondylitis) but also in the lower cervical spine (C7) and upper dorsal spine. Moreover, the bone destructive phenotype of this complication of long-standing AS contrasts with the usual characteristics of new bone formation and ankylosis. As initial treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs was not sufficiently successful, infliximab therapy was started which resulted in manifest clinical improvement as chronic pain, incontinence and laboratory signs of inflammation progressively disappeared.

Marijke Van Hoydonck; Kurt De Vlam; Rene Westhovens; Frank P. Luyten; Rik J. Lories

332

Safety of cervical spine manipulation: are adverse events preventable and are manipulations being performed appropriately? A review of 134 case reports  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical spine manipulation (CSM) is a commonly utilized intervention, but its use remains controversial. Purpose To retrospectively analyze all available documented case reports in the literature describing patients who had experienced severe adverse events (AEs) after receiving CSM to determine if the CSM was used appropriately, and if these types of AEs could have been prevented using sound clinical reasoning on the part of the clinician. Data sources PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health were systematically searched for case reports between 1950 and 2010 of AEs following CSM. Study selection Case reports were included if they were peer-reviewed; published between 1950 and 2010; case reports or case series; and had CSM as an intervention. Articles were excluded if the AE occurred without CSM (e.g. spontaneous); they were systematic or literature reviews. Data extracted from each case report included: gender; age; who performed the CSM and why; presence of contraindications; the number of manipulation interventions performed; initial symptoms experienced after the CSM; and type of resultant AE. Data synthesis Based on the information gathered, CSMs were categorized as appropriate or inappropriate, and AEs were categorized as preventable, unpreventable, or unknown. Chi-square analysis with an alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine if there was a difference in proportion between six categories: appropriate/preventable, appropriate/unpreventable, appropriate/unknown, inappropriate/preventable, inappropriate/unpreventable, and inappropriate/unknown. Results One hundred thirty four cases, reported in 93 case reports, were reviewed. There was no significant difference in proportions between appropriateness and preventability, P?=?.46. Of the 134 cases, 60 (44.8%) were categorized as preventable, 14 (10.4%) were unpreventable and 60 (44.8%) were categorized as ‘unknown’. CSM was performed appropriately in 80.6% of cases. Death resulted in 5.2% (n?=?7) of the cases, mostly caused by arterial dissection. Limitations There may have been discrepancies between what was reported in the cases and what actually occurred, since physicians dealing with the effects of the AE, rather than the clinician performing the CSM, published many of the cases. Conclusions This review showed that, if all contraindications and red flags were ruled out, there was potential for a clinician to prevent 44.8% of AEs associated with CSM. Additionally, 10.4% of the events were unpreventable, suggesting some inherent risk associated with CSM even after a thorough exam and proper clinical reasoning. PMID:23633885

Puentedura, Emilio J; March, Jessica; Anders, Joe; Perez, Amber; Landers, Merrill R; Wallmann, Harvey W; Cleland, Joshua A

2012-01-01

333

Degenerative Changes of Spine in Helicopter Pilots  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between whole body vibration (WBV) induced helicopter flights and degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spine. Methods We examined 186 helicopter pilots who were exposed to WBV and 94 military clerical workers at a military hospital. Questionnaires and interviews were completed for 164 of the 186 pilots (response rate, 88.2%) and 88 of the 94 clerical workers (response rate, 93.6%). Radiographic examinations of the cervical and the lumbar spines were performed after obtaining informed consent in both groups. Degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines were determined using four radiographs per subject, and diagnosed by two independent, blinded radiologists. Results There was no significant difference in general and work-related characteristics except for flight hours and frequency between helicopter pilots and clerical workers. Degenerative changes in the cervical spine were significantly more prevalent in the helicopter pilots compared with control group. In the cervical spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) was associated with degenerative changes. And in the lumbar spine multivariate model, accumulated flight hours (per 100 hours) and age were associated with degenerative changes. Conclusion Accumulated flight hours were associated with degenerative changes of the cervical and lumbar spines in helicopter pilots. PMID:24236259

Byeon, Joo Hyeon; Kim, Jung Won; Jeong, Ho Joong; Sim, Young Joo; Kim, Dong Kyu; Choi, Jong Kyoung; Im, Hyoung June

2013-01-01

334

Spinal pain made worse by recumbency: a clue to spinal cord tumors.  

PubMed

In the absence of physical findings, pain in the low back, cervical or thoracic spine, or the extremities presents a diagnostic problem. On occasion the pain is present or made worse only when the patient lies down. We have attended four patients with underlying extradural tumors of the spinal canal. A 75-year-old woman with chronic back pain was treated for multiple myeloma with intravenous dexamethasone and 400 rads of x-ray irradiation to the lumbar spine and experienced marked pain relief in 24 hours. A 76-year-old woman with neck pain had complete pain relief after a vascular, calcified meningioma was removed surgically from under the 2nd and 3rd cervical nerve roots. A 38-year-old male with constant pain in the lumbar area and right leg and foot experienced marked relief from pain after a neurolemmoma of the cauda equina was surgically removed. A 57-year-old woman with knee pain became pain free 24 hours after radiation therapy to an enlarged nodular cauda equina. These four cases illustrate a diagnostic clue rarely mentioned in the literature. PMID:2945534

Nicholas, J J; Christy, W C

1986-09-01

335

Vertebroplasty of Cervical Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The first vertebroplasty was performed by Harve Deramond in France in 1984 due to a hemangioma of cervical vertebral body. Procedure technique consisted of inserting a needle through the bony palate of the oral cavity. Bone cement injected under pressure not only fills the areas of bone loss. The heat released in the process of crystallization causes denaturation of pathological tissue proteins (metastasis) and disrupts blood supply (hemangiomas). The aim of this study was to evaluate the method of treatment from anterolateral access. Material/Methods In the years 2007–2012 the procedure was performed in 6 men and 9 women aged from 42 to 71 years (mean age: 56.3 years). In 10 cases the reason for vertebroplasty was the vertebral hemangioma, in another 4 – pathological vertebral fractures due to metastases, and in one case – multiple myeloma. Procedures were performed from anterolateral access, under local anesthesia, under x-ray guidance (fluoroscopy). Bone needle was inserted into the vertebral body, followed by injection of PMMA cement. Results In 100% cases pain relief was observed immediately after the procedure and beneficial therapeutic effect was obtained. No life-threatening complications and clinical symptoms were observed. Average length hospital stay amounted to 2.9 days. Conclusions Cervical spine vertebroplasty from anterolateral access seems to be a safe, effective and beneficial method of treatment. It reduces the risk of infection in comparison to the transoral method. PMID:25674195

Kordecki, Kazimierz; Lewszuk, Andrzej; Pu?awska-Stalmach, Magdalena; Michalak, Pawe?; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Polaków, Piotr; Rutka, Katarzyna; ?ebkowski, Wojciech; ?ebkowska, Urszula

2015-01-01

336

Correlation of Computed Tomography Imaging Features With Pain Response in Patients With Spine Metastases After Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To correlate computed tomography (CT) imaging features of spinal metastases with pain relief after radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Thirty-three patients receiving computed tomography (CT)-simulated RT for spinal metastases in an outpatient palliative RT clinic from January 2007 to October 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Forty spinal metastases were evaluated. Pain response was rated using the International Bone Metastases Consensus Working Party endpoints. Three musculoskeletal radiologists and two orthopaedic surgeons evaluated CT features, including osseous and soft tissue tumor extent, presence of a pathologic fracture, severity of vertebral height loss, and presence of kyphosis. Results: The mean patient age was 69 years; 24 were men and 9 were women. The mean worst pain score was 7/10, and the mean total daily oral morphine equivalent was 77.3 mg. Treatment doses included 8 Gy in one fraction (22/33), 20 Gy in five fractions (10/33), and 20 Gy in eight fractions (1/33). The CT imaging appearance of spinal metastases included vertebral body involvement (40/40), pedicle involvement (23/40), and lamina involvement (18/40). Soft tissue component (10/40) and nerve root compression (9/40) were less common. Pathologic fractures existed in 11/40 lesions, with resultant vertebral body height loss in 10/40 and kyphosis in 2/40 lesions. At months 1, 2, and 3 after RT, 18%, 69%, and 70% of patients experienced pain relief. Pain response was observed with various CT imaging features. Conclusions: Pain response after RT did not differ in patients with and without pathologic fracture, kyphosis, or any other CT features related to extent of tumor involvement. All patients with painful spinal metastases may benefit from palliative RT.

Mitera, Gunita, E-mail: Gunita.Mitera@Sunnybrook.ca [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Probyn, Linda [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ford, Michael [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donovan, Andrea; Rubenstein, Joel [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Finkelstein, Joel [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Christakis, Monique [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Zhang, Liying; Campos, Sarah; Culleton, Shaelyn; Nguyen, Janet; Sahgal, Arjun; Barnes, Elizabeth; Tsao, May; Danjoux, Cyril; Holden, Lori [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yee, Albert [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Khan, Luluel; Chow, Edward [Rapid Response Radiotherapy Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2011-11-01

337

Efficacy of Manual and Manipulative Therapy in the Perception of Pain and Cervical Motion in Patients With Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of manipulative and manual therapy treatments with regard to pain perception and neck mobility in patients with tension-type headache. Methods A randomized clinical trial was conducted on 84 adults diagnosed with tension-type headache. Eighty-four subjects were enrolled in this study: 68 women and 16 men. Mean age was 39.76 years, ranging from 18 to 65 years. A total of 57.1% were diagnosed with chronic tension-type headache and 42.9% with tension-type headache. Participants were divided into 3 treatment groups (manual therapy, manipulative therapy, a combination of manual and manipulative therapy) and a control group. Four treatment sessions were administered during 4 weeks, with posttreatment assessment and follow-up at 1 month. Cervical ranges of motion pain perception, and frequency and intensity of headaches were assessed. Results All 3 treatment groups showed significant improvements in the different dimensions of pain perception. Manual therapy and manipulative treatment improved some cervical ranges of motion. Headache frequency was reduced with manipulative treatment (P < .008). Combined treatment reported improvement after the treatment (P < .000) and at follow-up (P < .002). Pain intensity improved after the treatment and at follow-up with manipulative therapy (P < .01) and combined treatment (P < .01). Conclusions Both treatments, administered both separately and combined together, showed efficacy for patients with tension-type headache with regard to pain perception. As for cervical ranges of motion, treatments produced greater effect when separately administered. PMID:24711779

Gemma V., Espí-López; Antonia, Gómez-Conesa

2014-01-01

338

Feasibility of Early and Repeated Low-dose Interscalene Brachial Plexus Block for Residual Pain in Acute Cervical Radiculopathy Treated with NSAIDS  

PubMed Central

Background To improve residual pain management in acute cervical radiculopathy treated with NSAIDs, the feasibility of early and repeated low-dose interscalene brachial plexus block (IS-BPB) needs to be assessed. Methods This was a prospective study on patients receiving NSAIDs (loxoprofen) for cervical radiculopathy of ? 2-week onset. Pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS). A low-dose ultrasonography (USG)-guided IS-BPB (dexamethasone [1.65 mg; 0.5 ml] and mepivacaine [1%; 3.0 ml]) was performed at baseline and weekly thereafter for 4 weeks in an outpatient setting for the intervention group. All patients were evaluated using a visual satisfaction score (VSS) at week 4. Patients with baseline VAS scores < 70 (mild to moderate pain; MM group) and ? 70 (severe pain; SE group) were compared to the controls receiving NSAIDs. Results A total of 316 IS-BPBs were performed in the intervention group. There was a significant difference in the decline in the VAS from week 0 to week 3 in the MM and SE groups (P < 0.05); however, from week 3 to week 4, the therapeutic effect exhibited no significant difference. Thirteen patients at week 2 (15.5%; MM: 27.7%; SE: 0%), 43 at week 3 (51.2%; MM: 83.0%; SE: 10.8%), and 47 at week 4 (56.0%; MM: 85.1%; SE: 18.9%) achieved a VAS score of ? 20. Patient satisfaction was high, and the decrease in VAS scores in both groups was significant (P < 0.05) compared to the controls. Conclusions Weekly, low-dose, USG-guided IS-BPB can be implemented for early pain relief in acute cervical radiculopathy, with high patient satisfaction. PMID:24748940

Mitoro, Mari; Kuzumoto, Naoya

2014-01-01

339

Cervical Syndrome – the Effectiveness of Physical Therapy Interventions  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: The cervical syndrome refers to a set of disorders caused by the changes in the cervical spine and the soft-tissue surrounding it, with pain as the predominant symptom. Sore neck has been a common problem among a large section of today`s population. The factors contributing to this issue include the modern lifestyle, prolonged sitting and incorrect, fixed or constrained working postures. The root of these difficulties is found in the mechanical disorders of the cervical spine structures, poor body posture and jerky body movements. In the Scandinavian countries neck pain is considered to be a public health problem. Methods: The study evaluated 25 patients with an established diagnosis of cervical syndrome. The research was conducted at the PI Institute of Occupational and Sports Medicine of Zenica–Doboj Canton. Each patient received twenty physical therapy treatment sessions. Results and conclusions: The study included 25 patients suffering from the cervical syndrome. The statistical analysis of gender distribution indicated that 36% of the patients were male, while 64% were female. The mean age of study participants was 46.76±4,23. The patients ranged in age from 39 to 54 years, with no statistically significant difference in the mean age of male and female patients, p=0.691. Analysing the types of occupational activities performed by the patients, the study found a positive relation between neck pain and prolonged sitting at work. The patients who performed office work made up 76% of the total number. Each method of physical therapy applied in the treatment of neck pain patients proved useful. However, the combination of electrotherapy, kinesiotherapy and manual massage proved to be most effective. Conclusion: The cervical syndrome is a common medical condition primarily affecting adult population, with prevalence being higher among women and office workers. The condition places a considerable socioeconomic burden on the afflicted. Cervical pain ranges greatly in severity – from moderate to unbearable, thus leading to high levels of work absence as well as to a decrease in the quality of life. Proper physical therapy program can help the patients with neck pain return to their normal everyday activities, improve their quality of life, as well as reduce the absence from work.

Kasumovic, Mersija; Gorcevic, Emir; Gorcevic, Semir; Osmanovic, Jasna

2013-01-01

340

Occupational Overuse Syndrome (Technological Diseases): Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, a Mouse Shoulder, Cervical Pain Syndrome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Technological diseases are diseases of the modern era. Some are caused by occupational exposures, and are marked with direct professional relation, or the action of harmful effects in the workplace. Due to the increasing incidence of these diseases on specific workplaces which may be caused by one or more causal factors present in the workplace today, these diseases are considered as professional diseases. Severity of technological disease usually responds to the level and duration of exposure, and usually occurs after many years of exposure to harmful factor. Technological diseases occur due to excessive work at the computer, or excessive use of keyboards and computer mice, especially the non-ergonomic ones. This paper deals with the diseases of the neck, shoulder, elbow and wrist (cervical radiculopathy, mouse shoulder and carpal tunnel syndrome), as is currently the most common diseases of technology in our country and abroad. These three diseases can be caused by long-term load and physical effort, and are tied to specific occupations, such as occupations associated with prolonged sitting, working at the computer and work related to the fixed telephone communication, as well as certain types of sports (tennis, golf and others). PMID:25568584

Tiric-Campara, Merita; Krupic, Ferid; Biscevic, Mirza; Spahic, Emina; Maglajlija, Kerima; Masic, Zlatan; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Izet

2014-01-01

341

Cervical stability with lateral mass plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in stability between cervical spines instrumented with lateral mass plates affixed with unicortical versus bicortical Magerl screws.Methods used: Eleven human, cadaveric, cervical spines were harvested and radiographed, and all soft tissues except for supporting ligamentous structures were removed. Segments C3 through C5 were

Anthony Muffoletto; Walt Simmons; Jinping Yang; Kim Garges; Mukta Vadhva; Alexander Hadjipavlou

2002-01-01

342

Spine and sport.  

PubMed

The spine, in athletes is a relatively frequent origin of problems. Chronic spine problems are much more common compared to acute injuries. Chronic injuries to the spine most often occur in low-contact sports like gymnastics and are most commonly the result of overuse. Acute injuries are more common in high-speed and full contact sports and are traumatic in origin. Injuries to the spinal cord can be devastating but are fortunately very uncommon. Although imaging of the spine appears to be straightforward, any radiologist will acknowledge that the optimal imaging strategy is often unclear due to several reasons. For the cervical spine much has improved since the NEXUS and CCR studies appeared in which clear rules were defined when to image the C-spine in acute trauma situations. For the thoracic and lumbar spines such rules are not defined. Although conventional imaging has long been the primary imaging modality of choice there is ample evidence that this should be abandoned in favor of multidetector CT for the C-spine. This is reflected in the ACR criteria in which conventional imaging of tile C-spine in trauma is rated as the least appropriate imaging method. However, this is not true in children and adolescents although a strict age criterion is not defined. It is also not true for injuries to the thoracic and lumbar spine in which conventional imaging still plays a large role as primary imaging modality followed by evaluation by CT in trauma situations. The role for MRI in acute situations is increasing especially with the increasing use of the TLICS system to classify injuries of the thoracic and lumbar spine in which the evaluation of the integrity of the posterior ligamentous structures is included. For the evaluation of chronic complaints, the roles of CT and MRI are basically reversed in which MRI will become the prime imaging modality of choice after conventional imaging after which CT can be reserved for a selected patient group. The merit of the different imaging modalities will be discussed together with a spectrum of acute and chronic injuries often encountered in the spine in athletes. PMID:24896742

de Jonge, Milko C; Kramer, Josef

2014-07-01

343

Post-traumatic upper cervical subluxation visualized by MRI: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background This paper describes MRI findings of upper cervical subluxation due to alar ligament disruption following a vehicular collision. Incidental findings included the presence of a myodural bridge and a spinal cord syrinx. Chiropractic management of the patient is discussed. Case presentation A 21-year old female presented with complaints of acute, debilitating upper neck pain with unremitting sub-occipital headache and dizziness following a vehicular collision. Initial emergency department and neurologic investigations included x-ray and CT evaluation of the head and neck. Due to persistent pain, the patient sought chiropractic care. MRI of the upper cervical spine revealed previously unrecognized clinical entities. Conclusion This case highlights the identification of upper cervical ligamentous injury that produced vertebral subluxation following a traumatic incident. MRI evaluation provided visualization of previously undetected injury. The patient experienced improvement through chiropractic care. PMID:18093309

Demetrious, James

2007-01-01

344

Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p < 0.064). Different cockpit ergonomics may vary the predisposition to cervical injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control.

Jones, J. A.; Hart, S. F.; Baskin, D. S.; Effenhauser, R.; Johnson, S. L.; Novas, M. A.; Jennings, R.; Davis, J.

2000-01-01

345

Human and behavioral factors contributing to spine-based neurological cockpit injuries in pilots of high-performance aircraft: recommendations for management and prevention.  

PubMed

In high-performance aircraft, the need for total environmental awareness coupled with high-g loading (often with abrupt onset) creates a predilection for cervical spine injury while the pilot is performing routine movements within the cockpit. In this study, the prevalence and severity of cervical spine injury are assessed via a modified cross-sectional survey of pilots of multiple aircraft types (T-38 and F-14, F-16, and F/A-18 fighters). Ninety-five surveys were administered, with 58 full responses. Fifty percent of all pilots reported in-flight or immediate post-flight spine-based pain, and 90% of fighter pilots reported at least one event, most commonly (> 90%) occurring during high-g (> 5 g) turns of the aircraft with the head deviated from the anatomical neutral position. Pre-flight stretching was not associated with a statistically significant reduction in neck pain episodes in this evaluation, whereas a regular weight training program in the F/A-18 group approached a significant reduction (mean = 2.492; p < 0.064). Different cockpit ergonomics may vary the predisposition to cervical injury from airframe to airframe. Several strategies for prevention are possible from both an aircraft design and a preventive medicine standpoint. Countermeasure strategies against spine injury in pilots of high-performance aircraft require additional research, so that future aircraft will not be limited by the human in control. PMID:10658420

Jones, J A; Hart, S F; Baskin, D S; Effenhauser, R; Johnson, S L; Novas, M A; Jennings, R; Davis, J

2000-01-01

346

Baseline and 1-year magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joint and lumbar spine in very early inflammatory back pain. Relationship between symptoms, HLA-B27 and disease extent and persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:The precise anatomical location of pathology associated with inflammatory back pain (IBP) in early spondyloarthropathy (SpA) remains unclear.Objective:To use MRI to study the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and lumbar spine (LS) and explore the relationship between sites and extent of inflammation and HLA-B27 status over 12 months.Methods:54 patients with IBP; median duration 24 weeks (54% HLA-B27 positive; median Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis

H Marzo-Ortega; D McGonagle; P O’Connor; E M A Hensor; A N Bennett; M J Green; P Emery

2009-01-01

347

Electroacupuncture at Jing-jiaji points for neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis: a study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial  

PubMed Central

Background Neck pain caused by cervical spondylosis (CS) has become one of the most common health problems around the world. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been employed to relieve CS neck pain, but there is limited clinical evidence for its effectiveness. Methods/Design This study consists of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two parallel arms: an acupuncture group and an EA group. Both groups will receive acupuncture at Jing-jiaji points for 30 minutes each time, for five sessions per week for a total of 20 sessions during this four-week period. In addition, the EA group will be connected with EA apparatus. The following outcome measurements will be used in examination of subjects: the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ), McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), and Short-Form 36 (SF-36) scale. All these outcomes will be examined at the start of the study, at the end of the second week, at four weeks after randomization, and one and three months after treatment cessation respectively. Discussion This study aims to assess the efficacy of EA, compared with acupuncture intervention at Jing-jiaji points for the CS neck pain. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Register: ChiCTR-TRC-13003422. PMID:24168460

2013-01-01

348

Back Pain and Emotional Distress  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Back Pain and Emotional Distress Common Reactions to Back Pain Four out of five adults will experience an episode of significant back pain sometime during ...

349

A prospective randomised controlled trial comparing tracheal intubation plus manual in-line stabilisation of the cervical spine using the Macintosh laryngoscope vs the McGrath(®) Series 5 videolaryngoscope.  

PubMed

Cervical spine immobilisation can make direct laryngoscopy difficult, which might lead to airway complications. This randomised control trial compared the time to successful intubation using either the Macintosh laryngoscope or the McGrath(®) Series 5 videolaryngoscope in 128 patients who had cervical immobilisation applied. Intubation difficulty score, Cormack & Lehane laryngoscopic view, intubation failures, changes in cardiovascular variables and the incidence of any complications were recorded. The mean (SD) successful intubation time with the Macintosh laryngoscope was significantly shorter compared with the McGrath laryngoscope, 50.0 (32.6) s vs 82.7 (80.0) s, respectively (p = 0.0003), despite the McGrath laryngoscope's having a lower intubation difficulty score and a superior glottic view. There were five McGrath laryngoscope intubation failures, three owing to difficulty in passing the tracheal tube and two to equipment malfunction. Equipment malfunction is a major concern as a reliable intubating device is vital when faced with an airway crisis. PMID:25087907

Ilyas, S; Symons, J; Bradley, W P L; Segal, R; Taylor, H; Lee, K; Balkin, M; Bain, C; Ng, I

2014-12-01

350

Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.  

PubMed

Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

2015-01-01

351

[Cervical spondylosis].  

PubMed

Japan has now become an aging society. In 2014, people aged more than 65 years old accounted for 25.1% of Japan's entire population. Aging is associated with an increased risk of problems related to the locomotive organs. Deterioration of locomotive ability causes falls or tumbles, which would be a threat to good health and longevity of aged people. To maintain the locomotive ability of the elderly, therefore, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association starts a campaign to promote awareness and prevention of "locomotive syndrome". Cervical spondylosis is a disorder for age-related wear affecting the disks and vertebrae of cervical spine. It would also be a cause of "locomotive syndrome". Here, we give an outline of this disease and introduce its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25509798

Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki

2014-10-01

352

Spontaneous atraumatic fracture of a cervical vertebra in tuberculosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spontaneous pathological fractures of the cervical spine due to tuberculosis are rare. But with escalating incidences of atypical presentations of tubercular disease, clinicians should exercise a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis of such cases. Case presentation We present a case of a 50-year-old Hindu man from northern India, who complained of pain and stiffness in his neck. His radiographs showed a fracture in his second cervical vertebral body. But further investigations raised the suspicion of an infective pathology, which was corroborated by magnetic resonance imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology. His symptoms improved and the fracture healed following antitubercular chemotherapy and immobilization. Conclusion In endemic regions like India, clinicians should be on the lookout for atypical presentations of tuberculosis. Any suspicious lesion should be evaluated with care for clinical, radiological and laboratory evidences of the infection. The affected spine should be protected and appropriate chemotherapy should be instituted at the earliest opportunity. PMID:22651918

2012-01-01

353

Review: The Dynamics of Near Vertex Head Impact and its Role in Injury Prevention and the Complex Clinical Presentation of Basicranial and Cervical Spine Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical presentation of cervical and basilar skull fractures following bead impact is often complex, particularly when multiple noncontiguous fractures are present. Based on the results of 22 human cadaver head-neck impact experiments, a biomechanical framework of spinal injury is developed in which these complex cases may be better understood. This includes the significance of head rebound, head and neck

BARRY S. MYERS; ROGER W. NIGHTINGALE

1999-01-01

354

Operative Technique for En Bloc Resection of Upper Cervical Chordomas: Extended Transoral Transmandibular Approach and Multilevel Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Anterior exposure for cervical chordomas remains challenging because of the anatomical complexities and the restoration of the dimensional balance of the atlanto-axial region. In this report, we describe and analyze the transmandibular transoral approach and multilevel spinal reconstruction for upper cervical chordomas. We report two cases of cervical chordomas (C2 and C2-C4) that were treated by marginal en bloc resection with a transmandibular approach and anterior-posterior multilevel spinal reconstruction/fixation. Both patients showed clinical improvement. Postoperative imaging was negative for any residual tumor and revealed adequate reconstruction and stabilization. Marginal resection requires more extensive exposure to allow the surgeon access to the entire pathology, as an inadequate tumor margin is the main factor that negatively affects the prognosis. Anterior and posterior reconstruction provides a rigid reconstruction that protects the medulla and decreases axial pain by properly stabilizing the cervical spine. PMID:25558326

Ortega-Porcayo, Luis Alberto; Cabrera-Aldana, Eibar Ernesto; Arriada-Mendicoa, Nicasio; Gómez-Amador, Juan Luis; Granados-García, Martín

2014-01-01

355

P2Y1 Transient Overexpression Induced Mineralization in Spinal Ligament Cells Derived from Patients with Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL) is characterized by ectopic bone formation in the\\u000a spinal ligaments. We previously reported that P2 purinoceptor Y1 (P2Y1) expression is elevated in the spinal ligament cells\\u000a of OPLL patients, but the role of P2Y1 in the spinal ligament calcification process is unknown. To verify the hypothesis that\\u000a P2Y1 expression causes

Sunao Tanaka; Hitoshi Kudo; Toru Asari; Atsushi Ono; Shigeru Motomura; Satoshi Toh; Ken-Ichi Furukawa

2011-01-01

356

Pain.  

PubMed

Invasive stimulation of the motor (precentral) cortex using surgically implanted epidural electrodes is indicated for the treatment of neuropathic pain that is refractory to medical treatment. Controlled trials have demonstrated the efficacy of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS), but MCS outcome remains variable and validated criteria for selecting good candidates for implantation are lacking. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive approach that could be used as a preoperative tool to predict MCS outcome and also could serve as a therapeutic procedure in itself to treat pain disorders. This requires repeated rTMS sessions and a maintenance protocol. Other studies have also demonstrated the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in relieving chronic pain syndromes. The most studied target is the precentral cortex, but other targets, such as the prefrontal and parietal cortices, could be of interest. The analgesic effects of cortical stimulation relate to the activation of various circuits modulating neural activities in remote structures, such as the thalamus, limbic cortex, insula, or descending inhibitory controls. In addition to the treatment of refractory neuropathic pain by epidural MCS, new developments of this type of strategy are ongoing, for other types of pain syndrome and stimulation techniques. PMID:24112914

Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

2013-01-01

357

Loss of Lordosis and Clinical Outcomes after Anterior Cervical Fusion with Dynamic Rotational Plates  

PubMed Central

Purpose The cervical dynamic rotational plating system may induce bone graft subsidence, so it may cause loss of cervical lordosis. However there were few studies for alignments of cervical spines influencing the clinical results after using dynamic rotational plates. The purpose is to evaluate the effect of graft subsidence on cervical alignments due to the dynamic rotational cervical plates and correlating it with the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing anterior cervical fusion. Materials and Methods Thirty-three patients with disease or fracture underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion using a dynamic rotational plate. The presence and extent of implant complications, graft subsidence, loss of lordosis were identified and Visual Analog Scale score (VAS score), Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA score), clinical outcomes based on Odom's criteria were recorded. Results Fusion was achieved without implant complications in all cases. The mean graft subsidence at 6 months after the surgery was 1.46 mm. The lordotic changes in local cervical angles were 5.85° which was obtained postoperatively. VAS score for radicular pain was improved by 5.19 and the JOA score was improved by 3. Clinical outcomes based on Odom's criteria showed sixteen excellent, ten good and two satisfactory results. There was no significant relationship between clinical outcomes and changes in the cervical angles. Conclusion Dynamic rotational anterior cervical plating provides comparable clinical outcomes to that of the reports of former static cervical platings. The loss of lordosis is related to the amount of graft settling but it is not related to the clinical outcomes. PMID:23549822

Lee, Jin-Young; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Shin, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Seok Woo; Kim, Yong-Chan; Lee, Seong Jin; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Hwan-Mo

2013-01-01

358

Comparison of 4D Phase-Contrast MRI Flow Measurements to Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Cerebrospinal Fluid Motion in the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the cervical spinal subarachnoid space (SSS) have been thought to be important to help diagnose and assess craniospinal disorders such as Chiari I malformation (CM). In this study we obtained time-resolved three directional velocity encoded phase-contrast MRI (4D PC MRI) in three healthy volunteers and four CM patients and compared the 4D PC MRI measurements to subject-specific 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The CFD simulations considered the geometry to be rigid-walled and did not include small anatomical structures such as nerve roots, denticulate ligaments and arachnoid trabeculae. Results were compared at nine axial planes along the cervical SSS in terms of peak CSF velocities in both the cranial and caudal direction and visual interpretation of thru-plane velocity profiles. 4D PC MRI peak CSF velocities were consistently greater than the CFD peak velocities and these differences were more pronounced in CM patients than in healthy subjects. In the upper cervical SSS of CM patients the 4D PC MRI quantified stronger fluid jets than the CFD. Visual interpretation of the 4D PC MRI thru-plane velocity profiles showed greater pulsatile movement of CSF in the anterior SSS in comparison to the posterior and reduction in local CSF velocities near nerve roots. CFD velocity profiles were relatively uniform around the spinal cord for all subjects. This study represents the first comparison of 4D PC MRI measurements to CFD of CSF flow in the cervical SSS. The results highlight the utility of 4D PC MRI for evaluation of complex CSF dynamics and the need for improvement of CFD methodology. Future studies are needed to investigate whether integration of fine anatomical structures and gross motion of the brain and/or spinal cord into the computational model will lead to a better agreement between the two techniques. PMID:23284970

Yiallourou, Theresia I.; Kröger, Jan Robert; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Maintz, David

2012-01-01

359

Association between BMP-2 and COL6A1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine in Korean patients and family members.  

PubMed

COL6A1 and BMP-2 genes have been implicated in ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) susceptibility in Japanese and Chinese Han populations. However, no study has yet investigated the DNA of unaffected family members of patients with OPLL. This study investigated differences in genetic polymorphisms of BMP-2 and COL6A1 between Korean patients with OPLL and their family members (with and without OPLL). A total of 321 subjects (110 patients with OPLL and 211 family members) were enrolled in the study. Associations between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BMP-2 gene (Ser37Ala and Ser87Ser) and two SNPs of COL6A1 [promoter (-572) and intron 33 (+20)] with susceptibility to OPLL of the cervical spine were investigated between the two groups (OPLL+ and OPLL-). Of the 321 subjects, 162 had cervical OPLL (50.4%; 110 patients, 52 family members). There was a familial tendency of OPLL in 34 of the 110 families (30.9%). Allele and haplotype frequencies of the four SNPs in the BMP-2 and COL6A1 genes did not differ significantly between the OPLL+ and OPLL- groups, even when excluding participants over 50 years of age. This is the first report identifying SNPs of COL6A1 and BMP-2 in Korean patients and family members with OPLL. Although allele and haplotype frequencies were similar with those of a previous study in Japanese and Chinese patients, unaffected family members also showed similar rates of these SNPs in the present study. These results suggest that these SNPs may not directly influence the expression of OPLL. PMID:24737472

Kim, K H; Kuh, S U; Park, J Y; Lee, S J; Park, H S; Chin, D K; Kim, K S; Cho, Y E

2014-01-01

360

Epidural Steroid Injections for the Treatment of Cervical Radiculopathy in Elite Wrestlers: Case Series and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background Elite wrestlers place tremendous stress through their cervical spine. These athletes are at risk for cervical trauma and may develop radiculopathy from recurrent episodes of injury. Team physicians and athletic trainers are faced with the challenge of treating these injuries in such a way as to allow the athlete to safely and expeditiously return to competition. Epidural steroid injections can be a successful complement to a conservative treatment algorithm for these complex injuries. Study Design Case Series Methods Five upper-level NCAA collegiate wrestlers who experienced symptomatic cervical radiculopathy were identified from an archival review. The majority of the athletes had MRI evidence of cervical disc disease, with corresponding subjective complaints and physical examination findings including pain and weakness that precluded continued competition. All athletes were treated conservatively with initial activity modification, strengthening, rehabilitation, NSAIDs, and, ultimately, cervical epidural steroid injections. Results All five athletes successfully returned to competition without negative clinical sequelae or need for operative intervention. The athletes demonstrated subjective improvement in their symptoms and strength, and all were able to return to a high level of competition. The cervical epidural steroid injections were found to be safe, effective, and well tolerated in all of the athletes. Conclusions Elite wrestlers with cervical radiculopathy can be effectively and safely managed with a conservative regimen that includes cervical epidural steroid injections, which may allow them to continue to compete at a high level. PMID:23576942

Clark, Randy; Doyle, Matthew; Sybrowsky, Christian; Rosenquist, Richard

2012-01-01

361

Rosai-Dorfman Disease in Thoracic Spine: A Rare Case of Compression Fracture  

PubMed Central

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy known as Rosai-Dorfman disease is characterized by painless bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal manifestations are uncommon and spinal involvement is rare. A 15-year-old man presented with intermittent midthoracic back pain only. He had no specific findings on neurologic examinations, hematologic and biochemical laboratory tests. Radiological examination of thoracic spine revealed collapse of T6 vertebrae with thoracic kyphosis and osteolytic lesion of T12 vertebra body. He underwent a removal of bone tumor, anterior reconstruction with mesh and pedicle screw fixation via posterior approach for pathologic confirmation and stabilization. Histopathologic study of the lesion revealed focal infiltration of large histiocytes showing emperipolesis. Immunochemistry stain of histiocytes was positive for CD68 and S-100 but negative for CD1a. This report presents a rare case and literature review of extranodal Rosai-dorfman disease in thoracic spine. PMID:25346769

Kim, Do Young; Park, Ji Hye; Shin, Dong Ah; Yi, Seung; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun

2014-01-01

362

Rosai-dorfman disease in thoracic spine: a rare case of compression fracture.  

PubMed

Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy known as Rosai-Dorfman disease is characterized by painless bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal manifestations are uncommon and spinal involvement is rare. A 15-year-old man presented with intermittent midthoracic back pain only. He had no specific findings on neurologic examinations, hematologic and biochemical laboratory tests. Radiological examination of thoracic spine revealed collapse of T6 vertebrae with thoracic kyphosis and osteolytic lesion of T12 vertebra body. He underwent a removal of bone tumor, anterior reconstruction with mesh and pedicle screw fixation via posterior approach for pathologic confirmation and stabilization. Histopathologic study of the lesion revealed focal infiltration of large histiocytes showing emperipolesis. Immunochemistry stain of histiocytes was positive for CD68 and S-100 but negative for CD1a. This report presents a rare case and literature review of extranodal Rosai-dorfman disease in thoracic spine. PMID:25346769

Kim, Do Young; Park, Ji Hye; Shin, Dong Ah; Yi, Seung; Ha, Yoon; Yoon, Do Heum; Kim, Keung Nyun

2014-09-01

363

Cervical Fibrous Dysplasia Presenting as a Pathologic Fracture in an Older Patient  

PubMed Central

Vertebral involvement of fibrous dysplasia (FD) is rare, especially in the cervical spine. Moreover, cervical FD presenting as a pathologic fracture in older patients is extremely rare. We report a case of symptomatic cervical FD associated with pathologic fracture in a 63-year-old man. The patient presented with progressive weakness of the left arm and pain in the shoulder and arm. Radiologic studies revealed a collapsed and typical 'ground glass' radiolucency of C4. Multiple lytic lesions involved the odontoid process of C2 and the body, left pedicle, and posterior elements of C4. Combined anterior and posterior decompression and reconstruction were performed. Post-operatively, the histopathologic examination confirmed FD. On the post-operative follow-up examination, the neurologic deficits had completely resolved. PMID:22053236

Lee, Su Heon; Kang, Dong Wan; Choi, Byung Kwan

2011-01-01

364

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 contributes to inflammatory tongue pain via extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Background In the orofacial region, limited information is available concerning pathological tongue pain, such as inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain occurring in the tongue. Here, we tried for the first time to establish a novel animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rats and to investigate the roles of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in this process. Methods Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) was submucosally injected into the tongue to induce the inflammatory pain phenotype that was confirmed by behavioral testing. Expression of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and mGluR5 in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1-C2) were detected with immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. pERK inhibitor, a selective mGluR5 antagonist or agonist was continuously administered for 7 days via an intrathecal (i.t.) route. Local inflammatory responses were verified by tongue histology. Results Submucosal injection of CFA into the tongue produced a long-lasting mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia at the inflamed site, concomitant with an increase in the pERK immunoreactivity in the Vc and C1-C2. The distribution of pERK-IR cells was laminar specific, ipsilaterally dominant, somatotopically relevant, and rostrocaudally restricted. Western blot analysis also showed an enhanced activation of ERK in the Vc and C1-C2 following CFA injection. Continuous i.t. administration of the pERK inhibitor and a selective mGluR5 antagonist significantly depressed the mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia in the CFA-injected tongue. In addition, the number of pERK-IR cells in ipsilateral Vc and C1-C2 was also decreased by both drugs. Moreover, continuous i.t. administration of a selective mGluR5 agonist induced mechanical allodynia in naive rats. Conclusions The present study constructed a new animal model of inflammatory tongue pain in rodents, and demonstrated pivotal roles of the mGluR5-pERK signaling in the development of mechanical and heat hypersensitivity that evolved in the inflamed tongue. This tongue-inflamed model might be useful for future studies to further elucidate molecular and cellular mechanisms of pathological tongue pain such as burning mouth syndrome. PMID:23181395

2012-01-01

365

Multimodal Management of Mechanical Neck Pain Using a Treatment Based Classification System  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this case study was twofold: 1) to illustrate the use of a treatment-based classification (TBC) system to direct the early intervention of a patient with mechanical neck pain, and 2) to show the progression of this patient with multimodal-modal intervention. The patient exhibited axial neck pain with referral into her upper extremity. Her pain peripheralized with cervical range of motion and centralized with joint mobilization placing her primarily in the centralization category. Her poor posture and associated muscle weakness along with the chronicity of symptoms placed her secondarily into the exercise and conditioning group resulting in a multi-modal treatment as the patient progressed. Although the design of this case report prevents wide applicability, this study does illustrate the effective use of the TBC system for the cervical spine as captured by accepted outcomes measures. PMID:19771194

Heintz, Megan M.; Hegedus, Eric J.

2008-01-01

366

Lumbar spine curvature during office chair sitting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged sitting is generally accepted as a high risk factor in low back pain and it is frequently suggested that a lordotic posture of the lumbar spine should be maintained during sitting. We asked whether the sagittal curvature of the lumbar spine during sitting is affected by the seat tilt, backrest and the direction of the synchronised mechanism of the

M. Lengsfeld; A. Frank; D. L. van Deursen; P. Griss

2000-01-01

367

Wide-Band Steady State Free Precession with Small Diffusion Gradients for Spine Imaging: Application to Superior Nerve Visualization  

E-print Network

a high-spatial resolution. METHODS 12 subjects (6 with degenerative spine disease) had cervical spine (CSWide-Band Steady State Free Precession with Small Diffusion Gradients for Spine Imaging) or lumbar spine (LS) studies with both conventional imaging techniques and high-resolution WBSSFP on a GE

Southern California, University of

368

Wide-Band Steady State Free Precession with Small Diffusion Gradients for Spine Imaging: Application to Superior Nerve Visualization  

E-print Network

cervical spine (CS) or lumbar spine (LS) studies with both conventional imaging techniques and highWide-Band Steady State Free Precession with Small Diffusion Gradients for Spine Imaging-receiver-bandwidth, as required to achieve a high-spatial resolution. METHODS 12 subjects (6 with degenerative spine disease) had

Sylvain Jaume

369

Kinematics of the upper cervical spine during high velocity-low amplitude manipulation. Analysis of intra- and inter-operator reliability for pre-manipulation positioning and impulse displacements.  

PubMed

To date, kinematics data analyzing continuous 3D motion of upper cervical spine (UCS) manipulation is lacking. This in vitro study aims at investigating inter- and intra-operator reliability of kinematics during high velocity low amplitude manipulation of the UCS. Three fresh specimens were used. Restricted dissection was realized to attach technical clusters to each bone (skull to C2). Motion data was obtained using an optoelectronic system during manipulation. Kinematics data were integrated into specific-subject 3D models to provide anatomical motion representation during thrust manipulation. The reliability of manipulation kinematics was assessed for three practitioners performing two sessions of three repetitions on two separate days. For pre-manipulation positioning, average UCS ROM (SD) were 10° (5°), 22° (5°) and 14° (4°) for lateral bending, axial rotation and flexion-extension, respectively. For the impulse phase, average axial rotation magnitude ranged from 7° to 12°. Reliability analysis showed average RMS up to 8° for pre-manipulation positioning and up to 5° for the impulse phase. As compared to physiological ROM, this study supports the limited angular displacement during manipulation for UCS motion components, especially for axial rotation. Kinematics reliability confirms intra- and inter-operator consistency although pre-manipulation positioning reliability is slightly lower between practitioners and sessions. PMID:24925003

Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Beyer, Benoît; Sobczak, Stéphane; Salvia, Patrick; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

2014-10-01

370

Are recommended spine operations either unnecessary or too complex? Evidence from second opinions  

PubMed Central

Background: In 2011, Epstein and Hood documented that 17.2% of 274 patients with cervical/lumbar complaints seen in first or second opinion over one year were told they needed “unnecessary” spine surgery (e.g., defined as for pain alone, without neurological deficits, or significant radiographic abnormalities). Subsequently, in 2012 Gamache found that 69 (44.5%) of the 155 second opinion patients seen over a 14-month period were told by outside spine surgeons that they needed surgery; the second opinion surgeon (Gamache) found those operations to be unnecessary. Increasingly, patients, spine surgeons, hospitals, and insurance carriers should not only be questioning whether spinal operations are “unnecessary”, but also whether they are “wrong” (e.g., overly extensive, anterior vs. posterior operations), or “right” (appropriate). Methods: Prospectively, 437 patients with cervical or lumbar complaints were seen in spinal consultation over a 20-month period. Of the 254 (58.1%) patients coming in for first opinions those with surgical vs. non-surgical lesions were identified. Of the 183 (41.9%) patients coming in for second opinions, who were previously told by outside surgeons that they needed spine operations, the second opinion surgeon documented the number of “unnecessary”, “wrong”, or “right” operations previously recommended. Results: Surgical pathology was identified in 138 (54.3%) patients presenting for first opinions. For patients seen in second opinion, 111 (60.7%) were told by outside surgeons that they required “unnecessary”, 61 (33.3%) the “wrong”, or 11 (6%) the “right” operations. Conclusions: Of 183 second opinions seen over 20 months, the second opinion surgeon documented that previous spine surgeons recommended “unnecessary” (60.7%), the “wrong” (33.3%), or the “right” (6%) operations. PMID:24340231

Epstein, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

371

SPINE Volume 32, Number 24, pp E692E701 2007, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.  

E-print Network

: cervical spine, proprioception, cervicocephalic kinesthesia, methods, reliability, correlation, movementSPINE Volume 32, Number 24, pp E692­E701 ©2007, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Evaluation of Cervical Proprioceptive Function Optimizing Protocols and Comparison Between Tests in Normal Subjects

Miall, Chris

372

Trauma: Conventional radiologic study in spine injury  

SciTech Connect

This book includes a discussion of the anatomy of the spinal cord and descriptions of methods for tailored radiologic investigation of spine trauma. Most of the text is devoted to the analysis and classification of spinal injury by radiologic signs and mode of injury. The author addresses injury to the entire spine but emphasizes the cervical spine. Plain radiography and conventional tomography are the only imaging methods discussed. The author stresses the active role of the attending radiologist in directing every phase of the x-ray study. Many subtle variations in patient positioning plus beam direction and angulation are described.

Dosch, J.

1985-01-01

373

Development and calibration of a load sensing cervical distractor capable of withstanding autoclave sterilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In surgery of the cervical spine, a Caspar pin distractor is often used to apply a tensile load to the spine in order to open up the disc space. This is often done in order to place a graft or other interbody fusion device in the spine. Ideally a tight interference fit is achieved. If the spine is over distracted,

C. K. Demetropoulos; E. Truumees; H. N. Herkowitz; K. H. Yang

2005-01-01

374

Pathophysiology and Biomechanics of the Aging Spine  

PubMed Central

Aging of the spine is characterized by two parallel but independent processes: the reduction of bone mineral density and the development of degenerative changes. The combination of degeneration and bone mass reduction contribute, to a different degree, to the development of a variety of lesions. This results in a number of painful and often debilitating disorders. The present review constitutes a synopsis of the pathophysiological processes that take place in the aging spine as well as of the consequences these changes have on the biomechanics of the spine. The authors hope to present a thorough yet brief overview of the process of aging of the human spine. PMID:21966338

Papadakis, Michael; Sapkas, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Elias C; Katonis, Pavlos

2011-01-01

375

Cervical Dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Cervical dysplasia. Normal cervical cells. (continued from previous page) What characterizes cervical dysplasia? ...

376

Flexion Model Simulating Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality in Patients With Ossification of the Longitudinal Ligament: The Influence of Flexion Speed on the Cervical Spine  

PubMed Central

Background/Objective: It is suspected that the speed of the motion of the spinal cord under static compression may be the cause of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the relationship between the speed of the motion of the spinal cord and its stress distributions. The objective was to carry out a biomechanical study of SCI in patients with ossification of the longitudinal ligament without radiologic evidence of injury. Methods: A 3-dimensional finite element spinal cord model was established. After the application of static compression, the model underwent anterior flexion to simulate SCI in ossification of the longitudinal ligament patients without radiologic abnormality. Flexion of the spine was assumed to occur at 1 motor segment. Flexion angle was 5°, and flexion speeds were 0.5°/s, 5°/s, and 50°/s. Stress distributions inside of the spinal cord were evaluated. Results: Stresses on the spinal cord increased slightly after the application of 5° of flexion at a speed of 0.5°/s. Stresses became much higher at a speed of 5°/s and increased further at 50°s. Conclusions: The stress distribution of the spinal cord under static compression increased with faster flexion speed of the spinal cord. High-speed motion of the spinal cord under static compression may be one of the causes of SCI in the absence of radiologic abnormality. PMID:20025151

Kato, Yoshihiko; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Imajo, Yasuaki; Ichinara, Kazuhiko; Kawano, Syunichi; Hamanama, Daiskue; Yaji, Kentaro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

2009-01-01

377

Spine Detection and Labeling Using a Parts-Based Graphical Model  

E-print Network

spine typically consists of 24 vertebrae (7 cervical: C1-C7, 12 thoracic: T1-T12, 5 lumbar: L1-L5Spine Detection and Labeling Using a Parts-Based Graphical Model Stefan Schmidt1,2 , J¨org Kappes2 of the part detections are missing. The application scenario for our statistical evaluation is spine detection

Schnörr, Christoph

378

Intensity-Based 2D-3D Spine Image Registration Incorporating One Fiducial Marker  

E-print Network

in the cervical spine where the vertebral structures are small and fragile. We are particularly interestedIntensity-Based 2D-3D Spine Image Registration Incorporating One Fiducial Marker Daniel B spine image data. The use of one fiducial marker substantially improves registration accuracy

Pratt, Vaughan

379

Cervical chondroid chordoma in a standard dachshund: a case report  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old male standard dachshund was presented with a history of neck pain and progressive gait disturbances. Following a neurological examination and diagnostic imaging, including CT, a neoplastic lesion involving the third and fourth cervical vertebrae was suspected. The lesion included an extradural mass on the right side of the spinal canal causing a local compression of the cervical cord. Surgery, using a modified dorsal laminectomy procedure, was performed in order to decompress the cervical spinal cord. Histopathological examination of the extradural mass indicated that the tumour was a chondroid chordoma. Following discharge, the quality of life for the dog was very good for a sustained period, but clinical signs recurred at 22 months. The dog was euthanased 25 months post-surgery. On post-mortem examination, a regrowth of neoplastic tissue was found to have infiltrated the bone and spinal cord at C3-C4. This is the first report to show that palliative surgery can offer successful long-lasting treatment of chondroid chordoma of the cervical spine in the dog. PMID:22017812

2011-01-01

380

Acute Myelopathy Caused by a Cervical Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the cervical spine, although they occur infrequently, may cause acute radiculopathy or myelopathy. Here, we report a case of a cervical synovial cyst presenting as acute myelopathy after manual stretching. A 68-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, decreased touch senses, and increased sensitivity to pain below T12 level. These symptoms developed after manual stretching 3 days prior. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1-cm, small multilocular cystic lesion in the spinal canal with cord compression at the C7-T1 level. We performed a left partial laminectomy of C7 and T1 using a posterior approach and completely removed the cystic mass. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed fibrous tissue fragments with amorphous materials and granulation tissue compatible with a synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery. We describe a case of acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst that was treated by surgical excision. Although cervical synovial cysts are often associated with degenerative facet joints, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that these cysts can cause acute neurologic symptoms. PMID:25289127

Kim, Dong Shin; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

2014-01-01

381

An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor originating from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. This is an aggressive, slow growing and invasive tumor. It occurs mostly at the two ends of neuroaxis which is more frequent in the sacrococcygeal region. Chordoma in vertebral column is very rare. This tumor is extradural in origin and compresses neural tissues and makes the patient symptomatic. This tumor found extremely rare in the spinal region as an intradural tumor. The present study reports a rare case of intradural chordoma tumor as well as its clinical manifestations and treatment options. Case: The patient was a 50-year-old female presented with 9 months history of progressively worsening neck pain, cervical spine chordoma resembling neurinoma and right arm numbness. Physical examination showed no weakness in her limbs, but she had upward plantar reflex and mild hyperreflexia. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the cervical spine there was an ill-defined enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of C2-C3 body caused cord compression more severe in right side as well as foraminal scalloping. The patient underwent surgery and after midline posterior cervical incision and paravertebral muscle stripping a laminectomy was performed from C1 through C4 using a high speed drill. Needle biopsy revealed chordoma on frozen section and all of accessible parts of tumor were excised. The gross and microscopic histopathological appearance was consistent with chordoma. Chordomas are malignant tumors that arise from remains of embryonic notochord. These ectopic rests of notochord termed “ecchordosis physaliphora “can be found in approximately 2% of autopsies. These are aggressive, slow growing, locally invasive and destructive tumors those occur in the midline of neuroaxis. They generally thought to account for 2% to 4% of all primary bone neoplasms and 1% to 4% malignant bone neoplasms. They are the most frequent primary malignant spinal tumors after plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas extention to transverse foramina has not yet been reported. Although our case mimicked a

Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

2012-01-01

382

Lumbar Spine Disc Herniation Diagnosis with a Joint Shape Model  

E-print Network

Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA, gdhillon@proscan.com, Abstract. Lower Back Pain (LBP) is the second most common. Keywords: Lumbar Spine Diagnosis, MRI, Disc Degenerative Disease 1 Introduction Low Back Pain has a major Alomari et al. for Low Back Pain [2]. Low back Pain has high societal impact as it disrupts individ- uals

Corso, Jason J.

383

Fluoroscopically guided infiltration of the cervical nerve root: an indirect approach through the ipsilateral facet joint.  

PubMed

Transforaminal infiltrations in the cervical spine are governed by a higher rate of vascular puncture than in the lumbar spine. The purpose of our study is to assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous, fluoroscopically guided nerve root infiltrations in cases of cervical radiculopathy. An indirect postero-lateral approach was performed through the ipsilateral facet joint. During the last 2 years, 25 patients experiencing cervical radiculopathy underwent percutaneous, fluoroscopically guided nerve root infiltrations by means of an indirect postero-lateral approach through the ipsilateral facet joint. The intra-articular position of the needle (22-gauge spinal needle) was fluoroscopically verified after injection of a small amount of contrast medium which also verified dispersion of the contrast medium periradicularly and in the epidural space. Then a mixture of long-acting glucocorticosteroid diluted in normal saline (1.5/1 mL) was injected intra-articularly. A questionnaire with a Numeric Visual Scale (NVS) scale helped assess pain relief, life quality, and mobility improvement. A mean of 2.3 sessions was performed in the patients of our study. In the vast majority of our patients 19/25 (76%), the second infiltration was performed within 7-10 days of the first one. Comparing the pain scores prior (mean value 8.80 ± 1.080 NVS units) and after (mean value 1.84 ± 1.405 NVS units), there was a mean decrease of 6.96 ± 1.695 NVS units [median value 7 NVS units (P < 0.001) in terms of pain reduction, effect upon mobility, and life quality. There were no clinically significant complications noted in our study. Fluoroscopically guided transforaminal infiltrations through the ipsilateral facet joint seem to be a feasible, efficacious, and safe approach for the treatment of patients with cervical radiculopathy. This approach facilitates needle placement and minimizes risk of complications. PMID:25054388

Kelekis, Alexios; Filippiadis, Dimitrios K; Velonakis, Georgios; Martin, Jean-Baptist; Oikonomopoulos, Nikolaos; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Nikolaos

2014-01-01

384

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Arthroplasty versus Arthrodesis for Single-Level Cervical Spondylosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with arthroplasty (ACDA) compared to anterior cervical discectomy with fusion (ACDF) for patient-important outcomes for single-level cervical spondylosis. Data sources Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Register for Randomized Controlled Trials, BIOSIS and LILACS), archives of spine meetings and bibliographies of relevant articles. Study selection We included RCTs of ACDF versus ACDA in adult patients with single-level cervical spondylosis reporting at least one of the following outcomes: functionality, neurological success, neck pain, arm pain, quality of life, surgery for adjacent level degeneration (ALD), reoperation and dysphonia/dysphagia. We used no language restrictions. We performed title and abstract screening and full text screening independently and in duplicate. Data synthesis We used random-effects model to pool data using mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and relative risk (RR) for dichotomous outcomes. We used GRADE to evaluate the quality of evidence for each outcome. Results Of 2804 citations, 9 articles reporting on 9 trials (1778 participants) were eligible. ACDA is associated with a clinically significant lower incidence of neurologic failure (RR ?=?0.53, 95% CI ?=?0.37–0.75, p?=?0.0004) and improvement in the Neck pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (MD ?=?6.56, 95% CI ?=?3.22–9.90, p?=?0.0001; Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) ?=?2.5. ACDA is associated with a statistically but not clinically significant improvement in Arm pain VAS and SF-36 physical component summary. ACDA is associated with non-statistically significant higher improvement in the Neck Disability Index Score and lower incidence of ALD requiring surgery, reoperation, and dysphagia/dysphonia. Conclusions There is no strong evidence to support the routine use of ACDA over ACDF in single-level cervical spondylosis. Current trials lack long-term data required to assess safety as well as surgery for ALD. We suggest that ACDA in patients with single level cervical spondylosis is an option although its benefits and indication over ACDF remain in question. PMID:22912869

Fallah, Aria; Akl, Elie A.; Ebrahim, Shanil; Ibrahim, George M.; Mansouri, Alireza; Foote, Clary J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Fehlings, Michael G.

2012-01-01

385

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 13: injection therapies, low-back pain, and lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

The medical literature continues to fail to support the use of lumbar epidural injections for long-term relief of chronic back pain without radiculopathy. There is limited support for the use of lumbar epidural injections for shortterm relief in selected patients with chronic back pain. Lumbar intraarticular facet injections are not recommended for the treatment of chronic lower-back pain. The literature does suggest the use of lumbar medial nerve blocks for short-term relief of facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Lumbar medial nerve ablation is suggested for 3-6 months of relief for chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy. Diagnostic medial nerve blocks by the double-injection technique with an 80% improvement threshold are an option to predict a favorable response to medial nerve ablation for facet-mediated chronic lower-back pain without radiculopathy, but there is no evidence to support the use of diagnostic medial nerve blocks to predict the outcomes in these same patients with lumbar fusion. There is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of trigger point injections for chronic lowerback pain without radiculopathy. PMID:24980590

Watters, William C; Resnick, Daniel K; Eck, Jason C; Ghogawala, Zoher; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

386

Development and application of a non invasive image matching method to study spine biomechanics  

E-print Network

Research on spine biomechanics is critical to understand pathology such as degenerative changes and low back pain. However, current study on in-vivo spine biomechanics is limited by the complex anatomy and invasive ...

Wang, Shaobai

2008-01-01

387

Ergonomic determinants of back pain in physiotherapists involved in paediatric neurorehabilitation.  

PubMed

Background. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapists working with children are due to the failure to apply the principles of ergonomics in their daily practice, which is often caused by the necessity of working in forced positions. Health hazards are even bigger because of the disproportion of body weight and height between the patient and the therapist. The aim of the study was to evaluate positions of the spine at work among physiotherapists involved in child neurorehabilitation and their impact on the occurrence of back pain. Material and methods. The study enrolled 84 physiotherapists between the ages of 28-55 years involved in child neurorehabilitation whose seniority in the profession ranged from 2 to 33 years. The physiotherapists were interviewed about their work and its negative consequences. The 6-degree Jackson and Moskowitz scale was used to determine the level of pain intensity. Three-dimensional positions of the spine were recorded under natural working conditions using a SonoSens Monitor 8 ultrasonic measuring system. The recorded data was compared with the so-called "profile for ergonomic operation of the spine". The idea behind the study was to find the relation between pain intensity, duration and location on the one hand, and working positions of the spine and other data from the interview on the other. The statistical analysis was based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, analysis of variance with single classification, post hoc analysis (Tukey test) and the chi-square test (%2). The level of statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. Results. All subjects reported 1-4° pain. The intensity of pain increased with age, profession seniority, duration of the history of pain and duration of a sense of fatigue persisting after work. Pain intensity correlated with the length of time the spine was placed in unergonomic positions - especially in excessive lateral flexion in the thoracic segment and rotation in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments. Conclusions. 1. Positions of the spine in physiotherapists involved in neurorehabilitation of children are unergonomic and back pain is common in these therapists. 2 There is a correlation between working techniques and the prevalence of pain in physiotherapists. PMID:25404630

Czupryna, Krzysztof; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Nowotny, Janusz

2014-08-28

388

ISASS Policy Statement - Cervical Interbody  

PubMed Central

Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement In 2011, CPT code 22551 was revised to combine or bundle CPT codes 63075 and 22554 when both procedures were performed at the same site/same surgical session. The add on code +22552 is used to report each additional interspace. 2014 heralded a downward pressure on this now prime target code (for non-coverage?) 22551 through an egregious insurer attempt to redefine cervical arthrodesis, effectively removing spine surgeon choice and altering best practice without clinical evidence. Currently, spine surgeons are equally split on the use of allograft versus cages for cervical arthrodesis. Structural allograft, CPT code 20931, is reported once per same surgical session, regardless of the number of allografts used. CPT code 22851 which is designated solely for cage use, has a higher reimbursement than structural allograft, and may be reported for each inner space. Hence, the rationale behind why some payers wrongly consider “spine cages NOT medically necessary for cervical fusion.” A timely consensus paper summarizing spine surgeon purview on the logical progressive evolution of cervical interbody fusion for ISASS/IASP membership was strategically identified as an advocacy focus by the ISASS Task Force. ISASS appreciates the authors’ charge with gratitude. This article has both teeth and transparent clinical real-world merit.

Singh, Kern; Qureshi, Sheeraz

2014-01-01

389

Biopsychosocial Profiles of Different Pain Diagnostic Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different pain diagnoses have been examined separately in various research studies. The major aim of the present investigation was to add to the current understanding of the various groups of patients who make up the chronic pain population. This study expanded the research literature by including 7 different predominantly chronic pain syndromes (fibromyalgia, upper extremity pain, cervical pain, thoracic pain,

Skye Porter-Moffitt; Robert J. Gatchel; Richard C. Robinson; Martin Deschner; Mette Posamentier; Peter Polatin; Leland Lou

2006-01-01

390

Are cervical multifidus muscles active during whiplash and startle? An initial experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background The cervical multifidus muscles insert onto the lower cervical facet capsular ligaments and the cervical facet joints are the source of pain in some chronic whiplash patients. Reflex activation of the multifidus muscle during a whiplash exposure could potentially contribute to injuring the facet capsular ligament. Our goal was to determine the onset latency and activation amplitude of the cervical multifidus muscles to a simulated rear-end collision and a loud acoustic stimuli. Methods Wire electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were inserted unilaterally into the cervical multifidus muscles of 9 subjects (6M, 3F) at the C4 and C6 levels. Seated subjects were then exposed to a forward acceleration (peak acceleration 1.55 g, speed change 1.8 km/h) and a loud acoustic tone (124 dB, 40 ms, 1 kHz). Results Aside from one female, all subjects exhibited multifidus activity after both stimuli (8 subjects at C4, 6 subjects at C6). Neither onset latencies nor EMG amplitude varied with stimulus type or spine level (p > 0.13). Onset latencies and amplitudes varied widely, with EMG activity appearing within 160 ms of stimulus onset (for at least one of the two stimuli) in 7 subjects. Conclusion These data indicate that the multifidus muscles of some individuals are active early enough to potentially increase the collision-induced loading of the facet capsular ligaments. PMID:18534030

Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G; Brault, John R; Inglis, J Timothy

2008-01-01

391

Effect of head and limb orientation on trunk muscle activation during abdominal hollowing in chronic low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP) have altered activations patterns of the anterior trunk musculature when performing the abdominal hollowing manœuvre (attempt to pull umbilicus inward and upward towards the spine). There is a subgroup of individuals with CLBP who have high neurocognitive and sensory motor deficits with associated primitive reflexes (PR). The objective of the study was to determine if orienting the head and extremities to positions, which mimic PR patterns would alter anterior trunk musculature activation during the hollowing manoeuvre. Methods This study compared surface electromyography (EMG) of bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal obliques (IO) of 11 individuals with CLBP and evident PR to 9 healthy controls during the hollowing manoeuvre in seven positions of the upper quarter. Results Using magnitude based inferences it was likely (>75%) that controls had a higher ratio of left IO:RA activation with supine (cervical neutral), asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical extension positions. A higher ratio of right IO:RA was detected in the cervical neutral and ATNR left position for the control group. The CLBP group were more likely to show higher activation of the left RA in the cervical neutral, ATNR left and right, right cervical rotation and cervical flexion positions as well as in the cervical neutral and cervical flexion position for the right RA. Conclusions Individuals with CLBP and PR manifested altered activation patterns during the hollowing maneuver compared to healthy controls and that altering cervical and upper extremity position can diminish the group differences. Altered cervical and limb positions can change the activation levels of the IO and EO in both groups. PMID:24558971

2014-01-01

392

Occipito-Cervical Fusion with the Cervical Cotrel-Dubousset Rod System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Diseases and conditions which cause instability of the cranio-cervical junction and the adjacent upper cervical spine are\\u000a relatively common and potentially life-threatening. Direct internal occipito-cervical fusion (OCF) is a modern means of surgical\\u000a treatment in such cases, and has some advantages over simple immobilization of the affected segments. The present study was\\u000a designed to evaluate surgical handling, results, and complications

V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; W. Burkert

1998-01-01

393

The Canadian C-Spine Rule versus the NEXUS Low-Risk Criteria in Patients with Trauma  

Microsoft Academic Search

background The Canadian C-Spine (cervical-spine) Rule (CCR) and the National Emergency X-Radi- ography Utilization Study (NEXUS) Low-Risk Criteria (NLC) are decision rules to guide the use of cervical-spine radiography in patients with trauma. It is unclear how the two decision rules compare in terms of clinical performance. methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in nine Canadian emergency departments comparing

Ian G. Stiell; Catherine M. Clement; R. Douglas McKnight; Robert Brison; Michael J. Schull; Brian H. Rowe; James R. Worthington; Mary A. Eisenhauer; Daniel Cass; Gary Greenberg; Iain MacPhail; Jonathan Dreyer; Jacques S. Lee; Glen Bandiera; Mark Reardon; Brian Holroyd; Howard Lesiuk; George A. Wells

2003-01-01

394

Efectos de un programa de ejercicios oculocervicales en adultos en la movilidad cervical  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe proprioceptive, vestibular and visual systems are necessary for head in space orientation and posture. Both cervical spine and ocular exercises are important for the maintenance of this cervical spine kinematics, which is usually reduced with age, incorrect postures and movements.

G. V. Espí López; T. Sentandreu Mañó; M. I. Colorado Lluch; L. Dueñas Moscardó

2011-01-01

395

Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the thoracic spine.  

PubMed

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a proliferative lesion of the synovial membranes. Knees, hips, and other large weight-bearing joints are most commonly affected. PVNS rarely presents in the spine, in particular the thoracic segments. We present a patient with PVNS in the thoracic spine and describe its clinical presentation, radiographic findings, pathologic features, and treatment as well as providing the first comprehensive meta-analysis and review of the literature on this topic, to our knowledge. A total of 28 publications reporting 56 patients were found. The lumbar and cervical spine were most frequently involved (40% and 36% of patients, respectively) with infrequent involvement of the thoracic spine (24% of patients). PVNS affects a wide range of ages, but has a particular predilection for the thoracic spine in younger patients. The mean age in the thoracic group was 22.8 years and was significantly lower than the cervical and lumbar groups (42.4 and 48.6 years, respectively; p=0.0001). PVNS should be included in the differential diagnosis of osteodestructive lesions of the spine, especially because of its potential for local recurrence. The goal of treatment should be complete surgical excision. Although the pathogenesis is not clear, mechanical strain may play an important role, especially in cervical and lumbar PVNS. The association of thoracic lesions and younger age suggests that other factors, such as neoplasia, derangement of lipid metabolism, perturbations of humoral and cellular immunity, and other undefined patient factors, play a role in the development of thoracic PVNS. PMID:24938389

Roguski, Marie; Safain, Mina G; Zerris, Vasilios A; Kryzanski, James T; Thomas, Christine B; Magge, Subu N; Riesenburger, Ron I

2014-10-01

396

[Postoperative spine].  

PubMed

Approximately 15-30?% of surgical procedures involving the lumbar spine are associated with complications that require further diagnostic work-up. The choice of imaging modality for postoperative complications depends on the extent, pattern and temporal evolution of the postoperative neurological signs and symptoms as well as on the preoperative clinical status, the surgical procedure itself and the underlying pathology. The interpretation of imaging findings, in particular the distinction between postoperative complications and normally expected nonspecific postoperative imaging alterations can be challenging and requires the integration of clinical neurological information and the results of laboratory tests. The combination of different imaging techniques might help in cases of equivocal imaging results. PMID:25398572

Schlaeger, R; Lieb, J M; Shariat, K; Ahlhelm, F J

2014-11-01

397

Cervical Intradural Abscess Masquerading as an Epidural Collection  

PubMed Central

Intradural spinal cord abscesses especially in the cervical spine are a rare occurrence. We report a rare presentation of an intradural extramedullary abscess at the atlantoaxial level, initially misdiagnosed as an epidural collection. The patient presented with worsening quadriparesis preceded by a 2-week history of upper respiratory tract infection and neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of an epidural abscess on the left side abutting the cervicomedullary junction. We performed occipitocervical fixation and surgical decompression. Absence of a suspected epidural abscess led us to consider a durotomy, and an intradural abscess was recognized and drained. Presence of an intradural abscess, though extremely rare, must always be considered in suspected spinal epidural collections as radiological and clinical findings are indistinguishable between the two conditions. PMID:24436877

Hasan, Muhammed Yaser; Kumar, K. Karuppiah; Lwin, Sein; Lau, Leok-Lim; Kumar, Naresh

2013-01-01

398

Cervical intradural abscess masquerading as an epidural collection.  

PubMed

Intradural spinal cord abscesses especially in the cervical spine are a rare occurrence. We report a rare presentation of an intradural extramedullary abscess at the atlantoaxial level, initially misdiagnosed as an epidural collection. The patient presented with worsening quadriparesis preceded by a 2-week history of upper respiratory tract infection and neck pain. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of an epidural abscess on the