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1

Spinal cord tau pathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examination of the spinal cords from 11 cases of cervical spondylotic\\u000a myelopathy (CSM), together with those from 11 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Immunostaining with AT8 antibody revealed\\u000a various numbers of tau-positive neuropil thread-like structures (NTSs), often demonstrating a conspicuous astrocytic foot-like\\u000a perivascular or subpial arrangement, and glial cells with short and thick processes,

Hiroshi Shimizu; Akiyoshi Kakita; Hitoshi Takahashi

2008-01-01

2

Application of magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction and is caused by static or dynamic repeated compression of the spinal cord resulting from degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and some biological injuries to the cervical spine. The T2 signal change on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most commonly associated with neurological deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy show altered microstructure and biochemistry that reflect patient-specific pathogenesis and can be used to predict neurological outcome and response to intervention. Functional MRI can help to assess the neurological functional recovery after decompression surgery for CSM. PMID:25349665

Zhang, Chuan; Das, Sushant K; Yang, Dong-Jun; Yang, Han-Feng

2014-01-01

3

Application of magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction and is caused by static or dynamic repeated compression of the spinal cord resulting from degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and some biological injuries to the cervical spine. The T2 signal change on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most commonly associated with neurological deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy show altered microstructure and biochemistry that reflect patient-specific pathogenesis and can be used to predict neurological outcome and response to intervention. Functional MRI can help to assess the neurological functional recovery after decompression surgery for CSM. PMID:25349665

Zhang, Chuan; Das, Sushant K; Yang, Dong-Jun; Yang, Han-Feng

2014-10-28

4

Cortical reorganization in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Object Recent investigations have demonstrated that the cerebral cortex can reorganize as a result of spinal cord injury and may play a role in preserving neurological function. Reorganization of cortical representational maps in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has not been previously described. The authors sought to determine the feasibility of using functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in patients with CSM to investigate changes in the cortical representation of the wrist and ankle before and after surgical intervention. Methods Four patients with clinical and imaging evidence of CSM were prospectively enrolled in this study. The patients underwent preoperative neurological examination, functional assessment, cervical imaging, and brain fMR imaging. The fMR imaging activation task undertaken was either wrist extension or ankle dorsiflexion, depending on whether the patient's primary impairment was hand dysfunction or gait difficulty. The cohort then underwent further evaluations at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, five healthy volunteers underwent fMR imaging at two different time points and served as controls. In the healthy volunteers fMR imaging demonstrated areas of focal cortical activation limited to the contralateral primary motor area for the assigned motor tasks; the activation patterns were stable throughout repeated imaging. In comparison, in patients with CSM fMR imaging demonstrated expansion of the cortical representation of the affected extremity. Surgical decompression resulted in improvements in neurological function and reorganization of the representational map. Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study demonstrate the potential of fMR imaging to assess changes in cortical representation before and after surgical intervention in patients with CSM. A future study involving a larger cohort of patients as well as the stratification of patients with CSM, based on the aforementioned factors that influence cortical adaptation, will allow a more detailed quantitative analysis. PMID:17561743

Holly, Langston T.; Dong, Yun; Albistegui-DuBois, Richard; Marehbian, Jonathan; Dobkin, Bruce

2014-01-01

5

Laminoplasty versus laminectomy for multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a systematic review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable controversy as to which posterior technique is best for the treatment of multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results and complications of laminoplasty (LAMP) and laminectomy (LAMT) in the treatment of multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods We reviewed and analyzed papers published from January 1966 and June 2013 regarding the comparison of LAMP and LAMT for multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Statistical comparisons were made when appropriate. Results Fifteen studies were included in this systematic review. There was no significant difference in the incidence of surgical complications between LAMP and LAMT. Compared to conventional LAMT and skip LAMT, postoperative ROM was more limited in LAMP, but this was still superior to postoperative ROM following LAMT with fusion. Postoperative kyphosis occurred in 8/180 (4.44%) in LAMP and 13/205 (6.34%) in LAMT, whereas no cases of kyphosis were reported for skip LAMT. Skip LAMT appears to have better clinical outcomes than LAMP, while the outcome was similar between LAMP and LAMT with fusion. Conclusions Based on these results, a claim of superiority for laminoplasty or laminectomy was not justified. In deciding between the two procedures, the risks of surgical and neurological complications, and radiologic and clinical outcome, must be taken into consideration if both options are available in multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24289653

2013-01-01

6

Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy. A long-term follow-up study.  

PubMed

The natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in a series of 55 patients resulted in a moderate to severe disability during a mean period of 45 months. Results of operation for myelopathy indicated improvement in one group that was maintained for a mean of 85 months. In another group, progressive worsening occurred after operation, or late worsening occurred, in some instances as long as 8 to 12 years after improvement and plateau. Patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy tended to be separated from those with myelopathy with respect to presentation, symptom complex, and operative result. Results of operation for radiculopathy were consistently good. A worsened disability postoperatively for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy was associated with the preoperative symptom of sphincter disturbance and the sign of lower extremity weakness. Change in hand movement after operation for myelopathy and change in distance walking ability were not correlated with numerous preoperative factors. A trend of improvement in disability following anterior interbody fusion and a tendency to worsen in disability following all varities of laminectomy were significant. PMID:962644

Gregorius, F K; Estrin, T; Crandall, P H

1976-09-01

7

Imaging of spinal stenosis: neurogenic intermittent claudication and cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Spinal stenosis in either the cervical or lumbar spinal segments is one of the most common indications for spine imaging and intervention, particularly among the elderly. This article examines the pathophysiology and imaging of the corresponding clinical syndromes, cervical spondylotic myelopathy or neurogenic intermittent claudication. The specificity fault of spine imaging is readily evident in evaluation of spinal stenosis, as many patients with anatomic cervical or lumbar central canal narrowing are asymptomatic. Imaging also may be insensitive to dynamic lesions. Those imaging features that identify symptomatic patients, or predict response to interventions, are emphasized. PMID:22643390

Maus, Timothy P

2012-07-01

8

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy presenting as mechanical neck pain: a case report.  

PubMed

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM) is the most common type of myelopathy in adults over 55 years of age. In the early stages symptoms may include local neck pain and stiffness that might mimic the presentation of non-specific mechanical neck pain (NSMNP). The patient was a 79 year old male, who complained of eight weeks of neck pain. He had been referred for physiotherapy by his family physician with a diagnosis of NSMNP. Initial presentation was consistent with the referral, but further assessment by the physiotherapist revealed findings suggestive of CSM. He was referred for an urgent cervical MRI scan, which revealed myelomalacic changes at C3/4 due to spondylotic changes. The patient was unsuitable for manual therapy intervention and was referred to a spinal orthopaedic surgeon who performed a posterior decompression and stabilisation at C3-C5, 2 months after the initial presentation. This case report highlights the importance of considering CSM in adults over 55 years of age presenting with NSMNP, particularly as the prevalence of both increases with age. It demonstrates the need for health professionals to carry out detailed examination where CSM may be a potential differential diagnosis. Outcomes are less favourable for patients over the age of 70, therefore an urgent surgical opinion was required for this patient. Deterioration of symptoms whilst he awaited surgery demonstrates how missed diagnosis may lead to possible long term spinal cord damage, with potential medico-legal concerns for the therapist. PMID:24815593

Smith, Benjamin E; Diver, Claire J; Taylor, Alan J

2014-08-01

9

Riluzole attenuates neuropathic pain and enhances functional recovery in a rodent model of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the commonest cause of spinal cord impairment worldwide and despite surgical treatment, it is commonly associated with chronic neuropathic pain and neurological impairment. Based on data suggesting a key role of sodium and glutamate mediated cellular injury in models of spinal cord compression, we examined whether riluzole, a sodium channel/glutamate blocker, could improve neurobehavioral outcomes in a rat model of CSM. To produce chronic progressive compression of the cervical spinal cord, we used an established model of graded mechanical cord compromise developed in our laboratory. The chronic (8weeks) mechanical compression of the cervical spinal cord resulted in persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia at 8weeks. Moreover, we found increased expression of phosphorylated NR1 and NR2B in the dorsal horns as well as astrogliosis and increased microglia expression in the dorsal horns after mechanical compression. Following daily systemic administration for 7weeks after the induction of compression, riluzole (8mg/kg) significantly attenuated forelimb and hindlimb mechanical allodynia and alleviated thermal hyperalgesia in the tail. Importantly, riluzole led to a decrease in swing phase duration, an increase in hind leg swing speed and an increase paw intensity in gait analysis. Riluzole also decreased the number of phosphorylated NR1 and phosphorylated NR2B positive cells in the dorsal horns and the microglia activation in the dorsal horns. Together, our results indicate that systemic riluzole administration during chronic cervical spinal cord compression is effective at protecting spinal cord tissue, preserving neurobehavioral function and alleviating neuropathic pain, possibly by decreasing NMDA receptor phosphorylation in astrocytes and by eliminating microglia activation. As such, riluzole represents a promising clinical treatment for CSM. PMID:24184328

Moon, Eun Su; Karadimas, Spyridon K; Yu, Wen-Ru; Austin, James W; Fehlings, Michael G

2014-02-01

10

Outcomes for combined anterior and posterior surgical approaches for patients with multisegmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Corpectomy is widely used to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, when this technique alone is performed at 1 or 2 levels for a multisegmental involvement (3 or more vertebrae), the incidence of post-operative complications is high. The optimal treatment for multisegmental CSM is still debatable. The aim of this study was to assess clinical and radiological outcomes for patients with multisegmental CSM who underwent combined anterior and posterior (AP) surgical approaches. Forty adults (17 women and 23 men; age range, 41-76 y) treated at our center between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Their neurological function was assessed at different times using the Nurick classification (Grades 0 [root symptoms only] to 5 [wheelchair- or bed-bound]). Patients' satisfaction with the surgery was evaluated using Odom's criteria (poor, fair, good, or excellent). Pre-operatively, 20% of patients were assessed as Nurick Grade 0, 60% as Grade 1, and 20% as Grade 2. At the 1-year follow-up, only 10% of patients were assessed as Grade 1. At 1 year after surgery, 85% of patients rated their satisfaction with the operation as "excellent" and 15% rated it as "good". These outcomes suggest that, when surgery is indicated and patients with multisegmental CSM are carefully selected, the combined AP approach yields symptom relief comparable to that of corpectomy alone and a lower incidence of post-operative complications. PMID:19153044

Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Gercek, Arzu; Pamir, M Necmettin

2009-03-01

11

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Caused by Single-Level Vertebral Spontaneous Fusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, surgical options, and clinical outcomes of patients with Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) caused by single-level vertebral spontaneous fusion (SLVSF). Methods Sixteen consecutive patients with SLVSF who underwent anterior surgery were included in this study and 38 patients with CSM caused by spinal degeneration were enrolled as a control group. Demographic features, clinical presentations, imaging characteristics, surgery strategy, Nurick grade, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, neck disability index (NDI), and complications were evaluated. Results There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean age and the average duration of neck pain. There was no significant difference between the two groups in length of cervical spine. In the SLVSF group, 13 patients had upper segment translational instability and none had rotational instability. Pre- and postoperative Nurick grades were 2.94±0.77 and 2.19±0.54 in the SLVSF group, and 2.97±0.72 and 2.16±0.64 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative JOA scores were 9.25±2.02 and 11.69±1.62 in the SLVSF group, and 9.87±2.58 and 12.53±2.69 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative NDI values were 28.5±7.75 and 15.56±5.51 in the SLVSF group, and 16±6.13 and 11.29±4.58 in the control group. Conclusions Patients with SLVSF have necks of normal lengths, which can be used to distinguish this disorder from Klippel-Feil syndrome. There are three main features of SLVSF: (1) hypoplasia at both of the spontaneously fused vertebral bodies; (2) a major pathological feature of translational instability of the upper vertebra to the fused level; and (3) severe neck pain. Anterior surgery has a good therapeutic effect for patients with cervical SLVSF. PMID:25380388

Hou, Tiesheng; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; Zhao, Shan; He, Shisheng

2014-01-01

12

HIF-1? Polymorphism in the Susceptibility of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy and Its Outcome after Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background To investigate the association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of hypoxia-inducible factor1 ? (HIF-1?) and the susceptibility to cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and its outcome after surgical treatment. Method A total of 230 CSM patients and 284 healthy controls were recruited. All patients received anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACF) and were followed for 12 months. The genotypes for two HIF-1? variants (1772C>T and 1790G>A) were determined. Results In the present study, we found that the HIF-1? polymorphism at 1790G>A significantly affects the susceptibility to CSM and its clinical features, including severity and onset age. In addition, the 1790A>G polymorphism also determines the prognosis of CSM patients after ACF treatment. The GG genotype of 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with a higher risk to develop CSM, higher severity and earlier onset age. More importantly, we found that the 1790G>A polymorphism determines the clinical outcome in CSM patients who underwent ACF treatment. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the HIF-1? 1790G>A polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility to CSM and can be used as predictor for the clinical outcome in CSM patients receiving ACF treatment. PMID:25401740

Wang, Zhan-Chao; Hou, Xu-Wei; Shao, Jiang; Ji, Yong-Jing; Li, Lulu; Zhou, Qiang; Yu, Si-Ming; Mao, Yu-Lun; Zhang, Hao-Jie; Zhang, Ping-Chao; Lu, Hua

2014-01-01

13

Clinical results of cervical laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in 58 consecutive patients  

PubMed Central

Background: There are a number of surgical treatment options for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In this study, the authors present their clinical results with cervical laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of patients with CSM. Methods: This retrospective study included 58 consecutive patients who underwent cervical laminectomy and fusion for CSM. There were 38 males and 20 females, with a mean age of 64 (range 42-92) years. The Japanese orthopedic association score (mJOA) scale was used as the functional outcome measurement. Both the absolute increase in mJOA and the neurological recovery rate of mJOA were analyzed. The mean clinical follow-up was 17 months (range 5-52 months). Results: There was a statistically significant improvement between mean preoperative (13.2, range 7-17) and postoperative (16.1, range 11-18) mJOA scores following surgery. The average improvement in mJOA score was 2.9 points. The mean neurological recovery rate was 56.6%. Overall 85.5% of patients improved with surgery (n = 51) and the remaining 14.5% of patients had no change in their mJOA score after surgery (n = 7). Fusion was documented in all 58 patients. There was a 10.3% overall complication rate (n = 6). The most common complications were C5 nerve palsies which occurred in 6.9% of the cohort (n = 4); all completely resolved. Conclusion: Cervical laminectomy and fusion is a safe and efficacious procedure for the treatment of CSM. The clinical outcomes appear to be quite reproducible, and this technique is an important part of a spine surgeon's armamentarium. PMID:24843810

Chang, Victor; Lu, Daniel C.; Hoffman, Haydn; Buchanan, Colin; Holly, Langston T.

2014-01-01

14

Arthroplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: similar results to patients with only radiculopathy at 3 years' follow-up.  

PubMed

Object Cervical arthroplasty has been accepted as a viable option for surgical management of cervical spondylosis or degenerative disc disease (DDD). The best candidates for cervical arthroplasty are young patients who have radiculopathy caused by herniated disc with competent facet joints. However, it remains uncertain whether arthroplasty is equally effective for patients who have cervical myelopathy caused by DDD. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of arthroplasty for patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) and patients with radiculopathy without CSM. Methods A total of 151 consecutive cases involving patients with CSM or radiculopathy caused by DDD and who underwent one- or two-level cervical arthroplasty were included in this study. Clinical outcome evaluations and radiographic studies were reviewed. Clinical outcome measurements included the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of neck and arm pain, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores, and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) in every patient. For patients with CSM, Nurick scores were recorded for evaluation of cervical myelopathy. Radiographic studies included lateral dynamic radiographs and CT for detection of the formation of heterotopic ossification . Results Of the 151 consecutive patients with cervical DDD, 125 (82.8%; 72 patients in the myelopathy group and 53 in the radiculopathy group) had at least 24 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up in these patients was 36.4 months (range 24-56 months). There was no difference in sex distribution between the 2 groups. However, the mean age of the patients in the myelopathy group was approximately 6 years greater than that of the radiculopathy group (53.1 vs 47.2 years, p < 0.001). The mean operation time, mean estimated blood loss, and the percentage of patients prescribed perioperative analgesic agents were similar in both groups (p = 0.754, 0.652, and 0.113, respectively). There were significant improvements in VAS neck and arm pain, JOA scores, and NDI in both groups. Nurick scores in the myelopathy group also improved significantly after surgery. In radiographic evaluations, 92.5% of patients in the radiculopathy group and 95.8% of those in the radiculopathy group retained spinal motion (no significant difference). Evaluation of CT scans showed heterotopic ossification in 34 patients (47.2%) in the myelopathy group and 25 patients (47.1%) in the radiculopathy group (p = 0.995). At a mean of over 3 years postoperatively, no secondary surgery was reported in either group. Conclusions The severity of myelopathy improves after cervical arthroplasty in patients with CSM caused by DDD. At 3-year follow-up, the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cervical arthroplasty in DDD patients with CSM are similar to those patients who have only cervical radiculopathy. Therefore, cervical arthroplasty is a viable option for patients with CSM caused by DDD who require anterior surgery. However, comparison with the standard surgical treatment of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is necessary to corroborate the outcomes of arthroplasty for CSM. PMID:24926929

Fay, Li-Yu; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chang, Hsuan-Kan; Tsai, Tzu-Yun; Ko, Chin-Chu; Tu, Tsung-Hsi; Wu, Ching-Lan; Cheng, Henrich

2014-09-01

15

Depression contributed an unsatisfactory surgery outcome among the posterior decompression of the cervical spondylotic myelopathy patients: a prospective clinical study.  

PubMed

Posterior decompression surgery was performed on 610 patients (mean age 62 years) with clinically and radiologically defined cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, between October 2007 and October 2011. After 2-year follow-up, we had a full data sets from 396 patients with normal mood or continued depression during the whole process to be compared. Depression was assessed with the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory. Physical functioning and pain were assessed with the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) scoring system, neck disability index (NDI), and visual analog scale (VAS). There were statistically significant differences from baseline to 2-year follow-up between normal mood (n = 258) and continuous depression (n = 138) groups in mJOA score (6.76 ± 3.12 vs. 1.42 ± 0.56, respectively; p < 0.01), VAS (23.85 ± 20.79 vs. 16.08 ± 19.76, respectively; p < 0.01), and NDI (21.11 ± 11.36 vs. 7.31 ± 2.18; p < 0.05). The adverse consequences of depression are supported by previous findings that patients with depression suffer more unsatisfactory surgery outcome than the patients with normal mood. We emphasize that patients with continuous depression show poorer improvement after posterior decompression in CSM patients with respect to symptom severity, pain intensity, and the disability score than patients without depression at any stage. PMID:24643580

Zong, Yaqi; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Ying; Ding, Huairong; He, Dong; Li, Zhiyang; Tang, Yanming; Wang, Yi

2014-09-01

16

The evolution of T2-weighted intramedullary signal changes following ventral decompressive surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Object T2-weighted intramedullary increased signal intensity (ISI) on MRI in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) appears to represent a wide spectrum of pathological changes that determine reversibility of cord damage. Although sharp T2-weighted ISI on preoperative imaging may correlate with poorer surgical outcomes, there are limited data on how these changes progress following surgery. In this study, the authors characterized pre-and postoperative ISI changes in patients undergoing surgery for CSM and studied their postoperative evolution in an attempt to quantify their clinical significance. Methods The preoperative and postoperative MR images obtained in 56 patients who underwent oblique cervical corpectomy for CSM were reviewed, and the ISI was classified into 4 subtypes based on margins and intensity: Type 0 (none), Type 1 ("fuzzy"), Type 2 ("sharp"), and Type 3 ("mixed"). The locations of the ISI were further classified as focal if they represented single discrete lesions, multifocal if there were multiple lesions with intervening normal cord, and multisegmental if the lesions were continuous over more than 1 segment. The maximum craniocaudal length of the ISI was measured on each midsagittal MR image. The Nurick grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score were used to assess clinical status. The mean duration of follow-up was 28 months. Results T2-weighted ISI changes were noted preoperatively in 54 patients (96%). Most preoperative ISI changes were Type 1 (41%) or Type 3 (34%), with a significant trend toward Type 2 (71%) changes at follow-up. Multi-segmental and Type 3 lesions tended to regress significantly after surgery (p = 0.000), reducing to Type 2 changes at follow-up. Clinical outcomes did not correlate with ISI subtype; however, there was a statistically significant trend toward improvement in postoperative Nurick Grade in patients with a > 50% regression in ISI size. In addition, patients with more than 18 months of follow-up showed significant regression in ISI size compared with patients imaged earlier. On logistic regression analysis, preoperative Nurick grade and duration of follow-up were the only significant predictors of postoperative improvement in functional status (OR 4.136, p = 0.003, 95% CI 1.623-10.539 and OR 6.402, p = 0.033, 95% CI 1.165-35.176, respectively). Conclusions There is a distinct group of patients with multisegmental Type 3 intramedullary changes who show remarkable radiological regression after surgery but demonstrate a residual sharp focal ISI at follow-up. A regression of the ISI by > 50% predicts better functional outcomes. Patients with a good preoperative functional status remain the most likely to show improvement, and the improvement continues to occur even at remote follow-up. The clinical relevance of the quality of the T2-weighted ISI changes in patients with CSM remains uncertain; however, postoperative regression of the ISI change is possibly a more important correlate of patient outcome than the quality of the ISI change alone. PMID:25014501

Sarkar, Sauradeep; Turel, Mazda K; Jacob, Kuruthukulangara S; Chacko, Ari G

2014-10-01

17

Cervical spondylotic radiculomyelopathy in patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy: clinical evaluation and surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of

G Hirose; S Kadoya

1984-01-01

18

Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy presenting as dropped head syndrome.  

PubMed

We report a case of acute-onset dropped head syndrome in a 65-year-old patient in whom the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was initially proposed based on electromyographic signs of neck and shoulder muscle denervation. There were no signs of pyramidal involvement and the clinical and electromyographic signs of motor denervation never evolved beyond the neck and shoulder girdle muscles after a 6-year follow-up period, which argued against ALS. Other causes of dropped head syndrome were carefully ruled out based on clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies and blood investigations. The restriction of muscle denervation to a few cervical myotomes, the presence of C3-C4 spondylotic changes without associated root or spinal cord compression, and the absence of an alternative explanation to the patient's symptoms strongly supported the diagnosis of cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA). CSA is thought to result from spinal cord microcirculatory disturbances and secondary anterior horn cell degeneration due to ischemia. Our case enlarges the clinical spectrum of focal cervical anterior horn disease, which classically results in more distal monomelic atrophy affecting one or both upper limbs. PMID:19647927

Ahdab, Rechdi; Créange, Alain; Benaderette, Sandrine; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

2009-12-01

19

Evaluation of characteristics and surgical outcomes in cervical spondylotic amyotrophy  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) is a rare clinical syndrome resulting from cervical spondylosis. Surgical treatment includes anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF), and laminoplasty with or without foraminotomy. Some studies indicate that ACDF is an effective method for treating CSA because anterior decompression with or without medial foraminotomy can completely eliminate anterior and/or anterolateral lesions. We retrospectively evaluated outcome of surgical outcome by anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). Materials and Methods: 28 CSA patients, among whom 12 had proximal type CSA and 16 had distal type CSA, treated by ACDF, were evaluated clinicoradiologically. The improvement in atrophic muscle power was assessed by manual muscle testing (MMT) and the recovery rate of the patients was determined on the basis of the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores. Patient satisfaction was also examined. Results: The percentage of patients, who gained 1 or more grades of muscle power improvement, as determined by MMT, was 91.7% for those with proximal type CSA and 37.5% for those with distal type CSA (P < 0.01). The JOA score-based recovery rates of patients with proximal type and distal type CSA were 60.8% and 41.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Patient satisfaction was 8.2 for those with proximal type CSA and 6.9 for those with distal type CSA (P < 0.01). A correlation was observed among the levels of improvement in muscle power, JOA score based recovery rate, patient satisfaction and course of disease (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ACDF can effectively improve the clinical function of patients with CSA and result in good patient satisfaction despite the surgical outcomes for distal type CSA being inferior to those for proximal type CSA. Course of disease is the fundamental factor that affects the surgical outcomes for CSA. We recommend that patients with CSA undergo surgical intervention as early as possible.

Wang, Hong-Li; Li, Heng-Chao; Jiang, Jian-Yuan; Lu, Fei-Zhou; Chen, Wen-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Sheng

2014-01-01

20

Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... between the vertebrae results in narrowing of the space for the spinal cord and its branches, known ... and cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the space for the spinal cord or nerve branches in ...

21

Correlation between pyramidal signs and the severity of cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed to determine the sensitivities of the pyramidal signs in patients with cervical myelopathy,\\u000a focusing on those with increased signal intensity (ISI) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship\\u000a between prevalence of the pyramidal signs and the severity of myelopathy was investigated. We reviewed the records of 275\\u000a patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent surgery.

Hirotaka Chikuda; Atsushi Seichi; Katsushi Takeshita; Naoki Shoda; Takashi Ono; Ko Matsudaira; Hiroshi Kawaguchi; Kozo Nakamura

2010-01-01

22

Subacute Cervical Myelopathy in a Child with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-year-old girl with a spastic dystonic tetraparesis due to cerebral palsy showed a subacute cervical myelopathy. X-ray films of the cervical spine demonstrated a subluxation of C4 on C5. Myelography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine performed under general anesthesia demonstrated only a minimal rotation of C3 with respect to C4 and a rather narrow cervical canal. In

L. Angelini; G. Broggi; N. Nardocci; M. Savoiardo

1982-01-01

23

An Outcome Measure of Functionality and Quality of Life in Patients With Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a common cause of significant clinical morbidity. The Japanese Orthopedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire (JOACMEQ) is a measure of health-related quality of life in these patients. Objectives: This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and validate the JOACMEQ in Iran. Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective clinical validation one. Forward-backward procedure was applied to translate the questionnaire from English into Persian. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation were performed in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of patients with CSM was asked to respond to the questionnaire at two times: providing preoperative and postoperative assessments (6 months follow-up). To test the reliability, the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach ? coefficient and the validity was assessed by convergent validity. Responsiveness to change was also assessed comparing patients’ preoperative and postoperative scores. Results: All 87 patients completed the questionnaire. The Cronbach ? coefficient for the JOACMEQ at preoperative and postoperative assessments ranged from 0.71 to 0.82 indicating a good internal consistency for the questionnaire. In addition, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized subscale of the JOACMEQ showed satisfactory results suggesting that the items had a substantial association with their own subscales. Further analysis also indicated that the questionnaire was responsive to change (P < 0.001). Conclusions: In general, the findings suggest that the Persian version of the JOACMEQ is a reliable and valid measure of functionality and quality of life evaluation among Iranian patients suffered from CSM. PMID:25068064

Azimi, Parisa; Rezaei, Omidvar; Montazeri, Ali

2014-01-01

24

Acute Myelopathy Caused by a Cervical Synovial Cyst  

PubMed Central

Synovial cysts of the cervical spine, although they occur infrequently, may cause acute radiculopathy or myelopathy. Here, we report a case of a cervical synovial cyst presenting as acute myelopathy after manual stretching. A 68-year-old man presented with gait disturbance, decreased touch senses, and increased sensitivity to pain below T12 level. These symptoms developed after manual stretching 3 days prior. Computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1-cm, small multilocular cystic lesion in the spinal canal with cord compression at the C7-T1 level. We performed a left partial laminectomy of C7 and T1 using a posterior approach and completely removed the cystic mass. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed fibrous tissue fragments with amorphous materials and granulation tissue compatible with a synovial cyst. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgery. We describe a case of acute myelopathy caused by a cervical synovial cyst that was treated by surgical excision. Although cervical synovial cysts are often associated with degenerative facet joints, clinicians should be aware of the possibility that these cysts can cause acute neurologic symptoms.

Kim, Dong Shin; Cho, Yong Jun; Kang, Suk Hyung

2014-01-01

25

Development of a self-administered questionnaire to screen patients for cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background In primary care, it is often difficult to diagnose cervical myelopathy. However, a delay in treatment could cause irreversible aftereffects. With a brief and effective self-administered questionnaire for cervical myelopathy, cervical myelopathy may be screened more easily and oversight may be avoided. As there is presently no screening tool for cervical myelopathy, the aim of this study was to develop a self-administered questionnaire for the screening of cervical myelopathy. Methods A case-control study was performed with the following two groups at our university hospital from February 2006 to September 2008. Sixty-two patients (48 men, 14 women) with cervical myelopathy who underwent operative treatment were included in the myelopathy group. In the control group, 49 patients (20 men, 29 women) with symptoms that could be distinguished from those of cervical myelopathy, such as numbness, pain in the upper extremities, and manual clumsiness, were included. The underlying conditions were diagnosed as carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, thoracic outlet syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome, diabetes mellitus neuropathy, cervical radiculopathy, and neuralgic amyotrophy. Twenty items for a questionnaire in this study were chosen from the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Cervical Myelopathy Evaluation Questionnaire, which is a new self-administered questionnaire, as an outcome measure for patients with cervical myelopathy. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis using the chi-square test and by multiple logistic regression analysis. According to the resulting odds ratio, ?-coefficients, and p value, items were chosen and assigned a score. Results Eight items were chosen by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses and assigned a score. The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic showed p = 0.805. The area under the receiver operation characteristic curve was 0.86. The developed questionnaire had a sensitivity of 93.5% and a specificity of 67.3%. Conclusions We successfully developed a simple self-administered questionnaire to screen for cervical myelopathy. PMID:21092213

2010-01-01

26

Clustered clinical findings for diagnosis of cervical spine myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine myelopathy (CSM) is a clinical diagnosis made with imaging confirmation. At present, most clinical tests used to identify CSM are specific and no clusters of tests have proven more beneficial than stand alone tests in guiding treatment decision making. This study endeavored to produce a cluster of predictive clinical findings for a sample of patients using a clinical diagnosis/imaging confirmation as the reference standard for cervical spine myelopathy. Data from 249 patients with various conditions associated with cervical spine dysfunction were analyzed to determine which clinical tests and measures, when clustered together, were most diagnostic for CSM. Using multivariate regression analyses and calculations for sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios, a definitive cluster was identified. Thirteen clinical findings were investigated for capacity to diagnosis CSM. Five clinical: (1) gait deviation; (2) +Hoffmann’s test; (3) inverted supinator sign; (4) +Babinski test; and (5) age >45 years, were demonstrated the capacity when clustered into one of five positive tests to rule out CSM (negative likelihood ratio?=?0.18; 95% CI?=?0.12–0.42), and when clustered into three of five positive findings to rule in CSM (positive likelihood ratio?=?30.9; 95% CI?=?5.5–181.8). This study found clustered combinations of clinical findings that could rule in and rule out CSM. These clusters may be useful in identifying patients with this complex diagnosis in similar patient populations. PMID:22131790

Cook, Chad; Brown, Christopher; Isaacs, Robert; Roman, Matthew; Davis, Samuel; Richardson, William

2010-01-01

27

Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, sur- geons face the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy or laminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompres- sions or corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered by some clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexity of multilevel anterior cervical surgery.

Jung-Ju Huang; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Po-Liang Lai; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Wen-Jer Chen

28

Cervical Microendoscopic Interlaminar Decompression through a Midline Approach in Patients with Cervical Myelopathy: A Technical Note.  

PubMed

Introduction?Microendoscopic techniques through a unilateral paramedian approach or muscle-preserving techniques using a microscope have been reported as minimally invasive spinal decompression procedures for the cervical spine. In this study, we developed a novel technique, cervical microendoscopic interlaminar decompression (CMID) through a midline approach, for treating cervical compression myelopathy. Methods?A total of 29 consecutive patients with single- or two-level cervical compression myelopathy were reviewed. For the single-level cases (e.g., C5-C6), a midline skin incision, ? 2 cm in length, was made at the spinal level to be decompressed (C5-C6) under fluoroscopic guidance. The nuchal ligament was longitudinally cut, and tips of the spinous processes (C5 and C6) were exposed. A 16-mm tubular retractor was inserted between the tips of the C5 and C6 spinous processes. A dome-like laminectomy of C5, partial laminectomy of the upper part of C6, and flavectomy were performed. For the two-level cases (e.g., C4-C5 and C5-C6), the decompression procedure was completed by splitting the spinous process (C5). Pre- and postoperative neurologic status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Neck and arm pain was also evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS). Results?Overall, 10 patients underwent single-level decompression, and 19 patients underwent two-level decompression. The average age was 67 years (range: 40-83 years), and the mean follow-up period was 11 months (range: 4-14 months). The average pre- and postoperative JOA scores were 10.2 and 13.5, with a mean recovery rate of 49%. The mean preoperative and postoperative NRS scores were 3.5 and 1.5 for neck pain and 4.6 and 2.9 for arm pain, respectively. One patient showed transient mild weakness of the leg that recovered neurologically within a few weeks. No other postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion?This procedure revealed good short-term surgical results. This technique has advantages including (1) a symmetrical orientation of the surgical field, (2) an intermuscular incision that minimizes blood loss and muscle trauma, and (3) the ability to safely complete the decompression procedure without retracting the cervical spinal cord compared with the unilateral approach. Although long-term surgical results are required, this technique is not only safe but also minimally invasive as a treatment for cervical compression myelopathy. PMID:24819630

Oshima, Yasushi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Inanami, Hirohiko; Takano, Yuichi; Koga, Hisashi; Iwahori, Tomoyuki; Baba, Satoshi; Tanaka, Sakae

2014-11-01

29

Characteristics of Coping Strategies for Dysesthesia in Preoperative Patients with Compressive Cervical Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Study Design A cross-sectional study. Purpose This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of coping strategies for dysesthesia in preoperative patients with compressive cervical myelopathy. Overview of Literature Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for patients with chronic pain in terms of modifying their negative behavior. To effectively perform cognitive behavioral therapy, it is necessary to assess coping strategies because of their important roles in health-related quality of life. Methods Sixty-one preoperative patients with compressive cervical myelopathy (men, 39; women, 22; 61.0±11.6 years) participated. Coping strategies for dysesthesia (coping strategies questionnaire) and subjective symptoms (numerical rating scale for dysesthesia intensity and Japanese Orthopaedic Association cervical myelopathy evaluation questionnaire) were investigated. Results There were moderately significant correlations among the subcategory scores of the coping strategies questionnaire (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs]?0.69, p<0.05); the praying/hoping and catastrophizing scores were significantly correlated with the numerical rating scale score of dysesthesia (both; rs=0.34, p<0.01); there were no correlations between the coping strategy scores and the cervical spine function and upper and lower extremity motor function scores of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association cervical myelopathy evaluation questionnaire; and there were no significant associations between the coping strategy scores and age, sex, and symptom duration. Conclusions Various combinations of coping strategies for dysesthesia were selected in patients with compressive cervical myelopathy, and frequency of use of the coping strategies was not related to the perceived severity of cervical myelopathy or demographic factors.

2014-01-01

30

Treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with the fibromyalgia syndrome: outcomes and implications  

PubMed Central

Some patients with fibromyalgia also exhibit the neurological signs of cervical myelopathy. We sought to determine if treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia improves the symptoms of fibromyalgia and the patients’ quality of life. A non-randomized, prospective, case control study comparing the outcome of surgical (n = 40) versus non-surgical (n = 31) treatment of cervical myelopathy in patients with fibromyalgia was conducted. Outcomes were compared using SF-36, screening test for somatization, HADS, MMPI-2 scale 1 (Hypochondriasis), and self reported severity of symptoms 1 year after treatment. There was no significant difference in initial clinical presentation or demographic characteristics between the patients treated by surgical decompression and those treated by non-surgical means. There was a striking and statistically significant improvement in all symptoms attributed to the fibromyalgia syndrome in the surgical patients but not in the non-surgical patients at 1 year following the treatment of cervical myelopathy (P ? 0.018–0.001, Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test). At the 1 year follow-up, there was a statistically significant improvement in both physical and mental quality of life as measured by the SF-36 score for the surgical group as compared to the non-surgical group (Repeated Measures ANOVA P < 0.01). There was a statistically significant improvement in the scores from Scale 1 of the MMPI-2 and the screening test for somatization disorder, and the anxiety and depression scores exclusively in the surgical patients (Wilcoxon signed rank, P < 0.001). The surgical treatment of cervical myelopathy due to spinal cord or caudal brainstem compression in patients carrying the diagnosis of fibromyalgia can result in a significant improvement in a wide array of symptoms usually attributed to fibromyalgia with attendant measurable improvements in the quality of life. We recommend detailed neurological and neuroradiological evaluation of patients with fibromyalgia in order to exclude compressive cervical myelopathy, a potentially treatable condition. PMID:17426987

Ross, Ruth E.; Shade-Zeldow, Yvonne; Kostas, Konstantinos; Morrissey, Mary; Elias, Dean A.; Shepard, Alan

2007-01-01

31

Cervical spondylosis with spinal cord encroachment: should preventive surgery be recommended?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It has been stated that individuals who have spondylotic encroachment on the cervical spinal cord without myelopathy are at increased risk of spinal cord injury if they experience minor trauma. Preventive decompression surgery has been recommended for these individuals. The purpose of this paper is to provide the non-surgical spine specialist with information upon which to base advice to

Donald R Murphy; Christopher M Coulis; Jonathan K Gerrard

2009-01-01

32

Laminoplasty Techniques for the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation and to preserve postoperative cervical stability and alignment. With the right surgical indications, reliable results can be expected with laminoplasty in treating patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. PMID:22496982

Mitsunaga, Lance K.; Klineberg, Eric O.; Gupta, Munish C.

2012-01-01

33

Compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).  

PubMed

Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia. Antemortem diagnosis of compression was only confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Treatment ranged from supportive care to attempted surgical decompression. All dragons died or were euthanatized, at 4 days to 12 mo postpresentation. Studies to define normal vertebral anatomy in the species are necessary to determine whether the pathology is linked to cervical malformation, resulting in ligament laxity, subsequent instability, and subluxation. PMID:19368265

Zimmerman, Dawn M; Douglass, Michael; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Aguilar, Roberto; Schaftenaar, Willem; Shores, Andy

2009-03-01

34

Cervical myelopathy caused by dropped head syndrome. Case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The authors present a rare case of cervical myelopathy caused by dropped head syndrome. This 68-year-old woman presented with her head hanging forward. After 1 month, she was admitted to the medical service because of head drop progression. Examination of biopsy specimens from her cervical paraspinal muscles showed nonspecific myopathic features without inflammation, and isolated neck extensor myopathy was diagnosed. The patient's condition did not respond to the administration of corticosteroids. During follow up as an outpatient, the patient's head drop continued to gradually progress. At 1 year after onset, she developed bilateral weakness of the upper and lower extremities, clumsiness of the hands, and gait disturbance. A radiograph of the cervical spine obtained in a standing position showed a pronounced kyphotic deformity and instability at the level of C4-5. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated spinal cord compression at C-3 and C-4. The patient underwent a C3-4 laminectomy and occipitocervicothoracic fixation. Gait and hand coordination gradually improved, and she was able to walk with no support 1 month postoperatively. Surgical fixation was beneficial in this patient with dropped head syndrome, myelopathy, and cervical instability. PMID:17330586

Nakanishi, Kinya; Taneda, Mamoru; Sumii, Toshihisa; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Iwakura, Norihiro

2007-02-01

35

Omovertebral bone associated with Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome leading to cervical myelopathy.  

PubMed

The unusual association of an omovertebral bone with Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome is a complex bone anomaly of unknown incidence and etiology. However, several cases of this rare disease pattern have been reported in the literature. In this paper, the authors present the case of a 34-year-old woman with a 5-month history of progressive gait ataxia and intermittent urinary incontinence, which was found to be caused by aberrant bone growth into the spinal canal from an omovertebral bone that extended from the left scapula pressing into the C-6 vertebral arch and subsequently causing cervical myelopathy. The patient underwent isolated resection of the omovertebral bone and decompression of the spinal canal, and her functional and neurological outcome was favorable. PMID:20672958

Füllbier, Lars; Tanner, Philipp; Henkes, Hans; Hopf, Nikolai J

2010-08-01

36

Feline ischaemic myelopathy with a predilection for the cranial cervical spinal cord in older cats.  

PubMed

All previous studies on feline ischaemic myelopathy (IM) have reported an acute onset of a single event with no recurrence of clinical signs. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and long-term follow-up data in cats presumptively diagnosed with cervical IM in the territory of the ventral spinal artery (VSA). Eight cats (four females and four males) were included with a mean age of 14 years and 2 months. Neurological status at the time of presentation ranged from ambulatory tetraparesis to tetraplegia with nociception present. Six cats had marked cervical ventroflexion. All eight cats were diagnosed with one or more concurrent medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease (n = 2), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 2) and hypertension (n = 6). Median time to ambulation was 5.7 days (range 2-14 days). Long-term follow-up ranged from 7 months to 3 years and 3 months (median 1 year and 2 months). Five cats had no reported recurrence of clinical signs and 3/8 had a chronic relapsing disease course. One cat had an acute recurrence of clinical signs 4 months after the first event and was euthanased. Two cats had acute onsets of suspected intracranial infarctions, one of which had further suspected intracranial infarcts every 3 months and was euthanased after one of these. This study highlights the importance of performing ancillary diagnostic tests in older cats presenting with IM, particularly when VSA embolisation is suspected. PMID:24509256

Simpson, Katherine M; De Risio, Luisa; Theobald, Anita; Garosi, Laurent; Lowrie, Mark

2014-12-01

37

Cervical duraplasty with tenting sutures via laminoplasty for cervical flexion myelopathy in patients with Hirayama disease: successful decompression of a "tight dural canal in flexion" without spinal fusion.  

PubMed

Object Hirayama disease, juvenile muscular atrophy of the distal upper extremity, is a rare type of cervical flexion segmental myelopathy and its etiology is still being debated. Two theories have been proposed: a "contact pressure" theory and "tight dural canal in flexion" theory. Previously reported treatments, including conservative neck collar therapy and surgical spinal fusion, used fixation of the cervical spine with the aim of avoiding contact pressure between the cord and anterior structures. On the other hand, treatment by duraplasty without spinal fusion has also been used, which aims at decompressing a tight dural canal in flexion by preventing abnormal forward displacement of the posterior dura mater without restricting cervical motion in young patients. The authors developed a new surgical approach for treating a tight dural canal in flexion in patients with Hirayama disease: cervical duraplasty with tenting sutures via laminoplasty without spinal fusion. With this treatment they aimed to both decompress the spinal cord and preserve as much cervical motion as possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of patients who underwent this new surgical procedure and to investigate the etiology of Hirayama disease. Methods Six male patients (age range 17-23 years) with Hirayama disease underwent surgery between 2006 and 2012. The pre- and postoperative anteroposterior diameters of the dural canal in the flexed neck position, grip strength of the bilateral upper extremities, cervical alignment (C2-7), and cervical local flexion range of motion were compared. The presence or absence of surgical complications was assessed. To investigate the comparison group of Hirayama disease treated with spinal decompression, the PubMed database was searched for all relevant Englishlanguage case reports and series published between 1990 and 2013. Results The postoperative anteroposterior diameters of the dural canal were significantly expanded in the flexed neck position (7.2 ± 2.2 mm preoperatively vs 9.8 ± 1.7 mm postoperatively, p = 0.001). Grip strength of the upper extremities significantly improved bilaterally (20 ± 14 kg preoperatively vs 26 ± 15 kg postoperatively, p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed between pre- and postoperative cervical alignment in the neutral neck position (7.7° ± 8.1° preoperatively vs 9.0° ± 7.7° postoperatively, p = 0.74) or the cervical local flexion angle in the flexed neck position at the corresponding level of laminoplasty (16.6° ± 5.1° preoperatively vs 15.0° ± 9.4° postoperatively, p = 0.8). No surgical complications were noted, except for transient CSF leakage, which was resolved after lumbar drainage. The systematic review identified 37 cases from 7 reports: 26 with spinal fusion only, 5 with duraplasty without fusion, and 6 with combined duraplasty and fusion. In the largest series, in which 12 cases were treated with anterior fusion, cervical alignment was maintained, but local flexion motion was significantly decreased as a result of fixation. Although significant improvements in or stabilization of grip strength occurred in all 7 reported studies regardless of decompression procedures, one major delayed surgical complication was noted in a patient treated with anterior fusion. The patient developed severe kyphotic changes, which required reconstruction surgeries. Conclusions Cervical duraplasty with tenting sutures via laminoplasty prevented abnormal forward displacement of the posterior dura mater while preserving normal anterior structures and flexion motion of the cervical spine without major surgical complications. The clinical improvements achieved by the authors' method support evidence that a tight dural canal in flexion largely contributes to segmental myelopathy in patients with Hirayama disease. PMID:25192377

Ito, Hirotaka; Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

2014-11-01

38

Hemifacial hyperhidrosis associated with ipsilateral/contralateral cervical disc herniation myelopathy. Functional considerations on how compression pattern determines the laterality  

PubMed Central

Summary Sweating is an important mechanism for ensuring constant thermoregulation, but hyperhidrosis may be disturbing. We present five cases of hemifacial hyperhidrosis as a compensatory response to an/hypohidrosis caused by cervical disc herniation. All the patients complained of hemifacial hyperhidrosis, without anisocoria or blepharoptosis. Sweat function testing and thermography confirmed hyperhidrosis of hemifacial and adjacent areas. Neck MRI showed cervical disc herniation. Three of the patients had lateral compression with well-demarcated hypohidrosis below the hyperhidrosis on the same side as the cervical lesion. The rest had paramedian compression with poorly demarcated hyperhidrosis and hypohidrosis on the contralateral side. Although MRI showed no intraspinal pathological signal intensity, lateral dural compression might influence the circulation to the sudomotor pathway, and paramedian compression might influence the ipsilateral sulcal artery, which perfuses the sympathetic descending pathway and the intermediolateral nucleus. Sweat function testing and thermography should be performed to determine the focus of the hemifacial hyperhidrosis, and the myelopathy should be investigated on both sides. PMID:25014051

Iwase, Satoshi; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sato, Maki; Sugenoya, Junichi

2014-01-01

39

Cervical spinous process reconstruction.  

PubMed

Posterior neck deformity with an unsightly crater-like defect may result after cervicothoracic laminectomies. The authors present a new technique, spinous process reconstruction, to address this problem. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive quadriparesis secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Previously he had undergone multiple neck surgeries including cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy. Postoperatively, he developed severe craniocervical spinal deformity and a large painful concave surgical defect in the neck. The authors performed craniocervical decompression and craniocervicothoracic instrumented stabilization. At the same time, cervicothoracic spinous process reconstruction was performed using titanium mesh to address the defect. Cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy results in varying degrees of neck defect with resulting unsightly and an often painful surgical wound defect despite an appropriate multilayer closure. The presented spinous process reconstruction is a simple technique to address this problem with good clinical outcome. PMID:24206034

Panchal, Ripul R; Duong, Huy T; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Kim, Kee D

2014-01-01

40

Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT]) and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL.

Westwick, Harrison J.; Goldstein, Christina L.; Shamji, Mohammed F.

2014-01-01

41

Box-Shape Cervical Expansive Laminoplasty: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty is a procedure that utilizes a Miniplate® or Maxpacer® to achieve maximal canal expansion. This method is expected to show much larger canal expansion and good clinical outcome. So we investigated the clinical and radiological outcome of Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty. Methods Between June 2008 and July 2013, we performed cervical expansive laminoplasty in 87 and 48 patients using the Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty, respectively. We analyzed the clinical results of these operations using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system and by assessing the position of intralaminar screws with postoperative computed tomography (CT) at POD-6 months. Results A total of 48 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) (36 pts), cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) (12 pts) were enrolled. Overall JOA scores improved from 11.49 to 14.22 at POD-6 months (OPLL: 11.32 -->14.3; CSM: 12-->14). Postoperative CT scans were performed in 39 patients at 177 levels for a total of 354 screws. The malpositioning rate of intralaminar screws was 3.4% and hardware-related neurologic complications did not occur. Conclusion Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty creates maximal spinal canal expansion and leads to improved cervical myelopathy. The use of intralaminar screws to fix the remodeled lamina-facet does not represent a significant difficulty.

Park, Hae Gi; Zhang, Ho Yeol

2014-01-01

42

A role for motor and somatosensory evoked potentials during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for patients without myelopathy: Analysis of 57 consecutive cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Although the usage of combined motor and sensory intraoperative monitoring has been shown to improve the surgical outcome of patients with cervical myelopathy, the role of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials (tceMEP) used in conjunction with somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) in patients presenting with radiculopathy but without myelopathy has been less clear. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients (n = 57) with radiculopathy but without myelopathy, undergoing anterior cervical decompression and fusion at a single institution over the past 3 years, who had intraoperative monitoring with both tceMEPs and SSEPs. Results: Fifty-seven (100%) patients presented with radiculopathy, 53 (93.0%) with mechanical neck pain, 35 (61.4%) with motor dysfunction, and 29 (50.9%) with sensory deficits. Intraoperatively, 3 (5.3%) patients experienced decreases in SSEP signal amplitudes and 4 (6.9%) had tceMEP signal changes. There were three instances where a change in neuromonitoring signal required intraoperative alteration of the surgical procedure: these were deemed clinically significant events/true positives. SSEP monitoring showed two false positives and two false negatives, whereas tceMEP monitoring only had one false positive and no false negatives. Thus, tceMEP monitoring exhibited higher sensitivity (33.3% vs. 100%), specificity (95.6% vs. 98.1%), positive predictive value (33.3% vs. 75.0%), negative predictive value (97.7% vs. 100%), and efficiency (91.7% vs. 98.2%) compared to SSEP monitoring alone. Conclusions: Here, we present a retrospective series of 57 patients where tceMEP/SSEP monitoring likely prevented irreversible neurologic damage. Though further prospective studies are needed, there may be a role for combined tceMEP/SSEP monitoring for patients undergoing anterior cervical decompression without myelopathy. PMID:22059128

Xu, Risheng; Ritzl, Eva K.; Sait, Mohammed; Sciubba, Daniel M.; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Bydon, Ali

2011-01-01

43

Cervical myelopathy, ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis: problems in investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a patient presenting with a spastic quadriplegia who was found to have both diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervical spine. There was a dramatic worsening of his symptoms during a myelogram examination of the neck. It is suggested that computed tomographic imaging of the neck is the

I D Griffiths; T P Fitzjohn

1987-01-01

44

[X-ray diagnosis and prognosis of post-traumatic cervical myelopathies].  

PubMed

X-ray examination (pneumomyelography, vertebral angiography, phlebospondylography) of 192 patients with disorders of functions of the cervical spinal cord in a late period after the injury demonstrated residual local and diffuse compressions and atrophy of the spinal cord. Operations were conducted on 186 patients; atrophy of the spinal cord aggravated restoration of functions after decompression operations, which must be borne in mind in prognosticating the disease. PMID:6868899

Brodskaia, Z L

1983-01-01

45

Cervical myelopathy caused by soft-tissue mass in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of cervical spinal cord compression in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH or Forestier’s Disease)\\u000a caused by a craniocervical mass of soft-tissue is reported. The objective is to describe an uncommon mechanism of spinal cord\\u000a compression in DISH. Three weeks after a cardiac infarction a 69-year-old man slowly developed spastic tetraparesis. Magnetic\\u000a resonance tomography showed a craniocervical tumor

Max-Jürgen Storch; Ulrich Hubbe; Franz Xaver Glocker

2008-01-01

46

Increased low-frequency oscillation amplitude of sensorimotor cortex associated with the severity of structural impairment in cervical myelopathy.  

PubMed

Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM) using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO) was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity. PMID:25111566

Zhou, Fuqing; Gong, Honghan; Liu, Xiaojia; Wu, Lin; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

2014-01-01

47

Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome leading to cervical myelopathy presentation in old age  

PubMed Central

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the congenital fusion of two of the seventh cervical vertebrae. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of neck pain and ataxia for 1 year. She had not urinary incontinence. She was referred to a neurosurgeon by a neurologist because of her progressive gait ataxia. Risk for brachial plexus injury because of compression or stretching by the clavicle accelerate with age. Therefore, the surgical approach of adults’ patients with Sprengel's deformity can intend suitable surgical conclusions. PMID:24250706

Mirhosseini, Seyyed Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Bidaki, Reza; Boshrabadi, Ahmad Pourrashidi

2013-01-01

48

Imaging Findings of Chronic Subluxation of the Os Odontoideum and Cervical Myelopathy in a Child with Beare-Stevenson Cutis Gyrata Syndrome after Surgery to the Head and Neck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Although uncommon, fractures of the os odontoideum are known to occur in children under 7 years old, following acute trauma. Clinical Picture: We report a case of chronic subluxation of the os odontoideum resulting in cervical myelopathy in a child with Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome after surgery to the head and neck. Treatment and Outcome: The patient was initially

Phua Hwee Tang

49

Pearls: myelopathy.  

PubMed

Both general neurologists and neurologists with a broad spectrum of subspecialty interests are often asked to evaluate patients with disorders of the spinal cord. Over the past decade, there have been significant advances in our understanding of a wide spectrum of immune-mediated, infectious, metabolic, hereditary, paraneoplastic, and compressive myelopathies. Advances have been made in the classification and management of spinal vascular malformations. Aortic reconstruction surgery has led to an increased incidence of spinal cord stroke. It is important to recognize a dural arteriovenous fistula as a cause of progressive myelopathy. In the past, noninfectious inflammatory myelopathies have frequently been categorized as idiopathic transverse myelitis. Advances in neuroimaging and discovery of a serum antibody marker, neuromyelitis optica-immunoglobulin G (NMO-IgG), have allowed more specific diagnoses, such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Abnormalities suggestive of demyelinating disease on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are known to be highly predictive of conversion to multiple sclerosis in a patient who presents with a transverse myelitis ("clinically isolated syndrome"). Acquired copper deficiency can cause a clinical picture that mimics the subacute combined degeneration seen with vitamin B (12) deficiency. A history of bariatric surgery is commonly noted in patients with copper deficiency myelopathy. Genetics has advanced our understanding of the complex field of hereditary myelopathies. Three hereditary myelopathy phenotypes are recognized: predominantly cerebellar (e.g., Friedreich's ataxia), predominantly motor (e.g., hereditary spastic paraparesis), and a leukodystrophy phenotype (e.g., adrenomyeloneuropathy). Evaluation of myelopathies when no abnormalities are seen on spinal cord imaging is a commonly encountered diagnostic challenge. This article presents some "clinical pearls" in the evaluation and management of spinal cord diseases in context of these recent developments. PMID:20127580

Kumar, Neeraj

2010-02-01

50

C7 intralaminar screw placement, an alternative to lateral mass or pedicle fixation for treatment of cervical spondylytic myelopathy, kyphotic deformity, and trauma: A case report and technical note  

PubMed Central

Background: The authors present a case to illustrate the necessity and technical feasibility of C7 laminar screw placement for treatment of sub-axial cervical spondylitic myelopathy. The indications for C7 lateral mass screw placement was required internal fixation, with small lateral masses (8 mm) and pedicles (4 mm). Case Description: A 67-year-old female with compressive myelopathy after a fall from standing is presented. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the cervical spine showed severe C3-6 spondylosis with canal and foraminal compromise. Computed tomography of the cervical spine confirmed the MR imaging findings as well as showed suboptimal lateral mass and pedicles for screw placement. The patient underwent a C3-6 laminectomy, C3-6 lateral mass, and C7 laminar screw placement. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without complication. Conclusion: Internal fixation of the cervical spine after iatrogenic destabilization by decompression of neural elements secondary to advanced spondylosis can be technically challenging. Anatomical landmarks needed for safe placement of lateral mass or pedicle instrumentation are often distorted by the patients’ advanced pathology or Inherent biology. The C7 screw is a key structural element to a long construct and therefore necessitates large lateral masses or pedicles to safely place a functional screw. C7 laminar screws may be placed safely without fluoroscopic guidance when sufficient C7 lateral mass or pedicle screws are not possible or with undue risk. PMID:24575319

Koltz, Michael T.; Maulucci, Christopher M.; Sansur, Charles A.; Hamilton, D. Kojo

2014-01-01

51

Spontaneous vertebral arteriovenous fistula causing cervical myelopathy and acute ischemic strokes treated by endovascular balloon-assisted coiling and Onyx embolization.  

PubMed

Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (VAVF) are infrequent lesions characterized by abnormal communication of the extracranial vertebral artery or one of its branches to the surrounding venous plexuses, without the presence of any intervening vessels. We describe a rare occurrence of a patient with VAVF presenting with acute ischemic stroke, encephalomalacia from multiple prior embolic events, and cervical myelopathy, which was successfully treated by coil-assisted Onyx embolization (ev3 Endovascular, Plymouth, MN, USA) with balloon for flow arrest. Our patient demonstrates that point occlusion with embolization for VAVF can be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for complete obliteration of the fistula, with subsequent reduction in the volume of the intra-spinal canal venous plexus. Although it is postulated that thromboembolism is less common because of redirection of flow to the venous side of the fistula, our patient also illustrates the potential for to-fro flow in such a fistula to result in embolic injury to the distal circulation. PMID:23972561

John, Seby; Jaffari, Neda; Lu, Mei; Hussain, Muhammad S; Hui, Ferdinand

2014-01-01

52

Minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using tubular retractor: The technical note and early clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this work is to present a novel decompression technique that approaches cervical spine posteriorly, but through minimal invasive method using tubular retractor avoiding detachment of posterior musculature. Methods: Six patients underwent minimally invasive posterior cervical decompression using the tubular retractor system and surgical microscope. Minimally invasive access to the posterior cervical spine was performed with exposure through a paramedian muscle-splitting approach. With the assistance of a specialized tubular retraction system and deep soft tissue expansion mechanism, multilevel posterior cervical decompression could be accomplished. This approach also allows safe docking of the retractor system on the lateral mass, thus avoiding the cervical spinal canal during exposure. A standard operating microscope was used with ×10 magnification and 400 mm focal length. The hospital charts, magnetic resonance imaging studies, and follow-up records of all the patients were reviewed. Outcome was assessed by neurological status and visual analog scale (VAS) for neck and arm pain. Results: There was no significant complication related to operation. The follow-up time was 4-12 months (mean, 9 months). Muscle weakness improved in all patients; sensory deficits resolved in four patients and improved in two patients. Analysis of the mean VAS for radicular pain and VAS for neck pain showed significant improvement. Conclusions: The preliminary experiences with good clinical outcome seem to promise that this minimally invasive technique is a valid alternative option for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:24778922

Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Shin, Myeong-Hoon; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik

2014-01-01

53

Adjacent segment disease after fusion for cervical spondylosis; myth or reality?  

PubMed

Cervical spondylosis is a common cause of radiculopathy and myelopathy, often treated by discectomy and interbody fusion. However, there has been a recent vogue for the use of artificial disc prostheses to decrease the risk of accelerated degenerative disease at adjacent levels. The short-term results of artificial disc replacements have been encouraging, but the long-term justification for using this new technology hinges on whether the incidence of adjacent segment disease decreases. It will also be necessary to demonstrate that movement at the operated levels is maintained and the incidence of device failure is low. We review the radiological, biomechanical and clinical evidence for adjacent segment disease, and the rationale for using artificial cervical disc replacements. There is presently insufficient evidence to justify the widespread use of artificial disc replacements in the treatment of cervical spondylosis, but neither is there sufficient evidence to criticize their use. Present evidence suggests that adjacent segment disease is partly due to the natural history of spondylotic disease and partly due to cervical fusion. Randomized trials are required to ascertain whether the incidence of adjacent segment disease changes with the use of artificial disc replacements in the long term. Indications for the use of artificial discs are presently unclear, but disc replacements might be recommended for 'young' patients who require an anterior cervical discectomy, with good ranges of neck movements, and an awareness of the satisfactory short-term results, but lack of long-term outcome data, preferably within the limits of a clinical trial. PMID:18348013

Seo, Moonsang; Choi, D

2008-04-01

54

Acute myelopathy with normal imaging  

PubMed Central

A 17-year old girl presented with rapidly progressive quadriparesis and ventilatorary failure. The clinical findings indicated a spinal level, but the diagnosis of myelopathy was not supported by her initial spinal imaging and cerebrospinal fluid studies. She had completed treatment for Guillain-Barre syndrome before a follow-up spinal imaging study showed interval expansion and enhancement of the cervical cord. PMID:22752484

Holland, Neil R.

2013-01-01

55

Simultaneous cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament resulting in dysphagia or myelopathy in two geriatric North Americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDCervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) rarely coexist in the North American population. Here, different surgical strategies were used to manage simultaneous DISH and OPLL resulting in dysphagia or myelopathy in two geriatric patients.METHODSA 74-year-old male with esophageal compression and dysphagia attributed to DISH, and cord compression with myelopathy due to OPLL,

Nancy E Epstein

2000-01-01

56

The evidence and the possible significance of autophagy in degeneration model of human cervical end-plate cartilage  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to observe autophagy in chondrocytes from degenerative human cervical vertebral end-plates and to investigate the significance of variations in autophagy in the degeneration of cervical vertebral end-plate chondrocytes. Cartilage end-plates were obtained from 48 inpatients admitted to hospital between February 2011 and August 2012. The patients were divided into the control group (n=17) with cervical vertebral fracture or dislocation and the cervical spondylosis group (n=31) with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. End-plate chondrocytes were isolated via enzyme digestion and then cultured in vitro. The cells were stained with toluidine blue and hematoxylin-eosin (H&E). A laser scanning confocal microscope and monodansylcadaverine (MDC) were used to reveal autophagy in the end-plate chondrocytes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. Western blotting was conducted to detect LC3 proteins. The chondrocytes isolated from the degenerative human cervical end-plates were cultured successfully in vitro. The morphology of the cells from the cervical spondylosis group tended to exhibit changes in spindle morphology compared with the control group. Autophagic bodies were stained with MDC. LC3 proteins were visible in the intracellular and perinuclear regions under the laser scanning confocal microscope. The mRNA expression levels (relative to those of ?-actin) of aggrecan (0.715±0.194) and type II collagen (0.628±0.254) in the cervical spondylosis group were markedly decreased compared with those in the control group (0.913±0.254 and 0.845±0.186, respectively; both P<0.05). The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was observed to be significantly reduced in the cervical spondylosis group by Western blot analysis. Autophagy has an important role in human cervical disc degeneration. The regulation of autophagy may prevent disc degeneration in cartilage end-plate cells. PMID:24520242

XU, HONGGUANG; XIONG, SHOULIANG; WANG, HONG; ZHANG, MIN; YU, YUNFEI

2014-01-01

57

Latent period in clinical radiation myelopathy  

SciTech Connect

Seventy-seven papers containing data on more than 300 cases of radiation myelopathy have been analyzed. The data suggest that the latent periods are similar in the cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord and are bimodally distributed. Myelopathy of lumbar cord apparently has a shorter latent period. As in controlled animal experiments, the latent period decreases with increasing dose. Furthermore, the variation in latent periods also decreases with dose. It is also seen that retreated patients and pediatric or adolescent patients have greatly reduced latent periods. The implications of these findings as they compare with the animal data are discussed.

Schultheiss, T.E.; Higgins, E.M.; El-Mahdi, A.M.

1984-07-01

58

Copper deficiency myelopathy.  

PubMed

Acquired copper deficiency has been recognised as a rare cause of anaemia and neutropenia for over half a century. Copper deficiency myelopathy (CDM) was only described within the last decade, and represents a treatable cause of non-compressive myelopathy which closely mimics subacute combined degeneration due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Here, 55 case reports from the literature are reviewed regarding their demographics, aetiology, haematological and biochemical parameters, spinal imaging, treatment and outcome. The pathophysiology of disorders of copper metabolism is discussed. CDM most frequently presented in the fifth and sixth decades and was more common in women (F:M = 3.6:1). Risk factors included previous upper gastrointestinal surgery, zinc overload and malabsorption syndromes, all of which impair copper absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. No aetiology was established in 20% of cases. High zinc levels were detected in some cases not considered to have primary zinc overload, and in this situation the contribution of zinc to the copper deficiency state remained unclear. Cytopenias were found in 78%, particularly anaemia, and a myelodysplastic syndrome may have been falsely diagnosed in the past. Spinal MRI was abnormal in 47% and usually showed high T2 signal in the posterior cervical and thoracic cord. In a clinically compatible case, CDM may be suggested by the presence of one or more risk factors and/or cytopenias. Low serum copper and caeruloplasmin levels confirmed the diagnosis and, in contrast to Wilson's disease, urinary copper levels were typically low. Treatment comprised copper supplementation and modification of any risk factors, and led to haematological normalisation and neurological improvement or stabilisation. Since any neurological recovery was partial and case numbers of CDM will continue to rise with the growing use of bariatric gastrointestinal surgery, clinical vigilance will remain the key to minimising neurological sequelae. Recommendations for treatment and prevention are made. PMID:20232210

Jaiser, Stephan R; Winston, Gavin P

2010-06-01

59

Cervicitis  

MedlinePLUS

... into the pelvic area such as a cervical cap, diaphragm, or pessary Allergy to spermicides used for ... does not go away: Discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse Pain ...

60

The Prevalence and Phenotype of Activated Microglia/Macrophages within the Spinal Cord of the Hyperostotic Mouse (twy/twy) Changes in Response to Chronic Progressive Spinal Cord Compression: Implications for Human Cervical Compressive Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical compressive myelopathy, e.g. due to spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament is a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Although human pathological studies have reported neuronal loss and demyelination in the chronically compressed spinal cord, little is known about the mechanisms involved. In particular, the neuroinflammatory processes that are thought to underlie the condition are poorly understood. The present study assessed the localized prevalence of activated M1 and M2 microglia/macrophages in twy/twy mice that develop spontaneous cervical spinal cord compression, as a model of human disease. Methods Inflammatory cells and cytokines were assessed in compressed lesions of the spinal cords in 12-, 18- and 24-weeks old twy/twy mice by immunohistochemical, immunoblot and flow cytometric analysis. Computed tomography and standard histology confirmed a progressive spinal cord compression through the spontaneously development of an impinging calcified mass. Results The prevalence of CD11b-positive cells, in the compressed spinal cord increased over time with a concurrent decrease in neurons. The CD11b-positive cell population was initially formed of arginase-1- and CD206-positive M2 microglia/macrophages, which later shifted towards iNOS- and CD16/32-positive M1 microglia/macrophages. There was a transient increase in levels of T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines at 18 weeks, whereas levels of Th1 cytokines as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and macrophage antigen (Mac) ?2 progressively increased. Conclusions Spinal cord compression was associated with a temporal M2 microglia/macrophage response, which may act as a possible repair or neuroprotective mechanism. However, the persistence of the neural insult also associated with persistent expression of Th1 cytokines and increased prevalence of activated M1 microglia/macrophages, which may lead to neuronal loss and demyelination despite the presence of neurotrophic factors. This understanding of the aetiopathology of chronic spinal cord compression is of importance in the development of new treatment targets in human disease. PMID:23717624

Hirai, Takayuki; Uchida, Kenzo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Guerrero, Alexander Rodriguez; Takeura, Naoto; Watanabe, Shuji; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Johnson, William E. B.; Baba, Hisatoshi

2013-01-01

61

Pregabalin and Radicular Pain Study (PARPS) for Cervical Spondylosis in a Multiracial Asian Population  

PubMed Central

Background Pain from cervical spondylosis (CS) may result from degenerative spinal canal stenosis (cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)) or lateral recesses compromise, leading to nerve root compression (cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR)). Pregabalin was shown to be effective in randomized, placebo-controlled trials for post-herpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. We evaluate its efficacy in CS with underlying CSR or CSM in a prospective study comprising Asian patients for the first time. Methods Patients with CS and CSR or CSM (clinical, MRI, or electrophysiological evidence) presenting with neuropathic pain were recruited. We excluded patients with diabetes, underlying neurological disease or who were previously on antiepileptics. Pregabalin 75 mg bd was administered for 4 weeks, after which dosage was increased to 150 mg bd for another 4 weeks if the visual analog scale (VAS) was not reduced by 50%. In addition, we monitored the short form McGill pain questionnaire (SFMPQ) at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks. Mood changes were monitored using the hospital anxiety and depression score (HADS) with an identical timeline. Results We recruited 50 patients, of which 23 completed the trial. Of the 27 who withdrew, 12 (44%) were for somnolence. Thirteen patients’ (54%) dosages remained at 75 mg and 11 patients’ (46%) dosages were escalated to 150 mg bd. There were significantly reducing trends from baseline for VAS (ANOVA, F(1, 21) = 25.4, P < 0.0005), SFMPQ (sensory) (F(1, 22) = 11.2, P = 0.003), and SFMPQ (affective) (F(1, 21) = 10.9, P = 0.008). For VAS, there was significant reduction at 4 weeks (P = 0.001) and 8 weeks (P < 0.0005) compared to baseline. For SFMPQ (sensory), there was significant reduction at 4 weeks (P = 0.01) and 8 weeks (P = 0.006) in scores compared to baselines. For SFMPQ (affective), there was significant reduction at 4 weeks (P = 0.04) and 8 weeks (P = 0.008) in scores compared to baseline. No significant anxiety (F(1, 4) = 1.3, P = 0.32) or depression (F(1, 4) = 0.06, P = 0.82) changes were observed in the HADS. Conclusion Pregabalin is efficacious in alleviation of pain symptoms related to CSR as a first-line single agent, evaluated by quantitative severity and other experiential scales. No significant mood changes reported in other studies were demonstrated. Somnolence was commonest adverse effect leading to high dropout rates, occurring early even at the lowest dose. The findings suggest the need for further studies of efficacy at lower dosages, particularly in the Asian population. PMID:24400034

Lo, Yew Long; Cheong, Priscilia Woon Ting; George, Jane Mary; Tan, Seang Beng; Yue, Wai Mun; Guo, Chang Ming; Fook-Chong, Stephanie

2014-01-01

62

[A case of transverse myelopathy caused by acupuncture].  

PubMed

A 54-year-old man received insertion of an acupuncture needle into the region extending from the posterior neck to the back on two occasions for the treatment of shoulder stiffness. Two weeks after the second acupuncture, he developed fever, dysarthria and mictionary disturbance, finally reaching the condition of tetraplegia. He was immediately admitted to an emergency room in our hospital, and was diagnosed as sepsis with DIC, ARDS, heart failure, renal failure, liver failure, and myelitis. After one month, he recovered with transverse myelopathy as a residual deficit. Neurological findings showed transverse myelopathy below the level of Th2 at that time. Cervical CT revealed an irregular low density at the periphery of the cervical vertebra from the C2 to C4 level. Cervical MRI revealed an irregular swelling of his spinal cord from the C2 to C7 level. We explained the mechanism of transverse myelopathy in this case as follows. After the acupuncture, he suffered a focal infection of the region of needle insertion, and then the infection expanded to the cervical vertebra, thus causing osteomyelitis, sepsis, and finally cervical myelitis. Direct injury of the spinal cord and nerve roots as a complication of acupuncture was previously reported, but indirect injury of the spinal cord due to myelitis had not been reported except our present case. Careful attentions should be paid to the complications of acupuncture. PMID:1786654

Sato, M; Yamane, K; Ezima, M; Sugishita, Y; Nozaki, H

1991-07-01

63

Metabolic and toxic myelopathies.  

PubMed

The myelopathies discussed in this article have an underlying metabolic or toxic etiology. They have many clinical, electrophysiologic, and neuropathologic similarities. Preferential involvement of the dorsal columns and/or corticospinal tracts is commonly seen. Variable degrees of peripheral nerve and/or optic nerve involvement may be present. In the presence of clinical or electrophysiologic evidence of peripheral nerve involvement, the term myeloneuropathy is commonly used. The metabolic and toxic myelopathies discussed here are divided into three categories: disorders due to an identified nutrient deficiency such as the subacute combined degeneration of cobalamin/vitamin B12 or copper deficiency, disorders that have a geographical predilection and are due to a suspected toxin such as lathyrism, and disorders due to a possible toxin but without a geographical predilection such as hepatic myelopathy (Table 1). PMID:22961187

Kumar, Neeraj

2012-04-01

64

Cytokine Concentrations in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Great Danes with Cervical Spondylomyelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of human cervical spondylotic myelopathy and could also play a role in cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) in dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives That cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokine concentrations would differ between clinically normal (control) and CSM-affected Great Danes (GDs), with affected GDs showing higher levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2). Animals Client-owned GDs: 15 control, 15 CSM-affected. Methods Prospective study. Dogs underwent cervical vertebral column magnetic resonance imaging and collection of CSF from the cerebellomedullary cistern. Cytokine concentrations were measured using a commercially available canine multiplex immunoassay. Cytokine concentrations were compared between groups. Associations with the administration of anti-inflammatory medications, disease duration and severity, severity of spinal cord (SC) compression, and SC signal changes were investigated in affected GDs. Results Affected GDs had significantly lower MCP-1/CCL2 (mean 138.03 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 114.85–161.20) than control GDs (212.89 pg/mL, 95% CI = 165.68–260.11, P = .028). In affected GDs, MCP-1/CCL2 concentrations correlated inversely with the severity of SC compression. There were no associations with administration of anti-inflammatory medications, disease duration, or disease severity. IL-6 concentrations were significantly higher (2.20 pg/mL, 95% CI = 1.92–2.47, P < .001) in GDs with SC signal changes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance Lower MCP-1/CCL2 in CSM-affected GDs might compromise clearance of axonal and myelin debris, delay axon regeneration, and affect recovery. Higher IL-6 in CSM-affected GDs with SC signal changes suggests more severe inflammation in this group. PMID:24965833

Martin-Vaquero, P.; da Costa, R.C.; Moore, S.A.; Gross, A.C.; Eubank, T.D.

2014-01-01

65

[Fracture of the odontoid process in primary myelopathy. Report of a case].  

PubMed

Fractures of the odontoid are reported to contribute in 15% to cervical spine fractures. The clinical findings range between no symptoms at all and sudden death. Neurological deficits are seen in 6 to 25% of these patients. The overall mortality in this group is 3 to 8%. Fractures of the odontoid process combined with primary myelopathy has been reported seldom. We describe a traumatic fracture of the odontoid process with primary myelopathy, the chosen therapy and the follow-up. PMID:9541983

Mewe, P; van Frank, E; Ward, J C

1998-02-01

66

Comparison of enlargement of the spinal canal after cervical laminoplasty: open-door type and double-door type.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of enlargement of the spinal canal between two methods of cervical laminoplasty (open-door laminoplasty and double-door laminoplasty) and to determine their appropriate surgical indications based on the results. Tension-band laminoplasty (TBL, one method of open-door type) was performed in 33 patients and double-door laminoplasty (DDL) in 20 patients. The operation level ranged from C2 to C7 in all patients. The width of the spinal canal and the inclination angle of the lamina at the C5 and C6 levels were measured using a computer software program (Image J) and pre- and postoperative CT films. Concerning the degree of enlargement of the spinal canal, the mean expansion ratio at the C5 level was 148.9% in TBL and 148.2% in DDL, and there was no significant difference between them. However, at the C6 level, it was 159.0% in TBL and 140.3% in DDL, which was significantly larger in TBL than DDL (p < 0.05). The increase of inclination angle of the lamina was 11.0° in TBL and 19.0° in DDL at the C5 level, and 9.2° in TBL and 19.3° in DDL at the C6 level. At both the C5 and C6 levels, it was significantly larger in DDL than TBL (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the appropriate surgical indications of TBL were considered to be (1) cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) combined with hemilateral radiculopathy, (2) severe prominence of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), and (3) patients with tiny spinous processes who cannot undergo DDL. Those of DDL were considered to be (1) usual CSM, (2) small and slight prominence of OPLL, (3) CSM combined with bilateral radiculopathy, and (4) cervical canal stenosis combined with instability necessitating posterior spinal instrumentation surgery. PMID:20309712

Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Yamada, Hironobu; Motosuneya, Takao; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Miura, Makoto; Sakai, Hiroya; Matsushita, Takashi

2010-10-01

67

Follow-up study on the motion range after treatment of degenerative disc disease with the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis.  

PubMed

This study examined effect of a new intervertebral cervical disc prosthesis in relieving the neurological symptoms and signs, improving the patients' ability to perform daily activities, reducing pain, and maintaining the stability and segmental motion. From December 2003 to October 2004, 12 patients, who had received 14 replacements of cervical artificial discs, were followed-up for 2 to 8 months (with a mean of 5.2 months). Of them 5 had cervical spondylotic myelopathy and 7 had cervical disc herniation. The patients included 7 males and 5 females, with their age ranging from 35 to 62 y and a mean of 50.3 y. Single-level replacements were performed in 10 cases and 2 cases received two-level replacement. Operation time of the single-level surgery averaged 130+/-50 min and the time of two-level surgery was 165+/-53 min on average (from skin incision to skin suturing). Neurological or vascular complications during or after surgery was not observed. Japanese Orthopedic Association scores (JOA scores) increased from 8.6 to 15.8 on average. There was no prothesis subsidence or excursion. Replaced segments were stable and the range of motion was partially restored, being 4.68 degrees (3.6 degrees -6.1 degrees ) in flexion and extension position and 3.51 degrees (2.5 degrees -4.6 degrees ), 3.42 degrees (2.6 degrees -4.3 degrees ) in left and right bending position. No obvious loss of physiological curvature was noted. CT or MRI follow-up showed that excursion was less than 1.5 mm) in 2 of 14 levels and between 1.5 mm and 3 mm) in 1 of 14 levels. No ossification in the replaced levels was observed. It is concluded that satisfactory short-term results were achieved in the 12 cases of artificial disc replacements. Different from anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, the replacement could achieve quick functional recovery and did not lead to the movement limitation of cervical vertebrae. At least a 5-years follow-up was needed to assess the long-term effect of the prosthesis on its neighboring segments. PMID:17497290

Yang, Shuhua; Hu, Yong; Zhao, Jijun; He, Xianfeng; Liu, Yong; Xu, Weihua; Du, Jingyuan; Fu, Dehao

2007-04-01

68

Case of sensory ataxic ganglionopathy-myelopathy in copper deficiency.  

PubMed

Spinal cord involvement associated with severe copper deficiency has been reported in the last 8 years. Copper deficiency may produce an ataxic myelopathy. Clinical and neuroimaging findings are similar to the subacute combined degeneration seen in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency. Macrocytic, normocytic and microcytic anemia, leukopenia and, in severe cases, pancytopenia are well known hematologic manifestations. The most patients with copper deficiency myelopathy had unrecognized carency. Some authors suggested that early recognition and copper supplementation may prevent neurologic deterioration but clinical findings do not improve. We present a patient with copper deficiency, dorsal root ganglions and cervical dorsal columns involvement. Clinical status and neuroimaging improved after copper replacement therapy. Sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia may be the most sensitive nervous pathway. In this case the early copper treatment allowed to improve neurologic lesions and to prevent further involvements. PMID:19022461

Zara, Gabriella; Grassivaro, Francesca; Brocadello, Filippo; Manara, Renzo; Pesenti, Francesco Francini

2009-02-15

69

Oblique Corpectomy to Manage Cervical Myeloradiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background. The authors describe a lateral approach to the cervical spine for the management of spondylotic myeloradiculopathy. The rationale for this approach and surgical technique are discussed, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, complications, and pitfalls based on the author's experience over the last two decades. Methods. Spondylotic myelo-radiculopathy may be treated via a lateral approach to the cervical spine when there is predominant anterior compression associated with either spine straightening or kyphosis, but without vertebral instability. Results. By using a lateral approach, the lateral aspect of the cervical spine and the vertebral artery are easily reached and visualized. Furthermore, the lateral part of the affected intervertebral disc(s), uncovertebral joint(s), vertebral body(ies), and posterior longitudinal ligament can be removed as needed to decompress nerve root(s) and/or the spinal cord. Conclusion. Multilevel cervical oblique corpectomy and/or lateral foraminotomy allow wide decompression of nervous structures, while maintaining optimal stability and physiological motion of the cervical spine. PMID:22028964

Salvatore, Chibbaro; Orphee, Makiese; Damien, Bresson; Alisha, Reiss; Pavel, Poczos; Bernard, George

2011-01-01

70

Expansive open-door laminoplasty secured with titanium miniplates is a good surgical method for multiple-level cervical stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Laminoplasty is an effective procedure for treating cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Little information is available regarding the surgical outcomes of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) when securing with titanium miniplates without bone grafting. This study is aimed to elucidate the efficacy of and problems associated with EOLP secured with titanium miniplates without bone grafting, thereby enhancing future surgical outcomes. Methods This is a retrospective study. The study participants comprised 104 patients who underwent cervical EOLP secured with titanium miniplates without bone graft for CSM treatment between August 2005 and March 2011. The clinical results were evaluated based on the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) and Nurick scores. The radiographic outcomes were determined based on plain film and magnetic resonance imaging findings, which were assessed and compared. Results Lateral cervical spine X-rays exhibited improvement in the Pavlov ratio of the spinal canal at 1 day postoperation, and this ratio did not change at 1 year postoperation. The mean cervical curvature from C2 to C7 decreased 0.21°?±?10.09° and the mean cervical range of motion was deteriorated by 35% at 12 months (P?

2014-01-01

71

Cervical myelo-radiculopathy in athetoid cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical myelopathy complicating athetoid cerebral palsy has not been adequately highlighted in the literature. We report two cases of patients with athetoid cerebral palsy and long histories of involuntary movements who developed cervical myelo-radiculopathy. Dystonic athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result

Y. Mikawa; R. Watanabe; J. Shikata

1997-01-01

72

Cervical spine involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: correlation between neurological manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the correlation between neurological deficits indicative of compressive myelopathy and MRI findings in a series of patients with RA and symptomatic involvement of the cervical spine. Methods. Forty-one consecutive patients with RA were studied using cervical spine MRI. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify MRI parameters of cervical spine involvement associated with the development of

J. A. Narvaez; M. Serrallonga; E. De Lama; M. de Albert; R. Mast; J. M. Nolla

2008-01-01

73

Vitamin B12 extensive thoracic myelopathy: clinical, radiological and prognostic aspects. Two cases report and literature review.  

PubMed

The myelopathy caused by vitamin B12 deficiency is known as subacute combined degeneration. It is rare, but a well known cause of demyelination of the dorsal columns of the spinal cord. The magnetic resonance imaging is characterized by an increased signal on T2-weighted images involving the posterior columns of cervical and thoracic cord. There have been few cases in literature with extensive lesions (more than seven levels) of the thoracic spinal cord. The clinical and radiological improvements are possible if the replacement of vitamin B12 is initiated precocious. We present two rare cases of extensive thoracic myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. The first is a young woman with complete clinical recovery and important radiologic improvement after early treatment. In addition, the second case is an older man with partial response to the treatment. Those cases illustrate the importance of considering vitamin B12 deficiency in any patient, who presents with myelopathy. PMID:23468407

de Medeiros, Frederico Carvalho; de Albuquerque, Lucas Alverne Freitas; de Souza, Renata Brant; Gomes Neto, Antonio Pereira; Christo, Paulo Pereira

2013-10-01

74

Phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H becomes elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acutely worsening symptoms of compression myelopathy.  

PubMed

It is known that the severity of compression myelopathy sometimes worsens rapidly and results in poor functional recovery because of limited axonal regeneration. Levels of phosphorylated neurofilament subunit NF-H (pNF-H), which indicate axonal degeneration, are elevated in other neurological disorders. To our knowledge, there has been no examination of pNF-H levels in compression myelopathy. Therefore, we conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to evaluate pNF-H levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with worsening symptoms of cervical compression myelopathy. From January 2011 to March 2013, 51 samples of CSF were collected from patients at the time of myelography before spinal surgery. The indications for surgery were acutely worsening compression myelopathy (AM) in eight, chronic compression myelopathy (CM) in six, and lumbar canal stenosis (LCS) in 37 patients. The pNF-H levels were measured using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean±standard deviation pNF-H value was 2127.1±556.8pg/ml in AM patients, 175.8±67.38pg/ml in CM patients and 518.7±665.7pg/ml in LCS patients. A significant increase in pNF-H levels was detected in the CSF of patients with AM compared with those with either CM or LCS. The clinical outcome of surgical treatment for patients with cervical myelopathy was satisfactory in both AM and CM patients. Despite the limitations of small sample size and lack of healthy CSF control data due to ethical considerations, our results suggest that pNF-H in CSF can act as a biomarker that reflects the severity of AM. PMID:25065845

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakajima, Arata; Sonobe, Masato; Terajima, Fumiaki; Saito, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yamada, Manabu; Watanabe, Fusako; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao; Yamazaki, Masashi; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Nakagawa, Koichi

2014-12-01

75

Is cervical decompression beneficial in patients with coexistent cervical stenosis and multiple sclerosis?  

PubMed

Cervical stenosis (CS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are two common conditions with distinctive pathophysiology but overlapping clinical manifestations. The uncertainty involved in attributing worsening symptoms to CS in patients with MS due to extremely high prevalence of asymptomatic radiological CS makes treatment decisions challenging. A retrospective review was performed analyzing the medical records of all patients with confirmed diagnosis of MS who had coexistent CS and underwent surgery for cervical radiculopathy/myeloradiculopathy. Eighteen patients with coexistent CS and MS who had undergone cervical spine decompression and fusion were identified. There were six men and 12 women with an average age of 52.7years (range 40-72years). Pre-operative symptoms included progressive myelopathy (14 patients), neck pain (seven patients), radiculopathy (five patients), and bladder dysfunction (seven patients). Thirteen of the 14 patients (92.9%) with myelopathy showed either improvement (4/14, 28.6%) or stabilization (9/14, 64.3%) in their symptoms with neck pain and radiculopathy improving in 100% and 80% of patients, respectively. None of the seven patients with urinary dysfunction had improvement in urinary symptoms after surgery. To conclude, cervical spine decompression and fusion can improve or stabilize myelopathy, and significantly relieve neck pain and radiculopathy in the majority of patients with coexistent CS and MS. Urinary dysfunctions appear unlikely to improve after surgery. The low rate of surgical complications in our cohort demonstrates that cervical spine surgery can be safely performed in carefully selected patients with concomitant CS and MS with a good clinical outcome and also eliminate CS as a confounding factor in the long-term management of MS patients. PMID:25088960

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Muth, Christopher C; Stefoski, Dusan; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-12-01

76

Cervical Dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

What is cervical dysplasia? Cervical dysplasia is abnormal cell growth on the surface lining of the cervix. With proper follow-up and treatment, ... cancer. Who is most likely to have cervical dysplasia? Although cervical dysplasia is most common in women ...

77

Adjacent segment disease after cervical spine fusion.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion is one of the most common cervical spine procedures. Although it is usually successful in relieving the symptoms of radiculopathy and myelopathy, the subsequent development of clinically significant disk disease at levels adjacent to the fusion is a matter of concern. Adjacent segment cervical disease occurs in approximately 3% of patients; the incidence is expected to increase to more than 25% of patients within the first 10 years after the index fusion procedure. The disease is well described in the literature, and significant basic science and clinical research has been conducted. Nonetheless, the cause of the disease is a matter of debate. A combination of factors probably contributes to its development, including the increased biomechanical stress placed on the disk space adjacent to a fusion and the natural history of cervical spondylosis in patients known to have such pathology. Clinical and biomechanical data are available to support each of these claims. Symptomatic disk disease adjacent to a cervical fusion is a significant clinical problem, and, therefore, motion-sparing technology has been developed to reduce its incidence. Two cervical disk replacement systems are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of symptomatic cervical spondylosis. PMID:19385583

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Lawrence, James; Gates, Charley; Harris, Eric; Hilibrand, Alan S

2009-01-01

78

Cervical cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer - cervix ... Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. It is much less common in the United ... of the routine use of Pap smears . Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of ...

79

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

80

Cervical dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix . The cervix is the ... Cervical dysplasia can develop at any age, but is most often seen in women ages 25 to 35. Most ...

81

Methotrexate-induced myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.  

PubMed

Methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist, is widely used to treat hematological malignancies. Although it is known to cause myelopathy, little is known about the pathophysiology and natural history of this myelopathy. We describe a 42-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was treated with chemotherapy consisting of intrathecal MTX who developed a progressive myelopathy. The myelopathy mimicked, radiologically, subacute combined degeneration (SACD) of the spinal cord. This myelopathy mimicking SACD could be explained by the folate antagonism of MTX. The progressive clinical signs and serial MRI in this patient further our understanding of the natural progression of this myelopathy. PMID:23647709

Gosavi, Tushar; Diong, Colin Phipps; Lim, Shih-Hui

2013-07-01

82

Percutaneous stenting of interrupted aortic arch to treat compressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

Neurological complications of coarctation of aorta include spontaneous SAH, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral abscess. Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) present as compressive myelopathy is not known. We describe an adult male presenting to neurology department with progressive paraparesis and was detected to have IAA with intraspinal collaterals causing compressive myelopathy. He was successfully treated with percutaneous stenting of IAA with dramatic improvement in paraparesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24458503

Moorthy, Nagaraja; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Nanjappa, Manjunath C

2014-11-01

83

Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the tissues of the cervix. The Cancer Genome Atlas is studying the two main types of cervical cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the thin, flat, squamous cells that line the vagina. Adenocarcinoma arises in the glandular cells in the vagina that secrete mucus. Risk factors for cervical cancer include smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the future, the HPV vaccine will lower the infection rate.

84

The use of flexion-extension magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating signal intensity changes of the cervical spinal cord.  

PubMed

The authors present 2 cases involving patients who presented with myelopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine showed spinal cord signal changes on T2-weighted images without any spinal cord compression. Flexion-extension plain radiographs of the spine showed no instability. Dynamic MR imaging of the cervical spine, however, showed spinal cord compression on extension. Compression of the spinal cord was caused by dynamic anulus bulging and ligamentum flavum buckling. This report emphasizes the need for dynamic MR imaging of the cervical spine for evaluating spinal cord changes on neutral position MR imaging before further workup for other causes such as demyelinating disease. PMID:19441996

Guppy, Kern H; Hawk, Mark; Chakrabarti, Indro; Banerjee, Amit

2009-04-01

85

Cervical Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... The most common subtype of cervical cancer, called squamous cell carcinoma, arises from the surface lining of the ectocervix, ... successful at decreasing the number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, it has not yet been ...

86

Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is estimated that by the end of 1999 in the United States, 12,800 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed\\u000a and that 4800 women will die. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women and the leading cause\\u000a of death in many non-industrialized nations (Parkin, 1998). As is true generally for cancer, the burden

Colleen M. McBride; Delia Scholes

87

Design of Lamifuse: a randomised, multi-centre controlled trial comparing laminectomy without or with dorsal fusion for cervical myeloradiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background laminectomy is a valuable surgical treatment for some patients with a cervical radiculomyelopathy due to cervical spinal stenosis. More recently attention has been given to motion of the spinal cord over spondylotic spurs as a cause of myelopathic changes. Immobilisation by fusion could have a positive effect on the recovery of myelopathic signs or changes. This has never been investigated in a prospective, randomised trial. Lamifuse is an acronyme for laminectomy and fusion. Methods/Design Lamifuse is a multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing laminectomy with and without fusion in patients with a symptomatic cervical canal stenosis. The study population will be enrolled from patients that are 60 years or older with myelopathic signs and/or symptoms due to a cervical canal stenosis. A kyphotis shape of the cervical spine is an exclusion criterium. Each treatment arm needs 30 patients. Discussion This study will contribute to the discussion whether additional fusion after a cervical laminectomy results in a better clinical outcome. ISRCT number ISRCTN72800446 PMID:17996094

Bartels, Ronald HMA; Verbeek, Andre LM; Grotenhuis, J Andre

2007-01-01

88

Does diffusion tensor data reflect pathological changes in the spinal cord with chronic injury  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging has been shown to quantitatively measure the early pathological changes in chronic cervical spondylotic myelopathy. In this study, a novel spongy polyurethane material was implanted in the rat C3–5 epidural space to establish a rat model of chronic cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Diffusion tensor data were used to predict pathological changes. Results revealed that the fractional anisotropy value gradually decreased at 4, 24, and 72 hours and 1 week after injury in rat spinal cord, showing a time-dependent manner. Average diffusion coefficient increased at 72 hours and 1 week after implantation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and Luxol-fast-blue staining exhibited that the number of neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord gray matter and the nerve fiber density of the white matter gradually reduced with prolonged compression time. Neuronal loss was most significant at 1 week after injury. Results verified that the fractional anisotropy value and average diffusion coefficient reflected the degree of pathological change in the site of compression in rat models at various time points after chronic spinal cord compression injury, which potentially has a reference value in the early diagnosis of chronic cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

Lin, Erjian; Long, Houqing; Li, Guangsheng; Lei, Wanlong

2013-01-01

89

[Surgical treatment of degenerative cervical spine diseases: analyses of 90 patients clinical study].  

PubMed

The effect of degenerative cervical spine surgery depends on good understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical course of disease with a detailed neurological and neuroradiological examination. Surgical approach should be considered separately for each pathological substrate in order to avoid additional morbidity. The aim of our study is to present the results of treatment through analysis of large clinical series focusing on anterior surgical approach with iliac crest graft fusion without cervical plating. The retrospective analysis of 90 patients operated on Neurosurgery of CHC Zemun, from 2008 to 2011, was done. In 81 patients cervical disc herniation was found in one or two levels, and 9 patients had spinal canal stenosis with polydiscopathy. Preoperatively 50 patients had cervical myelopathy, and 40 patients had radiculopathy as dominating clinical sign. Anterior cervical approach was performed in 79 patients, and 11 patients were operated by posterior approach. The treatment outcome was as follows: good outcome 16 (16.8%) patients, improved condition 65 (72.2%), without improvement 6 (6.7%), bad outcome 3 (4.3%). The anterior cervical approach with iliac crest autologous graft fusion, and without additional cervical plating, is reliable treatment option with results comparable to reported clinical series with sintetic graft placement and anterior cervical plate stabilisation. PMID:23654008

Markovi?, M; Zivkovi?, N; Stojanovi?, D; Samardzi?, M

2012-01-01

90

Hypothesis on the pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy, dementia, and peripheral neuropathy in AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain aspects of the clinical syndrome of dementia, cerebral atrophy, predominantly sensory neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS resemble those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Pathologically, there are similarities not only in the changes in the spinal cord, but also in the brain and peripheral nerves. The pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy may be secondary to a combination of immune mediated

S V Tan; R J Guiloff

1998-01-01

91

Cervical dysplasia - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the ... This procedure is performed for more advanced cervical dysplasia, which remains limited to the cervix (cervical intraepithelial ...

92

[Late progressive radiation myelopathies. A study of 27 cases].  

PubMed

Several conclusions seem evident from this study : firstly radiation myelopathies exist without any doubt; secondly clinical observation, even very attentive, during irradiation is perfectly blind regarding this subject; lastly, one can only, at this time, attempt to anticipate medullary accidents caused by irradiation. Radiation myelopathies exist incontestably. We report 27 new cases which are added to the more than 500 cases already analysed in the world litterature. The improvement of results of cancerology and in particular of radiotherapy make and will continue to make the number of observations published increase. However, if there is no doubt as to existence of these myelopathies, discussions persist concerning their nature : purely vascular, cytotoxic, probably mixed, perhaps maintained and prolonged by a superimposed immunologic phenomenon. Prevention is the sole method at our disposal to be effective. It must be applied as much to the patient as to the technique of irradiation. With regard to the patient treated in a medullary volume, several factors are probably favorable to the development of myelopathy and must cause one to modify eventually the technique of radiation proposed : the existence of anterior vertebral medullary pathology, whatever its nature; two ages demonstrate increased incidences : the young which have relative immaturity of tissue (we report 4 cases patients less than 25 years old), and the old, whose chances of accumulating associated pathologies are great, especially as systemic hypertension and arteriosclerosis are likely to have played a favorable role; the patients for whom restraint is difficult or who present disrupted regions anatomy are qually much more fragile. With regard to the technical plan, several factors incontestably favor the appearance of radiation myelopathy : large medullary volumes irradiated, especially when they encompass the zones of vascular medullary junction; the overlap of fields involving the spinal cord; the reduction of fields too close to the spinal cord not allowing at least 1 cm margin of relative security; the association of physical agents in the measure to which the global dosimetry is uncertain, i.e. in particular the use of high energy electrons for boost dosage, the intensity of which must be chosen with the greatest prudence; finally and most importantly, it seems desirable to us not to surpass at the level of the spinal cord, treating 5 times per week, a dose of 5 000 rads with fractions of 200 rads of 4 500 rads with fractions of 250 rads, and of 4 000 rads with fractions of 300 rads. Can one reasonable pretend always to foresee all radiation myelopathies? No, for on the one hand there exist authentic cases which have occured after doses which were below the limits of tolerance which we have indicated above, in accordance with others authors, and on the other hand, the necessity of sterilising certain inoperable tumors obliges one sometimes to deliver to region of the spinal cord aggressive doses. PMID:815547

Combes, P F; Daly, N; Schlienger, M; Humeau, F

1975-11-01

93

Degenerative myelopathy in a family of Siberian Husky dogs.  

PubMed

Three closely related, Siberian Husky dogs had chronic progressive paresis and ataxia with muscle atrophy in the hindlimbs. Radiologic and myelographic examination of the spine revealed no abnormalities. On histologic examination, disseminated degeneration of the white matter, particularly in the thoracic segments, was seen. The clinical and pathological findings were similar to those described in aging large dogs with so-called degenerative myelopathy. The cause of this disease is unknown but the fact that these 3 Huskies were closely related suggest that hereditary factors may play a role. PMID:12002594

Bichsel, P; Vandevelde, M; Lang, J; Kull-Hächler, S

1983-11-01

94

Esophageal perforation following cervical spine surgery: A review with considerations in airway management  

PubMed Central

Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a commonly performed surgery for the treatment of spondylosis, radiculopathy, myelopathy, and trauma to the cervical spine. Esophageal perforation is a rare yet serious complication following ACDF with an incidence of 0.02 to 1.52%. We describe a case of a 24-year-old man who underwent ACDF and corpectomy following a motor vehicle accident who subsequently developed delayed onset esophageal perforation requiring surgical intervention. We believe that the detailed review of the surgical management of esophageal perforation following cervical spine surgery will provide a deeper understanding for the Intensivist in regards to postoperative airway management in these types of patients. Careful extubation over a soft flexible exchange catheter should take place to help reduce the risk of perforation in the event reintubation is required. PMID:24459627

Amhaz, Hassan H; Kuo, Ruth; Vaidya, Rahul; Orlewicz, Marc S

2013-01-01

95

Transmandibular approach for upper cervical pathologies: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

In routine surgical practice, anterior approaches are not often used to treat upper cervical pathologies. Such lesions can be difficult to access surgically. This article describes 2 cases in which the transmandibular approach was used to address anterior upper cervical pathology. One case was a chordoma invading the C2-C3 vertebrae and the other case was atlanto-axial instability. Neurological examination revealed myelopathy in both cases. Each patient had already undergone occipito-cervical fusion at a different center and, thus, had limited neck extension and mouth-opening ability. In the first case, the tumor was totally excised. In the second, the dens was removed. We believe that the transmandibular approach is the best option for patients with limited neck mobility and restricted mouth-opening ability. PMID:18814117

Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Gerçek, Arzu; Celebiler, Ozhan; Pamir, M Necmettin

2008-07-01

96

Two spinal cord lesions in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis and cervical spine injury.  

PubMed

A patient with ankylosing spondylitis sustained C3-C4 vertebral subluxation and C4-C5 myelopathy after a hyperextension trauma. Autopsy showed that several segments below the main cervical cord lesion at the fractured site, there was a second spinal cord lesion at the T1 vertebral level with no corresponding local bony or ligamentous damage. The thoracic cord lesion was probably secondary to traction of the upper thoracic cord, where the blood supply is poor, in a narrow and rigid spinal canal at the moment of extreme hyperextension. PMID:6681663

Foo, D; Bignami, A; Rossier, A B

1983-02-01

97

ICSN - Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Cervical

98

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

99

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... have a history of moderate or severe cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer and if you have had ... under magnification with an instrument called a colposcope. Dysplasia: A noncancerous condition that occurs when normal cells ...

100

Cervical Cancer Facts  

E-print Network

What is cervical cancer? Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even if it spreads to other body parts later. When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. The cervix connects the vagina (the birth canal) to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus (or the womb) is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. Cervical cancer is preventable with regular screening tests and followup. It also is highly curable when found and treated early. Although cervical cancer occurs most often in women over age 30, all women are at risk for cervical cancer. Each year approximately 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 4,000 women die from the disease. 1 Cervical cancer is the easiest

unknown authors

101

Vaccines against cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are a major threat to women's health worldwide. Although the introduction of screening tests to detect cervical cancer and its precursor lesions has reduced overall cervical cancer rates in the developed world, the approach was largely unsuccessful for developing countries, primarily due to a lack of appropriate infrastructures and high costs. Annually, 470,000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, of which 80% occur in developing countries. Despite advances in treatment of cervical cancer, approximately half of the women afflicted with the disease will die. Over 20 years of dedicated research has provided conclusive evidence that a subset of human papillomaviruses are the aetiological agents for cervical cancer. Finding a viral origin for this disease provided the basis to fight cervical cancer using prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination. Both vaccine approaches are reviewed here, with an emphasis on recent clinical data. PMID:15500408

Jansen, Kathrin U

2004-11-01

102

ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-06-16

103

Radiation myelopathy of the thoracic spinal cord in long term survivors treated with radical radiotherapy using conventional fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous reports on radiation myelopathy of the thoracic spinal cord have attempted to predict tolerance doses as a function of overall treatment time and number of fractions by extrapolation of data from collected myelopathy cases having markedly heterogeneous treatment parameters. A review of long term survivors receiving radical radiotherapy with conventional fractionation for lung and esophageal cancer was undertaken to

Peter M. Lambert

1978-01-01

104

[A case of Sjögren syndrome with subacute combined degeneration-like posterior column lesion on cervical MRI].  

PubMed

We report a case of a 67 year-old man with bilateral sensory ataxia of the upper extremities. He was diagnosed as having ANCA-related angitis and Sjögren syndrome at age 60. On admission to our hospital at age 67, he presented with severe sensory ataxia in his upper extremities, while his lower extremity neurological symptoms were limited to the absence of tendon reflexes. Cervical MRI showed an increased T2 signal intensity in an area limited to the bilateral cuneate fasciculus. Serum levels of vitamin B12 and folic acid were normal. Plasma homocysteine, serum and urine methylmalonic acid were also normal. Eight-week intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 did not improve either his disorder or the MRI findings. His sensory ataxia might be attributed to Sjögren syndrome-associated ganglionopathy at the cervical level, and the MRI findings might reflect centripetal Wallerian degeneration in the cuneate fasciculus. Gracilis fasciculus are well-known as vulnerable regions in Sjögren-associated myelopathy, whereas cervical myelopathy, limited to cuneate fascicules, can emerge as Sjögren-associated disorders. PMID:22849991

Hongo, Yu; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Takeshima, Shinichi; Kamakura, Keiko; Kaida, Ken-Ichi

2012-01-01

105

Regorafenib-induced transverse myelopathy after stereotactic body radiation therapy  

PubMed Central

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) delivers large doses of radiation with great accuracy, but is known to have deleterious effects on the vascular compartment of irradiated tissues. Combining SBRT with targeted anti-angiogenesis agents, while able to increase therapeutic efficacy, may unexpectedly precipitate vascular-based toxicities. In this report, we describe a patient with colon cancer who developed transverse myelopathy from regorafenib 2 years after receiving SBRT for three metastatic liver lesions. Regorafenib (Stivarga), formerly BAY 73-4506, (Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Montville, NJ) is a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor with anti-angiogenic effects used in metastatic colon cancer. Its most common side effects are fatigue, diarrhea and hypertension. However, severe neurologic toxicity has not been previously recognized. Here, we illustrate a case in which the patient developed hyperalgesia and radicular pain 2 weeks after starting regorafenib. Several studies report an increased neurological toxicity when angiogenesis inhibitors are given after radiation therapy, and we postulate that the angioinhibitory effects of regorafenib accelerated subclinical microvascular injury from SBRT. This unexpected toxicity may be clinically relevant when giving targeted angiogenesis inhibitors after SBRT.

Tian, Sibo; Nissenblatt, Michael

2014-01-01

106

Cervical surgery for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: One spine surgeon's perspective  

PubMed Central

Background: The selection, neurodiagnostic evaluation, and surgical management of patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) remain controversial. Whether for prophylaxis or treatment, the decision to perform anterior vs. posterior vs. circumferential cervical OPLL surgery is complex. MR and CT Documentation of OPLL: Together, MR and CT cervical studies best document the full extent of OPLL. While MR provides the optimal soft-tissue overview (e.g. hyperintense signals reflecting edema/myelomalacia in the cord), CT's directly demonstrate the ossification of OPLL often “missed” by MR (e.g. documents the single or double layer signs of dural penetration. Patient Selection: Patients with mild myelopathy/cord compression rarely require surgery, while those with moderate/severe myelopathy/cord compression often warrant anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Operative Approaches: Anterior corpectomies/fusions, warranted in patients with OPLL and kyphosis/loss of lordosis, also increase the risks of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks (e.g. single/double layer sign), and vascular injuries (e.g. carotid, vertebral). Alternatively, with an adequate lordosis, posterior procedures (e.g. often with fusions), may provide adequate multilevel decompression while minimizing risk of anterior surgery. Occasionally, combined pathologies may warrant circumferential approaches. Anesthetic and Intraoperative Monitoring Protocols: The utility of awake nasotracheal fiberoptic intubation/awake positioning, intraoperative somatosensory/motor evoked potential, and electromyographic monitoring, and the requirement for total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) for OPLL surgery is also discussed. Conclusion: Anterior, posterior, or circumferential surgery may be warranted to treat patients with cervical OPLL, and must be based on careful patient selection, and both MR and CT documentation of the full extent of OPLL. PMID:24843818

Epstein, Nancy E.

2014-01-01

107

Diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed

This review of the differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis focuses on two themes. The first is practical, how to establish the diagnosis based primarily on clinical findings buttressed by electrodiagnosis. The main considerations are multifocal motor neuropathy and cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The second theme is the relationship of motor neuron disease to other conditions, including benign fasciculation (Denny-Brown, Foley syndrome), paraneoplastic syndromes, lymphoproliferative disease, radiation damage, monomelic amyotrophy (Hirayama syndrome), as well as an association with parkinsonism, dementia and multisystem disorders of the central nervous system. PMID:9851643

Rowland, L P

1998-10-01

108

[Cervical face lift].  

PubMed

In the context of cervical facelift, classical techniques, constituting the basis for current techniques or still in use, are described in terms of the incisions, detachments and treatment of the deep adipose, muscular and glandular planes. The author then describes the technique commonly used in modern cervical restructuration before describing the possible complications and defects. PMID:7771748

Thion, A

1994-10-01

109

Cervical Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of cervical cancer. Long-term use of oral contraceptives Women who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 years or more have ... cervical cancer than women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is higher after 10 years of ...

110

EMBARAZO ECTÓPICO CERVICAL: DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO CONSERVADOR CON CERCLAJE CERVICAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We describe the cervical cerclage as an alternative of conservative treatment in the cervical ectopic pregnancy. Two cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy are described. Both cases corresponded to gestations smaller than seven weeks, diagnosis was done by means of transvaginal ultrasound. The cases were initially treated medically, but both patients presented severe bleeding during their evolution and cervical cerclage

2005-01-01

111

Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

2014-09-22

112

Lateral and dorsal column hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging in a patient with myelopathy associated with intrathecal chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-related myelopathy mimicking subacute combined degeneration (SCD) has rarely been reported. We encountered a 35-year-old female with sensory ataxia after intrathecal chemotherapy. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging showed localized abnormal signal areas in the lateral and dorsal white matter, mimicking SCD. Diffusion imaging showed restricted water diffusion and increased microstructural complexity, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed increased levels of myelin basic proteins, indicating demyelinating myelopathy. Advanced diffusion imaging can provide more information on the microstructure of chemotherapy-related myelopathy. PMID:23874296

Saito, Fumine; Hatano, Taku; Hori, Masaaki; Kawamura, Miwako; Sasaki, Makoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Hattori, Nobutaka

2013-05-01

113

Idiopathic Ventral Spinal Cord Herniation: An Increasingly Recognized Cause of Thoracic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), where a segment of the spinal cord has herniated through a ventral defect in the dura, is a rarely encountered cause of thoracic myelopathy. The purpose of our study was to increase the clinical awareness of this condition by presenting our experience with seven consecutive cases treated in our department since 2005. All the patients developed pronounced spastic paraparesis or Brown-Séquard syndrome for several years (mean, 4.7 years) prior to diagnosis. MRI was consistent with a transdural spinal cord herniation in the mid-thoracic region in all the cases. The patients underwent surgical reduction of the herniated spinal cord and closure of the dural defect using an artificial dural patch. At follow-up, three patients experienced considerable clinical improvement, one had slight improvement, one had transient improvement, and two were unchanged. Two of the four patients with sphincter dysfunction regained sphincter control. MRI showed realignment of the spinal cord in all the patients. ISCH is probably a more common cause of thoracic myelopathy than previously recognized. The patients usually develop progressive myelopathy for several years before the correct diagnosis is made. Early diagnosis is important in order to treat the patients before the myelopathy has become advanced. PMID:25336997

Berg-Johnsen, Jon; Ilstad, Eivind; Kolstad, Frode; Zuchner, Mark; Sundseth, Jarle

2014-01-01

114

Vacuolar myelopathy with multinucleated giant cells in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuolar myelopathy (VM) is a frequent neurological complication of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). A suspected connection between VM and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been based only on HIV isolation from affected spinal cord tissue. We report here an AIDS patient dying after 14 months of progressive dementia, including 3 months of spinal signs and symptoms. At autopsy,

H. Maier; H. Budka; H. Lassmann; P. Pohl

1989-01-01

115

Cervical cancer...159 Chapter 14  

E-print Network

NICR/NCRI Cervical cancer...159 Chapter 14: Cervical cancer (C53) KEY FINDINGS - INCIDENCE diagnosed with cervical cancer during 1994-2004. - NORTH/SOUTH COMPARISONS o Incidence rates during 2000 1994-2004: A comprehensive report 160...Cervical cancer 14.1: Incidence During 2000-2004 there were

Paxton, Anthony T.

116

Lhermitte's sign in alcoholic myelopathy without portosystemic shunting: MRI evaluation.  

PubMed

We conducted spinal MR imaging on a 35-year-old man with Lhermitte's sign that had manifested over the previous 4 years. He had consumed more than 500 ml of whisky daily for at least 10 years. However, he did not show any evidence of severe liver disease with hepato-systemic blood shunting. Neurologic examination revealed markedly depressed sense of vibration in the feet and mild spasticity in the lower limbs, together with Lhermitte's sign. MR imaging revealed abnormal signal intensity in the posterior column spanning the whole length of the upper cervical cord, which is consistent with Lhermitte's sign. PMID:15750278

Imai, Tomihiro; Tsuda, Emiko; Suzuki, Mikiya; Hozuki, Takayoshi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

2005-02-01

117

Severity score system for progressive myelopathy: development and validation of a new clinical scale  

PubMed Central

Progressive myelopathies can be secondary to inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) such as mucopolysaccharidosis, mucolipidosis, and adrenomyeloneuropathy. The available scale, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, was validated only for degenerative vertebral diseases. Our objective is to propose and validate a new scale addressing progressive myelopathies and to present validating data for JOA in these diseases. A new scale, Severity Score System for Progressive Myelopathy (SSPROM), was constructed covering motor disability, sphincter dysfunction, spasticity, and sensory losses. Inter-and intra-rater reliabilities were measured. External validation was tested by applying JOA, the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), the Barthel index, and the Osame Motor Disability Score. Thirty-eight patients, 17 with adrenomyeloneuropathy, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis I, 3 with mucopolysaccharidosis IV, 2 with mucopolysaccharidosis VI, 2 with mucolipidosis, and 11 with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy participated in the study. The mean ± SD SSPROM and JOA scores were 74.6 ± 11.4 and 12.4 ± 2.3, respectively. Construct validity for SSPROM (JOA: r = 0.84, P < 0.0001; EDSS: r = ?0.83, P < 0.0001; Barthel: r = 0.56, P < 0.002; Osame: r = ?0.94, P < 0.0001) and reliability (intra-rater: r = 0.83, P < 0.0001; inter-rater: r = 0.94, P < 0.0001) were demonstrated. The metric properties of JOA were similar to those found in SSPROM. Several clinimetric requirements were met for both SSPROM and JOA scales. Since SSPROM has a wider range, it should be useful for follow-up studies on IEM myelopathies. PMID:22570090

Castilhos, R.M.; Blank, D.; Netto, C.B.O.; Souza, C.F.M.; Fernandes, L.N.T.; Schwartz, I.V.D.; Giugliani, R.; Jardim, L.B.

2012-01-01

118

Revision cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

Principles of revision cervical spine surgery are based on adequate decompression of neural elements and mechanical stability via appropriate selection of surgical approach and constructs producing long-term stability with arthrodesis. When planning revision surgery, the surgeon must consider the cause of the underlying problem (eg, biological, mechanical), the potential for complications, and clinical outcomes that can reasonably be expected. This information should be clearly explained to the patient during the informed consent process. This article provides the spine care provider with an understanding of how to appropriately evaluate and manage the most common cervical conditions that require revision cervical spine surgery. PMID:22082635

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Harrod, Chambliss; Albert, Todd J

2012-01-01

119

Seropositive Neuromyelitis Optica imitating an Intramedullary Cervical Spinal Cord Tumor: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old woman with progressive cervical myelopathy and central cord syndrome was noted to have an extensive cervical intramedullary contrast-enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion resembled a spinal astrocytoma or ependymoma that required surgical intervention. She was subsequently diagnosed to have neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a rare idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder, when the clinical examination revealed left optic atrophy. This was confirmed by a test showing seropositivity for NMO-immunoglobulin (IgG). Disease control was achieved with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. We report a rare case of a patient with NMO who had MRI features that could have easily led to the condition being misdiagnosed as a spinal cord tumor. The importance of careful history taking, awareness of typical radiological findings and the usefulness of serum NMO-IgG as a diagnostic tool are emphasized.

Chiu, Jennifer Hiu-Fung; Leung, Kar-Ming; Chan, Kwong-Yau

2014-01-01

120

Seropositive Neuromyelitis Optica imitating an Intramedullary Cervical Spinal Cord Tumor: Case Report and Brief Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman with progressive cervical myelopathy and central cord syndrome was noted to have an extensive cervical intramedullary contrast-enhancing lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesion resembled a spinal astrocytoma or ependymoma that required surgical intervention. She was subsequently diagnosed to have neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a rare idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorder, when the clinical examination revealed left optic atrophy. This was confirmed by a test showing seropositivity for NMO-immunoglobulin (IgG). Disease control was achieved with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. We report a rare case of a patient with NMO who had MRI features that could have easily led to the condition being misdiagnosed as a spinal cord tumor. The importance of careful history taking, awareness of typical radiological findings and the usefulness of serum NMO-IgG as a diagnostic tool are emphasized. PMID:25346824

Woo, Peter Yat-Ming; Chiu, Jennifer Hiu-Fung; Leung, Kar-Ming; Chan, Kwong-Yau

2014-10-01

121

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of ... returning for follow-up appointments, and to Stop Smoking! Copyright © 2003, 2008 American Society for Colposcopy and ...

122

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

123

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

124

Cervical Cancer Participation Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

125

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

126

Cervical Cancer Stage IB  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IB View/Download: Small: ... Added: 4/23/2012 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

127

Cervical Cancer Stage IVB  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVB View/Download: Small: ... Added: 4/23/2012 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

128

Cervical Cancer Stage IA  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IA View/Download: Small: ... Added: 4/23/2012 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

129

Cervical Cancer Stage IVA  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVA View/Download: Small: ... Added: 4/23/2012 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

130

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA  

MedlinePLUS

... Home About My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA View/Download: Small: ... Added: 4/23/2012 Reuse Restrictions: Yes - This image is copyright protected. Any use of this image ...

131

ICSN - Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates Organization

132

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

133

CDC's Cervical Cancer Study  

MedlinePLUS

... by Reducing Indoor Tanning Cervical Cancer Rates Among Young Women in the United States 2012 Increased Risk of Rare Cancer as DES Daughters Age Patterns of Colorectal Cancer Test ... and Young Adult Cancer Survivors HPV-Associated Cancers Doctors Who ...

134

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... often in black women than in white women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for ... Although most women with cervical cancer have the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection , not all women with an HPV ...

135

Cervical cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that are causally associated with invasive cervical cancer\\u000a may be within our grasp, it is unlikely that these approaches will replace existing cervical cancer screening strategies for\\u000a many years. Experts agree and data support periodic cytology screening for young-adult women using one of several technologies.\\u000a Recent analyses of cost-effectiveness suggest that the

Dorothy J. Wiley; Bradley J. Monk; Emmanuel Masongsong; Kristina Morgan

2004-01-01

136

Myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia during the late 19th century.  

PubMed

Zinc-induced myeloneuropathy was recently (re)discovered and its pathophysiology elaborated as resulting from secondary copper deficiency. However, myelopathy was a recognized problem among European zinc-smelter workers in the late 19th century, although these early reports have been overlooked in recent studies and reports. The purpose of this article is to translate and review German-language reports of myelopathy among zinc-smelter workers in Upper Silesia (now southern Poland) by Schlockow from the 1870s. Disease manifestations among zinc-smelter workers developed after sustained zinc exposure over many years. The earliest symptoms were sensory and included paresthesias, dysesthesias, allodynia, and formication in the lower extremities, particularly the feet. Workers ultimately developed a clinical picture resembling subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord with a spastic-ataxic gait with prominent proprioceptive impairment, sensory disequilibrium, and rombergism. PMID:24688096

Lanska, Douglas J; Remler, Bernd

2014-04-01

137

Nitrous oxide-induced B?? deficiency myelopathy: Perspectives on the clinical biochemistry of vitamin B??.  

PubMed

Beginning with a case report of nitrous oxide (N?O)-induced B?? deficiency myelopathy, this article reviews the clinical biochemistry of vitamin B??, and examines the pathogenetic mechanisms by which B?? deficiency leads to neurologic damage, and how this damage is potentiated by N?O exposure. The article systematically examines the available experimental data relating to the two main coenzyme mechanisms that are usually suggested in clinical articles, particularly the deficient methylation hypothesis. The article demonstrates that neither of these mechanisms is fully consistent with the available data. The article then presents a novel mechanism based on new data from the neuroimmunology basic science literature which suggests that the pathogenesis of B?? deficiency myelopathy may not be related to its role as a coenzyme, but rather to newly discovered functions of B?? in regulating cytokines and growth factors. PMID:21112598

Hathout, Leith; El-Saden, Suzie

2011-02-15

138

Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.  

PubMed

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

2014-04-01

139

Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

2014-01-01

140

Radiation myelopathy following transplantation and radiotherapy for non–Hodgkin’s lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Combined modality therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy has become increasingly popular in the management of solid malignancies. However, unexpected toxicities may arise from their interactions.Methods and Materials: We report the case of a young woman with a large mediastinal non–Hodgkin’s lymphoma who underwent high-dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation and involved field radiotherapy, and who developed radiation myelopathy

Michael W. T Chao; Andrew Wirth; Gail Ryan; Michael MacManus; K. H Liew

1998-01-01

141

The spinal cord in rheumatoid arthritis with clinical myelopathy: a computed myelographic study.  

PubMed Central

Thirty one patients with suspected myelopathy due to rheumatoid arthritis were examined by plain radiography and 27 had computed myelography. Clinical features and radiological findings were compared. Deformity of the spinal cord could occur in the absence of combined anterior and posterior compression and correlated closely with clinical features only when considered in combination with skeletal and adjacent soft tissue abnormalities. The best surgical results were achieved by transoral odontoidectomy. Images PMID:3950633

Stevens, J M; Kendall, B E; Crockard, H A

1986-01-01

142

Breed Distribution of SOD1 Alleles Previously Associated with Canine Degenerative Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports associated 2 mutant SOD1 alleles (SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T) with degenerative myelopathy in 6 canine breeds. The distribution of these alleles in other breeds has not been reported. Objective To describe the distribution of SOD1:c.118A and SOD1:c.52T in 222 breeds. Animals DNA from 33,747 dogs was genotyped at SOD1:c.118, SOD1:c.52, or both. Spinal cord sections from 249 of these dogs were examined. Methods Retrospective analysis of 35,359 previously determined genotypes at SOD1:c.118G>A or SOD1:c.52A>T and prospective survey to update the clinical status of a subset of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias. Results The SOD1:c.118A allele was found in cross-bred dogs and in 124 different canine breeds whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele was only found in Bernese Mountain Dogs. Most of the dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A homozygotes, but 8 dogs with histopathologically confirmed degenerative myelopathy were SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes and had no other sequence variants in their SOD1 amino acid coding regions. The updated clinical conditions of dogs from which samples were obtained with a relatively low ascertainment bias suggest that SOD1:c.118A homozygotes are at a much higher risk of developing degenerative myelopathy than are SOD1:c.118A/G heterozygotes. Conclusions and Clinical Importance We conclude that the SOD1:c.118A allele is widespread and common among privately owned dogs whereas the SOD1:c.52T allele is rare and appears to be limited to Bernese Mountain Dogs. We also conclude that breeding to avoid the production of SOD1:c.118A homozygotes is a rational strategy. PMID:24524809

Zeng, R; Coates, JR; Johnson, GC; Hansen, L; Awano, T; Kolicheski, A; Ivansson, E; Perloski, M; Lindblad-Toh, K; O'Brien, DP; Guo, J; Katz, ML; Johnson, GS

2014-01-01

143

Cervical cancer - screening and prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

144

[Cervical pathology and immunodepression].  

PubMed

The Human Papilloma Virus is often involved in the pathogenesis of cervical lesions. A local or systemic immunodeficiency allows neoplasia outbreaks. We do not know if immunodepression only allows the virus to persist, or if the HPV induces a local immunodeficiency. Large warts are often associated with pregnancy, but cervical cancers are not increased in pregnant women. Induced immunodeficiency (among transplanted patients), or AIDS increase the rate of CIN and cervical cancers. The more serious the immunodeficiency is, the more multifocal and recurrent the lesions are. We have to look for an immunodepression and for AIDS when we observe multifocal or recurrent lesions of the cervix, specially when the lesions do not regress under correct treatment. Immunodeficient women would benefit from closer care of their cervix. We think that combine therapy (e.g. laser and local interferon) would be more efficient in case of immunodeficiency. PMID:7827639

Quéreux, C; Hourdequin, P; Saniez, D; Rémy, G

1994-12-01

145

An Unusual Case of Subclinical Peripheral Neuropathy and Cervical Spondylosis in Atopic Myelitis  

PubMed Central

Many cases of atopic myelitis have been reported in Japan; however very few were described in western countries. An 82-year-old woman with a past medical history of atopic dermatitis and asthma presented with progressive paresthesia (tingling) of both hands and tetraparesis. Before the onset of neurological symptoms, she complained of ichthyosis of both legs for 5 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multisegmental degenerative arthritis, degenerative disc disease, and abnormal spinal cord signal intensity over several cervical segments, suggesting the diagnosis of myelitis. Total serum IgE level was elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed asymmetric axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid specimen showed lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein level. Based on clinical, imaging, and laboratory findings, atopic myelitis was diagnosed. The diagnosis of atopic myelitis should be considered in myelopathy patients with history of atopy and elevated serum IgE levels. PMID:24251051

Ozlu, Pelin; Ince, Ferda

2013-01-01

146

Accelerated Development of Cervical Spine Instabilities in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Prospective Minimum 5-Year Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To clarify the incidence and predictive risk factors of cervical spine instabilities which may induce compression myelopathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Three types of cervical spine instability were radiographically categorized into “moderate” and “severe” based on atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS: atlantodental interval >3 mm versus ?10 mm), vertical subluxation (VS: Ranawat value <13 mm versus ?10 mm), and subaxial subluxation (SAS: irreducible translation ?2 mm versus ?4 mm or at multiple). 228 “definite” or “classical” RA patients (140 without instability and 88 with “moderate” instability) were prospectively followed for >5 years. The endpoint incidence of “severe” instabilities and predictors for “severe” instability were determined. Results Patients with baseline “moderate” instability, including all sub-groups (AAS+ [VS? SAS?], VS+ [SAS? AAS±], and SAS+ [AAS± VS±]), developed “severe” instabilities more frequently (33.3% with AAS+, 75.0% with VS+, and 42.9% with SAS+) than those initially without instability (12.9%; p<0.003, p<0.003, and p?=?0.061, respectively). The incidence of cervical canal stenosis and/or basilar invagination was also higher in patients with initial instability (17.5% with AAS+, 37.5% with VS+, and 14.3% with SAS+) than in those without instability (7.1%; p?=?0.028, p<0.003, and p?=?0.427, respectively). Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified corticosteroid administration, Steinbrocker stage III or IV at baseline, mutilating changes at baseline, and the development of mutilans during the follow-up period correlated with the progression to “severe” instability (p<0.05). Conclusions This prospective cohort study demonstrates accelerated development of cervical spine involvement in RA patients with pre-existing instability—especially VS. Advanced peripheral erosiveness and concomitant corticosteroid treatment are indicators for poor prognosis of the cervical spine in RA. PMID:24558457

Yurube, Takashi; Sumi, Masatoshi; Nishida, Kotaro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kozo; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Miura, Yasushi; Hirata, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Doita, Minoru

2014-01-01

147

Cervical motion segment replacement.  

PubMed

When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as well. The design requirements for a cervical disc prosthesis, the importance of precision instrumentation, and technique are described. Mechanical testing, animal testing, the study design for the EU clinical study, and the operative technique are discussed. The clinical 1- and 2-year data to date are presented. PMID:12384728

Bryan, Vincent E

2002-10-01

148

MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-10-09

149

Cervical motion segment replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as

Vincent E. Bryan Jr; J Goffin; A Casey; P Kehr; K Liebig; C Logroscino; F Van Calenbergh; J van Loon; Universitaire Ziekenhuizen

2002-01-01

150

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-06-18

151

Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-08-08

152

Cervical spinal canal stenosis and central disc herniation c3/4 in a man with primary complaint of thigh pain.  

PubMed

Purpose?The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical course of a patient who had a primary complaint of isolated right lateral thigh pain 3 years prior that was nonresponsive to conservative measures. Hypoesthesia in the lateral side of the right forearm, deltoid and biceps, as well as triceps paresis, was also diagnosed. Results?Immediately after surgery, the patient reported substantial improvement in his right thigh symptoms. The signs and symptoms associated with the right C6 and C7 radiculopathy did improve. Conclusion?Although the presentation described in this case is somewhat unique, the eventual myelopathic signs and symptoms were not. It was these myelopathic signs and symptoms that led to cervical magnetic resonance imaging, the diagnosis of cervical cord compressive myelopathy, and surgical management. PMID:24303344

Akhavan-Sigari, R; Rohde, V; Alaid, A

2013-12-01

153

Psychometric properties of the Polish language version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 for patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and spondylotic changes  

PubMed Central

Background The development of a pain-management program tailored to the specific needs of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) requires the proper assessment of psychosocial factors affecting each individual. The Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) refers to coping strategies, which are commonly defined as the cognitive and behavioral techniques an individual may resort to in stressful or demanding situations. Evidence from a number of sources suggests that differences in pain coping strategies may significantly affect how an individual deals with chronic pain. We aimed to adapt the CPCI-42 to Polish cultural conditions (PL-CPCI-42) and then verify its psychometric properties based on a group of patients treated surgically due to herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes. Material/Methods The average age of the study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). The average duration of chronic low back pain (CLBP) was 49.37 months (SD 64.71). Lumbosacral spine X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed and all patients completed the PL-CPCI-42 and the Polish versions of the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS-PL) twice. Internal consistency of the PL-CPCI-42, floor and ceiling effects, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity were analyzed. Results Resting, guarding, and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies both in the test and in the retest, in contrast to relaxation and exercise/stretch. The NPRS-PL result was 5.70 cm in the test and 5.66 in the retest. Cronbach’s alpha values were recorded for the asking for assistance, coping self-statements, and seeking social support domains (0.83, 0.80, 0.83, respectively). Test-retest reliability of the PL-CPCI-42 varied from 0.53 (relaxation domain) to 0.84 (asking for assistance and coping self-statements domains). Conclusions The present study provides evidence of the validity of the PL-CPCI-42 and supports its usefulness in assessing chronic pain coping strategies, which are especially important to pain adjustment and in the creation of multidisciplinary pain management programs for patients with severe CLBP. PMID:24824781

Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Glowacki, Maciej

2014-01-01

154

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-07-01

155

Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

2014-09-01

156

Acute myelopathy selectively involving lumbar anterior horns following intranasal insufflation of ecstasy and heroin  

PubMed Central

We report a patient who developed acute myelopathy after intranasal insufflation of amphetamines and heroin. The functional prognosis was very poor; after 4 months, she remained paraplegic. MRI imaging showed selective T2 hyperintensity and intense enhancement confined to the spinal anterior horns and lumbar nerve roots and plexus. This unique MRI pattern, together with neurophysiological data, suggests that the pathological process at the first primary affected spinal anterior horns (SAH), conditioning motoneuron cell death, and then nerve roots and lumbar plexus as a consequence of wallerian degeneration PMID:21686691

Riva, Nilo; Riva, Nilo; Morana, Paolo; Cerri, Federica; Gerevini, Simonetta; Amadio, Stefano; Formaglio, Fabio; Comi, Giancarlo; Comola, Mauro; Del Carro, Ubaldo

2009-01-01

157

Cervical thymic cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymic cysts are rare embryonic remnants along the course of thymic migration in the neck or the anterior mediastinum which\\u000a may result in cervical masses in children, often misdiagnosed. We present the experience gained by three European tertiary\\u000a care medical centers in the treatment of thymic cysts as well as the current data on the embryology, clinical presentation,\\u000a diagnosis and

Bruno Cigliano; Nikolaos Baltogiannis; Marianna De Marco; Elsa Faviou; Dimitrios Antoniou; Ugo De Luca; Michail Soutis; Alesandro Settimi

2007-01-01

158

Disparities and Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cervical cancer became a preventable disease with the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear) in the 1940s. Trend\\u000a data show that incidence rates have decreased steadily over the past several decades in both white and African American women\\u000a living in the United States (American Cancer Society 2007). Mortality rates have declined steadily over the past several decades\\u000a as well

Marcela del Carmen; Teresa Diaz-Montez

159

Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau

2001-01-01

160

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2010-04-01

161

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2012-04-01

162

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2011-04-01

163

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2013-04-01

164

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2014-04-01

165

Cervical myofascial pain and headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myofascial pain is a common cause of regional chronic pain. Myofascial trigger points can refer pain to the head and face\\u000a in the cervical region, thus contributing to cervicogenic headache. When identified properly, cervical myofascial pain is\\u000a a treatable component of headache management. This article reviews current literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and\\u000a management of cervical myofascial pain.

Joanne Borg-Stein

2002-01-01

166

Autologous clavicle bone graft for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium interbody cage.  

PubMed

A variety of donor-site complications have been reported for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using autologous iliac bone graft. To minimize such morbidities and to obtain optimal bony fusion at the ACDF surgery, a novel technique was used to harvest cancellous bone from the autologous clavicle instead of the popular iliac crest graft. After a routine cervical discectomy of the affected level, a 1.5-cm linear skin incision was made over the clavicle within 2.5 cm of the sternoclavicular joint on the medial one-third portion. This portion is known as an anatomically safe zone, with no subcutaneous distribution of the supraclavicular nerve. Then, cancellous bone was harvested through a small cortical window developed on the clavicle. Care was taken not to injure the subclavian major vessels and the lung below the clavicle. A box-type titanium cage was packed with the harvested cancellous bone and then inserted into the discectomy-treated space for cervical interbody fusion. From 2009 to 2013, 16 patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy underwent single-level ACDF with this method. All but 1 patient experienced significant improvement of clinical symptoms after the surgery and showed radiographic evidence of solid bony fusion and spinal stabilization within 6 months. Further, no peri- and postoperative complications at the clavicular donor site were noted. The mean visual analog scale pain score (range 0 [no pain to 10 [maximum pain]) at 1 year after the surgery was 0.1, and 13 of 14 patients with data at 1-year follow-up were highly satisfied with their donor-site cosmetic outcome. The clavicle is a safe, reliable, and technically easy source of autologous bone graft that yields optimal fusion rates and patient satisfaction with ACDF surgery. PMID:25170654

Iwasaki, Koichi; Ikedo, Taichi; Hashikata, Hirokuni; Toda, Hiroki

2014-11-01

167

Get Tested for Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... vagina with water or other liquid) Get help understanding your Pap test result . Lower your risk of cervical cancer. A major cause of cervical cancer is HPV (human papillomavirus). HPV is the most common STD (sexually transmitted disease). Some types of HPV can cause genital and ...

168

Cervical ruptures in midtrimester abortions.  

PubMed

2 groups of patients are at risk of traumatic complication after midtrimester abortion: older multiparous women (uterine ruptures) and young primigravid women (cervical ruptures). While the occurrence of uterine ruptures in the former class can be reduced by selective use of abortifacient agents, and avoidance of amnioinfusions and intravenous oxytocin, the occurrence of cervical ruptures continues to be high. From May 1974 through May 1978, 780 women underwent midtrimester abortion by various techniques. 12 patients (1.5%) sustained cervical injuries, 11 of whom were nulliparous aged 16 to 25 years. Intra-amniotic and extra-ovular methods alike produced cervical injuries. The combined method of induction increases the likelihood of damaging the cervix. Oxytocic augmentation, however, does not appear to increase its incidence. Nor does a shorter induction-abortion interval, according to the evidence. Since laminaria tents did not prevent cervical injuries, none of the presently available methods offers any protection. Nevertheless, it may be that cervical injuries can be prevented if midtrimester abortions are undertaken between 13 and 15 weeks of pregnancy. Cervical ruptures can also go unnoticed and cause future obstetric problems; the authors therefore emphasize the importance of routine cervical inspection in all patients. PMID:12335921

Rajan, R; Usha, K R

1979-06-01

169

External Cervical Resorption: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

External cervical resorption (ECR) is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. The etiology, predisposing factors, diagnosis, and management of ECR are reviewed. Effective management and appropriate treatment can only be carried out if the true nature and exact location of

Shanon Patel; Shalini Kanagasingam; Thomas Pitt Ford

2009-01-01

170

Lateral cervical meningocele.  

PubMed

Lateral cervical meningocele is an extremely rare developmental anomaly. We could find only one such case protruding from an enlarged C2-3 intervertebral foramen. It may be confused with an extradural cyst or cystic hygroma. Direct needling may introduce infection and thereby pyogenic meningitis and so should be avoided. Similarly, incision and drainage may transform it into cerebrospinal fluid fistula. A computed tomography scan is the most fruitful form of investigation for confirmation and localization of the disease. A lumboperitoneal shunt or water tight closure of the dural sac at the neck is the recommended procedure of choice. PMID:1524732

Sharma, V; Newton, G

1992-06-01

171

Recurrent Cervical Stenosis - a Troublesome Clinical Entity  

PubMed Central

Cervical is a troublesome clinical problem. It usually follows surgery on cervix; also seen with endometrial and cervical malignancies. There is a high recurrence rate after the traditional treatment which is cervical dilatation. Various other treatment options have been tired. We report a case of recurrent cervical stenosis successfully treated with a different technique. PMID:22359714

Mathew, Mariam; Mohan, Anita Krishna

2008-01-01

172

Microinvasive cervical cancer in pregnancy  

E-print Network

Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant disease in pregnancy. The clinical symptoms are scarce or none. The diagnosis is made primarily with a cervical smear, as well as a colposcopic examination and directed cervical biopsy. The treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the gestation period, and a patient's wish to carry a pregnancy to term. The illustrated case is of a patient who with the diagnosed presence of microinvasive squamous cell cancer, due to cervical biopsy, in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. In the 2nd trimester, diagnostic conization was performed in order to exclude the presence of the invasive disease. The definite histopathologic findings indicated the presence of cancer in situ. The conization margins were negative and thus the patient was successfully cured. The patient had a cesarean birth in the 36th week of pregnancy and she gave birth to an alive female newborn. Women are given the chance to have cervical cancer diagnosed and treated in the early stages of pregnancy owing to the introduction of a cervical smear in the modern protocol of antenatal protection. 1

Arch Oncol; Ljiljana Mladenoviæ Segedi; Petar Novakoviæ; Olgica Mihajloviæ; Tatjana Ivkoviæ-kapicl

173

“Double cervical rib with uncommon presentation”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double or Bilateral cervical ribs. Pseudo arthrosis of cervical rib with first rib causing neurovascular complication is a\\u000a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of young man who presented with intermittent claudication in the right hand and\\u000a involvement of peripheral nerves. He had bilateral cervical ribs. Left side cervical rib was small. Right side cervical rib\\u000a had pseudo arthrosis

Mahadev Dixit; Mohan Gan; Narendra Nishanimath; Bhaskar Venkatakrishnaiah Bhagyalakshmi; Prashant Sajjan; Aruneshwari Dayal

2010-01-01

174

Studying Biomarkers in Diagnosing Cervical Lesions in Patients With Abnormal Cervical Cells  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Endocervical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Atypical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Cervical Cancer; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Human Papilloma Virus Infection

2013-08-01

175

[Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for a patient with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy].  

PubMed

An 81-year-old female with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) was scheduled for transurethral lithotomy. She had had paresthesia and spastic paresis in the lower extremities for the past 15 years. The preoperative respiratory function test revealed a vital capacity of 1.3 l (58% of the predicted value). We selected combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSEA) for her to avoid postoperative respiratory complications due to general anesthesia. After placement of a thoracic epidural catheter, spinal anesthesia was achieved by administration of bupivacaine 7.5 mg, resulting in the sensory block level to T 6, five min later. The intraoperative blood pressure remained high at 150-200 mmHg, in spite of the administration of nicardipine. Postoperatively, neither the deterioration in the neurological findings of HAM nor the exacerbation of respiratory function was observed. The present report suggests that CSEA can be one of the choices of anesthesia for a patient with HAM. PMID:25199333

Yokomizo, Taishi; Hiraki, Teruyuki; Mishima, Yasunori; Ushijima, Kazuo

2014-08-01

176

Immunopathogenesis of HTLV-1-assoaciated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP).  

PubMed

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Only a limited percentage of infected individuals develop disease in response to the virus while the majority remain asymptomatic, and HAM/TSP is the most common clinical manifestation of the virus. HAM/TSP is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS); however, the mechanism by which HTLV-1 induces HAM/TSP is not yet clear. CD4(+) T lymphocytes are the main reservoirs of HTLV-1 in vivo and perform an important role in the immunological response to this retrovirus. This virus-host interaction may provoke changes in the immunological response, such as the enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines and the spontaneous proliferation of T CD4(+) lymphocytes, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. PMID:24704970

Fuzii, Hellen Thais; da Silva Dias, George Alberto; de Barros, Rodrigo Jose Saraiva; Falcão, Luiz Fabio Magno; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simoes

2014-05-28

177

[Inicidental finding: patient with cervical spine trauma].  

PubMed

An ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, often presenting asymptomatically, can cause a symptomatic myelopathy after trauma. Keeping this entity in mind in daily clinical routine will help in making the correct diagnosis and in administering the corresponding therapy. PMID:22337517

Schmidt, M; Abächerli, C; Niemann, T

2012-02-15

178

Resection of cervical ependymoma.  

PubMed

Intramedullary ependymomas are surgically curable tumors. However, their surgical resection poses several challenges. In this intraoperative video we illustrate the main steps for the surgical resection of a cervical intramedullary ependymoma. These critical steps include: adequate exposure of the entire length of the tumor; use of the intraoperative ultrasound; identification of the posterior median sulcus and separation of the posterior columns; Identification of the plane between the spinal cord and the tumor; mobilization and debulking of the tumor and disconnection of the vascular supply (usually from small anterior spinal artery branches). Following these basic steps a complete resection can be safely achieved in many cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/QMYXC_F4O4U. PMID:25175575

Lanzino, Giuseppe; Morales-Valero, Saul F; Krauss, William E; Campero, Mario; Marsh, W Richard

2014-09-01

179

Cervical foraminal selective nerve root block: a 'two-needle technique' with results  

PubMed Central

Several techniques have been described for selective nerve root blocks. We describe a novel ‘two-needle technique’, performed through the postero-lateral route with the patient in lateral position under C-arm guidance. The aim of the current study is to highlight the effectiveness and safety of cervical selective nerve root block for radiculopathy using this technique. We present results of a retrospective 2-year follow-up study of 33 injections carried out on 33 patients with radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease and or foraminal stenosis using this procedure. Patients with myelopathy, gross motor weakness and any other pathology were excluded. The outcome was measured comparing ‘Visual Analogue Score’ (VAS) and ‘Neck Disability Index’ (NDI) before the procedure with those at 6 weeks and 12 months after the procedure. Thirty patients were included in the final analysis. Average pre-operative VAS score was 7.4 (range 5–10), which improved to 2.2 (range 0–7) at 6 weeks and 2.0 (range 0–4) at 1 year and the mean NDI score prior to intervention was 66.9 (range 44–84), which improved to 31.7 (range 18–66) at 6 weeks and 31.1 (range 16–48) at 1 year. The improvements were statistically significant. Patients with involvement of C6 or C7 nerve roots responded slightly better at 6 weeks with regards to VAS improvement. Mean duration of radiation exposure during the procedure was 27.8 s (range 10–90 s). Only minor complications were noted—transient dizziness in two and transient nystagmus in one patient. Our ‘two-needle technique’ is a new, safe and effective non-surgical treatment for cervical radiculopathy. PMID:18204941

Gowda, Veda

2008-01-01

180

Cervical foraminal selective nerve root block: a 'two-needle technique' with results.  

PubMed

Several techniques have been described for selective nerve root blocks. We describe a novel 'two-needle technique', performed through the postero-lateral route with the patient in lateral position under C-arm guidance. The aim of the current study is to highlight the effectiveness and safety of cervical selective nerve root block for radiculopathy using this technique. We present results of a retrospective 2-year follow-up study of 33 injections carried out on 33 patients with radiculopathy due to cervical disc disease and or foraminal stenosis using this procedure. Patients with myelopathy, gross motor weakness and any other pathology were excluded. The outcome was measured comparing 'Visual Analogue Score' (VAS) and 'Neck Disability Index' (NDI) before the procedure with those at 6 weeks and 12 months after the procedure. Thirty patients were included in the final analysis. Average pre-operative VAS score was 7.4 (range 5-10), which improved to 2.2 (range 0-7) at 6 weeks and 2.0 (range 0-4) at 1 year and the mean NDI score prior to intervention was 66.9 (range 44-84), which improved to 31.7 (range 18-66) at 6 weeks and 31.1 (range 16-48) at 1 year. The improvements were statistically significant. Patients with involvement of C6 or C7 nerve roots responded slightly better at 6 weeks with regards to VAS improvement. Mean duration of radiation exposure during the procedure was 27.8 s (range 10-90 s). Only minor complications were noted-transient dizziness in two and transient nystagmus in one patient. Our 'two-needle technique' is a new, safe and effective non-surgical treatment for cervical radiculopathy. PMID:18204941

Kumar, Naresh; Gowda, Veda

2008-04-01

181

Breast and Cervical Cancer Legislation  

MedlinePLUS

... Near You About the Program The NBCCEDP Conceptual Framework Social Ecological Model Screening Program Data Screening Program ... and Resources Related Links Contact a Local Program Web Badges Cancer Home Breast and Cervical Cancer Legislation ...

182

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented.

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

2014-01-01

183

General Information about Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood . Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for ... be at risk. Infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) is almost always the cause of cervical ...

184

Syphilitic myelopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... pains" Difficulty walking Loss of coordination Loss of reflexes Muscle weakness Wide-based gait (the person walks ... that react abnormally to light Reduced or absent reflexes due to nerve damage Tests may include the ...

185

Antemortem diagnosis and successful management of noncompressive segmental myelopathy in a Siberian-Bengal mixed breed tiger.  

PubMed

A 10-yr-old female spayed mixed breed tiger presented for a 9-day history of acute and nonprogressive paralysis of the pelvic limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion suggestive of fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy with regional spinal cord edema, decreased disk signal intensity at L2-L3, and mild intervertebral disk protrusion at L1-L2 and L2-L3. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed no overt evidence of infection or neoplasia. Medical therapy was instituted, including corticosteroids and gastroprotectants as well as nursing care and physical therapy. The tiger began showing clinical improvement 2 wk after initiating treatment, progressing to the point where the animal was standing and intermittently walking. Three months after diagnosis, the tiger had regained muscle strength of its hind limbs and walked regularly with improving coordination. This case is the first report of antemortem diagnosis and successful medical management of suspected fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in a large exotic felid. PMID:24450082

Flower, Jennifer E; Lynch, Kate; Clark-Price, Stuart C; Welle, Kenneth R; O'Brien, Robert; Whittington, Julia K

2013-12-01

186

Interferon Beta-1a treatment in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis: a case report.  

PubMed

Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

Viana, Graça Maria de Castro; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natália Barbosa da Silva; Silva, Diego Luz Felipe da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão

2014-09-01

187

INTERFERON BETA-1A TREATMENT IN HTLV-1-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS: A CASE REPORT  

PubMed Central

Here a young patient (< 21 years of age) with a history of infective dermatitis is described. The patient was diagnosed with myelopathy associated with HTLV-1/tropical spastic paraparesis and treated with interferon beta-1a. The disease was clinically established as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), and laboratory tests confirmed the presence of antibodies to HTLV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Mumps, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, schistosomiasis, herpes virus 1 and 2, rubella, measles, varicella-zoster toxoplasmosis, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis were excluded by serology. The patient was diagnosed with neurogenic bladder and presented with nocturia, urinary urgency, paresthesia of the lower left limb, a marked reduction of muscle strength in the lower limbs, and a slight reduction in upper limb strength. During the fourth week of treatment with interferon beta-1a, urinary urgency and paresthesia disappeared and clinical motor skills improved. PMID:25229227

Viana, Graca Maria de Castro; da Silva, Marcos Antonio Custodio Neto; Souza, Victor Lima; Lopes, Natalia Barbosa da Silva; da Silva, Diego Luz Felipe; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandao

2014-01-01

188

How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... How is cervical cancer staged? How is cervical cancer diagnosed? The first step in finding cervical cancer ... systems. Tests for women with symptoms of cervical cancer or abnormal Pap results Medical history and physical ...

189

Cervical Cord Decompression Using Extended Anterior Cervical Foraminotomy Technique  

PubMed Central

Objective At present, gold-standard technique of cervical cord decompression is surgical decompression and fusion. But, many complications related cervical fusion have been reported. We adopted an extended anterior cervical foraminotomy (EACF) technique to decompress the anterolateral portion of cervical cord and report clinical results and effectiveness of this procedure. Methods Fifty-three patients were operated consecutively using EACF from 2008 to 2013. All of them were operated by a single surgeon via the unilateral approach. Twenty-two patients who exhibited radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms were enrolled in this study. All of them showed cervical cord compression in their preoperative magnetic resonance scan images. Results In surgical outcomes, 14 patients (64%) were classified as excellent and six (27%), as good. The mean difference of cervical cord anterior-posterior diameter after surgery was 0.92 mm (p<0.01) and transverse area was 9.77 mm2 (p<0.01). The dynamic radiological study showed that the average post-operative translation (retrolisthesis) was 0.36 mm and the disc height loss at the operated level was 0.81 mm. The change in the Cobb angle decreased to 3.46, and showed slight kyphosis. The average vertebral body resection rate was 11.47%. No procedure-related complications occurred. Only one patient who had two-level decompression needed anterior fusion at one level as a secondary surgery due to postoperative instability. Conclusions Cervical cord decompression was successfully performed using EACF technique. This procedure will be an alternative surgical option for treating cord compressing lesions. Long-term follow-up and a further study in larger series will be needed. PMID:25328648

Kim, Sung-Duk; Lee, Cheol-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Chul-Ku; Kim, Jong Hyun

2014-01-01

190

Compressive myelopathy associated with ectasia of the vertebral and spinal arteries in a dog.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old dog was presented for acute, progressive tetraparesis and cervical hyperesthesia. Symmetrical tubular structures coursing along the lateroventral aspects of the spinal cord at the fourth and fifth cervical vertebrae were identified in magnetic resonance images. At necropsy, vertebral arteries and their spinal branches were severely ectatic bilaterally, and the cervical spinal cord was compressed. Histologically, the ectatic branches of the vertebral and ventral spinal arteries were surrounded by fibrosis with scant mononuclear cell infiltrates and hemorrhage. Spinal branches of the vertebral arteries had focally severe reduction in the tunica media. A thrombus was in an arterial branch. Smaller vessels in adjacent tissue had fibrinoid degeneration. Axonal degeneration was detected in the affected spinal cord and nerve roots. The segmental degenerative radiculomyelopathy in this dog was attributed to anomalous ectasia of the vertebral and ventral spinal arteries. PMID:21856870

Bozynski, C C; Vasquez, L; O'Brien, D P; Johnson, G C

2012-09-01

191

Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

Ferris, Daron G.

2004-05-01

192

I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the  

E-print Network

11/12/12 1 I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the lining dysplasia to cancer A. Cancerous condition usually develops over time. q Normal cervical cells may gradually undergo changes to become precancerous and then cancerous q Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN

Dever, Jennifer A.

193

Sex steroids and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

During the 19th century, studies indicated that reproductive events were involved in cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prerequisite for development of cancer, but co-factors, among them the action of sexual steroid hormones, are necessary. Childbirth has been an important risk factor but now probably plays a minor role in the industrialized world, where parity is low. Long-term oral contraceptive use has been thoroughly studied epidemiologically, and correlates to cervical cancer in most studies. In vitro studies on cervical cell lines transfected with HPV and animal studies indicate that sex steroid hormones are capable to induce cancer. In in vivo cervical cancer tissue studies there have been observations that endogenous progesterone in serum correlates to a negative pattern of expression of cellular and extracellular proteins, tumor markers. Immune response could be another mechanism. Estradiol might be associated with a positive pattern and high estradiol and low progesterone levels increase duration of survival in cervical cancer. Studies where treatment of compounds that influence sex steroid hormones have been given are rare and have been disappointing. PMID:22843872

Hellberg, Dan

2012-08-01

194

Treatment of Heterotopic Cervical and Intrauterine Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To find a suitable technique to selectively terminate a cervically implanted embryo while maintaining viability of a concomitant intrauterine pregnancy. Methods: A 34-year-old patient achieved a twin pregnancy after 4 IVF attempts. Ultrasound revealed a viable intrauterine and cervical pregnancy. Given our experience with KCl injection for fetal reduction, we offered the patient an attempt to reduce the cervical

Carlos A. Carreno; Mary King; Mark P. Johnson; Yuval Yaron; Michael P. Diamond; Dana Bush; Mark I. Evans

2000-01-01

195

Cervical carcinogenesis and contraception.  

PubMed

Cytologic evaluation of cervical smears has been carried out in 3,374 women who used different modes of contraception (Lippes loop, copper T200, copper T220, copper devices containing higher copper content than the copper T200, CuT380 Ag, levonorgestrel IUD, injections of noresthisterone oenanthate, and subdermal implants of levonorgestrel) under the Contraceptive Testing Programme of Indian Council of Medical Research for periods ranging from 6 months to 15 yr. While no case of severe dysplasia or malignancy was noticed with any type of contraceptive, 113 dysplastic smears (99 mild and 14 moderate) were encountered on follow-up, giving an incidence of 3.3%, which was statistically insignificant compared with the pretreatment incidence of 1.4% (47 of 3,374). The highest incidence of dysplasia was seen with devices containing a high copper content (9.2%), followed by CuT200 (6.1%) and levonorgestrel implants (4.2%), and was lowest with Lippes loop (1.8%), injection of noresthisterone oenanthate (1.7%), and CuT380 Ag (1.5%), but statistics higher than the pretreatment incidence of 1.4% were seen only with CuT200 and devices containing high copper content. Retrogression of dysplasia was seen in 85 of the 94 posttreatment dysplasia cases and in all 47 pretreatment dysplasia cases, whereas in the remaining nine posttreatment cases of dysplasia the lesion persisted for 6-12 mo, necessitating discontinuation of contraception. The accumulated follow-up data indicate that the CuT380 Ag device is a promising IUD for the future in view of its low incidence of dysplasia determined during its use up to 5 yr. However, more prolonged follow-up in larger numbers of subjects is required to confirm its innocuousness on long-term retention. PMID:1935511

Misra, J S; Engineer, A D; Das, K; Tandon, P

1991-01-01

196

SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CERVICAL OSTEOARTHRITIS  

PubMed Central

The early results of anterior cervical intervertebral disc excision and fusion (Cloward operation) together with removal of associated arthritic bone spurs pressing on nerves and spinal cord give promise of relief of pain and muscle weakness in patients who have this form of cervical osteoarthritis. Eighty-five per cent of a group of patients with neurologic pain caused by compression of this kind were relieved by this operation. The approach to the cervical vertebrae is made by an incision into the front of the neck and the diseased disc and arthritic spurs are removed by drilling a half-inch hole into the edges of the vertebrae. The remaining fragments of disc are curetted away. The hole is plugged with a bone dowel. The patients had less pain and a more rapid convalescence than with the usual posterior laminectomy for chronic disc disease. ImagesFigure 1(a).Figure 2. PMID:14436128

Rand, Robert W.; Crandall, Paul H.

1959-01-01

197

Surgical treatment of cervical osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The early results of anterior cervical intervertebral disc excision and fusion (Cloward operation) together with removal of associated arthritic bone spurs pressing on nerves and spinal cord give promise of relief of pain and muscle weakness in patients who have this form of cervical osteoarthritis.Eighty-five per cent of a group of patients with neurologic pain caused by compression of this kind were relieved by this operation. The approach to the cervical vertebrae is made by an incision into the front of the neck and the diseased disc and arthritic spurs are removed by drilling a half-inch hole into the edges of the vertebrae. The remaining fragments of disc are curetted away. The hole is plugged with a bone dowel. The patients had less pain and a more rapid convalescence than with the usual posterior laminectomy for chronic disc disease. PMID:14436128

RAND, R W; CRANDALL, P H

1959-10-01

198

External cervical resorption: a review.  

PubMed

External cervical resorption (ECR) is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. The etiology, predisposing factors, diagnosis, and management of ECR are reviewed. Effective management and appropriate treatment can only be carried out if the true nature and exact location of the ECR lesion are known. The role of cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic adjunct for the management of ECR is also reviewed. PMID:19410071

Patel, Shanon; Kanagasingam, Shalini; Pitt Ford, Thomas

2009-05-01

199

Systems Biology Approaches Reveal a Specific Interferon-Inducible Signature in HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that persists lifelong in the host. In ?4% of infected people, HTLV-1 causes a chronic disabling neuroinflammatory disease known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP is unknown and treatment remains ineffective. We used gene expression microarrays followed by flow cytometric and functional assays to investigate global changes in blood transcriptional profiles of HTLV-1-infected and seronegative individuals. We found that perturbations of the p53 signaling pathway were a hallmark of HTLV-1 infection. In contrast, a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes was over-expressed in patients with HAM/TSP but not in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers or patients with the clinically similar disease multiple sclerosis. The IFN-inducible signature was present in all circulating leukocytes and its intensity correlated with the clinical severity of HAM/TSP. Leukocytes from patients with HAM/TSP were primed to respond strongly to stimulation with exogenous IFN. However, while type I IFN suppressed expression of the HTLV-1 structural protein Gag it failed to suppress the highly immunogenic viral transcriptional transactivator Tax. We conclude that over-expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes in chronic HTLV-1 infection does not constitute an efficient host response but instead contributes to the development of HAM/TSP. PMID:22291590

Tattermusch, Sonja; Skinner, Jason A.; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Berry, Matthew P.; McNab, Finlay W.; O'Garra, Anne; Taylor, Graham P.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

2012-01-01

200

Optic neuropathy, myelopathy, anemia, and neutropenia caused by acquired copper deficiency after gastric bypass surgery.  

PubMed

Malabsorptive bariatric surgery is rapidly becoming a major cause of copper deficiency given the increasing prevalence of these procedures for morbid obesity. Acquired copper deficiency can present with clinically significant hematologic and neurological manifestations. Although hematologic manifestations of copper deficiency are rapidly reversible, significant neurological improvement after copper supplementation therapy is unusual and many patients remain debilitated and may only experience, at best, stabilization of the neurological manifestations. Here we present a case of an undiagnosed copper deficiency several years after bariatric gastric bypass surgery, in a patient who concomitantly used zinc-containing denture cream for several years, associated with anemia, neutropenia, myelopathy, respiratory failure, and bilateral optic neuropathy, which caused major vision loss. This patient was also a heterozygote carrier of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase A1298C gene polymorphism, which may affect copper metabolism. Intravenous copper repletion resulted in rapid correction of hematologic indices. However, neurological manifestations, including vision loss responded only modestly to copper supplementation, despite achieving normal blood copper concentrations. Clinicians should consider copper deficiency in patients at risk, as in this case, as a delayed diagnosis can lead to irreversible disability due to neurological manifestations. PMID:24583748

Yarandi, Shadi S; Griffith, Daniel P; Sharma, Rahul; Mohan, Arun; Zhao, Vivian M; Ziegler, Thomas R

2014-01-01

201

Posterior decompression with instrumented fusion for thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.  

PubMed

We evaluated the clinical results of posterior decompression with instrumented fusion (PDF) for thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A total of 24 patients underwent PDF, and their surgical outcomes were evaluated by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scores (0-11 points) and by recovery rates calculated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery and at a mean final follow-up of 4 years and 5 months. The mean JOA score before surgery was 3.7 points. Although transient paralysis occurred immediately after surgery in one patient (3.8%), all patients showed neurological recovery at the final follow-up with a mean JOA score of 8.0 points and a mean recovery rate of 58.1%. The mean recovery rate at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery was 36.7, 48.8, 54.0 and 56.8%, respectively. The median time point that the JOA score reached its peak value was 9 months after surgery. No patient chose additional anterior decompression surgery via thoracotomy. The present findings demonstrate that despite persistent anterior impingement of the spinal cord by residual OPLL, PDF can result in considerable neurological recovery with a low risk of postoperative paralysis. Since neurological recovery progresses slowly after PDF, we suggest that additional anterior decompression surgery is not desirable during the early stage of recovery. PMID:20049486

Yamazaki, Masashi; Okawa, Akihiko; Fujiyoshi, Takayuki; Furuya, Takeo; Koda, Masao

2010-05-01

202

Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22627438

Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

2012-05-01

203

Biomarker discovery for neuroendocrine cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine cervical cancer is an aggressive but rare form of cervical cancer. The majority of neuroendocrine cervical cancer patients present with advanced-stage diseases. However, the limited numbers of neuroendocrine tumor markers are insufficient for clinical purposes. Thus, we used a proteomic approach combining lysine labeling 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the biomarkers for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. By analyzing the global proteome alteration between the neuroendocrine cervical cancer line (HM-1) and non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer lines (CaSki cells, ME-180 cells, and Hela cells), we identified 82 proteins exhibiting marked changes between HM-1 and CaSki cells, and between ME-180 and Hela cells. Several proteins involved in protein folding, cytoskeleton, transcription control, signal transduction, glycolysis, and redox regulation exhibited significant changes in abundance. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses indicated respective 49.88-fold and 25-fold increased levels of transgelin in HM-1 cells compared with that in other non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer cell lines, implying that transgelin is a biomarker for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. In summary, we used a comprehensive neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer model based proteomic approach for identifying neuroendocrine cervical cancer markers, which might contribute to the prognosis and diagnosis of neuroendocrine cervical cancer. PMID:24723343

Lin, Li-Hsun; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Hu, Ren-Yu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Lin, Szu-Ting; Huang, Shun-Hong; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Lai, Zih-Yin; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chan, Hong-Lin

2014-07-01

204

Cervical Remodeling during Pregnancy and Parturition  

PubMed Central

Appropriate and timely cervical remodeling is key for successful birth. Premature cervical opening can result in preterm birth which occurs in 12.5% of pregnancies. Research focused on the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. This review highlights recent findings that better define molecular processes driving progressive disorganization of the cervical extracellular matrix. This includes studies that redefine the role of immune cells and identify diverse functions of the cervical epithelia and hyaluronan in remodeling. New investigations proposing that infection-induced premature cervical remodeling is distinct from the normal process are presented. Recent advances in our understanding of term and preterm cervical remodeling provide new directions for investigation and compel investigators to reevaluate currently accepted models. PMID:20172738

Timmons, Brenda; Akins, Meredith; Mahendroo, Mala

2010-01-01

205

Clostridium difficile infection induced by pregabalin-associated agranulocytosis.  

PubMed

A 33-year-old man who had recently undergone surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy was prescribed pregabalin for neuralgia, and the dose was increased to 600 mg/day during hospitalization. However, the patient was diagnosed with a Clostridium difficile infection on day 34 after admission. A complete blood count showed agranulocytosis (neutrophil count: 105/?L). We did not observe any changes in vital signs, a relative increase in band cells, or intestinal edema. The patient's agranulocytosis resolved after withdrawing pregabalin. This is the first reported case of agranulocytosis associated with pregabalin. Periodic monitoring of the white blood cell count is therefore considered to be useful in patients receiving high-dose pregabalin therapy. PMID:25224205

Kino, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Koiso, Takao; Ito, Yoshiro; Uemura, Kazuya; Matsumura, Akira

2014-01-01

206

Future trends in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The identification of the close association of certain types of human papillomavirus with the development of cervical cancer should lead to an extensive revision of appropriate health policies. Having taken into account the drawbacks inherent in the existing data (stemming from the use of varying nomenclature, diagnostic methods and reliability, registration and screening practices) it is possible to conclude that the incidence of HPV infections, all premalignant and malignant stages of cervical cancer are, or will soon be, increasing in several countries. This rate of increase is fastest for the younger age groups and is despite the introduction of various forms of screening. These trends therefore indicate an urgent need to adopt policies to avert an unnecessary increase in fatalities due to cervical cancer. It is therefore recommended to: (1) establish a routine diagnostic method which can identify either the type of HPV present or the lesions which are progressing; (2) determine the incidence of HPV infections in the general population; (3) disseminate to medical personnel, teachers, and other members of society existing knowledge concerning the dangers associated with this virus and relevant to preventing its further spread; (4) introduce an effective population screening campaign for all sexually active women, preferably involving a yearly examination at a colposcopy clinic; (5) intensify basic and applied HPV research, especially that which could lead to a deeper understanding of viral transmission and infection, identification of cofactors which promote cervical lesion progression, or to the production of a vaccine. PMID:2841018

Larsen, P M; Vetner, M; Hansen, K; Fey, S J

1988-08-15

207

Cervical spine: sport injuries biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved and detailed 3-D FE model of human cervical spine was created using digitized geometric measurement. The model was validated with the in-vivo studies of Moroney [5], Panjabi [6] and Fuller [7]. Clinical instability of the spine for two cases involving flexion and compression loading (simulating injuries in motorcycle vaulting, football and diving accidents) were analyzed. The instability was

Abraham Tchako; Ali M. Sadegh

2005-01-01

208

Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

209

Modified Open-door Laminoplasty Using Hydroxyapatite Spacers and Miniplates  

PubMed Central

Objective Cervical laminoplasty has been widely accepted as one of the major treatments for cervical myelopathy and various modifications and supplementary procedures have been devised to achieve both proper decompression and stability of the cervical spine. We present the retrospectively analyzed results of a modified unilateral open-door laminoplasty using hydroxyapatite (HA) spacers and malleable titanium miniplates. Methods From June 2008 to May 2012, among patients diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, the patients who received laminoplasty were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed using Frankel grade and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. The radiologic parameters were obtained from plain films, 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. Results A total of 125 cervical laminae were operated in 38 patients. 11 patients received 4-level laminoplasty and 27 patients received 3-level laminoplasty. Postoperatively, the mean Frankel grade and JOA score were significantly improved from 3.97 to 4.55 and from 12.76 to 14.63, respectively (p<0.001). Radiologically, cervical curvature was worsened from 19.09 to 15.60 (p=0.025). The percentage of range of motion preservation was 73.32±22.39%. The axial dimension of the operated spinal canal was increased from 1.75 to 2.70 cm2 (p<0.001). Conclusion In the presenting study, unilateral open-door laminoplasty using HA spacers and miniplates appears to be a safe, rapid and easy procedure to obtain an immediate and rigid stabilization of the posterior elements of the cervical spine. This modified laminoplasty method showed effective expansion of the spinal canal and favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:25346767

Jin, Sung-Won; Kim, Bum-Joon; Choi, Jong-Il; Ha, Sung-Kon; Kim, Sang-Dae; Lim, Dong-Jun

2014-01-01

210

Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.  

PubMed

In 1980, Human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was the first oncogenic human retrovirus to be discovered. HTLV-1 belongs to the Retroviridae family, the Orthoretrovirinae subfamily and to the deltaretrovirus genus. HTLV-1 preferentially infects CD4(+) lymphoid cells in vivo. Three molecules have been identified for binding and/or entry of HTLV-1: heparan sulfate proteoglycans, neuropilin-1, and glucose transporter 1. An efficient transfer of the virus from an infected cell to a target cell can occur through the formation of a viral synapse and/or by virofilm structure. As for all retroviruses, HTLV-1 genome possesses three major ORFs (gag, pol and env) encoding the structural and enzymatic proteins. HTLV-1 encodes also some regulatory and auxillary proteins including the tax protein with transforming activities and the HBZ protein which plays a role in the proliferation and maintenance of the leukemic cells. HTLV-1 is present throughout the world with clusters of high endemicity including mainly Southern Japan, the Caribbean region, areas in South America and in intertropical Africa. The worldwide HTLV-1 infected population is estimated to be around 10-20 million. HTLV-1 has three modes of transmission: (1): mother to child, mainly linked to prolonged breast-feeding; (2): sexual, mainly occurring from male to female and (3): contaminated blood products. HTLV-1 possesses a remarkable genetic stability. HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of mainly two severe diseases: a malignant T CD4(+) cell lymphoproliferation, of very poor prognosis, named Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL), and a chronic neuro-myelopathy named Tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The lifetime risk among HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be around 0.25 to 3%. TSP/HAM mainly occurs in adults, with a mean age at onset of 40-50 years and it is more common in women than in men. Blood transfusion is a major risk factor for TSP/HAM development. Clinically, TSP/HAM is mainly defined as a chronic spastic paraparesis and minor sensory signs. The onset is insidious with often gait disturbance and urinary symptoms. In more than 90% of the cases, the neurological features involve: spasticity and/or hyperreflexia of the lower extremities, urinary bladder disturbance, lower extremity muscle weakness, and in around 50% of the cases, sensory disturbances with low back pain. Central functions and cranial nerves are usually spared. The clinical course is generally progressive without remission. High levels of antibodies titers directed against HTLV-1 antigens are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A high HTLV-1 proviral load is frequently observed in the blood. Mild to moderate increase of proteins may be present in the CSF. However, intrathecal production of specific HTLV-1 antibody index provides additional data to support the diagnosis. Brain white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging are frequent. A mild atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord can also be observed. Pathologically, it is characterized by a chronic inflammation with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and mild parenchymal lymphocytic infiltrates. The cells are mostly CD4(+) in early disease and mostly CD8(+) in latter disease. Pyramidal tract damage with myelin and axonal loss, mainly in the lower thoracic spinal cord are observed. TSP/HAM pathogenesis is still poorly understood and viral and host factors as the proviral load and the cellular immune response play a major role in disease progression. TSP/HAM can be associated with other HTLV-1 associated symptoms (uveitis, myositis, infective dermatitis). Therapy of TSP/HAM remains disappointing and symptomatic treatment remains still the mainstay of therapy. PMID:22405461

Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

2012-03-01

211

Differential diagnosis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy and multiple sclerosis in Iranian patients.  

PubMed

Two Iranian patients with chronic progressive spastic paraparesis and urinary dysfunction were referred to our hospital with the presumptive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Routine CSF analysis and magnetic resonance imaging of the two patients were only partially characteristic of MS. Testing for antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus type I [HTLV-I] in serum using a radioimmune precipitation assay revealed antibodies to HTLV-I in both patients. The infection with HTLV-I was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and liquid hybridization analysis using primers to the tax/rex region and a corresponding probe, demonstrating proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both patients. On the basis of these findings demonstrating the presence of proviral HTLV-I DNA in the two Iranian patients, the initial diagnosis of MS was corrected to that of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). In contrast, several patients with definite MS (nine from Germany, two from Iran) with a relapsing and remitting form of the disease were tested for HTLV-I infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR, which yielded negative results. However, the mother of one HAM patient was found to be infected with HTLV-I. To support an association between HTLV-I infection and CNS disease in the two HAM patients, we analyzed the production of specific IgG antibodies within the CNS based on a simple enzyme immunoassay for viral IgG antibodies in CSF and serum. In the two HAM patients there was significant intrathecal antibody production directed against HTLV-I, but this was not found in any of the samples from MS patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1361867

Kitze, B; Turner, R W; Burchhardt, M; Poser, S; Hunsmann, G; Weber, T

1992-11-01

212

Chronic pain coping styles in patients with herniated lumbar discs and coexisting spondylotic changes treated surgically: Considering clinical pain characteristics, degenerative changes, disability, mood disturbances, and beliefs about pain control  

PubMed Central

Background Pain catastrophizing, appraisals of pain control, styles of coping, and social support have been suggested to affect functioning in patients with low back pain. We investigated the relation of chronic pain coping strategies to psychological variables and clinical data, in patients treated surgically due to lumbar disc herniation and coexisting spondylotic changes. Material/Methods The average age of study participants (n=90) was 43.47 years (SD 10.21). Patients completed the Polish versions of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (PL-CPCI-42), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-PL), Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ-PL), Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire (BPCQ-PL), and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ-PL). Results In the PL-CPCI-42 results, resting, guarding and coping self-statements were frequently used as coping strategies (3.96 SD 1.97; 3.72 SD 1.72; 3.47 SD 2.02, respectively). In the CSQ-PL domains, catastrophizing and praying/hoping were frequently used as coping strategies (3.62 SD 1.19). The mean score obtained from the BDI-PL was 11.86 SD 7.23, and 12.70 SD 5.49 from the RMDQ-PL. BPCQ-PL results indicate that the highest score was in the subscale measuring beliefs that powerful others can control pain (4.36 SD 0.97). Exercise correlated significantly with beliefs about internal control of pain (rs=0.22). We identified associations between radiating pain and guarding (p=0.038) and between sports recreation and guarding (p=0.013) and task persistence (p=0.041). Conclusions Back pain characteristics, depressive mood, disability, and beliefs about personal control of pain are related to chronic LBP coping styles. Most of the variables related to advancement of degenerative changes were not associated with coping efforts. PMID:24370564

Misterska, Ewa; Jankowski, Roman; Glowacki, Maciej

2013-01-01

213

Management of cervical weakness based on the measurement of cervical resistance index  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the value of measuring cervical resistance index (CRI) as an aid to selecting patients with a history of spontaneous mid-trimester miscarriage for cervical cerclage in subsequent pregnancies.

George S. Anthony; Robert G. Walker; James B. Robins; Alan D. Cameron; Andrew A. Calder

2007-01-01

214

Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2012-01-01

215

Cervical synovial cyst: case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy. PMID:22096444

Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

2011-01-01

216

Does Multispectral Texture Features Really Improve Cervical Cancer Detection?  

E-print Network

Does Multispectral Texture Features Really Improve Cervical Cancer Detection? Tong Zhao, Jiayong For cervical cancer detection, the performance of multispectral texture (MST) features extracted from information can achieve better classification results (ROC curves) for cervical cancer detection from

217

Embarazo ectópico cervical: diagnóstico y tratamiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of cervical ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate and abdominal hysterectomy.A 34-year-old woman with three previous cesarean sections was diagnosed with a cervical ectopic pregnancy through transvaginal ultrasound at 7 weeks of amenorrhea.Cervical ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon event that usually presents as irregular bleeding in the first trimester. Diagnosis is based on ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin and

Clara Crespo Ferrer; Arantxa Jaca Navarro; Noelia Juárez Sabater; Regina Aliaga Parreño; Yousef Mahmoud Jaddou; Mariano Sanz Martínez

2009-01-01

218

Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

2014-01-01

219

Laparoscopic fertility sparing management of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

2014-04-01

220

Cervical curvature variations in patients with infraocclusion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to observe the variations of cervical curvature in patients with infraocclusion, and to compare this with the controls. In this study, the infraocclusion criteria were defined with the Pr-id as <17 mm on the cephalometric image. The subjects were 32 patients with infraocclusion, and 28 controls which matched the distribution for gender and age. The six points of inquiry were as follows: (i) cervical vertebra height, (ii) neck alignment, (iii) ratio of lower facial height, (iv) vertical dimension of occlusion, (v) cervical angle and (vi) occlusal angle. In over 90% of the patients with infraocclusion, the cervical curvature was classified as straight or kyphosis. Conversely, in 36% of the control subjects, the cervical curvature was classified as Lordosis. There was a weak positive correlation between the vertical dimension of occlusion and the cervical curvature in all subjects. In the control group, there was a significant and strong positive correlation between the age and cervical curvature, and a strong negative correlation between age and cervical angle and occlusal angle. Conversely, in the patients with infraocclusion, age was only correlated with the ratio of lower facial height. The prevalence of non-lordosis in the patients with infraocclusion was higher in comparison with the control group in our study, and the previous large-scale study of Japanese. However, there was merely a weak positive correlation between the cervical curvature and the vertical dimension of occlusion. PMID:24849697

Ando, E; Shigeta, Y; Hirabayashi, R; Ikawa, T; Hirai, S; Katsumura, S; Ogawa, T

2014-08-01

221

HPV vaccination: effects on cervical screening.  

PubMed

Uptake of cervical screening has declined slightly since the 1990s, and is generally lower among young women than older women. Although the human papillomavirus vaccination programme is successful, some girls are still not being vaccinated. In addition, the programme may have a negative impact on the uptake of cervical screening, as young women may not realise they are still vulnerable to cervical cancer after vaccination. Nurses should encourage girls and young women to take up both HPV vaccination and cervical screening. PMID:25007499

Kothari, Aine

222

Delayed post-traumatic spinal cord infarction in an adult after minor head and neck trauma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Delayed post-traumatic spinal cord infarction is a devastating complication described in children. In adults, spinal cord ischemia after cardiovascular interventions, scoliosis correction, or profound hypotension has been reported in the literature. However, delayed spinal cord infarction after minor head trauma has not been described yet. Case presentation We report the case of a 45-year-old Hispanic man who had a minor head trauma. He was admitted to our hospital because of paresthesias in his hands and neck pain. A radiological workup showed cervical spinal canal stenosis and chronic cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Twelve hours after admission, our patient became unresponsive and, despite full resuscitation efforts, died. The autopsy revealed spinal cord necrosis involving the entire cervical spinal cord and upper thoracic region. Conclusions This case illustrates the extreme fragility of spinal cord hemodynamics in patients with chronic cervical spinal canal stenosis, in which any further perturbations, such as cervical hyperflexion related to a minor head injury, can have catastrophic consequences. Furthermore, the delayed onset of spinal cord infarction in this case shows that meticulous maintenance of blood pressure in the acute post-traumatic period is of paramount importance, even in patients with minimal post-traumatic symptoms. PMID:22992313

2012-01-01

223

Familial Clusters of HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Objective HTLV-1 proviral loads (PVLs) and some genetic factors are reported to be associated with the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). However, there are very few reports on HAM/TSP having family history. We aimed to define the clinical features and laboratory indications associated with HAM/TSP having family history. Methods Records of 784 HAM/TSP patients who were hospitalized in Kagoshima University Hospital and related hospitals from 1987 to 2012 were reviewed. Using an unmatched case-control design, 40 patients of HAM/TSP having family history (f-HAM/TSP) were compared with 124 patients suffering from sporadic HAM/TSP, who were admitted in series over the last 10 years for associated clinical features. Results Of the 784 patients, 40 (5.1%) were f-HAM/TSP cases. Compared with sporadic cases, the age of onset was earlier (41.3 vs. 51.6 years, p<0.001), motor disability grades were lower (4.0 vs. 4.9, p?=?0.043) despite longer duration of illness (14.3 vs. 10.2 years, p?=?0.026), time elapsed between onset and wheelchair use in daily life was longer (18.3 vs. 10.0 years, p?=?0.025), cases with rapid disease progression were fewer (10.0% vs. 28.2%, p?=?0.019), and protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were significantly lower in f-HAM/TSP cases (29.9 vs. 42.5 mg, p<0.001). There was no difference in HTLV-1 PVLs, anti-HTLV-1 antibody titers in serum and CSF, or cell number and neopterin levels in CSF. Furthermore, HTLV-1 PVLs were lower in cases with rapid disease progression than in those with slow progression in both f-HAM/TSP and sporadic cases. Conclusions We demonstrated that HAM/TSP aggregates in the family, with a younger age of onset and a slow rate of progression in f-HAM/TSP cases compared with sporadic cases. These data also suggested that factors other than HTLV-1 PVLs contribute to the disease course of HAM/TSP. PMID:24802839

Nozuma, Satoshi; Matsuura, Eiji; Matsuzaki, Toshio; Watanabe, Osamu; Kubota, Ryuji; Izumo, Shuji; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

224

Cervical spine instability following cervical laminectomies for Chiari II malformation: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The treatment of symptomatic Chiari II malformations typically involves multilevel cervical laminectomies in very young children.\\u000a These patients are at significant risk of cervical instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and\\u000a significance of cervical instability after multilevel cervical laminectomies in a cohort of patients decompressed for Chiari\\u000a II malformation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Postoperative dynamic lateral cervical spine radiographs

Fred C. Lam; Beverly J. Irwin; Kenneth J. Poskitt; Paul Steinbok

2009-01-01

225

Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-02-12

226

Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

2008-01-01

227

Abordaje conservador del embarazo ectópico cervical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with a high risk of hemorrhage. Early diagnosis is an important prognostic factor for survival and preserved fertility in these patients. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with cervical ectopic pregnancy in her seventh week of gestation. The therapeutic management was conservative and involved the combination of systemic and

Jesús Joaquín Hijona Elósegui; Miguel Calero Rojas; Ana Contreras Rodríguez; M. del Carmen Toledano Montero; Carmen Pallarés Ayuso; Juan Manuel Torres Martí

2008-01-01

228

Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare historical features, clinical examination findings, and radiographic results among pediatric patients with cervical spine injury (CSI), a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with CSI was undertaken. Two main groups were identified: radiographically evident cervical spine injury (RESCI), and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic information was obtained from patients' charts

Chris Baker; Howard Kadish; Jeff E Schunk

1999-01-01

229

Effectiveness of acupuncture in cervical dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case describes the successful addition of acupuncture to treat a patient with cervical dystonia previously managed with Botox (botulinum toxin) injections. This resulted in reduced pain and muscle spasm relief and to the authors' knowledge is the first case to be reported using this treatment combination. The patient was diagnosed with the idiopathic variant of cervical dystonia and had

Ravindran Deepak; Hans Mathew; Mathew Koshy

2010-01-01

230

Medical Interventions: Vaccine to Prevent Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

As recently as the 1940s, cervical cancer was a major cause of death among women of childbearing age in the U.S. but widespread introduction of the Pap test in the 1950s helped reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in this country by more than 70 percent.

231

Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the role of tests for human papillomavirus (HPV) in screening for cervical cancer but as yet the relevance is unclear. We looked at HPV testing for types 16, 18, 31, and 33 on material taken at the time of a cervical smear in 2009 eligible women having routine screening. Women with any degree of dyskaryosis or

J. Cuzick; A. Szarewski; G. Terry; A. Hanby; P. Maddox; M. Anderson; S. J. Steele; J. Guillebaud; C. Kocjean

1995-01-01

232

Snare-assisted Trans-brachial Stenting for the Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis of Patient with Aorto-Iliac Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe a case of endo-luminal stent placement with Snare-assist for a cervical internal carotid artery stenosis in which percutaneous access was obtained via the brachial artery. A 68-year-old man with known disease of the carotid, peripheral, and coronary arteries, with Human T-cell Lymphotrophic Virus type-1 (HTLV-1) Associated Myelopathy (HAM) presented for endoluminal revascularization of a severe, progressive right internal carotid artery stenosis, but with aorto-iliac occlusion. Transfemoral access was complicated by an aorto-iliac occlusion. A trans-brachial approach was successfully attempted, and a SMARTer stent (Cordis Endovascular, Miami Lakes, FL) was successfully placed through a 7-French Shuttle-SL guide sheath (Cook, Bloomington) under Snare-assist. The trans-brachial approach is becoming an increasingly viable alternative route for stent placement in patients with contra-indicated or complicated femoral access routes. As devices become increasingly more pliable and smaller, the trans-brachial route will be used with increasing frequency in the select patient population for stenting of both the cervical and intracranial circulation. PMID:20569637

Oowaki, H.; Matsuura, N; Ishikawa, M.

2006-01-01

233

Giant anterior cervical osteophyte leading to Dysphagia.  

PubMed

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee; Joo, Won Il

2013-09-01

234

Donor-Transmitted HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy in a Kidney Transplant Recipient-Case Report and Literature Review.  

PubMed

Clinical disease due to human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a retrovirus endemic in certain regions of the world, is rarely reported after solid organ transplantation. In 2009, universal deceased donor organ screening for HTLV-1 was discontinued in the United States. We report the first case of donor-derived HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in a kidney transplant recipient from the United States. The patient, who was HTLV-1-seronegative prior to transplantation, likely acquired HTLV-1 infection from a seropositive organ donor. In this era when screening of donors and recipients for HTLV infection is not mandatory, clinicians should be vigilant in recognizing the risk and potential occurrence of this donor-derived infection in recipients with epidemiologic exposures. PMID:25138148

Ramanan, P; Deziel, P J; Norby, S M; Yao, J D; Garza, I; Razonable, R R

2014-10-01

235

Is 58% sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and invasive cervical cancer optimal for cervical screening?  

PubMed Central

Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a Roche cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test application as a first line primary cervical screening tool in women 25 and older introduces a new era of complex cervical screening choices. Perhaps the most surprising findings in Roche's supporting ATHENA trial data were the unexpectedly low verification bias-adjusted CIN3+ sensitivities documented by the FDA for both the proposed cobas HPV testing algorithm (58.26%) and Pap testing algorithm (42.63%). These unexpectedly low sensitivity estimates suggest intuitively that there is still considerable room for improvement in cervical screening, and available data from large systems point to routine cytology and HPV co-testing as offering the greatest protection against development of cervical cancer. Observational studies of large populations screened over time remain essential to document actual protection from development of cervical cancer with any new cervical screening options, as natural history studies and available data from large systems indicate that most CIN2/3 cases detected in short term clinical trials would not progress to invasive cervical cancer. Interpretation of ATHENA trial data and its application to routine clinical practice is further limited by published studies which document that a significant proportion of CIN2/3 biopsy diagnoses in the ATHENA trial could not be confirmed as accurate when evaluated with p16 immunohistochemistry and that cytology laboratory performance in the trial was notably suboptimal. PMID:24987445

Austin, R. Marshall; Zhao, Chengquan

2014-01-01

236

Segmentation of Cervical Cell Images Asli Kale, Selim Aksoy  

E-print Network

of a computer-assisted screening system that aims early diagnosis of cervical cancer is the accurate procedure used to detect cervical cancer or precancerous changes in an uterine cervix by grading cervical-assisted screening system for Pap smear tests will be very beneficial to prevent cervical cancer if it increases

Aksoy, Selim

237

Managing women with human papillomavirus changes in cervical cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 86 women with cervical cytological evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection who underwent colposcopy, 55 yielded histological confirmation of HPV infection and 17 of them had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 51 women followed up six months after cryotherapy of their cervical lesions, 46 showed no evidence of HPV infection in their cervices. Of the patients with CIN lesions,

S J Winceslaus; C Brown; B T Goh

1988-01-01

238

A combined approach for the treatment of cervical vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical vertigo is a diagnosis commonly made at both otorhinolaringologist and chiropractic offices. Hypothesized nonvascular mechanisms are reviewed. Therapeutic approaches have been suggested in the literature, ranging from cervical immobilization to vertebral manipulation.Objective: To characterize the patient population with cervical vertigo and observe therapeutic results of a treatment protocol by using distinct conservative modalities.Methods: Fifteen subjects with cervical vertigo

Eduardo S. B Bracher; Clemente I. R Almeida; Roberta A Almeida; André C Duprat; Cheri B. B Bracher

2000-01-01

239

Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review  

PubMed Central

Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

2013-01-01

240

Minimally Invasive Cervical Foraminotomy and Decompression of Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many types of degenerative cervical spine disease can be treated with well-established posterior decompressive procedures.1–4 Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides symptomatic\\u000a relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs.3, 5 Similarly, posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of myelopathic\\u000a patients undergoing

John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

241

Characterization of the Human Cervical Mucous Proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. Discovery of biomarkers for the early detection of cervical\\u000a cancer would improve current screening practices and reduce the burden of disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  In this study, we report characterization of the human cervical mucous proteome as the first step towards protein biomarker\\u000a discovery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The protein composition was characterized using one- and

Gitika Panicker; Yiming Ye; Dongxia Wang; Elizabeth R. Unger

2010-01-01

242

Elevated levels of interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma in patients with human T lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) (p70 heterodimer), total IL-12 (p70 heterodimer plus p40 chains), interferon-gamma (IFN-?) as Th1 cytokine, and those of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) as Th2 cytokines in sera and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 22 patients with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy (HAM) were compared with those of 22 patients with other neurological diseases

Takafumi Furuya; Tatsufumi Nakamura; Takeshi Fujimoto; Shunya Nakane; Chiaki Kambara; Susumu Shirabe; Shinji Hamasaki; Masakatsu Motomura; Katsumi Eguchi

1999-01-01

243

Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review.  

PubMed

Recurrent spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder has rarely been reported in English articles. This condition may be difficult to diagnosis before a laparotomy due to acute peritonitis. Herein we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/topical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). PMID:24719820

Feizzadeh Kerigh, Behzad; Boostani, Reza; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2014-03-01

244

Recurrent Spontaneous Rupture of the Urinary Bladder in a Patient With Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Recurrent spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder has rarely been reported in English articles. This condition may be difficult to diagnosis before a laparotomy due to acute peritonitis. Herein we describe a case of recurrent spontaneous rupture of the bladder in a 39-year-old woman with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/topical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). PMID:24719820

Feizzadeh Kerigh, Behzad; Boostani, Reza; Ghoreifi, Alireza

2014-01-01

245

Dietary therapy to promote neuroprotection in chronic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Object The pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is related to both primary mechanical and secondary biological injury. The authors of this study explored a novel, noninvasive method of promoting neuroprotection in myelopathy by using curcumin to minimize oxidative cellular injury and the capacity of omega-3 fatty acids to support membrane structure and improve neurotransmission. Methods An animal model of CSM was created using a nonresorbable expandable polymer placed in the thoracic epidural space, which induced delayed myelopathy. Animals that underwent placement of the expandable polymer were exposed to either a diet rich in docosahexaenoic acid and curcumin (DHA-Cur) or a standard Western diet (WD). Twenty-seven animals underwent serial gait testing, and spinal cord molecular assessments were performed after the 6-week study period. Results At the conclusion of the study period, gait analysis revealed significantly worse function in the WD group than in the DHA-Cur group. Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), syntaxin-3, and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were measured in the thoracic region affected by compression and lumbar enlargement. Results showed that BDNF levels in the DHA-Cur group were not significantly different from those in the intact animals but were significantly greater than in the WD group. Significantly higher lumbar enlargement syntaxin-3 in the DHA-Cur animals combined with a reduction in lipid peroxidation (4-HNE) indicated a possible healing effect on the plasma membrane. Conclusions Data in this study demonstrated that DHA-Cur can promote spinal cord neuroprotection and neutralize the clinical and biochemical effects of myelopathy. PMID:22735048

Holly, Langston T.; Blaskiewicz, Donald; Wu, Aiguo; Feng, Cameron; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2013-01-01

246

New Chemotherapy Drug for Advanced Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, women with cervical cancer that has recurred or demonstrated resistance to previous chemotherapy and that cannot be treated surgically will be treated with the drug ixabepilone.

247

Cervical pregnancy: a report of four cases.  

PubMed

Various conservative treatments for cervical pregnancy have been reported. However, unlike tubal ectopic pregnancy, the treatment of cervical pregnancy has not been well established. For patients who desire fertility preservation, treatment with methotrexate chemotherapy carries a high success rate for preservation of the uterus. When methotrexate is injected i.v. or i.m., expulsion of pregnant tissue occasionally takes up to 1 month. In this report, we present four cases of cervical pregnancy which were successfully managed by methotrexate injection into the bilateral uterine arteries. In cases presenting with massive bleeding, embolization of the bilateral uterine arteries was performed. Cervical pregnancy was aborted within 8 days safely, and fertility could be preserved without harmful side-effects. PMID:24118279

Kochi, Keiko; Hidaka, Takao; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Yoneda, Kenji; Arai, Kazunori; Arai, Takashi

2014-02-01

248

Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity. PMID:16722549

Candelaria, Myrna; Garcia-Arias, Alicia; Cetina, Lucely; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

2006-01-01

249

Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... cancers are treated Cervical cancer prevention and screening: Financial issues Additional resources References Previous Topic How women with abnormal Pap test results or pre-cancers are treated Next Topic Additional ...

250

Cervical premalignant lesions and their management  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the tenth most common cancer in women in developed countries that have national screening programs, while it is in the second line in underdeveloped countries. According to Ministry of Health registry data, cervical cancer is the eighth most common cancer among female cancers in Turkey. Today, the most effective screening for cervical cancer is to obtain smears from the cervix. Therefore, periodic screening programs are of great importance in identifying preinvasive lesions to prevent their progression to invasive cancer. Today, with the use of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, screening programs have brought new insights into the prevention of cervical cancer. Management of preinvasive lesions has to be known by each obstetrics and gynecology specialist. Redundant procedures and treatments can be avoided by directing patients correctly at this step. Cancer phobia should not be created. Ablative or destructive treatments should not be done without histological diagnosis; hysterectomy, which has an equal risk of recurrence, should not be recommended. PMID:24976778

Kose, Faruk M.; Naki, Murat M.

2014-01-01

251

CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable  

MedlinePLUS

... No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

252

Embarazo ectópico cervical. Tratamiento médico conservador  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare complication that can have severe consequences if an early diagnosis is not made. This diagnosis should always be considered in vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy.

A. Rubio; F. Jiménez; M. Herrero; S. Alcalá; C. Sabadell; I. Bruna; M. L. Cano

2005-01-01

253

Quantitative spectroscopy for detection of cervical dysplasia  

E-print Network

The current clinical standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is colposcopy, a procedure that involves visual inspection and biopsy of at-risk tissue, followed by histopathology. The major objective of colposcopy is detection ...

Mirkovi?, Jelena, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

254

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

255

NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past ... gov . What's New Community-wide treatment of ... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The study was conducted in a rural ...

256

Cervical spine injuries in American football.  

PubMed

American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of catastrophic injury is felt to be the result of changes in the rules in the mid-1970s that prohibited the use of the head as the initial contact point when blocking and tackling. Evaluation of patients with suspected cervical spine injury includes a complete neurological examination while on the field or the sidelines. Immobilization on a hard board may also be necessary. The decision to obtain radiographs can be made on the basis of the history and physical examination. Treatment depends on severity of diagnosed injury and can range from an individualized cervical spine rehabilitation programme for a 'stinger' to cervical spine decompression and fusion for more serious bony or ligamentous injury. Still under constant debate is the decision to return to play for the athlete. PMID:19691361

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

2009-01-01

257

Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. This was a retrospective study of clinical and radiological results of cervical arthroplasty using the Bryan cervical disc\\u000a prosthesis to evaluate the efficacy of arthroplasty in clinical applications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. A total of 46 patients underwent arthroplasty of a single level using the Bryan disc prosthesis. Clinical outcome was assessed\\u000a using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the neck

D. H. Yoon; S. Yi; H. C. Shin; K. N. Kim; S. H. Kim

2006-01-01

258

Current Management of Cervical Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy (PLE) has been regarded as a standard treatment for cervical esophageal cancer, but the morbidity\\u000a and mortality rates associated with PLE are substantial. Chemoradiation (CTRT) is widely used to treat esophageal cancer;\\u000a however, its role in managing cervical esophageal cancer has not been fully elucidated. It was hypothesized that up-front\\u000a CTRT could be an effective alternative treatment option to

Daniel King Hung Tong; Simon Law; Dora Lai Wan Kwong; William I. Wei; Raymond Wai Man Ng; Kam Ho Wong

2011-01-01

259

Cervical screening in an Orthodox Jewish community.  

PubMed

This article discusses the possible conflicts of interest in offering cervical screening to Orthodox Jewish women. Women in this community are at lower risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia than the general population and may object to screening because of religious reasons. The author suggests that national targets should be flexible to accommodate different cultures. Practice nurses can then concentrate on providing the most appropriate care for different ethnic minorities. PMID:17436894

Berjon-Aparicio, Sonia

260

Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad  

Cancer.gov

NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cervix coated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), a process known as VIA. Image depicts cervical cancer microvessel density which increases lethality of the cancer.

261

Multifactorial Etiology of Cervical Cancer: A Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the cervix is the second most common life-threatening cancer among women worldwide, with incidence rates ranging from 4.8 per 100,000 women per year in the Middle East to 44.3 per 100,000 in East Africa. Epidemiologic and clinical data demonstrate that human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, play at least a major if not a necessary role in the etiology of cervical cancer. However, many investigators acknowledge that HPV is not sufficient to induce cervical cancer and that a multifactorial etiology is likely. HPV can be found in a growing proportion of patients with cervical cancer, approaching 100%, but is not yet found in every patient with disease. Other factors, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 infections, cigarette smoking, vaginal douching, nutrition, and use of oral contraceptives, have been proposed as contributing factors. In the first half of the 20th century, Peyton Rous and colleagues demonstrated the joint action of tars and Shope papillomavirus to consistently induce squamous cell carcinomas in rabbits. Using the Rous model as a prototype, one might hypothesize that some cases of cervical cancer arise from an interaction between oncogenic viruses and cervical tar exposures. Cervical tar exposures include cigarette smoking, use of tar-based vaginal douches, and long years of inhaling smoke from wood- and coal-burning stoves in poorly ventilated kitchens. PMID:16614679

Haverkos, Harry W.

2005-01-01

262

Conservative Treatment in Early Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to describe fertility preservation methods to improve quality of life of early stages of cervical cancer. Recent finding: Although definite treatment of early stages of cervical cancer including stages IA,IB1 and IIA non-bulky is radial hysterectomy, this method is used in perimenopousal period in which fertility preservation is not important. Whenever fertility preservation is so important, some methods like radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic lymphadenectomy are used to rule out lymphatic metastases. Summary: If any visible lesion on cervix is found, pelvic MRI is helpful and during operation, trachelectomy samples are sent for frozen section and margin study. Radical trachelectomy is done vaginal or abdominal. Overall relapse rate of cervical cancer in radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy is the same. Complications of radical trachelectomy include chronic vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, inflammation and ulcer due to cercelage, amenorrhea, cervical stenosis and pregnancy complications following trachelectomy including 2nd trimester abortion and premature labor following cervical prematurity.The best and preferred method of labor is cesarean section. Neoadjuant chemotherapy followed by radical trachelectomy in large cervical lesions is a suitable treatment. Ultraconservative operations like large cold knife conization, simple trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy and sentinel lymph node mapping are suitable for very small lesions. PMID:24170987

Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Barooti, Esmat; Miratashi-Yazdi, Ashrafosadat; Dehghani, Atefe

2013-01-01

263

Increased Fusion Rates With Cervical Plating for Two Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. A retrospective review of all patients surgically treated with a two-level anterior cervical disc- ectomy and fusion with and without anterior plate fixa- tion by a single surgeon. Objectives. To compare the clinical and radiographic success of two-level discectomy and the effect of anterior cervical plate fixation. Summary of Background Data. Prior studies of multi- segment fusions have

Jeffrey C. Wang; Paul W. McDonough; Kevin K. Endow; Rick B. Delamarter

264

Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols to Missed Injuries  

E-print Network

medical services; ED, emergency department; C spine, cervical spine Western Journalmedical services (EMS) practice is to assume a potential cervical Western Journalmedical services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) personnel. Western Journal

2014-01-01

265

What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Cervical Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer? What should you ask your doctor about cervical cancer? It is important for you to have frank, ... are some questions to consider: What type of cervical cancer do I have? Has my cancer spread beyond ...

266

6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian Past Issues / Spring 2007 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian NCI estimates that endometrial, ...

267

Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

268

Perinatal outcomes following conservative management of cervical dysplasia  

Cancer.gov

Preterm delivery outcomes following Preterm delivery outcomes following LEEP treatment of cervical LEEP treatment of cervical intraepithelial intraepithelial neoplasia neoplasia (CIN) (CIN) Audrey F. Audrey F. Saftlas Saftlas, PhD, MPH , PhD, MPH Department

269

Human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy and tax gene expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes.  

PubMed

Infection by human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with adult T-cell leukemia and a slowly progressive disease of the central nervous system (CNS), HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, characterized pathologically by inflammation and white matter degeneration in the spinal cord. One of the explanations for the tissue destruction is that HTLV-I infects cells in the CNS, or HTLV-I-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes enter the CNS, and this drives local expansion of virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which along with cytokines cause the pathological changes. Because both in the circulation and in the cerebrospinal fluid, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes are primarily reactive to the product of the HTLV-I tax gene, we sought evidence of expression of this gene within cells in the inflammatory lesions. After using double-label in situ hybridization techniques, we now report definitive localization of HTLV-I tax gene expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes in areas of inflammation and white matter destruction. These findings lend support to a hypothetical scheme of neuropathogenesis in which HTLV-I tax gene expression provokes and sustains an immunopathological process that progressively destroys myelin and axons in the spinal cord. PMID:8687197

Moritoyo, T; Reinhart, T A; Moritoyo, H; Sato, E; Izumo, S; Osame, M; Haase, A T

1996-07-01

270

Clinical features of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in northeast Iran.  

PubMed

This study aimed to introduce clinical manifestations of patients in northeast Iran with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and describe the epidemiological features, as well as risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. This is a cross-sectional study of HTLV-1 infected cases and HAM/TSP patients referred by outpatient neurology clinics as well as Mashhad Blood Transfusion Center from 2005 to 2010. The study comprises 513 cases, including 358 healthy carriers (HCs) and 145 HAM/TSP patients. The majority of carriers were male (73.5%), whereas 67.6% of HAM/TSP sufferers were female (P < 0.001). The mean age of HAM/TSP patients and HCs was 45.9 ± 13.6 and 39.5 ± 11.58 years, respectively (P < 0.001). The history of transfusion, surgery, hospitalization and cupping was observed in a significant greater number of HAM/TSP patients than the HCs (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and P = 0.029, respectively). Gait disturbance was the most common complaint in HAM/TSP patients (72.4%). This research develops an HTLV-1 data registry in an endemic area such as Mashhad which can serve useful purposes, including evaluation of clinical and laboratory characteristics of HAM/TSP patients and epidemiological data of HTLV-1-infected cases. PMID:23568138

Shoeibi, Ali; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Azarpazhooh, Amir; Mokhber, Naghme; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Amin; Hashemi, Peyman; Foroghipour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Reza Farid; Bazarbachi, Ali; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza

2013-12-01

271

Clinical Pathophysiology of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus-Type 1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), a human retrovirus, is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Approximately 0.25–3.8% of HTLV-1-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP, which is more common in women than in men. Since the discovery of HAM/TSP, significant advances have been made with respect to elucidating the virological, molecular, and immunopathological mechanisms underlying this disease. These findings suggest that spinal cord invasion by HTLV-1-infected T cells triggers a strong virus-specific immune response and increases proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to chronic lymphocytic inflammation and tissue damage in spinal cord lesions. However, little progress has been made in the development of an optimal treatment for HAM/TSP, more specifically in the identification of biomarkers for predicting disease progression and of molecular targets for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathological mechanisms. This review summarizes current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease. PMID:23162542

Yamano, Yoshihisa; Sato, Tomoo

2012-01-01

272

Cervical injuries under flexion and compression loading.  

PubMed

Cervical spine segmental tests were performed to determine the specific patterns of initial cervical injury in response to loading just beyond the point of structural failure. Well-defined combinations of flexion rotation and compression translation were applied to segments with varying degrees of disc and facet degeneration. Twelve cervical spine specimens (from human cadavers ages 52-91 years), each consisting of three vertebrae (two motion segments) from the middle (C2-C5) or lower (C5-T1) regions, were subjected to pure flexion rotation (seven specimens) or to combined flexion rotation and axial compression translation (five specimens). Specimens were sectioned and dissected to determine the patterns of structural failure. Pure flexion, and combined flexion and compression produced similar patterns of injuries. The disc was the most commonly injured structure, with annular injuries noted in 8 of the 12 specimens, and with anterior herniation of the nucleus occurring in two specimens. Wedge fractures and posterior ligament injuries were noted in both specimen groups and with both modes of loading. We conclude that similar patterns of initial anterior bony compressive failure and posterior ligamentous failure can occur with both flexion and with combined flexion-compression, without axial or lateral rotation, at low rates of loading. Anterior cervical disc herniations were produced in both middle and lower cervical segments. PMID:8504231

Crowell, R R; Shea, M; Edwards, W T; Clothiaux, P L; White, A A; Hayes, W C

1993-04-01

273

Biomechanical analysis of the anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

This paper presents a biomechanical analysis of the cervical C5-C6 functional spine unit before and after the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the medical procedure and its instrumentation on range of motion and stress distribution. First, a three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine is obtained from computed tomography images using a pipeline of image processing, geometric modelling and mesh generation software. Then, a finite element study of parameters' influence on motion and a stress analysis at physiological and different post-operative scenarios were made for the basic movements of the cervical spine. It was confirmed that the results were very sensitive to intervertebral disc properties. The insertion of an anterior cervical plate influenced the stress distribution at the vertebral level as well as in the bone graft. Additionally, stress values in the graft decreased when it is used together with a cage. PMID:21806410

Fernandes, P C; Fernandes, P R; Folgado, J O; Levy Melancia, J

2012-01-01

274

Management of fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine with the cervical pedicle screw system  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Usually, cervical pedicle screw fixation has been considered too risky for neurovascular structures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the method and efficacy of the cervical pedicle screw system for fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine because of its rigid fixation. PATIENTS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted involving 48 patients with cervical spine fracture-dislocation who underwent cervical pedicle screw fixation surgery between January 2003 and January 2007. All patients had various degrees of cord injury, and they were classified according to the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale: 18 cases were grade A, 15 grade B, 10 grade C, and 5 grade D. RESULTS Six months after the operation, all patients had achieved solid bony fusion and stable fixation of the related segments. Thirty patients with incomplete spinal cord injury improved their ASIA Impairment Scale classification by 1 to 2 grades after the operation. Eighteen patients with complete spinal cord injury had no improvement in neural function. However, nerve root symptoms such as pain and numbness were alleviated to some extent. CONCLUSIONS The cervical pedicle screw system is an effective and reliable method for the restoration of cervical stability. Sufficient pre-operative imaging studies of the pedicles and strict screw insertion technique should be emphasised. PMID:20487593

Zhou, Feng; Zou, Jun; Gan, Minfeng; Zhu, Ruofu; Yang, Huilin

2010-01-01

275

Human papillomavirus infection, cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A substantial body of evidence has confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central etiological agent in human cervical carcinogenesis. In Honduras, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a high annual incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of 229 patients with different grades of CIN and invasive cervical cancer and 438 matched controls. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate known and probable risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical scrapes were tested for the presence of different HPV types using a general primer-mediated PCR followed by PCR-based sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 87% of all cancer in situ and invasive cancer cases, and 95% of invasive cases could be attributed to high-risk types. In control women, 39% were positive for HPV DNA sequences. HPV 16 prevalence ranked highest in all stages of cervical dysplasias, invasive cancers and controls. A statistically significant association with HPV was observed for CIN II, CIN III and invasive cancer, showing an upward trend to more severe lesions and being more pronounced for HPV 16 and related types. The OR for HPV 16- and 18-related invasive cancer cases was 14.88 (95% CI 5.12-43.25) and 74.66 (95% CI 7.77-717.62), respectively. Our results confirm a central role of HPV as the cause of cervical cancer in Honduras and provide information as to the type distribution of HPVs in the country. PMID:10446444

Ferrera, A; Velema, J P; Figueroa, M; Bulnes, R; Toro, L A; Claros, J M; De Barahona, O; Melchers, W J

1999-09-01

276

Cervical thymuses exist, but no cervical thymomas develop in thoracic thymoma-prone BUF rats  

PubMed Central

To confirm the existence of the cervical thymus and the development of cervical thymoma in thymoma-prone BUF/Mna (BUF) rats, we examined cervical organs and adjacent tissues, and thoracic thymic tissues of the three inbred strains, BUF, ACI/NMna (ACI), and WKY/NCrj (WKY), and 11 congenic strains, in which genetic regions of rat nude (Rnu), thymus enlargement-1 and thymus enlargement-2 (Ten1 and Ten2), thymoma susceptibility of rat-1 (Tsr1), atrophy of fast-twitch muscles-1 (Aftm1) and proteinuria of rat-1 (Pur1) were transferred into BUF, ACI or WKY rats. These organs and tissues were fixed en block in 10% formalin and cut coronally into four to six slices of 3-mm thickness, depending on the age of the rat, and embedded together in one block for each rat. Sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Cervical thymuses were detected in 12–21% of rats from these inbred and congenic strains. No cervical thymuses were found in BUF-Rnu/Rnu rats, which were athymic. All of 42 BUF, 2 of 55 BUF-Rnu/+ and 28 of 33 ACI-Tsr1/Tsr1 rats survived more than 52 weeks, and developed thoracic thymoma, but no cervical thymomas did. It is therefore clear that cervical thymuses behave differently from thoracic thymuses in spontaneous thymomagenesis in BUF rats. PMID:21314740

Yamada, Tetsuji; Matsuyama, Mutsushi; Yanagida, Takamasa; Kato, Kazuo; Sugiura, Seiji; Kuroda, Makoto

2011-01-01

277

The Association between Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status and Cervical Cancer Screening Rates and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Monroe County.  

E-print Network

??Background/Significance: More research is needed to determine the association between contextual socioeconomic status (SES), racial/ethnic clustering and cervical cancer screenings and/or cervical precancer rates. If… (more)

Licon, Denisse B.

2013-01-01

278

Isometric cervical extension force and dimensions of semispinalis capitis muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of the human cervical region has a special complexity. Ultrasonography is a scanning technique, which has been successfully used to identify and measure the cervical muscle dimensions. The purpose of this study was to detect with the use of real-time ultrasonography the dimen- sional changes of the human semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) during isometric cervical extension. Six junior

Asghar Rezasoltani; Jari Ylinen; Veikko Vihko

279

Integrating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Cervical Cancer Control Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening with Pap cytology has substantially reduced cervical cancer morbidity and mortality during the last 50 years in high-income countries. Unfortunately, in resource-poor countries, Pap screening has either not been effectively implemented or has failed to reduce cervical cancer rates. Cervical cancer in these countries thus remains a major public health problem. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types is

Eduardo L. Franco; François Coutlée; Alex Ferenczy

2009-01-01

280

Systemic Therapy for Cervical Cancer with Potentially Regulatable Oncolytic Adenoviruses  

E-print Network

Systemic Therapy for Cervical Cancer with Potentially Regulatable Oncolytic Adenoviruses Anna cervical cancer, but the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone was not strong enough to provide significant for Cervical Cancer with Potentially Regulatable Oncolytic Adenoviruses. PLoS ONE 3(8): e2917. doi:10

Hemminki, Akseli

281

SVM Based Feature Screening Applied To Hierarchical Cervical Cancer Detection  

E-print Network

SVM Based Feature Screening Applied To Hierarchical Cervical Cancer Detection £ Jiayong Zhang to cervical cancer detection in multispectral PAP smear images that has been recently proposed by the authors Detection Region Merging Region Detection Cancerous Regions (c) Figure 1: A bottom-up approach to cervical

282

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cervical cancer prevention in reproductive health  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cervical cancer prevention in reproductive health services: knowledge , François Dabis2,3 , Annie J Sasco2,3 and Didier K Ekouevi1,2,3 Abstract Background: Cervical cancer. Part of the solution could come from midwives by integrating cervical cancer prevention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

283

Spectroscopic Detection of Cervical Pre-Cancer through Radial Basis  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic Detection of Cervical Pre-Cancer through Radial Basis Function Networks Kagan Tumer of Texas at Austin Abstract The mortality related to cervical cancer can be substantially re- duced through statistical algorithms. 1 Introduction Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer in women worldwide

Ghosh, Joydeep

284

Cervical Cancer Detection Using SVM Based Feature Screening  

E-print Network

Cervical Cancer Detection Using SVM Based Feature Screening Jiayong Zhang and Yanxi Liu the proposed method to a bottom-up approach for automatic cervical cancer detection in multispectral cervical screening extract morphometric/photometric features at the cellular level in accordance

285

MEETING ABSTRACTS Open Access Challenges in integrating cervical cancer  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACTS Open Access Challenges in integrating cervical cancer screening in HIV care in women. Facing the particularly high burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, preventive measures describe here some of the operational aspects of a cervical cancer screening procedure based on visual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregnancy with colposcopy.  

PubMed

During a 6 1/2 year study period the authors used colposcopy to evaluate 174 pregnant patients with abnormal cervical cytology. The technique of colposcopy proved safe, accurate, and effective in determining the presence or absence of cervical cancer in the present patient's cervix. Colposcopy is mandatory for the evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregancy. PMID:463975

Ostergard, D R; Nieberg, R K

1979-08-01

287

Risk factors for rapid-onset cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The current study was designed to elucidate risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer during the course of routine Papanicolaou smear screening (rapid-onset cervical cancer). Study Design: Four hundred eighty-three women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, representing 73% of all such tumors diagnosed in Connecticut between 1985 and 1990, were studied. Papanicolaou smear screening and risk factor

Allan Hildesheim; Olympia Hadjimichael; Peter E. Schwartz; Cosette M. Wheeler; Willard Barnes; David M. Lowell; Jerry Willett; Mark Schiffman

1999-01-01

288

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

1997-09-15

289

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

290

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-10-30

291

Cervical meningocele and associated spinal anomalies.  

PubMed

Simple meningoceles are infrequent forms of dysraphism and are often benign. They have been associated with other spinal anomalies. The uncommon cervical meningocele may have a higher propensity to be associated with other spinal anomalies. Four patients with cervical meningocele are presented with radiographic evaluation and clinical course. Multiple abnormalities were documented radiographically and operatively, including hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, lipomeningomyelocele, tethered cord, thickened filum terminale, diastematomyelia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and thoracic hemivertebrae. Prior to the development of any late neurological abnormality from associated spinal anomalies, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended early in a child born with a simple meningocele. PMID:3652068

Delashaw, J B; Park, T S; Cail, W M; Vollmer, D G

1987-01-01

292

Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

Kaarthigeyan, K.

2012-01-01

293

[Updates of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. Clinical results and complication of surgery for thoracic myelopathy due to ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament].  

PubMed

We performed 3 types of surgical procedures for thoracic myelopathy due to OPLL : posterior decompression, OPLL-extirpation, and posterior decompression with instrumented fusion (PDF) . A considerable degree of neurological recovery was obtained in all patients who underwent PDF, despite the anterior impingement of the spinal cord by OPLL remaining. In addition, the rate of post-operative complications was extremely low with PDF, when compared with posterior decompression and OPLL-extirpation groups. We recommend that one stage posterior decompression with instrumented fusion be selected for cases in whom the spinal cord is severely damaged pre-operatively. PMID:19794260

Yamazaki, Masashi

2009-10-01

294

The pathogenesis of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia type I-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-cell leukemia type I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) is caused by a human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) after a long incubation period. TSP/HAM is characterized by a chronic progressive paraparesis with sphincter disturbances, no/mild sensory loss, the absence of spinal cord compression and seropositivity for HTLV-I antibodies. The pathogenesis of this entity is not completely known and involves a multivariable phenomenon of immune system activation against the presence of HTLV-I antigens, leading to an inflammatory process and demyelination, mainly in the thoracic spinal cord. The current hypothesis about the pathogenesis of TSP/HAM is: 1) presence of HTLV-I antigens in the lumbar spinal cord, noted by an increased DNA HTLV-I load; 2) CTL either with their lytic functions or release/production of soluble factors, such as CC-chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion molecules; 3) the presence of Tax gene expression that activates T-cell proliferation or induces an inflammatory process in the spinal cord; 4) the presence of B cells with neutralizing antibody production, or complement activation by an immune complex phenomenon, and 5) lower IL-2 and IFN-gamma production and increased IL-10, indicating drive to a cytokine type 2 pattern in the TSP/HAM subjects and the existence of a genetic background such as some HLA haplotypes. All of these factors should be implicated in TSP/HAM and further studies are necessary to investigate their role in the development of TSP/HAM. PMID:11105090

Casseb, J; Penalva-de-Oliveira, A C

2000-12-01

295

CSF CXCL10, CXCL9, and Neopterin as Candidate Prognostic Biomarkers for HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) -associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. Since the disease course of HAM/TSP varies among patients, there is a dire need for biomarkers capable of predicting the rate of disease progression. However, there have been no studies to date that have compared the prognostic values of multiple potential biomarkers for HAM/TSP. Methodology/Principal Findings Peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1-infected control subjects were obtained and tested retrospectively for several potential biomarkers, including chemokines and other cytokines, and nine optimal candidates were selected based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Next, we evaluated the relationship between these candidates and the rate of disease progression in HAM/TSP patients, beginning with a first cohort of 30 patients (Training Set) and proceeding to a second cohort of 23 patients (Test Set). We defined “deteriorating HAM/TSP” as distinctly worsening function (?3 grades on Osame's Motor Disability Score (OMDS)) over four years and “stable HAM/TSP” as unchanged or only slightly worsened function (1 grade on OMDS) over four years, and we compared the levels of the candidate biomarkers in patients divided into these two groups. The CSF levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10), CXCL9, and neopterin were well-correlated with disease progression, better even than HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs. Importantly, these results were validated using the Test Set. Conclusions/Significance As the CSF levels of CXCL10, CXCL9, and neopterin were the most strongly correlated with rate of disease progression, they represent the most viable candidates for HAM/TSP prognostic biomarkers. The identification of effective prognostic biomarkers could lead to earlier detection of high-risk patients, more patient-specific treatment options, and more productive clinical trials. PMID:24130912

Sato, Tomoo; Coler-Reilly, Ariella; Utsunomiya, Atae; Araya, Natsumi; Yagishita, Naoko; Ando, Hitoshi; Yamauchi, Junji; Inoue, Eisuke; Ueno, Takahiko; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Jacobson, Steven; Izumo, Shuji; Yamano, Yoshihisa

2013-01-01

296

Infective dermatitis has similar immunological features to human T lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis  

PubMed Central

Human T lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of the HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH). Over-production of proinflammatory cytokines and an increase in HTLV-1 proviral load are features of HAM/TSP, but the immunological basis of IDH has not been established. In addition to severe cutaneous manifestations, the importance of IDH relies on the observation that up to 30% of children with IDH develop HAM/TSP in childhood and adolescence. In this study we determined the immune response in patients with IDH measuring interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-? and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? levels as well as the HTLV-1 proviral load. Additionally, regulatory cytokines and anti-cytokines were added to cultures to evaluate the ability of these molecules to down-modulate TNF-? and IFN-? synthesis. HTLV-1 carriers and patients with HAM/TSP served as controls. TNF-? and IFN-? levels were higher in IDH than in HTLV-1 carriers. There was no difference in IFN-? and TNF-? concentrations in IDH and HAM/TSP patients. There was a tendency for higher IL-4 mRNA expression and immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in IDH than in HTLV-1 carriers, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. The HTLV-1 proviral load was significantly higher in IDH patients than in HTLV-1 carriers. IDH is characterized by an exaggerated Th1 immune response and high HTLV-1 proviral load. The similarities between the immunological response in patients with IDH and HAM/TSP and the high proviral load observed in IDH provide support that IDH is a risk factor for development of HAM/TSP. PMID:19438598

Nascimento, M C F; Primo, J; Bittencourt, A; Siqueira, I; de Fatima Oliveira, M; Meyer, R; Schriefer, A; Santos, S B; Carvalho, E M

2009-01-01

297

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

MedlinePLUS

... the neck area, the first vertebrae of the thoracic spine, and the disk spaces in between them. The ... with you and explain what they mean. In case of an injury or other emergency, the results of a cervical spine X-ray can be available quickly. Otherwise, they' ...

298

Improving Cervical Cancer Screening in Hospital Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Identifying opportunities to offer cervical cancer screening to underscreened women is important for increasing early detection. Maryland law mandates offering Pap tests during hospital admissions. We examined organizational and physician attitudes and practices regarding inpatient screening, to identify mechanisms for increasing the law's effectiveness.Methods: We analyzed state admission data, a hospital administrators telephone survey, and a mailed survey of

Ann Klassen; Allyson Hall; Janice Bowie; Carol S. Weisman

2000-01-01

299

[Use of xeroradiography in cervical pneumomyelography].  

PubMed

For diagnosing lesions of cervical intervertebral disks, pneumomyelography is carried out in addition to diskography in cases with an indication for surgery. The application of xeroradiography in pneumomyelography is discussed for the first time. In contrast to the conventional X-ray film technique, xeroradiograms yield shraper contours at the gas/tissue interface. PMID:6858465

Gyimóti, G; Kiss, M; Péntek, Z; Csanaky, A

1983-01-01

300

Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

2005-01-01

301

Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25–50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

Kenji Endo; Katsuji Ichimaru; Mashashi Komagata; Kengo Yamamoto

2006-01-01

302

Cervical Bruits: Clinical Correlates of Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the relationship among characteristics of buits, degree of under lying stenosis, and neurologic symptom complexes, the authors studied 157 patients with bruits undergoing digital subtraction angiography. Symptom status assignment (definite lateralizing, possible lateralizing, vertebrobasilar, diffuse, and asymptomatic) and cervical auscultation for location, duration, and other bruit characteristics were performed independently. Bruit occurrence was asso ciated with stenosis of

Linda Goldman; Richard L. Koller; Steven S. Lebow; Ruth B. Loewenson; David C. Anderson

1991-01-01

303

Osteochondroma of the cervical spine MR findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two cases of osteochondroma in the region of the cervical spine. The magnetic resonance (MR) images well demonstrated the relationship of the tumor, the spinal cord, and adjacent soft tissue, but correct diagnosis by MR imaging was difficult in one patient due to unusual gadolinium enhancement. Computed tomography played an important role in these patients by demonstrating the

Minoru Morikawa; Yuji Numaguchi; Joseph A. Soliman

1995-01-01

304

Management of cervical carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelvic malignancy complicating pregnancy poses a difficult management problem. Survival of the patient is the foremost concern, but fetal viability and well-being are also factors that have to be addressed in these cases. Cervical cancer is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy, but is still the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in pregnancy. Because of the relative infrequency of this condition, guidelines for

Ram Eitan; Nadeem R Abu-Rustum

2003-01-01

305

Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

2014-01-01

306

Information provision in cervical screening in Australia.  

PubMed

The National Cervical Screening Program and associated state and territory organisations are responsible for promoting cervical screening. Communication via multiple media channels encourages women to be screened. However, some communications are not clear about the risk of cervical cancer and the protective capacity and reliability of the Pap test. The potential harms of screening are rarely presented. Women usually receive Pap tests from general practitioners, who often screen opportunistically during appointments. Screening targets and incentive payments encourage high screening rates. Consent is an important ethical principle in the delivery of all health care. Provision of material information is one of the elements of valid consent. The combination of arguably ambiguous communications, screening participation targets and opportunistic testing under time pressure seems likely to undermine opportunities for women to be informed. Of particular concern are women who are less likely to benefit, those who are more likely to experience harm, and some groups of disadvantaged women. Improved communications could include providing patients with information on the absolute risk of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs internationally have begun providing such information. Areas for further research include the appropriate roles of the programs, screeners and individuals in providing and seeking information. Such work would identify the optimum method for informing women in the screening process. PMID:25163384

Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

2014-09-01

307

Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2012-06-08

308

FTS (fused toes homolog) a novel oncoprotein involved in uterine cervical carcinogenesis and a potential diagnostic marker for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The high incidence and fatality rate of uterine cervical cancer warrant effective diagnostic and therapeutic target identification for this disease. Here, we have found a novel oncoprotein FTS (Fused Toes Homolog), which is involved in cervical cancer pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human cervical biopsy samples revealed that the expression of FTS is absent in normal cervical epithelium but progressively overexpressed in human cervical intraneoplastic lesions (CIN-I to CIN-III), this characteristic phenomenon put this protein, a potential diagnostic marker for the screening of early neoplastic changes of cervix. Using FTS-specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in cervical cancer cells, we determined a specific role for FTS protein in, cervical neoplasia. Targeted stable knock down of FTS in HeLa cells led to the growth inhibition, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis with concurrent increase in p21 protein. FTS effectively represses the p21 mRNA expression in dual luciferase assay which indicates that p21 is transcriptionally regulated by this oncoprotein which in turn affect the regular cell-cycle process and its components. Consistent with this we found a reciprocal association between these proteins in early cervical neoplastic tissues. These data unraveled the involvement of new oncoprotein FTS in cervical cancer which plays a central role in carcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of FTS lead to the shutdown of key elemental characteristics of cervical cancer and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer. PMID:20945372

Cinghu, Senthilkumar; Anandharaj, Arunkumar; Lee, Ho-chang; Yu, Jae-Ran; Park, Woo-Yoon

2011-06-01

309

Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?  

PubMed

Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

Aggarwal, Pakhee

2014-10-10

310

Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol’s iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

Aggarwal, Pakhee

2014-01-01

311

Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) and tropical spastic paraparesis or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy in Hawaii.  

PubMed Central

Tropical spastic paraparesis or human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy is a degenerative encephalomyelopathy with pyramidal tract dysfunction affecting the lower extremities. It is associated with HTLV-I infection and found primarily in the Caribbean region and in southwestern Japan. Five cases of tropical spastic paraparesis (or HTLV-I-associated myelopathy) in Hawaii are reported. All five patients were born in Hawaii; four are women. Each of the patients has parents who were from HTLV-I-endemic areas of Japan. Two of these patients had serum antibodies to HTLV-I. Five of six of the spouses and children of the seropositive patients were also seropositive. Viral cultures of lymphocytes from both seropositive patients and two of the three seropositive children were positive for HTLV-I. None of the five patients had a history of antecedent blood transfusion, multiple sexual partners, or intravenous drug use. There is no evidence of adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma in any of the patients or their families. Given the increasing seroprevalence of HTLV-I in the United States, clinicians need to be alert to new cases of this disorder. Images PMID:2139754

Dixon, P. S.; Bodner, A. J.; Okihiro, M.; Milbourne, A.; Diwan, A.; Nakamura, J. M.

1990-01-01

312

Role of Neuronal Interferon-? in the Development of Myelopathy in Rats Infected with Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of not only adult T-cell leukemia but also HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Among the rat strains infected with HTLV-1, chronic progressive myelopathy, named HAM rat disease, occurs exclusively in WKAH rats. In the present study, we found that HTLV-1 infection induces interferon (IFN)-? production in the spinal cords of HAM-resistant strains but not in those of WKAH rats. Neurons were the major cells that produced IFN-? in HTLV-1-infected, HAM-resistant strains. Administration of IFN-? suppressed expression of pX, the gene critically involved in the onset of HAM rat disease, in an HTLV-1-immortalized rat T-cell line, indicating that IFN-? protects against the development of HAM rat disease. The inability of WKAH spinal cord neurons to produce IFN-? after infection appeared to stem from defects in signaling through the interleukin (IL)-12 receptor. Specifically, WKAH-derived spinal cord cells were unable to up-regulate the IL-12 receptor ?2 gene in response to IL-12 stimulation. We suggest that the failure of spinal cord neurons to produce IFN-? through the IL-12 pathway is involved in the development of HAM rat disease. PMID:16816372

Miyatake, Yukiko; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Ishizu, Akihiro; Baba, Tomohisa; Ichihashi, Toru; Suzuki, Akira; Tomaru, Utano; Kasahara, Masanori; Yoshiki, Takashi

2006-01-01

313

Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression. PMID:22443139

2012-01-01

314

CD83 Polymorphisms and Cervical Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives Studies have suggested that polymorphisms in genes involved in immune recognition and antigen presentation are associated with cervical cancer risk. We sought to replicate a recent study which reported an association between specific SNPs on CD83 and cervical cancer and to further explore whether effects varied by age, clinical stage (in situ versus invasive), and histology (squamous carcinomas versus adenocarcinomas). Methods We evaluated the association between SNPs on CD83 and cervical cancer in a multicenter case-control study of cervical cancer conducted in the Eastern United States (263 cases, 307 controls), focusing on the five SNPs (RS9296925, RS853360, RS9230, RS9370729, RS750749) previously found to be associated with cervical cancer. We also pooled data from the Eastern U.S. (263 cases) with those from the original report (377 cases) to assess the effects of CD83 on the age at diagnosis, disease stage, and histology. Risk estimates (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression; trend tests were performed under an additive model. Results Consistent with the original report, carriers of the CT or CC genotypes for one of the five CD83 SNPs evaluated (rs750749) demonstrated a 30% and 50% reduction in disease risk, relative to carriers of the more common TT genotype (p-trend = 0.02). Two additional SNPs also resulted in consistent findings (rs9296925: p-trend = 0.07 and rs9370729: p-trend = 0.08), although the effects observed did not reach statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Pooled evaluation of cases from the two aforementioned studies suggested differences in the distribution of susceptibility alleles by histology; adenocarcinoma cases were more likely to be carriers of the susceptibility alleles for SNP rs9370729 (p-trend = 0.02) and SNP rs750749 (p-trend = 0.09). No differences were observed in the age or stage of diagnosis of carriers for CD83 susceptibility alleles relative to non-carriers. Conclusions We confirm an association between CD83 polymorphisms and cervical cancer and suggest the possibility that CD83-disease associations might be heterogenous by tumor histology. PMID:19446866

Yu, Kelly J.; Rader, Janet S.; Borecki, Ingrid; Zhang, Zhengyan; Hildesheim, Allan

2009-01-01

315

DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening  

SciTech Connect

New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

Merz, B.

1988-11-18

316

Management of cervical thorium dioxide granulomas.  

PubMed

Thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) was used extensively in the United States from the 1930s through the 1950s for contrast radiography, including cerebral angiography. Its use was discontinued after the pathologic consequences of tumor formation and local fibrotic reaction (thorium dioxide granuloma) were recognized. The latency period for the development of these consequences is 20 to 30 years and, thus, has not expired. Radical surgical excision in an attempt to remove cervical thorium dioxide granulomas and their ionizing radiation has been advocated previously. A case prompted reconsideration of this management. Total surgical removal does not seem possible and is extremely hazardous in those cases with a patent carotid artery adjacent to the cervical granuloma. More cases should be expected, and each case should be approached individually as to benefits and risks of attempted surgical removal of the granuloma. Radical surgery is not always the treatment of choice. PMID:7283829

Stanley, R B; Calcaterra, T C

1981-10-01

317

Cervical thymic cyst in an adult.  

PubMed

Cervical thymic cysts (CTCs) are unusual lesions, representing only 1% of cystic cervical masses. Diagnosis of this condition in adults is even rarer. We report a 34-year-old female who presented with asymptomatic progressively growing left-sided neck swelling. Neck ultrasound (US) showed a large cystic lesion with septation, compressing the ipsilateral vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the US findings. Surgical excision was performed which subsequently showed findings consistent with CTC. CTC in adult is extremely rare, with few reported cases identified in the literature. Thymic gland anomalies in the neck are the consequences of an arrest in the descent of the gland, sequestration of the thymic tissue, or failure of involution. The diagnosis of this condition is rarely done prior to surgical excision. The clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, surgical findings, and histologic appearance are all essential components to make the correct diagnosis of this very rare differential diagnosis of cystic lateral neck swelling. PMID:24876986

Alzahrani, Hassan A; Iqbal, Javeria M; Abu Shaheen, Amani K; Al Harthi, Bandar N

2014-01-01

318

Cervical Thymic Cyst in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Cervical thymic cysts (CTCs) are unusual lesions, representing only 1% of cystic cervical masses. Diagnosis of this condition in adults is even rarer. We report a 34-year-old female who presented with asymptomatic progressively growing left-sided neck swelling. Neck ultrasound (US) showed a large cystic lesion with septation, compressing the ipsilateral vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the US findings. Surgical excision was performed which subsequently showed findings consistent with CTC. CTC in adult is extremely rare, with few reported cases identified in the literature. Thymic gland anomalies in the neck are the consequences of an arrest in the descent of the gland, sequestration of the thymic tissue, or failure of involution. The diagnosis of this condition is rarely done prior to surgical excision. The clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, surgical findings, and histologic appearance are all essential components to make the correct diagnosis of this very rare differential diagnosis of cystic lateral neck swelling. PMID:24876986

Alzahrani, Hassan A.; Iqbal, Javeria M.; Abu Shaheen, Amani K.; Al Harthi, Bandar N.

2014-01-01

319

Convergence of cervical and trigeminal sensory afferents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial nociceptive perception shows a distinct topographic distribution, with the trigeminal nerve receiving sensory information\\u000a from the anterior portions of the head, the greater occipital nerve, and branches of the upper cervical roots in the posterior\\u000a regions. However, this distribution is not respected during headache attacks, even if the etiology of the headache is specific\\u000a for only one nerve. Nociceptive

Elcio J. Piovesan; Pedro A. Kowacs; Michael L. Oshinsky

2003-01-01

320

Surgical treatment of cervical spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore operative methods for cervical spinal cord tumors. Methods: According to their different sites and histopathological types, 71 cases (intramedullary: 23 cases; and extramedullary: 48 cases) were surgically treated with different approaches and methods. Results: Tumors were totally removed in 16 of 23 (69.6%) intramedullary cases and 44 of 48 (91.7%) extramedullary cases. Eighteen of twenty-three intramedullary cases

Shengde Bao; K Tan; Y. F Zhang; W. Y Huo; J. Y Zhang

2004-01-01

321

75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

2010-02-18

322

76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

2011-05-26

323

77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

2012-11-05

324

Spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection following cervical manipulation.  

PubMed

We report an autopsy case of a bilateral carotid artery dissection, following cervical manipulation by a chiropractor. To establish the etiology of a cervical artery dissection is important in view of possible legal implications and to exclude hereditary disorders, since cervical artery dissection has been linked to several arteriopathies. The underlying arteriopathy in the presented case was an idiopathic cystic medial degeneration. This report emphasizes the role of the pathologist in defining the underlying arteriopathy in carotid artery dissection. PMID:22633562

Carprieaux, Marilyn; Michotte, Alex; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Marichal, Miriam Pipeleers

2012-09-01

325

Risk factors for invasive cervical cancer in Latino women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most invasive cervical cancer research in the United States has been conducted on non-Latino-White (NLW) and African-American women. Incidence, mortality, stage at diagnosis and survival indicators for invasive cervical cancer in Latino women in California are compared to NLW and African-American women. A model is presented which depicts structural, behavioral, genetic and biological risk factors for invasive cervical cancer. A

Anna Nápoles-Springer; Eugene Washington

1996-01-01

326

PIK3CA as an oncogene in cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification of chromosome arm 3q is the most consistent aberration in cervical cancer, and is implicated in the progression of dysplastic uterine cervical cells into invasive cancer. The present study employed the ‘positional candidate gene’ strategy to determine the contribution of PIK3CA, which is located in 3q26.3, in cervical tumorigenesis. PIK3CA is known to be involved in the PI 3-kinase\\/AKT

Yen-Ying Ma; Sung-Jen Wei; Yu-Chen Lin; Jia-Chyi Lung; Ting-Chang Chang; Jacqueline Whang-Peng; Jacqueline M Liu; Deng-Mei Yang; Wen K Yang; Chen-Yang Shen

2000-01-01

327

Evaluation of FDG PET in Patients with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many human cancers can be imaged by 2-(18F)-fluoro- 2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and PET,there is little clinical experi ence with FDG PET in cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of FDG PET scans on patients with cervical cancer. Methods: FDG PET scans were performed on 21 patients with histologically proven uterine cervical cancer (17 newly

Yoshifumi Sugawara; Avraham Eisbruch; Shigeru Kosuda; Betty E. Recker; Paul V. Kison; Richard L. Wahl

328

[Cervical meningocele with filiform connection. Case report].  

PubMed

The meningocele is the least common form of spina bifida cystica and represents less than 10% of cases of this disorder. A case of a female patient aged 26 with a history of two pregnancies and two previous cesarean sections, present pregnancy unplanned, uncontrolled during the first trimester prenatal and without supplementation with folic acid. Family history of consanguinity with her husband (second cousins) and psychomotor reassessed in four maternal cousins. The first follow-up visit the patient was at 34 weeks of pregnancy. The ultrasonographic findings were: cervical meningocele posterior filiform connection between the first and second cervical vertebrae, lateral ventriculomegaly and third and fourth ventricles and hydrocephalus secondary. Cesarean section was performed at 37 weeks gestation and was a newborn male 3.000 g, 52 cm, head circumference of 36 cm, Apgar 8/9, Capurro 37 weeks of gestation. In the posterior cervical region tumor was located a soft 5 x 5 cm with intact skin, adhered to deep planes. Movement of all four extremities without neurological involvement. He referred to the department of neurosurgery for shunt placement and subsequently performed surgical excision of the meningocele. PMID:21966848

Kerckoff-Villanueva, Hugo H; Bautista-Melgoza, Armando; Rodríguez-Márquez, Diana M

2011-08-01

329

Histopathology of cervical precursor lesions and cancer.  

PubMed

The most frequent types of cervical cancer are squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, which develop from the distinctive precursor lesions cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) / squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), respectively. Their tumorigenesis is HPV-related. High-risk HPV (e.g., types 16 and 18) is integrated into the genome and leads to tumor progression. Cytological screening leads to detection of precursors and their mimics. P16 and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry assists in the histological differential diagnosis of precursors to reactive and metaplastic epithelium. For invasive cervical carcinoma, stage is the strongest prognostic factor. Per definition, microinvasive (pT1a1 / pT1a2) carcinoma is diagnosed histologically on cone biopsies and treated less radically. The distinction between adenocarcinomas of the cervix and endometrial adenocarcinomas is important and can be supported by immunohistochemistry (e.g., ER, p16, CEA, and vimentin) and HPV in-situ hybridization. The rarer adenoid-basal and neuroendocrine carcinomas are less frequently HPV-related. PMID:22131112

Lax, Sigurd

2011-09-01

330

Cervical cancer screening among vulnerable women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To see if refugee women at a community health centre (CHC) in Toronto, Ont, are appropriately screened for cervical cancer and if there are any demographic characteristics that affect whether they are screened. Design Chart review. Setting A CHC in downtown Toronto. Participants A total of 357 eligible refugee women attending the CHC. Main outcome measures Papanicolaou test received or documented reason for no Pap test. Results Ninety-two percent of women in the study sample were either appropriately screened for cervical cancer or had been approached for screening. Eighty percent of women were appropriately screened. Demographic variables including pregnancy, being uninsured, not speaking English, recent migration to Canada, and being a visible minority did not affect receipt of a Pap test after migration in multivariate analyses. Not speaking English was associated with a delay to receiving a first Pap test after migration. Conclusion The clients at our centre are demographically similar to women who are typically overlooked for Pap tests in the greater Toronto area. Despite belonging to a high-risk population, refugee women in this multidisciplinary CHC were screened for cervical cancer at a higher rate than the local population. PMID:22972744

Wiedmeyer, Mei-ling; Lofters, Aisha; Rashid, Meb

2012-01-01

331

Giant cervical lipoma excision under cervical epidural anesthesia: A viable alternative to general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

The technique of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia (CEA) was first described by Dogliotti in 1933 for upper thoracic procedures. Administration of local anesthetic into cervical epidural space results in anesthesia of the neck, upper extremity, and upper thoracic region. CEA provides high-quality analgesia and anesthesia of above dermatomes and, at the same time, it has favorable effect on hemodynamic variable by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. CEA is not practiced routinely because of its potential complications. We selected this technique of CEA for excision of giant cervical lipoma on the back of the neck in an adult patient, as the patient was unwilling for general anesthesia. CEA was induced with 10 ml of 1% lignocaine-adrenaline mixture administered into C7-T1 space through 18G Tuohy needle. Our patient maintained vital parameters throught the procedure. The added advantage of epidural anesthesia was that the patient was awake and comfortable throughout the procedure.

Singh, Ram Pal; Shukla, Aparna; Verma, Satyajeet

2011-01-01

332

Gankyrin Is Frequently Overexpressed in Cervical High Grade Disease and Is Associated with Cervical Carcinogenesis and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have showed that Gankyrin expression is correlated with a malignant phenotype in endometrial carcinoma. Here, we investigated the possible role of Gankyrin in cervical disease. The increasing protein level of Gankyrin was observed in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma compared with benign cervical tissues and low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In para-carcinoma tissues, it was found interestingly that there was no lymph node metastasis when nuclei Gankyrin was positively expressed, but lymph node metastasis rate was 30% (6/20) when nuclei Gankyrin was negatively expressed. In vitro, the transfection of Gankyrin resulted in markedly up-regulating of Vimentin, ?-catenin and Twist2, as well as down-regulating of E-cadherin in cervical carcinoma cells. Our results suggested that Gankyrin may be functional in cervical carcinogenesis and metastasis. PMID:24751719

Qian, Wenyan; Dong, Yu; Yang, Yongbin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Youji; Ma, Ding; Zhang, Zhenbo; Wu, Sufang

2014-01-01

333

Cervical cancer risk levels in Turkey and compliance to the national cervical cancer screening standard.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer screening with Pap smear test is a cost-effective method. The Ministry of Health in Turkey recommends that it be performed once every five years after age 35. The purpose of this study was to determine the cervical cancer risk levels of women between 35 and 69, and the intervals they have the Pap smear test, and to investigate the relation between the two. This study was performed on 227 women aged between 35 and 69 living in Balçova District of ?zmir province. Using the cervical cancer risk index program of Harvard School of Public Health, the cervical cancer risk level of 70% of the women was found below average, 22.1% average, and 7.9% above average. Only 52% of the women have had Pap smear test at least once in their lives. The percentage screening regularly in conformity with the national screening standard was 39.2%. Women in the 40-49 age group, were married, conformed significantly more (p<0.05) to the national screening standard. Compliance also increased with the level of education and decreased with the cervical cancer risk level (p<0.05). A logistic regression model was constructed including age, education level, menstruation state of the women and the economic level of the family. Not having the Pap smear test in conformity with the national cervical cancer screening standard in 35-39 age group was 2.52 times more than 40-49 age group, while it was 3.26 times more in 60-69 age group (p< 0.05). Not having Pap smear test in 35-39 age group more than other groups might result from lack of information on the cervical cancer national screening standard and the necessity of having Pap smear test. As for 60-69 age group, the low education level might cause not having Pap smear test. Under these circumstances, the cervical cancer risk levels should be determined and the individuals should be informed. Providing Pap smear test screening service to individuals in the target group of national screening standard, as a public service may resolve the inequalities due to age and educational differences. PMID:21790227

Açikgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

2011-01-01

334

Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Chronic Cervicitis, Cervical Adenocarcinoma, Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Squamus Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Recent studies show that human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is present in all cervical carcinomas and in some cervicitis cases, with some geographical variation in viral subtypes. Therefore determination of the presence of HPV in the general population of each region can help reveal the role of these viruses in tumors. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of infection with HPV in cervicitis, cervical adenocarcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia and squamus cell carcinoma samples from the Isfahan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty two formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of crevicitis cases and different cervix tumors including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (I, II, III), squamus cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma were collected from histopathological files of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. Data about histopathological changes were collected by reexamination of the hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. DNA was extracted and subjected to Nested PCR using consensus primers, MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, designed for amplification of a conserved region of the genome coding for L1 protein. Results: In total 74.5% of the tested samples were positive for HPV. Amongst the tested tumors 8 out of 20 (40%) of CIN (I, II, III), 5 out of 21 (23.8%) of adenocarcinoma cases and 78 out of 79 chronic cervicitis cases were positive for HPV. Conclusions: The rate of different carcinomas and also the rate of HPV infection in each case were lower than other reports from different countries. This could be correlated with the social behavior of women in the area, where they mostly have only one partner throughout their life, and also the rate of smoking behavior of women in the studied population. On the other hand the rate of HPV infection in chronic cervicitis cases was much higher than cases reported by previous studies. This necessitates more attention to the role of human papillomaviruses in the their induction in the studied area. PMID:25147721

Mirzaie-Kashani, Elahe; Bouzari, Majid; Talebi, Ardeshir; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

2014-01-01

335

Functional Analysis of Bladder Cancer-Related Protein Gene: A Putative Cervical Cancer Tumor Suppressor Gene in Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study has suggested thatthe bladder cancer-associated protein gene (BLCAP) was among the differentially expressed genes in cervical cancer. We confirm here that BLCAP is expressed in all noncancerous cervical tissues (10\\/10), but it is greatly lost in primary cervical cancer tissue (31\\/39). In order to further investigate the functional roles of BLCAP, we stably transfected BLCAP cDNA into

Zehua Zuo; Min Zhao; Juan Liu; Guifang Gao; Xinxing Wu

2006-01-01

336

The Pre and Postoperative Value of Endocervical Curettage in the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Invasive Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and postoperative value of endocervical curettage (ECC) in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer.Methods.Patients undergoing cervical conization were studied retrospectively to evaluate the correlation of grade of preoperative endocervical curettage and the grade of dysplasia in the conization specimen. The role of routine preoperative ECC in satisfactory and

Bruce A. Fine; Glen I. Feinstein; Vincenzo Sabella

1998-01-01

337

Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

2014-05-01

338

Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate in screening and to suggest ways that information about screening and HPV might reach a wider Greenlandic population. Conclusion Women living through the process of cervical disease, treatment and follow-up develop knowledge about HPV, cervical cell changes, cervical disease and their connection, which, if used to inform cervical screening programmes, will improve the quality of information about HPV, cervical cancer and screening participation. This includes that verbal and written information given at the point of screening and diagnosis needs to be complemented by visual imagery. PMID:23984277

Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; M?ller, Helle; Bradley, Stephen K.; M?ller, Suzanne

2013-01-01

339

Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; K?dzia, W.; K?dzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczy?ski, M.

2011-12-01

340

A panel of regulated proteins in serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

We developed a discovery-validation mass-spectrometry-based pipeline to identify a set of proteins that are regulated in serum of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and squamous cell cervical cancer using iTRAQ, label-free shotgun, and targeted mass-spectrometric quantification. In the discovery stage we used a "pooling" strategy for the comparative analysis of immunodepleted serum and revealed 15 up- and 26 down-regulated proteins in patients with early- (CES) and late-stage (CLS) cervical cancer. The analysis of nondepleted serum samples from patients with CIN, CES, an CLS and healthy controls showed significant changes in abundance of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein. We validated our findings using a fast UHPLC/MRM method in an independent set of serum samples from patients with cervical cancer or CIN and healthy controls as well as serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer (more than 400 samples in total). The panel of six proteins showed 67% sensitivity and 88% specificity for discrimination of patients with CIN from healthy controls, a stage of the disease where current protein-based biomarkers, for example, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), fail to show any discrimination. Additionally, combining the six-protein panel with SCCA improves the discrimination of patients with CES and CLS from healthy controls. PMID:25232869

Boichenko, Alexander P; Govorukhina, Natalia; Klip, Harry G; van der Zee, A G J; Güzel, Co?kun; Luider, Theo M; Bischoff, Rainer

2014-11-01

341

A patient with progressive myelopathy and antibodies to human T-cell leukemia virus type I and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive bisexual black man was evaluated at UCLA because of the recent onset of progressive lower-extremity weakness. Initial neurologic examination showed that the patient's distal weakness was greater than his proximal weakness, with bilateral foot drop and electrophysiologic evidence of denervation in the distal lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spinal cord disclosed no abnormalities. Subsequent neurologic evaluation 8 months later showed a myelopathy, with progression of lower-extremity weakness, spasticity, and flexor spasms, and urinary incontinence, as well as the peripheral neuropathy noted previously. A second magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain showed patchy foci of increased signal intensity in white matter and cortex, with mild generalized cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and no lesions in the spinal cord. Specimens of the patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid contained antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Additionally, specimens of his serum and cerebrospinal fluid were tested for antibody to human T-cell leukemia virus type I by Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation, and found to be positive for human T-cell leukemia virus type I gag, env, and tax antibodies. The primary cause of severe myelopathy in this patient may be infection with human T-cell leukemia virus type I rather than with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Treatment with prednisolone resulted in improvement of the lower-extremity weakness, reduction in flexor spasms, and slower but significant improvement in urinary symptoms. Patients who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and have unusual motor findings should be tested for concomitant human T-cell leukemia virus type I infection. PMID:2322140

Aboulafia, D M; Saxton, E H; Koga, H; Diagne, A; Rosenblatt, J D

1990-04-01

342

Anterior cervical arachnoid cyst presenting with traumatic quadriplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Intradural spinal arachnoid cysts are rare. Rarer still are cysts located anterior to the cervical spinal cord. To date, only 10 such cases have been reported in the English-language literature. Case report Two cases of anterior cervical arachnoid cysts that presented as traumatic quadriplegia are reported.

Natarajan Muthukumar

2004-01-01

343

Congenital Cervical Stenosis Presenting as Transient Quadriplegia in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cases of two patients in whom com- plete but transient quadriplegia developed after an in- jury that was incurred while playing football are presented. Both patients were found to have a congen- itally narrow cervical vertebral canal. Critical stenosis resulting in the transient quadriplegia occurred after a presumed injury to a cervical disc. In our opinion, a myelogram should

AMY L. LADD; PIERCE E. SCRANTON

1986-01-01

344

The disparity of cervical cancer in diverse populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates among minority groups have been documented in the United States, despite an overall decline in these rates for the population as a whole. Differences in cervical cancer screening practices have been suggested as an explanation for these disparities, as have differences in treatment among various racial and ethnic groups. A number

Levi S. Downs; Jennifer S. Smith; Isabel Scarinci; Lisa Flowers; Groesbeck Parham

2008-01-01

345

Colposcopic assessment of the accuracy of cervical cytology screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred asymptomatic women in a general practice were screened both cytologically and colposcopically for evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The prevalence detected by cytology alone was 5%, but the prevalence detected by cytology and colposcopy together was 11%. None of the larger lesions of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (affecting more than two quadrants of the cervix) was associated with negative

John A Giles; Elizabeth Hudson; Julie Crow; Denis Williams; Patrick Walker

1988-01-01

346

Human Papillomavirus 45 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-positive cervical samples from 36 countries. A total of 43 HPV45 sequence variants were identified that formed 5 phylogenetic sublineages, A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2, the distribution of which varied by geographical region. Among 192 cases of cervical cancer and 101 controls, the B2 sublineage was significantly overrepresented in cervical cancer, both overall and in Africa and Europe separately. We show that the sequence analysis of E6 and E7 allows the classification of HPV45 variants and that the risk of cervical cancer may differ by HPV45 variant sublineage. IMPORTANCE This work describes the largest study to date of human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45)-positive cervical samples and provides a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification for use in epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of HPV45 genetic variants, particularly as our findings suggest that the B2 sublineage of HPV45 is associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer. PMID:24501412

Chen, Alyce A.; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Boon, Debby; Gheit, Tarik; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia

2014-01-01

347

Tratamiento quirúrgico mediante histerectomía de un embarazo ectópico cervical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical pregnancies are a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. Diagnosis is established by ultrasound, biochemical findings and histopathology. We report the case of a patient with hemorrhage, requiring hysterectomy to control the bleeding.Early identification of a cervical ectopic pregnancy can help to prevent significant morbidity and mortality in patients seeking emergency care.

G. Bueno; E. Martínez-Gómez; A. Pascual; R. Martínez-Cabañero; C. García-Garrido; A. Tello; G. González de Merlo

2008-01-01

348

Experimental Cervical Cancer Vaccine Looks Promising in Trial  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Experimental Cervical Cancer Vaccine Looks Promising in Trial Research suggests the ... Preidt Wednesday, October 1, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cervical Cancer HPV WEDNESDAY, Oct. 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An ...

349

Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We investigated the validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection after radioactive isotope and\\/or blue dye injection in patients with cervical cancer.Patients and methods. Between December 1998 and May 2000, 50 patients (mean age 44 years) with cervical cancer FIGO stage I (n = 32), stage II (n = 16), or stage IV (n = 2) underwent SLN detection

Sabine Malur; Norman Krause; Christhardt Köhler; Achim Schneider

2001-01-01

350

Cervical Subluxation after Surgery and Irradiation of Childhood Ependymoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy directed at the tumor bed characterizes the treatment of childhood infratentorial ependymoma. Tumor resection often requires access to the upper portion of the cervical spinal canal, which places the patient at risk of complications, including destabilization. Two cases of cervical subluxation after surgery and irradiation for infratentorial ependymoma are presented and discussed to

Daniel T. Fletcher; William C. Warner; Michael S. Muhlbauer; Thomas E. Merchant

2002-01-01

351

Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

2012-01-01

352

Retrograde pyramidal tract degeneration in a patient with cervical haematomyelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde pyramidal tract degeneration has been described only very rarely in the human central nervous system. In most of these cases the thoracic or cervical corticospinal tracts were shown to have degenerated following long-standing, lower spinal cord lesions. In a 67 year old man, who lived 2 years following the rupture of a mid-cervical cavernous angioma, we observed such degeneration

T Yamamoto; M Yamasaki; T Imai

1989-01-01

353

Virus Isolation and Identification in Cervical Cancer Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

7 strains of viruses were isolated from cervical specimens of cervical cancer patients. The viral isolates were herpes simplex viruses according to the morphologic, biologic as well as serologic characteristics. 5 of the 7 strains were typed and 3 were he...

J. Xiang, J. Feng, P. Huang, W. Chen, J. Wu

1982-01-01

354

The role of human papillomavirus in cervical adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the single most important co-factor in the development of cervical squamous cell carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas of the cervix are also related to HPV, but the correlation is reported to be less pronounced. In the present study, 131 cervical adenocarcinomas were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry, examined morphologically and then analysed with sensitive polymerase chain reaction

S Andersson; E Rylander; B Larsson; A Strand; C Silfversvärd; E Wilander

2001-01-01

355

Treatment of cervical necrotizing fasciitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has significantly improved the management of necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities and trunk. Its role in cervical necrotizing fasciitis has not been fully evaluated. Historically, necrotizing fasciitis has been associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This report discusses our experience with cervical necrotizing fasciitis in six patients treated from 1986 to 1993 who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

F. P. JOHNS LANGFORD; RICHARD E. MOON; BRYANT W. STOLP; RICHARD L. SCHER

1995-01-01

356

Epidemiologic Classification of Human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the risk associated with the various HPV types has not been adequately assessed. methods We pooled data from 11 case-control studies from nine countries involving 1918 wom- en with histologically confirmed squamous-cell cervical cancer and 1928 control wom- en. A common protocol and questionnaire were

Nubia Muñoz; F. Xavier Bosch; Silvia de Sanjosé; Rolando Herrero; Xavier Castellsagué; Keerti V. Shah; Peter J. F. Snijders; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

2003-01-01

357

Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury.  

PubMed

Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25-50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for the evaluation of vertebrobasilar hemodynamics in patients who complain of dizziness and vertigo. It is reported that vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) leads to brainstem and cerebellar ischemia and infarction following cervical manipulation. Here we examined the correlation between vertigo or dizziness and the right and left side difference in vertebral arteries after whiplash injury using MRA. We studied 20 patients who complained of neck pain with vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury and 13 healthy volunteers as a control. In the control group, abnormal MRA findings in the vertebral arteries such as occlusion, stenosis or slow blood flow were seen in 77% of the cases. In the patient group, abnormal MRA findings were seen in 60%. The side difference in blood flow was 3.5+/-2.5 cm/s in the control group and 6.1+/-3.0 cm/s in the patient group. Our findings suggest that some subjects with persistent vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury are more likely to have VBI on MRA. VBI might be an important background factor to evoke cervical vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury. The side difference between the two vertebral arteries could cause a circulation disorder in the vertebrobasilar system after whiplash injury. However, the VBI on MRA itself was also seen in the control group, and thus it is not clear whether it is due to whiplash injury in the patient group. PMID:16432749

Endo, Kenji; Ichimaru, Katsuji; Komagata, Mashashi; Yamamoto, Kengo

2006-06-01

358

Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

2014-01-01

359

Cervical elongation following sacrospinous hysteropexy: a case series.  

PubMed

In recent years, pelvic floor surgeons have increasingly repaired pelvic organ prolapse around an intact uterus. Uterine conservation and hysteropexy have been driven by patient preference, less risk of mesh erosion, shorter operative time, and decreased blood loss and postoperative pain. We present a case series of patients with cervical elongation after vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy using polypropylene mesh arms, a novel technique developed by the senior author. We defined cervical elongation as greater than or equal to a two-fold increase in cervical length compared with preoperative measurements. Of the 8 patients who underwent this procedure, 5 (62.5 %) had cervical elongation during the first year postoperatively. In the most severe case, the cervix extended to 4 cm beyond the hymenal ring. Most of the patients were mildly symptomatic and chose expectant management. The cases are reviewed in detail. A brief literature review on cervical elongation is presented. PMID:24297063

Hyakutake, Momoe Tina; Cundiff, Geoffrey William; Geoffrion, Roxana

2014-06-01

360

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-01-01

361

Vertebral subluxation following ventral cervical decompression in the dog.  

PubMed

Cervical intervertebral disk disease is commonly treated surgically by ventral decompression through a ventral slot. Nine dogs with documented vertebral subluxation following surgical creation of a ventral slot are reported. The location of the subluxation was at the fourth cervical (C4) to fifth cervical (C5) intervertebral space in two dogs, C5 to sixth cervical (C6) intervertebral space in four dogs, and C6 to seventh cervical (C7) intervertebral space in three dogs. The ventral slot width to vertebral body width ratio ranged from 0.39 to 0.80, with the ratio being 0.50 or greater in seven of eight cases evaluated radiographically. Surgical reduction and stabilization were performed in seven of nine dogs. PMID:10914536

Lemarié, R J; Kerwin, S C; Partington, B P; Hosgood, G

2000-01-01

362

The invasive cervical cancer review: psychological issues surrounding disclosure.  

PubMed

An audit of the screening history of all new cervical cancer cases has been a requirement since April 2007. While NHS cervical screening programmes (NHSCSP) guidance requires that women diagnosed with cervical cancer are offered the findings of the audit, as yet there has been no research to investigate the psychological impact that meeting to discuss the findings might have on patients. This is in spite of the fact that cytological under-call may play a role in as many as 20% of cervical cancer cases. This review draws on the literature concerning breaking bad news, discussing cancer and disclosing medical errors, in order to gain insight into both the negative and positive consequences that may accompany a cervical screening review meeting. We conclude that while patients are likely to experience some distress at disclosure, there are also likely to be positive aspects, such as greater trust and improved perception of care. PMID:23506198

Sherman, S M; Moss, E; Redman, C W E

2013-04-01

363

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism.  

PubMed

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Son, Dong Wuk; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-08-01

364

Giant Lipoma of Posterior Cervical Region  

PubMed Central

Lipomas are the slow growing soft tissue tumors of benign nature. They commonly grow on torso and extremities but may also develop in head and neck region. Rarely lipomas can grow to acquire gigantic proportions, turning into an entity termed as giant lipoma. Such lipomas are entitled to immediate attention as they have a relatively high malignant potential. We report a rare case of giant cervical lipoma in an elderly gentleman, followed by a brief discussion on diagnosis and management of the disorder. PMID:25349767

Kumar, Lovekesh; Karande, Snehal K.; Kolhe, Yuvraj

2014-01-01

365

Cervical Spine Surgery: An Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Continued innovation in surgery requires a knowledge and understanding of historical advances with a recognition of successes\\u000a and failures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  To identify these successes and failures, we selectively reviewed historical literature on cervical spine surgery with respect\\u000a to the development of (1) surgical approaches, (2) management of degenerative disc disease, and (3) methods to treat segmental\\u000a instability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a nonsystematic

Vincenzo Denaro; Alberto Di Martino

2011-01-01

366

Targeting angiogenesis in advanced cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Patients with advanced stage or recurrent cervical cancer represent a population with limited chemotherapeutic options. More specifically, patients with recurrent disease have a poor salvage rate, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. This year, the first prospective phase III clinical trial exploring the anti-angiogenic agent, bevacizumab, was published, meeting its primary endpoint, with a significant improvement in overall survival. As such, a review of anti-angiogenic therapy in the treatment of this disease is warranted. PMID:25364393

Eskander, Ramez N.

2014-01-01

367

Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the cervical oesophagus.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and swelling in the anterior aspect of the neck of short duration. On evaluation, she was diagnosed with amelanotic malignant melanoma of the cervical oesophagus. She underwent total laryngopharyngo-oesophagectomy with gastric transposition with bilateral modified radical neck dissection with feeding jejunostomy and a permanent tracheostomy with postoperative combined chemoradiation therapy. However, in spite of aggressive treatment, the patient expired 8 months after initial presentation with distant metastasis. PMID:24729119

Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Venkitachalam, Shruti; Trivedi, Shivangi

2014-01-01

368

Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-10-02

369

Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged < or =18 years) and 2) carcinogenic HPV detection in older women (aged > or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations. PMID:20310056

Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

2010-06-01

370

Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair®: A novel, full-endoscopic surgical technique for the treatment of symptomatic cervical disc disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair® is a novel full-endoscopic, anterior cervical, trans-discal, motion preserving, laser assisted, nonfusion, outpatient surgical procedure to safely treat symptomatic cervical disc diseases including herniation, spondylosis, stenosis, and annular tears. Here we describe a new endoscopic approach to cervical disc disease that allows direct visualization of the posterior longitudinal ligament, posterior vertebral endplates, annulus, neuroforamina, and herniated disc fragments. All patients treated with Deuk Laser Disc Repair were also candidates for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: A total of 142 consecutive adult patients with symptomatic cervical disc disease underwent Deuk Laser Disc Repair during a 4-year period. This novel procedure incorporates a full-endoscopic selective partial decompressive discectomy, foraminoplasty, and posterior annular debridement. Postoperative complications and average volume of herniated disc fragments removed are reported. Results: All patients were successfully treated with cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair. There were no postoperative complications. Average volume of herniated disc material removed was 0.09 ml. Conclusions: Potential benefits of Deuk Laser Disc Repair for symptomatic cervical disc disease include lower cost, smaller incision, nonfusion, preservation of segmental motion, outpatient, faster recovery, less postoperative analgesic use, fewer complications, no hardware failure, no pseudoarthrosis, no postoperative dysphagia, and no increased risk of adjacent segment disease as seen with fusion. PMID:23230523

Deukmedjian, Ara J.; Cianciabella, Augusto; Cutright, Jason; Deukmedjian, Arias

2012-01-01

371

Human papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer and high-grade cervical lesions: A meta-analysis update  

Microsoft Academic Search

using the following MeSH terms: ''cervical cancer'', ''cervical intraepithelial neoplasia'', ''HPV'', ''human'', ''female'' and ''po- lymerase chain reaction''. Additional relevant references cited in retrieved articles were also evaluated. Included studies had to meet all of the following criteria: (i) use of polymerase chain reac- tion (PCR)-based technology to detect HPV DNA, (ii) inclusion of at least 20 cases of ICC

Jennifer S. Smith; Lisa Lindsay; Brooke Hoots; Jessica Keys; Silvia Franceschi; Rachel Winer; Gary M. Clifford

2007-01-01

372

Ultrasound evaluation of cervical shortening after loop excision of the transformation zone (LETZ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess cervical shortening after loop excision of the transformation zone (LETZ), and confirm the validity of ultrasound measurement of cervical length. Methods: Subjects (n = 29) were patients at the colposcopy clinic of Beth Israel Hospital who underwent vaginal ultrasound measurement of cervical length before and after LETZ. The pathologic specimen was measured by ruler. Mean cervical length

H. A. Ricciotti; L. Burke; M. Kobelin; B. Slomovic; J. Ludmir

1995-01-01

373

An Unusual Cervical Tumor as Presentation of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Rare cervical cancers are responsible for a minority of cases encountered by a clinician. However, behavioral patterns, management, and prognosis of certain rare cervical cancers differ from either squamous carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Here we present a case of a locally advanced cervical tumor as a presentation of an extranodal cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with a review of the current literature. PMID:24782935

De Greve, Tom; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Van Hoof, Achiel; Coenegrachts, Kenneth; Van Trappen, Philippe

2014-01-01

374

[Prevention and screening of cervical cancer].  

PubMed

Cervical cancer may be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the treatment of intraepithelial lesions diagnosed using cervical pap smears. HPV vaccines are effective for the prevention of CIN2/3 related to HPV 16, 18 and some other oncogenic HPV subtypes in HPV-naïve women. They are very well tolerated and to date, no increase in the incidence of auto-immune diseases has been reported. HPV vaccines primarily target girls aged 11-14 years old and catch-up programs include girls aged 15-19 years old. Vaccination coverage is below 40% in France, which is insufficient to induce herd immunity. Screening via pap smears is performed every three years in women between 25 and 65 years old, after two normal annual smears. However, screening is an individualised decision and is only performed in 57% of women. Abnormal smears require subsequent diagnostic investigations. Apart from high grade intra-epithelial lesions which generally require treatment, these abnormalities may be observed as they often undergo spontaneous regression due to viral clearance. PMID:25090760

Rakotomahenina, Hajanirina; Garrigue, Isabelle; Marty, Marion; Brun, Jean-Luc

2014-06-01

375

[Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].  

PubMed

Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article. PMID:24356274

Picconi, María Alejandra

2013-01-01

376

Reconstruction of the laryngopharynx and cervical esophagus.  

PubMed

The historical evolution of reconstruction of the cervical esophagus and laryngopharynx over the past 100 years is documented. The impact of these technical achievements is contrasted to the failure to improve the 5-year survival rate of 24%. While the clinician awaits new protocols of treatment to improve survival statistics, the thrust of the surgical oncologist is to develop a reliable method of reconstruction which meets specific minimal criteria. The following objectives should be achieved: Reconstruction should not limit the effectiveness of the ablative technique. Short hospitalization and one stage techniques are superior. Technique mortality and morbidity must be low. A 10-year institutional study using the Montgomery 2-stage technique is presented. In contrast, comparative literature data analysis of all methods of laryngopharyngocervical reconstruction indicates that single stage techniques offer a greater advantage. This study suggests that visceroplasty (stomach), free jejunal transfer, and single stage reconstruction, using the pectoralis myocutaneous flap, approach the previously established criteria more effectively than others. A new technique (1-stage), using partial tubulation of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, is recommended for regional reconstruction of the cervical esophagus and pharynx. In order to decrease the pressure and torsion on the vascular pedicle of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and increase its predicted length, partial resection of the ipsilateral clavicle is proposed. PMID:6482630

Fabian, R L

1984-10-01

377

Tim-3 Expression in Cervical Cancer Promotes Tumor Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) has been identified as a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies highlight the important role of Tim-3 in the CD8+ T cell exhaustion that takes place in both human and animal cancer models. However, the nature of Tim-3 expression in the tumor cell and the mechanism by which it inhibits anti-tumor immunity are unclear. This present study aims to determine Tim-3 is expressed in cervical cancer cells and to evaluate the role of Tim-3 in cervical cancer progression. Methodology A total of 85 cervical tissue specimens including 43 human cervical cancer, 22 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 20 chronic cervicitis were involved. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells was detected and was found to correlate with clinicopathological parameters. Meanwhile, expression of Tim-3 was assessed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and confocal microscopy in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa. The migration and invasion potential of Hela cells was evaluated after inhibiting Tim-3 expression by ADV-antisense Tim-3. Conclusions We found that Tim-3 was expressed at a higher level in the clinical cervical cancer cells compared to the CIN and chronic cervicitis controls. We supported this finding by confirming the presence of Tim-3 mRNA and protein in the cervical cell lines. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high expression of Tim-3 had a significant metastatic potential, advanced cancer grades and shorter overall survival than those with lower expression. Multivariate analysis showed that Tim-3 expression was an independent factor for predicting the prognosis of cervical cancer. Significantly, down-regulating the expression of Tim-3 protein inhibited migration and invasion of Hela cells. Our study suggests that the expression of Tim-3 in tumor cells may be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cervical cancer. Moreover, Tim-3 expression may promote metastatic potential in cervical cancers. PMID:23335978

Cao, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Li, Qinlu; Gao, Lili; Jiang, Lijun; Huang, Mei; Zhou, Jianfeng

2013-01-01

378

An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor originating from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. This is an aggressive, slow growing and invasive tumor. It occurs mostly at the two ends of neuroaxis which is more frequent in the sacrococcygeal region. Chordoma in vertebral column is very rare. This tumor is extradural in origin and compresses neural tissues and makes the patient symptomatic. This tumor found extremely rare in the spinal region as an intradural tumor. The present study reports a rare case of intradural chordoma tumor as well as its clinical manifestations and treatment options. Case: The patient was a 50-year-old female presented with 9 months history of progressively worsening neck pain, cervical spine chordoma resembling neurinoma and right arm numbness. Physical examination showed no weakness in her limbs, but she had upward plantar reflex and mild hyperreflexia. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the cervical spine there was an ill-defined enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of C2-C3 body caused cord compression more severe in right side as well as foraminal scalloping. The patient underwent surgery and after midline posterior cervical incision and paravertebral muscle stripping a laminectomy was performed from C1 through C4 using a high speed drill. Needle biopsy revealed chordoma on frozen section and all of accessible parts of tumor were excised. The gross and microscopic histopathological appearance was consistent with chordoma. Chordomas are malignant tumors that arise from remains of embryonic notochord. These ectopic rests of notochord termed “ecchordosis physaliphora “can be found in approximately 2% of autopsies. These are aggressive, slow growing, locally invasive and destructive tumors those occur in the midline of neuroaxis. They generally thought to account for 2% to 4% of all primary bone neoplasms and 1% to 4% malignant bone neoplasms. They are the most frequent primary malignant spinal tumors after plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas extention to transverse foramina has not yet been reported. Although our case mimicked a

Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

2012-01-01

379

RAPID SYNCYTIUM FORMATION BETWEEN HUMAN T-CELL LEUKAEMIA VIRUS TYPE-I (HTLV-I)INFECTED T-CELLS AND HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM CELLS: A POSSIBLE IMPLICATION FOR TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS\\/HTLV-I ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical spastic paraparesis\\/HTLV-I associated myelopathy (TSP\\/HAM), is characterized by infiltration of human T cell leukaemia virus type-I (HTLV-I)-infected T-cells, anti-HTLV-I cytotoxic T cells and macrophages into the patients’ cerebrospinal fluid and by intrathecally formed anti-HTLV-I antibodies. This implies that the disease involves a breakdown of the blood–brain barrier. Since astrocytes play a central role in establishing this barrier, the authors

NIRIT MOR-VAKNIN; HAVA TURGEMAN; AMRAM TORGEMAN; MARINA WOLFSON; MAHMOUD HULEIHEL; MORDECHAI ABOUD

1998-01-01

380

Direct analysis of viral-specific CD8+ T cells with soluble HLA-A2/Tax11-19 tetramer complexes in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus-associated myelopathy.  

PubMed

Human T cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy is a slowly progressive neurologic disease characterized by inflammatory infiltrates in the central nervous system accompanied by clonal expansion of HTLV-I-reactive CD8+ T-cells. In patients carrying the HLA-A2 allele, the immune response is primarily directed to the Tax11-19 peptide. The frequency, activation state, and TCR usage of HLA-A2/Tax11-19 binding T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy was determined using MHC class I tetramers loaded with the Tax11-19 peptide. Circulating Tax11-19-reactive T cells were found at very high frequencies, approaching 1:10 circulating CD8+ T cells. T cells binding HLA-A2/Tax11-19 consisted of heterogeneous populations expressing different chemokine receptors and the IL-2R beta-chain but not the IL-2R alpha-chain. Additionally, Tax11-19-reactive CD8+ T cells used one predominant TCR Vbeta-chain for the recognition of the HLA-A2/Tax11-19 complex. These data provide direct evidence for high frequencies of circulating Tax11-19-reactive CD8+ T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. PMID:9973440

Bieganowska, K; Höllsberg, P; Buckle, G J; Lim, D G; Greten, T F; Schneck, J; Altman, J D; Jacobson, S; Ledis, S L; Hanchard, B; Chin, J; Morgan, O; Roth, P A; Hafler, D A

1999-02-01

381

Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women. Methods A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening. Results Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor. Conclusion This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates. PMID:23843708

Ma, Grace X; Wang, Min Qi; Ma, Xiang S; Shive, Steven E; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I

2013-01-01

382

Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

2014-04-01

383

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-10-10

384

Methylation Patterns of the IFN-? Gene in Cervical Cancer Tissues  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the relationship between methylation of interferon gamma (IFN-?) gene and tumorigenesis in cervical cancer tissues, the biopsy specimens of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (I-III) patients as well as normal controls were collected and analyzed. Methods: The methylation of the IFN-? gene was verified by using methylation-specific PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, and the expression levels of IFN-? mRNA were detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The methylation rates of the IFN-? gene were significantly higher in cervical cancer tissues (15/43, 34.9%) than those in CIN (3/23, 13.0% of CIN I; 6/39, 15.4% of CIN II/III) and normal cervical tissues (2/43, 4.7%) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IFN-? in cervical tumors with methylation (0.71 ± 0.13, n = 8) was lower than that in those without methylation (1.58 ± 0.32, n = 27) (P < 0.05). Likewise, the IFN-? expression levels in CIN II/III tissues with methylation (0.87 ± 0.16, n = 5) were significantly (P < 0.01) lower compared to those without methylation (2.12 ± 0.27, n = 32). Conclusion: The hypermethylation of IFN-? gene may be related with tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. PMID:25208560

Ma, Dong; Jiang, Chunyang; Hu, Xiaoli; Li, Qingzhao; Li, Tingting; Yang, Yanyan; Li, Ou

2014-01-01

385

TPX2 regulates tumor growth in human cervical carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a tool to evaluate, more precisely, the proliferative behavior of tumor cells. The abnormal expression of TPX2 in a variety of malignant tumor types has been reported, however less is known about its role in cervical cancer. In the present study, the association between TPX2 expression and the biological behavior of cervical cancer, was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of TPX2 in cervical cancer tissues. The inhibitory effect of TPX2-siRNA on the growth of SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells was studied in vitro. TPX2 expression was identified as significantly higher in cervical carcinoma compared with the control, normal cervical tissues. TPX2 siRNA transfected into SiHa cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Similar results were obtained by in vivo transplantation, as TPX2 siRNA transfection significantly reduced tumor growth of the xenograft in nude mice. The results demonstrated that TPX2 is important in the regulation of tumor growth in cervical cancer and therefore may be a potential therapeutic target as a novel treatment strategy. PMID:24718984

Jiang, Peiyue; Shen, Kexin; Wang, Xuerui; Song, Haiqin; Yue, Ying; Liu, Tongjun

2014-06-01

386

Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas  

SciTech Connect

The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

1987-02-01

387

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-01-01

388

Cervical implant from villoglandular endometrial adenocarcinoma masquerading as cervical villoglandular adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

This is an unusual presentation of a rare subtype of endometrial adenocarcinoma (villoglandular papillary carcinoma, VGPC) in a 71-year-old woman, which was initially diagnosed on cervical biopsy as being primary cervical VGPC. Loop excision failed to show any evidence of residual disease. Subsequent hysterectomy revealed a localized villoglandular carcinoma involving the uterine fundus and invading the inner one-third of the myometrium, the background endometrium was atrophic. The remaining cervix contained a focus of papillary forming endometrial type adenocarcinoma involving the surface epithelium and the superficial subepithelial glands. In conclusion, VGPC of cervix occurs mainly in young women and can be treated conservatively, pathologists should be cautious in making such a diagnosis in a postmenopausal woman before ruling out a primary endometrial origin. PMID:12060454

Al-Nafussi, A; Obafunwa, J; Jordan, L B; Fulton, I; Martin, C; Beattie, G

2002-01-01

389

Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

2011-07-01

390

Cervical myelocystocele: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Dysraphisms involving cervical region are very rare and there are very few series describing their follow-up in literature. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy who underwent postnatal “cosmetic” repair of posterior cervical cystic lesion and presented to us with a large recurrence with syringohydromyelia and tethering. Tethered cord should be suspected in the presence of meningocele and intact neurology. Treatment protocols of such complicated cervical spinal dysraphisms should include intradural exploration and detethering, with an aim to prevent neurological deterioration in future. PMID:21977091

Chandra, Ramesh V. V.; Kumar, Phani M.

2011-01-01

391

[A tumor-associated antigen of cervical cancer].  

PubMed

The tumour-associated antigen was identified with the aid of antisera obtained from rabbits immunized with 3 M KCl extract of pool human cervical carcinoma cells. The antigen was found in 92.5% specimens of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma, in 4.7% specimens of other localization of the tumours. The antigen was absent from sets of normal human tissues. The tumour-associated antigen was not identical with CEA, alpha-fetoprotein, SP1, EPA and lactoferrin and it was localized in cytoplasm of cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:3084195

Ermoshina, N V; Ievleva, E S; Ageenko, A I; Kogan, I Ia; Tsukerman, B G

1986-01-01

392

Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections  

PubMed Central

Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ? 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (? 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

2012-01-01

393

Negative MRI Findings with Invasive Cervical Biopsy May Indicate Stage IA Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We attempted to prospectively determine the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very early cervical cancer.Study design. T2-weighted and T1-dynamic enhanced images from patients with invasive or noninvasive lesions of the cervix were reviewed by two radiologists who had no clinical information on these patients. At least 12 longitudinal sections prepared from the surgically removed cervix were reviewed

Keiichi Fujiwara; Eisaku Yoden; Toru Asakawa; Michio Shimizu; Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa; Yoshiki Mikami; Takashi Oda; Ikuo Joja; Yoshinari Imajo; Ichiro Kohno

2000-01-01

394

Expression of metastasis suppressor 1 in cervical carcinoma and the clinical significance  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the expression of metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and malignant cervical tissues, and the role of MTSS1 in carcinogenesis. MTSS1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 147 cervical tissue specimens collected from 30 healthy individuals, 30 patients with cervical CIN I, 30 patients with CIN II–III and 57 patients with cervical cancer. The association between MTSS1 expression and clinicopathological factors was also examined. MTSS1 was found to be positively expressed in 43.33% CIN I cervical tissues, 100% CIN II–III cervical tissues and 100% malignant cervical tissues, but was weakly or negatively expressed in benign cervical tissues. The positive expression rates of MTSS1 were significantly higher in CIN II–III and malignant cervical tissues than in CIN I or normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). When examining MTSS1 expression and clinicopathological factors, the strong positive MTSS1 expression rates in early-stage versus middle- and advanced-stage cervical cancer tissues were 39.13% and 82.35%, respectively. Furthermore, the positive expression rates of MTSS1 were significantly higher in cervical tissues at an advanced clinical stage than those at an early clinical stage (P<0.05). The results suggest that the dysregulation of MTSS1 may be involved in cervical carcinogenesis, and thus MTSS1 may be a novel diagnostic biomarker or therapeutic target in cervical cancer patients. PMID:25295101

ZHANG, JUAN; TONG, YING; REN, LI; LI, CHUN-DONG

2014-01-01

395

International framework for examination of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction prior to Orthopaedic Manual Therapy intervention.  

PubMed

A consensus clinical reasoning framework for best practice for the examination of the cervical spine region has been developed through an iterative consultative process with experts and manual physical therapy organisations. The framework was approved by the 22 member countries of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists (October 2012). The purpose of the framework is to provide guidance to clinicians for the assessment of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction in advance of planned management (inclusive of manual therapy and exercise interventions). The best, most recent scientific evidence is combined with international expert opinion, and is presented with the intention to be informative, but not prescriptive; and therefore as an aid to the clinician's clinical reasoning. Important underlying principles of the framework are that 1] although presentations and adverse events of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction are rare, it is a potentially serious condition and needs to be considered in musculoskeletal assessment; 2] manual therapists cannot rely on the results of one clinical test to draw conclusions as to the presence or risk of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction; and 3] a clinically reasoned understanding of the patient's presentation, including a risk:benefit analysis, following an informed, planned and individualised assessment, is essential for recognition of this condition and for safe manual therapy practice in the cervical region. Clinicians should also be cognisant of jurisdictionally specific requirements and obligations, particularly related to patient informed consent, when intending to use manual therapy in the cervical region. PMID:24378471

Rushton, A; Rivett, D; Carlesso, L; Flynn, T; Hing, W; Kerry, R

2014-06-01

396

Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management.  

PubMed

Cervical lymphadenopathy (CL) is common in childhood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology, follow-up, and treatment of persistent CL. The authors studied retrospectively 50 children with CL, hospitalized at the Department of Pediatrics and Pediatrics Surgery. Patients underwent ultrasonography. Thirty-six percent presented abnormal ultrasonographic image and underwent excisional biopsy. Biopsies revealed 4 thyroglossal cysts, 3 branchial cysts, 1 hemangioma, 2 sebaceous cysts, 1 dermoid cyst, 5 occurrences of tuberculosis lymphadenitis, 1 occurrence of Bartonella henselae lymphadenopathy, and 1 case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, CL is usually a benign finding; bacterial and viral infections are the most common causes. Ultrasonography help in etiology and follow-up of CL. PMID:19657996

Papadopouli, Evangelia; Michailidi, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Eleftheria; Paspalaki, Pinelopi; Vlahakis, Ioannis; Kalmanti, Maria

2009-09-01

397

Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

2014-03-01

398

Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-03-02

399

Aberrant expression and constitutive activation of STAT3 in cervical carcinogenesis: implications in high-risk human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent observations indicate potential role of transcription factor STAT3 in cervical cancer development but its role specifically with respect to HPV infection is not known. Present study has been designed to investigate expression and activation of STAT3 in cervical precancer and cancer in relation to HPV infection during cervical carcinogenesis. Established cervical cancer cell lines and prospectively-collected cervical precancer

Shirish Shukla; Gauri Shishodia; Sutapa Mahata; Suresh Hedau; Arvind Pandey; Suresh Bhambhani; Swaraj Batra; Seemi F Basir; Bhudev C Das; Alok C Bharti

2010-01-01

400

Early clinical and radiologic outcomes of cervical arthroplasty with Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis.  

PubMed

Among 61 patients underwent disc replacement with the Bryan prosthesis, 47 patients were followed more than 3 months and their clinical and radiologic data were retrospectively analyzed to clarify very early clinical and radiologic outcomes and complications of disc arthroplasty with the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis during the learning period. Mean follow-up period was 6 months. Mean age was 45.6 years. Single-level procedure was done in 39 patients and 2-level in 8; a total of 55 levels replaced. Neck disability index improved from 59.8% to 22.9%. Visual analog pain score (VAS) of the neck improved from 8.4 to 1.6. VAS of shoulder/arm pain improved from 8.8 to 2.4. Mean patients' subjective improvement rate of symptoms was 71.1%. According to improvement in the neck disability index and VAS (over 50% improvement rate in each parameter), patients' subjective improvement rate (over 50%), and patients' satisfaction, the surgical success was achieved in 39 patients (83%). Eight patients (17%) showed failure. Mean segmental angle became more kyphotic after surgery from -0.7 degree of kyphosis (-11 to 7.7 degrees) to -1.3 degrees (-32 to 20.9 degrees) without statistical significance (P=0.55). Among 24 segments that showed preoperative kyphosis, 13 (54.2%) showed aggravated kyphosis, 7 (29.1%) showed decreased kyphosis and 4 (16.7%) recovered to lordosis. Among 31 segments that showed preoperative lordosis, 19 (61.3%) showed loss of lordosis and 12 (38.7%) showed increased lordosis. Mean range of motion increased significantly after surgery (6.7 to 8.5 degrees, P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative segmental kyphosis was not related to clinical success. Cervical arthroplasty with the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis failed to restore segmental lordotic angle. A concern arises because it is well known that the fusion in kyphotic curvature causes more frequent problems on adjacent levels in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. For the present, it seems preferable to exclude the patient who already has significant segmental kyphosis from disc arthroplasty with Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis. PMID:17021408

Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Han-Sug; Hwang, Ji-Hee

2006-10-01

401

Perceived Risk of Cervical Cancer in Appalachian Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine perceptions of cervical cancer risk in elevated-risk Appalachians. Methods Appalachian women (n=571) completed interviews examining self-regulation model factors relevant to perceived risk of cervical cancer. Results Women with good/very good knowledge of cervical cancer, greater worry, and history of sexually transmitted infection had higher odds of rating their perceived risk as somewhat/much higher than did other women. Former smokers, compared to never smokers, had lower risk perceptions. Conclusions Self-regulation model factors are important to understanding perceptions of cervical cancer risk in underserved women. The relationship of smoking and worry to perceived risk may be a target for intervention. PMID:23026042

Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Tatum, Cathy; Paskett, Electra D.

2013-01-01

402

Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia  

E-print Network

It has long been speculated that underlying variations in tissue anatomy affect in vivo spectroscopic measurements. We investigate the effects of cervical anatomy on reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to guide the ...

Mirkovic, Jelena

403

Symptomatic intravertebral disc herniation (Schmorl's node) in the cervical spine.  

PubMed Central

A case of a Schmorl's node in the cervical vertebra causing neck pain is reported. An inflammatory focus was found on histological examination of Schmorl's node indicating a possible mechanism of pain production. Images PMID:4083942

Lipson, S J; Fox, D A; Sosman, J L

1985-01-01

404

Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.

2012-09-01

405

Cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth.  

PubMed

Contemporary evidence supports the concept that cervical insufficiency is anything but a well-defined and distinct clinical entity. Instead, it is only 1 component of the larger and more complex preterm birth syndrome. Premature cervical ripening, as evidenced by shortening and effacement beginning at the internal os, provides strong evidence that parturition has begun and is the result of multiple interrelated pathways and inciting factors. Ultrasonographic screening of the cervix and treatment with cerclage for cervical shortening in the mid-trimester is reserved for women with prior spontaneous preterm birth (Fig. 1). Although cerclage benefit increases as the cervix shortens to less than 25 mm, it is appropriate to offer cerclage to women with shortened cervical length of less than 25 mm, and particularly those with a coexistent U-shaped funnel. PMID:22370105

Owen, John; Mancuso, Melissa

2012-03-01

406

Quantitative Elastography for Cervical Stiffness Assessment during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aim. Feasibility and reliability of tissue Doppler imaging-(TDI-) based elastography for cervical quantitative stiffness assessment during all three trimesters of pregnancy were evaluated. Materials and Methods. Prospective case-control study including seventy-four patients collected between the 12th and 42nd weeks of gestation. The tissue strain (TS) was measured by two independent operators as natural strain. Intra- and interoperator intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) agreements were evaluated. Results. TS measurement was always feasible and exhibited a high performance in terms of reliability (intraoperator ICC-agreement = 0.93; interoperator ICC agreement = 0.89 and 0.93 for a single measurement and for the average of two measurements, resp.). Cervical TS showed also a significant correlation with gestational age, cervical length, and parity. Conclusions. TS measurement during pregnancy demonstrated high feasibility and reliability. Furthermore, TS significantly correlated with gestational age, cervical length, and parity. PMID:24734246

Fruscalzo, A.; Londero, A. P.; Frohlich, C.; Mollmann, U.; Schmitz, R.

2014-01-01

407

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2010-04-01

408

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2013-04-01

409

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2014-04-01

410

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2012-04-01

411

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2011-04-01

412

Mechanical and biochemical properties of human cervical tissue  

E-print Network

The mechanical integrity of cervical tissue is crucial for maintaining a healthy gestation. Altered tissue biochemistry can cause drastic changes in the mechanical properties of the cervix and contribute to premature ...

Myers, Kristin M

2005-01-01

413

What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... injecting indocyanine green (ICG) dye into the cervix. HPV vaccines Vaccines have been developed to prevent infection with some of the HPV types associated with cervical cancer. Currently available vaccines ...

414

ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Cervical Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Attendance Rate (2003-2005) of the Hungarian Organized, Nation-Wide Cervical Cancer Screening Program Authors: I Boncz, A Sebestyén Affiliation: Department of Health Economics, Policy & Management, University

415

Arteries in the posterior cervical triangle in man.  

PubMed

Due to frequent changes in the anatomical nomenclature of the arteries in the posterior cervical triangle (lateral cervical region), anatomical and surgical papers relating to these topics are sometimes difficult to understand and are hard to compare. These changes, coupled with improper knowledge of the gross anatomy and nomenclature of the arteries in the posterior cervical triangle, have presented difficulties in musculocutaneous flap planning, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery. As an illustration of this concern, the term, transverse cervical artery (A. transversa colli [cervicis]), and its associated branches, have been used frequently over the past several decades with different meanings. In an effort to address this nomenclature challenge and to offer a rational basis for arguing specific name changes, a total of 498 neck-halves were investigated in Graz, Innsbruck, and Munich. Lateral neck dissections were carried out to expose the subclavian artery and those branches destined for the posterior cervical triangle, specifically, the superficial cervical artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the suprascapular artery. The course of these arteries and details of their origins and branching patterns were documented. Several arose either as direct branches or from trunks. The convention used in labeling trunks was similar to that described for other trunk formations in the body (e.g., linguo-facial trunk). Four trunks were observed and named according to the branches that arose from each. A cervico-dorsal trunk gave origin to the superficial cervical and dorsal scapular arteries, and was found in 30% of cases. A cervico-scapular trunk gave rise to the superficial cervical and suprascapular arteries in 22% of cases, and a dorso-scapular trunk provided origins for the dorsal scapular and suprascapular arteries in 4% of cases. A cervico-dorso-scapular trunk gave origin to the superficial cervical artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the suprascapular artery, and was found in 24% of cases. Each of these trunks, in turn, arose from either the subclavian artery or from the thyrocervical trunk. This labeling convention necessitated omitting the term, transverse cervical artery, because this term has become inherently imprecise and variously used over the years. This study describes a simple, uniform, and rational basis for standardizing the nomenclature of the arteries in the posterior cervical triangle. PMID:16187318

Weiglein, Andreas H; Moriggl, B; Schalk, C; Künzel, K H; Müller, U

2005-11-01

416

Uncovertebral joint injury in cervical facet dislocation: the headphones sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the uncovertebral mal-alignment as a reliable indirect sign of cervical facet joint\\u000a dislocation. We examined the uncovertebral axial plane alignment of 12 patients with unilateral and bilateral cervical facet\\u000a joint dislocation (UCFJD and BCFJD, respectively), comparing its frequency to the reverse hamburger bun sign on CT and MR\\u000a axial images. Of the

Francesco Palmieri; Victor N. Cassar-Pullicino; Claudia Dell’Atti; Radhesh K. Lalam; Bernhard J. Tins; Prudencia N. M. Tyrrell; Iain W. McCall

2006-01-01

417

HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

2001-01-01

418

Physical Status and Expression of HPV Genes in Cervical Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that E2 protein of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) inhibits the expression of E6 and E7 genes from their major promotersin vitroand suppresses the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. This suggests that the loss of functional E2 gene may provide selective advantages in the development of cervical cancer. Investigation of the relationship between the disruption of HPV-16\\/18 E2

Jong Sup Park; Eun Seong Hwang; Sue Nie Park; Hee Kyung Ahn; Soo Jong Um; Chan Joo Kim; Seung Jo Kim; Sung Eun Namkoong

1997-01-01

419

Misoprostol: An effective agent for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol versus intracervical prostaglandin E2 gel (dinoprostone) for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor.Study design: Two hundred seventy-six patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervices were randomly assigned to receive either intravaginal misoprostol or intracervical dinoprostone. Twenty-five micrograms of misoprostol were placed in the

Deborah A. Wing; Ann Rahall; Margaret M. Jones; T. Murphy Goodwin; Richard H. Paul

1995-01-01

420

Occurrence of Cervical Spine Injuries During the Rugby Scrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs

Merrick J. Wetzler; Toks Akpata; William Laughlin; Andrew S. Levy

1998-01-01

421

Violence against Women Raises Risk of Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An emerging literature suggests that violence against women (VAW), particularly sexual violence, may increase the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and, therefore, may be associated with cervical cancer development. The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine if women who had experienced violence had higher prevalence rates of invasive cervical cancer.\\u000aMethods: Women aged 18–88

Ann L. Coker; Claudia Hopenhayn; Christopher P. DeSimone; Heather M. Bush; Leslie Crofford

2008-01-01

422

Sheep Cervical Spine Biomechanics: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal models are often used to make the transition from scientific concepts to clinical applications. The sheep model has emerged as an important model in spine biomechanics. Although there are several experimental biomechanical studies of the sheep cervical spine, only a limited number of computational models have been developed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a C2-C7 sheep cervical spine finite element (FE) model to study the biomechanics of the normal sheep cervical spine. Methods The model was based on anatomy defined using medical images and included nonlinear material properties to capture the high flexibility and large neutral zone of the sheep cervical spine. The model was validated using comprehensive experimental flexibility testing. Ten adult sheep cervical spines, from C2-C7, were used to experimentally ascertain overall and segmental flexibility to ±2 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The ranges of motion predicted by the computational model were within one standard deviation of the respective experimental motions throughout the load cycle, with the exception of extension and lateral bending. The model over- and under predicted the peak motions in extension and lateral bending, respectively. Nevertheless, the model closely represents the range of motion and flexibility of the sheep cervical spine. Discussion This is the first multilevel model of the sheep cervical spine. The validated model affords additional biomechanical insight into the intact sheep cervical spine that cannot be easily determined experimentally. The model can be used to study various surgical techniques, instrumentation, and device placement, providing researchers and clinicians insight that is difficult, if not impossible, to gain experimentally. PMID:25328473

DeVries Watson, Nicole A; Gandhi, Anup A; Fredericks, Doug C; Smucker, Joseph D; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

423

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A New Chance to Prevent Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and is the most common\\u000a sexually transmitted infection in the United States. HPV is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and dysplasia.\\u000a Thus, cervical cancer and other HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented or treated by HPV vaccines. Recent research\\u000a on the safety and efficacy of

Bradley J. Monk; Ali Mahdavi

424

Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site\\u000a of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of\\u000a the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical

Francisco Mont’Alverne; Jean-Noel Vallée; Remy Guillevin; Evelyne Cormier; Betty Jean; Michelle Rose; José Guilherme Caldas; Jacques Chiras

2009-01-01

425

MMP-9 expression increases according to the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion in cervical smears.  

PubMed

Studies about cervical carcinogenesis have demonstrated the increased expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) according to the grade of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Considering the importance of innovative techniques to introduce noninvasive and rapid diagnoses for patients, this study aimed to perform MMP-9 immunocytochemistry in cervical smears according to the cytopathological diagnoses, in order to monitor MMP activity in cervical smears. This cross-sectional study investigated the expression of MMP-9 in normal cervical smears, inflammatory cervical smears, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma. Cervical smears from 630 women were collected for cytopathological diagnoses and immunocytochemistry. Women with squamous intraepithelial lesions showed an increase in MMP-9 expression, with moderate to intense staining occurring with increasing cervical lesion grade. The prevalence of moderate to intense MMP-9 staining was 9% in normal cervical smears, 12% in cervical inflammation, 24% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 92% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 100% in cervical carcinoma cases. In the specific case of LSIL, we found that association with MMP-9 is more evident when there is the simultaneous presence of an infectious agent. Thus, the expression of MMP-9 in cervical smears increases according to the grade of cervical lesion and LSIL in the presence of infectious agents showed higher MMP-9 expression than women with LSIL without infectious agents. PMID:24578283

Matheus, Erika R; Zonta, Marco A; Discacciati, Michelle G; Paruci, Priscila; Velame, Fernanda; Cardeal, Laura B S; Barros, Silvia B M; Pignatari, Antonio C; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

2014-10-01

426

[An old remedy newly evaluated: the cervical syndrome].  

PubMed

Among the group of more than 5,000 patients reported here and suffering from headaches the cause of these headaches was to be found in 39.5% of the cases in the cervical spine. Two thirds of these revealed a malpositioning of two vertebrae against each other while the remaining third showed narrowing of the intervertebral foramina. Other cervical pathology comprises less than 6% of a total of more than 17,000 patients diagnosed as having a cervical syndrome. In the first group manual repositioning of the cervical spine brought about 82% of complete normalization of the position of the cervical spine (with concomitant total loss of symptoms) while of the remaining 18% half turned out to be free of symptoms as well. In case of narrowing of i.v. foramina electric blocking of the respective nerves using a very special type of current also lead to loss of symptoms in between 80 and 90% of these cases. Diagnostic aids and special techniques are presented. Thus in cervical causation of headaches clear diagnosis leads to proper and very effective therapy (without drugs). It should be thought of more frequently for the benefit of patients. PMID:8053213

Jenkner, F L

1994-01-01

427

In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

2014-02-01

428

[Is early first intercourse a risk factor for cervical cancer?].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior has long been known to be a risk factor for cervical carcinoma. Certain sexual risk factors are related to an increased risk of chronic infection of the cervical transformation zone with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs). Numerous retrospective analyses consider early first intercourse a probable risk factor for later development of cervical carcinoma. Since risk factors are associated, it is unclear whether early first intercourse is an independent risk factor for cervical neoplasia. Few comprehensive retrospective studies are available. It is possible that the cervical transformation zone is particularly vulnerable to infection between menarche and the age of sixteen. During this phase there are a large number of undifferentiated cells at the periphery of the metaplasia, practically at the surface of the cervix. It seems that this area is particularly susceptible to HPV infection. There are also indications that there is no secondary immune response to HPV at the time of early first intercourse, making the immune response to HPV less efficient. Other possible risk factors for cervical cancer include genetic predisposition, nutrition, smoking, Chlamydia or HSV-2 infections, drug abuse, oral contraception, immune suppression and early first pregnancy. Education appears important to encourage responsible sexual behaviour in young people. PMID:16205092

Reich, O

2005-10-01

429

Epidemiology, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer remains to be one of the leading malignancies among Filipino women. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, such as 16 and 18, are consistently identified in Filipino women with cervical cancer. Factors identified to increase the likelihood of HPV infection and subsequent development of cervical cancer include young age at first intercourse, low socioeconomic status, high parity, smoking, use of oral contraception and risky sexual behaviors. Cancer screening programs presently available in the Philippines include Pap smears, single visit approach utilizing visual inspection with acetic acid followed by cryotherapy, as well as colposcopy. However, the uptake of screening remains low and is further compounded by the lack of basic knowledge women have regarding screening as an opportunity for prevention of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccination of both quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines has already been approved in the Philippines and is gaining popularity among the Filipinos. However, there has been no national or government vaccination policy implemented as of yet. The standard of treatment of cervical cancer is radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy. Current researches are directed towards improving availability of both preventive and curative measures of cervical cancer management. PMID:19471671

Dy Echo, Ana Victoria V.

2009-01-01

430

[General anesthesia and cervical anesthesia. What changes in carotid surgery].  

PubMed

Carotid surgery must be preventive; therefore cerebral protection procedures have been the centre of interest for a decade. Nowadays local cervical block anaesthesia seems to have changed the terms of the problem allowing achieve the aim of "no risk surgery". Therefore we considered our 16 year experience (352 carotids operated on 290 patients). Since 1990 we employed cervical block anaesthesia. In order to ratify as much as possible the two groups of comparison, considering that we adopted some exclusion criteria, we compared the results of the first hundred carotids that underwent surgery with general anaesthesia and the first hundred operated using cervical block anaesthesia. Since we adopted cervical block anaesthesia there was no need of intra-operative monitoring systems because we considered exclusively the patients' clinical answer to preclamping. The use of shunt decreased from 9% to 3%. Surgery performed in cervical block anaesthesia gives a positive impression. This is due to the fact that there is not only a significant reduction of the morbidity rate, especially from a neurologic point of view, but also a reduction of the post-operation hospital stay. Furthermore there is also a better organization of the surgical phases. Direct monitoring of the cerebral function allows a precise analysis of the peri-operatory neurological events. In conclusion our study suggests that cervical block anaesthesia allows clinical benefits for the patient as far as safety is concerned being also more convenient under the economic point of view. PMID:11452815

Salvati, B; Capoano, R; Costanzo, A; Carra, A; Snarska, D; Liguori, M; Zappa, B; Sposato, A; De Pasquale, F; Montori, J; De Antoni, E

2001-01-01

431

Frequency-Dependent Activation of Glucose Utilization in the Superior Cervical Ganglion by Electrical Stimulation of Cervical Sympathetic Trunk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical stimulation of the distal stump of the transected cervical sympathetic trunk produces a frequency-dependent activation of glucose utilization, measured by the deoxy[14C]glucose method, in the superior cervical ganglion of the urethane-anesthetized rat. The frequency dependence falls between 0-15 Hz; at 20 Hz the activation of glucose utilization is no greater than at 15 Hz. Deafferentation of the superior cervical ganglion by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk does not diminish the rate of glucose utilization in the ganglion in the urethane-anesthetized rat. These results indicate that the rate of energy metabolism in an innervated neural structure is, at least in part, regulated by the impulse frequency of the electrical input to the structure, and this regulation may be an essential component of the mechanism of the coupling of metabolic activity to functional activity in the nervous system.

Yarowsky, Paul; Kadekaro, Massako; Sokoloff, Louis

1983-07-01

432

Imaging diagnosis: cranial cervical intraspinal schwannoma in a dog.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old, intact female Golden Retriever was presented with acute tetraplegia. Neurologic examination was consistent with a C1-C5 myelopathy. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging a well-defined, extradural mass was detected within the spinal canal at the level of C1-C2. The mass was isointense to normal spinal cord gray matter on T1-weighted (T1W) images, hyperintense on T2-weighted (T2W), and gradient-echo (GE) images, and enhanced homogeneously after intravenous contrast administration. MR imaging features were mainly consistent with a meningioma. Surgical treatment was refused by the owners, and the dog was euthanized. Postmortem examination demonstrated that the intraspinal mass was a schwannoma. PMID:23738896

Oliveira, Maria; De La Fuente, Cristian; Pumarola, Martí; Añor, Sònia

2014-01-01

433

Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. METHODS: The study

Howayda S Abd El All; Amany Refaat; Khadiga Dandash

2007-01-01

434

The effect of cervical traction combined with conventional therapy on grip strength on patients with cervical radiculopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if combining intermittent cervical traction with conventional physical therapy methods is more effective than using conventional approaches alone in the improvement of the grip strength and treatment of the patients with unilateral cervical 7 (C7) radiculopathy.Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT).Setting: An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran.Patients: A sample of convenience

Mohammad Taghi Joghataei; Amir Massoud Arab; Hossein Khaksar

2004-01-01

435

Anatomical distribution of HTLV-I proviral sequence in an autopsy case of HTLV-I associated myelopathy: a polymerase chain reaction study.  

PubMed

HTLV-I associated myelopathy (HAM) is a slowly progressive paraplegia of the lower extremities observed among HTLV-I carriers. An autopsy of a typical HAM case in which perivascular lymphocytic infiltration was not limited to the central nervous system was examined. Spinal dorsal roots, salivary gland, lungs, liver and kidney showed non-specific, but unusual sporadic perivascular lymphocytic infiltration, which resembled the findings in the spinal cord. To investigate the anatomical distribution of HTLV-I provirus, the HTLV-I proviral sequences, tax and pol, were amplified from the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of the autopsy case using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By PCR, strong HTLV-I provirus signals were detected in the spinal cord, peripheral nerve, muscle, lungs and liver. Weak signals were detected in the medulla oblongata, optic nerve and lymph node, while the other organs, including the cerebrum, were negative. The data from this study show the specific distribution of HTLV-I provirus in the distinct organs of a HAM patient. PMID:8025646

Sueyoshi, K; Goto, M; Johnosono, M; Sato, E; Shibata, D

1994-01-01

436

Accumulation of human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I-specific T cell clones in HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.  

PubMed

Human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraperesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive neurologic disorder following infection with HTLV-I. It is characterized by spasticity and hyper-reflexia of the lower extremities, urinary bladder disturbance, lower extremity muscle weakness, and sensory disturbances. HTLV-I, as an inducer of a strong humoral and cytotoxic response, is a well-known pathogenic factor for the progression of HAM/TSP. Peptides derived from proviral tax and env genes provide epitopes recognized by T cells. We herein report an accumulation of distinct clonotypes of alpha/beta TCR+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes from HAM/TSP patients in comparison with that observed in both asymptomatic carriers and healthy controls, using the reverse-transcriptase PCR/single-strand conformation polymorphism method. We also found that some of the accumulated T cell clones in the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid are HTLV-I Tax(11-19) peptide specific. Such clones were found to expand strongly after being cultured with an HTLV-I Tax(11-19) peptide. Moreover, the cultured samples exhibited a strong MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic activity against HTLV-I Tax(11-19) peptide-expressing targets, and therefore most likely also include the disease-associated T cell clones observed in the patients. This is the first report of a direct assessment of Ag-specific T cell responses in fresh PBL and cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:9257872

Höger, T A; Jacobson, S; Kawanishi, T; Kato, T; Nishioka, K; Yamamoto, K

1997-08-15

437

Defective human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients.  

PubMed

Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We studied the presence of HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 72 Chilean patients with progressive spastic paraparesis by polymerase chain reaction: 32 seropositive and 40 seronegative cases. We amplified different genomic regions of HTLV-I using primers of 5' ltr, tax, env/tax, pX, pol and env genes. These genes were detected from all seropositive patients. The seronegative patients were negative with 5' ltr, pol, env, and pX primers. However, amplified product of tax and env/tax genes was detected from 16 and four seronegative patients, respectively. Three of them were positive with both genetic regions. The results of this study show that the complete HTLV-I provirus is found in 100% of seropositive cases. In seronegative cases, clinically very similar of seropositive cases, was found only tax gene in 42.5% (17/40) of patients. These results suggest the presence of a defective HTLV-I provirus in some seronegative patients with progressive spastic paraparesis, and suggest a pathogenic role of this truncate provirus for a group of TSP/HAM. PMID:12573502

Ramirez, E; Fernandez, J; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Rios, M

2003-02-01

438

Failure to detect genomic material of HTLV-I or HTLV-II in mononuclear cells of Italian patients with multiple sclerosis and chronic progressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

To contribute to the undecided question if a retrovirus of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) family may be involved in the development of multiple sclerosis (MS), we investigated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) the presence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II sequences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNAs from 30 patients affected by MS and 15 by chronic progressive myelopathy. Moreover a control group of 14 blood donors was examined. All these patients were devoid of anti-HTLV-I antibody in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid at ELISA. For the PCR, primers and probes specific for the tax region common to HTLV-I and HTLV-II, for the pol region of HTLV-I, and for the pol region of HTLV-II were used. In spite of the high sensitivity of the technique used, the three groups of subjects were negative for HTLV-I and HTLV-II genomic sequences. PMID:8440281

Merelli, E; Sola, P; Marasca, R; Salati, R; Torelli, G

1993-01-01

439

High production of RANTES and MIP-1alpha in the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM).  

PubMed

Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is associated with progressive neurological disorders and tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). The pathogenesis of TSP/HAM is considered as immune mediated, involving cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses to a number of viral proteins and notably the regulation protein Tax. T CD8+ cells produce beta-chemokines, which are important in the anti-viral response. In the present study, we have analyzed the CC chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1beta and MIP-1alpha) production in retrovirus-infected subjects. A total of 191 subjects were studied: 52 healthy controls, 72 asymptomatic HTLV-1-infected carriers and 67 TSP/HAM patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were maintained in the presence or absence of PHA, and supernatant fluids were assayed using EIA. MIP-1beta concentration was not significantly different across groups, but RANTES and MIP-1alpha concentrations showed significant differences when the three groups were compared. In TSP/HAM patients, the increase in the production of chemokines may lead to a recruitment of pro-inflammatory factors, contributing to the membrane's myelin damage. PMID:17588676

Montanheiro, Patricia; Vergara, Maria Paulina Posada; Smid, Jerusa; da Silva Duarte, Alberto José; de Oliveira, Augusto César Penalva; Casseb, Jorge

2007-08-01

440

Proviral load and immune markers associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in Peru  

PubMed Central

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the aetiological agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The objective of this study is to identify which ex vivo and in vivo markers are associated independently with HAM/TSP in a Peruvian population. Eighty-one subjects (33 men/48 women) were enrolled: 35 presented with HAM/TSP, 33 were asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) and 13 were HTLV-1-seronegative controls (SCs). Ex vivo markers included T cell proliferation and Th1 [interferon (IFN)-?], Th2 [interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5], proinflammatory [tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?] and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine production in non-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. In vivo CD4+ T cell count, markers of Th1 [interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10] and Th2 (sCD30) activity in plasma and HTLV-1 proviral load in PBMCs were also evaluated. In univariate analysis, several markers, including T cell proliferation, IFN-?, IP-10, sCD30 and proviral load were associated with HAM/TSP, but in a multiple logistic regression analysis only the proviral load remained associated significantly with disease manifestation [adjusted OR 9·10 (1·24–66·91)]. Our findings suggest that HAM/TSP is associated primarily with proviral load, whereas the observed association with some immune markers seems secondary. PMID:17034574

Best, I; Adaui, V; Verdonck, K; Gonzalez, E; Tipismana, M; Clark, D; Gotuzzo, E; Vanham, G

2006-01-01