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1

Morphology of the cervical vertebrae in the fetal-neonatal human skeleton  

PubMed Central

The gross anatomical features of human cervical vertebrae during the fetal-neonatal period were investigated in order to develop morphological standards for the individual ossification centres for use in forensic and anthropological osteology. It was found that the morphology of the cervical vertebral arches and the centra cannot be used for the determination of fetal age although the dens of the axis displays some developmental differences which may be useful for the determination of fetal maturity. PMID:10227677

CASTELLANA, C.; KOSA, F.

1999-01-01

2

Morphology of the cervical vertebrae in the fetal-neonatal human skeleton.  

PubMed

The gross anatomical features of human cervical vertebrae during the fetal-neonatal period were investigated in order to develop morphological standards for the individual ossification centres for use in forensic and anthropological osteology. It was found that the morphology of the cervical vertebral arches and the centra cannot be used for the determination of fetal age although the dens of the axis displays some developmental differences which may be useful for the determination of fetal maturity. PMID:10227677

Castellana, C; Kósa, F

1999-01-01

3

Functional morphology and anatomy of cervical vertebrae in Nacholapithecus kerioi, a middle Miocene hominoid from Kenya.  

PubMed

This paper describes the morphology of cervical vertebrae in Nacholapithecus kerioi, a middle Miocene primate species excavated from Nachola, Kenya in 1999-2002. The cervical vertebrae in Nacholapithecus are larger than those of Papio cynocephalus. They are more robust relative to more caudal vertebral bones. Since Nacholapithecus had large forelimbs, it is assumed that strong cervical vertebrae would have been required to resist muscle reaction forces during locomotion. On the other hand, the vertebral foramen of the lower cervical vertebrae in Nacholapithecus is almost the same size as or smaller than that of P. cynocephalus. Atlas specimens of Nacholapithecus resemble those of extant great apes with regard to the superior articular facet, and they have an anterior tubercle trait intermediate between that of extant apes and other primate species. Nacholapithecus has a relatively short and thick dens on the axis, similar to those of extant great apes and the axis body shape is intermediate between that of extant apes and other primates. Moreover, an intermediate trait between extant great apes and other primate species has been indicated with regard to the angle between the prezygapophyseal articular facets of the axis in Nacholapithecus. Although the atlas of Nacholapithecus is inferred as having a primitive morphology (i.e., possessing a lateral bridge), the shape of the atlas and axis leads to speculation that locomotion or posture in Nacholapithecus involved more orthograde behavior similar to that of extant apes, and, in so far as cervical vertebral morphology is concerned, it is thought that Nacholapithecus was incipiently specialized toward the characteristics of extant hominoids. PMID:22542211

Kikuchi, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Yoshihiko; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Kunimatsu, Yutaka; Shimizu, Daisuke; Ogihara, Naomichi; Tsujikawa, Hiroshi; Takano, Tomo; Ishida, Hidemi

2012-06-01

4

Hierarchical Model-based Tracking of Cervical Vertebrae from Dynamic Biplane Radiographs  

PubMed Central

We present a novel approach for automatically, accurately and reliably de-termining the 3D motion of the cervical spine from a series of stereo or biplane radiographic images. These images could be acquired through a variety of different imaging hardware configurations. We follow a hierarchical, anatomically-aware, multi-bone approach that takes into account the complex structure of cervical vertebrae and inter-vertebrae overlapping, as well as the temporal coherence in the imaging series. These significant innovations improve the speed, accuracy, reliability and flexibility of the tracking process. Evaluation on cervical data shows that the approach is as accurate (average precision 0.3 mm and 1°) as the expert human-operator driven method that was previously state of the art. However, unlike the previously used method, the hierarchical approach is automatic and robust; even in the presence of implanted hardware. Therefore, the method has solid potential for clinical use to evaluate the effectiveness of surgical interventions. PMID:23122602

Haque, Abedul; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott; Marai, G. Elisabeta

2012-01-01

5

Cervical vertebrae anomalies in subjects with Class II malocclusion assessed by lateral cephalogram and cone beam computed tomography.  

PubMed

A high prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies (CVA) has been recently associated with various malocclusions. Our aim was to study the prevalence of CVA on lateral cephalograms in Class II subjects and to compare the findings with those obtained from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Standardized cephalograms of 238 Class II patients were analysed for CVA. Cephalogram and CBCT were available for an additional 21 subjects. Cephalometric values were correlated with vertebrae morphology; logistic regressions and intraobserver agreement were evaluated. Inspection of lateral cephalograms could exclude CVA in 90.3 per cent of the subjects, while 9.7 per cent showed potential fusions. No correlations were found between the cephalometric values and potential vertebrae anomalies. In the 21 patients with a CBCT and a lateral cephalogram, the visual assessment of the cephalogram yielded a potential fusion in nine cases. None could be confirmed by CBCT. A low number of potentially fused cervical vertebrae could be detected on lateral cephalograms. The possible fusions did not correlate to any cephalometric values nor could they be confirmed by CBCT, the gold standard for assessing CVA. Visual examination of a cephalogram may result in a false-positive finding and does not allow reliable diagnosis of CVA. PMID:21252190

Bebnowski, Dominika; Hänggi, Michael P; Markic, Goran; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo

2012-04-01

6

A comparison between cervical vertebrae and modified MP3 stages for the assessment of skeletal maturity  

PubMed Central

Objective: Evaluation of skeletal maturity in human individuals is an important aspect in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics because, growth guidance and fundamental structural changes are essential for treatment of skeletal discrepancies in all the three planes. Among various growth assessment methods, cervical vertebra maturation stages and hand wrist have been correlated with the individual growth changes during puberty. The purpose of this study is to determine correlation of the CVM index with the modified median phalanx index (MP3) as described by Rajagopal and Kansal. Materials and Methods: 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) of Nellore, Indian origin boys aged between 10 to 19 years and girls of 8 to 16 years were selected for the study. The subjects are selected randomly from patients visiting the Departments of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Pediatric dentistry and Oral medicine and Radiology at Narayana Dental College and Hospital. Nellore. Radiographs of left hand MP3 and lateral cephalogram were taken. Results: Cohen's kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between the two measurements based on categorical variables. Conclusions: There was a good concordance between 6 stages of CVMI (Hassel and Farman) and the 6 stages of MP3 (Rajagopal and Kansal). Physiological maturity was earlier in females than in males when compared to the individuals of opposite sex of same chronological age. Chronological age was not a valid predictor of assessing the skeletal maturity because of significant variations in the distribution of CVMI and MP3 stages with respect to individual chronological age distribution. PMID:23633839

Prasad, Mandava; Ganji, Venkata Suresh Kumar; George, Suja Ani; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar; Shetty, Sharath Kumar

2013-01-01

7

Osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae and occipital bone: A case report and brief review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a common complication of radiation therapy. We present the first case reported in the literature of ORN involving the first and second cervical vertebrae and occipital bone in a patient who was treated with surgery and radiation therapy 9 years prior for a TxN3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left neck arising from an unknown primary origin.

Alan A. Tan Lim; Daniel W. Karakla; Dale V. Watkins

1999-01-01

8

Destructive osteoblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of cervical vertebra in an 11-year-old boy: case report  

PubMed Central

Study Design: A case report and review of previous literature are presented. Objective and Background: The objective of this manuscript was to report a case of destructive osteoblastoma with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of cervical vertebra in a child, and discuss the pathogenesis of this disease. The combination of osteoblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst in the cervical spine is rare in primary bone neoplasm. To the authors’ knowledge, only one case in a child has been reported. Method: Plain X-rays, technetium bone scanning, CT scan and MRI indicated an expansile, partially sclerotic lesion of the C4 involving the body of vertebra and appendix. The lesion was excised through anterior and posterior approach. Results: After operation the tumor was removed completely. There has been no sign of tumor recurrence or clinical or radiologic sign of instability in the follow-up investigations. Conclusions: We report a rare case of destructive osteoblastoma with Secondary aneurysmal bone cyst of cervical vertebra in a child, a full investigation indicated that complete resection of the tumor can prevent recurrence and malignant transformation. Long-term follow-up is needed to declare a lifelong cure of the disease. PMID:24482719

Hu, Hongtao; Wu, Jianxin; Ren, Liang; Sun, Xianze; Li, Feng; Ye, Xiaojian

2014-01-01

9

Transpedicular screwing of the seventh cervical vertebra: anatomical considerations and surgical technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was first to assess the feasibility of C7 transpedicular screwing with a morphological study and secondly to evaluate the safety of such a surgical technique when guided only by posterior landmarks. Eighteen C7 vertebrae, harvested from fresh human cadavers, were included in this study. First the morphometry of C7 pedicle was performed on computed tomography

C. Barrey; F. Cotton; J. Jund; P. Mertens; G. Perrin

2003-01-01

10

Fracture of the First Cervical Vertebra in a High School Football Player: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the case of a high school football player with a burst fracture of the ring of C1 resulting from a “spearing” tackle. Background: Cervical spine fractures are rare in collision sports, but their potentially grave consequences mean that they must be given special attention. Spearing was banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the National Federation of High School Athletic Associations in 1976, and the number of cervical spine fractures in high school and college football players has fallen dramatically. However, cervical spine fractures do still occur, and they present a diagnostic challenge to sports medicine professionals. Differential Diagnosis: Cervical sprain. Treatment: Treatment consists of halo-vest immobilization. Surgical fusion may be necessary for unstable C1-C2 fractures, although initial halo-vest treatment is usually attempted. Uniqueness: A 17-year-old defensive back attempted to make a tackle with his head lowered. He was struck on the superolateral aspect of the helmet by the opposing running back. He remained in the game for another play, but then left the field under his own power, complaining of neck stiffness and headache. Physical examination revealed upper trapezius and occiput tenderness, bilateral cervical muscle spasm, and pain at all extremes of voluntary cervical movement. He was alert and oriented, with a normal neurologic examination. Treatment with ice was attempted but was discontinued due to increased pain and stiffness. Heat resulted in decreased pain and stiffness, but his symptoms persisted, and he was trans- ported to the emergency room. Plain radiographs were read as negative, but a CT scan demonstrated a burst fracture of Cl. He was treated with halo-vest immobilization for 8 weeks and a rigid cervical collar for 8 additional weeks. Physical therapy was then initiated, and normal cervical range of motion and strength were restored within 6 weeks. The athlete competed in track 6 months after the injury and continues to play recreational sports without difficulty. At clinical follow-up 8 months after injury, he had full, painless cervical range of motion and a normal neurologic examination. Conclusions: A potentially devastating cervical spine injury can present insidiously, without dramatic signs or symptoms. Therefore, sports medicine professionals must retain a high index of suspicion when evaluating athletes with cervical spine complaints. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2. PMID:16558448

Trupiano, Tim P.; Sampson, Michelle L.; Weise, Marc W.

1997-01-01

11

Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.  

PubMed

The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections. PMID:24318949

Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

2014-01-01

12

Evaluation of biomechanical strength, stability, bioactivity, and in vivo biocompatibility of a novel calcium deficient hydroxyapatite/poly(amino acid) composite cervical vertebra cage.  

PubMed

A new type of cervical vertebra cage was prepared using a novel composite, calcium deficient hydroxyapatite/poly(amino acid) (HA/PAA), and its mechanical properties, in vitro stability and bioactivity, and in vivo biocompatibility were characterized. The results showed that the axial compressive loads of the HA/PAA cage were in the range of 10058-10612 N and the lateral compressive loads were in the range of 1180-2363 N, and varied with the height of the cervical vertebra cages. After immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 16 weeks, the axial compressive loads of the cage decreased from 10058 to 7131 N and the lateral compressive loads decreased from 1180 to 479 N. In addition, the weight loss decreased 6.01%, showing that HA/PAA composites had good stability during the incubation period. The pH value of SBF was also monitored during the whole soaking period; it fluctuated in the range of 6.9-7.4. Scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer results showed the cage was bioactive with a new apatite layer attached on the surface. The histological evaluation revealed that new bone tissue bonded tightly with the surfaces of the implants, showing excellent biocompatibility. In conclusion, the HA/PAA cage showed sufficient strength, good stability, bioactivity, and biocompatibility, and has potential applications for clinical cervical vertebrae repair. PMID:25162474

Xiong, Yi; Li, Hong; Zhou, Chunguang; Yang, Xi; Song, Yueming; Qing, Yan; Yan, Yonggang

2014-11-01

13

CT Morphometric Analysis to Determine the Anatomical Basis for the Use of Transpedicular Screws during Reconstruction and Fixations of Anterior Cervical Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS) in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population. Methods Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images were performed for 80 cases. The anatomic data and screw fixation parameters for ATPS fixation were measured using the Mimics software. Findings The overall mean OPW, OPH and PAL ranged from 5.81 to 7.49 mm, 7.77 to 8.69 mm, and 33.40 to 31.13 mm separately, and SPA was 93.54 to 109.36 degrees from C3 to C6, 104.99 degrees at C7, whereas, 49.00 to 32.26 degrees from C4 to C7, 46.79 degrees at C3 (TPA). Dl/rSIP had an increasing trend away from upper endplate with mean value from 1.87 to 5.83 mm. Dl/rTIP was located at the lateral portion of the anterior cortex of vertebrae for C3 to C5 and ipsilateral for C6 to C7 with mean value from ?2.70 to ?3.00 mm, and 0.17 to 3.18 mm. The entrance points for pedicular screw insertion for C3 to C5 and C6 to C7 were recommended ?2??3 mm and 0–4 mm from the median sagittal plane, respectively, 1–4 mm and 5–6 mm from the upper endplate, with TPA being 46.79–49.00 degrees and 40.89–32.26 degrees, respectively, and SPA being 93.54–106.69 degrees and 109.36–104.99 degrees, respectively. The pedicle screw insertion diameter was recommended 3.5 mm (C3 and C4), 4.0 mm (C5 to C7), and the pedicle axial length was 21–24 mm for C3 to C7 for both genders. However, the ATPS insertion in C3 should be individualized given its relatively small anatomical dimensions. Conclusions The data provided a morphometric basis for the ATPS fixation technique in lower cervical fixation. It will help in preoperative planning and execution of this surgery. PMID:24349038

Chen, Chun; Ruan, Dike; Wu, Changfu; Wu, Weidong; Sun, Peidong; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Wu, Jigong; Lu, Sheng; Ouyang, Jun

2013-01-01

14

Correlation Analysis of the Hyoid Bone Position in Relation to the Cranial Base, Mandible and Cervical Part of Vertebra with Particular Reference to Bimaxillary Relations / Teleroentgenogram Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The relationship among the orofacial system and the rest of the body ,both in functional and anatomical terms was the subject of numerous scientific studies. The optimum position of the bone structures of orofacial system provides performance of intact vital functions, such as breathing or swallowing. Hyoid bone represents a link between the head and neck. Although located in the neck, hyoid bone due to its brachial origin belongs to the visceral skeleton. The purpose of the research: a) To determine the position of the hyoid bone, in relation to the cranial base, mandible and cervical part of the vertebra; b) To determine the linear measures of hyoid bone and its constituents and c) to Identify on the profile teleroengen image, whether there are differences in the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship. The examinees and methods: 30 profile teleroengen images of patients aged 17-18 years of both sexes were used for this study. To study the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship respondents were divided into groups based on the ANB-angle values. The first group is ortognat patients with ANBangle values, from 1 to 4°. The second group included patients with distal jaw relationship, that is, whose values of ANB-angle were greater than / or 5°. The third group consists of patients with ANB-angle value of 0 or negative. Results and Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone is not constant, but depends on the maxillo-mandibular anterior posterior relationships. Length of hyoid bones and greater horns of hyoid bone differs with respect to the sagittal malocclusion. In relation to the cranial base and maxillary bones flat position of the hyoid bone is highly correlated. A positive correlation was found with relation to the cervical vertebra, while the dependence is determined in relation to the steep mandibular plane. PMID:23322951

Deljo, Emsudina; Filipovic, Mediha; Babacic, Rafeta; Grabus, Jasmina

2012-01-01

15

Cervicitis  

MedlinePLUS

... into the pelvic area such as a cervical cap, diaphragm, or pessary Allergy to spermicides used for ... does not go away: Discharge may be gray, white or yellow in color Painful sexual intercourse Pain ...

16

Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy  

MedlinePLUS

... between the vertebrae results in narrowing of the space for the spinal cord and its branches, known ... and cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the space for the spinal cord or nerve branches in ...

17

Symptomatic intravertebral disc herniation (Schmorl's node) in the cervical spine.  

PubMed Central

A case of a Schmorl's node in the cervical vertebra causing neck pain is reported. An inflammatory focus was found on histological examination of Schmorl's node indicating a possible mechanism of pain production. Images PMID:4083942

Lipson, S J; Fox, D A; Sosman, J L

1985-01-01

18

SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CERVICAL OSTEOARTHRITIS  

PubMed Central

The early results of anterior cervical intervertebral disc excision and fusion (Cloward operation) together with removal of associated arthritic bone spurs pressing on nerves and spinal cord give promise of relief of pain and muscle weakness in patients who have this form of cervical osteoarthritis. Eighty-five per cent of a group of patients with neurologic pain caused by compression of this kind were relieved by this operation. The approach to the cervical vertebrae is made by an incision into the front of the neck and the diseased disc and arthritic spurs are removed by drilling a half-inch hole into the edges of the vertebrae. The remaining fragments of disc are curetted away. The hole is plugged with a bone dowel. The patients had less pain and a more rapid convalescence than with the usual posterior laminectomy for chronic disc disease. ImagesFigure 1(a).Figure 2. PMID:14436128

Rand, Robert W.; Crandall, Paul H.

1959-01-01

19

Surgical treatment of cervical osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

The early results of anterior cervical intervertebral disc excision and fusion (Cloward operation) together with removal of associated arthritic bone spurs pressing on nerves and spinal cord give promise of relief of pain and muscle weakness in patients who have this form of cervical osteoarthritis.Eighty-five per cent of a group of patients with neurologic pain caused by compression of this kind were relieved by this operation. The approach to the cervical vertebrae is made by an incision into the front of the neck and the diseased disc and arthritic spurs are removed by drilling a half-inch hole into the edges of the vertebrae. The remaining fragments of disc are curetted away. The hole is plugged with a bone dowel. The patients had less pain and a more rapid convalescence than with the usual posterior laminectomy for chronic disc disease. PMID:14436128

RAND, R W; CRANDALL, P H

1959-10-01

20

Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

2014-03-01

21

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

MedlinePLUS

... the neck area, the first vertebrae of the thoracic spine, and the disk spaces in between them. The ... with you and explain what they mean. In case of an injury or other emergency, the results of a cervical spine X-ray can be available quickly. Otherwise, they' ...

22

[The effect of the instability of cervical spine on the hemodynamics in the vertebrobasilar system].  

PubMed

256 patients with cephalgia were examined. The main cephalgia cause was a cervical instability. We showed importance of extended examinations for cephalgia pathogenesis. We estimated cerebral circulation by ultrasound (cerebral blood flow registration) methods. We found an intact blood flow in both vascular systems (arterial and venous) in 19.9% cases. Cervical instability more 3 mm vertebra dislocation was not always a cause of vertebral discirculation. Quite often a vertebra dislocation under 3 mm was a result of vertebra-basilar disordes. PMID:24730044

Grinenko, E A; Kul'chikov, A E; Musin, R S; Morozov, S G

2014-01-01

23

Heterogeneity in the development of the vertebra.  

PubMed Central

Vertebrae are derived from the sclerotomal moities of the somites. Sclerotomal cells migrate ventrally to surround the notochord, where they form the vertebral body, and dorsolaterally to form the neural arch, which is dorsally closed by the spinous process. Precursor cells of the spinous process as well as superficial ectoderm and roof plate express homeobox genes of the Msh family from embryonic day 2 (E2) to E6. The notochord has been shown to be responsible for the dorsoventral polarization of the somites and for the induction of sclerotomal cells into cartilage. Indeed, supernumerary notochord grafted laterally to the neural tube induces the conversion of the entire somite into cartilage. We report here that a mediodorsal graft of notochord prevents the sclerotomal cells migrating dorsally to the roof plate from differentiating into cartilage. Under these experimental conditions, expression of Msx genes is abolished. We thus demonstrate that cartilaginous, differentiation is differentially controlled in the dorsal part of the vertebra (spinous process) and in the neural arch and vertebral body. Images PMID:7937970

Monsoro-Burq, A H; Bontoux, M; Teillet, M A; Le Douarin, N M

1994-01-01

24

Variations in Entrance of Vertebral Artery in Korean Cervical Spine: MDCT-based Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge of the anatomical variation of the vertebral artery has clinical importance not only for the performance of interventional or surgical procedures itself but also to ensure their safety. We conducted a study of the anatomical variation by reviewing multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) images of the cervical spine from 460 Korean patients. Methods 16-row MDCT data from 460 patients were used in this study. We observed 920 vertebral arteries. Examination points included level of entrance of the artery into the transverse foramen of the cervical vertebra, origin site of the vertebral artery, course of a vertebral artery with aberrant entrance. Result The vertebral artery in 2 (0.2%) cases in this study entered into the transverse foramen of the 7th cervical vertebra from the left. In 45 (4.9%) cases, the vertebral artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 5th cervical vertebra. Of these, the entrance was on the right in 15 (1.6%) and on the left in 30 (3.3%). We found 17 (1.8%) cases in which the artery entered into the transverse foramen of the 4th cervical vertebra, 10 (1.1%) on the right and 7 (0.7%) on the left side. As is commonly acknowledged, the 6th cervical vertebra was the most common site of entry; the vertebral artery entered the transverse foramen of the 6th cervical vertebra in the remaining 855 (93.0%) cases, on the right in 434 (47.2%) and on the left in 421 (45.8%). Conclusions In conclusion, the possibility of an atypical course of the vertebral artery in segments V1 and V2 should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT images before carrying out procedures involving the anterior cervical vertebrae. PMID:25031813

Shin, Hye Young; Park, Ji Kang; Park, Sun Kyung; Jung, Gyu Seo

2014-01-01

25

Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra  

PubMed Central

Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases.

Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2014-01-01

26

Cervical Dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

What is cervical dysplasia? Cervical dysplasia is abnormal cell growth on the surface lining of the cervix. With proper follow-up and treatment, ... cancer. Who is most likely to have cervical dysplasia? Although cervical dysplasia is most common in women ...

27

Cervical curvature variations in patients with infraocclusion.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to observe the variations of cervical curvature in patients with infraocclusion, and to compare this with the controls. In this study, the infraocclusion criteria were defined with the Pr-id as <17 mm on the cephalometric image. The subjects were 32 patients with infraocclusion, and 28 controls which matched the distribution for gender and age. The six points of inquiry were as follows: (i) cervical vertebra height, (ii) neck alignment, (iii) ratio of lower facial height, (iv) vertical dimension of occlusion, (v) cervical angle and (vi) occlusal angle. In over 90% of the patients with infraocclusion, the cervical curvature was classified as straight or kyphosis. Conversely, in 36% of the control subjects, the cervical curvature was classified as Lordosis. There was a weak positive correlation between the vertical dimension of occlusion and the cervical curvature in all subjects. In the control group, there was a significant and strong positive correlation between the age and cervical curvature, and a strong negative correlation between age and cervical angle and occlusal angle. Conversely, in the patients with infraocclusion, age was only correlated with the ratio of lower facial height. The prevalence of non-lordosis in the patients with infraocclusion was higher in comparison with the control group in our study, and the previous large-scale study of Japanese. However, there was merely a weak positive correlation between the cervical curvature and the vertical dimension of occlusion. PMID:24849697

Ando, E; Shigeta, Y; Hirabayashi, R; Ikawa, T; Hirai, S; Katsumura, S; Ogawa, T

2014-08-01

28

Computed tomographic evaluation of cervical vertebral canal and spinal cord morphometry in normal dogs  

PubMed Central

The height, width, and cross-sectional area of the vertebral canal and spinal cord along with the area ratio of spinal cord to vertebral canal in the cervical vertebra were evaluated in images obtained using computed tomography (CT). Measurements were taken at the cranial, middle, and caudal point of each cervical vertebra in eight clinically normal small breed dogs (two shih tzu, two miniature schnauzers, and four mixed breed), 10 beagles, and four German shepherds. CT myelography facilitated the delineation of the epidural space, subarachnoid space, and spinal cord except at the caudal portion of the 7th cervical vertebra. The spinal cord had a tendency to have a clear ventral border in the middle portion of the vertebral canal and lateral borders near both end plates. The height, width, and area of the vertebral canal and spinal cord in the cervical vertebra were increased as the size of dog increased. However, the ratio of the spinal cord area to vertebral canal area in the small dogs was higher than that of the larger dogs. Results of the present study could provide basic and quantitative information for CT evaluation of pathologic lesions in the cervical vertebra and spinal cord. PMID:24136210

Seo, Eunjeong; Choi, Jihye; Choi, Mincheol

2014-01-01

29

Cervical cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer - cervix ... Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. It is much less common in the United ... of the routine use of Pap smears . Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of ...

30

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

31

Cervical dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical dysplasia refers to abnormal changes in the cells on the surface of the cervix . The cervix is the ... Cervical dysplasia can develop at any age, but is most often seen in women ages 25 to 35. Most ...

32

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-07-01

33

Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the tissues of the cervix. The Cancer Genome Atlas is studying the two main types of cervical cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the thin, flat, squamous cells that line the vagina. Adenocarcinoma arises in the glandular cells in the vagina that secrete mucus. Risk factors for cervical cancer include smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the future, the HPV vaccine will lower the infection rate.

34

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

1997-09-15

35

Dysphagia and airway obstruction due to large cervical osteophyte in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical osteophytes are excessive bony formation of cervical vertebra bodies. They are common but rarely symptomatic lesions mostly seen in geriatric population. Large anterior cervical osteophytes may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, dyspnea, dysphonia, and odynophagia. They have been attributed to multiple etiologies including diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, following trauma, cervical spondylitis, and infectious spondylitis. However, symptomatic large anterior cervical osteophyte with ankylosing spondylitis is extremely rare. Surgical excision is the main treatment for symptomatic cases. We report a case of a 53-year-old man with airway obstruction and dysphagia due to large cervical osteophyte who has a history of ankylosing spondylitis, and we also addressed the etiological factors and management of large symptomatic cervical osteophytes. PMID:24905946

Varsak, Yasin Kür?ad; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif; Arba?, Hamdi

2014-07-01

36

Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

2014-03-01

37

Cervical Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... The most common subtype of cervical cancer, called squamous cell carcinoma, arises from the surface lining of the ectocervix, ... successful at decreasing the number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, it has not yet been ...

38

Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths  

PubMed Central

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

2014-01-01

39

Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is estimated that by the end of 1999 in the United States, 12,800 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed\\u000a and that 4800 women will die. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women and the leading cause\\u000a of death in many non-industrialized nations (Parkin, 1998). As is true generally for cancer, the burden

Colleen M. McBride; Delia Scholes

40

Vertebrae in Compression: Mechanical Behavior of Arches and Centra in the Gray Smooth-Hound Shark  

E-print Network

Vertebrae in Compression: Mechanical Behavior of Arches and Centra in the Gray Smooth-Hound Shark, Poughkeepsie, New York 12604 ABSTRACT In swimming sharks, vertebrae are sub- jected, in part, to compressive cartilages in compression, to determine the ma- terial properties of shark vertebrae, and to document

Long Jr., John H.

41

Transoral Resection of Spinal Cord Tumors and Posterior Cervical Spine Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transoral resection of an anterior spinal cord tumor consists of three major phases: corpectomy (ie, removal of vertebral bodies), tumor resection, and duraplasty (ie, repair of the dura mater). A second surgical procedure, posterior stabilization of the occiput to the C3 vertebra, consists of an iliac crest bone graft for cervical spine fusion and the application of a rigid fixation

Phyllis G. Walton; Eve L. Broughton

1997-01-01

42

Cervical injuries under flexion and compression loading.  

PubMed

Cervical spine segmental tests were performed to determine the specific patterns of initial cervical injury in response to loading just beyond the point of structural failure. Well-defined combinations of flexion rotation and compression translation were applied to segments with varying degrees of disc and facet degeneration. Twelve cervical spine specimens (from human cadavers ages 52-91 years), each consisting of three vertebrae (two motion segments) from the middle (C2-C5) or lower (C5-T1) regions, were subjected to pure flexion rotation (seven specimens) or to combined flexion rotation and axial compression translation (five specimens). Specimens were sectioned and dissected to determine the patterns of structural failure. Pure flexion, and combined flexion and compression produced similar patterns of injuries. The disc was the most commonly injured structure, with annular injuries noted in 8 of the 12 specimens, and with anterior herniation of the nucleus occurring in two specimens. Wedge fractures and posterior ligament injuries were noted in both specimen groups and with both modes of loading. We conclude that similar patterns of initial anterior bony compressive failure and posterior ligamentous failure can occur with both flexion and with combined flexion-compression, without axial or lateral rotation, at low rates of loading. Anterior cervical disc herniations were produced in both middle and lower cervical segments. PMID:8504231

Crowell, R R; Shea, M; Edwards, W T; Clothiaux, P L; White, A A; Hayes, W C

1993-04-01

43

[Spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi in an immunocompetent patient].  

PubMed

We report a case of spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis caused by Salmonella typhi. A 52-year-old man presented in the neurosurgical service with complaints of pain in the cervical and scapular region. Cervical inflammatory disease was suggested by bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging. The diagnosis of Salmonella typhi spondylodiscitis was established by blood culture and culture of needle biopsy specimen taken from the C5 vertebra. The agglutinin titers for Salmonella were elevated. Intravenous ciprofloxacin therapy and external immobilization with a halo vest were instituted. A review of literature was performed evaluating the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this unusual pathology. PMID:12563403

Falavigna, Asdrubal; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani

2002-12-01

44

Distraction-stabilisation of two adjacent intervertebral spaces in a Dalmatian dog with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old, 40-kg, male, entire Dalmatian was presented for evaluation of chronic neck pain and pelvic limb ataxia. Myelography revealed ventrodorsal (hourglass) extradural compression over the intervertebral space between the 5th and 6th cervical vertebra and ventral extradural compression between the 6th and 7th cervical vertebra. Cranial compression disappeared and caudal compression markedly diminished after performing cervical traction. MRI scan confirmed protrusion of intervertebral discs and spinal cord compression in previously mentioned intervertebral spaces. Surgical distraction-stabilization of both intervertebral spaces was performed using threaded pins and polymethylmethacrylate. The convalescence from surgery was uneventful and the dog was walking without any signs of paresis until 5 months after surgery when radiography revealed implants loosening. The dog recovered fully of the implant removal and remained asymptomatic for more than 30 months. PMID:23644293

Beranek, J; Tomek, A; Lorinson, D

2013-05-01

45

Lumbar fractures involving five vertebrae: a case report.  

PubMed

We report a 20-year-old man who sustained lumbar fractures involving 5 vertebrae following a road traffic accident. He was initially treated non-operatively to allow multiple pedicles to heal. He developed post-traumatic kyphosis for which corrective osteotomy and posterior spinal instrumented fusion was performed. He achieved a good functional outcome. We emphasise the need for careful radiological evaluation in patients with high-energy trauma, and the option of treating such complex injuries by non-operative means. If post-traumatic kyphosis develops, it can be dealt with later and the most mobile segments of the lumbar spine can be preserved. PMID:22184180

Jettoo, Prithee; Sharma, Himanshu; Andrews, John R; Sanderson, Paul L

2011-12-01

46

Ossified Ligamentum Longitudinale Anterius in Adult Human Dry Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Background: The ligamentum longitudinale anterius is a broad and strong band of fibrous tissue that runs along the anterior surfaces of the bodies of the vertebrae. Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius in adult dry human vertebra. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 95 sets of dry human vertebral columns irrespective of age and sex at Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences- Barabanki,-UP, Melaka Manipal Medical College-Manipal University and Department of Anatomy, KMCT Medical College, Manassery- Calicut, India. All the sets of vertebral columns were macroscopically inspected for the ossified ligamentum longitudinale anterius. Results: It was observed that out of 95 sets of vertebral columns, 27 (28.42%) vertebral columns showed ossification. Out of 27 vertebral columns, 17 (17.89%) vertebral columns showed segmental type of ossification, 2 (2.11%) vertebral columns showed continuous type of ossification and 8 (8.42%) vertebral columns showed mixed type of ossification at different vertebral level. Conclusion: Such type of ossification will affect the biomechanics of the spine and may result in stiff neck, low back pain, dysphagia, odynophagia, compression of the brachial plexus, aphonia, immobility or mucosal thickening of larynx. Hence, knowledge of such abnormalities should be kept in mind to minimise serious complications in any surgical intervention or investigative procedures in the region.

Venumadhav, Nelluri; KS, Siddaraju

2014-01-01

47

Quantitative histochemistry of rat lumbar vertebrae following spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The histochemical effects of the return to gravity immediately and 6 and 29 days following spaceflight on the bone of rat vertebral bodies were investigated. No significant change in the calcium salt content of the vertebrae was found immediately postflight, although 6 days later it was significantly decreased. The calcium content was found to have returned to normal by 29 days postflight. While postflight collagen content was not significantly altered, keratosulfate was found to be significantly higher in trabecular bone of rats immediately postflight and 6 days postflight. In addition, chondroitin sulfate was found to be increased in vertebral bone on days 6 and 29 postflight. These findings indicate that bone turnover slows in vertebrae during spaceflight allowing bone aging, which support the contention that a form of osteolysis begins immediately upon return to gravity to remove components of old bone at which time mineral levels decrease and levels of chondroitin and keratkosulfates shift. It was found that the osteolysis phase was quickly followed by new bone replacement which was completed before 29 days postspaceflight.

Eurell, J. A.; Kazarian, L. E.

1983-01-01

48

3D/2D registration and segmentation of scoliotic vertebrae using statistical models  

E-print Network

model; Biplanar radiographies; Scoliosis; Medical imaging; Energy function optimization Introduction IN PRESS #12; reconstruction scoliotic vertebrae spine. Scoliosis a deformation natural curve spinal column

Mignotte, Max

49

METHANOL EXPOSURE DURING GASTRULATION CAUSES HOLOPROSENCEPHALY, FACIAL DYSGENESIS AND CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MALFORMATIONS IN C57BL/6J MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol during the period of gastrulation results in exencephaly, cleft palate, and cervical vertebra malformations (Rogers and Mole, 1997, Teratology 55, 364). C57BL/6J mice are sensitive to the teratogenicity of ethanol; fetuses of this strai...

50

Cervical dysplasia - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the ... This procedure is performed for more advanced cervical dysplasia, which remains limited to the cervix (cervical intraepithelial ...

51

Compressive myelopathy of the cervical spine in Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis).  

PubMed

Cervical subluxation and compressive myelopathy appears to be a cause of morbidity and mortality in captive Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis). Four cases of cervical subluxation resulting in nerve root compression or spinal cord compression were identified. Three were presumptively induced by trauma, and one had an unknown inciting cause. Two dragons exhibited signs of chronic instability. Cervical vertebrae affected included C1-C4. Clinical signs on presentation included ataxia, ambulatory paraparesis or tetraparesis to tetraplegia, depression to stupor, cervical scoliosis, and anorexia. Antemortem diagnosis of compression was only confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography. Treatment ranged from supportive care to attempted surgical decompression. All dragons died or were euthanatized, at 4 days to 12 mo postpresentation. Studies to define normal vertebral anatomy in the species are necessary to determine whether the pathology is linked to cervical malformation, resulting in ligament laxity, subsequent instability, and subluxation. PMID:19368265

Zimmerman, Dawn M; Douglass, Michael; Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Aguilar, Roberto; Schaftenaar, Willem; Shores, Andy

2009-03-01

52

[An old remedy newly evaluated: the cervical syndrome].  

PubMed

Among the group of more than 5,000 patients reported here and suffering from headaches the cause of these headaches was to be found in 39.5% of the cases in the cervical spine. Two thirds of these revealed a malpositioning of two vertebrae against each other while the remaining third showed narrowing of the intervertebral foramina. Other cervical pathology comprises less than 6% of a total of more than 17,000 patients diagnosed as having a cervical syndrome. In the first group manual repositioning of the cervical spine brought about 82% of complete normalization of the position of the cervical spine (with concomitant total loss of symptoms) while of the remaining 18% half turned out to be free of symptoms as well. In case of narrowing of i.v. foramina electric blocking of the respective nerves using a very special type of current also lead to loss of symptoms in between 80 and 90% of these cases. Diagnostic aids and special techniques are presented. Thus in cervical causation of headaches clear diagnosis leads to proper and very effective therapy (without drugs). It should be thought of more frequently for the benefit of patients. PMID:8053213

Jenkner, F L

1994-01-01

53

Variations in strength of vertebrae with age and their relation to osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae were obtained at post mortem examinations of human subjects in the range 26 to 86 years and at the same time specimens were taken from the iliac crests for histological assessment of trabecular density (iliac crest score). After removal of pedicles and spinous processes the vertebrae were compressed in a testing machine to mechanical failure.

G. H. Bell; Olive Dunbar; J. S. Beck; A. Gibb

1967-01-01

54

Ivory Vertebra on 18F-Sodium Fluoride Scan: An Old Sign in a New Modality.  

PubMed

We report a case of ivory vertebra on F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra. PMID:24566404

Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

2014-11-01

55

[Cervical meningocele with filiform connection. Case report].  

PubMed

The meningocele is the least common form of spina bifida cystica and represents less than 10% of cases of this disorder. A case of a female patient aged 26 with a history of two pregnancies and two previous cesarean sections, present pregnancy unplanned, uncontrolled during the first trimester prenatal and without supplementation with folic acid. Family history of consanguinity with her husband (second cousins) and psychomotor reassessed in four maternal cousins. The first follow-up visit the patient was at 34 weeks of pregnancy. The ultrasonographic findings were: cervical meningocele posterior filiform connection between the first and second cervical vertebrae, lateral ventriculomegaly and third and fourth ventricles and hydrocephalus secondary. Cesarean section was performed at 37 weeks gestation and was a newborn male 3.000 g, 52 cm, head circumference of 36 cm, Apgar 8/9, Capurro 37 weeks of gestation. In the posterior cervical region tumor was located a soft 5 x 5 cm with intact skin, adhered to deep planes. Movement of all four extremities without neurological involvement. He referred to the department of neurosurgery for shunt placement and subsequently performed surgical excision of the meningocele. PMID:21966848

Kerckoff-Villanueva, Hugo H; Bautista-Melgoza, Armando; Rodríguez-Márquez, Diana M

2011-08-01

56

Population studies of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) (Osteichthys: Galaxiidae) in Chile with reference to the number of vertebrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

G. maculatus presenta dos poblaciones que difieren en el número de sus vertebras, en el sistema lacustre fluvial de Valdivia, Chile. Una población con un bajo número de vertebras esta en alopatria en los lagos y la otra con un alto número de vertebras esta en semi?alopatria en el estuario. Ambas poblaciones estan en simpatria en el río. Diferencias entre

Hugo Campos

1974-01-01

57

Craniofacial and Cervical Morphology Related to Sagittal Spinal Posture in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Studies on the relationship between body posture and craniofacial parameters often focus on the cervical spine. Thus, less attention has been paid to the morphology of the vertebra C2 that serves as both a structural and functional link between the craniofacial area and the other part of the spine. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of craniofacial features to certain morphological and positional characteristics of the cervical vertebrae and the spine during growth. We determined body posture indices for 69 children and adolescents by means of a radiation-free method (rasterstereography). The morphological and positional analysis of the craniofacial area and the cervical vertebrae was based on standardized lateral X-ray cephalograms. Medium to strong correlations were found between body posture, C2 morphology, and craniofacial parameters. We found significant correlations between the C2 dens axis height and maxillary indices as well as between the C2 dens axis inclination and cephalometrical values of the mandibular area. Similarly the correlation between the C2 dens axis inclination and the postural index flèche cervicale was highly significant (P < 0.05, r = 0.333). These results suggest that morphological features of the odontoid process may serve as valuable predictive markers in interdisciplinary orthopedic-orthodontic diagnostics. PMID:25276804

Segatto, Angyalka; Braunitzer, Gabor

2014-01-01

58

ICSN - Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Cervical

59

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

60

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... have a history of moderate or severe cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer and if you have had ... under magnification with an instrument called a colposcope. Dysplasia: A noncancerous condition that occurs when normal cells ...

61

Biomechanical comparison of pedicle screws versus spinous process screws in C2 vertebra  

PubMed Central

Background: Biomechanical studies have shown C2 pedicle screw to be the most robust in insertional torque and pullout strength. However, C2 pedicle screw placement is still technically challenging. Smaller C2 pedicles or medial localization of the vertebral artery may preclude safe C2 pedicle screw placement in some patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the pullout strength of spinous process screws with pedicle screws in the C2. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh human cadaveric cervical spine specimens (C2) were harvested and subsequently frozen to ?20°C. After being thawed to room temperature, each specimen was debrided of remaining soft tissue and labeled. A customs jig as used to clamp each specimen for screw insertion firmly. Screws were inserted into the vertebral body pairs on each side using one of two methods. The pedicle screws were inserted in usual manner as in previous biomechanical studies. The starting point for spinous process screw insertion was located at the junction of the lamina and the spinous process and the direction of the screw was about 0° caudally in the sagittal plane and about 0° medially in the axial plane. Each vertebrae was held in a customs jig, which was attached to material testing machine (Material Testing System Inc., Changchun, China). A coupling device that fit around the head of the screw was used to pull out each screw at a loading rate of 2 mm/min. The uniaxial load to failure was recorded in Newton'st dependent test (for paired samples) was used to test for significance. Results: The mean load to failure was 387 N for the special protection scheme and 465 N for the protection scheme without significant difference (t = ?0.862, P = 0.403). In all but three instances (38%), the spinous process pullout values exceeded the values for the pedicle screws. The working distances for the spinous process screws was little shorter than pedicle screws in each C2 specimen. Conclusion: Spinous process screws provide comparable pullout strength to pedicle screws of the C2. Spinous process screws may provide an alternative to pedicle screws fixation, especially with unusual anatomy or stripped screws.

Liu, Guan-yi; Mao, Lu; Xu, Rong-ming; Ma, Wei-hu

2014-01-01

62

Cervical origin of left subclavian artery: A rare anomaly  

PubMed Central

A 22-year-old lady was referred to our institute for the management of pulmonary atresia with hypoplastic pulmonary arteries. Computed tomographic Angiography (CTA) showed right aortic arch with left brachicephalic artery as the first branch, which trifurcated into internal carotid, external carotid and subclavian artery high up in the neck at the level of third cervical vertebra. The left subclavian artery then travelled back caudally and entered into the arm after giving rise to a large collateral artery. This is the first ever-reported case of cervical origin of left subclavian artery (COLSA) in the literature. This anomaly can be explained by the absence of left fourth aortic arch with left subclavian artery arising from the left third aortic arch.

Sundaram, Ponnusamy Shunmuga; Sukulal, Kiron; Bijulal, Sasidharan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A

2014-01-01

63

Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

2011-03-01

64

Pars Inter-Articularis and Laminar Morphology of the Terminal Lumbar Vertebra in Lumbosacral Transitional Variations  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbo-sacral transitional variations are common in the general population. Structural inadequacies of the terminal lumbar vertebral pars interarticularis (PI) and lamina have often been implicated as important factors for lumbo-sacral instability. Aims: Quantifying dimensions of PI and laminae in terminal lumbar vertebrae associated with lumbosacral transitions and compare them with their normal counterparts. Materials and Methods: Fourth lumbar vertebrae in spines involved with complete sacralization of the fifth lumbar (L5) vertebrae and L5 vertebrae associated with lumbosacral accessory articulation were measured for the height, width and thickness of the PI and the laminae on both sides and compared to normal vertebrae. Results: Dimensions in sacralization associated terminal vertebrae were smaller than the normal. The height of the PI and the widths of laminae were observed to be significantly smaller in terminal lumbar segment in sacralized specimen. Lumbo-sacral accessory articulations demonstrated smaller overall dimensions of several parameters. Lamiane in the last lumbar segment associated with lumbo-sacral transitions demonstrate smaller dimensions compared to the normal ones. Sacralization results in maximum diminution of these parameters. Conclusions: Smaller PI may predispose spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis at lumbo-sacral junctions associated with transitional variations, and warrant special attention to avoid iatrogenic injuries. PMID:23923109

Mahato, Niladri Kumar

2013-01-01

65

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

66

Cervical Cancer Facts  

E-print Network

What is cervical cancer? Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Cancer is always named for the part of the body where it starts, even if it spreads to other body parts later. When cancer starts in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer. The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus. The cervix connects the vagina (the birth canal) to the upper part of the uterus. The uterus (or the womb) is where a baby grows when a woman is pregnant. Cervical cancer is preventable with regular screening tests and followup. It also is highly curable when found and treated early. Although cervical cancer occurs most often in women over age 30, all women are at risk for cervical cancer. Each year approximately 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 4,000 women die from the disease. 1 Cervical cancer is the easiest

unknown authors

67

Vaccines against cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are a major threat to women's health worldwide. Although the introduction of screening tests to detect cervical cancer and its precursor lesions has reduced overall cervical cancer rates in the developed world, the approach was largely unsuccessful for developing countries, primarily due to a lack of appropriate infrastructures and high costs. Annually, 470,000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, of which 80% occur in developing countries. Despite advances in treatment of cervical cancer, approximately half of the women afflicted with the disease will die. Over 20 years of dedicated research has provided conclusive evidence that a subset of human papillomaviruses are the aetiological agents for cervical cancer. Finding a viral origin for this disease provided the basis to fight cervical cancer using prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination. Both vaccine approaches are reviewed here, with an emphasis on recent clinical data. PMID:15500408

Jansen, Kathrin U

2004-11-01

68

Chronic Neck Pain: Making the Connection Between Capsular Ligament Laxity and Cervical Instability  

PubMed Central

The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

2014-01-01

69

Chronic neck pain: making the connection between capsular ligament laxity and cervical instability.  

PubMed

The use of conventional modalities for chronic neck pain remains debatable, primarily because most treatments have had limited success. We conducted a review of the literature published up to December 2013 on the diagnostic and treatment modalities of disorders related to chronic neck pain and concluded that, despite providing temporary relief of symptoms, these treatments do not address the specific problems of healing and are not likely to offer long-term cures. The objectives of this narrative review are to provide an overview of chronic neck pain as it relates to cervical instability, to describe the anatomical features of the cervical spine and the impact of capsular ligament laxity, to discuss the disorders causing chronic neck pain and their current treatments, and lastly, to present prolotherapy as a viable treatment option that heals injured ligaments, restores stability to the spine, and resolves chronic neck pain. The capsular ligaments are the main stabilizing structures of the facet joints in the cervical spine and have been implicated as a major source of chronic neck pain. Chronic neck pain often reflects a state of instability in the cervical spine and is a symptom common to a number of conditions described herein, including disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, whiplash injury and whiplash associated disorder, postconcussion syndrome, vertebrobasilar insufficiency, and Barré-Liéou syndrome. When the capsular ligaments are injured, they become elongated and exhibit laxity, which causes excessive movement of the cervical vertebrae. In the upper cervical spine (C0-C2), this can cause a number of other symptoms including, but not limited to, nerve irritation and vertebrobasilar insufficiency with associated vertigo, tinnitus, dizziness, facial pain, arm pain, and migraine headaches. In the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), this can cause muscle spasms, crepitation, and/or paresthesia in addition to chronic neck pain. In either case, the presence of excessive motion between two adjacent cervical vertebrae and these associated symptoms is described as cervical instability. Therefore, we propose that in many cases of chronic neck pain, the cause may be underlying joint instability due to capsular ligament laxity. Currently, curative treatment options for this type of cervical instability are inconclusive and inadequate. Based on clinical studies and experience with patients who have visited our chronic pain clinic with complaints of chronic neck pain, we contend that prolotherapy offers a potentially curative treatment option for chronic neck pain related to capsular ligament laxity and underlying cervical instability. PMID:25328557

Steilen, Danielle; Hauser, Ross; Woldin, Barbara; Sawyer, Sarah

2014-01-01

70

Cervical disc prosthesis replacement and interbody fusion: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to compare the new functional intervertebral cervical disc prosthesis replacement and the classical interbody fusion operation, including the clinical effect and maintenance of the stability and segmental motion of cervical vertebrae. Twenty-four patients with single C5-6 intervertebral disk hernias were specifically selected and divided randomly into two groups: One group underwent artificial cervical disc replacement and the other group received interbody fusion. All patients were followed up and evaluated. The operation time for the single disc replacement was (130 +/- 50) minutes and interbody fusion was (105 +/- 53) minutes. Neurological or vascular complications were not observed during or after operation. There was no prosthesis subsidence or extrusion. The JOA score of the group with prosthesis replacement increased from an average of 8.6 to 15.8. The JOA score of the group with interbody fusion increased from an average of 9 to 16.2. The clinical effect and the ROM of the adjacent space of the two groups showed no statistical difference. The short follow-up time does not support the advantage of the cervical disc prosthesis. The clinical effect and the maintenance of the function of the motion of the intervertebral space are no better than the interbody fusion. At least 5 years of follow-up is needed to assess the long-term functionality of the prosthesis and the influence on adjacent levels. PMID:17180356

Peng-Fei, Sun; Yu-Hua, Jia

2008-02-01

71

ADXS11-001 High Dose HPV+ Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Effects of Immunotherapy; Metastatic/Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-06-16

72

Prophylactic vertebroplasty can decrease the fracture risk of adjacent vertebrae: an in vitro cadaveric study.  

PubMed

Adjacent level vertebral fractures are common in patients with osteoporotic wedge fractures, but can theoretically be prevented with prophylactic vertebroplasty. Previous tests on prophylactic vertebroplasties have been performed under axial loading, while in vivo changes in spinal alignment likely cause off-axis loads. In this study we determined whether prophylactic vertebroplasty can also reduce the fracture risk under off-axis loads. In a previous study, we tested vertebral bodies that were loaded axially or 20° off-axis representing vertebrae in an unfractured spine or vertebrae adjacent to a wedge fracture, respectively. In the current study, vertebral failure load and stiffness of our previously tested vertebral bodies were compared to those of a new group of vertebral bodies that were filled with bone cement and then loaded 20° off-axis. These vertebral bodies represented adjacent-level vertebrae with prophylactic bone cement filling. Prophylactic augmentation resulted in failure loads that were comparable to those of the 0° group, and 32% greater than the failure loads of the 20° group. The stiffness of the prophylacticly augmented vertebrae was 21% lower than that of the 0° group, but 27% higher than that of the 20° group. We conclude that prophylactic augmentation can decrease the fracture risk in a malaligned, osteoporotic vertebra. Whether this is enough to actually prevent additional vertebral fractures in vivo remains subject of further study. PMID:24736018

Aquarius, René; Homminga, Jasper; Hosman, Allard Jan Frederik; Verdonschot, Nico; Tanck, Esther

2014-07-01

73

Simultaneous localization of lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs with SVM-based MRF.  

PubMed

This paper presents a method for localizing and labeling the lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs in mid-sagittal MR image slices. The approach is based on a Markov-chain-like graphical model of the ordered discs and vertebrae in the lumbar spine. The graphical model is formulated by combining local image features and semiglobal geometrical information. The local image features are extracted from the image by employing pyramidal histogram of oriented gradients (PHOG) and a novel descriptor that we call image projection descriptor (IPD). These features are trained with support vector machines (SVM) and each pixel in the target image is locally assigned a score. These local scores are combined with the semiglobal geometrical information like the distance ratio and angle between the neighboring structures under the Markov random field (MRF) framework. An exact localization of discs and vertebrae is inferred from the MRF by finding a maximum a posteriori solution efficiently using dynamic programming. As a result of the novel features introduced, our system can scale-invariantly localize discs and vertebra at the same time even in the existence of missing structures. The proposed system is tested and validated on a clinical lumbar spine MR image dataset containing 80 subjects of which 64 have disc- and vertebra-related diseases and abnormalities. The experiments show that our system is successful even in abnormal cases and our results are comparable to the state of the art. PMID:23559025

Oktay, Ayse Betul; Akgul, Yusuf Sinan

2013-09-01

74

[Osteometric determination of ordinal localization, sex, and body length in man from skeletonized lumbar vertebrae].  

PubMed

Dimensional characteristics of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) were obtained by examination of three osteologic collections containing a total of 304 male and 181 female vertebrae. The multimetric (14 parameters) discriminative analysis has demonstrated that the highest accuracy of ordinal localization based on the general diagnostic model (L1-L5) was obtained for L5 (93.76%) and the lowest one for L2 (56.45%). Correction of the results using several discrimination models improved the accuracy of classification to 76.65% (L1), 81.61% (L2), 79.82% (L3), and 81.99% (L4). Diagnosis of gender identity of isolated lumbar vertebrae by multimetric discriminative analysis proved to be possible in 87.7-88.8% of the cases; this figure amounted to 93.8% if the totality of these vertebrae was included in the analysis. The accuracy of body length measurements using multiple regression equations was estimated at +/- 6.22-6.45 cm for individual vertebrae and +/- 0.62 cm based on the complete set of them. In all these cases, sex and age of the subjects should be taken into consideration. It is concluded that the proposed methods can be used in forensic medical practice for the identification of skeletonized bone remains. PMID:20734785

Zvuiagin, V N; Karapetian, M K

2010-01-01

75

Transmandibular approach for upper cervical pathologies: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

In routine surgical practice, anterior approaches are not often used to treat upper cervical pathologies. Such lesions can be difficult to access surgically. This article describes 2 cases in which the transmandibular approach was used to address anterior upper cervical pathology. One case was a chordoma invading the C2-C3 vertebrae and the other case was atlanto-axial instability. Neurological examination revealed myelopathy in both cases. Each patient had already undergone occipito-cervical fusion at a different center and, thus, had limited neck extension and mouth-opening ability. In the first case, the tumor was totally excised. In the second, the dens was removed. We believe that the transmandibular approach is the best option for patients with limited neck mobility and restricted mouth-opening ability. PMID:18814117

Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Gerçek, Arzu; Celebiler, Ozhan; Pamir, M Necmettin

2008-07-01

76

Cephalometric Investigation of First Cervical Vertebrae Morphology and Hyoid Position in Young Adults with Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns  

PubMed Central

The aim of this retrospective study was to examine hyoid bone position and C1 (atlas) morphology in males and females and analyze these parameters with respect to different sagittal skeletal patterns via cephalometry, with the goal of identifying cephalometric norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 120 individuals (average age: 21.1?±?2.9 years) were classified according to their ANB angle (Class I, II, or III) and used to assess 14 parameters. Class I and II patients showed significant differences in Hy-NSL, Hy-PD, Hy-CVT, Lum, and a-p measurements. These parameters were consistently larger in males than in females. Intergroup comparisons among males showed significant differences in the SNA, ANB, Hy-CVT, X, and Z measurements. The hyoid was positioned more inferiorly and anteriorly and was more prominent in males than in females in all groups. Among participants exhibiting a Class I skeletal pattern, C1 was also larger in the anterior-posterior direction in males than in females. In the sagittal plane, the hyoid was positioned similarly in males with either Class I or III skeletal patterns but was positioned posteriorly in males with a Class II skeletal pattern. In addition, the vertical position of C1 varied with sagittal skeletal pattern in males. PMID:25152900

Gunduz Arslan, Seher; Dildes, Neval; Devecioglu Kama, Jalen

2014-01-01

77

Biomechanics of Cervical 'Skip' Corpectomy versus Standard Multilevel Corpectomy  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vitro biomechanical study of flexibility with finite element simulation to estimate screw stresses. Objective To compare cervical spinal stability after a standard plated three-level corpectomy with stability after a plated three-level “skip” corpectomy where the middle vertebra is left intact (i.e., two one-level corpectomies), and to quantify pullout forces acting on the screws during various loading modes. Summary of Background Data Clinically, three-level cervical plated corpectomy has a high rate of failure, partially because only four contact points affix the plate to the upper and lower intact vertebrae. Leaving the intermediate vertebral body intact for additional fixation points may overcome this problem while still allowing dural sac decompression. Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torque (maximum 1 Nm) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while angular motion was recorded stereophotogrammetrically. Specimens were tested intact and after corpectomy with standard plated and strut-grafted three-level corpectomy (7 specimens) or ‘skip’ corpectomy (7 specimens). Screw stresses were quantified using a validated finite element model of C3–C7 mimicking experimentally tested groups. Skip corpectomy with C5 screws omitted was also simulated. Results Plated skip corpectomy tended to be more stable than plated standard corpectomy, but the difference was not significant. Compared to standard plated corpectomy, plated skip corpectomy reduced peak screw pull-out force during axial rotation (mode of loading of highest peak force) by 15% (4-screw attachment) and 19% (6-screw attachment). Conclusions Skip corpectomy is a good alternative to standard three-level corpectomy to improve stability, especially during lateral bending. Under pure moment loading, the screws of a cervical multilevel plate experience the highest pullout forces during axial rotation. Thus, limiting this movement in patients undergoing plated multilevel corpectomy may be reasonable, especially until solid fusion is achieved. PMID:22801457

Yilmaz, Murat; Yuksel, K. Zafer; Baek, Seungwon; Sawa, Anna G.U.; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Sonntag, Volker K.H.; Crawford, Neil R.

2012-01-01

78

[Cervical face lift].  

PubMed

In the context of cervical facelift, classical techniques, constituting the basis for current techniques or still in use, are described in terms of the incisions, detachments and treatment of the deep adipose, muscular and glandular planes. The author then describes the technique commonly used in modern cervical restructuration before describing the possible complications and defects. PMID:7771748

Thion, A

1994-10-01

79

Cervical Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of cervical cancer. Long-term use of oral contraceptives Women who have used oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for 5 years or more have ... cervical cancer than women who have never used oral contraceptives. The risk is higher after 10 years of ...

80

The Determination of Age and Rate of Growth from Vertebrae of the Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Lacustris Punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and rate-of-growth calculations were made from the fifth vertebrae of 535 channel catfish (Ictalurus lacustris punctatus) taken from Pool 9 of the upper Mississippi River at Lansing, Iowa. Vertebrae were collected during the summers of 1945 and 1946 and examined with the aid of a standard scale projector. They were prepared by removal of adhering material with a solution

John Appelget; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1951-01-01

81

Breakthrough in three-dimensional scoliosis diagnosis: significance of horizontal plane view and vertebra vectors.  

PubMed

Scoliosis is a multifactorial three-dimensional (3D) spinal deformity with integral and directly related vertebral deviations in the coronal, sagittal and horizontal planes. Current classification and diagnostic methods rely on two-dimensional (2D) frontal and lateral X-ray images; no routine methods are available for the visualization and quantitative evaluation of deviations in the horizontal plane. The EOS 2D/3D system presented here is a new, low-dose, orthopedic radiodiagnostic device based on Nobel prize-winning X-ray detection technology with special software for 3D surface reconstruction capabilities that finally led to a breakthrough in scoliosis diagnosis with high-quality, realistic 3D visualization and accurate quantitative parametric analysis. A new concept introducing vertebra vectors and vertebra vector parametric calculations is introduced that furnishes simplified visual and intelligible mathematical information facilitating interpretation of EOS 2D/3D data, especially with regard to the horizontal plane top view images. The concept is demonstrated by a reported scoliotic case that was readily characterized through information derived from vertebra vectors alone, supplemented with the current angulation measurement methods in the coronal and sagittal planes and axial vertebral rotation measurements in the horizontal plane, with a calibrated 3D coordinate system suitable for inter-individual comparisons. The new concept of vertebra vectors may serve as a basis for a truly 3D classification of scoliosis. PMID:20821027

Illés, Tamás; Tunyogi-Csapó, Miklós; Somoskeöy, Szabolcs

2011-01-01

82

Efficacy analysis of pedicle screw internal fixation of fractured vertebrae in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to discuss the method and effect of posterior internal fixation of thoracolumbar fractures strengthened by the vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of fractured vertebrae. Patients with single thoracolumbar fractures were examined retrospectively. Fourteen patients (group A) had been treated with vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of a fractured vertebra and sixteen patients (group B) received traditional double-plate fixation, as a control. All patients were diagnosed with fresh fractures with a complete unilateral or bilateral pedicle and no explosion of the inferior half of the vertebral body or inferior endplate. In group A, patients received conventional posterior distraction and lumbar lordosis restoration, as well as pedicle screws in the fractured vertebra in a vertical direction to relieve stress to achieve a local stress balance. All patients were followed up postoperatively for 4–18 months (average, 12.6 months). The vertical stress pedicle screw fixation assisted in the reduction of vertebrae fracture, which reduced the postoperative Cobb’s angle loss. There was a significant difference in the change of Cobb’s angle between the two groups one year after surgery (P<0.01). Conditional application of pedicle screws in a single thoracolumbar fracture enhances the stability of the internal fixation system and is conducive to the correction of kyphosis and maintenance of the corrective effects. PMID:23407593

HUANG, WEIJIE; LUO, TAO

2013-01-01

83

The metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in South Asian litter frogs (Anura: Megophryidae)  

PubMed Central

Tadpoles of the Megophryidae, a South Asian family of litter frogs, are unique among anurans by virtue of their expanded caudal skeletons, which include supernumerary vertebral centra. The number of these vertebrae varies widely within the family, with tadpoles of Leptobrachella having as many as 30 and Leptolalax only five. Vertebral morphology is also quite variable, ranging from complete, perichordal centra to fragmentary ossifications. This variation in the caudal osteology of larval megophryids, however, is not manifested in the adult morphology. Post-metamorphic litter frogs have a typical anuran axial skeleton, invariably comprising eight presacral vertebrae, a single sacral vertebra and, postsacrally, the urostyle. To resolve this incongruity between life phases and to determine the precise metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in megophryids, we examined metamorphic specimens from the genera Leptobrachella, Leptolalax, Ophryophryne and Megophrys. In all four, the caudal larval skeleton undergoes massive reduction, leaving only the coccyx and hypochord untouched. Caudal centra are apparently degraded by osteoclasts, which have not previously been implicated in vertebral remodelling during anuran metamorphosis. In Megophrys and Ophryophryne metamorphs, presacral centra also undergo resorption, consistent with an epichordal mode of centrum formation. The conservation of megophryid adult axial osteology in the face of extensive larval skeletal diversity reveals the role of metamorphosis in constraining anuran morphology. PMID:17559539

Handrigan, Gregory R; Wassersug, Richard J

2007-01-01

84

High-resolution time-lapse tomography of rat vertebrae during compressive loading: deformation response analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is focused on investigation of mechanical properties of rat vertebrae during compressive loading in the longitudinal direction of rat's spine. High-resolution time-lapse micro-tomography was used as a tool to create models of the inner structure and deformed shape in pre-defined deformation steps. First, peripheral areas of vertebra specimen were embedded in polymethyl methacrylate to obtain proper boundary conditions of contact between specimen and loading plattens. Experimental loading device designed for application in X-ray setups was utilized to compress the vertebrae in several deformation steps. High-resolution micro-tomography scanning was carried out at each deformation step. Specimen was irradiated in tomography device equipped with microfocus X-ray tube with 5?m focal spot size and large area flat panel detector. Spatial resolution of reconstructed three-dimensional images was approximately 10?m. Digital volume correlation algorithm was utilized in order to assess displacements in the microstructure in every loading increment. Finite element model of vertebra was created from volumetric data reconstructed from tomography of the undeformed specimen. Simulated compressive test of the developed finite element model was performed in order to compare stiffness and displacements obtained by digital volume correlation and finite element simulation.

Fíla, T.; Kytý?, D.; Zlámal, P.; Kumpová, I.; Doktor, T.; Koudelka, P.; Jiroušek, O.

2014-05-01

85

A case of severe low back pain associated with Richard disease (lumbosacral transitional vertebra).  

PubMed

The imaging findings in some cases of low back pain are difficult to describe and the pathophysiology is not clear because subjective findings are usually difficult to document. This report concerns a rare case about the lumbosacral joint causing persistent severe back pain which in itself does not usually have any pathological meaning. We describe the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of a patient suffering from low back pain with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. The radiological examination showed the congenitally malformed transverse processes of the 5th lumbar vertebra to create a facet joint-like shape at the sacral ala region on both sides. Surgery resulted in immediate disappearance of the low back pain. When the lumbosacral junction shows some instability without fusion, the joint-like region could be the cause of low back pain. The lumbosacral transitional vertebra may be associated with low back pain. Electric denervation of the space between the transverse process of 5th lumbar vertebra and sacral ala is minimally invasive and effective for pain eradication. PMID:15346326

Endo, K; Ito, K; Ichimaru, K; Komagata, M; Imakiire, A

2004-08-01

86

Developmental failure of segmentation in a caudal vertebra of Apatosaurus (Sauropoda).  

PubMed

A vertebral element assigned to an Apatosaurus cf. ajax from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation is described. The specimen exhibits an unusual morphology where two vertebrae are nearly seamlessly fused together, including the haemal arch that spans them. This morphology is thought be the result of a developmental abnormality. CT scans of the specimen reveal a thin zone of dorsoventral thickening between the two neural arches consistent with cortical bone. Contrast in internal morphology differentiates the anterior and posterior vertebral bodies with the anterior expressing greater porosity, which increased accommodation for barite-rich calcite precipitation. No vacuities are observed to suggest the former presence of an intervertebral disk or intervertebral joints: the absence of an intervertebral disc or intervertebral joints is indicative of a condition known as block vertebra. Block vertebrae occur with the loss, or inhibition, of somitocoele mesenchyme early in embyogenesis (i.e., during resegmentation of the somites responsible for the formation of the affected vertebra). The derivatives of somitocoele mesenchyme include the intervertebral disc and joints. Although vertebral paleopathologies are not uncommon in the fossil record, this specimen is the first recognized congenital malformation within Sauropoda. Anat Rec, 297:1262-1269, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24532488

Lovelace, David M

2014-07-01

87

EMBARAZO ECTÓPICO CERVICAL: DIAGNÓSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO CONSERVADOR CON CERCLAJE CERVICAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We describe the cervical cerclage as an alternative of conservative treatment in the cervical ectopic pregnancy. Two cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy are described. Both cases corresponded to gestations smaller than seven weeks, diagnosis was done by means of transvaginal ultrasound. The cases were initially treated medically, but both patients presented severe bleeding during their evolution and cervical cerclage

2005-01-01

88

Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

2014-09-22

89

L5 vertebrectomy for the surgical treatment of tumoral and traumatic lesions of L5 vertebra.  

PubMed

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and the surgical results of seven patients treated with L5 vertebrectomy. The pathologies, clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative radiological findings, surgical techniques, and instrumentation for seven patients operated on between 1998 and 2009 are presented in this article. Biopsies were performed on all patients except those involving trauma. Patients were followed up at three-month intervals in the first year, at 6-month intervals in the second year, and on a regular basis afterward. One patient had a traumatic L5 burst fracture; the other six had tumoral pathologies in the L5 vertebrae. One tumoral lesion was a chordoma, another was a hemangioma, and the remaining four were metastatic lesions. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed for the metastatic tumor patients during the postoperative period. Patients with renal cancer and chordoma survived for 3 years; patients with lung cancer and bladder cancer survived for 1 year; and patients with breast cancer survived for 16 months. The lumbosacral region presents significant stabilization problems because of the presence of sacral slope. In our opinion, if the lesion involves only the L5 vertebra, anterior cage-filled bone cement or bone graft should be performed, as dictated by the pathology and posterior transpedicular instrumentation. If the lesion involves the L4 vertebra or the sacrum and the L5 vertebra, the instrumentation can be extended to cover other segments with sacral attachments. The present cases involved only L5 vertebra and treatment with short-segment stabilization covering the anterior and posterior columns. PMID:22577498

Kaner, Tuncay; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2012-01-01

90

Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall’s tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. Conclusion The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. PMID:23599706

Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

2012-01-01

91

Cervical cancer...159 Chapter 14  

E-print Network

NICR/NCRI Cervical cancer...159 Chapter 14: Cervical cancer (C53) KEY FINDINGS - INCIDENCE diagnosed with cervical cancer during 1994-2004. - NORTH/SOUTH COMPARISONS o Incidence rates during 2000 1994-2004: A comprehensive report 160...Cervical cancer 14.1: Incidence During 2000-2004 there were

Paxton, Anthony T.

92

Revision cervical spine surgery.  

PubMed

Principles of revision cervical spine surgery are based on adequate decompression of neural elements and mechanical stability via appropriate selection of surgical approach and constructs producing long-term stability with arthrodesis. When planning revision surgery, the surgeon must consider the cause of the underlying problem (eg, biological, mechanical), the potential for complications, and clinical outcomes that can reasonably be expected. This information should be clearly explained to the patient during the informed consent process. This article provides the spine care provider with an understanding of how to appropriately evaluate and manage the most common cervical conditions that require revision cervical spine surgery. PMID:22082635

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Harrod, Chambliss; Albert, Todd J

2012-01-01

93

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of ... returning for follow-up appointments, and to Stop Smoking! Copyright © 2003, 2008 American Society for Colposcopy and ...

94

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

95

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

96

Cervical Cancer Participation Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

97

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

98

Cervical Cancer Stage IB  

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99

Cervical Cancer Stage IVB  

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100

Cervical Cancer Stage IA  

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101

Cervical Cancer Stage IVA  

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102

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA  

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103

ICSN - Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates Organization

104

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

105

CDC's Cervical Cancer Study  

MedlinePLUS

... by Reducing Indoor Tanning Cervical Cancer Rates Among Young Women in the United States 2012 Increased Risk of Rare Cancer as DES Daughters Age Patterns of Colorectal Cancer Test ... and Young Adult Cancer Survivors HPV-Associated Cancers Doctors Who ...

106

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... often in black women than in white women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for ... Although most women with cervical cancer have the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection , not all women with an HPV ...

107

Cervical cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that are causally associated with invasive cervical cancer\\u000a may be within our grasp, it is unlikely that these approaches will replace existing cervical cancer screening strategies for\\u000a many years. Experts agree and data support periodic cytology screening for young-adult women using one of several technologies.\\u000a Recent analyses of cost-effectiveness suggest that the

Dorothy J. Wiley; Bradley J. Monk; Emmanuel Masongsong; Kristina Morgan

2004-01-01

108

Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

2014-02-01

109

Sprengel deformity and Klippel-Feil syndrome leading to cervical myelopathy presentation in old age  

PubMed Central

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the congenital fusion of two of the seventh cervical vertebrae. A 50-year-old woman presented with a 2-year history of neck pain and ataxia for 1 year. She had not urinary incontinence. She was referred to a neurosurgeon by a neurologist because of her progressive gait ataxia. Risk for brachial plexus injury because of compression or stretching by the clavicle accelerate with age. Therefore, the surgical approach of adults’ patients with Sprengel's deformity can intend suitable surgical conclusions. PMID:24250706

Mirhosseini, Seyyed Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Seyyed Mohammad Mahdy; Bidaki, Reza; Boshrabadi, Ahmad Pourrashidi

2013-01-01

110

Revised Vertebral Count in the "Longest-Necked Vertebrate" Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and Clarification of the Cervical-Dorsal Transition in Plesiosauria  

PubMed Central

Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a “lost” cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term “pectorals” to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length). This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the “longest necked” animals ever to have lived. PMID:23940656

Sachs, Sven; Kear, Benjamin P.; Everhart, Michael J.

2013-01-01

111

Long-term physical exercise retards trabecular bone loss in lumbar vertebrae of aging female mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The present study examined the effect of long-term, moderate physical exercise on trabecular bone volume (TBV), calcium content,3H-proline uptake, and the activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases in lumbar vertebrae of aging and senescent mice. It\\u000a became apparent that if physical activity starts at an early stage of life, i.e., prior to middle age and is extended until\\u000a old age,

Michael Silbermann; Batia Bar-Shira-Maymon; Raymond Coleman; Abraham Reznick; Yosef Weisman; Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen; Helga von der Mark; Klaus von der Mark

1990-01-01

112

Mechanical properties of sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) vertebrae in relation to spinal deformity.  

PubMed

Approximately 35% of sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria exhibit spinal deformities ranging from compressed vertebrae and loss of intervertebral space to dislocated spines with vertebral degeneration and massive spondylosis caused by excessive mineralization both within vertebrae and outside the notochordal sheath. To identify the mechanical basis of these deformities, vertebral centra from affected (N=12) and non-affected (N=9) C. taurus were subjected to axial compression tests on an MTS 858 Bionix material testing system, after which mineral content was determined. Vertebral centra from affected sharks had significantly lower mineral content and material behavior in nearly all variables characterizing elasticity, plasticity and failure. These mechanical deficiencies are correlated with size at capture, capture method, vitamin C and zinc deficiency, aquarium size and swimming behavior in public aquaria. Non-affected C. taurus had greater stiffness and toughness even though these properties are generally incompatible in mineralized structures, suggesting that the biphasic (mineralized, unmineralized phases) nature of chondrichthyan vertebrae yields material behavior not otherwise observed in vertebrate skeletons. However, vertebral centra from non-affected sharks had lower mineral content (33%), stiffness (167 MPa), yield strain (14%) and ultimate strength (16 MPa) than other species of sharks and bony vertebrates, indicating that biomechanical precautions must be taken in the husbandry of this species. PMID:23997197

Huber, Daniel R; Neveu, Danielle E; Stinson, Charlotte M; Anderson, Paul A; Berzins, Ilze K

2013-11-15

113

Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

2006-03-01

114

Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

1993-06-01

115

Measurement of Intervertebral Cervical Motion by Means of Dynamic X-Ray Image Processing and Data Interpolation  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurement of intervertebral kinematics of the cervical spine can support the diagnosis of widespread diseases related to neck pain, such as chronic whiplash dysfunction, arthritis, and segmental degeneration. The natural inaccessibility of the spine, its complex anatomy, and the small range of motion only permit concise measurement in vivo. Low dose X-ray fluoroscopy allows time-continuous screening of cervical spine during patient's spontaneous motion. To obtain accurate motion measurements, each vertebra was tracked by means of image processing along a sequence of radiographic images. To obtain a time-continuous representation of motion and to reduce noise in the experimental data, smoothing spline interpolation was used. Estimation of intervertebral motion for cervical segments was obtained by processing patient's fluoroscopic sequence; intervertebral angle and displacement and the instantaneous centre of rotation were computed. The RMS value of fitting errors resulted in about 0.2 degree for rotation and 0.2?mm for displacements. PMID:24288523

Bifulco, Paolo; Cesarelli, Mario; Romano, Maria; Sansone, Mario

2013-01-01

116

The orientation of the articular facets of the zygapophyseal joints at the cervical and upper thoracic region.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the orientation of facet joints in the cervical and upper thoracic region is important for understanding the biomechanical properties and clinical conditions relevant to the neck. The study was undertaken on dry macerated bones from 30 adult male human vertebral columns. The orientation of the superior articular facets in relation to their inclination with the sagittal and transverse planes was examined between C3 and T3 vertebrae in each column. The linear dimensions of the superior articular facets and the width/height ratio were also calculated. The results show that all vertebrae at C3 level and 73% at C4 level displayed posteromedially facing superior articular facets. Similarly at T1 level (C7/T1 joint) and below, all columns showed posterolaterally facing superior articular facets. The level of change in orientation, from posteromedial to posterolateral facing superior facets, was not constant and occurred anywhere between C4 (C3/C4 joint) and T1 (C7/T1 joint). The change in orientation followed 2 different patterns, i.e. sudden or gradual. The C6 vertebra (C5/C6 joint) was the most frequent site to show the transition. The shape of the superior articular facets was circular to oval at C3, C4 and C5 levels and gradually changed to a transversely elongated surface at C7 and T1. These findings correlate well with various cervical movements and associated clinical conditions. PMID:11327205

Pal, G P; Routal, R V; Saggu, S K

2001-04-01

117

Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.  

PubMed

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

2014-04-01

118

Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, sur- geons face the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy or laminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompres- sions or corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered by some clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexity of multilevel anterior cervical surgery.

Jung-Ju Huang; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Po-Liang Lai; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Wen-Jer Chen

119

Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

2014-01-01

120

Total disc arthroplasty and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in cervical spine: competitive or complimentary? Review of the literature.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical discectomy and arthrodesis has come to represent standard of care for patients with persistent radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms that have failed to improve with conservative treatments. One potential complication of the procedure is the accelerated degeneration of the vertebrae and the intervertebral discs adjacent to the level fused and the effects of fusion on those levels. The concern that fusion may be a contributing factor to accelerated adjacent segment degeneration led to increased interest in cervical disc replacement after anterior decompressive surgery. Several studies analyzing the short-term outcomes of the disc replacement procedure have been published since then, and the pros and cons of both procedures continue to remain a topic of debate among the scientific community. The analysis of published literature and our own experience has convinced us that the overall longer-term clinical outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and total disc replacement (TDR) in the general patient population are not significantly different in terms of symptomatic improvement, neurological improvement, and restoration to better quality of life. Age of the patients and number of affected levels may impact the outcomes and hence determine the choice of optimum procedure. To definitely compare the incidence of adjacent segment disease after these procedures, multi-institutional studies with predetermined and unanimously agreed upon clinical and radiological criteria should be undertaken and the results analyzed in an unbiased fashion. Until that time, it is reasonable to assume that ACDF as well as cervical TDR are both safe and effective procedures that may have outcome benefits in specific patient subgroups based upon demographics and clinical/radiological parameters at the time of surgery. PMID:24353966

Jawahar, Ajay; Nunley, Pierce

2012-09-01

121

Cervical cancer - screening and prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

122

[Cervical pathology and immunodepression].  

PubMed

The Human Papilloma Virus is often involved in the pathogenesis of cervical lesions. A local or systemic immunodeficiency allows neoplasia outbreaks. We do not know if immunodepression only allows the virus to persist, or if the HPV induces a local immunodeficiency. Large warts are often associated with pregnancy, but cervical cancers are not increased in pregnant women. Induced immunodeficiency (among transplanted patients), or AIDS increase the rate of CIN and cervical cancers. The more serious the immunodeficiency is, the more multifocal and recurrent the lesions are. We have to look for an immunodepression and for AIDS when we observe multifocal or recurrent lesions of the cervix, specially when the lesions do not regress under correct treatment. Immunodeficient women would benefit from closer care of their cervix. We think that combine therapy (e.g. laser and local interferon) would be more efficient in case of immunodeficiency. PMID:7827639

Quéreux, C; Hourdequin, P; Saniez, D; Rémy, G

1994-12-01

123

Morphological study of subaxial cervical pedicles by using three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction image.  

PubMed

Malpositioning of cervical screws risks neurovascular injury. A cervical screw fixation system can provide proper rigidity, alignment correction, and high rates of fusion afforded by high pullout biomechanical strength. The objective is to assess the dimensions and axis of the C3-C7 cervical pedicles. A 1-mm slice thickness computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine of 30 patients (15 males, 15 females) were analyzed and reconstructed in three-dimensions using Mimics(®) 10.01 software. We measured pedicle axis length (PAL), pedicle and lateral mass length (PL-LM), pedicle length (PL), outer pedicle width (OPW), and pedicle transverse angle (PTA) from the axial image and outer pedicle height (OPH) and pedicle sagittal angle (PSA) from the sagittal image. The OPH and OPW at all subaxial cervical spines were suitable for insertion of 3.5 mm cervical pedicle screws. PSA was directed cranially at C3 to C5 (13.84, 7.09, and 2.71) and directed caudally at C6 and C7 (-4.55, -6.94). PTA was greatest at C5 and smallest at C7. The respective difference between the left and right side for nearly all parameters was not statistically significant (except for C6 PL and C7 OPH). Females had a significantly smaller OPH and OPW than males at nearly all levels. The PTA was not significantly different between the sexes. Cervical pedicle screw fixation in the Thai population can be safely performed and guidelines for insertion at each vertebra documented. Appropriate preoperative planning is necessary to achieve safe and accurate placement of the screws. PMID:25169140

Wasinpongwanich, Kanthika; Paholpak, Permsak; Tuamsuk, Panya; Sirichativapee, Winai; Wisanuyotin, Taweechok; Kosuwon, Weerachai; Jeeravipoolvarn, Polasak

2014-01-01

124

Cervical motion segment replacement.  

PubMed

When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as well. The design requirements for a cervical disc prosthesis, the importance of precision instrumentation, and technique are described. Mechanical testing, animal testing, the study design for the EU clinical study, and the operative technique are discussed. The clinical 1- and 2-year data to date are presented. PMID:12384728

Bryan, Vincent E

2002-10-01

125

MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-10-09

126

Congenital dermal sinus of the cervical spine in an adult.  

PubMed

Congenital dermal sinuses are epithelium-lined tracts that extend from an opening in the skin through deeper tissues. Most dorsal congenital dermal sinuses are located in the lumbosacral area; a cervical location is unusual. This report describes a 24-year-old woman who presented with neck pain of 6 months' duration. A dimple in the skin over her cervical spine and a stunted right foot (0.5 cm shorter than the left) were detected on physical assessment. Neurological examination revealed increased deep tendon reflexes in her lower extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a dermal sinus extending from the dimple site to the spinal cord near the C4-C5 vertebrae. Laminectomies were performed at C3-C4 and the tract was totally excised. The patient's neck pain completely resolved and her deep tendon reflexes were normal at 12 months after surgery. Tethered spinal cord alone does not necessarily demand surgery; however, if a congenital dermal sinus is present then surgery is indicated to prevent spinal infection. Even if there are no neurological symptoms, the tract must be surgically removed and the cord must be fully released to prevent future infectious or neurological complications. PMID:18032049

Dagcinar, Adnan; Konya, Deniz; Akakin, Akin; Gercek, Arzu; Ozgen, Serdar; Pamir, Necmettin M

2008-01-01

127

Leiomyosarcoma metastatic to the cervical spine causing a C6 compression fracture: A case report  

PubMed Central

Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor derived from smooth muscle cells, which commonly metastasizes to the lungs, liver, kidney, brain and skin. The current study presents the case of a 42-year-old male who presented with progressive neck pain and numbness of the left arm. Spinal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteolytic lesions of numerous vertebrae (C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, T1 and T2). With regard to the C6 vertebra, total destruction of the vertebral body resulted in vertebral collapse and subsequent spinal cord compression. The patient underwent an anterior C6 corpectomy, reconstruction with a mesh cage filled with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and open PMMA infusion to C5 and C7. The surgical procedure significantly alleviated the symptoms and obtained a reliable reconstruction. The clinical follow-up examination at 13 months was uneventful with the exception of mild numbness of the left hand since the surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of leiomyosarcoma recurrence presenting in the cervical spine, and the present study provides insight into the use of a surgical technique that has rarely been used in the cervical spine. PMID:24959258

SUN, ZHENZHONG; WANG, HENG; YANG, HUILIN; JIANG, WEIMIN

2014-01-01

128

Cervical motion segment replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as

Vincent E. Bryan Jr; J Goffin; A Casey; P Kehr; K Liebig; C Logroscino; F Van Calenbergh; J van Loon; Universitaire Ziekenhuizen

2002-01-01

129

Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (<40 pg/mL) and premenopausal (?40 pg/mL). Results: The mean BMDs within the irradiation field (lumbar vertebra 5) in the postmenopausal and the premenopausal groups were 0.825 and 0.910 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). In addition, in the premenopausal group the mean BMDs of the nonirradiated regions at thoracic vertebrae 9-12 and lumbar vertebrae 2-4 were 0.753 and 0.958 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD.

Okonogi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: syoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Oike, Takahiro; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Nakano, Takashi

2013-12-01

130

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Tirapazamine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-06-18

131

Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-08-08

132

Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization.  

PubMed

Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail. PMID:24113831

Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

2013-11-01

133

Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

2013-11-01

134

Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-02-01

135

Cervical thymic cysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymic cysts are rare embryonic remnants along the course of thymic migration in the neck or the anterior mediastinum which\\u000a may result in cervical masses in children, often misdiagnosed. We present the experience gained by three European tertiary\\u000a care medical centers in the treatment of thymic cysts as well as the current data on the embryology, clinical presentation,\\u000a diagnosis and

Bruno Cigliano; Nikolaos Baltogiannis; Marianna De Marco; Elsa Faviou; Dimitrios Antoniou; Ugo De Luca; Michail Soutis; Alesandro Settimi

2007-01-01

136

Disparities and Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cervical cancer became a preventable disease with the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear) in the 1940s. Trend\\u000a data show that incidence rates have decreased steadily over the past several decades in both white and African American women\\u000a living in the United States (American Cancer Society 2007). Mortality rates have declined steadily over the past several decades\\u000a as well

Marcela del Carmen; Teresa Diaz-Montez

137

Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau

2001-01-01

138

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2010-04-01

139

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2012-04-01

140

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2011-04-01

141

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2013-04-01

142

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 Food and...Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle that...

2014-04-01

143

Cervical myofascial pain and headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myofascial pain is a common cause of regional chronic pain. Myofascial trigger points can refer pain to the head and face\\u000a in the cervical region, thus contributing to cervicogenic headache. When identified properly, cervical myofascial pain is\\u000a a treatable component of headache management. This article reviews current literature on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and\\u000a management of cervical myofascial pain.

Joanne Borg-Stein

2002-01-01

144

Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor causing cauda equina syndrome with destruction of L5 vertebra  

PubMed Central

A 24-year-old male patient presented with cauda equina lesion symptoms. His clinicoradiological examination including X-rays, CT scan and MRI revealed destruction of L5 vertebral body, pedicle and a mass extending to lateral recess and left intervertebral foramina causing pressure over the thecal sac. A CT guided FNAC was inconclusive. Open biopsy and hemilaminectomy of L5 vertebra was performed. Histopathology and immunocytochemical analysis revealed it to be primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patient was given chemotherapy and radiation therapy. His lower limb power improved by grade I post operatively and at 2 years follow-up bowel/bladder recovery was noticed. Patient died after 2.5 years of surgery because of pulmonary metastasis. PMID:20697491

Dhatt, Sarvdeep; Dhillon, Mandeep S; Tripathy, Sujit K; Goyal, Tarun; Jagadeesh, V

2010-01-01

145

Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n?=?15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L?, 0.219 y?1for k, and ?0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

2012-01-01

146

AN AUTOMATED VERTEBRA IDENTIFICATION AND SEGMENTATION IN CT IMAGES Melih S. Aslan, Asem Ali, Ham Rara, and Aly A. Farag  

E-print Network

bone mineral density (BMD) measurements and fracture anal- ysis (FA) are restricted to the vertebral a hierarchical segmentation approach for the lumbar spine in order to measure bone mineral density. This approach starts with separating the vertebrae from each other. Then, a two step segmentation using a deformable

Farag, Aly A.

147

Effects of vibration in forced posture on biochemical bone metabolism indices, and morphometric and mechanical properties of the lumbar vertebra.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown a relatively strong association between occupational lower back pain (LBP) and long-term exposure to vibration. However, there is limited knowledge of the impact of vibration and sedentariness on bone metabolism of the lumbar vertebra and the mechanism of bone-derived LBP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration in forced posture (a seated posture) on biochemical bone metabolism indices, and morphometric and mechanical properties of the lumbar vertebra, and provide a scientific theoretical basis for the mechanism of bone-derived LBP, serum levels of Ca(2+), (HPO4)(2-), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and bone gla protein (BGP),the pathological changes and biomechanics of lumbar vertebra of New Zealand white rabbits were studied. The results demonstrate that both forced posture and vibration can cause pathological changes to the lumbar vertebra, which can result in bone-derived LBP, and vibration combined with a seated posture could cause further damage to bone metabolism. Serological changes can be used as early markers for clinical diagnosis of bone-derived LBP. PMID:24265702

Chang, Qi; Wei, Fuling; Zhang, Li; Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

2013-01-01

148

Get Tested for Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... vagina with water or other liquid) Get help understanding your Pap test result . Lower your risk of cervical cancer. A major cause of cervical cancer is HPV (human papillomavirus). HPV is the most common STD (sexually transmitted disease). Some types of HPV can cause genital and ...

149

Cervical ruptures in midtrimester abortions.  

PubMed

2 groups of patients are at risk of traumatic complication after midtrimester abortion: older multiparous women (uterine ruptures) and young primigravid women (cervical ruptures). While the occurrence of uterine ruptures in the former class can be reduced by selective use of abortifacient agents, and avoidance of amnioinfusions and intravenous oxytocin, the occurrence of cervical ruptures continues to be high. From May 1974 through May 1978, 780 women underwent midtrimester abortion by various techniques. 12 patients (1.5%) sustained cervical injuries, 11 of whom were nulliparous aged 16 to 25 years. Intra-amniotic and extra-ovular methods alike produced cervical injuries. The combined method of induction increases the likelihood of damaging the cervix. Oxytocic augmentation, however, does not appear to increase its incidence. Nor does a shorter induction-abortion interval, according to the evidence. Since laminaria tents did not prevent cervical injuries, none of the presently available methods offers any protection. Nevertheless, it may be that cervical injuries can be prevented if midtrimester abortions are undertaken between 13 and 15 weeks of pregnancy. Cervical ruptures can also go unnoticed and cause future obstetric problems; the authors therefore emphasize the importance of routine cervical inspection in all patients. PMID:12335921

Rajan, R; Usha, K R

1979-06-01

150

External Cervical Resorption: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

External cervical resorption (ECR) is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. The etiology, predisposing factors, diagnosis, and management of ECR are reviewed. Effective management and appropriate treatment can only be carried out if the true nature and exact location of

Shanon Patel; Shalini Kanagasingam; Thomas Pitt Ford

2009-01-01

151

Lateral cervical meningocele.  

PubMed

Lateral cervical meningocele is an extremely rare developmental anomaly. We could find only one such case protruding from an enlarged C2-3 intervertebral foramen. It may be confused with an extradural cyst or cystic hygroma. Direct needling may introduce infection and thereby pyogenic meningitis and so should be avoided. Similarly, incision and drainage may transform it into cerebrospinal fluid fistula. A computed tomography scan is the most fruitful form of investigation for confirmation and localization of the disease. A lumboperitoneal shunt or water tight closure of the dural sac at the neck is the recommended procedure of choice. PMID:1524732

Sharma, V; Newton, G

1992-06-01

152

Three-dimensional analysis of sexual dimorphism in human thoracic vertebrae: Implications for the respiratory system and spine morphology.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is important for intraspecific variation and well studied in the human skeleton. In the thoracic part of the spine sexual dimorphism is expected for differences in the respiratory system related to body mass, lung capacity, and energetics, and in the reproductive system for adaptations to pregnancy (lower spine lordosis, posture). However, little is known about sexual dimorphism in this anatomical region. We use three-dimensional (3D)-geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses on sexual dimorphism in the first 10 thoracic vertebrae (T1-T10). Forty-six 3D-landmarks were measured on vertebrae of 24 adult females and males of known age and sex. Results confirm that male vertebrae are consistently larger than female ones. Males show more dorsally oriented transverse processes and relatively larger vertebral bodies in upper and lower thoracic vertebrae. Sexual dimorphism in lower thoracic vertebrae affects the orientation of the spinous processes, which is more horizontal in females but more caudal in males. Such regional pattering of sexual dimorphism emerges also from principal component analyses reflecting a complex interaction between the effects of sex and serial position on shape variation. Greater dorsal orientation of male transverse processes reorients the ribs and could lead to greater radial thorax diameters. This fits with greater male respiratory capacities, but may indicate also greater invagination of the male spine within the thorax. Horizontal orientation of the spinous processes in females could allow for a greater thoraco-lumbar lordosis during pregnancy, but more comparative research is necessary to test these hypotheses. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:513-521, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25176047

Bastir, Markus; Higuero, Antonio; Ríos, Luís; García Martínez, Daniel

2014-12-01

153

Recurrent Cervical Stenosis - a Troublesome Clinical Entity  

PubMed Central

Cervical is a troublesome clinical problem. It usually follows surgery on cervix; also seen with endometrial and cervical malignancies. There is a high recurrence rate after the traditional treatment which is cervical dilatation. Various other treatment options have been tired. We report a case of recurrent cervical stenosis successfully treated with a different technique. PMID:22359714

Mathew, Mariam; Mohan, Anita Krishna

2008-01-01

154

Microinvasive cervical cancer in pregnancy  

E-print Network

Cervical cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant disease in pregnancy. The clinical symptoms are scarce or none. The diagnosis is made primarily with a cervical smear, as well as a colposcopic examination and directed cervical biopsy. The treatment of cervical cancer depends on the stage of the disease, the gestation period, and a patient's wish to carry a pregnancy to term. The illustrated case is of a patient who with the diagnosed presence of microinvasive squamous cell cancer, due to cervical biopsy, in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. In the 2nd trimester, diagnostic conization was performed in order to exclude the presence of the invasive disease. The definite histopathologic findings indicated the presence of cancer in situ. The conization margins were negative and thus the patient was successfully cured. The patient had a cesarean birth in the 36th week of pregnancy and she gave birth to an alive female newborn. Women are given the chance to have cervical cancer diagnosed and treated in the early stages of pregnancy owing to the introduction of a cervical smear in the modern protocol of antenatal protection. 1

Arch Oncol; Ljiljana Mladenoviæ Segedi; Petar Novakoviæ; Olgica Mihajloviæ; Tatjana Ivkoviæ-kapicl

155

“Double cervical rib with uncommon presentation”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double or Bilateral cervical ribs. Pseudo arthrosis of cervical rib with first rib causing neurovascular complication is a\\u000a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of young man who presented with intermittent claudication in the right hand and\\u000a involvement of peripheral nerves. He had bilateral cervical ribs. Left side cervical rib was small. Right side cervical rib\\u000a had pseudo arthrosis

Mahadev Dixit; Mohan Gan; Narendra Nishanimath; Bhaskar Venkatakrishnaiah Bhagyalakshmi; Prashant Sajjan; Aruneshwari Dayal

2010-01-01

156

Studying Biomarkers in Diagnosing Cervical Lesions in Patients With Abnormal Cervical Cells  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Endocervical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Atypical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Cervical Cancer; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Human Papilloma Virus Infection

2013-08-01

157

QUANTITATIVE PLUTONIUM MICRODISTRIBUTION IN BONE TISSUE OF VERTEBRA FROM A MAYAK WORKER  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, quantitative relationship of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in human as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium. PMID:20838087

Lyovkina, Yekaterina V.; Miller, Scott C.; Romanov, Sergey A.; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P.; Belosokhov, Maxim V.

2010-01-01

158

Opacity and lucency sign of the seventh lumbar vertebra in dogs.  

PubMed

A curvilinear opacity of the seventh vertebral arch and an adjacent focal lucency of the seventh lumbar vertebral body were incidentally noted in routine radiographs. The aim of this study was to analyze this radiographic absorption pattern using a sample of 51 dogs. Images of the bony surface of three macerated lumbosacral junctions were compared to their laterolateral radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans. Additional 48 lateral radiographic projections were reviewed for presence or absence of L7 opacity and lucency, length of the L6 and L7 vertebral bodies, vertebral disc disease, osteochondrosis, or spondylosis. Retrieved data were compiled and statistically analyzed. Radiographs and CT scans of the macerated bones revealed that the L7 pedicle had thickened layers of compact bone and the adjacent vertebral notch varying depth and extension. Superimposition of the pedicle on the vertebral body resulted in a curvilinear opacity (L7 opacity), the vertebral notch caused the focal lucency (L7 lucency). These findings were present in 69% of the reviewed radiographs and were found to be significantly associated with L6-L7 length ratios of less than 0.86 (P = 0.003). It is hypothesized that the changes correspond with normal anatomic morphology of the seventh lumbar vertebra plus adaptive bone remodelling. The importance of this study is that it could help avoid misinterpretation of this appearance as a pathologic condition. PMID:20545638

Kneissl, S; Probst, A; Wagmann, E; Tichy, A G

2010-10-01

159

Effectiveness of cervical hemilaminectomy in canine Hansen Type I and Type II disc disease: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

Medical records of 41 dogs, including 15 small breed dogs (<15 kg) and 26 large breed dogs (>15 kg), with cervical intervertebral disc disease (IVDD) that underwent a hemilaminectomy were reviewed. Dogs were diagnosed using myelography, computed tomography/myelography, or MRI, and dogs were classified as having either Hansen Type I disc extrusion or Hansen Type II disc protrusion located ventrally, ventrolaterally, or laterally within the cervical spinal canal. The most common clinical presentation was ambulatory tetraparesis and/or lameness (44%). The most affected sites for cervical IVDD were between the sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae (C6-C7; 78% of Hansen Type II discs) and C2-C3 (86% of Hansen Type I discs). Treatment was effective in 88% of dogs. Five large breed dogs (12%) did not improve. In dogs with a Hansen Type I disc extrusion, clinical signs improved in 96% of the cases. In dogs with a Hansen Type II disc protrusion, an excellent and good outcome was seen in 47% and 32% of cases, respectively. Outcome was significantly better for small breed dogs and dogs with Hansen Type I disc disease compared with large breed dogs and dogs with Hansen Type II disc disease. PMID:21852506

Schmied, Oliver; Golini, Lorenzo; Steffen, Frank

2011-01-01

160

Cervical spinous process reconstruction.  

PubMed

Posterior neck deformity with an unsightly crater-like defect may result after cervicothoracic laminectomies. The authors present a new technique, spinous process reconstruction, to address this problem. A 64-year-old man presented with progressive quadriparesis secondary to cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Previously he had undergone multiple neck surgeries including cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy. Postoperatively, he developed severe craniocervical spinal deformity and a large painful concave surgical defect in the neck. The authors performed craniocervical decompression and craniocervicothoracic instrumented stabilization. At the same time, cervicothoracic spinous process reconstruction was performed using titanium mesh to address the defect. Cervicothoracic decompressive laminectomy results in varying degrees of neck defect with resulting unsightly and an often painful surgical wound defect despite an appropriate multilayer closure. The presented spinous process reconstruction is a simple technique to address this problem with good clinical outcome. PMID:24206034

Panchal, Ripul R; Duong, Huy T; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Kim, Kee D

2014-01-01

161

Resection of cervical ependymoma.  

PubMed

Intramedullary ependymomas are surgically curable tumors. However, their surgical resection poses several challenges. In this intraoperative video we illustrate the main steps for the surgical resection of a cervical intramedullary ependymoma. These critical steps include: adequate exposure of the entire length of the tumor; use of the intraoperative ultrasound; identification of the posterior median sulcus and separation of the posterior columns; Identification of the plane between the spinal cord and the tumor; mobilization and debulking of the tumor and disconnection of the vascular supply (usually from small anterior spinal artery branches). Following these basic steps a complete resection can be safely achieved in many cases. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/QMYXC_F4O4U. PMID:25175575

Lanzino, Giuseppe; Morales-Valero, Saul F; Krauss, William E; Campero, Mario; Marsh, W Richard

2014-09-01

162

Breast and Cervical Cancer Legislation  

MedlinePLUS

... Near You About the Program The NBCCEDP Conceptual Framework Social Ecological Model Screening Program Data Screening Program ... and Resources Related Links Contact a Local Program Web Badges Cancer Home Breast and Cervical Cancer Legislation ...

163

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented.

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

2014-01-01

164

General Information about Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood . Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for ... be at risk. Infection of the cervix with human papillomavirus (HPV) is almost always the cause of cervical ...

165

Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

2011-03-01

166

Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

2007-03-01

167

How Are Cervical Cancers and Pre-Cancers Diagnosed?  

MedlinePLUS

... How is cervical cancer staged? How is cervical cancer diagnosed? The first step in finding cervical cancer ... systems. Tests for women with symptoms of cervical cancer or abnormal Pap results Medical history and physical ...

168

Cervical Cord Decompression Using Extended Anterior Cervical Foraminotomy Technique  

PubMed Central

Objective At present, gold-standard technique of cervical cord decompression is surgical decompression and fusion. But, many complications related cervical fusion have been reported. We adopted an extended anterior cervical foraminotomy (EACF) technique to decompress the anterolateral portion of cervical cord and report clinical results and effectiveness of this procedure. Methods Fifty-three patients were operated consecutively using EACF from 2008 to 2013. All of them were operated by a single surgeon via the unilateral approach. Twenty-two patients who exhibited radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms were enrolled in this study. All of them showed cervical cord compression in their preoperative magnetic resonance scan images. Results In surgical outcomes, 14 patients (64%) were classified as excellent and six (27%), as good. The mean difference of cervical cord anterior-posterior diameter after surgery was 0.92 mm (p<0.01) and transverse area was 9.77 mm2 (p<0.01). The dynamic radiological study showed that the average post-operative translation (retrolisthesis) was 0.36 mm and the disc height loss at the operated level was 0.81 mm. The change in the Cobb angle decreased to 3.46, and showed slight kyphosis. The average vertebral body resection rate was 11.47%. No procedure-related complications occurred. Only one patient who had two-level decompression needed anterior fusion at one level as a secondary surgery due to postoperative instability. Conclusions Cervical cord decompression was successfully performed using EACF technique. This procedure will be an alternative surgical option for treating cord compressing lesions. Long-term follow-up and a further study in larger series will be needed. PMID:25328648

Kim, Sung-Duk; Lee, Cheol-Young; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Chul-Ku; Kim, Jong Hyun

2014-01-01

169

Is the use of the cervical vertebrae maturation method justified to determine skeletal age? A comparison of radiation dose of two strategies for skeletal age estimation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess effective doses of a lateral cephalogram radiograph with and without thyroid shield and compare the differences with the radiation dose of a hand-wrist radiograph. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at 19 different sites in the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull (RANDO phantom). Analogue lateral cephalograms with and without thyroid shield (67 kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) and hand-wrist radiographs (40 kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) were obtained. The effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. The effective dose for conventional lateral cephalogram without a thyroid shield was 5.03 microsieverts (µSv). By applying a thyroid shield to the RANDO phantom, a remarkable dose reduction of 1.73 µSv could be achieved. The effective dose of a conventional hand-wrist radiograph was calculated to be 0.16 µSv. Adding the effective dose of the hand-wrist radiograph to the effective dose of the lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield resulted in a cumulative effective dose of 3.46 µSv. Without thyroid shield, the effective dose of a lateral cephalogram was approximately 1.5-fold increased than the cumulative effective dose of a hand-wrist radiograph and a lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield. Thyroid is an organ that is very sensitive to radiation exposure. Its shielding will significantly reduce the effective dose. An additional hand-wrist radiograph, involving no vulnerable tissues, however, causes very little radiation risk. In accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, if an evaluation of skeletal age is indicated, an additional hand-wrist radiograph seems much more justifiable than removing the thyroid shield. PMID:22828078

Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Peltomäki, Timo; Schätzle, Marc

2013-10-01

170

Are Spinal or Paraspinal Anatomic Markers Helpful for Vertebral Numbering and Diagnosing Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae?  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the value of spinal and paraspinal anatomic markers in both the diagnosis of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTVs) and identification of vertebral levels on lumbar MRI. Materials and Methods Lumbar MRI from 1049 adult patients were studied. By comparing with the whole-spine localizer, the diagnostic errors in numbering vertebral segments on lumbar MRI were evaluated. The morphology of S1-2 disc, L5 and S1 body, and lumbar spinous processes (SPs) were evaluated by using sagittal MRI. The positions of right renal artery (RRA), superior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation (AB) and conus medullaris (CM) were described. Results The diagnostic error for evaluation of vertebral segmentation on lumbar MRI alone was 14.1%. In lumbarization, all patients revealed a well-formed S1-2 disc with squared S1 body. A rhombus-shaped L5 body in sacralization and a rectangular-shaped S1 body in lumbarization were found. The L3 had the longest SP. The most common sites of spinal and paraspinal structures were: RRA at L1 body (53.6%) and L1-2 disc (34.1%), superior mesenteric artery at L1 body (55.1%) and T12-L1 disc (31.6%), and AB at L4 body (71.1%). CM had variable locations, changing from the T12-L1 disc to L2 body. They were located at higher sacralization and lower lumbarization. Conclusion The spinal morphologic features and locations of the spinal and paraspinal structures on lumbar MRI are not completely reliable for the diagnosis of LSTVs and identification on the vertebral levels. PMID:24644411

Ucar, Murat; Erdogan, Aylin Billur; Kilic, Koray; Ozcan, Cahide

2014-01-01

171

A New Material Mapping Procedure for Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based, Continuum Finite Element Analyses of the Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Inaccuracies in the estimation of material properties and errors in the assignment of these properties into finite element models limit the reliability, accuracy, and precision of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element analyses of the vertebra. In this work, a new mesh-independent, material mapping procedure was developed to improve the quality of predictions of vertebral mechanical behavior from QCT-based finite element models. In this procedure, an intermediate step, called the material block model, was introduced to determine the distribution of material properties based on bone mineral density, and these properties were then mapped onto the finite element mesh. A sensitivity study was first conducted on a calibration phantom to understand the influence of the size of the material blocks on the computed bone mineral density. It was observed that varying the material block size produced only marginal changes in the predictions of mineral density. Finite element (FE) analyses were then conducted on a square column-shaped region of the vertebra and also on the entire vertebra in order to study the effect of material block size on the FE-derived outcomes. The predicted values of stiffness for the column and the vertebra decreased with decreasing block size. When these results were compared to those of a mesh convergence analysis, it was found that the influence of element size on vertebral stiffness was less than that of the material block size. This mapping procedure allows the material properties in a finite element study to be determined based on the block size required for an accurate representation of the material field, while the size of the finite elements can be selected independently and based on the required numerical accuracy of the finite element solution. The mesh-independent, material mapping procedure developed in this study could be particularly helpful in improving the accuracy of finite element analyses of vertebroplasty and spine metastases, as these analyses typically require mesh refinement at the interfaces between distinct materials. Moreover, the mapping procedure is not specific to the vertebra and could thus be applied to many other anatomic sites. PMID:21823740

Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.; Morgan, Elise F.

2012-01-01

172

Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

Ferris, Daron G.

2004-05-01

173

Brown tumor of the cervical spine: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Brown tumors (BT) are benign focal bone lesions that may appear in the context of primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT). Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. We present a case of brown tumor involving the cervical spine, the third reported in the literature. In the literature review (until August 2010), we found nine cases of spinal BT in primary HPT and 14 cases in secondary HPT. Fifteen patients (65%) had evidence of spinal cord compression. A 34-year-old woman on long-term hemodialysis, with secondary HPT, presented with a 9-month history of persistent neck pain. Radiographs of the cervical spine revealed an expansive osteolytic lesion in the posterior arch of the second cervical vertebra. MR imaging revealed an expansive mass on C2 affecting the vertebral body, odontoid process, right pedicle, laminas, and spinous process; there were no signs of spinal edema. A CT-guided needle biopsy of the lesion showed destruction of trabecular bone, infiltration of the fibroblastic cells, and abundant osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells with hemorrhage and hemosiderin pigment, and the diagnosis of brown tumor was made. Cervical pain disappeared within a few days of parathyroidectomy, and rapid remineralization of C2 was evident within a few months. BT must always be considered in the context of hyperparathyroidism and osteolytic lesions. Vertebral BT can be particularly devastating due to medullar compression symptoms. Regression or complete disappearance of these lesions after parathyroidectomy is common, but prompt surgical decompression is necessary in case of medullar compression symptoms. PMID:20981561

Mateo, Lourdes; Massuet, Ana; Solà, Montserrat; Pérez Andrés, Ricard; Musulen, Eva; Sánchez Torres, M Carmen

2011-03-01

174

The effect of lateral eccentricity on failure loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions of the cervical spine in axial loading.  

PubMed

Current neck injury criteria do not include limits for lateral bending combined with axial compression and this has been observed as a clinically relevant mechanism, particularly for rollover motor vehicle crashes. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of lateral eccentricity (the perpendicular distance from the axial force to the centre of the spine) on peak loads, kinematics, and spinal canal occlusions of subaxial cervical spine specimens tested in dynamic axial compression (0.5 m/s). Twelve 3-vertebra human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in two groups: low and high eccentricity with initial eccentricities of 1 and 150% of the lateral diameter of the vertebral body. Six-axis loads inferior to the specimen, kinematics of the superior-most vertebra, and spinal canal occlusions were measured. High speed video was collected and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to define the time of injury. The effects of eccentricity on peak loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions were evaluated using unpaired Student t-tests. The high eccentricity group had lower peak axial forces (1544 ± 629 vs. 4296 ± 1693 N), inferior displacements (0.2 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 2.0 mm), and canal occlusions (27 ± 5 vs. 53 ± 15%) and higher peak ipsilateral bending moments (53 ± 17 vs. 3 ± 18 Nm), ipsilateral bending rotations (22 ± 3 vs. 1 ± 2°), and ipsilateral displacements (4.5 ± 1.4 vs. -1.0 ± 1.3 mm, p<0.05 for all comparisons). These results provide new insights to develop prevention, recognition, and treatment strategies for compressive cervical spine injuries with lateral eccentricities. PMID:24411098

Van Toen, C; Melnyk, A D; Street, J; Oxland, T R; Cripton, P A

2014-03-21

175

I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the  

E-print Network

11/12/12 1 I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the lining dysplasia to cancer A. Cancerous condition usually develops over time. q Normal cervical cells may gradually undergo changes to become precancerous and then cancerous q Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN

Dever, Jennifer A.

176

Sex steroids and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

During the 19th century, studies indicated that reproductive events were involved in cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prerequisite for development of cancer, but co-factors, among them the action of sexual steroid hormones, are necessary. Childbirth has been an important risk factor but now probably plays a minor role in the industrialized world, where parity is low. Long-term oral contraceptive use has been thoroughly studied epidemiologically, and correlates to cervical cancer in most studies. In vitro studies on cervical cell lines transfected with HPV and animal studies indicate that sex steroid hormones are capable to induce cancer. In in vivo cervical cancer tissue studies there have been observations that endogenous progesterone in serum correlates to a negative pattern of expression of cellular and extracellular proteins, tumor markers. Immune response could be another mechanism. Estradiol might be associated with a positive pattern and high estradiol and low progesterone levels increase duration of survival in cervical cancer. Studies where treatment of compounds that influence sex steroid hormones have been given are rare and have been disappointing. PMID:22843872

Hellberg, Dan

2012-08-01

177

Treatment of Heterotopic Cervical and Intrauterine Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To find a suitable technique to selectively terminate a cervically implanted embryo while maintaining viability of a concomitant intrauterine pregnancy. Methods: A 34-year-old patient achieved a twin pregnancy after 4 IVF attempts. Ultrasound revealed a viable intrauterine and cervical pregnancy. Given our experience with KCl injection for fetal reduction, we offered the patient an attempt to reduce the cervical

Carlos A. Carreno; Mary King; Mark P. Johnson; Yuval Yaron; Michael P. Diamond; Dana Bush; Mark I. Evans

2000-01-01

178

Cervical carcinogenesis and contraception.  

PubMed

Cytologic evaluation of cervical smears has been carried out in 3,374 women who used different modes of contraception (Lippes loop, copper T200, copper T220, copper devices containing higher copper content than the copper T200, CuT380 Ag, levonorgestrel IUD, injections of noresthisterone oenanthate, and subdermal implants of levonorgestrel) under the Contraceptive Testing Programme of Indian Council of Medical Research for periods ranging from 6 months to 15 yr. While no case of severe dysplasia or malignancy was noticed with any type of contraceptive, 113 dysplastic smears (99 mild and 14 moderate) were encountered on follow-up, giving an incidence of 3.3%, which was statistically insignificant compared with the pretreatment incidence of 1.4% (47 of 3,374). The highest incidence of dysplasia was seen with devices containing a high copper content (9.2%), followed by CuT200 (6.1%) and levonorgestrel implants (4.2%), and was lowest with Lippes loop (1.8%), injection of noresthisterone oenanthate (1.7%), and CuT380 Ag (1.5%), but statistics higher than the pretreatment incidence of 1.4% were seen only with CuT200 and devices containing high copper content. Retrogression of dysplasia was seen in 85 of the 94 posttreatment dysplasia cases and in all 47 pretreatment dysplasia cases, whereas in the remaining nine posttreatment cases of dysplasia the lesion persisted for 6-12 mo, necessitating discontinuation of contraception. The accumulated follow-up data indicate that the CuT380 Ag device is a promising IUD for the future in view of its low incidence of dysplasia determined during its use up to 5 yr. However, more prolonged follow-up in larger numbers of subjects is required to confirm its innocuousness on long-term retention. PMID:1935511

Misra, J S; Engineer, A D; Das, K; Tandon, P

1991-01-01

179

External cervical resorption: a review.  

PubMed

External cervical resorption (ECR) is the loss of dental hard tissue as a result of odontoclastic action; it usually begins on the cervical region of the root surface of the teeth. The etiology, predisposing factors, diagnosis, and management of ECR are reviewed. Effective management and appropriate treatment can only be carried out if the true nature and exact location of the ECR lesion are known. The role of cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic adjunct for the management of ECR is also reviewed. PMID:19410071

Patel, Shanon; Kanagasingam, Shalini; Pitt Ford, Thomas

2009-05-01

180

Validation of a Non-Invasive Technique to Precisely Measure In Vivo Three-Dimensional Cervical Spine Movement  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vivo validation during functional loading. Objective To determine the accuracy and repeatability of a model-based tracking technique that combines subject-specific CT models and high-speed biplane X-ray images to measure three-dimensional (3D) in vivo cervical spine motion. Summary of Background Data Accurate 3D spine motion is difficult to obtain in vivo during physiological loading due to the inability to directly attach measurement equipment to individual vertebrae. Previous measurement systems were limited by two-dimensional (2D) results and/or their need for manual identification of anatomical landmarks, precipitating unreliable and inaccurate results. All previous techniques lack the ability to capture true 3D motion during dynamic functional loading. Methods Three subjects had 1.0 mm diameter tantalum beads implanted into their fused and adjacent vertebrae during ACDF surgery. High resolution CT scans were obtained following surgery and used to create subject-specific 3D models of each cervical vertebra. Biplane X-rays were collected at 30 frames per second while the subjects performed flexion/extension and axial rotation movements six months after surgery. Individual bone motion, intervertebral kinematics, and arthrokinematics derived from dynamic RSA served as a gold standard to evaluate the accuracy of the model-based tracking technique. Results Individual bones were tracked with an average precision of 0.19 mm and 0.33 mm in non-fused and fused bones, respectively. Precision in measuring 3D joint kinematics in fused and adjacent segments averaged 0.4 mm for translations and 1.1° for rotations, while anterior and posterior disc height above and below the fusion were measured with a precision ranging between 0.2 mm and 0.4 mm. The variability in 3D joint kinematics associated with tracking the same trial repeatedly was 0.02 mm in translation and 0.06° in rotation. Conclusions 3D cervical spine motion can be precisely measured in vivo with sub-millimeter accuracy during functional loading without the need for bead implantation. Fusion instrumentation did not diminish the accuracy of kinematic and arthrokinematic results. The semi-automated model-based tracking technique has excellent repeatability. PMID:21372650

Anderst, William J; Baillargeon, Emma; Donaldson, William F; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

2011-01-01

181

Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22627438

Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

2012-05-01

182

Biomarker discovery for neuroendocrine cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Neuroendocrine cervical cancer is an aggressive but rare form of cervical cancer. The majority of neuroendocrine cervical cancer patients present with advanced-stage diseases. However, the limited numbers of neuroendocrine tumor markers are insufficient for clinical purposes. Thus, we used a proteomic approach combining lysine labeling 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS to investigate the biomarkers for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. By analyzing the global proteome alteration between the neuroendocrine cervical cancer line (HM-1) and non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer lines (CaSki cells, ME-180 cells, and Hela cells), we identified 82 proteins exhibiting marked changes between HM-1 and CaSki cells, and between ME-180 and Hela cells. Several proteins involved in protein folding, cytoskeleton, transcription control, signal transduction, glycolysis, and redox regulation exhibited significant changes in abundance. Proteomic and immunoblot analyses indicated respective 49.88-fold and 25-fold increased levels of transgelin in HM-1 cells compared with that in other non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer cell lines, implying that transgelin is a biomarker for neuroendocrine cervical cancer. In summary, we used a comprehensive neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine cervical cancer model based proteomic approach for identifying neuroendocrine cervical cancer markers, which might contribute to the prognosis and diagnosis of neuroendocrine cervical cancer. PMID:24723343

Lin, Li-Hsun; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Hu, Ren-Yu; Lin, Meng-Wei; Lin, Szu-Ting; Huang, Shun-Hong; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Chou, Hsiu-Chuan; Lai, Zih-Yin; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chan, Hong-Lin

2014-07-01

183

Cervical Remodeling during Pregnancy and Parturition  

PubMed Central

Appropriate and timely cervical remodeling is key for successful birth. Premature cervical opening can result in preterm birth which occurs in 12.5% of pregnancies. Research focused on the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. This review highlights recent findings that better define molecular processes driving progressive disorganization of the cervical extracellular matrix. This includes studies that redefine the role of immune cells and identify diverse functions of the cervical epithelia and hyaluronan in remodeling. New investigations proposing that infection-induced premature cervical remodeling is distinct from the normal process are presented. Recent advances in our understanding of term and preterm cervical remodeling provide new directions for investigation and compel investigators to reevaluate currently accepted models. PMID:20172738

Timmons, Brenda; Akins, Meredith; Mahendroo, Mala

2010-01-01

184

Future trends in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The identification of the close association of certain types of human papillomavirus with the development of cervical cancer should lead to an extensive revision of appropriate health policies. Having taken into account the drawbacks inherent in the existing data (stemming from the use of varying nomenclature, diagnostic methods and reliability, registration and screening practices) it is possible to conclude that the incidence of HPV infections, all premalignant and malignant stages of cervical cancer are, or will soon be, increasing in several countries. This rate of increase is fastest for the younger age groups and is despite the introduction of various forms of screening. These trends therefore indicate an urgent need to adopt policies to avert an unnecessary increase in fatalities due to cervical cancer. It is therefore recommended to: (1) establish a routine diagnostic method which can identify either the type of HPV present or the lesions which are progressing; (2) determine the incidence of HPV infections in the general population; (3) disseminate to medical personnel, teachers, and other members of society existing knowledge concerning the dangers associated with this virus and relevant to preventing its further spread; (4) introduce an effective population screening campaign for all sexually active women, preferably involving a yearly examination at a colposcopy clinic; (5) intensify basic and applied HPV research, especially that which could lead to a deeper understanding of viral transmission and infection, identification of cofactors which promote cervical lesion progression, or to the production of a vaccine. PMID:2841018

Larsen, P M; Vetner, M; Hansen, K; Fey, S J

1988-08-15

185

Cervical spine: sport injuries biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved and detailed 3-D FE model of human cervical spine was created using digitized geometric measurement. The model was validated with the in-vivo studies of Moroney [5], Panjabi [6] and Fuller [7]. Clinical instability of the spine for two cases involving flexion and compression loading (simulating injuries in motorcycle vaulting, football and diving accidents) were analyzed. The instability was

Abraham Tchako; Ali M. Sadegh

2005-01-01

186

Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

187

Recovery Effects of a 180 mT Static Magnetic Field on Bone Mineral Density of Osteoporotic Lumbar Vertebrae in Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

The effects of a moderate-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) on osteoporosis of the lumbar vertebrae were studied in ovariectomized rats. A small disc magnet (maximum magnetic flux density 180?mT) was implanted to the right side of spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra. Female rats in the growth stage (10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) ovariectomized and implanted with a disc magnet (SMF); (ii) ovariectomized and implanted with a nonmagnetized disc (sham); (iii) ovariectomized alone (OVX) and (vi) intact, nonoperated cage control (CTL). The blood serum 17-?-estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the bone mineral density (BMD) values of the femurs and the lumbar vertebrae were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The E2 concentrations were statistically significantly lower for all three operated groups than those of the CTL group at the 6th week. Although there was no statistical significant difference in the E2 concentrations between the SMF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, the BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae proximal to the SMF-exposed area statistically significantly increased in the SMF-exposed group than in the sham-exposed group. These results suggest that the SMF increased the BMD values of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the ovariectomized rats. PMID:20953437

Xu, Shenzhi; Okano, Hideyuki; Tomita, Naohide; Ikada, Yoshito

2011-01-01

188

Effect of prenatal administration of therapeutic doses of topiramate on ossification of ribs and vertebrae in rat fetuses.  

PubMed

There are few studies that have addressed the effects of prenatal exposure of topiramate on ossification of the bones derived from the paraxial mesoderm. This study aimed to evaluate skeletal ossification of ribs and vertebrae in 20-day-old rat fetuses after maternal exposure to two therapeutic doses of topiramate. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley pregnant rats were used: control, topiramate 50 mg/kg/day and topiramate 100 mg/kg/day treated groups. Topiramate was administered by gavage from day 6-19 of gestation. Fetuses were collected on day 20 by caesarean section. Fetal bones were stained with alizarin red and ossification was assessed. Results showed significant delayed ossification of ribs and vertebrae in topiramate-exposed fetuses at both doses and the effects were not dose dependent. In all examined groups, there was a direct correlation between the fetal weight and the number of complete ossified vertebral centers. Also, there were significant increases in skeletal abnormalities, particularly in ribs in both treated groups when compared to the control group. In conclusion, therapeutic doses of topiramate should be taken cautiously during pregnancy as they lead to fetal growth restriction and increases abnormalities of axial skeleton in rat fetuses. PMID:22732801

Fadel, R A; Sequeira, R P; Abu-Hijleh, M F; Obeidat, M; Salem, A H A

2012-01-01

189

Mixed reality simulation of rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Until quite recently spinal disorder problems in the U.S. have been operated by fusing cervical vertebrae instead of replacement of the cervical disc with an artificial disc. Cervical disc replacement is a recently approved procedure in the U.S. It is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in the medical field due to the deficiencies in available diagnostic tools and insufficient number of surgical practices For physicians and surgical instrument developers, it is critical to understand how to successfully deploy the new artificial disc replacement systems. Without proper understanding and practice of the deployment procedure, it is possible to injure the vertebral body. Mixed reality (MR) and virtual reality (VR) surgical simulators are becoming an indispensable part of physicians’ training, since they offer a risk free training environment. In this study, MR simulation framework and intricacies involved in the development of a MR simulator for the rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery are investigated. The major components that make up the MR surgical simulator with motion tracking system are addressed. Findings A mixed reality surgical simulator that targets rasping procedure in the artificial cervical disc replacement surgery with a VICON motion tracking system was developed. There were several challenges in the development of MR surgical simulator. First, the assembly of different hardware components for surgical simulation development that involves knowledge and application of interdisciplinary fields such as signal processing, computer vision and graphics, along with the design and placements of sensors etc . Second challenge was the creation of a physically correct model of the rasping procedure in order to attain critical forces. This challenge was handled with finite element modeling. The third challenge was minimization of error in mapping movements of an actor in real model to a virtual model in a process called registration. This issue was overcome by a two-way (virtual object to real domain and real domain to virtual object) semi-automatic registration method. Conclusions The applicability of the VICON MR setting for the ACDR surgical simulator is demonstrated. The main stream problems encountered in MR surgical simulator development are addressed. First, an effective environment for MR surgical development is constructed. Second, the strain and the stress intensities and critical forces are simulated under the various rasp instrument loadings with impacts that are applied on intervertebral surfaces of the anterior vertebrae throughout the rasping procedure. Third, two approaches are introduced to solve the registration problem in MR setting. Results show that our system creates an effective environment for surgical simulation development and solves tedious and time-consuming registration problems caused by misalignments. Further, the MR ACDR surgery simulator was tested by 5 different physicians who found that the MR simulator is effective enough to teach the anatomical details of cervical discs and to grasp the basics of the ACDR surgery and rasping procedure PMID:20946594

2010-01-01

190

Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Caused by Single-Level Vertebral Spontaneous Fusion  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the clinical features, imaging characteristics, surgical options, and clinical outcomes of patients with Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) caused by single-level vertebral spontaneous fusion (SLVSF). Methods Sixteen consecutive patients with SLVSF who underwent anterior surgery were included in this study and 38 patients with CSM caused by spinal degeneration were enrolled as a control group. Demographic features, clinical presentations, imaging characteristics, surgery strategy, Nurick grade, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, neck disability index (NDI), and complications were evaluated. Results There were significant differences between the two groups in the mean age and the average duration of neck pain. There was no significant difference between the two groups in length of cervical spine. In the SLVSF group, 13 patients had upper segment translational instability and none had rotational instability. Pre- and postoperative Nurick grades were 2.94±0.77 and 2.19±0.54 in the SLVSF group, and 2.97±0.72 and 2.16±0.64 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative JOA scores were 9.25±2.02 and 11.69±1.62 in the SLVSF group, and 9.87±2.58 and 12.53±2.69 in the control group. Pre- and postoperative NDI values were 28.5±7.75 and 15.56±5.51 in the SLVSF group, and 16±6.13 and 11.29±4.58 in the control group. Conclusions Patients with SLVSF have necks of normal lengths, which can be used to distinguish this disorder from Klippel-Feil syndrome. There are three main features of SLVSF: (1) hypoplasia at both of the spontaneously fused vertebral bodies; (2) a major pathological feature of translational instability of the upper vertebra to the fused level; and (3) severe neck pain. Anterior surgery has a good therapeutic effect for patients with cervical SLVSF. PMID:25380388

Hou, Tiesheng; Gu, Guangfei; Zhang, Hailong; Zhao, Shan; He, Shisheng

2014-01-01

191

Radiographic characteristics of the hand and cervical spine in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva  

PubMed Central

Summary Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disabling heritable disorder of connective tissue characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in various extraskeletal sites. Early correct diagnosis of FOP is important to prevent additional iatrogenic harm or trauma. Congenital malformation of the great toes is a well-known diagnostic clue, but some patients show normal-appearing great toes. The thumb shortening and cervical spine abnormalities are other skeletal features often observed in FOP. This study aimed to address the quantitative assessment of these features in a cohort of patients with FOP, which potentially helps early diagnosis of FOP. Radiographs of the hand and cervical spine were retrospectively analyzed from a total of 18 FOP patients (9 males and 9 females) with an average age of 13.9 years (range 0.7–39.3 years). The elevated ratio of the second metacarpal bone to the distal phalanx of the thumb (> +1SD) was a consistent finding irrespective of the patient's age and gender. Infant FOP patients, in addition, exhibited an extremely high ratio of the second metacarpal bone to the first metacarpal bone (> +3SD). The height/depth ratio of the C5 vertebra increased in patients over 4 years of age (> +2SD). Additionally, the ratio of (height+depth) of the C5 spinous process to the C5 vertebral depth was markedly elevated in young patients (> +2SD). We quantitatively demonstrated the hand and cervical spine characteristics of FOP. These findings, which can be seen from early infancy, could be useful for early diagnosis of FOP even in patients without great toe abnormalities. PMID:25343126

Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Kamizono, Junji; Katagiri, Takenobu; Susami, Takafumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-01-01

192

Radiograms Obtained during Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion Can Mislead Surgeons into Performing Surgery at the Wrong Level  

PubMed Central

A 68-year-old woman who suffered from C5 nerve palsy because of a C4-5 disc herniation was referred to our hospital. We conducted anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) at the C4-5 level. An intraoperative radiogram obtained after exposure of the vertebrae showed that the level at which we were going to perform surgery was exactly at the C4-5 level. After bone grafting and temporary plating, another radiogram was obtained to verify the correct placement of the plate and screws, and it appeared to show that the plate bridged the C5 and C6 vertebrae at the incorrect level. The surgeon was astonished and was about to begin decompression of the upper level. However, carefully double-checking the level with a C-arm image intensifier before additional decompression verified that the surgery was conducted correctly at C4-5. Cautiously double-checking the level of surgery with a C-arm image intensifier is recommended when intraoperative radiograms suggest surgery at the wrong level. PMID:25386376

Koda, Masao; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yamazaki, Masashi; Murakami, Masazumi

2014-01-01

193

Management of cervical weakness based on the measurement of cervical resistance index  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo assess the value of measuring cervical resistance index (CRI) as an aid to selecting patients with a history of spontaneous mid-trimester miscarriage for cervical cerclage in subsequent pregnancies.

George S. Anthony; Robert G. Walker; James B. Robins; Alan D. Cameron; Andrew A. Calder

2007-01-01

194

Cervical disc arthroplasty: Pros and cons  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical disc arthroplasty has emerged as a promising potential alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in appropriately selected patients. Despite a history of excellent outcomes after ACDF, the question as to whether a fusion leads to adjacent segment degeneration remains unanswered. Numerous US investigational device exemption trials comparing cervical arthroplasty to fusion have been conducted to answer this question. Methods: This study reviews the current research regarding cervical athroplasty, and emphasizes both the pros and cons of arthroplasty as compared with ACDF. Results: Early clinical outcomes show that cervical arthroplasty is as effective as the standard ACDF. However, this new technology is also associated with an expanding list of novel complications. Conclusion: Although there is no definitive evidence that cervical disc replacement reduces the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration, it does show other advantages; for example, faster return to work, and reduced need for postoperative bracing. PMID:22905327

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2012-01-01

195

Cervical synovial cyst: case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old female school teacher with a six-week history of left-sided scapular and arm pain is presented. We report her evaluation and treatment Although lumbar degenerative synovial cysts have been reported over 200 times in the literature,6 cervical synovial cysts are much more rare. This case reports a cervicothoracic junction degenerative synovial cyst presenting as radiculopathy. PMID:22096444

Found, Ernest; Bewyer, Dennis

2011-01-01

196

Does Multispectral Texture Features Really Improve Cervical Cancer Detection?  

E-print Network

Does Multispectral Texture Features Really Improve Cervical Cancer Detection? Tong Zhao, Jiayong For cervical cancer detection, the performance of multispectral texture (MST) features extracted from information can achieve better classification results (ROC curves) for cervical cancer detection from

197

Embarazo ectópico cervical: diagnóstico y tratamiento  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a case of cervical ectopic pregnancy treated with methotrexate and abdominal hysterectomy.A 34-year-old woman with three previous cesarean sections was diagnosed with a cervical ectopic pregnancy through transvaginal ultrasound at 7 weeks of amenorrhea.Cervical ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon event that usually presents as irregular bleeding in the first trimester. Diagnosis is based on ?-human chorionic gonadotrophin and

Clara Crespo Ferrer; Arantxa Jaca Navarro; Noelia Juárez Sabater; Regina Aliaga Parreño; Yousef Mahmoud Jaddou; Mariano Sanz Martínez

2009-01-01

198

Laparoscopic Fertility Sparing Management of Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

2014-01-01

199

Laparoscopic fertility sparing management of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

2014-04-01

200

HPV vaccination: effects on cervical screening.  

PubMed

Uptake of cervical screening has declined slightly since the 1990s, and is generally lower among young women than older women. Although the human papillomavirus vaccination programme is successful, some girls are still not being vaccinated. In addition, the programme may have a negative impact on the uptake of cervical screening, as young women may not realise they are still vulnerable to cervical cancer after vaccination. Nurses should encourage girls and young women to take up both HPV vaccination and cervical screening. PMID:25007499

Kothari, Aine

201

MR and CT image fusion of the cervical spine: a noninvasive alternative to CT-myelography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT-Myelography (CTM) is routinely used for planning surgery for degenerative disease of the spine, but its invasive nature, significant potential morbidity, and high costs make a noninvasive substitute desirable. We report our work on evaluating CT and MR image fusion as an alternative to CTM. Because the spine is only piecewise rigid, a multi-rigid approach to the registration of spinal CT and MR images was developed (SPIE 2004), in which the spine on CT images is first segmented into separate vertebrae, each of which is then rigidly registered with the corresponding vertebra on MR images. The results are then blended to obtain fusion images. Since they contain information from both modalities, we hypothesized that fusion images would be equivalent to CTM. To test this we selected 34 patients who had undergone MRI and CTM for degenerative disease of the cervical spine, and used the multi-rigid approach to produce fused images. A clinical vignette for each patient was created and presented along with either CT/MR fusion images or CTM images. A group of spine surgeons are asked to formulate detailed surgical plans based on each set of images, and the surgical plans are compared. A similar study assessing diagnostic agreement is being performed with neuroradiologists, who also assess the accuracy of registration. Our work to date has demonstrated the feasibility of segmentation and multi-rigid fusion in clinical cases and the acceptability of the questionnaire to physicians. Preliminary analysis of one surgeon's and one neuroradiologist"s evaluation has been performed.

Hu, Yangqiu; Mirza, Sohail K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Haynor, David R.

2005-04-01

202

Midline trough corpectomies for the evacuation of an extensive ventral cervical and upper thoracic spinal epidural abscess.  

PubMed

The author reports on a 59-year-old woman with a history of a chronic, nonhealing skin ulcer who presented with sepsis, neck pain, and rapidly progressive quadriparesis. Precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging studies revealed a multifocal ventral cervical and upper thoracic spinal epidural abscess. Compression of the spinal cord from the abscess was greatest behind the disc space of C2-3 and C7-T1. Because of the patient's tenuous medical status, the author elected to apply a technique that would allow expeditious decompression without necessitating concomitant fusion and instrumentation. Multilevel, contiguous trough corpectomies were performed for evacuation of the compressive lesions. A high-speed matchstick bur was used to create a 5- to 7-mm midline trough in the vertebrae and intervening disc spaces from C-2 to T-3. Rapid and successful decompression of the entire ventral cervical and upper thoracic epidural space was achieved using this technique. Understanding that the surgical treatment of discitis or osteomyelitis can often result in a kyphotic deformity or frank instability, the patient was immobilized in a cervical collar following surgery and underwent vigilant monitoring with serial plain radiographs, CT scans, and MR images. These neuroimaging studies confirmed complete resolution of the abscess and the slow development of a mild, stable kyphotic deformity. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient was ambulating and had returned to work. A trough corpectomy is a viable surgical approach that allows for rapid decompression of ventral cervical and upper thoracic epidural abscesses while obviating the need for same-setting fusion and fixation. PMID:20672959

Deshmukh, Vinay R

2010-08-01

203

Assessment of adjacent-segment mobility after cervical disc replacement versus fusion: RCT with 1 year's results.  

PubMed

Disc prostheses have been designed to restore and maintain cervical segmental motion and reduce the accelerated degeneration of the adjacent level. There is no knowledge about the reaction of the neighboured asymptomatic segments after implantation of prostheses or fusion. The effects of these procedures to segmental movement of the uninvolved vertebrae have not been subjected to studies so far. The objective of this study was to compare the segmental motion following cervical disc replacement versus fusion and the correlation to the clinical outcome. Another aim was to compare the segmental motion of the asymptomatic segments above the treated ones and to compare both with Roentgen stereometric analysis (RSA) including the asymptomatic segments. 20 patients with one-level cervical radiculopathy scheduled for surgery were randomized to arthroplasty (10 patients, study group) or anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (10 patients, control group). Clinical results were evaluated using Visual Analogue Scale and Neck Disability Index. RSA was performed immediately postoperative, after 6 and 12 months. The adjacent segment showed a significantly higher segmental motion in all three-dimensional axes in comparison to the segment treated with prostheses (P < 0.05). In the fusion group the segmental motion of the adjacent segment was significantly higher in all three-dimensional axes (P < 0.05) at each examination time. When the adjacent level of both groups is compared, the fusion group could show a higher segmental motion in all three-dimensional axes, but without significant difference (P > 0.05) 1 year after surgery. Regarding the clinical results, there was no significant difference in pain relief between both groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the adjacent segment could show a higher segmental motion, when compared with the segment either treated with prostheses or fusion. There was no significant difference in segmental motion adjacent to prosthesis or fusion. Clinical results did also show no significant difference in pain relief between both groups. PMID:21221666

Nabhan, A; Ishak, B; Steudel, W I; Ramadhan, S; Steimer, O

2011-06-01

204

Cervical spine instability following cervical laminectomies for Chiari II malformation: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The treatment of symptomatic Chiari II malformations typically involves multilevel cervical laminectomies in very young children.\\u000a These patients are at significant risk of cervical instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and\\u000a significance of cervical instability after multilevel cervical laminectomies in a cohort of patients decompressed for Chiari\\u000a II malformation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Postoperative dynamic lateral cervical spine radiographs

Fred C. Lam; Beverly J. Irwin; Kenneth J. Poskitt; Paul Steinbok

2009-01-01

205

Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-02-12

206

Life history reconstruction of modern and fossil sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) by oxygen isotopic analysis of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth: Implication for paleoenvironmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the use of oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite for tracking freshwater to marine migration in modern and fossil Pacific sockeye salmon. Oxygen isotope analyses of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth of three anadromous modern sockeye salmon from Alaska establish a basis for the interpretation of fossil vertebrae and tooth apatite from Pleistocene sockeye salmon of the Skokomish River Valley, Washington. High resolution ?18O profiles in salmon otoliths provide, at a monthly resolution, a detailed record of individual history including continental rearing, migration to sea, seasonal variation in sea surface temperatures during marine life, and spawning migration before capture. Pacific salmon teeth are constantly renewed with the last set of teeth forming under the influence of freshwater. Therefore, they do not allow inference concerning sea-run versus landlocked life history in fossil salmon. Salmon vertebrae are also ambiguous indicators of life history regarding fresh versus marine water because centra are minimally ossified in the freshwater stages of life and the outermost layer of vertebral bone might be resorbed to provide nutrients during the non-feeding phase of the spawning migration. Therefore, ?18O values of accretionary growth rings in sea-run salmon vertebrae are dominated by the marine signal only if they are not diagenetically altered in freshwater deposits. In Pleistocene sockeye reported here, neither the teeth nor vertebral apatite present clear marine ?18O values due to the combined effects of tooth replacement and diagenetic alteration of bone and dentine. ?18O(PO 4) values of fossil vertebrae are intermediate between ?18O(PO 4) values of enamel and basal tooth dentin. Assuming a similar rate of isotope exchange of vertebrae and dentine with freshwater during diagenesis, these results are interpreted to reflect formation of the teeth under the influence of freshwater, and formation of the vertebrae under the influence of oceanic water. Our approach demonstrates that when appropriate knowledge of tissue formation is available, isotopic differences between altered and unaltered tissue holds promise of distinguishing between marine and freshwater origin of the tissues.

Zazzo, A.; Smith, G. R.; Patterson, W. P.; Dufour, E.

2006-09-01

207

Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

2008-01-01

208

Abordaje conservador del embarazo ectópico cervical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with a high risk of hemorrhage. Early diagnosis is an important prognostic factor for survival and preserved fertility in these patients. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with cervical ectopic pregnancy in her seventh week of gestation. The therapeutic management was conservative and involved the combination of systemic and

Jesús Joaquín Hijona Elósegui; Miguel Calero Rojas; Ana Contreras Rodríguez; M. del Carmen Toledano Montero; Carmen Pallarés Ayuso; Juan Manuel Torres Martí

2008-01-01

209

Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare historical features, clinical examination findings, and radiographic results among pediatric patients with cervical spine injury (CSI), a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with CSI was undertaken. Two main groups were identified: radiographically evident cervical spine injury (RESCI), and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic information was obtained from patients' charts

Chris Baker; Howard Kadish; Jeff E Schunk

1999-01-01

210

Effectiveness of acupuncture in cervical dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case describes the successful addition of acupuncture to treat a patient with cervical dystonia previously managed with Botox (botulinum toxin) injections. This resulted in reduced pain and muscle spasm relief and to the authors' knowledge is the first case to be reported using this treatment combination. The patient was diagnosed with the idiopathic variant of cervical dystonia and had

Ravindran Deepak; Hans Mathew; Mathew Koshy

2010-01-01

211

Medical Interventions: Vaccine to Prevent Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

As recently as the 1940s, cervical cancer was a major cause of death among women of childbearing age in the U.S. but widespread introduction of the Pap test in the 1950s helped reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality in this country by more than 70 percent.

212

Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the role of tests for human papillomavirus (HPV) in screening for cervical cancer but as yet the relevance is unclear. We looked at HPV testing for types 16, 18, 31, and 33 on material taken at the time of a cervical smear in 2009 eligible women having routine screening. Women with any degree of dyskaryosis or

J. Cuzick; A. Szarewski; G. Terry; A. Hanby; P. Maddox; M. Anderson; S. J. Steele; J. Guillebaud; C. Kocjean

1995-01-01

213

Postnatal progression of bone disease in the cervical spines of mucopolysaccharidosis I dogs  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient ?-L-iduronidase activity leading to accumulation of poorly degraded dermatan and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS I is associated with significant cervical spine disease, including vertebral dysplasia, odontoid hypoplasia, and accelerated disc degeneration, leading to spinal cord compression and kypho-scoliosis. The objective of this study was to establish the nature and rate of progression of cervical vertebral bone disease in MPS I using a canine model. Methods C2 vertebrae were obtained post-mortem from normal and MPS I dogs at 3, 6 and 12 months-of-age. Morphometric parameters and mineral density for the vertebral trabecular bone and odontoid process were determined using micro-computed tomography. Vertebrae were then processed for paraffin histology, and cartilage area in both the vertebral epiphyses and odontoid process were quantified. Results Vertebral bodies of MPS I dogs had lower trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) than normals at all ages. For MPS I dogs, BV/TV, Tb.Th and BMD plateaued after 6 months-of-age. The odontoid process appeared morphologically abnormal for MPS I dogs at 6 and 12 months-of-age, although BV/TV and TMD were not significantly different from normals. MPS I dogs had significantly more cartilage in the vertebral epiphyses at both 3 and 6 months-of-age. At 12 months-of-age, epiphyseal growth plates in normal dogs were absent, but in MPS I dogs they persisted. Conclusions In this study we report reduced trabecular bone content and mineralization, and delayed cartilage to bone conversion in MPS I dogs from 3 months-of-age, which may increase vertebral fracture risk and contribute to progressive deformity. The abnormalities of the odontoid process we describe likely contribute to increased incidence of atlanto-axial subluxation observed clinically. Therapeutic strategies that enhance bone formation may decrease incidence of spine disease in MPS I patients. PMID:23563357

Chiaro, Joseph A; Baron, Matthew D; del Alcazar, Chelsea; O'Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Elliott, Dawn M; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

2013-01-01

214

Giant anterior cervical osteophyte leading to Dysphagia.  

PubMed

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee; Joo, Won Il

2013-09-01

215

Follow-up study on the motion range after treatment of degenerative disc disease with the Bryan cervical disc prosthesis.  

PubMed

This study examined effect of a new intervertebral cervical disc prosthesis in relieving the neurological symptoms and signs, improving the patients' ability to perform daily activities, reducing pain, and maintaining the stability and segmental motion. From December 2003 to October 2004, 12 patients, who had received 14 replacements of cervical artificial discs, were followed-up for 2 to 8 months (with a mean of 5.2 months). Of them 5 had cervical spondylotic myelopathy and 7 had cervical disc herniation. The patients included 7 males and 5 females, with their age ranging from 35 to 62 y and a mean of 50.3 y. Single-level replacements were performed in 10 cases and 2 cases received two-level replacement. Operation time of the single-level surgery averaged 130+/-50 min and the time of two-level surgery was 165+/-53 min on average (from skin incision to skin suturing). Neurological or vascular complications during or after surgery was not observed. Japanese Orthopedic Association scores (JOA scores) increased from 8.6 to 15.8 on average. There was no prothesis subsidence or excursion. Replaced segments were stable and the range of motion was partially restored, being 4.68 degrees (3.6 degrees -6.1 degrees ) in flexion and extension position and 3.51 degrees (2.5 degrees -4.6 degrees ), 3.42 degrees (2.6 degrees -4.3 degrees ) in left and right bending position. No obvious loss of physiological curvature was noted. CT or MRI follow-up showed that excursion was less than 1.5 mm) in 2 of 14 levels and between 1.5 mm and 3 mm) in 1 of 14 levels. No ossification in the replaced levels was observed. It is concluded that satisfactory short-term results were achieved in the 12 cases of artificial disc replacements. Different from anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, the replacement could achieve quick functional recovery and did not lead to the movement limitation of cervical vertebrae. At least a 5-years follow-up was needed to assess the long-term effect of the prosthesis on its neighboring segments. PMID:17497290

Yang, Shuhua; Hu, Yong; Zhao, Jijun; He, Xianfeng; Liu, Yong; Xu, Weihua; Du, Jingyuan; Fu, Dehao

2007-04-01

216

In vivo three-dimensional intervertebral kinematics of the subaxial cervical spine during seated axial rotation and lateral bending via a fluoroscopy-to-CT registration approach.  

PubMed

Accurate measurement of the coupled intervertebral motions is helpful for understanding the etiology and diagnosis of relevant diseases, and for assessing the subsequent treatment. No study has reported the in vivo, dynamic and three-dimensional (3D) intervertebral motion of the cervical spine during active axial rotation (AR) and lateral bending (LB) in the sitting position. The current study fills the gap by measuring the coupled intervertebral motions of the subaxial cervical spine in ten asymptomatic young adults in an upright sitting position during active head LB and AR using a volumetric model-based 2D-to-3D registration method via biplane fluoroscopy. Subject-specific models of the individual vertebrae were derived from each subject's CT data and were registered to the fluoroscopic images for determining the 3D poses of the subaxial vertebrae that were used to obtain the intervertebral kinematics. The averaged ranges of motion to one side (ROM) during AR at C3/C4, C4/C5, C5/C6, and C6/C7 were 4.2°, 4.6°, 3.0° and 1.3°, respectively. The corresponding values were 6.4°, 5.2°, 6.1° and 6.1° during LB. Intervertebral LB (ILB) played an important role in both AR and LB tasks of the cervical spine, experiencing greater ROM than intervertebral AR (IAR) (ratio of coupled motion (IAR/ILB): 0.23-0.75 in LB, 0.34-0.95 in AR). Compared to the AR task, the ranges of ILB during the LB task were significantly greater at C5/6 (p=0.008) and C6/7 (p=0.001) but the range of IAR was significantly smaller at C4/5 (p=0.02), leading to significantly smaller ratios of coupled motions at C4/5 (p=0.0013), C5/6 (p<0.001) and C6/7 (p=0.0037). The observed coupling characteristics of the intervertebral kinematics were different from those in previous studies under discrete static conditions in a supine position without weight-bearing, suggesting that the testing conditions likely affect the kinematics of the subaxial cervical spine. While C1 and C2 were not included owing to technical limitations, the current results nonetheless provide baseline data of the intervertebral motion of the subaxial cervical spine in asymptomatic young subjects under physiological conditions, which may be helpful for further investigations into spine biomechanics. PMID:25218506

Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Wang, Ting-Ming; Hsu, Chao-Yu; Hsu, Shih-Jung; Shih, Ting-Fang

2014-10-17

217

Is 58% sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 and invasive cervical cancer optimal for cervical screening?  

PubMed Central

Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of a Roche cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test application as a first line primary cervical screening tool in women 25 and older introduces a new era of complex cervical screening choices. Perhaps the most surprising findings in Roche's supporting ATHENA trial data were the unexpectedly low verification bias-adjusted CIN3+ sensitivities documented by the FDA for both the proposed cobas HPV testing algorithm (58.26%) and Pap testing algorithm (42.63%). These unexpectedly low sensitivity estimates suggest intuitively that there is still considerable room for improvement in cervical screening, and available data from large systems point to routine cytology and HPV co-testing as offering the greatest protection against development of cervical cancer. Observational studies of large populations screened over time remain essential to document actual protection from development of cervical cancer with any new cervical screening options, as natural history studies and available data from large systems indicate that most CIN2/3 cases detected in short term clinical trials would not progress to invasive cervical cancer. Interpretation of ATHENA trial data and its application to routine clinical practice is further limited by published studies which document that a significant proportion of CIN2/3 biopsy diagnoses in the ATHENA trial could not be confirmed as accurate when evaluated with p16 immunohistochemistry and that cytology laboratory performance in the trial was notably suboptimal. PMID:24987445

Austin, R. Marshall; Zhao, Chengquan

2014-01-01

218

Segmentation of Cervical Cell Images Asli Kale, Selim Aksoy  

E-print Network

of a computer-assisted screening system that aims early diagnosis of cervical cancer is the accurate procedure used to detect cervical cancer or precancerous changes in an uterine cervix by grading cervical-assisted screening system for Pap smear tests will be very beneficial to prevent cervical cancer if it increases

Aksoy, Selim

219

Managing women with human papillomavirus changes in cervical cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of 86 women with cervical cytological evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection who underwent colposcopy, 55 yielded histological confirmation of HPV infection and 17 of them had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Of 51 women followed up six months after cryotherapy of their cervical lesions, 46 showed no evidence of HPV infection in their cervices. Of the patients with CIN lesions,

S J Winceslaus; C Brown; B T Goh

1988-01-01

220

A combined approach for the treatment of cervical vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cervical vertigo is a diagnosis commonly made at both otorhinolaringologist and chiropractic offices. Hypothesized nonvascular mechanisms are reviewed. Therapeutic approaches have been suggested in the literature, ranging from cervical immobilization to vertebral manipulation.Objective: To characterize the patient population with cervical vertigo and observe therapeutic results of a treatment protocol by using distinct conservative modalities.Methods: Fifteen subjects with cervical vertigo

Eduardo S. B Bracher; Clemente I. R Almeida; Roberta A Almeida; André C Duprat; Cheri B. B Bracher

2000-01-01

221

Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review  

PubMed Central

Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

2013-01-01

222

Resection of an upper cervical aneurysmal bone cyst and spinal reconstruction using a midline mandibular osteotomy in a pediatric patient.  

PubMed

The authors report on the surgical management of an extensive lesion of the upper cervical spine that required an uncommon transmandibular approach to facilitate exposure, resection, and stabilization in a pediatric patient. A 6-year-old boy with a large aneurysmal bone cyst of the C-2 vertebra presented with progressive weakness and right-sided neck pain. The lesion extended laterally into the soft tissue of the neck, inferiorly to C-4, and posteriorly around the spinal cord. A transmandibular osteotomy was performed to provide adequate exposure for complete resection of the mass and anterior C1-3 instrumentation and fusion. Subsequently, the patient underwent occiput to C-4 posterior instrumentation and fusion. The patient tolerated the operation well and had regained all function at 3 and 11 months' follow-up. No neurological complications or problems of speech, swallowing, or respiration occurred. Even in pediatric patients, the transmandibular approach for the treatment of upper cervical spine lesions is an effective method of maximizing exposure for complex lesions requiring resection and stabilization. PMID:24702619

McDowell, Michael M; Hanft, Simon J; Greenberg, Sophie A; Rahmati, Rahmatullah; Carrao, Vincent; Eisig, Sidney; Anderson, Richard C E

2014-06-01

223

Adjacent segment disease after cervical spine fusion.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion is one of the most common cervical spine procedures. Although it is usually successful in relieving the symptoms of radiculopathy and myelopathy, the subsequent development of clinically significant disk disease at levels adjacent to the fusion is a matter of concern. Adjacent segment cervical disease occurs in approximately 3% of patients; the incidence is expected to increase to more than 25% of patients within the first 10 years after the index fusion procedure. The disease is well described in the literature, and significant basic science and clinical research has been conducted. Nonetheless, the cause of the disease is a matter of debate. A combination of factors probably contributes to its development, including the increased biomechanical stress placed on the disk space adjacent to a fusion and the natural history of cervical spondylosis in patients known to have such pathology. Clinical and biomechanical data are available to support each of these claims. Symptomatic disk disease adjacent to a cervical fusion is a significant clinical problem, and, therefore, motion-sparing technology has been developed to reduce its incidence. Two cervical disk replacement systems are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of symptomatic cervical spondylosis. PMID:19385583

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Lawrence, James; Gates, Charley; Harris, Eric; Hilibrand, Alan S

2009-01-01

224

Minimally Invasive Cervical Foraminotomy and Decompression of Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many types of degenerative cervical spine disease can be treated with well-established posterior decompressive procedures.1–4 Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides symptomatic\\u000a relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs.3, 5 Similarly, posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of myelopathic\\u000a patients undergoing

John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

225

Characterization of the Human Cervical Mucous Proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. Discovery of biomarkers for the early detection of cervical\\u000a cancer would improve current screening practices and reduce the burden of disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  In this study, we report characterization of the human cervical mucous proteome as the first step towards protein biomarker\\u000a discovery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The protein composition was characterized using one- and

Gitika Panicker; Yiming Ye; Dongxia Wang; Elizabeth R. Unger

2010-01-01

226

Experimental study using diode laser in discs: the healing process in discs and adjacent vertebrae after laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct and secondary changes following diode laser irradiation of intervertebral discs were studied in rabbits. A quartz fiber was inserted into the discs, and laser irradiation was applied. Subsequently, the lumbar vertebrae were extracted en bloc, and subjected to sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histologic examination immediately after irradiation, and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after irradiation. MR images showed low signal intensity of the intervertebral discs on T2-weighted images 3 weeks after irradiation, which remained unchanged to 24 weeks. Although the signal intensity of the adjacent vertebral bodies remained unchanged on T1-weighted images, the intensity was high on T2-weighted images 3 weeks after irradiation, but had reverted to normal or was low 12 to 24 weeks after irradiation. On histologic examination, the inner layer of the annulus fibrosus was seen to protrude into the void created by vaporization of the nucleus pulposus 3 weeks after irradiation. Multinuclear chondrocytes were observed, as if the disc was being reconstructed. Fibrous tissue in the epiphysis and metaphysis was observed soon after irradiation but decreased over time and was replaced by normal bone marrow.

Naga, Kumi; Nakai, Sadaaki; Maehara, Kazuyuki; Nishimoto, Seiji

2004-09-01

227

New Chemotherapy Drug for Advanced Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, women with cervical cancer that has recurred or demonstrated resistance to previous chemotherapy and that cannot be treated surgically will be treated with the drug ixabepilone.

228

Cervical pregnancy: a report of four cases.  

PubMed

Various conservative treatments for cervical pregnancy have been reported. However, unlike tubal ectopic pregnancy, the treatment of cervical pregnancy has not been well established. For patients who desire fertility preservation, treatment with methotrexate chemotherapy carries a high success rate for preservation of the uterus. When methotrexate is injected i.v. or i.m., expulsion of pregnant tissue occasionally takes up to 1 month. In this report, we present four cases of cervical pregnancy which were successfully managed by methotrexate injection into the bilateral uterine arteries. In cases presenting with massive bleeding, embolization of the bilateral uterine arteries was performed. Cervical pregnancy was aborted within 8 days safely, and fertility could be preserved without harmful side-effects. PMID:24118279

Kochi, Keiko; Hidaka, Takao; Yasoshima, Kuniaki; Yoneda, Kenji; Arai, Kazunori; Arai, Takashi

2014-02-01

229

Radiosensitizers in cervical cancer. Cisplatin and beyond  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer continues to be a significant health burden worldwide. Globally, the majority of cancers are locally advanced at diagnosis; hence, radiation remains the most frequently used therapeutical modality. Currently, the value of adding cisplatin or cisplatin-based chemotherapy to radiation for treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is strongly supported by randomized studies and meta-analyses. Nevertheless, despite these significant achievements, therapeutic results are far from optimal; thus, novel therapies need to be assayed. A strategy currently being investigated is the use of newer radiosensitizers alone or in combination with platinum compounds. In the present work, we present preclinical information on known and newer cytotoxic agents as radiosensitizers on cervical cancer models, as well as the clinical information emanating from early phase trials that incorporate them to the cervical cancer management. In addition, we present the perspectives on the combined approach of radiation therapy and molecular target-based drugs with proven radiosensitizing capacity. PMID:16722549

Candelaria, Myrna; Garcia-Arias, Alicia; Cetina, Lucely; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

2006-01-01

230

Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... cancers are treated Cervical cancer prevention and screening: Financial issues Additional resources References Previous Topic How women with abnormal Pap test results or pre-cancers are treated Next Topic Additional ...

231

Cervical premalignant lesions and their management  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the tenth most common cancer in women in developed countries that have national screening programs, while it is in the second line in underdeveloped countries. According to Ministry of Health registry data, cervical cancer is the eighth most common cancer among female cancers in Turkey. Today, the most effective screening for cervical cancer is to obtain smears from the cervix. Therefore, periodic screening programs are of great importance in identifying preinvasive lesions to prevent their progression to invasive cancer. Today, with the use of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine, screening programs have brought new insights into the prevention of cervical cancer. Management of preinvasive lesions has to be known by each obstetrics and gynecology specialist. Redundant procedures and treatments can be avoided by directing patients correctly at this step. Cancer phobia should not be created. Ablative or destructive treatments should not be done without histological diagnosis; hysterectomy, which has an equal risk of recurrence, should not be recommended. PMID:24976778

Kose, Faruk M.; Naki, Murat M.

2014-01-01

232

CDC Vital Signs: Cervical Cancer is Preventable  

MedlinePLUS

... No woman should die of cervical cancer. Doctors, nurses, and health systems can: Help women understand what ... Early Detection Program , Title X Family Planning Doctors, nurses, and health systems can Help women understand which ...

233

Embarazo ectópico cervical. Tratamiento médico conservador  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveCervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare complication that can have severe consequences if an early diagnosis is not made. This diagnosis should always be considered in vaginal bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy.

A. Rubio; F. Jiménez; M. Herrero; S. Alcalá; C. Sabadell; I. Bruna; M. L. Cano

2005-01-01

234

Quantitative spectroscopy for detection of cervical dysplasia  

E-print Network

The current clinical standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is colposcopy, a procedure that involves visual inspection and biopsy of at-risk tissue, followed by histopathology. The major objective of colposcopy is detection ...

Mirkovi?, Jelena, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

235

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

236

NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past ... gov . What's New Community-wide treatment of ... of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). The study was conducted in a rural ...

237

Treatment of cervical vertebral (C1) metastasis of lung cancer with radiotherapy: A case report  

PubMed Central

The present study discusses a patient with C1 vertebral metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the left lung. The patient was a 31-year-old female suffering from neck pain who was referred by her physician. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed osteolytic destruction of the C1 vertebra. Chest and computed tomographic scans revealed lung carcinoma changes involving the left lung. A biopsy confirmed adenocarcinoma of the left lung. Abnormal activity was present in the cervical spine (C1) region in a radionuclide bone scan. The patient was then referred to an oncologist. The spine was stabilized with a rigid collar and a course of radiation therapy and pain medication was initiated immediately. At the 9-month follow-up examination, there was no evidence of progression on the MRI scans and the main neck symptoms had disappeared. At present, the overall survival (OS) time is 11 months. Patients complaining of new onset back or neck pain should be assumed to have vertebral metastasis until proven otherwise. Trivial trauma should be taken seriously in these cases and investigated with appropriate clinical, laboratory and imaging examinations. PMID:23599751

NI, XUEFENG; WU, PING; WU, CHANGPING; WU, JIANFENG; JI, MEI; GU, XIAOFANG; TIAN, BO

2013-01-01

238

Outcomes for combined anterior and posterior surgical approaches for patients with multisegmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Corpectomy is widely used to treat cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). However, when this technique alone is performed at 1 or 2 levels for a multisegmental involvement (3 or more vertebrae), the incidence of post-operative complications is high. The optimal treatment for multisegmental CSM is still debatable. The aim of this study was to assess clinical and radiological outcomes for patients with multisegmental CSM who underwent combined anterior and posterior (AP) surgical approaches. Forty adults (17 women and 23 men; age range, 41-76 y) treated at our center between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. Their neurological function was assessed at different times using the Nurick classification (Grades 0 [root symptoms only] to 5 [wheelchair- or bed-bound]). Patients' satisfaction with the surgery was evaluated using Odom's criteria (poor, fair, good, or excellent). Pre-operatively, 20% of patients were assessed as Nurick Grade 0, 60% as Grade 1, and 20% as Grade 2. At the 1-year follow-up, only 10% of patients were assessed as Grade 1. At 1 year after surgery, 85% of patients rated their satisfaction with the operation as "excellent" and 15% rated it as "good". These outcomes suggest that, when surgery is indicated and patients with multisegmental CSM are carefully selected, the combined AP approach yields symptom relief comparable to that of corpectomy alone and a lower incidence of post-operative complications. PMID:19153044

Konya, Deniz; Ozgen, Serdar; Gercek, Arzu; Pamir, M Necmettin

2009-03-01

239

Cervical spine injuries in American football.  

PubMed

American football is a high-energy contact sport that places players at risk for cervical spine injuries with potential neurological deficits. Advances in tackling and blocking techniques, rules of the game and medical care of the athlete have been made throughout the past few decades to minimize the risk of cervical injury and improve the management of injuries that do occur. Nonetheless, cervical spine injuries remain a serious concern in the game of American football. Injuries have a wide spectrum of severity. The relatively common 'stinger' is a neuropraxia of a cervical nerve root(s) or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. Less common and more serious an injury, cervical cord neuropraxia is the clinical manifestation of neuropraxia of the cervical spinal cord due to hyperextension, hyperflexion or axial loading. Recent data on American football suggest that approximately 0.2 per 100,000 participants at the high school level and 2 per 100,000 participants at the collegiate level are diagnosed with cervical cord neuropraxia. Characterized by temporary pain, paraesthesias and/or motor weakness in more than one extremity, there is a rapid and complete resolution of symptoms and a normal physical examination within 10 minutes to 48 hours after the initial injury. Stenosis of the spinal canal, whether congenital or acquired, is thought to predispose the athlete to cervical cord neuropraxia. Although quite rare, catastrophic neurological injury is a devastating entity referring to permanent neurological injury or death. The mechanism is most often a forced hyperflexion injury, as occurs when 'spear tackling'. The mean incidence of catastrophic neurological injury over the past 30 years has been approximately 0.5 per 100,000 participants at high school level and 1.5 per 100,000 at the collegiate level. This incidence has decreased significantly when compared with the incidence in the early 1970s. This decrease in the incidence of catastrophic injury is felt to be the result of changes in the rules in the mid-1970s that prohibited the use of the head as the initial contact point when blocking and tackling. Evaluation of patients with suspected cervical spine injury includes a complete neurological examination while on the field or the sidelines. Immobilization on a hard board may also be necessary. The decision to obtain radiographs can be made on the basis of the history and physical examination. Treatment depends on severity of diagnosed injury and can range from an individualized cervical spine rehabilitation programme for a 'stinger' to cervical spine decompression and fusion for more serious bony or ligamentous injury. Still under constant debate is the decision to return to play for the athlete. PMID:19691361

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Anderson, David T; Lamb, Kathleen; Deluca, Peter F; Bata, Ahmed; Marchetto, Paul A; Neves, Nuno; Vaccaro, Alexander R

2009-01-01

240

Clinical and radiological results following cervical arthroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Background. This was a retrospective study of clinical and radiological results of cervical arthroplasty using the Bryan cervical disc\\u000a prosthesis to evaluate the efficacy of arthroplasty in clinical applications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. A total of 46 patients underwent arthroplasty of a single level using the Bryan disc prosthesis. Clinical outcome was assessed\\u000a using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the neck

D. H. Yoon; S. Yi; H. C. Shin; K. N. Kim; S. H. Kim

2006-01-01

241

Current Management of Cervical Esophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pharyngo-laryngo-esophagectomy (PLE) has been regarded as a standard treatment for cervical esophageal cancer, but the morbidity\\u000a and mortality rates associated with PLE are substantial. Chemoradiation (CTRT) is widely used to treat esophageal cancer;\\u000a however, its role in managing cervical esophageal cancer has not been fully elucidated. It was hypothesized that up-front\\u000a CTRT could be an effective alternative treatment option to

Daniel King Hung Tong; Simon Law; Dora Lai Wan Kwong; William I. Wei; Raymond Wai Man Ng; Kam Ho Wong

2011-01-01

242

Cervical screening in an Orthodox Jewish community.  

PubMed

This article discusses the possible conflicts of interest in offering cervical screening to Orthodox Jewish women. Women in this community are at lower risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia than the general population and may object to screening because of religious reasons. The author suggests that national targets should be flexible to accommodate different cultures. Practice nurses can then concentrate on providing the most appropriate care for different ethnic minorities. PMID:17436894

Berjon-Aparicio, Sonia

243

Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad  

Cancer.gov

NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cervix coated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), a process known as VIA. Image depicts cervical cancer microvessel density which increases lethality of the cancer.

244

A Biomechanical Comparison of Intralaminar C7 Screw Constructs with and without Offset Connector Used for C6-7 Cervical Spine Immobilization : A Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The offset connector can allow medial and lateral variability and facilitate intralaminar screw incorporation into the construct. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without offset connector using a three dimensional finite element model of a C6-7 cervical spine segment. Methods Finite element models representing C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without the offset connector were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the two techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Results ROM for intralaminar screw construct with offset connector was less than the construct without the offset connector in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in both constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in the construct without offset connector was found to be 12-30% higher than the corresponding stresses in the construct with offset connector in the three principal directions. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the intralaminar screw fixation with offset connector is better than the construct without offset connector in terms of biomechanical stability. Construct with the offset connector reduces the ROM of C6-7 segment more significantly compared to the construct without the offset connector and causes lower stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex. PMID:24003366

Qasim, Muhammad; Natarajan, Raghu N.; An, Howard S.

2013-01-01

245

[The data management of 3D FE model reconstruction based on medical Images and the modeling for T10-T12 thoracic vertebrae].  

PubMed

Setting up the 3D finite element (FE) model on the basis of medical images is a necessary method of biomechanical analysis. The pretreatment, including data processing of images and mesh generation, becomes the bottleneck of FE analysis, and this is especially the case of the modeling for thoracic vertebrae, because the shapes and data are complicated. In this paper, on the basis of the data for building a 3D FE model of thoracic vertebrae, we present some structures and types of data which are essential for the reconstruction of CT medical image, analyze some methods for obtaining and processing the data from images, and then advance a theory for data management based on mesh generation by block with the software MSC. Marc. A 3D-FE Model of T10-T12 thoracic vertebrae is set up, which keeps the configuration of the true one, and satisfies the requirements of biomechanical analysis. We focus affention on the data obtainment and management during medical image processing and FE modeling, all of which are very important for the biomechanical analysis. It is helpful and instructive to reconstruct some similar tissues of human body on the basis of the medical images from CT, MRI, etc. PMID:15553871

Du, Huiliang; Huang, Shilin; Zhang, Jinhuan

2004-10-01

246

Multifactorial Etiology of Cervical Cancer: A Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the cervix is the second most common life-threatening cancer among women worldwide, with incidence rates ranging from 4.8 per 100,000 women per year in the Middle East to 44.3 per 100,000 in East Africa. Epidemiologic and clinical data demonstrate that human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, play at least a major if not a necessary role in the etiology of cervical cancer. However, many investigators acknowledge that HPV is not sufficient to induce cervical cancer and that a multifactorial etiology is likely. HPV can be found in a growing proportion of patients with cervical cancer, approaching 100%, but is not yet found in every patient with disease. Other factors, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 infections, cigarette smoking, vaginal douching, nutrition, and use of oral contraceptives, have been proposed as contributing factors. In the first half of the 20th century, Peyton Rous and colleagues demonstrated the joint action of tars and Shope papillomavirus to consistently induce squamous cell carcinomas in rabbits. Using the Rous model as a prototype, one might hypothesize that some cases of cervical cancer arise from an interaction between oncogenic viruses and cervical tar exposures. Cervical tar exposures include cigarette smoking, use of tar-based vaginal douches, and long years of inhaling smoke from wood- and coal-burning stoves in poorly ventilated kitchens. PMID:16614679

Haverkos, Harry W.

2005-01-01

247

Conservative Treatment in Early Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to describe fertility preservation methods to improve quality of life of early stages of cervical cancer. Recent finding: Although definite treatment of early stages of cervical cancer including stages IA,IB1 and IIA non-bulky is radial hysterectomy, this method is used in perimenopousal period in which fertility preservation is not important. Whenever fertility preservation is so important, some methods like radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic lymphadenectomy are used to rule out lymphatic metastases. Summary: If any visible lesion on cervix is found, pelvic MRI is helpful and during operation, trachelectomy samples are sent for frozen section and margin study. Radical trachelectomy is done vaginal or abdominal. Overall relapse rate of cervical cancer in radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy is the same. Complications of radical trachelectomy include chronic vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, inflammation and ulcer due to cercelage, amenorrhea, cervical stenosis and pregnancy complications following trachelectomy including 2nd trimester abortion and premature labor following cervical prematurity.The best and preferred method of labor is cesarean section. Neoadjuant chemotherapy followed by radical trachelectomy in large cervical lesions is a suitable treatment. Ultraconservative operations like large cold knife conization, simple trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy and sentinel lymph node mapping are suitable for very small lesions. PMID:24170987

Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Barooti, Esmat; Miratashi-Yazdi, Ashrafosadat; Dehghani, Atefe

2013-01-01

248

Predictive factors for acute proximal junctional failure after adult deformity surgery with upper instrumented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine.  

PubMed

Study Type?Retrospective cohort study. Introduction?Acute proximal junctional failure (APJF) was recently defined by the International Spine Study Group as: postoperative fracture of the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) or UIV?+?1; UIV implant failure; proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) increase?>?15 degrees; or need for proximal extension of the fusion within 6 months of surgery.1 The incidence and revision rates of APJF have been reported to be higher when the UIV is located in the lower thoracolumbar (TL) spine mostly because of high incidence of UIV or UIV?+?1 fractures.2 Sagittal deformity overcorrection has been considered as a potential risk factor.34 Objective?The purpose of this study is to assess independent predictive factors and timing for revisions of APJF in adult deformity patients with UIV in the TL (T9-L2) spine. Methods?Retrospective review of 135 consecutive patients with minimum 2-year follow-up, treated at a single institution for adult spinal deformity, all with UIV in the TL spine (T9-L2). Fusions were divided into three cohorts based on the UIV location (T9-T10 vs. T11-T12 vs. L1-L2). Demographic data were reviewed and radiographic parameters were measured preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, at 6 months and at the final follow-up. Incidence and failure modes of APJF, as well as timing for APJF revision are reported. Risk factors for APJF were assessed with univariate and multivariate regression analysis models. Results?A total of 135 consecutive patients were reviewed, with mean follow-up 42 months (24-126). Mean age was 66 years (24-86). There were no differences in the preoperative radiographic parameters between patients in any of the three cohorts with APJF. The incidence of APJF was 38.5%, with a trend toward higher APJF in the T9-T10 group (p?=?0.07) (Table 1). When UIV was at T10, the incidence of APJF was 57.1%, significantly higher than the adjacent vertebrae, T9 and T11 (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01, respectively). The overall revision rate for APJF was 17%, most often for UIV fracture, while PJK?>?15 degrees alone had the highest 2 and 5 years survival (100%) (Fig. 1). Univariate analysis revealed preoperative sagittal vertical axis?>?5 cm, postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees and thoracic kyphosis?>?30 degrees, and instrumentation to the pelvis as risk factors for APJF (Table 2). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees, and greater correction of lumbar lordosis (LL) as independent risk factors for APJF (Table 3). Conclusion?The incidence of APJF in adult deformity patients is high if the UIV is in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, with a trend toward higher rates when the UIV is at T10. Fracture at the UIV lead to the highest revision rate, while PJK?>?15 degrees without fracture or hardware failure had the longest revision-free survival. Postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees and greater correction of LL are independent risk factors for APJF. PMID:25278891

Annis, Prokopis; Lawrence, Brandon D; Spiker, William R; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Wei; Daubs, Michael D; Brodke, Darrel S

2014-10-01

249

Increased Fusion Rates With Cervical Plating for Two Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. A retrospective review of all patients surgically treated with a two-level anterior cervical disc- ectomy and fusion with and without anterior plate fixa- tion by a single surgeon. Objectives. To compare the clinical and radiographic success of two-level discectomy and the effect of anterior cervical plate fixation. Summary of Background Data. Prior studies of multi- segment fusions have

Jeffrey C. Wang; Paul W. McDonough; Kevin K. Endow; Rick B. Delamarter

250

Comparison of Three Prehospital Cervical Spine Protocols to Missed Injuries  

E-print Network

medical services; ED, emergency department; C spine, cervical spine Western Journalmedical services (EMS) practice is to assume a potential cervical Western Journalmedical services (EMS) and emergency department (ED) personnel. Western Journal

2014-01-01

251

What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Cervical Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer? What should you ask your doctor about cervical cancer? It is important for you to have frank, ... are some questions to consider: What type of cervical cancer do I have? Has my cancer spread beyond ...

252

6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian Past Issues / Spring 2007 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian NCI estimates that endometrial, ...

253

Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

254

Perinatal outcomes following conservative management of cervical dysplasia  

Cancer.gov

Preterm delivery outcomes following Preterm delivery outcomes following LEEP treatment of cervical LEEP treatment of cervical intraepithelial intraepithelial neoplasia neoplasia (CIN) (CIN) Audrey F. Audrey F. Saftlas Saftlas, PhD, MPH , PhD, MPH Department

255

Biomechanical analysis of the anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

This paper presents a biomechanical analysis of the cervical C5-C6 functional spine unit before and after the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the medical procedure and its instrumentation on range of motion and stress distribution. First, a three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine is obtained from computed tomography images using a pipeline of image processing, geometric modelling and mesh generation software. Then, a finite element study of parameters' influence on motion and a stress analysis at physiological and different post-operative scenarios were made for the basic movements of the cervical spine. It was confirmed that the results were very sensitive to intervertebral disc properties. The insertion of an anterior cervical plate influenced the stress distribution at the vertebral level as well as in the bone graft. Additionally, stress values in the graft decreased when it is used together with a cage. PMID:21806410

Fernandes, P C; Fernandes, P R; Folgado, J O; Levy Melancia, J

2012-01-01

256

Oblique Corpectomy to Manage Cervical Myeloradiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background. The authors describe a lateral approach to the cervical spine for the management of spondylotic myeloradiculopathy. The rationale for this approach and surgical technique are discussed, as well as the advantages, disadvantages, complications, and pitfalls based on the author's experience over the last two decades. Methods. Spondylotic myelo-radiculopathy may be treated via a lateral approach to the cervical spine when there is predominant anterior compression associated with either spine straightening or kyphosis, but without vertebral instability. Results. By using a lateral approach, the lateral aspect of the cervical spine and the vertebral artery are easily reached and visualized. Furthermore, the lateral part of the affected intervertebral disc(s), uncovertebral joint(s), vertebral body(ies), and posterior longitudinal ligament can be removed as needed to decompress nerve root(s) and/or the spinal cord. Conclusion. Multilevel cervical oblique corpectomy and/or lateral foraminotomy allow wide decompression of nervous structures, while maintaining optimal stability and physiological motion of the cervical spine. PMID:22028964

Salvatore, Chibbaro; Orphee, Makiese; Damien, Bresson; Alisha, Reiss; Pavel, Poczos; Bernard, George

2011-01-01

257

Subacute Cervical Myelopathy in a Child with Cerebral Palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12-year-old girl with a spastic dystonic tetraparesis due to cerebral palsy showed a subacute cervical myelopathy. X-ray films of the cervical spine demonstrated a subluxation of C4 on C5. Myelography and computerized tomography of the cervical spine performed under general anesthesia demonstrated only a minimal rotation of C3 with respect to C4 and a rather narrow cervical canal. In

L. Angelini; G. Broggi; N. Nardocci; M. Savoiardo

1982-01-01

258

Stepwise enforcement of the notochord and its intersection with the myoseptum: an evolutionary path leading to development of the vertebra?  

PubMed Central

The notochord constitutes the main axial support during the embryonic and larval stages, and the arrangement of collagen fibrils within the notochord sheath is assumed to play a decisive role in determining its functional properties as a fibre-wound hydrostatic skeleton. We have found that during early ontogeny in Atlantic salmon stepwise changes occur in the configuration of the collagen fibre-winding of the notochord sheath. The sheath consists of a basal lamina, a layer of type II collagen, and an elastica externa that delimits the notochord; and these constituents are secreted in a specific order. Initially, the collagen fibrils are circumferentially arranged perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, and this specific spatial fibril configuration is maintained until hatching when the collagen becomes reorganized into distinct layers or lamellae. Within each lamella, fibrils are parallel to each other, forming helices around the longitudinal axis of the notochord, with a tangent angle of 75–80° to the cranio-caudal axis. The helical geometry shifts between adjacent lamellae, forming enantiomorphous left- and right-handed coils, respectively, thus enforcing the sheath. The observed changes in the fibre-winding configuration may reflect adaptation of the notochord to functional demands related to stage in ontogeny. When the vertebral bodies initially form as chordacentra, the collagen lamellae of the sheath in the vertebral region are fixed by the deposition of minerals; in the intervertebral region, however, they represent a pre-adaptation providing torsional stability to the intervertebral joint. Hence, these modifications of the sheath transform the notochord per se into a functional vertebral column. The elastica externa, encasing the notochord, has serrated surfaces, connected inward to the type II collagen of the sheath, and outward to type I collagen of the mesenchymal connective tissue surrounding the notochord. In a similar manner, the collagen matrix of the neural and haemal arch cartilages is tightly anchored to the outward surface of the elastic membrane. Hence, the elastic membrane may serve as an interface between the notochord and the adjacent structures, with an essential function related to transmission of tensile forces from the musculature. The interconnection between the notochord and the myosepta is discussed in relation to function and to evolution of the arches and the vertebra. Contrary to current understanding, this study also shows that notochord vacuolization does not result in an increased elongation of the embryo, which agrees with the circular arrangement of type II collagen that probably only enables a restricted increase in girth upon vacuolization, not aiding elongation. As the vacuolization occurs during the egg stage, this type of collagen disposition, in combination with an elastica externa, also probably facilitates flexibility and curling of the embryo. PMID:16928203

Grotmol, Sindre; Kryvi, Harald; Keynes, Roger; Kross?y, Christel; Nordvik, Kari; Totland, Geir K

2006-01-01

259

The Use of Computed Tomography Attenuation to Evaluate Osteoporosis Following Acute Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Background: Relatively few patients have dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to quantify the magnitude of bone loss as they age. Recent work correlates mean computed tomography (CT) attenuation in the level I (L1) vertebra with bone mineral density (BMD), making it possible to objectively evaluate the magnitude of bone loss in osteoporosis by this method. The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of using CT scans in patients with acute thoracic and lumbar spine fractures to diagnose osteoporosis and using CT attenuation to evaluate the association between age and BMD. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with acute fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine who had also undergone an abdominal (or L1) CT scan and compared mean CT attenuation in L1 against threshold values. We also compared differences in CT attenuation between younger (<65 years) and older (?65 years) and older patients. Results: A total of 124 patients were evaluated (74 thoracic and 50 lumbar fractures). Overall, there was a strong correlation between age and bone density as measured by CT attenuation (r = ?.76). Among those with thoracic fractures (<65 years), mean CT attenuation was 196.51 HU. Forty-one patients were ?65 years and had mean CT attenuation of 105.90 HU (P < .001). In patients with lumbar fractures, 27 patients were <65 years and had a mean CT attenuation of 192.26 HU and 23 patients were ?65 years and had mean CT attenuation of 114.31 HU (P < .001). At the threshold of 110 HU, set for specificity, the magnitude of difference between the age-stratified cohorts was greater in the thoracic spine (P < .0001 vs P = .003). Discussion: Using opportunistic CT, we demonstrate the relative frequency of osteoporosis in patients with acute fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine and confirm that the association increases with age. The CT attenuation may provide a cheap and convenient method to help confirm a clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis in patients with fractures.

Cagan, Amanda; Morgan, Robert; Davis, Rick; Asis, Martin; Switzer, Julie; Polly, David W.

2014-01-01

260

Management of fracture-dislocation of the lower cervical spine with the cervical pedicle screw system  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Usually, cervical pedicle screw fixation has been considered too risky for neurovascular structures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the method and efficacy of the cervical pedicle screw system for fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine because of its rigid fixation. PATIENTS AND METHODS A prospective study was conducted involving 48 patients with cervical spine fracture-dislocation who underwent cervical pedicle screw fixation surgery between January 2003 and January 2007. All patients had various degrees of cord injury, and they were classified according to the American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale: 18 cases were grade A, 15 grade B, 10 grade C, and 5 grade D. RESULTS Six months after the operation, all patients had achieved solid bony fusion and stable fixation of the related segments. Thirty patients with incomplete spinal cord injury improved their ASIA Impairment Scale classification by 1 to 2 grades after the operation. Eighteen patients with complete spinal cord injury had no improvement in neural function. However, nerve root symptoms such as pain and numbness were alleviated to some extent. CONCLUSIONS The cervical pedicle screw system is an effective and reliable method for the restoration of cervical stability. Sufficient pre-operative imaging studies of the pedicles and strict screw insertion technique should be emphasised. PMID:20487593

Zhou, Feng; Zou, Jun; Gan, Minfeng; Zhu, Ruofu; Yang, Huilin

2010-01-01

261

Human papillomavirus infection, cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Honduras: a case-control study.  

PubMed

A substantial body of evidence has confirmed human papillomavirus (HPV) infection as the central etiological agent in human cervical carcinogenesis. In Honduras, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women, with a high annual incidence. We conducted a population-based, case-control study of 229 patients with different grades of CIN and invasive cervical cancer and 438 matched controls. A structured questionnaire was used to investigate known and probable risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical scrapes were tested for the presence of different HPV types using a general primer-mediated PCR followed by PCR-based sequencing. HPV DNA was detected in 87% of all cancer in situ and invasive cancer cases, and 95% of invasive cases could be attributed to high-risk types. In control women, 39% were positive for HPV DNA sequences. HPV 16 prevalence ranked highest in all stages of cervical dysplasias, invasive cancers and controls. A statistically significant association with HPV was observed for CIN II, CIN III and invasive cancer, showing an upward trend to more severe lesions and being more pronounced for HPV 16 and related types. The OR for HPV 16- and 18-related invasive cancer cases was 14.88 (95% CI 5.12-43.25) and 74.66 (95% CI 7.77-717.62), respectively. Our results confirm a central role of HPV as the cause of cervical cancer in Honduras and provide information as to the type distribution of HPVs in the country. PMID:10446444

Ferrera, A; Velema, J P; Figueroa, M; Bulnes, R; Toro, L A; Claros, J M; De Barahona, O; Melchers, W J

1999-09-01

262

Cervical thymuses exist, but no cervical thymomas develop in thoracic thymoma-prone BUF rats  

PubMed Central

To confirm the existence of the cervical thymus and the development of cervical thymoma in thymoma-prone BUF/Mna (BUF) rats, we examined cervical organs and adjacent tissues, and thoracic thymic tissues of the three inbred strains, BUF, ACI/NMna (ACI), and WKY/NCrj (WKY), and 11 congenic strains, in which genetic regions of rat nude (Rnu), thymus enlargement-1 and thymus enlargement-2 (Ten1 and Ten2), thymoma susceptibility of rat-1 (Tsr1), atrophy of fast-twitch muscles-1 (Aftm1) and proteinuria of rat-1 (Pur1) were transferred into BUF, ACI or WKY rats. These organs and tissues were fixed en block in 10% formalin and cut coronally into four to six slices of 3-mm thickness, depending on the age of the rat, and embedded together in one block for each rat. Sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Cervical thymuses were detected in 12–21% of rats from these inbred and congenic strains. No cervical thymuses were found in BUF-Rnu/Rnu rats, which were athymic. All of 42 BUF, 2 of 55 BUF-Rnu/+ and 28 of 33 ACI-Tsr1/Tsr1 rats survived more than 52 weeks, and developed thoracic thymoma, but no cervical thymomas did. It is therefore clear that cervical thymuses behave differently from thoracic thymuses in spontaneous thymomagenesis in BUF rats. PMID:21314740

Yamada, Tetsuji; Matsuyama, Mutsushi; Yanagida, Takamasa; Kato, Kazuo; Sugiura, Seiji; Kuroda, Makoto

2011-01-01

263

The Association between Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status and Cervical Cancer Screening Rates and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Monroe County.  

E-print Network

??Background/Significance: More research is needed to determine the association between contextual socioeconomic status (SES), racial/ethnic clustering and cervical cancer screenings and/or cervical precancer rates. If… (more)

Licon, Denisse B.

2013-01-01

264

Isometric cervical extension force and dimensions of semispinalis capitis muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of the human cervical region has a special complexity. Ultrasonography is a scanning technique, which has been successfully used to identify and measure the cervical muscle dimensions. The purpose of this study was to detect with the use of real-time ultrasonography the dimen- sional changes of the human semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) during isometric cervical extension. Six junior

Asghar Rezasoltani; Jari Ylinen; Veikko Vihko

265

Integrating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Cervical Cancer Control Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening with Pap cytology has substantially reduced cervical cancer morbidity and mortality during the last 50 years in high-income countries. Unfortunately, in resource-poor countries, Pap screening has either not been effectively implemented or has failed to reduce cervical cancer rates. Cervical cancer in these countries thus remains a major public health problem. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types is

Eduardo L. Franco; François Coutlée; Alex Ferenczy

2009-01-01

266

Systemic Therapy for Cervical Cancer with Potentially Regulatable Oncolytic Adenoviruses  

E-print Network

Systemic Therapy for Cervical Cancer with Potentially Regulatable Oncolytic Adenoviruses Anna cervical cancer, but the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone was not strong enough to provide significant for Cervical Cancer with Potentially Regulatable Oncolytic Adenoviruses. PLoS ONE 3(8): e2917. doi:10

Hemminki, Akseli

267

SVM Based Feature Screening Applied To Hierarchical Cervical Cancer Detection  

E-print Network

SVM Based Feature Screening Applied To Hierarchical Cervical Cancer Detection £ Jiayong Zhang to cervical cancer detection in multispectral PAP smear images that has been recently proposed by the authors Detection Region Merging Region Detection Cancerous Regions (c) Figure 1: A bottom-up approach to cervical

268

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cervical cancer prevention in reproductive health  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cervical cancer prevention in reproductive health services: knowledge , François Dabis2,3 , Annie J Sasco2,3 and Didier K Ekouevi1,2,3 Abstract Background: Cervical cancer. Part of the solution could come from midwives by integrating cervical cancer prevention

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Spectroscopic Detection of Cervical Pre-Cancer through Radial Basis  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic Detection of Cervical Pre-Cancer through Radial Basis Function Networks Kagan Tumer of Texas at Austin Abstract The mortality related to cervical cancer can be substantially re- duced through statistical algorithms. 1 Introduction Cervical carcinoma is the second most common cancer in women worldwide

Ghosh, Joydeep

270

Cervical Cancer Detection Using SVM Based Feature Screening  

E-print Network

Cervical Cancer Detection Using SVM Based Feature Screening Jiayong Zhang and Yanxi Liu the proposed method to a bottom-up approach for automatic cervical cancer detection in multispectral cervical screening extract morphometric/photometric features at the cellular level in accordance

271

MEETING ABSTRACTS Open Access Challenges in integrating cervical cancer  

E-print Network

MEETING ABSTRACTS Open Access Challenges in integrating cervical cancer screening in HIV care in women. Facing the particularly high burden of cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, preventive measures describe here some of the operational aspects of a cervical cancer screening procedure based on visual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

272

Evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregnancy with colposcopy.  

PubMed

During a 6 1/2 year study period the authors used colposcopy to evaluate 174 pregnant patients with abnormal cervical cytology. The technique of colposcopy proved safe, accurate, and effective in determining the presence or absence of cervical cancer in the present patient's cervix. Colposcopy is mandatory for the evaluation of abnormal cervical cytology during pregancy. PMID:463975

Ostergard, D R; Nieberg, R K

1979-08-01

273

Risk factors for rapid-onset cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The current study was designed to elucidate risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer during the course of routine Papanicolaou smear screening (rapid-onset cervical cancer). Study Design: Four hundred eighty-three women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer, representing 73% of all such tumors diagnosed in Connecticut between 1985 and 1990, were studied. Papanicolaou smear screening and risk factor

Allan Hildesheim; Olympia Hadjimichael; Peter E. Schwartz; Cosette M. Wheeler; Willard Barnes; David M. Lowell; Jerry Willett; Mark Schiffman

1999-01-01

274

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

275

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-10-30

276

Cervical meningocele and associated spinal anomalies.  

PubMed

Simple meningoceles are infrequent forms of dysraphism and are often benign. They have been associated with other spinal anomalies. The uncommon cervical meningocele may have a higher propensity to be associated with other spinal anomalies. Four patients with cervical meningocele are presented with radiographic evaluation and clinical course. Multiple abnormalities were documented radiographically and operatively, including hydrocephalus, Chiari malformation, hydromyelia, lipomeningomyelocele, tethered cord, thickened filum terminale, diastematomyelia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, and thoracic hemivertebrae. Prior to the development of any late neurological abnormality from associated spinal anomalies, magnetic resonance imaging is recommended early in a child born with a simple meningocele. PMID:3652068

Delashaw, J B; Park, T S; Cail, W M; Vollmer, D G

1987-01-01

277

Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

Kaarthigeyan, K.

2012-01-01

278

Contribution of embryology in the understanding of cervical venous system anatomy within and around the transverse foramen: a review of the classical literature.  

PubMed

Anatomic arrangement of venous system within the transverse foramen is a controversial topic among authors. Precise knowledge of this arrangement is necessary in imaging where vertebral artery dissection is suspected, as well as in surgical approaches of cervical spine. This knowledge objective cannot be achieved without a prerequisite knowledge of primitive venous system. We present here an update on the development of the transverse foramen venous system through a literature review. Our review of the classical literature aimed at synthesis of available related embryological knowledge and relating this synthesis to cervical vertebrae anatomy. Our findings with regard to different primitive descriptions were consistent and often complementary across the studies. The description has varied from a single vertebral vein to a single vein divided at certain areas, or even to a confluence of venous plexus. In this manner, the embryonic knowledge for instance on venous system can help us to better understand the segmental development of vertebral veins and their plexus arrangement. Furthermore, the cranial-caudal embryology, in particular of the nervous system, conveys the initial plexiform arrangement of vertebral veins, which ends into a single venous trunk joining the subclavian vein. PMID:24065461

Magro, Elsa; Sénécail, Bernard; Gentric, Jean-Christophe; Alavi, Zarrin; Palombi, Olivier; Seizeur, Romuald

2014-07-01

279

Improving Cervical Cancer Screening in Hospital Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Identifying opportunities to offer cervical cancer screening to underscreened women is important for increasing early detection. Maryland law mandates offering Pap tests during hospital admissions. We examined organizational and physician attitudes and practices regarding inpatient screening, to identify mechanisms for increasing the law's effectiveness.Methods: We analyzed state admission data, a hospital administrators telephone survey, and a mailed survey of

Ann Klassen; Allyson Hall; Janice Bowie; Carol S. Weisman

2000-01-01

280

[Use of xeroradiography in cervical pneumomyelography].  

PubMed

For diagnosing lesions of cervical intervertebral disks, pneumomyelography is carried out in addition to diskography in cases with an indication for surgery. The application of xeroradiography in pneumomyelography is discussed for the first time. In contrast to the conventional X-ray film technique, xeroradiograms yield shraper contours at the gas/tissue interface. PMID:6858465

Gyimóti, G; Kiss, M; Péntek, Z; Csanaky, A

1983-01-01

281

Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

2005-01-01

282

Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25–50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)

Kenji Endo; Katsuji Ichimaru; Mashashi Komagata; Kengo Yamamoto

2006-01-01

283

Cervical Bruits: Clinical Correlates of Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the relationship among characteristics of buits, degree of under lying stenosis, and neurologic symptom complexes, the authors studied 157 patients with bruits undergoing digital subtraction angiography. Symptom status assignment (definite lateralizing, possible lateralizing, vertebrobasilar, diffuse, and asymptomatic) and cervical auscultation for location, duration, and other bruit characteristics were performed independently. Bruit occurrence was asso ciated with stenosis of

Linda Goldman; Richard L. Koller; Steven S. Lebow; Ruth B. Loewenson; David C. Anderson

1991-01-01

284

Osteochondroma of the cervical spine MR findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two cases of osteochondroma in the region of the cervical spine. The magnetic resonance (MR) images well demonstrated the relationship of the tumor, the spinal cord, and adjacent soft tissue, but correct diagnosis by MR imaging was difficult in one patient due to unusual gadolinium enhancement. Computed tomography played an important role in these patients by demonstrating the

Minoru Morikawa; Yuji Numaguchi; Joseph A. Soliman

1995-01-01

285

Management of cervical carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pelvic malignancy complicating pregnancy poses a difficult management problem. Survival of the patient is the foremost concern, but fetal viability and well-being are also factors that have to be addressed in these cases. Cervical cancer is rarely diagnosed during pregnancy, but is still the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in pregnancy. Because of the relative infrequency of this condition, guidelines for

Ram Eitan; Nadeem R Abu-Rustum

2003-01-01

286

Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

2014-01-01

287

Information provision in cervical screening in Australia.  

PubMed

The National Cervical Screening Program and associated state and territory organisations are responsible for promoting cervical screening. Communication via multiple media channels encourages women to be screened. However, some communications are not clear about the risk of cervical cancer and the protective capacity and reliability of the Pap test. The potential harms of screening are rarely presented. Women usually receive Pap tests from general practitioners, who often screen opportunistically during appointments. Screening targets and incentive payments encourage high screening rates. Consent is an important ethical principle in the delivery of all health care. Provision of material information is one of the elements of valid consent. The combination of arguably ambiguous communications, screening participation targets and opportunistic testing under time pressure seems likely to undermine opportunities for women to be informed. Of particular concern are women who are less likely to benefit, those who are more likely to experience harm, and some groups of disadvantaged women. Improved communications could include providing patients with information on the absolute risk of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs internationally have begun providing such information. Areas for further research include the appropriate roles of the programs, screeners and individuals in providing and seeking information. Such work would identify the optimum method for informing women in the screening process. PMID:25163384

Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

2014-09-01

288

Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2012-06-08

289

FTS (fused toes homolog) a novel oncoprotein involved in uterine cervical carcinogenesis and a potential diagnostic marker for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The high incidence and fatality rate of uterine cervical cancer warrant effective diagnostic and therapeutic target identification for this disease. Here, we have found a novel oncoprotein FTS (Fused Toes Homolog), which is involved in cervical cancer pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical analysis of human cervical biopsy samples revealed that the expression of FTS is absent in normal cervical epithelium but progressively overexpressed in human cervical intraneoplastic lesions (CIN-I to CIN-III), this characteristic phenomenon put this protein, a potential diagnostic marker for the screening of early neoplastic changes of cervix. Using FTS-specific small hairpin RNA (shRNA) in cervical cancer cells, we determined a specific role for FTS protein in, cervical neoplasia. Targeted stable knock down of FTS in HeLa cells led to the growth inhibition, cell-cycle arrest, and apoptosis with concurrent increase in p21 protein. FTS effectively represses the p21 mRNA expression in dual luciferase assay which indicates that p21 is transcriptionally regulated by this oncoprotein which in turn affect the regular cell-cycle process and its components. Consistent with this we found a reciprocal association between these proteins in early cervical neoplastic tissues. These data unraveled the involvement of new oncoprotein FTS in cervical cancer which plays a central role in carcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of FTS lead to the shutdown of key elemental characteristics of cervical cancer and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy for cervical cancer. PMID:20945372

Cinghu, Senthilkumar; Anandharaj, Arunkumar; Lee, Ho-chang; Yu, Jae-Ran; Park, Woo-Yoon

2011-06-01

290

Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?  

PubMed

Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

Aggarwal, Pakhee

2014-10-10

291

Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol’s iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

Aggarwal, Pakhee

2014-01-01

292

Nuclear expression of Rac1 in cervical premalignant lesions and cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background Abnormal expression of Rho-GTPases has been reported in several human cancers. However, the expression of these proteins in cervical cancer has been poorly investigated. In this study we analyzed the expression of the GTPases Rac1, RhoA, Cdc42, and the Rho-GEFs, Tiam1 and beta-Pix, in cervical pre-malignant lesions and cervical cancer cell lines. Methods Protein expression was analyzed by immunochemistry on 102 cervical paraffin-embedded biopsies: 20 without Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (SIL), 51 Low- grade SIL, and 31 High-grade SIL; and in cervical cancer cell lines C33A and SiHa, and non-tumorigenic HaCat cells. Nuclear localization of Rac1 in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells was assessed by cellular fractionation and Western blotting, in the presence or not of a chemical Rac1 inhibitor (NSC23766). Results Immunoreacivity for Rac1, RhoA, Tiam1 and beta-Pix was stronger in L-SIL and H-SIL, compared to samples without SIL, and it was significantly associated with the histological diagnosis. Nuclear expression of Rac1 was observed in 52.9% L-SIL and 48.4% H-SIL, but not in samples without SIL. Rac1 was found in the nucleus of C33A and SiHa cells but not in HaCat cells. Chemical inhibition of Rac1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation in HaCat, C33A and SiHa cells. Conclusion Rac1 is expressed in the nucleus of epithelial cells in SILs and cervical cancer cell lines, and chemical inhibition of Rac1 reduces cellular proliferation. Further studies are needed to better understand the role of Rho-GTPases in cervical cancer progression. PMID:22443139

2012-01-01

293

CD83 Polymorphisms and Cervical Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

Objectives Studies have suggested that polymorphisms in genes involved in immune recognition and antigen presentation are associated with cervical cancer risk. We sought to replicate a recent study which reported an association between specific SNPs on CD83 and cervical cancer and to further explore whether effects varied by age, clinical stage (in situ versus invasive), and histology (squamous carcinomas versus adenocarcinomas). Methods We evaluated the association between SNPs on CD83 and cervical cancer in a multicenter case-control study of cervical cancer conducted in the Eastern United States (263 cases, 307 controls), focusing on the five SNPs (RS9296925, RS853360, RS9230, RS9370729, RS750749) previously found to be associated with cervical cancer. We also pooled data from the Eastern U.S. (263 cases) with those from the original report (377 cases) to assess the effects of CD83 on the age at diagnosis, disease stage, and histology. Risk estimates (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression; trend tests were performed under an additive model. Results Consistent with the original report, carriers of the CT or CC genotypes for one of the five CD83 SNPs evaluated (rs750749) demonstrated a 30% and 50% reduction in disease risk, relative to carriers of the more common TT genotype (p-trend = 0.02). Two additional SNPs also resulted in consistent findings (rs9296925: p-trend = 0.07 and rs9370729: p-trend = 0.08), although the effects observed did not reach statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Pooled evaluation of cases from the two aforementioned studies suggested differences in the distribution of susceptibility alleles by histology; adenocarcinoma cases were more likely to be carriers of the susceptibility alleles for SNP rs9370729 (p-trend = 0.02) and SNP rs750749 (p-trend = 0.09). No differences were observed in the age or stage of diagnosis of carriers for CD83 susceptibility alleles relative to non-carriers. Conclusions We confirm an association between CD83 polymorphisms and cervical cancer and suggest the possibility that CD83-disease associations might be heterogenous by tumor histology. PMID:19446866

Yu, Kelly J.; Rader, Janet S.; Borecki, Ingrid; Zhang, Zhengyan; Hildesheim, Allan

2009-01-01

294

DNA probes for papillomavirus strains readied for cervical cancer screening  

SciTech Connect

New Papillomavirus tests are ready to come to the aid of the standard Papanicolauo test in screening for cervical cancer. The new tests, which detect the strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) most commonly associated with human cervical cancer, are designed to be used as an adjunct to rather than as a replacement for the Papanicolaou smears. Their developers say that they can be used to indicated a risk of developing cancer in women whose Papanicolaou smears indicate mild cervical dysplasia, and, eventually, to detect papillomavirus infection in normal Papanicolaou smears. The rationale for HPV testing is derived from a growing body of evidence that HPV is a major factor in the etiology of cervical cancer. Three HPV tests were described recently in Chicago at the Third International Conference on Human Papillomavirus and Squamous Cervical Cancer. Each relies on DNA probes to detect the presence of papillomavirus in cervical cells and/or to distinguish the strain of papillomavirus present.

Merz, B.

1988-11-18

295

Management of cervical thorium dioxide granulomas.  

PubMed

Thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) was used extensively in the United States from the 1930s through the 1950s for contrast radiography, including cerebral angiography. Its use was discontinued after the pathologic consequences of tumor formation and local fibrotic reaction (thorium dioxide granuloma) were recognized. The latency period for the development of these consequences is 20 to 30 years and, thus, has not expired. Radical surgical excision in an attempt to remove cervical thorium dioxide granulomas and their ionizing radiation has been advocated previously. A case prompted reconsideration of this management. Total surgical removal does not seem possible and is extremely hazardous in those cases with a patent carotid artery adjacent to the cervical granuloma. More cases should be expected, and each case should be approached individually as to benefits and risks of attempted surgical removal of the granuloma. Radical surgery is not always the treatment of choice. PMID:7283829

Stanley, R B; Calcaterra, T C

1981-10-01

296

Cervical thymic cyst in an adult.  

PubMed

Cervical thymic cysts (CTCs) are unusual lesions, representing only 1% of cystic cervical masses. Diagnosis of this condition in adults is even rarer. We report a 34-year-old female who presented with asymptomatic progressively growing left-sided neck swelling. Neck ultrasound (US) showed a large cystic lesion with septation, compressing the ipsilateral vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the US findings. Surgical excision was performed which subsequently showed findings consistent with CTC. CTC in adult is extremely rare, with few reported cases identified in the literature. Thymic gland anomalies in the neck are the consequences of an arrest in the descent of the gland, sequestration of the thymic tissue, or failure of involution. The diagnosis of this condition is rarely done prior to surgical excision. The clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, surgical findings, and histologic appearance are all essential components to make the correct diagnosis of this very rare differential diagnosis of cystic lateral neck swelling. PMID:24876986

Alzahrani, Hassan A; Iqbal, Javeria M; Abu Shaheen, Amani K; Al Harthi, Bandar N

2014-01-01

297

Cervical Thymic Cyst in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Cervical thymic cysts (CTCs) are unusual lesions, representing only 1% of cystic cervical masses. Diagnosis of this condition in adults is even rarer. We report a 34-year-old female who presented with asymptomatic progressively growing left-sided neck swelling. Neck ultrasound (US) showed a large cystic lesion with septation, compressing the ipsilateral vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the US findings. Surgical excision was performed which subsequently showed findings consistent with CTC. CTC in adult is extremely rare, with few reported cases identified in the literature. Thymic gland anomalies in the neck are the consequences of an arrest in the descent of the gland, sequestration of the thymic tissue, or failure of involution. The diagnosis of this condition is rarely done prior to surgical excision. The clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, surgical findings, and histologic appearance are all essential components to make the correct diagnosis of this very rare differential diagnosis of cystic lateral neck swelling. PMID:24876986

Alzahrani, Hassan A.; Iqbal, Javeria M.; Abu Shaheen, Amani K.; Al Harthi, Bandar N.

2014-01-01

298

Convergence of cervical and trigeminal sensory afferents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cranial nociceptive perception shows a distinct topographic distribution, with the trigeminal nerve receiving sensory information\\u000a from the anterior portions of the head, the greater occipital nerve, and branches of the upper cervical roots in the posterior\\u000a regions. However, this distribution is not respected during headache attacks, even if the etiology of the headache is specific\\u000a for only one nerve. Nociceptive

Elcio J. Piovesan; Pedro A. Kowacs; Michael L. Oshinsky

2003-01-01

299

Surgical treatment of cervical spinal cord tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To explore operative methods for cervical spinal cord tumors. Methods: According to their different sites and histopathological types, 71 cases (intramedullary: 23 cases; and extramedullary: 48 cases) were surgically treated with different approaches and methods. Results: Tumors were totally removed in 16 of 23 (69.6%) intramedullary cases and 44 of 48 (91.7%) extramedullary cases. Eighteen of twenty-three intramedullary cases

Shengde Bao; K Tan; Y. F Zhang; W. Y Huo; J. Y Zhang

2004-01-01

300

75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

2010-02-18

301

76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

2011-05-26

302

77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

2012-11-05

303

Spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection following cervical manipulation.  

PubMed

We report an autopsy case of a bilateral carotid artery dissection, following cervical manipulation by a chiropractor. To establish the etiology of a cervical artery dissection is important in view of possible legal implications and to exclude hereditary disorders, since cervical artery dissection has been linked to several arteriopathies. The underlying arteriopathy in the presented case was an idiopathic cystic medial degeneration. This report emphasizes the role of the pathologist in defining the underlying arteriopathy in carotid artery dissection. PMID:22633562

Carprieaux, Marilyn; Michotte, Alex; Van Varenbergh, Dirk; Marichal, Miriam Pipeleers

2012-09-01

304

Risk factors for invasive cervical cancer in Latino women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most invasive cervical cancer research in the United States has been conducted on non-Latino-White (NLW) and African-American women. Incidence, mortality, stage at diagnosis and survival indicators for invasive cervical cancer in Latino women in California are compared to NLW and African-American women. A model is presented which depicts structural, behavioral, genetic and biological risk factors for invasive cervical cancer. A

Anna Nápoles-Springer; Eugene Washington

1996-01-01

305

PIK3CA as an oncogene in cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification of chromosome arm 3q is the most consistent aberration in cervical cancer, and is implicated in the progression of dysplastic uterine cervical cells into invasive cancer. The present study employed the ‘positional candidate gene’ strategy to determine the contribution of PIK3CA, which is located in 3q26.3, in cervical tumorigenesis. PIK3CA is known to be involved in the PI 3-kinase\\/AKT

Yen-Ying Ma; Sung-Jen Wei; Yu-Chen Lin; Jia-Chyi Lung; Ting-Chang Chang; Jacqueline Whang-Peng; Jacqueline M Liu; Deng-Mei Yang; Wen K Yang; Chen-Yang Shen

2000-01-01

306

Evaluation of FDG PET in Patients with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many human cancers can be imaged by 2-(18F)-fluoro- 2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and PET,there is little clinical experi ence with FDG PET in cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of FDG PET scans on patients with cervical cancer. Methods: FDG PET scans were performed on 21 patients with histologically proven uterine cervical cancer (17 newly

Yoshifumi Sugawara; Avraham Eisbruch; Shigeru Kosuda; Betty E. Recker; Paul V. Kison; Richard L. Wahl

307

Histopathology of cervical precursor lesions and cancer.  

PubMed

The most frequent types of cervical cancer are squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, which develop from the distinctive precursor lesions cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) / squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), respectively. Their tumorigenesis is HPV-related. High-risk HPV (e.g., types 16 and 18) is integrated into the genome and leads to tumor progression. Cytological screening leads to detection of precursors and their mimics. P16 and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry assists in the histological differential diagnosis of precursors to reactive and metaplastic epithelium. For invasive cervical carcinoma, stage is the strongest prognostic factor. Per definition, microinvasive (pT1a1 / pT1a2) carcinoma is diagnosed histologically on cone biopsies and treated less radically. The distinction between adenocarcinomas of the cervix and endometrial adenocarcinomas is important and can be supported by immunohistochemistry (e.g., ER, p16, CEA, and vimentin) and HPV in-situ hybridization. The rarer adenoid-basal and neuroendocrine carcinomas are less frequently HPV-related. PMID:22131112

Lax, Sigurd

2011-09-01

308

Cervical cancer screening among vulnerable women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To see if refugee women at a community health centre (CHC) in Toronto, Ont, are appropriately screened for cervical cancer and if there are any demographic characteristics that affect whether they are screened. Design Chart review. Setting A CHC in downtown Toronto. Participants A total of 357 eligible refugee women attending the CHC. Main outcome measures Papanicolaou test received or documented reason for no Pap test. Results Ninety-two percent of women in the study sample were either appropriately screened for cervical cancer or had been approached for screening. Eighty percent of women were appropriately screened. Demographic variables including pregnancy, being uninsured, not speaking English, recent migration to Canada, and being a visible minority did not affect receipt of a Pap test after migration in multivariate analyses. Not speaking English was associated with a delay to receiving a first Pap test after migration. Conclusion The clients at our centre are demographically similar to women who are typically overlooked for Pap tests in the greater Toronto area. Despite belonging to a high-risk population, refugee women in this multidisciplinary CHC were screened for cervical cancer at a higher rate than the local population. PMID:22972744

Wiedmeyer, Mei-ling; Lofters, Aisha; Rashid, Meb

2012-01-01

309

Giant cervical lipoma excision under cervical epidural anesthesia: A viable alternative to general anesthesia  

PubMed Central

The technique of Cervical Epidural Anesthesia (CEA) was first described by Dogliotti in 1933 for upper thoracic procedures. Administration of local anesthetic into cervical epidural space results in anesthesia of the neck, upper extremity, and upper thoracic region. CEA provides high-quality analgesia and anesthesia of above dermatomes and, at the same time, it has favorable effect on hemodynamic variable by blocking sympathetic innervation of the heart. CEA is not practiced routinely because of its potential complications. We selected this technique of CEA for excision of giant cervical lipoma on the back of the neck in an adult patient, as the patient was unwilling for general anesthesia. CEA was induced with 10 ml of 1% lignocaine-adrenaline mixture administered into C7-T1 space through 18G Tuohy needle. Our patient maintained vital parameters throught the procedure. The added advantage of epidural anesthesia was that the patient was awake and comfortable throughout the procedure.

Singh, Ram Pal; Shukla, Aparna; Verma, Satyajeet

2011-01-01

310

Gankyrin Is Frequently Overexpressed in Cervical High Grade Disease and Is Associated with Cervical Carcinogenesis and Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have showed that Gankyrin expression is correlated with a malignant phenotype in endometrial carcinoma. Here, we investigated the possible role of Gankyrin in cervical disease. The increasing protein level of Gankyrin was observed in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma compared with benign cervical tissues and low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In para-carcinoma tissues, it was found interestingly that there was no lymph node metastasis when nuclei Gankyrin was positively expressed, but lymph node metastasis rate was 30% (6/20) when nuclei Gankyrin was negatively expressed. In vitro, the transfection of Gankyrin resulted in markedly up-regulating of Vimentin, ?-catenin and Twist2, as well as down-regulating of E-cadherin in cervical carcinoma cells. Our results suggested that Gankyrin may be functional in cervical carcinogenesis and metastasis. PMID:24751719

Qian, Wenyan; Dong, Yu; Yang, Yongbin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Youji; Ma, Ding; Zhang, Zhenbo; Wu, Sufang

2014-01-01

311

Development and validation of a procedure to isolate viable bone marrow cells from the vertebrae of cadaveric organ donors for composite organ grafting  

PubMed Central

Background aims Donor-derived vertebral bone marrow (BM) has been proposed to promote chimerism in solid organ transplantation with cadaveric organs. Reports of successful weaning from immunosuppression in patients receiving directed donor transplants in combination with donor BM or blood cells and novel peri-transplant immunosuppression has renewed interest in implementing similar protocols with cadaveric organs. Methods We performed six pre-clinical full-scale separations to adapt vertebral BM preparations to a good manufacturing practice (GMP) environment. Vertebral bodies L4–T8 were transported to a class 10 000 clean room, cleaned of soft tissue, divided and crushed in a prototype bone grinder. Bone fragments were irrigated with medium containing saline, albumin, DNAse and gentamicin, and strained through stainless steel sieves. Additional cells were eluted after two rounds of agitation using a prototype BM tumbler. Results The majority of recovered cells (70.9 ± 14.1%, mean ± SD) were eluted directly from the crushed bone, whereas 22.3% and 5.9% were eluted after the first and second rounds of tumbling, respectively. Cells were pooled and filtered (500, 200 ?m) using a BM collection kit. Larger lumbar vertebrae yielded about 1.6 times the cells of thoracic vertebrae. The average product yielded 5.2 ± 1.2×1010 total cells, 6.2 ± 2.2×108 of which were CD45+ CD34+. Viability was 96.6 ± 1.9% and 99.1 ± 0.8%, respectively. Multicolor flow cytometry revealed distinct populations of CD34+ CD90+ CD117 dim hematopoietic stem cells (15.5 ± 7.5% of the CD34 + cells) and CD45? CD73+ CD105+ mesenchymal stromal cells (0.04 ± 0.04% of the total cells). Conclusions This procedure can be used to prepare clinical-grade cells suitable for use in human allotransplantation in a GMP environment. PMID:21905958

GORANTLA, VIJAY S.; SCHNEEBERGER, STEFAN; MOORE, LINDA R.; DONNENBERG, VERA S.; ZIMMERLIN, LUDOVIC; ANDREW LEE, W. P.; DONNENBERG, ALBERT D.

2014-01-01

312

Cervical cancer risk levels in Turkey and compliance to the national cervical cancer screening standard.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer screening with Pap smear test is a cost-effective method. The Ministry of Health in Turkey recommends that it be performed once every five years after age 35. The purpose of this study was to determine the cervical cancer risk levels of women between 35 and 69, and the intervals they have the Pap smear test, and to investigate the relation between the two. This study was performed on 227 women aged between 35 and 69 living in Balçova District of ?zmir province. Using the cervical cancer risk index program of Harvard School of Public Health, the cervical cancer risk level of 70% of the women was found below average, 22.1% average, and 7.9% above average. Only 52% of the women have had Pap smear test at least once in their lives. The percentage screening regularly in conformity with the national screening standard was 39.2%. Women in the 40-49 age group, were married, conformed significantly more (p<0.05) to the national screening standard. Compliance also increased with the level of education and decreased with the cervical cancer risk level (p<0.05). A logistic regression model was constructed including age, education level, menstruation state of the women and the economic level of the family. Not having the Pap smear test in conformity with the national cervical cancer screening standard in 35-39 age group was 2.52 times more than 40-49 age group, while it was 3.26 times more in 60-69 age group (p< 0.05). Not having Pap smear test in 35-39 age group more than other groups might result from lack of information on the cervical cancer national screening standard and the necessity of having Pap smear test. As for 60-69 age group, the low education level might cause not having Pap smear test. Under these circumstances, the cervical cancer risk levels should be determined and the individuals should be informed. Providing Pap smear test screening service to individuals in the target group of national screening standard, as a public service may resolve the inequalities due to age and educational differences. PMID:21790227

Açikgöz, Ayla; Ergör, Gül

2011-01-01

313

Detection of Human Papillomavirus in Chronic Cervicitis, Cervical Adenocarcinoma, Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Squamus Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Recent studies show that human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA is present in all cervical carcinomas and in some cervicitis cases, with some geographical variation in viral subtypes. Therefore determination of the presence of HPV in the general population of each region can help reveal the role of these viruses in tumors. Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of infection with HPV in cervicitis, cervical adenocarcinoma, intraepithelial neoplasia and squamus cell carcinoma samples from the Isfahan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty two formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of crevicitis cases and different cervix tumors including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (I, II, III), squamus cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma were collected from histopathological files of Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan. Data about histopathological changes were collected by reexamination of the hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. DNA was extracted and subjected to Nested PCR using consensus primers, MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+, designed for amplification of a conserved region of the genome coding for L1 protein. Results: In total 74.5% of the tested samples were positive for HPV. Amongst the tested tumors 8 out of 20 (40%) of CIN (I, II, III), 5 out of 21 (23.8%) of adenocarcinoma cases and 78 out of 79 chronic cervicitis cases were positive for HPV. Conclusions: The rate of different carcinomas and also the rate of HPV infection in each case were lower than other reports from different countries. This could be correlated with the social behavior of women in the area, where they mostly have only one partner throughout their life, and also the rate of smoking behavior of women in the studied population. On the other hand the rate of HPV infection in chronic cervicitis cases was much higher than cases reported by previous studies. This necessitates more attention to the role of human papillomaviruses in the their induction in the studied area. PMID:25147721

Mirzaie-Kashani, Elahe; Bouzari, Majid; Talebi, Ardeshir; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

2014-01-01

314

Functional Analysis of Bladder Cancer-Related Protein Gene: A Putative Cervical Cancer Tumor Suppressor Gene in Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our previous study has suggested thatthe bladder cancer-associated protein gene (BLCAP) was among the differentially expressed genes in cervical cancer. We confirm here that BLCAP is expressed in all noncancerous cervical tissues (10\\/10), but it is greatly lost in primary cervical cancer tissue (31\\/39). In order to further investigate the functional roles of BLCAP, we stably transfected BLCAP cDNA into

Zehua Zuo; Min Zhao; Juan Liu; Guifang Gao; Xinxing Wu

2006-01-01

315

The Pre and Postoperative Value of Endocervical Curettage in the Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Invasive Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.The study was conducted to evaluate the pre- and postoperative value of endocervical curettage (ECC) in the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer.Methods.Patients undergoing cervical conization were studied retrospectively to evaluate the correlation of grade of preoperative endocervical curettage and the grade of dysplasia in the conization specimen. The role of routine preoperative ECC in satisfactory and

Bruce A. Fine; Glen I. Feinstein; Vincenzo Sabella

1998-01-01

316

Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

2014-05-01

317

Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate in screening and to suggest ways that information about screening and HPV might reach a wider Greenlandic population. Conclusion Women living through the process of cervical disease, treatment and follow-up develop knowledge about HPV, cervical cell changes, cervical disease and their connection, which, if used to inform cervical screening programmes, will improve the quality of information about HPV, cervical cancer and screening participation. This includes that verbal and written information given at the point of screening and diagnosis needs to be complemented by visual imagery. PMID:23984277

Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; M?ller, Helle; Bradley, Stephen K.; M?ller, Suzanne

2013-01-01

318

Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; K?dzia, W.; K?dzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczy?ski, M.

2011-12-01

319

A panel of regulated proteins in serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

We developed a discovery-validation mass-spectrometry-based pipeline to identify a set of proteins that are regulated in serum of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and squamous cell cervical cancer using iTRAQ, label-free shotgun, and targeted mass-spectrometric quantification. In the discovery stage we used a "pooling" strategy for the comparative analysis of immunodepleted serum and revealed 15 up- and 26 down-regulated proteins in patients with early- (CES) and late-stage (CLS) cervical cancer. The analysis of nondepleted serum samples from patients with CIN, CES, an CLS and healthy controls showed significant changes in abundance of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein. We validated our findings using a fast UHPLC/MRM method in an independent set of serum samples from patients with cervical cancer or CIN and healthy controls as well as serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer (more than 400 samples in total). The panel of six proteins showed 67% sensitivity and 88% specificity for discrimination of patients with CIN from healthy controls, a stage of the disease where current protein-based biomarkers, for example, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), fail to show any discrimination. Additionally, combining the six-protein panel with SCCA improves the discrimination of patients with CES and CLS from healthy controls. PMID:25232869

Boichenko, Alexander P; Govorukhina, Natalia; Klip, Harry G; van der Zee, A G J; Güzel, Co?kun; Luider, Theo M; Bischoff, Rainer

2014-11-01

320

Anterior cervical arachnoid cyst presenting with traumatic quadriplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Intradural spinal arachnoid cysts are rare. Rarer still are cysts located anterior to the cervical spinal cord. To date, only 10 such cases have been reported in the English-language literature. Case report Two cases of anterior cervical arachnoid cysts that presented as traumatic quadriplegia are reported.

Natarajan Muthukumar

2004-01-01

321

Congenital Cervical Stenosis Presenting as Transient Quadriplegia in Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cases of two patients in whom com- plete but transient quadriplegia developed after an in- jury that was incurred while playing football are presented. Both patients were found to have a congen- itally narrow cervical vertebral canal. Critical stenosis resulting in the transient quadriplegia occurred after a presumed injury to a cervical disc. In our opinion, a myelogram should

AMY L. LADD; PIERCE E. SCRANTON

1986-01-01

322

Cervical myelo-radiculopathy in athetoid cerebral palsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical myelopathy complicating athetoid cerebral palsy has not been adequately highlighted in the literature. We report two cases of patients with athetoid cerebral palsy and long histories of involuntary movements who developed cervical myelo-radiculopathy. Dystonic athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result

Y. Mikawa; R. Watanabe; J. Shikata

1997-01-01

323

The disparity of cervical cancer in diverse populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates among minority groups have been documented in the United States, despite an overall decline in these rates for the population as a whole. Differences in cervical cancer screening practices have been suggested as an explanation for these disparities, as have differences in treatment among various racial and ethnic groups. A number

Levi S. Downs; Jennifer S. Smith; Isabel Scarinci; Lisa Flowers; Groesbeck Parham

2008-01-01

324

Colposcopic assessment of the accuracy of cervical cytology screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred asymptomatic women in a general practice were screened both cytologically and colposcopically for evidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The prevalence detected by cytology alone was 5%, but the prevalence detected by cytology and colposcopy together was 11%. None of the larger lesions of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (affecting more than two quadrants of the cervix) was associated with negative

John A Giles; Elizabeth Hudson; Julie Crow; Denis Williams; Patrick Walker

1988-01-01

325

Human Papillomavirus 45 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-positive cervical samples from 36 countries. A total of 43 HPV45 sequence variants were identified that formed 5 phylogenetic sublineages, A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2, the distribution of which varied by geographical region. Among 192 cases of cervical cancer and 101 controls, the B2 sublineage was significantly overrepresented in cervical cancer, both overall and in Africa and Europe separately. We show that the sequence analysis of E6 and E7 allows the classification of HPV45 variants and that the risk of cervical cancer may differ by HPV45 variant sublineage. IMPORTANCE This work describes the largest study to date of human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45)-positive cervical samples and provides a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification for use in epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of HPV45 genetic variants, particularly as our findings suggest that the B2 sublineage of HPV45 is associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer. PMID:24501412

Chen, Alyce A.; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Boon, Debby; Gheit, Tarik; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia

2014-01-01

326

Tratamiento quirúrgico mediante histerectomía de un embarazo ectópico cervical  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical pregnancies are a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. Diagnosis is established by ultrasound, biochemical findings and histopathology. We report the case of a patient with hemorrhage, requiring hysterectomy to control the bleeding.Early identification of a cervical ectopic pregnancy can help to prevent significant morbidity and mortality in patients seeking emergency care.

G. Bueno; E. Martínez-Gómez; A. Pascual; R. Martínez-Cabañero; C. García-Garrido; A. Tello; G. González de Merlo

2008-01-01

327

Experimental Cervical Cancer Vaccine Looks Promising in Trial  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Experimental Cervical Cancer Vaccine Looks Promising in Trial Research suggests the ... Preidt Wednesday, October 1, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cervical Cancer HPV WEDNESDAY, Oct. 1, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- An ...

328

Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. We investigated the validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection after radioactive isotope and\\/or blue dye injection in patients with cervical cancer.Patients and methods. Between December 1998 and May 2000, 50 patients (mean age 44 years) with cervical cancer FIGO stage I (n = 32), stage II (n = 16), or stage IV (n = 2) underwent SLN detection

Sabine Malur; Norman Krause; Christhardt Köhler; Achim Schneider

2001-01-01

329

Cervical Subluxation after Surgery and Irradiation of Childhood Ependymoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggressive resection followed by postoperative radiation therapy directed at the tumor bed characterizes the treatment of childhood infratentorial ependymoma. Tumor resection often requires access to the upper portion of the cervical spinal canal, which places the patient at risk of complications, including destabilization. Two cases of cervical subluxation after surgery and irradiation for infratentorial ependymoma are presented and discussed to

Daniel T. Fletcher; William C. Warner; Michael S. Muhlbauer; Thomas E. Merchant

2002-01-01

330

Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

2012-01-01

331

Retrograde pyramidal tract degeneration in a patient with cervical haematomyelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrograde pyramidal tract degeneration has been described only very rarely in the human central nervous system. In most of these cases the thoracic or cervical corticospinal tracts were shown to have degenerated following long-standing, lower spinal cord lesions. In a 67 year old man, who lived 2 years following the rupture of a mid-cervical cavernous angioma, we observed such degeneration

T Yamamoto; M Yamasaki; T Imai

1989-01-01

332

Virus Isolation and Identification in Cervical Cancer Patients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

7 strains of viruses were isolated from cervical specimens of cervical cancer patients. The viral isolates were herpes simplex viruses according to the morphologic, biologic as well as serologic characteristics. 5 of the 7 strains were typed and 3 were he...

J. Xiang, J. Feng, P. Huang, W. Chen, J. Wu

1982-01-01

333

The role of human papillomavirus in cervical adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the single most important co-factor in the development of cervical squamous cell carcinomas. Adenocarcinomas of the cervix are also related to HPV, but the correlation is reported to be less pronounced. In the present study, 131 cervical adenocarcinomas were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry, examined morphologically and then analysed with sensitive polymerase chain reaction

S Andersson; E Rylander; B Larsson; A Strand; C Silfversvärd; E Wilander

2001-01-01

334

Treatment of cervical necrotizing fasciitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has significantly improved the management of necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities and trunk. Its role in cervical necrotizing fasciitis has not been fully evaluated. Historically, necrotizing fasciitis has been associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This report discusses our experience with cervical necrotizing fasciitis in six patients treated from 1986 to 1993 who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

F. P. JOHNS LANGFORD; RICHARD E. MOON; BRYANT W. STOLP; RICHARD L. SCHER

1995-01-01

335

Epidemiologic Classification of Human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the risk associated with the various HPV types has not been adequately assessed. methods We pooled data from 11 case-control studies from nine countries involving 1918 wom- en with histologically confirmed squamous-cell cervical cancer and 1928 control wom- en. A common protocol and questionnaire were

Nubia Muñoz; F. Xavier Bosch; Silvia de Sanjosé; Rolando Herrero; Xavier Castellsagué; Keerti V. Shah; Peter J. F. Snijders; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

2003-01-01

336

Cervical vertigo and dizziness after whiplash injury.  

PubMed

Whiplash injury is not only limited to neck injury but also brainstem injury that does not involve direct damage to the neck or head. The symptoms of whiplash injury are polymorphous, with the most common complaints being cervical pain, headache and scapulodynia. Vertigo and dizziness are also reported in 25-50% of the cases. In otoneurologic studies, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for the evaluation of vertebrobasilar hemodynamics in patients who complain of dizziness and vertigo. It is reported that vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency (VBI) leads to brainstem and cerebellar ischemia and infarction following cervical manipulation. Here we examined the correlation between vertigo or dizziness and the right and left side difference in vertebral arteries after whiplash injury using MRA. We studied 20 patients who complained of neck pain with vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury and 13 healthy volunteers as a control. In the control group, abnormal MRA findings in the vertebral arteries such as occlusion, stenosis or slow blood flow were seen in 77% of the cases. In the patient group, abnormal MRA findings were seen in 60%. The side difference in blood flow was 3.5+/-2.5 cm/s in the control group and 6.1+/-3.0 cm/s in the patient group. Our findings suggest that some subjects with persistent vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury are more likely to have VBI on MRA. VBI might be an important background factor to evoke cervical vertigo or dizziness after whiplash injury. The side difference between the two vertebral arteries could cause a circulation disorder in the vertebrobasilar system after whiplash injury. However, the VBI on MRA itself was also seen in the control group, and thus it is not clear whether it is due to whiplash injury in the patient group. PMID:16432749

Endo, Kenji; Ichimaru, Katsuji; Komagata, Mashashi; Yamamoto, Kengo

2006-06-01

337

Is cervical decompression beneficial in patients with coexistent cervical stenosis and multiple sclerosis?  

PubMed

Cervical stenosis (CS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) are two common conditions with distinctive pathophysiology but overlapping clinical manifestations. The uncertainty involved in attributing worsening symptoms to CS in patients with MS due to extremely high prevalence of asymptomatic radiological CS makes treatment decisions challenging. A retrospective review was performed analyzing the medical records of all patients with confirmed diagnosis of MS who had coexistent CS and underwent surgery for cervical radiculopathy/myeloradiculopathy. Eighteen patients with coexistent CS and MS who had undergone cervical spine decompression and fusion were identified. There were six men and 12 women with an average age of 52.7years (range 40-72years). Pre-operative symptoms included progressive myelopathy (14 patients), neck pain (seven patients), radiculopathy (five patients), and bladder dysfunction (seven patients). Thirteen of the 14 patients (92.9%) with myelopathy showed either improvement (4/14, 28.6%) or stabilization (9/14, 64.3%) in their symptoms with neck pain and radiculopathy improving in 100% and 80% of patients, respectively. None of the seven patients with urinary dysfunction had improvement in urinary symptoms after surgery. To conclude, cervical spine decompression and fusion can improve or stabilize myelopathy, and significantly relieve neck pain and radiculopathy in the majority of patients with coexistent CS and MS. Urinary dysfunctions appear unlikely to improve after surgery. The low rate of surgical complications in our cohort demonstrates that cervical spine surgery can be safely performed in carefully selected patients with concomitant CS and MS with a good clinical outcome and also eliminate CS as a confounding factor in the long-term management of MS patients. PMID:25088960

Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Muth, Christopher C; Stefoski, Dusan; Traynelis, Vincent C

2014-12-01

338

Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

2014-01-01

339

Cervical elongation following sacrospinous hysteropexy: a case series.  

PubMed

In recent years, pelvic floor surgeons have increasingly repaired pelvic organ prolapse around an intact uterus. Uterine conservation and hysteropexy have been driven by patient preference, less risk of mesh erosion, shorter operative time, and decreased blood loss and postoperative pain. We present a case series of patients with cervical elongation after vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy using polypropylene mesh arms, a novel technique developed by the senior author. We defined cervical elongation as greater than or equal to a two-fold increase in cervical length compared with preoperative measurements. Of the 8 patients who underwent this procedure, 5 (62.5 %) had cervical elongation during the first year postoperatively. In the most severe case, the cervix extended to 4 cm beyond the hymenal ring. Most of the patients were mildly symptomatic and chose expectant management. The cases are reviewed in detail. A brief literature review on cervical elongation is presented. PMID:24297063

Hyakutake, Momoe Tina; Cundiff, Geoffrey William; Geoffrion, Roxana

2014-06-01

340

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-01-01

341

Vertebral subluxation following ventral cervical decompression in the dog.  

PubMed

Cervical intervertebral disk disease is commonly treated surgically by ventral decompression through a ventral slot. Nine dogs with documented vertebral subluxation following surgical creation of a ventral slot are reported. The location of the subluxation was at the fourth cervical (C4) to fifth cervical (C5) intervertebral space in two dogs, C5 to sixth cervical (C6) intervertebral space in four dogs, and C6 to seventh cervical (C7) intervertebral space in three dogs. The ventral slot width to vertebral body width ratio ranged from 0.39 to 0.80, with the ratio being 0.50 or greater in seven of eight cases evaluated radiographically. Surgical reduction and stabilization were performed in seven of nine dogs. PMID:10914536

Lemarié, R J; Kerwin, S C; Partington, B P; Hosgood, G

2000-01-01

342

The invasive cervical cancer review: psychological issues surrounding disclosure.  

PubMed

An audit of the screening history of all new cervical cancer cases has been a requirement since April 2007. While NHS cervical screening programmes (NHSCSP) guidance requires that women diagnosed with cervical cancer are offered the findings of the audit, as yet there has been no research to investigate the psychological impact that meeting to discuss the findings might have on patients. This is in spite of the fact that cytological under-call may play a role in as many as 20% of cervical cancer cases. This review draws on the literature concerning breaking bad news, discussing cancer and disclosing medical errors, in order to gain insight into both the negative and positive consequences that may accompany a cervical screening review meeting. We conclude that while patients are likely to experience some distress at disclosure, there are also likely to be positive aspects, such as greater trust and improved perception of care. PMID:23506198

Sherman, S M; Moss, E; Redman, C W E

2013-04-01

343

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism.  

PubMed

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Son, Dong Wuk; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-08-01

344

Giant Lipoma of Posterior Cervical Region  

PubMed Central

Lipomas are the slow growing soft tissue tumors of benign nature. They commonly grow on torso and extremities but may also develop in head and neck region. Rarely lipomas can grow to acquire gigantic proportions, turning into an entity termed as giant lipoma. Such lipomas are entitled to immediate attention as they have a relatively high malignant potential. We report a rare case of giant cervical lipoma in an elderly gentleman, followed by a brief discussion on diagnosis and management of the disorder. PMID:25349767

Kumar, Lovekesh; Karande, Snehal K.; Kolhe, Yuvraj

2014-01-01

345

Cervical Spine Surgery: An Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Continued innovation in surgery requires a knowledge and understanding of historical advances with a recognition of successes\\u000a and failures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  To identify these successes and failures, we selectively reviewed historical literature on cervical spine surgery with respect\\u000a to the development of (1) surgical approaches, (2) management of degenerative disc disease, and (3) methods to treat segmental\\u000a instability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a nonsystematic

Vincenzo Denaro; Alberto Di Martino

2011-01-01

346

Targeting angiogenesis in advanced cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Patients with advanced stage or recurrent cervical cancer represent a population with limited chemotherapeutic options. More specifically, patients with recurrent disease have a poor salvage rate, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. This year, the first prospective phase III clinical trial exploring the anti-angiogenic agent, bevacizumab, was published, meeting its primary endpoint, with a significant improvement in overall survival. As such, a review of anti-angiogenic therapy in the treatment of this disease is warranted. PMID:25364393

Eskander, Ramez N.

2014-01-01

347

Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the cervical oesophagus.  

PubMed

We report the case of a young woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and swelling in the anterior aspect of the neck of short duration. On evaluation, she was diagnosed with amelanotic malignant melanoma of the cervical oesophagus. She underwent total laryngopharyngo-oesophagectomy with gastric transposition with bilateral modified radical neck dissection with feeding jejunostomy and a permanent tracheostomy with postoperative combined chemoradiation therapy. However, in spite of aggressive treatment, the patient expired 8 months after initial presentation with distant metastasis. PMID:24729119

Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Venkitachalam, Shruti; Trivedi, Shivangi

2014-01-01

348

Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-10-02

349

Cervical cancer prevention: new tools and old barriers.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common female tumor worldwide, and its incidence is disproportionately high (>80%) in the developing world. In the United States, in which Papanicolaou (Pap) tests have reduced the annual incidence to approximately 11,000 cervical cancers, >60% of cases are reported to occur in medically underserved populations as part of a complex of diseases linked to poverty, race/ethnicity, and/or health disparities. Because carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections cause virtually all cervical cancer, 2 new approaches for cervical cancer prevention have emerged: 1) HPV vaccination to prevent infections in younger women (aged < or =18 years) and 2) carcinogenic HPV detection in older women (aged > or =30 years). Together, HPV vaccination and testing, if used in an age-appropriate manner, have the potential to transform cervical cancer prevention, particularly among underserved populations. Nevertheless, significant barriers of access, acceptability, and adoption to any cervical cancer prevention strategy remain. Without understanding and addressing these obstacles, these promising new tools for cervical cancer prevention may be futile. In the current study, the delivery of cervical cancer prevention strategies to these US populations that experience a high cervical cancer burden (African-American women in South Carolina, Alabama, and Mississippi; Haitian immigrant women in Miami; Hispanic women in the US-Mexico Border; Sioux/Native American women in the Northern Plains; white women in the Appalachia; and Vietnamese-American women in Pennsylvania and New Jersey) is reviewed. The goal was to inform future research and outreach efforts to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in underserved populations. PMID:20310056

Scarinci, Isabel C; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kobetz, Erin; Partridge, Edward E; Brandt, Heather M; Bell, Maria C; Dignan, Mark; Ma, Grace X; Daye, Jane L; Castle, Philip E

2010-06-01

350

Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair®: A novel, full-endoscopic surgical technique for the treatment of symptomatic cervical disc disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair® is a novel full-endoscopic, anterior cervical, trans-discal, motion preserving, laser assisted, nonfusion, outpatient surgical procedure to safely treat symptomatic cervical disc diseases including herniation, spondylosis, stenosis, and annular tears. Here we describe a new endoscopic approach to cervical disc disease that allows direct visualization of the posterior longitudinal ligament, posterior vertebral endplates, annulus, neuroforamina, and herniated disc fragments. All patients treated with Deuk Laser Disc Repair were also candidates for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: A total of 142 consecutive adult patients with symptomatic cervical disc disease underwent Deuk Laser Disc Repair during a 4-year period. This novel procedure incorporates a full-endoscopic selective partial decompressive discectomy, foraminoplasty, and posterior annular debridement. Postoperative complications and average volume of herniated disc fragments removed are reported. Results: All patients were successfully treated with cervical Deuk Laser Disc Repair. There were no postoperative complications. Average volume of herniated disc material removed was 0.09 ml. Conclusions: Potential benefits of Deuk Laser Disc Repair for symptomatic cervical disc disease include lower cost, smaller incision, nonfusion, preservation of segmental motion, outpatient, faster recovery, less postoperative analgesic use, fewer complications, no hardware failure, no pseudoarthrosis, no postoperative dysphagia, and no increased risk of adjacent segment disease as seen with fusion. PMID:23230523

Deukmedjian, Ara J.; Cianciabella, Augusto; Cutright, Jason; Deukmedjian, Arias

2012-01-01

351

Human papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer and high-grade cervical lesions: A meta-analysis update  

Microsoft Academic Search

using the following MeSH terms: ''cervical cancer'', ''cervical intraepithelial neoplasia'', ''HPV'', ''human'', ''female'' and ''po- lymerase chain reaction''. Additional relevant references cited in retrieved articles were also evaluated. Included studies had to meet all of the following criteria: (i) use of polymerase chain reac- tion (PCR)-based technology to detect HPV DNA, (ii) inclusion of at least 20 cases of ICC

Jennifer S. Smith; Lisa Lindsay; Brooke Hoots; Jessica Keys; Silvia Franceschi; Rachel Winer; Gary M. Clifford

2007-01-01

352

Early effects of zoledronic acid and teriparatide on bone microarchitecture, remodeling and collagen crosslinks: comparison between iliac crest and lumbar vertebra in ewes.  

PubMed

Iliac crest bone biopsies are used to assess the mechanism of action of drug treatments, yet there are little data comparing this site to sites prone to fracture. The purpose of this study was to compare the delay and the amplitude of responses to treatment in two different bone sites. The short-term effects of zoledronic acid and teriparatide on microarchitecture, collagen crosslinks and bone remodeling were evaluated in iliac crest and lumbar vertebrae. Aged ewes (n=8/gr) received either vehicle (CTRL) or a single injection of zoledronic acid (ZOL, 10mg) or daily injections of teriparatide (TPTD, 20 ?g/d) for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly for assessing bone turnover markers. At the end of the study, a transiliac bone biopsy (IC) and L1 lumbar vertebrae (LV1) were collected to assess bone microarchitecture; pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), pentosidine (PEN) content, static and dynamic parameters of bone remodeling. In CTRL, Tb-BV/TV was significantly higher in LV1 than IC (p<0.0001). This was associated with a trend of higher Tb.N, Tb.Th, DA, an inferior Conn.D and a lower bone turnover as shown by the decreases of osteoid parameters, MS/BS, Ac.f in LV1 when compared to IC. In addition, the ratio PYD/DPD was 4 times higher in LV1 than IC. After 3 months, significant decreases of sALP (p<0.001) and sCTX (p<0.001) were observed in the ZOL-group whereas in TPTD-group, after transient increases, they returned to baseline values. When compared to their respective CTRL, ZOL induced significant increases in Tb.BV/TV, Conn.D, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, in IC but not in LV1. Regardless of the site, ZOL markedly depressed the bone turnover: The static parameters of bone formation significantly decreased and the diminution of MS/BS, BFR/BS and Ac.f varied from -94 to -98% vs CTRL (p<0.01 to 0.001). It was associated with a diminution of the DPD content and the PYD/DPD ratio mainly in IC cortices. In contrast, after 3 months, TPTD did not modify the 3D structure and microarchitecture in IC and LV1, except a trend of higher Conn.D in IC, compared to IC-CTRL. TPTD treatment induced a significant increase in cortical porosity in LV1 (p<0.05) when compared to LV1-CTRL. Static parameters of bone formation and resorption were augmented in both sites, significantly only in LV1 (p<0.05) with a trend of increases in MS/BS and BFR/BS, compared to LV1-CTRL. In conclusion, in adult ewes, the bone mass, microarchitecture, remodeling and collagen crosslink content differ according to the bone site (iliac crest and vertebra). Furthermore, after 3 months, the responses to ZOL and TPTD were of different magnitude and delay between the two bone sites. The distinction of bone sites to study the early effects of anti-osteoporotic therapies appears meaningful in order to approach their site-specific anti-fracture efficacy. PMID:22796591

Portero-Muzy, N R; Chavassieux, P M; Bouxsein, M L; Gineyts, E; Garnero, P; Chapurlat, R D

2012-10-01

353

Ultrasound evaluation of cervical shortening after loop excision of the transformation zone (LETZ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To assess cervical shortening after loop excision of the transformation zone (LETZ), and confirm the validity of ultrasound measurement of cervical length. Methods: Subjects (n = 29) were patients at the colposcopy clinic of Beth Israel Hospital who underwent vaginal ultrasound measurement of cervical length before and after LETZ. The pathologic specimen was measured by ruler. Mean cervical length

H. A. Ricciotti; L. Burke; M. Kobelin; B. Slomovic; J. Ludmir

1995-01-01

354

An Unusual Cervical Tumor as Presentation of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Rare cervical cancers are responsible for a minority of cases encountered by a clinician. However, behavioral patterns, management, and prognosis of certain rare cervical cancers differ from either squamous carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Here we present a case of a locally advanced cervical tumor as a presentation of an extranodal cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with a review of the current literature. PMID:24782935

De Greve, Tom; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Van Hoof, Achiel; Coenegrachts, Kenneth; Van Trappen, Philippe

2014-01-01

355

[Prevention and screening of cervical cancer].  

PubMed

Cervical cancer may be prevented by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the treatment of intraepithelial lesions diagnosed using cervical pap smears. HPV vaccines are effective for the prevention of CIN2/3 related to HPV 16, 18 and some other oncogenic HPV subtypes in HPV-naïve women. They are very well tolerated and to date, no increase in the incidence of auto-immune diseases has been reported. HPV vaccines primarily target girls aged 11-14 years old and catch-up programs include girls aged 15-19 years old. Vaccination coverage is below 40% in France, which is insufficient to induce herd immunity. Screening via pap smears is performed every three years in women between 25 and 65 years old, after two normal annual smears. However, screening is an individualised decision and is only performed in 57% of women. Abnormal smears require subsequent diagnostic investigations. Apart from high grade intra-epithelial lesions which generally require treatment, these abnormalities may be observed as they often undergo spontaneous regression due to viral clearance. PMID:25090760

Rakotomahenina, Hajanirina; Garrigue, Isabelle; Marty, Marion; Brun, Jean-Luc

2014-06-01

356

[Human papillomavirus detection in cervical cancer prevention].  

PubMed

Cervical cancer (CC), which is strongly associated to high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection, continues being a significant health problem in Latin America. The use of conventional cytology to detect precancerous cervical lesions has had no major impact on reducing CC incidence and mortality rates, which are still high in the region. New screening tools to detect precancerous lesions became available, which provide great opportunities for CC prevention, as do highly efficacious HPV vaccines able to prevent nearly all lesions associated with HPV-16 and -18 when applied before viral exposure. Currently, hr-HPV testing represents an invaluable component of clinical guidelines for screening, management and treatment of CC and their precursor lesions. Many testing strategies have been developed that can detect a broad spectrum of hr-HPV types in a single assay; however, only a small subset of them has documented clinical performance for any of the standard HPV testing indications. HPV tests that have not been validated and lack proof of reliability, reproducibility and accuracy should not be used in clinical management. Once incorporated into the lab, it is essential to submit the whole procedure of HPV testing to continuous and rigorous quality assurance to avoid sub-optimal, potentially harmful practices. Recent progress and current status of these methods are discussed in this article. PMID:24356274

Picconi, María Alejandra

2013-01-01

357

Reconstruction of the laryngopharynx and cervical esophagus.  

PubMed

The historical evolution of reconstruction of the cervical esophagus and laryngopharynx over the past 100 years is documented. The impact of these technical achievements is contrasted to the failure to improve the 5-year survival rate of 24%. While the clinician awaits new protocols of treatment to improve survival statistics, the thrust of the surgical oncologist is to develop a reliable method of reconstruction which meets specific minimal criteria. The following objectives should be achieved: Reconstruction should not limit the effectiveness of the ablative technique. Short hospitalization and one stage techniques are superior. Technique mortality and morbidity must be low. A 10-year institutional study using the Montgomery 2-stage technique is presented. In contrast, comparative literature data analysis of all methods of laryngopharyngocervical reconstruction indicates that single stage techniques offer a greater advantage. This study suggests that visceroplasty (stomach), free jejunal transfer, and single stage reconstruction, using the pectoralis myocutaneous flap, approach the previously established criteria more effectively than others. A new technique (1-stage), using partial tubulation of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap, is recommended for regional reconstruction of the cervical esophagus and pharynx. In order to decrease the pressure and torsion on the vascular pedicle of the pectoralis major myocutaneous flap and increase its predicted length, partial resection of the ipsilateral clavicle is proposed. PMID:6482630

Fabian, R L

1984-10-01

358

Tim-3 Expression in Cervical Cancer Promotes Tumor Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Background T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) has been identified as a negative regulator of anti-tumor immunity. Recent studies highlight the important role of Tim-3 in the CD8+ T cell exhaustion that takes place in both human and animal cancer models. However, the nature of Tim-3 expression in the tumor cell and the mechanism by which it inhibits anti-tumor immunity are unclear. This present study aims to determine Tim-3 is expressed in cervical cancer cells and to evaluate the role of Tim-3 in cervical cancer progression. Methodology A total of 85 cervical tissue specimens including 43 human cervical cancer, 22 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 20 chronic cervicitis were involved. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells was detected and was found to correlate with clinicopathological parameters. Meanwhile, expression of Tim-3 was assessed by RT-PCR, Western Blot and confocal microscopy in cervical cancer cell lines, HeLa and SiHa. The migration and invasion potential of Hela cells was evaluated after inhibiting Tim-3 expression by ADV-antisense Tim-3. Conclusions We found that Tim-3 was expressed at a higher level in the clinical cervical cancer cells compared to the CIN and chronic cervicitis controls. We supported this finding by confirming the presence of Tim-3 mRNA and protein in the cervical cell lines. Tim-3 expression in tumor cells correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Patients with high expression of Tim-3 had a significant metastatic potential, advanced cancer grades and shorter overall survival than those with lower expression. Multivariate analysis showed that Tim-3 expression was an independent factor for predicting the prognosis of cervical cancer. Significantly, down-regulating the expression of Tim-3 protein inhibited migration and invasion of Hela cells. Our study suggests that the expression of Tim-3 in tumor cells may be an independent prognostic factor for patients with cervical cancer. Moreover, Tim-3 expression may promote metastatic potential in cervical cancers. PMID:23335978

Cao, Yang; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Huang, Xiaoyuan; Li, Qinlu; Gao, Lili; Jiang, Lijun; Huang, Mei; Zhou, Jianfeng

2013-01-01

359

An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor originating from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. This is an aggressive, slow growing and invasive tumor. It occurs mostly at the two ends of neuroaxis which is more frequent in the sacrococcygeal region. Chordoma in vertebral column is very rare. This tumor is extradural in origin and compresses neural tissues and makes the patient symptomatic. This tumor found extremely rare in the spinal region as an intradural tumor. The present study reports a rare case of intradural chordoma tumor as well as its clinical manifestations and treatment options. Case: The patient was a 50-year-old female presented with 9 months history of progressively worsening neck pain, cervical spine chordoma resembling neurinoma and right arm numbness. Physical examination showed no weakness in her limbs, but she had upward plantar reflex and mild hyperreflexia. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the cervical spine there was an ill-defined enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of C2-C3 body caused cord compression more severe in right side as well as foraminal scalloping. The patient underwent surgery and after midline posterior cervical incision and paravertebral muscle stripping a laminectomy was performed from C1 through C4 using a high speed drill. Needle biopsy revealed chordoma on frozen section and all of accessible parts of tumor were excised. The gross and microscopic histopathological appearance was consistent with chordoma. Chordomas are malignant tumors that arise from remains of embryonic notochord. These ectopic rests of notochord termed “ecchordosis physaliphora “can be found in approximately 2% of autopsies. These are aggressive, slow growing, locally invasive and destructive tumors those occur in the midline of neuroaxis. They generally thought to account for 2% to 4% of all primary bone neoplasms and 1% to 4% malignant bone neoplasms. They are the most frequent primary malignant spinal tumors after plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas extention to transverse foramina has not yet been reported. Although our case mimicked a

Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

2012-01-01

360

Cervical Microendoscopic Interlaminar Decompression through a Midline Approach in Patients with Cervical Myelopathy: A Technical Note.  

PubMed

Introduction?Microendoscopic techniques through a unilateral paramedian approach or muscle-preserving techniques using a microscope have been reported as minimally invasive spinal decompression procedures for the cervical spine. In this study, we developed a novel technique, cervical microendoscopic interlaminar decompression (CMID) through a midline approach, for treating cervical compression myelopathy. Methods?A total of 29 consecutive patients with single- or two-level cervical compression myelopathy were reviewed. For the single-level cases (e.g., C5-C6), a midline skin incision, ? 2 cm in length, was made at the spinal level to be decompressed (C5-C6) under fluoroscopic guidance. The nuchal ligament was longitudinally cut, and tips of the spinous processes (C5 and C6) were exposed. A 16-mm tubular retractor was inserted between the tips of the C5 and C6 spinous processes. A dome-like laminectomy of C5, partial laminectomy of the upper part of C6, and flavectomy were performed. For the two-level cases (e.g., C4-C5 and C5-C6), the decompression procedure was completed by splitting the spinous process (C5). Pre- and postoperative neurologic status was evaluated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score. Neck and arm pain was also evaluated using a numerical rating scale (NRS). Results?Overall, 10 patients underwent single-level decompression, and 19 patients underwent two-level decompression. The average age was 67 years (range: 40-83 years), and the mean follow-up period was 11 months (range: 4-14 months). The average pre- and postoperative JOA scores were 10.2 and 13.5, with a mean recovery rate of 49%. The mean preoperative and postoperative NRS scores were 3.5 and 1.5 for neck pain and 4.6 and 2.9 for arm pain, respectively. One patient showed transient mild weakness of the leg that recovered neurologically within a few weeks. No other postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion?This procedure revealed good short-term surgical results. This technique has advantages including (1) a symmetrical orientation of the surgical field, (2) an intermuscular incision that minimizes blood loss and muscle trauma, and (3) the ability to safely complete the decompression procedure without retracting the cervical spinal cord compared with the unilateral approach. Although long-term surgical results are required, this technique is not only safe but also minimally invasive as a treatment for cervical compression myelopathy. PMID:24819630

Oshima, Yasushi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Inanami, Hirohiko; Takano, Yuichi; Koga, Hisashi; Iwahori, Tomoyuki; Baba, Satoshi; Tanaka, Sakae

2014-11-01

361

Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women. Methods A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening. Results Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor. Conclusion This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical cancer screening. Community organizations may play a role in assisting Chinese American women, which could enhance cervical cancer screening rates. PMID:23843708

Ma, Grace X; Wang, Min Qi; Ma, Xiang S; Shive, Steven E; Tan, Yin; Toubbeh, Jamil I

2013-01-01

362

Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

2014-04-01

363

Box-Shape Cervical Expansive Laminoplasty: Clinical and Radiological Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Objective Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty is a procedure that utilizes a Miniplate® or Maxpacer® to achieve maximal canal expansion. This method is expected to show much larger canal expansion and good clinical outcome. So we investigated the clinical and radiological outcome of Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty. Methods Between June 2008 and July 2013, we performed cervical expansive laminoplasty in 87 and 48 patients using the Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty, respectively. We analyzed the clinical results of these operations using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scoring system and by assessing the position of intralaminar screws with postoperative computed tomography (CT) at POD-6 months. Results A total of 48 patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) (36 pts), cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) (12 pts) were enrolled. Overall JOA scores improved from 11.49 to 14.22 at POD-6 months (OPLL: 11.32 -->14.3; CSM: 12-->14). Postoperative CT scans were performed in 39 patients at 177 levels for a total of 354 screws. The malpositioning rate of intralaminar screws was 3.4% and hardware-related neurologic complications did not occur. Conclusion Box-shape cervical expansive laminoplasty creates maximal spinal canal expansion and leads to improved cervical myelopathy. The use of intralaminar screws to fix the remodeled lamina-facet does not represent a significant difficulty.

Park, Hae Gi; Zhang, Ho Yeol

2014-01-01

364

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-10-10

365

Methylation Patterns of the IFN-? Gene in Cervical Cancer Tissues  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the relationship between methylation of interferon gamma (IFN-?) gene and tumorigenesis in cervical cancer tissues, the biopsy specimens of cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (I-III) patients as well as normal controls were collected and analyzed. Methods: The methylation of the IFN-? gene was verified by using methylation-specific PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, and the expression levels of IFN-? mRNA were detected using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The methylation rates of the IFN-? gene were significantly higher in cervical cancer tissues (15/43, 34.9%) than those in CIN (3/23, 13.0% of CIN I; 6/39, 15.4% of CIN II/III) and normal cervical tissues (2/43, 4.7%) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IFN-? in cervical tumors with methylation (0.71 ± 0.13, n = 8) was lower than that in those without methylation (1.58 ± 0.32, n = 27) (P < 0.05). Likewise, the IFN-? expression levels in CIN II/III tissues with methylation (0.87 ± 0.16, n = 5) were significantly (P < 0.01) lower compared to those without methylation (2.12 ± 0.27, n = 32). Conclusion: The hypermethylation of IFN-? gene may be related with tumorigenesis of cervical cancer. PMID:25208560

Ma, Dong; Jiang, Chunyang; Hu, Xiaoli; Li, Qingzhao; Li, Tingting; Yang, Yanyan; Li, Ou

2014-01-01

366

TPX2 regulates tumor growth in human cervical carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a tool to evaluate, more precisely, the proliferative behavior of tumor cells. The abnormal expression of TPX2 in a variety of malignant tumor types has been reported, however less is known about its role in cervical cancer. In the present study, the association between TPX2 expression and the biological behavior of cervical cancer, was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of TPX2 in cervical cancer tissues. The inhibitory effect of TPX2-siRNA on the growth of SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells was studied in vitro. TPX2 expression was identified as significantly higher in cervical carcinoma compared with the control, normal cervical tissues. TPX2 siRNA transfected into SiHa cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Similar results were obtained by in vivo transplantation, as TPX2 siRNA transfection significantly reduced tumor growth of the xenograft in nude mice. The results demonstrated that TPX2 is important in the regulation of tumor growth in cervical cancer and therefore may be a potential therapeutic target as a novel treatment strategy. PMID:24718984

Jiang, Peiyue; Shen, Kexin; Wang, Xuerui; Song, Haiqin; Yue, Ying; Liu, Tongjun

2014-06-01

367

Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas  

SciTech Connect

The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

1987-02-01

368

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-01-01

369

Cervical implant from villoglandular endometrial adenocarcinoma masquerading as cervical villoglandular adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

This is an unusual presentation of a rare subtype of endometrial adenocarcinoma (villoglandular papillary carcinoma, VGPC) in a 71-year-old woman, which was initially diagnosed on cervical biopsy as being primary cervical VGPC. Loop excision failed to show any evidence of residual disease. Subsequent hysterectomy revealed a localized villoglandular carcinoma involving the uterine fundus and invading the inner one-third of the myometrium, the background endometrium was atrophic. The remaining cervix contained a focus of papillary forming endometrial type adenocarcinoma involving the surface epithelium and the superficial subepithelial glands. In conclusion, VGPC of cervix occurs mainly in young women and can be treated conservatively, pathologists should be cautious in making such a diagnosis in a postmenopausal woman before ruling out a primary endometrial origin. PMID:12060454

Al-Nafussi, A; Obafunwa, J; Jordan, L B; Fulton, I; Martin, C; Beattie, G

2002-01-01

370

Application of magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction and is caused by static or dynamic repeated compression of the spinal cord resulting from degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and some biological injuries to the cervical spine. The T2 signal change on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most commonly associated with neurological deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy show altered microstructure and biochemistry that reflect patient-specific pathogenesis and can be used to predict neurological outcome and response to intervention. Functional MRI can help to assess the neurological functional recovery after decompression surgery for CSM. PMID:25349665

Zhang, Chuan; Das, Sushant K; Yang, Dong-Jun; Yang, Han-Feng

2014-01-01

371

Application of magnetic resonance imaging in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the most common cause of spinal cord dysfunction and is caused by static or dynamic repeated compression of the spinal cord resulting from degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and some biological injuries to the cervical spine. The T2 signal change on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most commonly associated with neurological deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging and MR spectroscopy show altered microstructure and biochemistry that reflect patient-specific pathogenesis and can be used to predict neurological outcome and response to intervention. Functional MRI can help to assess the neurological functional recovery after decompression surgery for CSM. PMID:25349665

Zhang, Chuan; Das, Sushant K; Yang, Dong-Jun; Yang, Han-Feng

2014-10-28

372

Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

2011-07-01

373

Laminoplasty Techniques for the Treatment of Multilevel Cervical Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Laminoplasty is one surgical option for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. It was developed to avoid the significant risk of complications associated with alternative surgical options such as anterior decompression and fusion and laminectomy with or without posterior fusion. Various laminoplasty techniques have been described. All of these variations are designed to reposition the laminae and expand the spinal canal while retaining the dorsal elements to protect the dura from scar formation and to preserve postoperative cervical stability and alignment. With the right surgical indications, reliable results can be expected with laminoplasty in treating patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy. PMID:22496982

Mitsunaga, Lance K.; Klineberg, Eric O.; Gupta, Munish C.

2012-01-01

374

Cervical myelocystocele: Case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Dysraphisms involving cervical region are very rare and there are very few series describing their follow-up in literature. Here, we report a 6-year-old boy who underwent postnatal “cosmetic” repair of posterior cervical cystic lesion and presented to us with a large recurrence with syringohydromyelia and tethering. Tethered cord should be suspected in the presence of meningocele and intact neurology. Treatment protocols of such complicated cervical spinal dysraphisms should include intradural exploration and detethering, with an aim to prevent neurological deterioration in future. PMID:21977091

Chandra, Ramesh V. V.; Kumar, Phani M.

2011-01-01

375

[A tumor-associated antigen of cervical cancer].  

PubMed

The tumour-associated antigen was identified with the aid of antisera obtained from rabbits immunized with 3 M KCl extract of pool human cervical carcinoma cells. The antigen was found in 92.5% specimens of human cervical squamous cell carcinoma, in 4.7% specimens of other localization of the tumours. The antigen was absent from sets of normal human tissues. The tumour-associated antigen was not identical with CEA, alpha-fetoprotein, SP1, EPA and lactoferrin and it was localized in cytoplasm of cervical carcinoma cells. PMID:3084195

Ermoshina, N V; Ievleva, E S; Ageenko, A I; Kogan, I Ia; Tsukerman, B G

1986-01-01

376

Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections  

PubMed Central

Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ? 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (? 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

2012-01-01

377

Negative MRI Findings with Invasive Cervical Biopsy May Indicate Stage IA Cervical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We attempted to prospectively determine the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in very early cervical cancer.Study design. T2-weighted and T1-dynamic enhanced images from patients with invasive or noninvasive lesions of the cervix were reviewed by two radiologists who had no clinical information on these patients. At least 12 longitudinal sections prepared from the surgically removed cervix were reviewed

Keiichi Fujiwara; Eisaku Yoden; Toru Asakawa; Michio Shimizu; Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa; Yoshiki Mikami; Takashi Oda; Ikuo Joja; Yoshinari Imajo; Ichiro Kohno

2000-01-01

378

Expression of metastasis suppressor 1 in cervical carcinoma and the clinical significance  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the expression of metastasis suppressor 1 (MTSS1) in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and malignant cervical tissues, and the role of MTSS1 in carcinogenesis. MTSS1 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 147 cervical tissue specimens collected from 30 healthy individuals, 30 patients with cervical CIN I, 30 patients with CIN II–III and 57 patients with cervical cancer. The association between MTSS1 expression and clinicopathological factors was also examined. MTSS1 was found to be positively expressed in 43.33% CIN I cervical tissues, 100% CIN II–III cervical tissues and 100% malignant cervical tissues, but was weakly or negatively expressed in benign cervical tissues. The positive expression rates of MTSS1 were significantly higher in CIN II–III and malignant cervical tissues than in CIN I or normal cervical tissues (P<0.05). When examining MTSS1 expression and clinicopathological factors, the strong positive MTSS1 expression rates in early-stage versus middle- and advanced-stage cervical cancer tissues were 39.13% and 82.35%, respectively. Furthermore, the positive expression rates of MTSS1 were significantly higher in cervical tissues at an advanced clinical stage than those at an early clinical stage (P<0.05). The results suggest that the dysregulation of MTSS1 may be involved in cervical carcinogenesis, and thus MTSS1 may be a novel diagnostic biomarker or therapeutic target in cervical cancer patients. PMID:25295101

ZHANG, JUAN; TONG, YING; REN, LI; LI, CHUN-DONG

2014-01-01

379

International framework for examination of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction prior to Orthopaedic Manual Therapy intervention.  

PubMed

A consensus clinical reasoning framework for best practice for the examination of the cervical spine region has been developed through an iterative consultative process with experts and manual physical therapy organisations. The framework was approved by the 22 member countries of the International Federation of Orthopaedic Manipulative Physical Therapists (October 2012). The purpose of the framework is to provide guidance to clinicians for the assessment of the cervical region for potential of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction in advance of planned management (inclusive of manual therapy and exercise interventions). The best, most recent scientific evidence is combined with international expert opinion, and is presented with the intention to be informative, but not prescriptive; and therefore as an aid to the clinician's clinical reasoning. Important underlying principles of the framework are that 1] although presentations and adverse events of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction are rare, it is a potentially serious condition and needs to be considered in musculoskeletal assessment; 2] manual therapists cannot rely on the results of one clinical test to draw conclusions as to the presence or risk of Cervical Arterial Dysfunction; and 3] a clinically reasoned understanding of the patient's presentation, including a risk:benefit analysis, following an informed, planned and individualised assessment, is essential for recognition of this condition and for safe manual therapy practice in the cervical region. Clinicians should also be cognisant of jurisdictionally specific requirements and obligations, particularly related to patient informed consent, when intending to use manual therapy in the cervical region. PMID:24378471

Rushton, A; Rivett, D; Carlesso, L; Flynn, T; Hing, W; Kerry, R

2014-06-01

380

Cervical lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemiology and management.  

PubMed

Cervical lymphadenopathy (CL) is common in childhood. The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology, follow-up, and treatment of persistent CL. The authors studied retrospectively 50 children with CL, hospitalized at the Department of Pediatrics and Pediatrics Surgery. Patients underwent ultrasonography. Thirty-six percent presented abnormal ultrasonographic image and underwent excisional biopsy. Biopsies revealed 4 thyroglossal cysts, 3 branchial cysts, 1 hemangioma, 2 sebaceous cysts, 1 dermoid cyst, 5 occurrences of tuberculosis lymphadenitis, 1 occurrence of Bartonella henselae lymphadenopathy, and 1 case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In conclusion, CL is usually a benign finding; bacterial and viral infections are the most common causes. Ultrasonography help in etiology and follow-up of CL. PMID:19657996

Papadopouli, Evangelia; Michailidi, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Eleftheria; Paspalaki, Pinelopi; Vlahakis, Ioannis; Kalmanti, Maria

2009-09-01

381

Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

2014-03-01

382

Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts  

SciTech Connect

The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-03-02

383

Aberrant expression and constitutive activation of STAT3 in cervical carcinogenesis: implications in high-risk human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent observations indicate potential role of transcription factor STAT3 in cervical cancer development but its role specifically with respect to HPV infection is not known. Present study has been designed to investigate expression and activation of STAT3 in cervical precancer and cancer in relation to HPV infection during cervical carcinogenesis. Established cervical cancer cell lines and prospectively-collected cervical precancer

Shirish Shukla; Gauri Shishodia; Sutapa Mahata; Suresh Hedau; Arvind Pandey; Suresh Bhambhani; Swaraj Batra; Seemi F Basir; Bhudev C Das; Alok C Bharti

2010-01-01

384

Early clinical and radiologic outcomes of cervical arthroplasty with Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis.  

PubMed

Among 61 patients underwent disc replacement with the Bryan prosthesis, 47 patients were followed more than 3 months and their clinical and radiologic data were retrospectively analyzed to clarify very early clinical and radiologic outcomes and complications of disc arthroplasty with the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis during the learning period. Mean follow-up period was 6 months. Mean age was 45.6 years. Single-level procedure was done in 39 patients and 2-level in 8; a total of 55 levels replaced. Neck disability index improved from 59.8% to 22.9%. Visual analog pain score (VAS) of the neck improved from 8.4 to 1.6. VAS of shoulder/arm pain improved from 8.8 to 2.4. Mean patients' subjective improvement rate of symptoms was 71.1%. According to improvement in the neck disability index and VAS (over 50% improvement rate in each parameter), patients' subjective improvement rate (over 50%), and patients' satisfaction, the surgical success was achieved in 39 patients (83%). Eight patients (17%) showed failure. Mean segmental angle became more kyphotic after surgery from -0.7 degree of kyphosis (-11 to 7.7 degrees) to -1.3 degrees (-32 to 20.9 degrees) without statistical significance (P=0.55). Among 24 segments that showed preoperative kyphosis, 13 (54.2%) showed aggravated kyphosis, 7 (29.1%) showed decreased kyphosis and 4 (16.7%) recovered to lordosis. Among 31 segments that showed preoperative lordosis, 19 (61.3%) showed loss of lordosis and 12 (38.7%) showed increased lordosis. Mean range of motion increased significantly after surgery (6.7 to 8.5 degrees, P=0.04). Preoperative and postoperative segmental kyphosis was not related to clinical success. Cervical arthroplasty with the Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis failed to restore segmental lordotic angle. A concern arises because it is well known that the fusion in kyphotic curvature causes more frequent problems on adjacent levels in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. For the present, it seems preferable to exclude the patient who already has significant segmental kyphosis from disc arthroplasty with Bryan Cervical Disc prosthesis. PMID:17021408

Shim, Chan Shik; Lee, Sang-Ho; Park, Hyun-Ju; Kang, Han-Sug; Hwang, Ji-Hee

2006-10-01

385

Dysphagia, short-term outcomes, and cost of care after anterior cervical disc surgery.  

PubMed

Dysphonia and dysphagia are common complications of anterior cervical discectomy (ACD). We sought to determine the relationship between dysphagia and in-hospital mortality, complications, speech therapy/dysphagia training, length of hospitalization, and costs associated with ACD. Discharge data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 1,649,871 patients who underwent ACD of fewer than four vertebrae for benign acquired disease between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed using cross-tabulations and multivariate regression modeling. Dysphagia was reported in 32,922 cases (2.0 %). Speech therapy/dysphagia training was reported in less than 0.1 % of all cases and in only 0.2 % of patients with dysphagia. Dysphagia was significantly associated with age ?65 years (OR = 1.5 [95 % CI 1.4-1.7], P < 0.001), advanced comorbidity (OR = 2.3 [2.0-2.6], P < 0.001), revision surgery (OR = 2.7 [2.3-3.1], P < 0.001), disc prosthesis placement (OR = 1.5 [1.0-2.0], P = 0.029), and vocal cord paralysis (OR = 11.6 [8.3-16.1], P < 0.001). Dysphagia was a significant predictor of aspiration pneumonia (OR = 8.6 [6.7-10.9], P < 0.001), tracheostomy (OR = 2.3 [1.6-3.3], P < 0.001), gastrostomy (OR = 30.9 [25.3-37.8], P < 0.001), and speech therapy/dysphagia training (OR = 32.0 [15.4-66.4], P < 0.001). Aspiration pneumonia was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR = 15.9 [11.0-23.1], P < 0.001). Dysphagia, vocal cord paralysis, and aspiration pneumonia were significant predictors of increased length of hospitalization and hospital-related costs, with aspiration pneumonia having the single largest impact on length of hospitalization and costs. Dysphagia is significantly associated with increased morbidity, length of hospitalization, and hospital-related costs in ACD patients. Despite the known risk of dysphagia in ACD patients and an established role for the speech-language pathologist in dysphagia management, speech-language pathology intervention appears underutilized in this population. PMID:23943072

Starmer, Heather M; Riley, Lee H; Hillel, Alexander T; Akst, Lee M; Best, Simon R A; Gourin, Christine G

2014-02-01

386

Perceived Risk of Cervical Cancer in Appalachian Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine perceptions of cervical cancer risk in elevated-risk Appalachians. Methods Appalachian women (n=571) completed interviews examining self-regulation model factors relevant to perceived risk of cervical cancer. Results Women with good/very good knowledge of cervical cancer, greater worry, and history of sexually transmitted infection had higher odds of rating their perceived risk as somewhat/much higher than did other women. Former smokers, compared to never smokers, had lower risk perceptions. Conclusions Self-regulation model factors are important to understanding perceptions of cervical cancer risk in underserved women. The relationship of smoking and worry to perceived risk may be a target for intervention. PMID:23026042

Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Tatum, Cathy; Paskett, Electra D.

2013-01-01

387

Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia  

E-print Network

It has long been speculated that underlying variations in tissue anatomy affect in vivo spectroscopic measurements. We investigate the effects of cervical anatomy on reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to guide the ...

Mirkovic, Jelena

388

Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.

2012-09-01

389

Cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth.  

PubMed

Contemporary evidence supports the concept that cervical insufficiency is anything but a well-defined and distinct clinical entity. Instead, it is only 1 component of the larger and more complex preterm birth syndrome. Premature cervical ripening, as evidenced by shortening and effacement beginning at the internal os, provides strong evidence that parturition has begun and is the result of multiple interrelated pathways and inciting factors. Ultrasonographic screening of the cervix and treatment with cerclage for cervical shortening in the mid-trimester is reserved for women with prior spontaneous preterm birth (Fig. 1). Although cerclage benefit increases as the cervix shortens to less than 25 mm, it is appropriate to offer cerclage to women with shortened cervical length of less than 25 mm, and particularly those with a coexistent U-shaped funnel. PMID:22370105

Owen, John; Mancuso, Melissa

2012-03-01

390

Quantitative Elastography for Cervical Stiffness Assessment during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aim. Feasibility and reliability of tissue Doppler imaging-(TDI-) based elastography for cervical quantitative stiffness assessment during all three trimesters of pregnancy were evaluated. Materials and Methods. Prospective case-control study including seventy-four patients collected between the 12th and 42nd weeks of gestation. The tissue strain (TS) was measured by two independent operators as natural strain. Intra- and interoperator intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) agreements were evaluated. Results. TS measurement was always feasible and exhibited a high performance in terms of reliability (intraoperator ICC-agreement = 0.93; interoperator ICC agreement = 0.89 and 0.93 for a single measurement and for the average of two measurements, resp.). Cervical TS showed also a significant correlation with gestational age, cervical length, and parity. Conclusions. TS measurement during pregnancy demonstrated high feasibility and reliability. Furthermore, TS significantly correlated with gestational age, cervical length, and parity. PMID:24734246

Fruscalzo, A.; Londero, A. P.; Frohlich, C.; Mollmann, U.; Schmitz, R.

2014-01-01

391

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2013-04-01

393

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2014-04-01

394

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2012-04-01

395

21 CFR 884.1040 - Viscometer for cervical mucus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Measurements of relative viscoelasticity are intended for use as an adjunct in the clinical evaluation of a female with chronic infertility, to determine the time of ovulation and the penetrability of cervical mucus to motile sperm. (b)...

2011-04-01

396

Mechanical and biochemical properties of human cervical tissue  

E-print Network

The mechanical integrity of cervical tissue is crucial for maintaining a healthy gestation. Altered tissue biochemistry can cause drastic changes in the mechanical properties of the cervix and contribute to premature ...

Myers, Kristin M

2005-01-01

397

What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... injecting indocyanine green (ICG) dye into the cervix. HPV vaccines Vaccines have been developed to prevent infection with some of the HPV types associated with cervical cancer. Currently available vaccines ...

398

ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Cervical Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Attendance Rate (2003-2005) of the Hungarian Organized, Nation-Wide Cervical Cancer Screening Program Authors: I Boncz, A Sebestyén Affiliation: Department of Health Economics, Policy & Management, University

399

Cervical spine disc prosthesis: radiographic, biomechanical and morphological post mortal findings 12 weeks after implantation. A retrieval example  

PubMed Central

There is a gap between in vitro and clinical studies concerning performance of spinal disc prosthesis. Retrieval studies may help to bridge this gap by providing more detailed information about motion characteristics, wear properties and osseous integration. Here, we report on the radiographic, mechanical, histological properties of a cervical spine segment treated with a cervical spine disc prosthesis (Prodisc C, Synthes Spine, Paoli, USA) for 3 months. A 48-year-old male received the device due to symptomatic degenerative disc disease within C5–C6. The patient recovered completely from his symptoms. Twelve weeks later, he died from a subarachnoid hemorrhage. During routine autopsy, C3–T1 was removed with all attached muscles and ligaments and subjected to plain X-rays and computed tomography, three dimensional flexibility tests, shear test as well as histological and electronic microscopic investigations. We detected radiolucencies mainly at the cranial interface between bone and implant. The flexibility of the segment under pure bending moments of ±2.5 Nm applied in flexion/extension, axial rotation and lateral bending was preserved, with, however, reduced lateral bending and enlarged neutral zone compared to the adjacent segments C4–C5, and C6–C7. Stepwise increase of loading in flexion/extension up to ±9.5 Nm did not result in segmental destruction. A postero-anterior force of 146 N was necessary to detach the lower half of the prosthesis from the vertebra. At the polyethylene (PE) core, signs of wear were observed compared to an unused core using electronic microscopy. Metal and PE debris without signs of severe inflammatory reaction was found within the surrounding soft tissue shell of the segment. A thin layer of soft connective tissue covered the major part of the implant endplate. Despite the limits of such a case report, the results show: that such implants are able to preserve at least a certain degree of segmental flexibility, that direct bone implant contact is probably rare, and that debris may be found after 12 weeks. PMID:17242873

Kettler, Annette; Drumm, Joerg; Nabhan, Abdullah; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Claes, Lutz; Wilke, Hans Joachim

2007-01-01

400

Arteries in the posterior cervical triangle in man.  

PubMed

Due to frequent changes in the anatomical nomenclature of the arteries in the posterior cervical triangle (lateral cervical region), anatomical and surgical papers relating to these topics are sometimes difficult to understand and are hard to compare. These changes, coupled with improper knowledge of the gross anatomy and nomenclature of the arteries in the posterior cervical triangle, have presented difficulties in musculocutaneous flap planning, especially in plastic and reconstructive surgery. As an illustration of this concern, the term, transverse cervical artery (A. transversa colli [cervicis]), and its associated branches, have been used frequently over the past several decades with different meanings. In an effort to address this nomenclature challenge and to offer a rational basis for arguing specific name changes, a total of 498 neck-halves were investigated in Graz, Innsbruck, and Munich. Lateral neck dissections were carried out to expose the subclavian artery and those branches destined for the posterior cervical triangle, specifically, the superficial cervical artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the suprascapular artery. The course of these arteries and details of their origins and branching patterns were documented. Several arose either as direct branches or from trunks. The convention used in labeling trunks was similar to that described for other trunk formations in the body (e.g., linguo-facial trunk). Four trunks were observed and named according to the branches that arose from each. A cervico-dorsal trunk gave origin to the superficial cervical and dorsal scapular arteries, and was found in 30% of cases. A cervico-scapular trunk gave rise to the superficial cervical and suprascapular arteries in 22% of cases, and a dorso-scapular trunk provided origins for the dorsal scapular and suprascapular arteries in 4% of cases. A cervico-dorso-scapular trunk gave origin to the superficial cervical artery, the dorsal scapular artery, and the suprascapular artery, and was found in 24% of cases. Each of these trunks, in turn, arose from either the subclavian artery or from the thyrocervical trunk. This labeling convention necessitated omitting the term, transverse cervical artery, because this term has become inherently imprecise and variously used over the years. This study describes a simple, uniform, and rational basis for standardizing the nomenclature of the arteries in the posterior cervical triangle. PMID:16187318

Weiglein, Andreas H; Moriggl, B; Schalk, C; Künzel, K H; Müller, U

2005-11-01

401

Uncovertebral joint injury in cervical facet dislocation: the headphones sign  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the uncovertebral mal-alignment as a reliable indirect sign of cervical facet joint\\u000a dislocation. We examined the uncovertebral axial plane alignment of 12 patients with unilateral and bilateral cervical facet\\u000a joint dislocation (UCFJD and BCFJD, respectively), comparing its frequency to the reverse hamburger bun sign on CT and MR\\u000a axial images. Of the

Francesco Palmieri; Victor N. Cassar-Pullicino; Claudia Dell’Atti; Radhesh K. Lalam; Bernhard J. Tins; Prudencia N. M. Tyrrell; Iain W. McCall

2006-01-01

402

HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

2001-01-01

403

Physical Status and Expression of HPV Genes in Cervical Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that E2 protein of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) inhibits the expression of E6 and E7 genes from their major promotersin vitroand suppresses the proliferation of cervical cancer cells. This suggests that the loss of functional E2 gene may provide selective advantages in the development of cervical cancer. Investigation of the relationship between the disruption of HPV-16\\/18 E2

Jong Sup Park; Eun Seong Hwang; Sue Nie Park; Hee Kyung Ahn; Soo Jong Um; Chan Joo Kim; Seung Jo Kim; Sung Eun Namkoong

1997-01-01

404

Misoprostol: An effective agent for cervical ripening and labor induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our purpose was to compare the safety and efficacy of intravaginal misoprostol versus intracervical prostaglandin E2 gel (dinoprostone) for preinduction cervical ripening and induction of labor.Study design: Two hundred seventy-six patients with indications for induction of labor and unfavorable cervices were randomly assigned to receive either intravaginal misoprostol or intracervical dinoprostone. Twenty-five micrograms of misoprostol were placed in the

Deborah A. Wing; Ann Rahall; Margaret M. Jones; T. Murphy Goodwin; Richard H. Paul

1995-01-01

405

Occurrence of Cervical Spine Injuries During the Rugby Scrum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs

Merrick J. Wetzler; Toks Akpata; William Laughlin; Andrew S. Levy

1998-01-01

406

Correlation between pyramidal signs and the severity of cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study was performed to determine the sensitivities of the pyramidal signs in patients with cervical myelopathy,\\u000a focusing on those with increased signal intensity (ISI) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The relationship\\u000a between prevalence of the pyramidal signs and the severity of myelopathy was investigated. We reviewed the records of 275\\u000a patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent surgery.

Hirotaka Chikuda; Atsushi Seichi; Katsushi Takeshita; Naoki Shoda; Takashi Ono; Ko Matsudaira; Hiroshi Kawaguchi; Kozo Nakamura

2010-01-01

407

Violence against Women Raises Risk of Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An emerging literature suggests that violence against women (VAW), particularly sexual violence, may increase the risk of acquiring a sexually transmitted infection (STI) and, therefore, may be associated with cervical cancer development. The purpose of this cross-sectional analysis was to determine if women who had experienced violence had higher prevalence rates of invasive cervical cancer.\\u000aMethods: Women aged 18–88

Ann L. Coker; Claudia Hopenhayn; Christopher P. DeSimone; Heather M. Bush; Leslie Crofford

2008-01-01

408

Sheep Cervical Spine Biomechanics: a Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Animal models are often used to make the transition from scientific concepts to clinical applications. The sheep model has emerged as an important model in spine biomechanics. Although there are several experimental biomechanical studies of the sheep cervical spine, only a limited number of computational models have been developed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop and validate a C2-C7 sheep cervical spine finite element (FE) model to study the biomechanics of the normal sheep cervical spine. Methods The model was based on anatomy defined using medical images and included nonlinear material properties to capture the high flexibility and large neutral zone of the sheep cervical spine. The model was validated using comprehensive experimental flexibility testing. Ten adult sheep cervical spines, from C2-C7, were used to experimentally ascertain overall and segmental flexibility to ±2 Nm in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Results The ranges of motion predicted by the computational model were within one standard deviation of the respective experimental motions throughout the load cycle, with the exception of extension and lateral bending. The model over- and under predicted the peak motions in extension and lateral bending, respectively. Nevertheless, the model closely represents the range of motion and flexibility of the sheep cervical spine. Discussion This is the first multilevel model of the sheep cervical spine. The validated model affords additional biomechanical insight into the intact sheep cervical spine that cannot be easily determined experimentally. The model can be used to study various surgical techniques, instrumentation, and device placement, providing researchers and clinicians insight that is difficult, if not impossible, to gain experimentally. PMID:25328473

DeVries Watson, Nicole A; Gandhi, Anup A; Fredericks, Doug C; Smucker, Joseph D; Grosland, Nicole M

2014-01-01

409

Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: A New Chance to Prevent Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and is the most common\\u000a sexually transmitted infection in the United States. HPV is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and dysplasia.\\u000a Thus, cervical cancer and other HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented or treated by HPV vaccines. Recent research\\u000a on the safety and efficacy of

Bradley J. Monk; Ali Mahdavi

410

Percutaneous vertebroplasty for multiple myeloma of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Spinal involvement is a common presentation of multiple myeloma (MM); however, the cervical spine is the least common site\\u000a of myelomatous involvement. Few studies evaluate the results of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) in the treatment of MM of\\u000a the spine. The purpose of this series is to report on the use of PV in the treatment of MM of the cervical

Francisco Mont’Alverne; Jean-Noel Vallée; Remy Guillevin; Evelyne Cormier; Betty Jean; Michelle Rose; José Guilherme Caldas; Jacques Chiras

2009-01-01

411

MMP-9 expression increases according to the grade of squamous intraepithelial lesion in cervical smears.  

PubMed

Studies about cervical carcinogenesis have demonstrated the increased expression of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) according to the grade of cervical intraepithelial lesions. Considering the importance of innovative techniques to introduce noninvasive and rapid diagnoses for patients, this study aimed to perform MMP-9 immunocytochemistry in cervical smears according to the cytopathological diagnoses, in order to monitor MMP activity in cervical smears. This cross-sectional study investigated the expression of MMP-9 in normal cervical smears, inflammatory cervical smears, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and cervical carcinoma. Cervical smears from 630 women were collected for cytopathological diagnoses and immunocytochemistry. Women with squamous intraepithelial lesions showed an increase in MMP-9 expression, with moderate to intense staining occurring with increasing cervical lesion grade. The prevalence of moderate to intense MMP-9 staining was 9% in normal cervical smears, 12% in cervical inflammation, 24% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), 92% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 100% in cervical carcinoma cases. In the specific case of LSIL, we found that association with MMP-9 is more evident when there is the simultaneous presence of an infectious agent. Thus, the expression of MMP-9 in cervical smears increases according to the grade of cervical lesion and LSIL in the presence of infectious agents showed higher MMP-9 expression than women with LSIL without infectious agents. PMID:24578283

Matheus, Erika R; Zonta, Marco A; Discacciati, Michelle G; Paruci, Priscila; Velame, Fernanda; Cardeal, Laura B S; Barros, Silvia B M; Pignatari, Antonio C; Maria-Engler, Silvya S

2014-10-01

412

In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

2014-02-01

413

[Is early first intercourse a risk factor for cervical cancer?].  

PubMed

Sexual behavior has long been known to be a risk factor for cervical carcinoma. Certain sexual risk factors are related to an increased risk of chronic infection of the cervical transformation zone with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs). Numerous retrospective analyses consider early first intercourse a probable risk factor for later development of cervical carcinoma. Since risk factors are associated, it is unclear whether early first intercourse is an independent risk factor for cervical neoplasia. Few comprehensive retrospective studies are available. It is possible that the cervical transformation zone is particularly vulnerable to infection between menarche and the age of sixteen. During this phase there are a large number of undifferentiated cells at the periphery of the metaplasia, practically at the surface of the cervix. It seems that this area is particularly susceptible to HPV infection. There are also indications that there is no secondary immune response to HPV at the time of early first intercourse, making the immune response to HPV less efficient. Other possible risk factors for cervical cancer include genetic predisposition, nutrition, smoking, Chlamydia or HSV-2 infections, drug abuse, oral contraception, immune suppression and early first pregnancy. Education appears important to encourage responsible sexual behaviour in young people. PMID:16205092

Reich, O

2005-10-01

414

Epidemiology, prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in the Philippines  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer remains to be one of the leading malignancies among Filipino women. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, such as 16 and 18, are consistently identified in Filipino women with cervical cancer. Factors identified to increase the likelihood of HPV infection and subsequent development of cervical cancer include young age at first intercourse, low socioeconomic status, high parity, smoking, use of oral contraception and risky sexual behaviors. Cancer screening programs presently available in the Philippines include Pap smears, single visit approach utilizing visual inspection with acetic acid followed by cryotherapy, as well as colposcopy. However, the uptake of screening remains low and is further compounded by the lack of basic knowledge women have regarding screening as an opportunity for prevention of cervical cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccination of both quadrivalent and bivalent vaccines has already been approved in the Philippines and is gaining popularity among the Filipinos. However, there has been no national or government vaccination policy implemented as of yet. The standard of treatment of cervical cancer is radiotherapy concurrent with chemotherapy. Current researches are directed towards improving availability of both preventive and curative measures of cervical cancer management. PMID:19471671

Dy Echo, Ana Victoria V.

2009-01-01

415

[General anesthesia and cervical anesthesia. What changes in carotid surgery].  

PubMed

Carotid surgery must be preventive; therefore cerebral protection procedures have been the centre of interest for a decade. Nowadays local cervical block anaesthesia seems to have changed the terms of the problem allowing achieve the aim of "no risk surgery". Therefore we considered our 16 year experience (352 carotids operated on 290 patients). Since 1990 we employed cervical block anaesthesia. In order to ratify as much as possible the two groups of comparison, considering that we adopted some exclusion criteria, we compared the results of the first hundred carotids that underwent surgery with general anaesthesia and the first hundred operated using cervical block anaesthesia. Since we adopted cervical block anaesthesia there was no need of intra-operative monitoring systems because we considered exclusively the patients' clinical answer to preclamping. The use of shunt decreased from 9% to 3%. Surgery performed in cervical block anaesthesia gives a positive impression. This is due to the fact that there is not only a significant reduction of the morbidity rate, especially from a neurologic point of view, but also a reduction of the post-operation hospital stay. Furthermore there is also a better organization of the surgical phases. Direct monitoring of the cerebral function allows a precise analysis of the peri-operatory neurological events. In conclusion our study suggests that cervical block anaesthesia allows clinical benefits for the patient as far as safety is concerned being also more convenient under the economic point of view. PMID:11452815

Salvati, B; Capoano, R; Costanzo, A; Carra, A; Snarska, D; Liguori, M; Zappa, B; Sposato, A; De Pasquale, F; Montori, J; De Antoni, E

2001-01-01

416

Frequency-Dependent Activation of Glucose Utilization in the Superior Cervical Ganglion by Electrical Stimulation of Cervical Sympathetic Trunk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical stimulation of the distal stump of the transected cervical sympathetic trunk produces a frequency-dependent activation of glucose utilization, measured by the deoxy[14C]glucose method, in the superior cervical ganglion of the urethane-anesthetized rat. The frequency dependence falls between 0-15 Hz; at 20 Hz the activation of glucose utilization is no greater than at 15 Hz. Deafferentation of the superior cervical ganglion by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk does not diminish the rate of glucose utilization in the ganglion in the urethane-anesthetized rat. These results indicate that the rate of energy metabolism in an innervated neural structure is, at least in part, regulated by the impulse frequency of the electrical input to the structure, and this regulation may be an essential component of the mechanism of the coupling of metabolic activity to functional activity in the nervous system.

Yarowsky, Paul; Kadekaro, Massako; Sokoloff, Louis

1983-07-01

417

Distribution and length of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae and risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms: a study of dry bones from Chiang Mai, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Vertebral osteophytes are a characteristic feature of intervertebral disc degeneration. In the lumbar spinal region, the two major structures in close proximity anterior to the spine are the inferior vena cava and the abdominal aorta, both of which have been reported to be affected by osteophytes. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution, classification and lengths of osteophytes in the lumbar vertebrae. One hundred and eighty lumbar columns of 90 males and 90 females from Chiang Mai, Thailand, in the age range 15 to 96 years (mean age, 63 years) were collected. The measuring length of osteophytes was assessed on vertebral body and articular facet. Statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis, chi-square and Pearson Correlation. Lumbar osteophytes were presented in 175 specimens (97.2%), 88 males and 87 females. The highest frequency was at L4, most were on the superior, inferior surface of body and articular facet (39.7%, 38.4%, and 22%), respectively. The greatest mean length was 3.47±2.21 mm at L5, and the longest length of anterior superior surface of body was 28.56 mm. The osteophyte length was significantly correlated directly with age (P<0.01), and males were significantly greater than females (P<0.05). The highest prevalence of osteophytes was on the anterior side of superior surface of body (30.4%), and the classification was traction. It can be proposed that the abdominal aorta could be damaged, especially a risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm. PMID:25276474

Chanapa, Patcharin; Yoshiyuki, Tohno

2014-01-01

418

Prevalence of cervical neoplastic lesions and Human Papilloma Virus infection in Egypt: National Cervical Cancer Screening Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Data from Egyptian studies provide widely varying estimates on the prevalence of pre-malignant and malignant cervical abnormalities and human papilloma virus (HPVs) infection. To define the prevalence and risk factors of pre-invasive and invasive cervical cancer (cacx), a community based full-scale cross sectional, household survey including 5453 women aged between 35 and 60 years was conducted. METHODS: The study

Howayda S Abd El All; Amany Refaat; Khadiga Dandash

2007-01-01

419

The effect of cervical traction combined with conventional therapy on grip strength on patients with cervical radiculopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if combining intermittent cervical traction with conventional physical therapy methods is more effective than using conventional approaches alone in the improvement of the grip strength and treatment of the patients with unilateral cervical 7 (C7) radiculopathy.Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT).Setting: An outpatient physical therapy clinic, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Iran.Patients: A sample of convenience

Mohammad Taghi Joghataei; Amir Massoud Arab; Hossein Khaksar

2004-01-01

420

Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among asian american women.  

PubMed

Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

2014-10-01

421

Adjacent segment disc pressures following two-level cervical disc replacement versus simulated anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical fusion (ACF) has been shown to alter the biomechanics of adjacent segments of the cervical spine. The goal of total disc replacement is to address pathology at a given disc with minimal disruption of the operated or adjacent segments. This study compares the pressure within discs adjacent to either a two-level simulated ACDF or a two-level total disc replacement with the ProDisc-C. A special automated motion testing apparatus was constructed. Four fresh cadaveric cervical spine specimens were affixed to the test stand and tested in flexion and extension under specific loads. Intradiscal, miniature strain-gauge-based transducers were placed in the discs above and below the "treated" levels. The specimens were then tested in flexion and extension. Pressure and overall angular displacement were measured. In the most extreme and highest quality specimen the difference at C3/C4 registered 800 kPa and the difference at C6/C7 registered 50 kPa. This same quality specimen treated with the ProDisc reached a flexion angle at much lower moments, 24.3 degrees at 5 N-m, when compared to the the SACF 12.2 degrees at 8.6 N-m. Therefore, the moment needed to achieve 15 degrees of flexion with the SACF treatment was 5.5 N-m and the ProDisc treatment was only 2.9 N-m. This initial data would indicate that adjacent level discs experience substantially lower pressure after two-level disc replacement when compared to two-level SACF. Additional testing to further support these observations is ongoing. PMID:17108473

Laxer, Eric B; Darden, Bruce V; Murrey, Daniel B; Milam, R Alden; Rhyne, Alfred L; Claytor, Brian; Nussman, Donna S; Powers, Timothy W; Davies, Matthew A; Bryant, S Chad; Larsen, Scott P; Bhatt, Meghal; Brodziak, John; Polic, Jelena

2006-01-01

422

High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology  

E-print Network

+ subset over the last few decades [3,4], while the fraction attribu- table to the traditional risk factors of heavy tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption has fallen gradually [5]. HPV prevalence data from either the anal or oral site in men who have sex... within the community. It follows that post- treatment for cervical disease, a woman should not be declared “HPV negative” unless and until these other major sites have been tested. The high oral HPV prevalence in our population con- trasts to another...

Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

2011-11-02

423

Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Barriers of Screening Program among Women in Wufeng County, a High-Incidence Region of Cervical Cancer in China  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cervical cancer screening is an effective method for reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer, but the screening attendance rate in developing countries is far from satisfactory, especially in rural areas. Wufeng is a region of high cervical cancer incidence in China. This study aimed to investigate the issues that concern cervical cancer and screening and the factors that affect women’s willingness to undergo cervical cancer screening in the Wufeng area. Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey of women was conducted to determine their knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, demographic characteristics and the barriers to screening. Results Women who were willing to undergo screenings had higher knowledge levels. “Anxious feeling once the disease was diagnosed” (47.6%), “No symptoms/discomfort” (34.1%) and “Do not know the benefits of cervical cancer screening” (13.4%) were the top three reasons for refusing cervical cancer screening. Women who were younger than 45 years old or who had lower incomes, positive family histories of cancer, secondary or higher levels of education, higher levels of knowledge and fewer barriers to screening were more willing to participate in cervical cancer screenings than women without these characteristics. Conclusion Efforts are needed to increase women’s knowledge about cervical cancer, especially the screening methods, and to improve their perceptions of the screening process for early detection to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. PMID:23843976

Zhou, Hang; Xiang, Qunying; Hu, Ting; Zhang, Qinghua; Chen, Zhilan; Ma, Ding; Feng, Ling

2013-01-01

424

Radiographic Assessment of Effect of Congenital Monosegment Synostosis of Lower Cervical Spine between C2-C6 on Adjacent Mobile Segments  

PubMed Central

Study Design A prospective radiographic study of cervical spine with congenital monosegment fusion. Purpose To evaluate the effect of cervical synostosis on adjacent segments and the vertebral morphology. Overview of Literature There are numerous clinical studies of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after monosegment surgical fusion. However, there was no report on ASD in the cervical spine with congenital monosegment synostosis. Methods Radiograms of 52 patients, aged 5 to 90 years, with congenital monosegment synostosis (CMS) between C2 and C6, who complained of neck/shoulder discomfort or pain were studied. 51 were normally aligned and one was kyphotically aligned. Results Spondylosis was not found in the patients below 35 years of age. Only 12 out of 24 patients with normally aligned C2-3 synostosis had spondylosis in 19 more caudal segments, and only one at C3-4. A patient with kyphotic C2-3 had spondylolysis at C3-4. In 8 patients with C3-4 synostosis, spondylosis was found in only 9 caudal segments (4 at C4-5, 4 at C5-6, and 1 at C6-7). The caudate C4-5 disc was the most liable to degenerate in comparison with other caudate segments. Caudal corporal flaring and inwaisting of the synostotic vertebra were the features that were the most evident. In 2 of 9 C4-5 and 7 out of 10 C5-6 synostosis patients, spondylosis was found at the two adjacent cephalad and caudate segments, respectively. Only corporal inwaisting without flaring was found. In all cases, spondylosis was confined to the adjacent segments. More advanced spondylosis was found in the immediate caudal segment than the cephalad one. Conclusions It is concluded that spondylosis at the mobile segments in a synostotic spine is thought to be a fusion-related pathology rather than solely age-related disc degeneration. Those data suggested that CMS definitely precipitated the disc degeneration in the adjacent segments. PMID:25346814

Moon, Myung-Sang; Yoon, Min-Geun; Seo, Young Hoon; Lee, Bong-Jin; Moon, Hanlim; Kim, Sung-Sim

2014-01-01

425

Outpatient surgery in the cervical spine: is it safe?  

PubMed

Study Design?Systematic review. Study Rationale?As the length of stay after cervical spine surgery has decreased substantially, the feasibility and safety of outpatient cervical spine surgery come into question. Although minimal length of stay is a targeted metric for quality and costs for medical centers, the safety of outpatient cervical spine surgery has not been clearly defined. Objective?The objective of this article is to evaluate the safety of inpatient versus outpatient surgery in the cervical spine for adult patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic degenerative disc disease. Methods?A systematic review of the literature was undertaken for articles published through February 19, 2014. Electronic databases and the bibliographies of key articles were searched to identify comparative studies evaluating the safety of inpatient versus outpatient surgery in the cervical spine. Spinal cord stimulation, spinal injections, and diagnostic procedures were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the strength of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results?Five studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. One study reported low risk of hematoma (0% of outpatients and 1.6% of inpatients). Two studies reported on mortality and both reported no deaths in either group following surgery. Dysphagia risks ranged from 0 to 10% of outpatients and 1.6 to 5% of inpatients, and infection risks ranged from 0 to 1% of outpatients and 2 to 2.8% of inpatients. One study reported that no (0) outpatients were readmitted to the hospital due to a complication, compared with four inpatients (7%). The overall strength of evidence was insufficient for all safety outcomes examined. Conclusion?Though the studies in our systematic review did not suggest an increased risk of complication with outpatient cervical spine surgery, the strength of evidence to make a recommendation was insufficient. Further study is needed to more clearly define the role of outpatient cervical spine surgery. PMID:25278884

Lee, Michael J; Kalfas, Iain; Holmer, Haley; Skelly, Andrea

2014-10-01

426

Cervical artery dissection goes frequently undiagnosed.  

PubMed

Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is a frequent cause of stroke among young patients. It is unclear how many CeADs occur asymptomatically or cause subtle and unspecific clinical symptoms. We hypothesize that CeAD remains often unrecognized. Accordingly, the incidence of CeAD might be higher and the stroke risk lower than generally assumed. Lack of CeAD-indicating clinical symptoms is regarded as the main cause of missed diagnoses. We further hypothesize that underrepresentation of asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic patients in CeAD studies may have biased the association between ischemia and local symptoms in CeAD patients as well as the associations of CeAD with risk factors or co-morbidities. We finally hypothesize that symptomatic CeAD may be preceded by an initial asymptomatic phase. According to this final hypothesis, the time of onset of CeAD should be considered uncertain. The issue of unrecognized CeAD is relevant, as it may affect the associations between CeAD and putative risk factors. Furthermore, the existence of clinically silent CeADs may explain why recurrent and familial CeAD have been rarely observed. PMID:23562286

Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Metso, Tiina M; Metso, Antti J; Pezzini, Alessandro; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Hakimi, Maani; Grau, Armin J; Kloss, Manja; Lichy, Christoph

2013-06-01

427

Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. Methods and Materials: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage IB1 to IVA treated with (chemo) radiation between 1994 and 2001 were analyzed. Patients underwent gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after completion of treatment. Cervical biopsy samples were taken from patients judged to be operable. In case of residual cancer, salvage surgery was performed. Results: Between 1994 and 2001, 169 consecutive cervical cancer patients received primary (chemo) radiation, of whom 4 were lost to follow-up. Median age was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR], 44-71) and median follow-up was 3.5 years (IQR, 1.5-5.9). In each of 111 patients a biopsy sample was taken, of which 90 (81%) showed no residual tumor. Vital tumor cells were found in 21 of 111 patients (19%). Salvage surgery was performed in 13 of 21 (62%) patients; of these patients, 5 (38%) achieved long-term, complete remission after salvage surgery (median follow-up, 5.2 years; range, 3.9-8.8 years). All patients with residual disease who did not undergo operation (8/21) died of progressive disease. Locoregional control was more often obtained in patients who underwent operation (7 of 13) than in patients who were not selected for salvage surgery (0 of 8 patients) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Gynecologic examination under anesthesia 8 to 10 weeks after (chemo) radiation with cervical biopsies allows identification of those cervical cancer patients who have residual local disease, of whom a small but significant proportion may be salvaged by surgery.

Nijhuis, Esther R. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hout, Bertha A. in 't [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Boomgaard, Jantine J. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hullu, Joanne A. de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Hollema, Harry [Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Aalders, Jan G. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Nijman, Hans W. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Willemse, Pax H.B. [Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Mourits, Marian J.E. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: m.j.e.mourits@og.umcg.nl

2006-11-01

428

Identification and validation of genes involved in cervical tumourigenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women. This cancer has well defined pre-cancerous stages and evolves over 10-15 years or more. This study was undertaken to identify differentially expressed genes between normal, dysplastic and invasive cervical cancer. Materials and methods A total of 28 invasive cervical cancers, 4 CIN3/CIS, 4 CIN1/CIN2 and 5 Normal cervix samples were studied. We have used microarray technique followed by validation of the significant genes by relative quantitation using Taqman Low Density Array Real Time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the protein expression of MMP3, UBE2C and p16 in normal, dysplasia and cancers of the cervix. The effect of a dominant negative UBE2C on the growth of the SiHa cells was assessed using a MTT assay. Results Our study, for the first time, has identified 20 genes to be up-regulated and 14 down-regulated in cervical cancers and 5 up-regulated in CIN3. In addition, 26 genes identified by other studies, as to playing a role in cervical cancer, were also confirmed in our study. UBE2C, CCNB1, CCNB2, PLOD2, NUP210, MELK, CDC20 genes were overexpressed in tumours and in CIN3/CIS relative to both Normal and CIN1/CIN2, suggesting that they could have a role to play in the early phase of tumorigenesis. IL8, INDO, ISG15, ISG20, AGRN, DTXL, MMP1, MMP3, CCL18, TOP2A AND STAT1 were found to be upregulated in tumours. Using Immunohistochemistry, we showed over-expression of MMP3, UBE2C and p16 in cancers compared to normal cervical epithelium and varying grades of dysplasia. A dominant negative UBE2C was found to produce growth inhibition in SiHa cells, which over-expresses UBE2C 4 fold more than HEK293 cells. Conclusions Several novel genes were found to be differentially expressed in cervical cancer. MMP3, UBE2C and p16 protein overexpression in cervical cancers was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These will need to be validated further in a larger series of samples. UBE2C could be evaluated further to assess its potential as a therapeutic target in cervical cancer. PMID:21338529

2011-01-01

429

Cervical cancer screening among Michigan women: 'The Special Cancer Behavioral Risk Factor Survey', 2004-2008.  

PubMed

The burden of cervical cancer remains greater among minority women. The purpose of this study was to evaluate racial/ethnic disparities in cervical cancer screening among minority women in Michigan. Data from 8,023 women (? 40 years) surveyed in the 2004-2008 Michigan Special Cancer Behavioral Risk Factor Survey were used to assess racial/ethnic differences in cervical cancer screening, knowledge and beliefs. Unexpectedly, African-American and Hispanic women reported being screened for cervical cancer at rates similar to, or higher than, Whites. Women demonstrated limited knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and its signs/symptoms. Most minority women were more likely than Whites to believe in the importance of cervical screening, with Hispanic women more likely to support HPV vaccination. Differential utilisation of screening does not explain the disproportionately high rates of cervical cancer among minorities. Future research should examine disparities in the follow-up of abnormal cervical results and receipt of treatment. PMID:23919863

Pierce Campbell, C M; Darwish-Yassine, M; Harlow, S D; Johnston, C M; Curado, M P; Cho, K R; Soliman, A S

2013-08-01

430

Detection of cancerous cervical cells using physical adhesion of fluorescent silica particles and centripetal force  

E-print Network

) smear and liquid-based cytology tests2,3 have proven to be the most successful methods of cervical of cervical cancer, methods which could work with cells collected with cell cytology tests without tissue

Sokolov, Igor

431

Importance of the Radicular Syndrome in Cervical Migraine (O Znachenii Radikulyarnogo Sindroma Pri Sheinoi Migreni).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The direct causes of cerebral disorders in cervical migraine are compression of the vertebral artery and irritation of the vertebral nerve by cervical osteophytes, deformed uncinate processes, as well as the pathological afferentation which occurs here. O...

A. Y. Ratner

1970-01-01

432

Variations in survival for invasive cervical cancer among European women, 1978–89  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To analyze cervical cancer survival trends in 10 European countries using models that estimate the proportion of cured patients (having the same life expectancy as the general population) and the survival of fatal cases (who die from cervical cancer).

Gemma Gatta; Riccardo Capocaccia; Timo Hakulinen; Milena Sant; Arduino Verdecchia; Gianni De Angelis; Andrea Micheli; Franco Berrino

1999-01-01

433

78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...claim for VA disability benefits related to a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments and...results of medical examination and related to the claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. VA will gather medical...

2013-06-17

434

Transcriptome sequencing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) notochord prior to development of the vertebrae provides clues to regulation of positional fate, chordoblast lineage and mineralisation  

PubMed Central

Background In teleosts such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), segmentation and subsequent mineralisation of the notochord during embryonic stages are essential for normal vertebrae formation. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to segmentation and mineralisation of the notochord are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genes/pathways acting in gradients over time and along the anterior-posterior axis during notochord segmentation and immediately prior to mineralisation of the vertebral bodies in Atlantic salmon. Results Notochord samples were collected from unsegmented, pre-segmented and segmented developmental stages. In each stage, the cellular core of the notochord was cut into three pieces along the longitudinal axis (anterior, mid, posterior). RNA was sequenced (22 million pair-end 100 bp/ library) and mapped to the salmon genome. 66569 transcripts were predicted and 55775 were annotated. In order to identify possible gradients leading to segmentation of the notochord, all 71 notochord-expressed hox genes were investigated, most of them displaying a typical anterior-posterior expression pattern along the notochord axis. The clustering of hox genes revealed a pattern that could be related to notochord segmentation. We further investigated how mineralisation is initiated in the notochord, and several factors related to chondrogenic lineage were identified (sox9, sox5, sox6, tgfb3, ihhb and col2a1), suggesting a cartilage-like character of the notochord. KEGG analysis of differentially expressed genes between stages revealed down-regulation of pathways associated with ECM, cell division, metabolism and development at onset of notochord segmentation. This implies that inhibitory signals produce segmentation of the notochord. One such potential inhibitory signal was identified, col11a2, which was detected in segments of non-mineralising notochord. Conclusions An incomplete salmon genome was successfully used to analyse RNA-seq data from the cellular core of the Atlantic salmon notochord. In transcriptome we found; hox gene patterns possibly linked to segmentation; down-regulation of pathways in the notochord at onset of segmentation; segmented expression of col11a2 in non-mineralised segments of the notochord; and a chondroblast-like footprint in the notochord. PMID:24548379

2014-01-01

435

Psychological distress in chronic craniomandibular and cervical spinal pain patients.  

PubMed

Recent studies to chronic pain have shown that the number of painful body areas is related to the level of psychological distress. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to analyse differences in level of psychological distress between craniomandibular pain patients with or without cervical spinal pain. In this analysis, the number of painful body areas below the cervical spine was also taken into account. The second aim was to determine psychological differences between subgroups of craniomandibular pain patients. In this study, 103 out of 250 persons with or without craniomandibular pain were included in the final analyses. Patients who suffered from both craniomandibular and cervical spinal pain showed higher levels of psychological distress, as measured with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) than patients with local craniomandibular pain and persons without pain. Further, a positive relationship was found between the number of painful body areas below the cervical spine, as measured on a body drawing, and the SCL-90 scores. No psychological differences were found between myogenous and arthrogenous craniomandibular pain patients. In conclusion, chronic craniomandibular pain patients with a coexistent cervical spinal pain showed more psychological distress compared to patients with only a local craniomandibular pain and asymptomatic persons. PMID:11456346

Visscher, C M; Lobbezoo, F; de Boer, W; van der Meulen, M; Naeije, M

2001-06-01

436

Persistence of endometrial activity after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Radiation therapy is a proved treatment for cervical carcinoma; however, it destroys ovarian function and has been thought to ablate the endometrium. Estrogen replacement therapy is often prescribed for patients with cervical carcinoma after radiation therapy. A review of records of six teaching hospitals revealed 16 patients who had endometrial sampling for uterine bleeding after standard radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma. Fifteen patients underwent dilatation and curettage, and one patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy when a dilatation and curettage was unsuccessful. Six patients had fibrosis and inflammation of the endometrial cavity, seven had proliferative endometrium, one had cystic hyperplasia, one had atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, and one had adenocarcinoma. Although the number of patients who have an active endometrium after radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma is not known, this report demonstrates that proliferative endometrium may persist, and these patients may develop endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma. Studies have indicated that patients with normal endometrial glands have an increased risk of developing endometrial adenocarcinoma if they are treated with unopposed estrogen. Patients who have had radiation therapy for cervical carcinoma should be treated with estrogen and a progestational agent to avoid endometrial stimulation from unopposed estrogen therapy.

Barnhill, D.; Heller, P.; Dames, J.; Hoskins, W.; Gallup, D.; Park, R.

1985-12-01