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1

Vertebroplasty of Cervical Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The first vertebroplasty was performed by Harve Deramond in France in 1984 due to a hemangioma of cervical vertebral body. Procedure technique consisted of inserting a needle through the bony palate of the oral cavity. Bone cement injected under pressure not only fills the areas of bone loss. The heat released in the process of crystallization causes denaturation of pathological tissue proteins (metastasis) and disrupts blood supply (hemangiomas). The aim of this study was to evaluate the method of treatment from anterolateral access. Material/Methods In the years 2007–2012 the procedure was performed in 6 men and 9 women aged from 42 to 71 years (mean age: 56.3 years). In 10 cases the reason for vertebroplasty was the vertebral hemangioma, in another 4 – pathological vertebral fractures due to metastases, and in one case – multiple myeloma. Procedures were performed from anterolateral access, under local anesthesia, under x-ray guidance (fluoroscopy). Bone needle was inserted into the vertebral body, followed by injection of PMMA cement. Results In 100% cases pain relief was observed immediately after the procedure and beneficial therapeutic effect was obtained. No life-threatening complications and clinical symptoms were observed. Average length hospital stay amounted to 2.9 days. Conclusions Cervical spine vertebroplasty from anterolateral access seems to be a safe, effective and beneficial method of treatment. It reduces the risk of infection in comparison to the transoral method. PMID:25674195

Kordecki, Kazimierz; Lewszuk, Andrzej; Pu?awska-Stalmach, Magdalena; Michalak, Pawe?; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Polaków, Piotr; Rutka, Katarzyna; ?ebkowski, Wojciech; ?ebkowska, Urszula

2015-01-01

2

Extreme selection in humans against homeotic transformations of cervical vertebrae.  

PubMed

Why do all mammals, except for sloths and manatees, have exactly seven cervical vertebrae? In other vertebrates and other regions, the vertebral number varies considerably. We investigated whether natural selection constrains the number of cervical vertebrae in humans. To this end, we determined the incidence of cervical ribs and other homeotic vertebral changes in radiographs of deceased human fetuses and infants, and analyzed several existing datasets on the incidence in infants and adults. Our data show that homeotic transformations that change the number of cervical vertebrae are extremely common in humans, but are strongly selected against: almost all individuals die before reproduction. Selection is most probably indirect, caused by a strong coupling of such changes with major congenital abnormalities. Changes in the number of thoracic vertebrae appear to be subject to weaker selection, in good correspondence with the weaker evolutionary constraint on these numbers. Our analysis highlights the role of prenatal selection in the conservation of our common body plan. PMID:17263123

Galis, Frietson; Van Dooren, Tom J M; Feuth, Johan D; Metz, Johan A J; Witkam, Andrea; Ruinard, Sebastiaan; Steigenga, Marc J; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D

2006-12-01

3

Cervical vertebrae anomalies in patients with class III skeletal malocclusion  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective: Studies have documented that deviations in skeletal components such as the cranial base, the mid-facial complex and the mandible may be associated with morphological factors in patients with class III skeletal malocclusion. Furthermore, deviations in head and neck posture may be associated with the class III skeletal malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical vertebrae morphology in patients with class III skeletal malocclusion and adults with normal occlusion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study assessed 30 patients with class III skeletal malocclusion (aged 17-30 yrs, with normal vertical growth pattern and ANB<0) were compared with 46 controls (aged 17-30 years, with normal vertical growth pattern, ANB=3+1). Cervical vertebrae anomalies (fusion anomalies and posterior arch deficiency) were assessed via evaluation of their lateral cephalograms. The t- test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study group, 73.3% had fusion of the body of the cervical vertebrae, while in the control group only 32.6% showed fusion. The fusion in the control group was between C2 and C3 in all cases; whereas, in the study group, fusion was seen between C2-C3, C3-C¬4 or C4-C¬5. Additionally, cervical column deviations occurred significantly more often in the study group compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion: Class III skeletal malocclusion may be associated with fusion of cervical vertebrae and deviation of the cervical column. PMID:23125492

Meibodi, Shahin Emami; Parhiz, Hadi; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Fetrati, Asal; Meibodi, Elham Morshedi; Meshkat, Arash

2011-01-01

4

Primary Ewing's sarcoma of cervical vertebra: An uncommon presentation  

PubMed Central

Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor primarily seen in the long bones. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is quite uncommon occurring in 1% of the cases. We report the occurrence of this rare lesion in a 24-year-old male presenting with progressively increasing swelling in left mastoid region mimicking a mastoid abscess which was later diagnosed on Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a small round cell tumor as Ewing's sarcoma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed a typical moth eaten appearance in the first and second cervical vertebra. PMID:25126127

Chhabra, Sonia; Singh, Sunita; Sethi, Divya; Mahapatra, Qury Sabita

2014-01-01

5

New approach to evaluate rotation of cervical vertebrae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Functional deficits after whiplash injury can be analyzed with a quite novel radiologic method by examination of joint-blocks in C0/1 and C1/2. Thereto the movability of C0, C1 and C2 is determined with three spiral CT-scans of the patient's cervical spine. One series in neutral and one in maximal active lateral right and left rotation each. Previous methods were slice based and time consuming when manually evaluated. We propose a new approach to a computation of these angles in 3D. After a threshold segmentation of bone tissue, a rough 2D classification takes place for C0, C1 and C2 in each rotation series. The center of an axial rotation for each vertebra is gained from the approximation of its center of gravity. The rotation itself is estimated by a cross-correlation of the radial distance functions. From the previous rotation the results are taken to initialize a 3D matching algorithm based on the sum of squared differences in intensity. The optimal match of the vertebrae is computed by means of the multidimensional Powell minimization algorithm. The three translational and three rotational components build a six-dimensional search-space. The vertebrae detection and rotation computation is done fully automatic.

Hahn, Matthias

2001-07-01

6

Morphological, stereological and radiological changes in pinealectomized chicken cervical vertebrae.  

PubMed

Considerable evidence supports the hypothesis that melatonin plays an important role in osteogenesis. We carried out an experiment to investigate histological and radiological changes in the cervical vertebrae of pinealectomized chickens. Thirty new-hatched chicks were divided into two groups: pinealectomized group (n=15) and nonpinealectomized control (n=15). Surgical pinealectomies were performed in Hybro broiler chickens at the age of 3 days. At 8 wk, one animal from each group was examined using computed tomography scanner to obtain density histograms of four consecutive vertebrae between the 4th and 7th cervical vertebral segments of chickens. At the end of the study, all animals were killed for subsequent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and macroscopic, radiographic and histopathological evaluation of specimens. We found that the profile of the density histogram in nonpinealectomized control group showed a spike profile for the vertebral body, indicating an increase in the amount of higher density tissues in this region, while a plateau-shaped profile was obtained for the vertebral body in pinealectomy group, indicating the presence of heterogenous bone tissue. Accordingly, the mean value of BMD in pinealectomy group was significantly lower at the vertebral body in chickens compared with control subjects (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, almost all of the chickens in pinealectomy group developed a scoliotic curvature and the mean weight and length of the cervical vertebral bodies of the pinealectomized chickens were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.001). Although the numerical density of osteocytes and osteoblasts in pinealectomy group was significantly higher than that from the control group, total number of osteocytes but not osteoblasts in cervical vetrebrae from pinealectomized animals was significantly lower than that from nonpinealectomized control animals (P<0.05). In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated for the first time pinealectomy-induced histomorphometrical changes in chicken vertebral column using stereological methods, suggesting that pineal gland/melatonin may have an osteoinductive effect on bone formation, but further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship of our findings with some disorders such as postmenopausal and/or senile osteoporosis. PMID:16207295

Turgut, Mehmet; Kaplan, Süleyman; Turgut, Ahmet T; Aslan, Hüseyin; Güvenç, Tolga; Cullu, Emre; Erdogan, Serpil

2005-11-01

7

A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.  

PubMed

The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

2014-11-01

8

Hierarchical Model-based Tracking of Cervical Vertebrae from Dynamic Biplane Radiographs  

PubMed Central

We present a novel approach for automatically, accurately and reliably de-termining the 3D motion of the cervical spine from a series of stereo or biplane radiographic images. These images could be acquired through a variety of different imaging hardware configurations. We follow a hierarchical, anatomically-aware, multi-bone approach that takes into account the complex structure of cervical vertebrae and inter-vertebrae overlapping, as well as the temporal coherence in the imaging series. These significant innovations improve the speed, accuracy, reliability and flexibility of the tracking process. Evaluation on cervical data shows that the approach is as accurate (average precision 0.3 mm and 1°) as the expert human-operator driven method that was previously state of the art. However, unlike the previously used method, the hierarchical approach is automatic and robust; even in the presence of implanted hardware. Therefore, the method has solid potential for clinical use to evaluate the effectiveness of surgical interventions. PMID:23122602

Haque, Abedul; Anderst, William; Tashman, Scott; Marai, G. Elisabeta

2012-01-01

9

Estimation of orientation and position of cervical vertebrae for segmentation with active shape models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiologists are always looking for more reliable and robust methods to help them assess, describe and classify bone structures in x-ray images. Although, in the recent years, computer-assisted techniques have proven to be useful in this regard, they still face difficult challenges such as inter-subject variability in shape and a lack of contrast in the digitized images of radiographs. These challenges have focused the attention of the computer vision research community on techniques that employ deformable models. One such technique, i.e., Active Shape Models (ASM), has received significant attention due to its ability to capture the shape variability and to deal with the poor quality of the images in a straightforward manner. However, as is often the case with iterative optimization techniques, success of the ASM search step is highly dependent on the initial positioning of the mean shape on the target image. Within the specific framework of automatic, cervical vertebra segmentation, we have developed and tested an up-front preprocessing algorithm that estimates the orientation and position of the cervical vertebrae in x-ray images and leads to a more accurate, initial placement of the mean shape. The algorithm estimates the orientation of the spine by calculating parallel-beam line integrals of the x-ray images. The position of the spine is estimated by considering the density of edges perpendicular to the line integral that gives the estimate of the orientation. The output of the algorithm is a bounding box surrounding the cervical spine area. Morphometric points placed by expert radiologists on a set of 40, digitized radiographs were used to quantify the efficacy of the estimation. This test yielded acceptable results in estimating the orientation and the locating of the cervical spine.

Zamora, Gilberto; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Mitra, Sunanda; Long, L. Rodney

2001-07-01

10

Sex determination using the second cervical vertebra--A test of the method.  

PubMed

Sex is one of the critical questions addressed when unidentified skeletal remains are discovered in forensic or archeological contexts. Continuous testing and re-evaluation of existing techniques is essential to improve accuracy and precision. The Wescott (J Forensic Sci 2000;45(2):462-6) method of sex determination from dimensions of the second cervical vertebra was blind-tested on 153 adult individuals from the Spitalfields documented collection of human skeletal remains held at the Natural History Museum, London. Significant sex differences were determined for all dimensions measured (independent two-sample t-test, p<0.05-0.001). The discriminant functions developed by Wescott were shown to have an overall accuracy of classification of 76.99%. Using stepwise discriminant analysis, a discriminant function based on the Spitalfields data correctly classified sex in 83.3% of individuals and was able to classify males and females with equal accuracy. Additional discriminant functions are presented for use in instances where preservation of the second cervical vertebra is poor. PMID:20735699

Marlow, Emily J; Pastor, Robert F

2011-01-01

11

Transgenic over-expression of growth differentiation factor 11 propeptide in skeleton results in transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra.  

PubMed

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is one of the significant genes that control skeletal formation. Knockout of GDF11 function causes abnormal patterning of the anterior/posterior axial skeleton. The mRNA of GDF11 is initially translated to a precursor protein that undergoes a proteolytic cleavage to generate the C-terminal peptide or mature GDF11, and the N-terminal peptide named GDF11 propeptide. The propeptide can antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To investigate the effects of GDF11 propeptide on GDF11 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that over-express the propeptide cDNA in skeletal tissue. The transgenic mice showed formation of extra ribs on the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) as a result of transformation of the C7 vertebra into a thoracic vertebra. The GDF11 propeptide transgene mRNA was detected in tail tissue in embryos and was highly expressed in tail and calvaria bones after birth. A high frequency of C7 rib formation was noticed in the transgenic mouse line with a high level of transgene expression. The anterior boundaries of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 mRNA in situ expressions showed cranial shifts from their normal prevertebra locations in transgenic embryos. These results demonstrated significant effects of GDF11 propeptide transgene on vertebral formation, which are likely occurring through depressing GDF11 function and altered locations of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 expression. PMID:21049546

Li, Zicong; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Zhao, Baoping; Moisyadi, Stefan; Yang, Jinzeng

2010-11-01

12

Giant prolactinoma presenting as a skull base tumor with erosion of the cervical vertebrae: pronounced responsiveness to dopamine agonist treatment.  

PubMed

Giant prolactinomas are rare and usually associated with symptoms attributable to hypopituitarism and compression of juxtasellar structures such as the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus and the optic chiasm. Occasionally, they masquerade as skull base tumors with atypical symptoms. We describe a patient who presented with a low-energy trauma in the neck region that led to the initial diagnosis of a large skull base tumor eroding the cervical vertebrae. After stabilizing surgery, the patient responded to dopamine agonist therapy with normalization of serum prolactin levels and pronounced reduction in tumor volume. PMID:25162753

Bjerg, Mia L; Rosendal, Frederikke; Nielsen, Edith; Ulhøi, Benedikte Palm; Jørgensen, Jens O L

2014-08-27

13

The Cervical Spine of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Regionalization in Their S-Shaped Arrangement  

PubMed Central

Background Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. Methodology/Principal findings X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola) and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1?C14). The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14) formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. Conclusions/Significance A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3–7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further characterize morphology and the potential movements associated with it. PMID:24651767

Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.; Wagner, Hermann

2014-01-01

14

Spontaneous atraumatic fracture of a cervical vertebra in tuberculosis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Spontaneous pathological fractures of the cervical spine due to tuberculosis are rare. But with escalating incidences of atypical presentations of tubercular disease, clinicians should exercise a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis of such cases. Case presentation We present a case of a 50-year-old Hindu man from northern India, who complained of pain and stiffness in his neck. His radiographs showed a fracture in his second cervical vertebral body. But further investigations raised the suspicion of an infective pathology, which was corroborated by magnetic resonance imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology. His symptoms improved and the fracture healed following antitubercular chemotherapy and immobilization. Conclusion In endemic regions like India, clinicians should be on the lookout for atypical presentations of tuberculosis. Any suspicious lesion should be evaluated with care for clinical, radiological and laboratory evidences of the infection. The affected spine should be protected and appropriate chemotherapy should be instituted at the earliest opportunity. PMID:22651918

2012-01-01

15

Shape differences in the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and bats (Pteropus poiocephalus): can we see shape patterns derived from position in column and species membership?  

PubMed Central

The shapes of cervical (C1–C7) and upper thoracic (T1, T2) vertebrae from the rat and the grey-headed flying fox have been analysed by Fourier analysis to investigate the types of variation present and to try to isolate bones according to position along the vertebral column and species. It was found that the T2 vertebrae of the rat are very different from all others in the study, that C2 and C6 vertebrae are very similar and that the remaining vertebrae split according to species. PMID:10337957

JOHNSON, D. R.; McANDREW, T. J.; OGUZ, ÖZKAN

1999-01-01

16

CT Morphometric Analysis to Determine the Anatomical Basis for the Use of Transpedicular Screws during Reconstruction and Fixations of Anterior Cervical Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS) in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population. Methods Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images were performed for 80 cases. The anatomic data and screw fixation parameters for ATPS fixation were measured using the Mimics software. Findings The overall mean OPW, OPH and PAL ranged from 5.81 to 7.49 mm, 7.77 to 8.69 mm, and 33.40 to 31.13 mm separately, and SPA was 93.54 to 109.36 degrees from C3 to C6, 104.99 degrees at C7, whereas, 49.00 to 32.26 degrees from C4 to C7, 46.79 degrees at C3 (TPA). Dl/rSIP had an increasing trend away from upper endplate with mean value from 1.87 to 5.83 mm. Dl/rTIP was located at the lateral portion of the anterior cortex of vertebrae for C3 to C5 and ipsilateral for C6 to C7 with mean value from ?2.70 to ?3.00 mm, and 0.17 to 3.18 mm. The entrance points for pedicular screw insertion for C3 to C5 and C6 to C7 were recommended ?2??3 mm and 0–4 mm from the median sagittal plane, respectively, 1–4 mm and 5–6 mm from the upper endplate, with TPA being 46.79–49.00 degrees and 40.89–32.26 degrees, respectively, and SPA being 93.54–106.69 degrees and 109.36–104.99 degrees, respectively. The pedicle screw insertion diameter was recommended 3.5 mm (C3 and C4), 4.0 mm (C5 to C7), and the pedicle axial length was 21–24 mm for C3 to C7 for both genders. However, the ATPS insertion in C3 should be individualized given its relatively small anatomical dimensions. Conclusions The data provided a morphometric basis for the ATPS fixation technique in lower cervical fixation. It will help in preoperative planning and execution of this surgery. PMID:24349038

Chen, Chun; Ruan, Dike; Wu, Changfu; Wu, Weidong; Sun, Peidong; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Wu, Jigong; Lu, Sheng; Ouyang, Jun

2013-01-01

17

Correlation Analysis of the Hyoid Bone Position in Relation to the Cranial Base, Mandible and Cervical Part of Vertebra with Particular Reference to Bimaxillary Relations / Teleroentgenogram Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The relationship among the orofacial system and the rest of the body ,both in functional and anatomical terms was the subject of numerous scientific studies. The optimum position of the bone structures of orofacial system provides performance of intact vital functions, such as breathing or swallowing. Hyoid bone represents a link between the head and neck. Although located in the neck, hyoid bone due to its brachial origin belongs to the visceral skeleton. The purpose of the research: a) To determine the position of the hyoid bone, in relation to the cranial base, mandible and cervical part of the vertebra; b) To determine the linear measures of hyoid bone and its constituents and c) to Identify on the profile teleroengen image, whether there are differences in the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship. The examinees and methods: 30 profile teleroengen images of patients aged 17-18 years of both sexes were used for this study. To study the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship respondents were divided into groups based on the ANB-angle values. The first group is ortognat patients with ANBangle values, from 1 to 4°. The second group included patients with distal jaw relationship, that is, whose values of ANB-angle were greater than / or 5°. The third group consists of patients with ANB-angle value of 0 or negative. Results and Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone is not constant, but depends on the maxillo-mandibular anterior posterior relationships. Length of hyoid bones and greater horns of hyoid bone differs with respect to the sagittal malocclusion. In relation to the cranial base and maxillary bones flat position of the hyoid bone is highly correlated. A positive correlation was found with relation to the cervical vertebra, while the dependence is determined in relation to the steep mandibular plane. PMID:23322951

Deljo, Emsudina; Filipovic, Mediha; Babacic, Rafeta; Grabus, Jasmina

2012-01-01

18

Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical abnormalities of the cervical spine at the level of the Atlas vertebra are associated with relative ischaemia of the brainstem circulation and increased blood pressure (BP). Manual correction of this mal-alignment has been associated with reduced arterial pressure. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that correcting mal-alignment of the Atlas vertebra reduces and maintains a lower BP. Using a

G Bakris; M Dickholtz Sr; P M Meyer; G Kravitz; E Avery; M Miller; J Brown; C Woodfield; B Bell

2007-01-01

19

Automated localization of vertebra landmarks in MRI images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of key landmark points in an MR spine image is an important step for tasks such as vertebra counting. In this paper, we propose a template matching based approach for automatic detection of two key landmark points, namely the second cervical vertebra (C2) and the sacrum from sagittal MR images. The approach is comprised of an approximate localization of vertebral column followed by matching with appropriate templates in order to detect/localize the landmarks. A straightforward extension of the work described here is an automated classification of spine section(s). It also serves as a useful building block for further automatic processing such as extraction of regions of interest for subsequent image processing and also in aiding the counting of vertebra.

Pai, Akshay; Narasimhamurthy, Anand; Rao, V. S. Veeravasarapu; Vaidya, Vivek

2011-03-01

20

Pediatric cervical spine instability  

PubMed Central

Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the cervical spine in children is essential to avoid pitfalls, recognize normal variants and identify children at risk of developing cervical spine instability and undertake the appropriate treatment. PMID:19308585

El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

2008-01-01

21

Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 1  

SciTech Connect

The normal cervical spine may appear abnormal due to several factors, namely: The complexity of the cervical vertebra, the normal variation, the superimposition of the adjacent vertebrae, and the superimposition of structures outside the spine such as the craniofacial and laryngeal structures.

Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

1982-03-01

22

[Cervical spondylosis].  

PubMed

Japan has now become an aging society. In 2014, people aged more than 65 years old accounted for 25.1% of Japan's entire population. Aging is associated with an increased risk of problems related to the locomotive organs. Deterioration of locomotive ability causes falls or tumbles, which would be a threat to good health and longevity of aged people. To maintain the locomotive ability of the elderly, therefore, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association starts a campaign to promote awareness and prevention of "locomotive syndrome". Cervical spondylosis is a disorder for age-related wear affecting the disks and vertebrae of cervical spine. It would also be a cause of "locomotive syndrome". Here, we give an outline of this disease and introduce its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25509798

Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki

2014-10-01

23

Enhanced Detection of the Vertebrae in 2D CT-Images Franz Grafa and Robert Greila and Hans-Peter Kriegela and Matthias Schuberta and Alexander  

E-print Network

the cervical-, thoracic- or lumbar spine area which yields value information about the body regions proposed for detecting and reconstructing the spine and the vertebrae from CT and MR scans. The results Search, Detection, Vertebrae 1. INTRODUCTION Detecting the position and the form of the spine

Kriegel, Hans-Peter

24

Treatment of Combined Spinal Deformity in Patient with Ollier Disease and Abnormal Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

We report staged treatment of severe combined spinal deformity in an 11-year-old patient with Ollier disease and abnormal cervical vertebra. Combined scoliosis with systemic pathology and abnormal vertebrae is a rare condition and features atypical deformity location and rapid progression rate and frequently involves the rib cage and pelvis, disturbing the function of chest organs and skeleton. Progressive deformity resulted in cachexia and acute respiratory failure. A halo-pelvic distraction device assembled of Ilizarov components was employed for a staged surgical treatment performed for lifesaving indications. After vital functions stabilized, the scoliosis curve of the cervical spine was corrected and fixed with a hybrid system of transpedicular supporting points, connecting rods, and connectors that provided staged distraction during growth. The treatment showed good functional and cosmetic result. PMID:24436859

Ryabykh, S. ?.; Gubin, A. V.; Prudnikova, ?. G.; Kobyzev, ?. ?.

2012-01-01

25

In vivo quantitative analysis of scoliotic vertebrae.  

PubMed

An in vivo method based on CT images and finite element meshing had been developed to quantify and visualize the bone density distribution of scoliotic vertebrae. CT examination (axial acquisition of the apical, superior and inferior adjacent vertebral bodies) had been performed on seven girls presenting an idiopathic scoliosis. Using an in-house image processing software and the pre-post processor Patran, a surfacic finite element mesh of each body slice was proposed allowing an automatic mapping of the cancellous bone slices and a volumic mesh for the bone density distribution visualization. In the coronal plane, compared to the body geometrical centre, the body mechanical centre was shifted forward in the concavity of the curvature for six patients and in the convexity for one patient. For each patient, this shift forward was made in a same way for the three vertebrae. In the sagittal plane, the body mechanical inertia centre was shifted forward in the posterior side for 12 vertebrae, in the anterior side for 3 vertebrae and was not shifted forward for 6 vertebrae. This shift forward was made in the anterior side for the inferior adjacent vertebra. The shift forward by slice was made in a same way for each slice, excepted at the end plates. Besides, one can observe that the scoliotic deformation evolution seemed to modify the mechanical property distribution. The results may also suggest predictive criteria of evolution of the scoliotic deformities. PMID:15456072

Perie, D; De Gauzy, J Sales; Baunin, C; Hobatho, M C

2002-01-01

26

Mixed reality simulation of rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Until quite recently spinal disorder problems in the U.S. have been operated by fusing cervical vertebrae instead of replacement of the cervical disc with an artificial disc. Cervical disc replacement is a recently approved procedure in the U.S. It is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in the medical field due to the deficiencies in available diagnostic tools

Tansel Halic; Sinan Kockara; Coskun Bayrak; Richard Rowe

2010-01-01

27

Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.  

PubMed

Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

Bani?, Tihomir; Bani?, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bili?, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavi?, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Koki?, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

2014-09-01

28

Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

2014-03-01

29

Cervical Dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Cervical dysplasia. Normal cervical cells. (continued from previous page) What characterizes cervical dysplasia? ...

30

Graft inserter for anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

The authors have developed a simple instrument for graft insertion in anterior cervical fusion. This device obviates the need for screw distraction of the adjacent vertebrae or the use of an impactor for insertion. This device simplifies graft insertion where the disc space is narrow, particularly in multilevel fusions, and reduces the risk of over-penetration of the graft. PMID:24974192

Hitchon, Patrick W; Kumar, Rajinder; Viljoen, Stephanus; Dahdaleh, Nader S

2014-11-01

31

Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

Mayr, Gerald

2007-08-01

32

Identification and classification of spine vertebrae by automated methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently working toward developing computer-assisted methods for the indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images by biomedical content. These images were collected as part of a nationwide health survey and form a research resource for osteoarthitis and bone morphometry. This task requires the development of algorithms to robustly analyze the x-ray contents for key landmarks, to segment the vertebral bodies, to accurately measure geometric features of the individual vertebrae and inter-vertebral areas, and to classify the spine anatomy into normal or abnormal classes for conditions of interest, including anterior osteophytes and disc space narrowing. Subtasks of this work have been created and divided among collaborators. In this paper, we provide a technical description of the overall task, report on progress made by collaborators, and provide the most recent results of our own research into obtaining first-order location of the spine region of interest by automated methods. We are currently concentrating on images of the cervical spine, but will expand the work to include the lumbar spine as well. Development of successful image processing techniques for computer-assisted indexing of medical image collections is expected to have a significant impact within the medical research and patient care systems.

Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

2001-07-01

33

Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Anatomical abnormalities of the cervical spine at the level of the Atlas vertebra are associated with relative ischaemia of the brainstem circulation and increased blood pressure (BP). Manual correction of this mal-alignment has been associated with reduced arterial pressure. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that correcting mal-alignment of the Atlas vertebra reduces and maintains a lower BP. Using a double blind, placebo-controlled design at a single center, 50 drug naïve (n=26) or washed out (n=24) patients with Stage 1 hypertension were randomized to receive a National Upper Cervical Chiropractic (NUCCA) procedure or a sham procedure. Patients received no antihypertensive meds during the 8-week study duration. The primary end point was changed in systolic and diastolic BP comparing baseline and week 8, with a 90% power to detect an 8/5 mm Hg difference at week 8 over the placebo group. The study cohort had a mean age 52.7+/-9.6 years, consisted of 70% males. At week 8, there were differences in systolic BP (-17+/-9 mm Hg, NUCCA versus -3+/-11 mm Hg, placebo; P<0.0001) and diastolic BP (-10+/-11 mm Hg, NUCCA versus -2+/-7 mm Hg; P=0.002). Lateral displacement of Atlas vertebra (1.0, baseline versus 0.04 degrees week 8, NUCCA versus 0.6, baseline versus 0.5 degrees , placebo; P=0.002). Heart rate was not reduced in the NUCCA group (-0.3 beats per minute, NUCCA, versus 0.5 beats per minute, placebo). No adverse effects were recorded. We conclude that restoration of Atlas alignment is associated with marked and sustained reductions in BP similar to the use of two-drug combination therapy. PMID:17252032

Bakris, G; Dickholtz, M; Meyer, P M; Kravitz, G; Avery, E; Miller, M; Brown, J; Woodfield, C; Bell, B

2007-05-01

34

Benign notochordal cell tumor: a retrospective study of 11 cases with 13 vertebra bodies  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To analyze the clinical data, MRI, pathological diagnosis, treatment and long-term effects of benign notochordal cell tumor (BNCT), a newly described novel spine tumor. Methods: We retrospectively studied 11 patients’ clinical data of the above. Results: The ratio of males to females was 4:7, and the average age was 49.2 years (range, 18-74 years). Cervical vertebra (5; 38.5%) and thoracic vertebra (5; 38.5%) were the most frequent site followed by the lumbar vertebra (3; 23%). Pain was the main symptom except case 2 who were diagnosed accidently because of prostate cancer. The mean delay from first clinical symptoms to diagnosis was ranged from 2 months to 20 years. MRI showed all BNCTs were osteolytic lesions with hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. There were 4 vertebral bodies with wedge fracture. There were two cases that had two noncontiguous vertebral bodies with BNCT. In histology, marrow replacement was noted by multivacuolated physaliphorous cells immunoreactive for CK, EMA and S100 protein. All 10 cases except case 2 had vertebral reconstruction and fixation with different methods. Of the 11 patients, 9 had full follow-up data which showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis without further treatment. Conclusion: Noncontiguous multi-centricity BNCTs are rare. No specific vertebrae are more frequently involved. Once BNCT is diagnosed by pathology, the surgical intervention is necessary for the patients with obvious clinical symptoms although it is benign. There is no evidence of BNCT recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25120733

Ma, Xiaomei; Xia, Chunyan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Huimin; Wang, Chenguang; Yu, Hongyu

2014-01-01

35

Functional morphology of indrid lumbar vertebrae.  

PubMed

Indrids are primarily vertical clingers and leapers but also engage to various extents in climbing, suspensory postures, bimanual movement, bipedal hopping, and quadrupedalism. It has been demonstrated that these behaviors are well reflected in the appendicular anatomy of these primates, while indrid vertebral anatomy has received relatively little attention. In this morphometric study, biomechanically relevant aspects of the lumbar vertebrae of Indri indri, Propithecus diadema, and Propithecus verreauxi were compared to those of Varecia variegata, a large-bodied predominantly pronograde and quadrupedal lemur. Results indicate that, compared to Varecia, the indrids have relatively shorter lumbar vertebral bodies, shorter lumbar regions, more dorsally projecting lumbar spinous processes, and more dorsally positioned lumbar transverse process tips. In addition, indrid lumbar spinous and transverse processes are oriented differently than those of Varecia. Overall, indrid lumbar vertebral morphology converges with that of hominoids, atelines, and possibly lorids, suggesting a lumbar adaptation to upright or "antipronograde" postures that require a reduction in spinal flexibility. The dorsally projecting spinous processes may be related to back muscle extensor power during leaping and/or the maintenance of upright postures. By contrast, the lumbar vertebrae of Varecia resemble those of primates and other mammals that have habitually pronograde postures and emphasize spinal flexibility in the sagittal plane during locomotion. PMID:8572156

Shapiro, L

1995-11-01

36

Heterogeneity in the development of the vertebra.  

PubMed Central

Vertebrae are derived from the sclerotomal moities of the somites. Sclerotomal cells migrate ventrally to surround the notochord, where they form the vertebral body, and dorsolaterally to form the neural arch, which is dorsally closed by the spinous process. Precursor cells of the spinous process as well as superficial ectoderm and roof plate express homeobox genes of the Msh family from embryonic day 2 (E2) to E6. The notochord has been shown to be responsible for the dorsoventral polarization of the somites and for the induction of sclerotomal cells into cartilage. Indeed, supernumerary notochord grafted laterally to the neural tube induces the conversion of the entire somite into cartilage. We report here that a mediodorsal graft of notochord prevents the sclerotomal cells migrating dorsally to the roof plate from differentiating into cartilage. Under these experimental conditions, expression of Msx genes is abolished. We thus demonstrate that cartilaginous, differentiation is differentially controlled in the dorsal part of the vertebra (spinous process) and in the neural arch and vertebral body. Images PMID:7937970

Monsoro-Burq, A H; Bontoux, M; Teillet, M A; Le Douarin, N M

1994-01-01

37

Anterior cervical discectomy in a patient with huge thyroid tissue (goiter)  

PubMed Central

Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) may hinder to reach anterior part of the vertebrae or may impose more retraction than usual. The patient had left arm pain, and his left biceps muscle strength was 3/5 and triceps muscle strength was 4/5. Physical examination of his neck showed no abnormality. We performed anterior cervical discectomy, but we did not reach to the anterior part of the vertebrae due to enlarged thyroid gland even making moderately forceful medial retraction. It is therefore, we performed thyroidectomy previously, and later we performed anterior cervical discectomy at the level of cervical 5-6 and cervical 6-7. It will be wise to excise the goiter and later continue to cervical discectomy rather than using forceful retraction in cases with no preoperative detection as in our case to prevent damage of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hoarseness due to pressure effect of the medial retraction during the anterior cervical approach. PMID:25540554

Gulsen, Salih

2014-01-01

38

Finite element analysis of the cervical spine: a material property sensitivity study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The study determined the effect of variations in the material properties of the cervical spinal components on the output of the finite element analysis (external and internal responses of the cervical spine) under physiologic load vectors.Design. A three-dimensional (3D) anatomically accurate finite element model comprising of the C4-C5-C6 cervical spine unit including the three vertebrae, two interconnecting intervertebral discs,

Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A. Pintar

1999-01-01

39

Hemophilic pseudotumor of the first lumbar vertebra.  

PubMed

Hemophilic pseudotumor involving the spine is extremely uncommon and presents a challenging problem. Preoperative planning, angiography, intra and perioperative monitoring with factor VIII cover and postoperative care for hemophilic pseudotumor is vital. Recognition of the artery of Adamkiewicz in the thoracolumbar junction helps to avoid intraoperative neurological injury. We report the case of a 26-year-old male patient with hemophilia A, who presented with a massive pseudotumor involving the first lumbar vertebra and the left iliopsoas. Preoperative angiography revealed the artery of Adamkiewicz arising from the left first lumbar segmental artery. Excision of pseudotumor was successfully carried out with additional spinal stabilization. At 2 years followup, there was no recurrence and the patient was well stabilized with a satisfactory functional status. Surgical excision gives satisfactory outcome in such cases. PMID:25404776

Nachimuthu, Gurusamy; Arockiaraj, Justin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Sundararaj, Gabriel David

2014-11-01

40

Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 2  

SciTech Connect

The complexity of the structure of the cervical spine as well superimposition by the parts of adjacent vertebrae, as well as other structures may cause some abnormalities to be overlooked. Among those abnormalities are, the short sagittal diameter, neoplasm in the cancellous part of the vertebral bodies, spurs in the apophyseal joints, trauma, infection and others.

Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

1982-03-01

41

Cervical spondylosis  

MedlinePLUS

... spondylosis is caused by chronic wear on the cervical spine. This includes the disks or cushions between the ... and the joints between the bones of the cervical spine. There may be abnormal growths or spurs on ...

42

Cervical Stenosis  

MedlinePLUS

... or human papilloma virus (HPV) test (called cervical cytology testing) or a sample from the lining of ... or pyometra, t these tests may include cervical cytology testing (such as a Pap or HPV test) ...

43

Cervical cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Cancer - cervix ... Worldwide, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in women. It is much less common in the United ... of the routine use of Pap smears . Cervical cancer starts in the cells on the surface of ...

44

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

45

Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

2014-06-01

46

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis  

PubMed Central

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5–6–7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis® cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen’s Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-01-01

47

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-07-01

48

Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

Lin, Jyh-Shyan; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

1996-04-01

49

Cervical characteristics of Noonan syndrome.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A short neck and low posterior hairline are characteristics of Noonan syndrome (NS) and are hallmarks of basilar invagination/impression. However, it is seldom that NS has been directly linked with this symptom. Thus, this study aimed to investigate basilar impression in NS subjects compared with control subjects and individuals exhibiting Turner Syndrome (TS). SUBJECTS/METHODS The degree of basilar impression and vertical positional differences of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae and hyoid bone in NS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), TS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), and control subjects (n = 9, mean age: 12.0 years) were investigated using lateral cephalometric radiographs. Differences between the three groups were compared using the Steel-Dwass test. Vertical positional differences in the anatomical structures within each group were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test accompanied by a Bonferroni-Holm correction. RESULTS The distance by which the odontoid tip extended past McGregor's line in subjects with NS was significantly greater compared with TS and control subjects. The third and fourth cervical vertebrae were positioned significantly superiorly in subjects with NS compared with TS and control subjects and, in NS, were also significantly superior to the hyoid bone. There was no difference in the position of the hyoid bone itself between the groups. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATION These results suggest that basilar impression may be a frequently found symptom of NS. PMID:23660838

Miyamoto, Jun J; Yabunaka, Tomoe; Moriyama, Keiji

2014-04-01

50

Level Set Segmentation of Lumbar Vertebrae Using Appearance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the planning of surgical interventions of the spine exact knowledge about 3D shape and the local bone quality of vertebrae are of great importance in order to estimate the anchorage strength of screws or implants. As a prerequisite for quantitative analysis a method for objective and therefore automated segmentation of vertebrae is needed. In this paper a framework for the automatic segmentation of vertebrae using 3D appearance models in a level set framework is presented. In this framework model information as well as gradient information and probabilities of pixel intensities at object edges in the unseen image are used. The method is tested on 29 lumbar vertebrae leading to accurate results, which can be useful for surgical planning and further analysis of the local bone quality.

Fritscher, Karl; Leber, Stefan; Schmölz, Werner; Schubert, Rainer

51

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

1997-09-15

52

Cervical Angina  

PubMed Central

Cervical angina has been widely reported as a cause of chest pain but remains underrecognized. This series demonstrates the varied clinical presentation of patients with cervical angina, the delay in diagnosis, and the extensive cardiac examinations patients with this condition typically undergo prior to a definitive diagnosis. Recognition of this condition in patients with acute chest pain requires a high index of suspicion and an awareness of the common presenting features and clinical findings of cervical angina. PMID:25553225

Sussman, Walter I.; Makovitch, Steven A.; Merchant, Shabbir Hussain I.

2015-01-01

53

Cervical Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Cervical pregnancy is gaining recognition as a serious complication of early pregnancy. In view of the increasing incidence of the condition and the formidable therapeutic problems posed, a review of the literature is timely. This paper also presents a case report illustrating many of the typical features associated with cervical pregnancy. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:6381743

Kouyoumdjian, Alex

1984-01-01

54

Repeated percutaneous vertebroplasty for refracture of cemented vertebrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an efficient procedure to treat painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However,\\u000a refracture of cemented vertebrae occurs rarely after percutaneous vertebroplasty. This study was undertaken to investigate\\u000a the incidence, characteristics, predisposing factors, and mistakes in technique associated with refracture of the same vertebra\\u000a after percutaneous vertebroplasty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 2001 to 2008, PVP with bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) was carried

Lih-Huei Chen; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Jen-Chung Liao; Po-Liang Lai; Chi-Chien Niu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Tsung-Ting Tsai; Wen-Jer Chen

2011-01-01

55

Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths  

PubMed Central

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

2014-01-01

56

Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths.  

PubMed

The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

Reumer, Jelle W F; Ten Broek, Clara M A; Galis, Frietson

2014-01-01

57

Intraosseous schwannoma of the cervical vertebral body: A case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Intraosseous schwannomas (IOS) of non-sacral vertebra are extremely rare; only 14 cases were reported previously. We described a case of IOS involving a cervical vertebral body, successfully treated by surgical resection, with a review of the literature and discussion of this extremely rare tumour. PMID:20632880

Mizutani, Atsushi; Yokota, Naoki; Kawaji, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi-Okada, Mitsuo; Miyagawa, Tadashi; Namba, Hiroki

2010-10-01

58

Optimal computed-tomographic techniques for cervical spine imaging  

SciTech Connect

The authors compare various techniques for optimal computed-tomographic imaging of the cervical spine and find that no single method is adequate for visualizing all anatomic structures. Thin sections are needed to obtain images of intervertebral disks, but thick sections are preferred to obtain images of the spinal cord. Spatial resolution is more important than contrast resolution when imaging the vertebrae. Small-body calibration is recommended for adequate cervical spine visualization, although some artifacts can be minimized when large-body calibration is used.

Orrison, W.W. (Univ. of Wisconsin Health Science Center, Madison); Johansen, J.G.; Eldevik, O.P.; Haughton, V.M.

1982-07-01

59

Cervical dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... are known to cause cervical cancer. An HPV DNA test can identify the high-risk types of ... Ask your health care provider about the HPV vaccine . Girls who receive this vaccine before they become ...

60

Cervical Cryotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

... do. Why do I need cryotherapy? Your last Pap smear detected abnormal cells on your cervix. A cervical ... We have now identified what caused your abnormal Pap smear. The good news is that it can be ...

61

Automated identification of spinal cord and vertebras on sagittal MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an automated method for the identification of the spinal cord and the vertebras on spinal MR images, which is an essential step for computerized analysis of bone marrow diseases. The spinal cord segment was first enhanced by a newly developed hierarchical multiscale tubular (HMT) filter that utilizes the complementary hyper- and hypo- intensities in the T1-weighted (T1W) and STIR MRI sequences. An Expectation-Maximization (EM) analysis method was then applied to the enhanced tubular structures to extract candidates of the spinal cord. The spinal cord was finally identified by a maximum-likelihood registration method by analysis of the features extracted from the candidate objects in the two MRI sequences. Using the identified spinal cord as a reference, the vertebras were localized based on the intervertebral disc locations extracted by another HMT filter applied to the T1W images. In this study, 5 and 30 MRI scans from 35 patients who were diagnosed with multiple myeloma disease were collected retrospectively with IRB approval as training and test set, respectively. The vertebras manually outlined by a radiologist were used as reference standard. A total of 422 vertebras were marked in the 30 test cases. For the 30 test cases, 100% (30/30) of the spinal cords were correctly segmented with 4 false positives (FPs) mistakenly identified on the back muscles in 4 scans. A sensitivity of 95.0% (401/422) was achieved for the identification of vertebras, and 5 FPs were marked in 4 scans with an average FP rate of 0.17 FPs/scan.

Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Dong, Qian; He, Bo; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Couriel, Daniel

2014-03-01

62

Intramedullary hydatid cyst of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease (Echinococcosis) is a common parasitic infection caused by Echinococcus granulosus mainly in sheep-raising areas of the world. Liver, lungs and brain are the predominantly involved organs. However, 0.5-1% of the hydatid disease involves the spine and in 90% of the cases it is confined to the bone and the epidural space. Although intramedullary involvement is extremely rare, in this report, we present a 55-year-old female patient who was diagnosed with a cervical intramedullary hydatid cyst during magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical vertebrae. Accordingly, we imply that particularly in endemic areas, hydatid cyst disease should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of spinal mass lesions. PMID:23183479

Senol, M G; Güney, Mehmet; Tekeli, H; Kendirli, M T; Kendirli, Hakan; Tansel, Mustafa; Kaya, S; Turhan, V; Vedat, Turhan; Sonmez, G; Güner, Sonmez; Saracoglu, M

2012-01-01

63

Sex Determination by Discriminant Function Analysis of Lumbar Vertebrae.  

PubMed

Sex determination is critical for developing the biological profile of unidentified skeletal remains. When more commonly used elements (os coxa, cranium) for sexing are not available, methods utilizing other skeletal elements are needed. This study aims to assess the degree of sexual dimorphism of the lumbar vertebrae and develop discriminant functions for sex determination from them, using a sample of South African blacks from the Raymond A. Dart Collection (47 males, 51 females). Eleven variables at each lumbar level were subjected to univariate and multivariate discriminant function analyses. Univariate equations produced classification rates ranging from 57.7% to 83.5%, with the highest accuracies associated with dimensions of the vertebral body. Multivariate stepwise analysis generated classification rates ranging from 75.9% to 88.7%. These results are comparable to other methods for sexing the skeleton and indicate that measures of the lumbar vertebrae can be used as an effective tool for sex determination. PMID:25382679

Ostrofsky, Kelly R; Churchill, Steven E

2014-11-01

64

Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

2014-03-01

65

Noninvasive estimation of bone mass in ancient vertebrae.  

PubMed

Histomorphometry is useful in the assessment of trabecular bone mass (TBM), and thus, in the estimation of the prevalence and intensity of osteopenia in ancient population groups. However, it is a destructive method. It is therefore necessary to explore the accuracy of nondestructive approaches, such as radiography, bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by double-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bone density (BD), or optical density (OD) in the diagnosis of osteopenia. We selected 51 vertebrae out of a total sample composed of 333 T12, L1, and L2 vertebrae belonging to adult pre-Hispanic inhabitants from El Hierro. These vertebrae underwent histomorphometrical analysis, a fine-grained film radiography with assessment of trabecular pattern following standard methods, OD, DEXA-assessed BMD, and BD. The presence of biconcave vertebrae and wedge-shaped vertebrae was also assessed by measuring anterior height (a), posterior height (p), and height at the middle point of the vertebral body (m), and further calculating the indices 2m/(a + p) ("spine score") and a/p. Significant correlations were observed between TBM and BMD (r=0.43), TBM and BD (r=0.49), TBM and OD (r=0.52), BMD and OD (r=0.51), and BMD and BD (r=0.36), but not between TBM and the indices 2m/(a + p) and a/p. In the stepwise multiple correlation analysis between TBM and BMD, BD, and OD, OD entered into first place and BD into second place, whereas BMD became displaced; the multiple correlation coefficient was 0.63, with a standard error of 3.78. A BMD greater than 0.60 g/cm2, or a bone density greater than 0.60 g/cm3, excluded osteopenia (TBM <15%) with a specificity greater than 90%, whereas a BMD value less than 0.35 g/cm2, a BD less than 0.35 g/cm3, or optical density >1.6 excluded a normal bone mass (TBM >20%) with a specificity greater than 90%. Based on radiographic criteria on the total sample, we also conclude that the overall prevalence of vertebral fractures in the adult pre-Hispanic population of El Hierro of any age is 7.5%. PMID:15365978

Gonzalez-Reimers, E; Mas-Pascual, M A; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Machado-Calvo, M

2004-10-01

66

Cercopithecoid cervical vertebral morphology and implications for the presence of Theropithecus in early Pleistocene Europe.  

PubMed

While it is recognized that the overall configuration of the vertebral column, as well as the size and shape of individual vertebrae, differ within and between primate taxa, relatively little is known about the degree to which vertebral morphology reflects a phylogenetic signal or the degree to which vertebral elements can be used in accurate taxonomic classification. Isolated vertebrae are occasionally found in fossil assemblages, and proper taxonomic identification is necessary to make inferences about the animal's biology and place it in a broader phylogenetic and evolutionary context. Recently, three large primate cervical vertebrae (C3, C5, and C6) from Pirro Nord, Italy (early Pleistocene, late Villafranchian) were attributed to the genus Theropithecus based on size comparisons with extant cercopithecoid primates (Rook et al., 2004, J. Hum. Evol. 47, 267-277). These fossils were suggested to indicate an early dispersal of this genus out of Africa around 1.6-1.3 Ma possibly co-incident with early Pleistocene dispersals of Homo. Because of the potential importance of these fossils for interpreting Theropithecus evolution and the relatively few morphological data on primate cervical vertebral morphology, we examined the size and shape of cervical vertebrae in a large sample of extant cercopithecoid taxa (n=106). Specifically, we evaluated whether subfamily and genus level assignments can be made on the basis of isolated cervical elements. Discriminant analyses reveal that scaled shape variables are good discriminators of taxonomic affinity at the subfamily level but are poor discriminators at the genus level. Least-squares regressions show that raw linear dimensions of cervical vertebral morphology are good predictors of body mass in the extant sample. Our regression results produce a likely body mass estimate of 22-38 kg for the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae. Based on these regression estimates, the poor ability to discriminate cervical vertebrae at the genus level, and paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Pirro Nord, it is unlikely that the Pirro Nord fossils can be confidently attributed to the genus Theropithecus. These findings have important implications for recent interpretations of the nature of Theropithecus dispersal out of Africa. PMID:17011609

Patel, Biren A; Gilbert, Christopher C; Ericson, Kristin E

2007-02-01

67

[Cervical cancer].  

PubMed

The epidemiologic data demonstrated by SEER clearly show a decrease of cervical cancer over the decades due to widespread cervical cancer screening with a pap smear, although there is currently a shift in the age distribution resulting in an increase of cervical cancer among younger women, and a lower screening rate is a problem, particularly in Japan. Another peculiar trend is an increase of endocervical adenocarcinomas, and the underlying cause of this trend is still unknown. A screening program, employing the Bethesda system terminology and liquid-based cytology, combined with HPV DNA testing and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry/ cytochemistry, and a management guideline proposed by ASCCP, has been contributing to the early detection of cervical cancers. However, it should be kept in mind that an HPV-targeted strategy is effective only for squamous lesions, which is mostly HPV-driven neoplasms, and that unusual HPV-negative adenocarcinomas, including gastric, clear cell, and mesonephric types, are a pitfall of HPV DNA testing and vaccination. Therefore, potential biomarkers, which can be applied for both squamous and glandular lesions, are awaited. The gastric type of adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a recently described subtype, is a distinct entity showing an aggressive clinical behavior, and, importantly, is estimated to be more frequent than in western countries. PMID:25151779

Mikami, Yoshiki

2014-06-01

68

Multirigid registration of MR and CT images of the cervical spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our work on fusion of MR and CT images of the cervical spine. To achieve the required registration accuracy of approximately 1mm, the spine is treated as a collection of rigid vertebrae, and a separate rigid body transformation applied to each (Hawkes). This in turn requires segmentation of the CT datasets into separate vertebral images, which is difficult because the narrow planes separating adjacent vertebrae are parallel to the axial plane of the CT scans. We solve this problem by evolving all the vertebral contours simultaneously using a level set method, and use contour competition to estimate the position of the vertebral edges when a clean separation between adjacent vertebrae is not seen. Contour competition is based in turn on the vertical scan principle: no part of a given vertebra is vertically below any part of an inferior vertebra. Once segmentation is complete, the individual rigid body transforms are then estimated using mutual information maximization, and the CT images of the vertebrae superimposed on the MR scans. The resultant fused images contain the bony detail of CT and the soft tissue discrimination of MR and appear to be diagnostically equivalent, or superior, to CT myelograms. A formal test of these conclusions is planned for the next phase of our work.

Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.

2004-05-01

69

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB  

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... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB View/Download: Small: 684x636 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows ...

70

Cervical Cancer Stage IB  

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... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IB View/Download: Small: 774x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical cancer ...

71

Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA  

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... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA View/Download: Small: 612x612 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing shows ...

72

Cervical Cancer Stage IVA  

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... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVA View/Download: Small: 756x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and ...

73

Cervical Cancer Stage IVB  

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... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVB View/Download: Small: 594x640 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; drawing shows ...

74

Cervical Cancer Stage IA  

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... Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IA View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; ...

75

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increased vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. (continued on next page) Cervical Cancer Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma Copyright © 2011. College of American Pathologists. For use and reproduction by patients and CAP members only. Normal cervical ...

76

Spaceflight effects on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat vertebrae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The biomechanical and biochemical responses of lumbar vertebral bodies during a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) were determined for rapidly growing rats (90-day-old, Czechoslovakian-Wistar). By use of age-matched vivarium controls (normal cage environment) and synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), as well as a basal control group (killed before lift-off on the 1st day of flight), the combined influences of growth and space-flight could be examined. Centra of the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were compressed to 50% strain at a fast strain rate while immersed in physiological buffer (37 degrees C). The body masses of vivarium and synchronous controls were significantly heavier than either the flight or basal controls. The flight group had an L6 vertebral body compressional stiffness that was 39% less than the vivarium controls, 47% less than the synchronous control, and 16% less than the basal controls. In addition, the average initial maximum load of the flight L6 was 22% less than vivarium controls and 18% less than the synchronous controls, whereas the linear compressional load of the flight group averaged 34% less than the vivarium and 25% less than the synchronous groups. The structural properties of the vertebrae from the 12.5-day-younger basal group closely resembled the flight vertebrae. Calcium, phosphorous, and hydroxyproline concentrations were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the lack of strength and stiffness development in spaceflight, coupled with a smaller proportion of mature hydroxypyridinoline cross-links, suggested that the 12.5 days of spaceflight slowed the maturation of trabecular bone in the vertebral bodies of rapidly growing rats.

Zernicke, R. F.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Salem, G. J.; Martinez, D. A.

1990-01-01

77

Compression fractures of the vertebrae during a “bumpy” boat ride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Compression fracture of the vertebrae is common, often the result of falls from height and motor vehicle accidents in the\\u000a younger age groups. It can occur following minor trauma in the elderly and in those with osteoporosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We present an interesting case of compression fracture of the vertebral bodies occurring simultaneously in a couple during\\u000a a boat ride

C. K. Chukwunyerenwa; P. O’Rourke

2010-01-01

78

Effects of Cervical Deep Muscle Strengthening in a Neck Pain: A Patient with Klippel-Feil Syndrome  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2–3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6–7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-01-01

79

Effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening in a neck pain: a patient with klippel-feil syndrome.  

PubMed

[Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of cervical deep muscle strengthening (CDS) on neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). [Subjects and Methods] The subjects was a 39?year-old woman with neck pain and KFS that included incomplete block vertebrae in the C2-3 segments and block vertebrae in the C6-7 segments. The subject performed an exercise program including cervical strengthening exercise (level 1) and CDS exercise (level 2) for 6 weeks. Neck pain intensity was measured using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the pressure pain threshold (PPT). All measurements were obtained before and after the CDS exercise program. [Results] The VAS and PPT measurements decreased; range of motion in the cervical joint increased. [Conclusion] CDS exercises were effective interventions for reducing neck pain in a patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:25540517

Bae, Youngsook

2014-12-01

80

"Lucy" (A.L. 288-1) had five sacral vertebrae.  

PubMed

A "long-backed" scenario of hominin vertebral evolution posits that early hominins possessed six lumbar vertebrae coupled with a high frequency of four sacral vertebrae (7:12-13:6:4), a configuration acquired from a hominin-panin last common ancestor (PLCA) having a vertebral formula of 7:13:6-7:4. One founding line of evidence for this hypothesis is the recent assertion that the "Lucy" sacrum (A.L. 288-1an, Australopithecus afarensis) consists of four sacral vertebrae and a partially-fused first coccygeal vertebra (Co1), rather than five sacral vertebrae as in modern humans. This study reassesses the number of sacral vertebrae in Lucy by reexamining the distal end of A.L.288-1an in the context of a comparative sample of modern human sacra and Co1 vertebrae, and the sacrum of A. sediba (MH2). Results demonstrate that, similar to S5 in modern humans and A. sediba, the last vertebra in A.L. 288-1an exhibits inferiorly-projecting (right side) cornua and a kidney-shaped inferior body articular surface. This morphology is inconsistent with that of fused or isolated Co1 vertebrae in humans, which either lack cornua or possess only superiorly-projecting cornua, and have more circularly-shaped inferior body articular surfaces. The level at which the hiatus' apex is located is also more compatible with typical five-element modern human sacra and A. sediba than if only four sacral vertebrae are present. Our observations suggest that A.L. 288-1 possessed five sacral vertebrae as in modern humans; thus, sacral number in "Lucy" does not indicate a directional change in vertebral count that can provide information on the PLCA ancestral condition. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:295-303, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25331588

Russo, Gabrielle A; Williams, Scott A

2015-02-01

81

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

What is cervical cancer screening? Cervical cancer screening is used to find changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead to ... the FAQ Human Papillomavirus [HPV] Infection). How is cervical cancer screening done? Cervical cancer screening is simple and fast. ...

82

Embryonic remnants of intercentra and cervical ribs in turtles  

PubMed Central

Summary A broad sample of extant turtles possesses a series of paired bones in the neck that are situated between the cervical vertebrae. These paired bones were originally proposed to be cervical rib remnants, but have more recently been interpreted as vestiges of intercentra. Here, we document, for the first time, the neck development of a pleurodire turtle, Emydura subglobosa, and identify blastematous structures, which partially recapitulate the ribs and intercentra of the plesiomorphic tetrapod condition. We identify blastematous “bridges” between intercentra and the corresponding ribs, which we homologize with the vestiges visible in extant turtles and with the remnant parapophyseal articulation processes of the intercentra of some stem taxa. Only the unpaired, median part of the intercentrum of the atlas is retained in adult turtles, but intercentra are recapitulated along the entire vertebral column during development; they are embedded in the cervical myosepta and serve as attachment sites for neck musculature. We also identify two rib rudiments in the occipital region, which may indicate that at least two vertebrae are integrated into the cranium of turtles in particular, and of amniotes in general. PMID:24244846

Werneburg, Ingmar; Maier, Wolfgang; Joyce, Walter G.

2013-01-01

83

Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer, contributing to neoplastic progression through the action of viral oncoproteins, mainly E6 and E7. Cervical screening programs using Pap smear testing have dramatically improved cervical cancer incidence and reduced deaths, but cervical cancer still remains a global health burden. The biomarker discovery for accurate detection and diagnosis of cervical carcinoma and its malignant precursors (collectively referred to as high-grade cervical disease) represents one of the current challenges in clinical medicine and cytopathology. PMID:19690652

Yim, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Jong-Sup

2006-01-01

84

Simulation of the behaviour of the L1 vertebra for different material properties and loading conditions  

PubMed Central

Three-dimensional finite element models of the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L2) and isolated L1 vertebra were developed to investigate the role of material properties and loading conditions on vertebral stresses and strains to predict fracture risk. The geometry of the vertebrae was obtained from CT images. The isolated vertebra model included an L1 vertebra loaded through polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates located at the top and bottom of the vertebra, and the segment model included T12 to L2 vertebrae and seven ligaments, fibrous intervertebral discs and facet joints. Each model was examined with both homogeneous and spatially varying bone tissue properties. Stresses and strains were compared for uniform compression and for flexion. Including material heterogeneity remarkably reduced the stiffness of the isolated L1 vertebra, and increased the magnitudes of the minimum principal strains and stresses in the mid-transverse section. The stress and strain distributions further changed when physiological loading was applied to the L1 vertebra. In the segment models, including heterogeneous material properties increased the magnitude of the minimum principal strain by 158% in the centre of the mid-transverse section. Overall, the inclusion of heterogeneity and physiological loading increased magnitude of the strains up to 346% in flexion and 273% in compression. PMID:22149220

Erdem, Ibrahim; Truumees, Eeric; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.

2012-01-01

85

Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.  

PubMed

We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra. PMID:24566404

Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

2014-11-01

86

Simulation of the behaviour of the L1 vertebra for different material properties and loading conditions.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional finite element models of the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L2) and isolated L1 vertebra were developed to investigate the role of material properties and loading conditions on vertebral stresses and strains to predict fracture risk. The geometry of the vertebrae was obtained from computed tomography images. The isolated vertebra model included an L1 vertebra loaded through polymethylmethacrylate plates located at the top and bottom of the vertebra, and the segment model included T12 to L2 vertebrae and seven ligaments, fibrous intervertebral discs and facet joints. Each model was examined with both homogeneous and spatially varying bone tissue properties. Stresses and strains were compared for uniform compression and flexion. Including material heterogeneity remarkably reduced the stiffness of the isolated L1 vertebra and increased the magnitudes of the minimum principal strains and stresses in the mid-transverse section. The stress and strain distributions further changed when physiological loading was applied to the L1 vertebra. In the segment models, including heterogeneous material properties increased the magnitude of the minimum principal strain by 158% in the centre of the mid-transverse section. Overall, the inclusion of heterogeneity and physiological loading increased the magnitude of the strains up to 346% in flexion and 273% in compression. PMID:22149220

Erdem, Ibrahim; Truumees, Eeric; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H

2013-01-01

87

[Cervical dysplasia].  

PubMed

General characteristics of nucleoli in all layers of stratified squamous epithelium were studied in 234 cases of dysplasia and intraepithelial cancer of cervix uteri. Cytomorphometric measurements were carried out. The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio was determined. Certain regularities pertinent to neoplastic process progression and aging were established. 2,375 patients with moderate dysplasia and 1,625 patients with marked dysplasia underwent clinical examination. Various schemes of treatment and long-term results were evaluated. Rationale for all-round examination and individually-tailored schemes of treatment is discussed. The data on the end results in 150 untreated cases of dysplasia are presented. The importance of detection and treatment of dysplasia in the control of cervical cancer is suggested. PMID:6710945

Tabachnik, B I; Nikitina, M A

1984-01-01

88

Craniofacial and Cervical Morphology Related to Sagittal Spinal Posture in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Studies on the relationship between body posture and craniofacial parameters often focus on the cervical spine. Thus, less attention has been paid to the morphology of the vertebra C2 that serves as both a structural and functional link between the craniofacial area and the other part of the spine. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of craniofacial features to certain morphological and positional characteristics of the cervical vertebrae and the spine during growth. We determined body posture indices for 69 children and adolescents by means of a radiation-free method (rasterstereography). The morphological and positional analysis of the craniofacial area and the cervical vertebrae was based on standardized lateral X-ray cephalograms. Medium to strong correlations were found between body posture, C2 morphology, and craniofacial parameters. We found significant correlations between the C2 dens axis height and maxillary indices as well as between the C2 dens axis inclination and cephalometrical values of the mandibular area. Similarly the correlation between the C2 dens axis inclination and the postural index flèche cervicale was highly significant (P < 0.05, r = 0.333). These results suggest that morphological features of the odontoid process may serve as valuable predictive markers in interdisciplinary orthopedic-orthodontic diagnostics. PMID:25276804

Segatto, Angyalka; Braunitzer, Gábor

2014-01-01

89

Cervical Pedicle Screw Fixation: Anatomic Feasibility of Pedicle Morphology and Radiologic Evaluation of the Anatomical Measurements  

PubMed Central

Study Design All parameters were measured manually and with a computed tomography (CT) scanner. For the manual measurements, a Vernier scale instrument was used. Purpose This study evaluates quantitatively pedicles of middle and lower cervical spine (C3 to C7) and to evaluate the possibilities of using these structures as anchors in posterior cervical fusion. Overview of Literature Pedicle screws may be an alternative fixation technique for posterior cervical instrumentation. Methods Twenty-two bony sets of adult cervical spines were studied (110 vertebrae, 220 pedicles) from C3 down to C7. Results CT measurement of cervical pedicles appeared to be accurate and valuable for preoperative planning of cervical pedicle screw instrumentation. The study showed a high correlation between the values obtained by manual and CT measurements of pedicle dimensions. The technical challenge of insertion is the obvious theoretical drawback of the use of cervical pedicle screws. Many technical factors are important to consider, namely, the point of screw entry, the pedicle dimensions, the screw direction according to the pedicle angle and orientation, the screw diameter and length, and the method of screw introduction. Conclusions Transpedicular screw fixation of the cervical spine appears to be promising. Anatomic limitations should be clear to the surgeon. Further clinical and biomechanical studies are needed to settle this technique. PMID:24967041

2014-01-01

90

Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)  

MedlinePLUS

... nerve. The medical term for this condition is cervical radiculopathy. Understanding your spine and how it works can help you better understand cervical radiculopathy. Learn more about your spine online at Spine Basics: http://orthoinfo. org/topic. ...

91

Cervical synovial cyst.  

PubMed

Abstract Synovial cysts of the cervical spine are extremely rare. They can therefore pose a diagnostic challenge. We present an unusual case of acute symptomatology secondary to spontaneous haemorrhage into a cervical facet joint cyst. PMID:24801806

Attwell, Lukas; Elwell, Vivian A; Meir, Adam

2014-12-01

92

Cervical Cancer Prevention  

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... decreased since widespread screening with the Pap test (Pap smear) began. Cervical Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and ... negative Pap tests. (See the PDQ summary on Cervical Cancer Screening for more information.) The effect of diet on ...

93

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

94

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of the cervix (called moderate or ... and an increase in the chance of developing cervical cancer. Smoking greatly increases your risk for dysplasia and ...

95

Automated segmentation of lumbar vertebrae in digital videofluoroscopic images.  

PubMed

Low back pain is a significant problem in the industrialized world. Diagnosis of the underlying causes can be extremely difficult. Since mechanical factors often play an important role, it can be helpful to study the motion of the spine. Digital videofluoroscopy has been developed for this study and it can provide image sequences with many frames, but which often suffer due to noise, exacerbated by the very low radiation dosage. Thus, determining vertebra position within the image sequence presents a considerable challenge. There have been many studies on vertebral image extraction, but problems of repeatability, occlusion and out-of-plane motion persist. In this paper, we show how the Hough transform (HT) can be used to solve these problems. Here, Fourier descriptors were used to describe the vertebral body shape. This description was incorporated within our HT algorithm from which we can obtain affine transform parameters, i.e., scale, rotation and center position. The method has been applied to images of a calibration model and to images from two sequences of moving human lumbar spines. The results show promise and potential for object extraction from poor quality images and that models of spinal movement can indeed be derived for clinical application. PMID:14719686

Zheng, Yalin; Nixon, Mark S; Allen, Robert

2004-01-01

96

Lumbosacral Transitional Vertebrae: Association with Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess the prevalence and degree of lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort, to assess whether LSTV correlates with low back pain (LBP) and buttock pain, and to assess the reproducibility of grading LSTV. Materials & Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and informed consent documentation was approved for the study protocol. Standard standing pelvic radiographs that included the transverse processes of L5 were graded according to Castellvi classification of LSTV in 4636 participants (1992 men and 2804 women; aged 45–80 years) from the OAI cohort. These data were correlated with prevalence and severity of LBP and buttock pain. Results: Prevalence of LSTV was 18.1% (841 of 4636), with a higher rate in men than in women (28.1% vs 11.1%, respectively; P < .001). Of the 841 individuals with LSTV, 41.72% were type I (dysplastic enlarged transverse process), 41.4% were type II (pseudoarticulation), 11.5% were type III (fusion), and 5.2% were type IV (one transverse process fused and one with pseudoarticulation). Of the participants without LSTV, 53.9% reported LBP, while the prevalence of LBP for types I, II, III, and IV was 46%, 73%, 40%, and 66%, respectively (P < .05, ?2 test). Types II and IV had higher prevalence and severity of LBP and buttock pain (P < .001). Conclusion: LSTV types II and IV positively correlate with prevalence and severity of LBP and buttock pain. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22952380

Alizai, Hamza; Virayavanich, Warapat; Liu, Felix; Hernandez, Alexandra; Lynch, John A.; Nevitt, Michael C.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Lane, Nancy E.; Link, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

97

Finite element model of human cervical spinal column.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop a detailed anatomically accurate finite element model (FEM) of the whole cervical column (C2-T1) using sagittal and coronal computed tomography (CT) scan images and cryomicrotome anatomical sections. The bony vertebrae were defined using CT scan images. The geometrical details of intervertebral discs, uncovertebral joints and ligaments were obtained from cryomicrotome sections. The following steps were used to develop the FEM: wire mesh, surface model and solid model. The wire mesh of each vertebra and disc was generated from the CT and cryomicrotome sections, respectively. The surface model was developed by connecting the wire mesh lines. The solid model was obtained by filling the volume enclosed by the surface model. Finally, the FEM was constructed by discretizing the solid model using the mapped-mesh option. Appropriate finite element types were assigned to each component. For example, the isoparametric eight-noded solid elements were used to define the cancellous bone of a vertebra. The material properties reported in literature were adopted in the model. Commercially available software (IDEAS and ABAQUS) was used to develop the FEM. PMID:10834255

Wheeldon, J; Khouphongsy, P; Kumaresan, S; Yoganandan, N; Pintar, F A

2000-01-01

98

Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2015-02-04

99

Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

100

Quantitative Analyses of Pediatric Cervical Spine Ossification Patterns Using Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to quantify ossification processes of the human pediatric cervical spine. Computed tomography images were obtained from a high resolution scanner according to clinical protocols. Bone window images were used to identify the presence of the primary synchondroses of the atlas, axis, and C3 vertebrae in 101 children. Principles of logistic regression were used to determine probability distributions as a function of subject age for each synchondrosis for each vertebra. The mean and 95% upper and 95% lower confidence intervals are given for each dataset delineating probability curves. Posterior ossifications preceded bilateral anterior closures of the synchondroses in all vertebrae. However, ossifications occurred at different ages. Logistic regression results for closures of different synchondrosis indicated p-values of <0.001 for the atlas, ranging from 0.002 to <0.001 for the axis, and 0.021 to 0.005 for the C3 vertebra. Fifty percent probability of three, two, and one synchondroses occurred at 2.53, 6.97, and 7.57 years of age for the atlas; 3.59, 4.74, and 5.7 years of age for the axis; and 1.28, 2.22, and 3.17 years of age for the third cervical vertebrae, respectively. Ossifications occurring at different ages indicate non-uniform maturations of bone growth/strength. They provide an anatomical rationale to reexamine dummies, scaling processes, and injury metrics for improved understanding of pediatric neck injuries PMID:22105393

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Lew, Sean M.; Rao, Raj D.; Rangarajan, Nagarajan

2011-01-01

101

A Semi-Automated Method for Hexahedral Mesh Construction of Human Vertebrae from CT-Scans  

PubMed Central

Generation of finite element meshes of vertebrae from CT scans is labor intensive due to their geometric complexity. As such, techniques that simplify creation of meshes of vertebrae are needed to make finite element analysis feasible for large studies and clinical applications. Techniques to obtain a geometric representation of bone contours from CT scans of vertebrae and construct a hexahedral mesh from the contours were developed. An automated edge detection technique was developed to identify surface contours of the vertebrae, followed by atlas based B-spline curve fitting to construct curves from the edge points. The method was automatic and robust to missing data, with a controllable degree of smoothing and interpolation. Parametric mapping was then used to generate nodes for each CT slice, which were connected between slices to obtain a hexahedral mesh. This method could be adapted for modeling of a variety of orthopaedic structures. PMID:19308870

Dai, Yifei; Niebur, Glen L.

2009-01-01

102

Variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae with tail reduction in Old World monkeys.  

PubMed

Tail length in primates can vary greatly between species or even between local conspecific populations, and the tail is markedly reduced in several lineages. In Old World monkeys, tail length is considered as an important feature reflecting their phylogeny and adaptations. The number of caudal vertebrae is one of the important factors which determine tail length, and it is known that this number varies with tail length. Caudal vertebrae can be divided into two types (proximal and distal), and tail mobility and function are considered to be different in these two regions. Though the number of vertebrae in each region is important for understanding tail length evolution in Old World monkeys, there have been few attempts to investigate this matter. This study focused only on the proximal caudal vertebrae, which are more easily preserved than the distal ones, and tested if there is variation in their number with tail length or phylogenic differences. As a result, two important findings were obtained: (1) the variation of the number of proximal caudal vertebrae was different among the phylogenic groups, and (2) especially in Papionini, there was a great variation in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae, and it correlated strongly with relative tail length [RTL = (tail length/head and body length (sitting height)) × 100%]. I speculate that these variations in the number of proximal caudal vertebrae were possibly caused by a change of the embryonic developmental mechanism of tail morphogenesis, a common mechanism of morphological evolution. To clarify the mechanisms and evolutionary trends of the variation in the proximal caudal vertebrae, not only morphological approaches but also developmental biological approaches will be necessary in the future. PMID:24908079

Tojima, Sayaka

2014-10-01

103

Orientation of trabecular bone in human vertebrae assessed by MRI.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the relative number of bone trabeculae in different orientations by using magnetic inhomogeneity measurements by MR imaging. Twelve defatted human vertebrae (L2-L4) were studied by MR imaging and CT. In the MR measurements the reversible transaxial decay rate, R2', was determined using the GESFIDE sequence. The relative contribution to R2' of bone trabeculae oriented along the x (R2'x), y (R2'y) and z (R2'y) axes was assessed, by rotation of the specimen in the magnetic field. The results were validated by CT measurements of trabecular structure at a resolution of 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm. using custom-made software. R2' ranged from 4.9 to 32 s-1. After separation, theoretical R2'x ranged from 2.3 to 10.7 s-1, R2'y ranged from 2.6 to 14.0 s-1 and R2'z ranged from 4.7 to 17.9 s-1. The number of bone trabeculae per millimeter identified in axial CT images ranged from 0.15 to 0.38 and from 0.039 to 0.22 per millimeter in sagittal images. The difference between axial and sagittal CT images was statistically significant and due to anisotropic voxels. The correlation between R2' and the number of bone trabeculae per millimeter was statistically significant (r = 0.83, p < 0.001 for x orientation: r = 0.63 for y orientation, and r = 0.59 for z orientation, p < 0.05 for both). The relative amount of bone trabeculae in different orientations can be assessed in vitro using R2' measurements. PMID:10354877

Brismar, T B; Karlsson, M; Li, T Q; Ringertz, H

1999-01-01

104

Lumbar Morphometry: A Study of Lumbar Vertebrae from a Pakistani Population Using Computed Tomography Scans  

PubMed Central

Study Design A cross-sectional study. Purpose To describe the characteristics of lumbar vertebrae of Pakistani patients reporting at a tertiary care hospital and compare with studies from other populations. Overview of Literature Several studies have been conducted to determine morphometry of lumbar vertebrae. Most of the studies involve Caucasian populations, still data on other populations still sparse. This is the first study describing lumbar morphometry of a Pakistani population. Methods An observational study was conducted based on a review of thin-cut (3 mm) computed topographic images of lumbar vertebrae. Two-hundred and twenty vertebrae from forty-nine patients were studied, and various dimensions were analyzed. Results Generally, the size of the vertebrae, vertebral canals and recesses were found to be greater in male patients. The difference was statistically significant for transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral bodies and sagittal diameter of pedicles on the left side (p<0.05). Comparison of populations revealed statistically significant differences in pedicle dimensions between Pakistani population and others. Conclusions This study provides anatomical knowledge of the lumbar region in a sample population of Pakistan. There were significant differences in various dimensions of lumbar vertebrae between female and male patients. This would prove to be critical for performing a safe operation. PMID:25187858

Alam, Muhammad M; Waqas, Muhammad; Shallwani, Hussain

2014-01-01

105

Computer-assisted scheme for automated determination of imaging planes in cervical spinal cord MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a computerized scheme to assist MRI operators in accurate and rapid determination of sagittal sections for MRI exam of cervical spinal cord. The algorithm of the proposed scheme consisted of 6 steps: (1) extraction of a cervical vertebra containing spinal cord from an axial localizer image; (2) extraction of spinal cord with sagittal image from the extracted vertebra; (3) selection of a series of coronal localizer images corresponding to various, involved portions of the extracted spinal cord with sagittal image; (4) generation of a composite coronal-plane image from the obtained coronal images; (5) extraction of spinal cord from the obtained composite image; (6) determination of oblique sagittal sections from the detected location and gradient of the extracted spinal cord. Cervical spine images obtained from 25 healthy volunteers were used for the study. A perceptual evaluation was performed by five experienced MRI operators. Good agreement between the automated and manual determinations was achieved. By use of the proposed scheme, average execution time was reduced from 39 seconds/case to 1 second/case. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can assist MRI operators in performing cervical spinal cord MRI exam accurately and rapidly.

Tsurumaki, Masaki; Tsai, Du-Yih; Lee, Yongbum; Sekiya, Masaru; Kazama, Kiyoko

2009-02-01

106

Cervical chondroid chordoma in a standard dachshund: a case report  

PubMed Central

A ten-year-old male standard dachshund was presented with a history of neck pain and progressive gait disturbances. Following a neurological examination and diagnostic imaging, including CT, a neoplastic lesion involving the third and fourth cervical vertebrae was suspected. The lesion included an extradural mass on the right side of the spinal canal causing a local compression of the cervical cord. Surgery, using a modified dorsal laminectomy procedure, was performed in order to decompress the cervical spinal cord. Histopathological examination of the extradural mass indicated that the tumour was a chondroid chordoma. Following discharge, the quality of life for the dog was very good for a sustained period, but clinical signs recurred at 22 months. The dog was euthanased 25 months post-surgery. On post-mortem examination, a regrowth of neoplastic tissue was found to have infiltrated the bone and spinal cord at C3-C4. This is the first report to show that palliative surgery can offer successful long-lasting treatment of chondroid chordoma of the cervical spine in the dog. PMID:22017812

2011-01-01

107

Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD), diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10–L2) were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm) were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a) standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation); b) screw with medial cortical perforation; and c) screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra (P = 0.105), but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD (P = 0.901). Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different. PMID:23798753

Saraf, Shyam K; Singh, Ravindra P; Singh, Vakil; Varma, Ashish

2013-01-01

108

Large interarcuate spaces in the cervical vertebral column of the tyrolean mountain sheep.  

PubMed

Large interarcual spaces have been described between the arcus vertebrae C5/C6 and C6/C7 in the cervical vertebral column of Nubian goats. This aperture enables direct access to spinal cord and rootlets without the need to perform a hemilaminectomy. The present study was performed in order to determine whether these large interarcual spaces can also be found in the vertebral column of the Tyrolean mountain sheep, as this small ruminant, which is anatomically very similar to the Nubian goat, is frequently used for experimental purposes at the Surgical University Clinic in Austria. The carcasses of 10 sheep (six females, four males; range of age: 2.5-6 years, range of weight: 52-89 kg) were dissected and the vertebral column was exposed. All 10 sheep showed elliptic openings between the fourth cervical and the first thoracal vertebrae. Three sheep had additional openings between the first and the second thoracal vertebrae. All openings were covered solitarily by the ligamentum flavum and under this ligamentum lay the spinal cord without any further osseous or ligamentous protection. These findings are not mentioned in the common textbooks of veterinary anatomy and deserve attention, as they can be a step forward towards non-traumatic experimental surgery on the spinal cord. PMID:12733266

Turkof, E; Jurasch, N; Grassberger, M; Schwendenwein, S; Habib, D; Knolle, E; Losert, U

2003-02-01

109

Biomechanics of Cervical ‘Skip’ Corpectomy versus Standard Multilevel Corpectomy  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vitro biomechanical study of flexibility with finite element simulation to estimate screw stresses. Objective To compare cervical spinal stability after a standard plated three-level corpectomy with stability after a plated three-level “skip” corpectomy where the middle vertebra is left intact (i.e., two one-level corpectomies), and to quantify pullout forces acting on the screws during various loading modes. Summary of Background Data Clinically, three-level cervical plated corpectomy has a high rate of failure, partially because only four contact points affix the plate to the upper and lower intact vertebrae. Leaving the intermediate vertebral body intact for additional fixation points may overcome this problem while still allowing dural sac decompression. Methods Quasistatic nonconstraining torque (maximum 1 Nm) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while angular motion was recorded stereophotogrammetrically. Specimens were tested intact and after corpectomy with standard plated and strut-grafted three-level corpectomy (7 specimens) or ‘skip’ corpectomy (7 specimens). Screw stresses were quantified using a validated finite element model of C3–C7 mimicking experimentally tested groups. Skip corpectomy with C5 screws omitted was also simulated. Results Plated skip corpectomy tended to be more stable than plated standard corpectomy, but the difference was not significant. Compared to standard plated corpectomy, plated skip corpectomy reduced peak screw pull-out force during axial rotation (mode of loading of highest peak force) by 15% (4-screw attachment) and 19% (6-screw attachment). Conclusions Skip corpectomy is a good alternative to standard three-level corpectomy to improve stability, especially during lateral bending. Under pure moment loading, the screws of a cervical multilevel plate experience the highest pullout forces during axial rotation. Thus, limiting this movement in patients undergoing plated multilevel corpectomy may be reasonable, especially until solid fusion is achieved. PMID:22801457

Yilmaz, Murat; Yüksel, K. Zafer; Baek, Seungwon; Sawa, Anna G.U.; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Sonntag, Volker K.H.; Crawford, Neil R.

2012-01-01

110

[Cervical spine injuries in stable lower cervical spine with spinal stenosis].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the neurological outcome of spinal cord injuries in the traumatized cervical spine with a stenosis of the spinal medullary canal. From 1992 to 1999 we treated 145 spinal cord injuries and/or injuries with an unstable cervical spine, 138 were treated operatively, in 7 patients we found an injury of the spinal cord with a stable cervical spine and a stenosis of the spinal medullary canal. The radiological diagnostics consisted of anterioposterior X-rays of the cervical spine, an X-ray view of the dens axis and a stress roentgenogramm in extension and flection. An MRI was performed within the first 12 hours after the accident. The stenosis of the spinal medullary canal was evaluated by the quotient of the mid-sagittal diameter of the spinal medullary canal as well as the vertebral body (Torg-quotient) and ranged from 0.5 to 0.8. Pathological changed values were found in 4 patients within 2 segments and in 3 patients within 3 segments. In the T2-turbospin echo sequence hyperintense lesions of the spinal cord, accordingly to an edema were found in 6 patients. The neurological evaluation was performed according to the "Standard Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injuries". Treatment of these 7 patients was performed conservatively, consisting of NSAR as well as Methyl-Prednisolon according to the pattern of NASCIS-II and III. The follow-up was performed after 12 to 18 months. We evaluated the X-rays in anterioposterior and lateral view, stress roentgenogramms and neurological status. Radiological findings showed stable conditions of the cervical spine with block vertebras and increased osteophytes. The neurological outcome was evaluated according to the "Motor-Score" and showed an improvement from 8 to 63 points within 13 months in one case. In 6 cases, the average "Motor-Score" of 78 increased to 100 points within 2 to 5 months after injury. Most defunctionalization symptoms were found in the upper extremities. Disturbances in fine motor movement were unable to be examined with the "Motor-Score". We can conclude that spinal cord injuries in stable cervical spines with stenosis of the spinal medullary canal can be treated conservatively with a good outcome. A regression of the neurological deficiency can be expected within 2 to 5 months, but even after one year, deficiency regression is possible. PMID:11968545

Schweighofer, F; Stockenhuber, N; Bratschitsch, G; Raith, J

2002-02-01

111

Reassessment of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias age and growth using vertebrae and dorsal-fin spines.  

PubMed

Male and female spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias were collected in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the Gulf of Maine between July 2006 and June 2009. Squalus acanthias ranged from 25 to 102 cm stretch total length and were caught during all months of the year except January. Age estimates derived from banding patterns visible in both the vertebrae and second dorsal-fin spines were compared. Vertebral growth increments were visualized using a modified histological staining technique, which was verified as appropriate for obtaining age estimates. Marginal increment analysis of vertebrae verified the increment periodicity, suggesting annual band deposition. Based on increased precision and accuracy of age estimates, as well as more biologically realistic parameters generated in growth models, the current study found that vertebrae provided a more reliable and accurate means of estimating age in S. acanthias than the second dorsal-fin spine. Age estimates obtained from vertebrae ranged from <1 year-old to 17 years for male and 24 years for female S. acanthias. The two-parameter von Bertalanffy growth model fit to vertebrae-derived age estimates produced parameters of L? = 94·23 cm and k = 0·11 for males and L? = 100·76 cm and k = 0·12 for females. While these growth parameters differed from those previously reported for S. acanthias in the western North Atlantic Ocean, the causes of such differences were beyond the scope of the current study and remain to be determined. PMID:22497385

Bubley, W J; Kneebone, J; Sulikowski, J A; Tsang, P C W

2012-04-01

112

Multiple subluxations and comminuted fracture of the cervical spine in a sheep.  

PubMed

A 5-month-old, 13.5 kg, female Corriedale sheep was referred to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, with a history of traumatic injury of the cervical spine followed by non-ambulatoric tetraparesis that occurred 2 weeks before being admitted to the hospital. At admission, malalignment of the cervical spine with the cranial part of the neck deviating to the right was noted. Neurological examinations identified the absence of postural reactions in both forelimbs, mildly decreased spinal reflexes, and normal reaction to pain perception tests. Radiography revealed malalignment of the cervical vertebrae with subluxations at C1-C2 and C2-C3, and a comminuted fracture of the caudal aspect of C2. The sheep was euthanized due to a presumed poor prognosis. Necropsy and histopathological findings confirmed injuries of the cervical spine from C1 to C3, which were consistent with the clinical finding of tetraparesis in this case. This paper presents a rare case of multiple subluxations of the cervical spine caused by blunt force trauma in a young sheep. These results highlight the importance of an astute clinical diagnosis for such an acute cervical spine trauma and the need for prompt surgical correction for similar cases in the future. PMID:25626484

Lin, C-C; Chen, K-S; Lin, Y-L; Chan, J P-W

2015-02-17

113

Changes in Bone Density after Cancer Treatment in Patients with Cervical and Endometrial Cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine (LS) and femur in the postmenopausal women with cervical or endometrial cancer without bone metastasis compared to normal control postmenopausal women. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the BMD data in the LS, femur neck (FN) and trochanter (FT) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and laboratory data of bone turnover markers at baseline and after one year in 130 patients with cervical cancer, 68 patients with endometrial cancer, and 225 healthy controls. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the T-scores of basal BMD in LS and femur between patients with endometrial cancer and controls, and only T-score of basal BMD at the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) was significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer compared to controls. One year later, T-scores of BMD at all LS sites and FN in patients with cervical cancer and T-scores of BMD at L3, L4, FN, and FT in those with endometrial cancer after cancer treatment were significantly lower compared to controls. Lower proportions of normal BMD at all skeletal sites except L2 in patients with endometrial cancer and those at L1, L4, and FN in patients with cervical cancer were observed compared to controls after cancer treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cancer treatment increase bone loss in postmenopausal women with cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:25553092

Oh, Young Lim; Yoon, Man Soo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ari; Kim, Min Joung; Lee, Ji Young; Song, Yong Jung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyung; Chun, Sungwook

2015-01-01

114

[Cervical ectopic thymus].  

PubMed

Two cases of cervical aberrant thymus in infants are reported; it's important to identify such ectopia because thymic tissue involutes spontaneously later on; neither surgery nor other treatment is needed. Ultrasonography is a method of choice for tissue characterization of ectopic thymus and differential diagnosis with other cervical masses. PMID:2695627

Rypens, F; Avni, F; Müller, F; Baran, D; Struyven, J

1989-12-01

115

Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear without cervical os dilatation  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Spontaneous delivery through a cervical tear, provoked by prostaglandin-induced uterine contractions, was described in a G2P0 woman with a history of cervical dilatation and uterine curettage. This rare complication with potentially serious maternal–fetal consequences can be predicted by an aberrant cervical response to prostaglandins in parturients with previous cervical interventions.

Djokovic, Dusan; Costa, Cristina; Martins, Ana; Abushad, Shadi

2015-01-01

116

Anomalies of vertebrae and ribs: Jarcho Levin syndrome. Description of a case and literature review.  

PubMed

Jarcho Levin syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by the presence of rib and vertebral defects at birth. This syndrome is usually diagnosed in newborns with short neck and trunk and short stature. They present multiple vertebral anomalies at different levels of the spine, including "butterfly vertebrae", hemivertebrae and fused hypoplastic vertebrae. The small size of the thorax in newborns frequently leads to respiratory compromise and death in infancy. We report a new case with short trunk and neck and vertebral and costal anomalies without respiratory problems. A literature review was conducted. PMID:15851003

Vázquez-López, María E; López-Conde, María I; Somoza-Rubio, Carlos; Pérez-Pacín, Roberto; Morales-Redondo, Ramón; González-Gay, Miguel A

2005-05-01

117

Cephalometric Investigation of First Cervical Vertebrae Morphology and Hyoid Position in Young Adults with Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns  

PubMed Central

The aim of this retrospective study was to examine hyoid bone position and C1 (atlas) morphology in males and females and analyze these parameters with respect to different sagittal skeletal patterns via cephalometry, with the goal of identifying cephalometric norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 120 individuals (average age: 21.1?±?2.9 years) were classified according to their ANB angle (Class I, II, or III) and used to assess 14 parameters. Class I and II patients showed significant differences in Hy-NSL, Hy-PD, Hy-CVT, Lum, and a-p measurements. These parameters were consistently larger in males than in females. Intergroup comparisons among males showed significant differences in the SNA, ANB, Hy-CVT, X, and Z measurements. The hyoid was positioned more inferiorly and anteriorly and was more prominent in males than in females in all groups. Among participants exhibiting a Class I skeletal pattern, C1 was also larger in the anterior-posterior direction in males than in females. In the sagittal plane, the hyoid was positioned similarly in males with either Class I or III skeletal patterns but was positioned posteriorly in males with a Class II skeletal pattern. In addition, the vertical position of C1 varied with sagittal skeletal pattern in males. PMID:25152900

Gündüz Arslan, Seher; Dilde?, Neval; Devecioglu Kama, Jalen

2014-01-01

118

The Determination of Age and Rate of Growth from Vertebrae of the Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Lacustris Punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and rate-of-growth calculations were made from the fifth vertebrae of 535 channel catfish (Ictalurus lacustris punctatus) taken from Pool 9 of the upper Mississippi River at Lansing, Iowa. Vertebrae were collected during the summers of 1945 and 1946 and examined with the aid of a standard scale projector. They were prepared by removal of adhering material with a solution

John Appelget; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

1951-01-01

119

Childhood cervical lymphadenopathy.  

PubMed

Cervical lymphadenopathy is a common problem in children. The condition most commonly represents a transient response to a benign local or generalized infection, but occasionally it might herald the presence of a more serious disorder. Acute bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy usually is caused by a viral upper respiratory tract infection or streptococcal pharyngitis. Acute unilateral cervical lymphadenitis is caused by streptococcal or staphylococcal infection in 40% to 80% of cases. The most common causes of subacute or chronic lymphadenitis are cat scratch disease, mycobacterial infection, and toxoplasmosis. Supraclavicular or posterior cervical lymphadenopathy carries a much higher risk for malignancies than does anterior cervical lymphadenopathy. Generalized lymphadenopathy is often caused by a viral infection, and less frequently by malignancies, collagen vascular diseases, and medications. Laboratory tests are not necessary in the majority of children with cervical lymphadenopathy. Most cases of lymphadenopathy are self-limited and require no treatment. The treatment of acute bacterial cervical lymphadenitis without a known primary source should provide adequate coverage for both Staphylococcus aureus and group A beta hemolytic streptococci. PMID:14722499

Leung, Alexander K C; Robson, W Lane M

2004-01-01

120

A case of severe low back pain associated with Richard disease (lumbosacral transitional vertebra).  

PubMed

The imaging findings in some cases of low back pain are difficult to describe and the pathophysiology is not clear because subjective findings are usually difficult to document. This report concerns a rare case about the lumbosacral joint causing persistent severe back pain which in itself does not usually have any pathological meaning. We describe the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of a patient suffering from low back pain with lumbosacral transitional vertebra. The radiological examination showed the congenitally malformed transverse processes of the 5th lumbar vertebra to create a facet joint-like shape at the sacral ala region on both sides. Surgery resulted in immediate disappearance of the low back pain. When the lumbosacral junction shows some instability without fusion, the joint-like region could be the cause of low back pain. The lumbosacral transitional vertebra may be associated with low back pain. Electric denervation of the space between the transverse process of 5th lumbar vertebra and sacral ala is minimally invasive and effective for pain eradication. PMID:15346326

Endo, K; Ito, K; Ichimaru, K; Komagata, M; Imakiire, A

2004-08-01

121

New Finds at the Swartkrans Australopithecine Site (contd): Two New Early Hominid Vertebrae from Swartkrans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last week Dr C. K. Brain introduced the Swartkrans cave site and described some recent discoveries there. Dr J. T. Robinson now describes two hominid vertebrae which he suggests belonged to a Poranthropus individual ; Mr R. J. Clarke, Dr F. Clark Howell and Dr C. K. Brain present evidence for the view that two different hominids once lived at

J. T. Robinson

1970-01-01

122

The metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in South Asian litter frogs (Anura: Megophryidae)  

PubMed Central

Tadpoles of the Megophryidae, a South Asian family of litter frogs, are unique among anurans by virtue of their expanded caudal skeletons, which include supernumerary vertebral centra. The number of these vertebrae varies widely within the family, with tadpoles of Leptobrachella having as many as 30 and Leptolalax only five. Vertebral morphology is also quite variable, ranging from complete, perichordal centra to fragmentary ossifications. This variation in the caudal osteology of larval megophryids, however, is not manifested in the adult morphology. Post-metamorphic litter frogs have a typical anuran axial skeleton, invariably comprising eight presacral vertebrae, a single sacral vertebra and, postsacrally, the urostyle. To resolve this incongruity between life phases and to determine the precise metamorphic fate of supernumerary caudal vertebrae in megophryids, we examined metamorphic specimens from the genera Leptobrachella, Leptolalax, Ophryophryne and Megophrys. In all four, the caudal larval skeleton undergoes massive reduction, leaving only the coccyx and hypochord untouched. Caudal centra are apparently degraded by osteoclasts, which have not previously been implicated in vertebral remodelling during anuran metamorphosis. In Megophrys and Ophryophryne metamorphs, presacral centra also undergo resorption, consistent with an epichordal mode of centrum formation. The conservation of megophryid adult axial osteology in the face of extensive larval skeletal diversity reveals the role of metamorphosis in constraining anuran morphology. PMID:17559539

Handrigan, Gregory R; Wassersug, Richard J

2007-01-01

123

Developmental failure of segmentation in a caudal vertebra of Apatosaurus (Sauropoda).  

PubMed

A vertebral element assigned to an Apatosaurus cf. ajax from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation is described. The specimen exhibits an unusual morphology where two vertebrae are nearly seamlessly fused together, including the haemal arch that spans them. This morphology is thought be the result of a developmental abnormality. CT scans of the specimen reveal a thin zone of dorsoventral thickening between the two neural arches consistent with cortical bone. Contrast in internal morphology differentiates the anterior and posterior vertebral bodies with the anterior expressing greater porosity, which increased accommodation for barite-rich calcite precipitation. No vacuities are observed to suggest the former presence of an intervertebral disk or intervertebral joints: the absence of an intervertebral disc or intervertebral joints is indicative of a condition known as block vertebra. Block vertebrae occur with the loss, or inhibition, of somitocoele mesenchyme early in embyogenesis (i.e., during resegmentation of the somites responsible for the formation of the affected vertebra). The derivatives of somitocoele mesenchyme include the intervertebral disc and joints. Although vertebral paleopathologies are not uncommon in the fossil record, this specimen is the first recognized congenital malformation within Sauropoda. Anat Rec, 297:1262-1269, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24532488

Lovelace, David M

2014-07-01

124

Compressive strength of elderly vertebrae is reduced by disc degeneration and additional flexion.  

PubMed

Computer tomography (CT)-based finite element (FE) models assess vertebral strength better than dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporotic vertebrae are usually loaded via degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) and potentially at higher risk under forward bending, but the influences of the IVD and loading conditions are generally overlooked. Accordingly, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 14 lumbar discs to generate FE models for the healthiest and most degenerated specimens. Compression, torsion, bending, flexion and extension conducted experimentally were used to calibrate both models. They were combined with CT-based FE models of 12 lumbar vertebral bodies to evaluate the effect of disc degeneration compared to a loading via endplates embedded in a stiff resin, the usual experimental paradigm. Compression and lifting were simulated, load and damage pattern were evaluated at failure. Adding flexion to the compression (lifting) and higher disc degeneration reduces the failure load (8-14%, 5-7%) and increases damage in the vertebrae. Under both loading scenarios, decreasing the disc height slightly increases the failure load; embedding and degenerated IVD provides respectively the highest and lowest failure load. Embedded vertebrae are more brittle, but failure loads induced via IVDs correlate highly with vertebral strength. In conclusion, osteoporotic vertebrae with degenerated IVDs are consistently weaker-especially under lifting, but clinical assessment of their strength is possible via FE analysis without extensive disc modelling, by extrapolating measures from the embedded situation. PMID:25460926

Maquer, Ghislain; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M; Zysset, Philippe K

2015-02-01

125

Unilateral instrumented fixation for cervical dumbbell tumors  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the radiological outcomes in patients with unilateral instrumented fixation for cervical dumbbell tumors. Patients and methods Fourteen consecutive individuals were included in the present study. We included Eden type II and III tumors in this cohort study and analyzed fixed segment fusion rates, screw failure with multiplanar reconstruction computed tomography (CT) scan radiographs and lateral radiographs with flexion-extension dynamic views, and immediate postoperative and last follow-up radiographs after surgery. Results The mean follow-up was 105.4 months. There were six men and eight women ranging in age from 32 to 70 years (mean age, 48 years). Twenty pedicle screws (PSs) and 11 lateral mass screws (LMSs) were used in total. There were seven patients with only PSs, four with only LMSs, and three with PSs at C2 and LMSs at C3. PS misplacement occurred in three screws of insertions including two screws with grade 1 misplacement and one screw with grade 2 misplacement, and no grade 3 misplacement occurred. All screws breached the lateral wall with no apparent superior or inferior misplacement. None of the LMSs were misplaced. Fortunately, no complication could be directly attributed to screw insertion. Radiological evidence showed that all patients achieved successful fusion with no screw loosening or breakage. However, two patients who received only LMS fixation had degenerative spondylolisthesis at the upper fusion segment at the last follow-up. Conclusions Grade 2 PS misplacement occurred in one screw of insertions. Unilateral pedicle screw fixation for cervical dumbbell tumors is a useful surgical method that can successfully fuse vertebrae with good postoperative alignment. PMID:24438086

2014-01-01

126

The demands of professional opera singing on cranio-cervical posture  

PubMed Central

Difficulty with singing is a rare but important complication following cervical spine surgery but there is little objective information regarding the cervical and head postural changes taking place during singing. The aim of this study was to identify postural changes in the cranio-cervical region associated with the demands of voice production in professional opera singing. The two Roentgen-cephalograms, one of which are taken whilst performing a specified singing task were taken from 18 professional opera students, 12 females (mean age 20.86 ± 3.07 years) and six males (18.66 ± 1.36 years). A paired t test compared mean cranio-cervical postural and pharyngeal/hyoid variables between the two registrations (P = 0.05). The association between the cranio-cervical postural variables and the pharyngeal/hyoid region in each registration position was examined using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. In singing, the position of the atlas with respect to the true vertical (P < 0.001), the axis (P < 0.001) and the C4 vertebra both with respect to the horizontal (P < 0.001), and the axis with respect to the cranium (P < 0.001), were all significantly different to those at rest. Of the cranio-cervical postural variables in the singing registration, the angles measuring positional change of the atlas and C4 relative to the true horizontal were shown be significantly related to an increased pharyngeal airway space at the C3 level (P < 0.01). An appreciation of the requirement for the cervical spine to undergo postural change during professional opera singing has relevance to the potential impact on voice quality in professional opera singers should they undergo cervical spine surgery. PMID:19165506

Skinner, Margot

2009-01-01

127

Anterior and posterior variations in mechanical properties of human vertebrae measured by nanoindentation.  

PubMed

Osteoporotic spinal fractures are a significant global public health issue affecting more than 200 million people. Local degradation of the mechanical properties of bone and changes in global spine curvature increase fracture risk. However, a gap in knowledge exists relating material properties of trabecular bone in different regions of the spine. The purpose of our project was to measure the intrinsic mechanical properties of the anterior and posterior regions of human vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate Young's modulus (E) and hardness (H) of anterior and posterior trabecular bone regions from each vertebra (T7, T8 and L4). One-way ANOVA and the Turkey-Kramer test were used to analyze significance between vertebrae and t-test was used to test for significance within vertebrae. There was no difference in (E) and (H) within vertebrae. Young's modulus in the anterior regions of T7 (19.8±1.3) and T8 (19.6±1.4) were statistically greater than that in L4 (17.6±0.5). There was no difference between the posterior regions of all the vertebrae. There was a statistical significant difference in hardness between the anterior regions of T7 and T8 compared to L4, while the posterior regions demonstrated no difference. The results presented in this study, for the first time, reveal the differences in bone properties between the kyphotic thoracic spine and lordotic lumbar spine regions. This information will be helpful in understanding vertebral body remodeling and adaption in different regions of the spine which may be associated with spinal curvature and loading conditions. PMID:23182219

Giambini, Hugo; Wang, Hua-Jun; Zhao, Chunfeng; Chen, Qingshan; Nassr, Ahmad; An, Kai-Nan

2013-02-01

128

Anterior and Posterior Variations in Mechanical Properties of Human Vertebrae Measured by Nanoindentation  

PubMed Central

Osteoporotic spinal fractures are a significant global public health issue affecting more than 200 million people. Local degradation of the mechanical properties of bone and changes in global spine curvature increase fracture risk. However, a gap in knowledge exists relating material properties of trabecular bone in different regions of the spine. The purpose of our project was to measure the intrinsic mechanical properties of the anterior and posterior regions of human vertebral bodies in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate Young’s modulus (E) and hardness (H) of anterior and posterior trabecular bone regions from each vertebra (T7, T8 and L4). One-way ANOVA and the Turkey-Kramer test were used to analyze significance between vertebrae and t-test was used to test for significance within vertebrae. There was no difference in (E) and (H) within vertebrae. Young’s modulus in the anterior regions of T7 (19.8 ± 1.3) and T8 (19.6 ± 1.4) were statistically greater than that in L4 (17.6 ± 0.5). There was no difference between the posterior regions of all vertebrae. There was a statistical significant difference in hardness between the anterior regions of T7 and T8 compared to L4, while the posterior regions demonstrated no difference. The results presented in this study, for the first time, reveal the differences in bone properties between the kyphotic thoracic spine and lordotic lumbar spine regions. This information will be helpful in understanding vertebral body remodeling and adaption in different regions of the spine which may be associated with spinal curvature and loading conditions. PMID:23182219

Giambini, Hugo; Wang, Hua-Jun; Zhao, Chunfeng; Chen, Qingshan; Nassr, Ahmad; An, Kai-Nan

2012-01-01

129

Primary osteopathy of vertebrae in a neurofibromatosis type 1 murine model.  

PubMed

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. Spinal deformities are common skeletal manifestations in patients with NF1. To date, the mechanism of vertebral abnormalities remains unclear because of the lack of appropriate animal models for the skeletal manifestations of NF1. In the present study, we report a novel murine NF1 model, Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice. These mice display short vertebral segments. In addition, a significant reduction in cortical and trabecular bone mass of the vertebrae was observed in Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Peak stress and peak load were also significantly reduced in Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice as compared to controls. Furthermore, the lumbar vertebrae showed enlargement of the inter-vertebral canal, a characteristic feature of lumbar vertebrae in NF1 patients. Finally, histologic analysis demonstrated increased numbers of osteoclasts and decreased numbers of osteoblasts in the vertebrae of Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice in comparison to controls. In summary, Nf1(flox/-);Col2.3Cre(+) mice demonstrate multiple structural and functional abnormalities in the lumbar vertebrae which recapitulate the dystrophic vertebral changes in NF1 patients. This novel murine model provides a platform to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of spinal deficits in NF1 patients. PMID:21439418

Zhang, Wei; Rhodes, Steven D; Zhao, Liming; He, Yongzheng; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong; Yang, Dalong; Wu, Xiaohua; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Xianlin; Park, Su-Jung; Chen, Shi; Turner, Charles; Yang, Feng-Chun

2011-06-01

130

Revised Vertebral Count in the “Longest-Necked Vertebrate” Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and Clarification of the Cervical-Dorsal Transition in Plesiosauria  

PubMed Central

Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a “lost” cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term “pectorals” to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length). This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the “longest necked” animals ever to have lived. PMID:23940656

Sachs, Sven; Kear, Benjamin P.; Everhart, Michael J.

2013-01-01

131

Revised vertebral count in the "longest-necked vertebrate" Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and clarification of the cervical-dorsal transition in Plesiosauria.  

PubMed

Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a "lost" cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term "pectorals" to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length). This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the "longest necked" animals ever to have lived. PMID:23940656

Sachs, Sven; Kear, Benjamin P; Everhart, Michael J

2013-01-01

132

Just a drop of cement: a case of cervical spine bone aneurysmal cyst successfully treated by percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate cement.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign hemorrhagic tumor, commonly revealed by local pain. The best treatment for this lesion is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with chronic neck pain revealing an ABC of the third cervical vertebra. After percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement, the patient experienced significant clinical and radiological improvement. PMID:25498806

Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Riouallon, Guillaume; Cormier, Evelyne; Bonaccorsi, Raphael; Pascal-Mousselard, Hugues; Chiras, Jacques

2014-01-01

133

Giant Ventral Midline Schwannoma of Cervical Spine : Agonies and Nuances  

PubMed Central

Pure ventral midline giant schwannoma is an extremely rare entity. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas commonly occur posterolateral or anterolateral to the spinal cord. A case of a pure midline ventrally situated giant pan cervical extramedullary schwannoma in an 18-year-old male patient with compressive myelopathy and sphincter involvement is presented. Spinal MR imaging showed a midline ventrally situated extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression extending from clivus to C7 vertebra. It was resected through a posterolateral approach. Histology was consistent with a schwannoma. Post operative MR imaging showed no evidence of the tumor. The radiological features, pathogenesis and surgical strategies in management of these difficult tumors are discussed and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. PMID:20617092

Chagla, Aadil; Goel, Atul

2010-01-01

134

Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

1993-06-01

135

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... often in black women than in white women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor ... Although most women with cervical cancer have the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection , not all women with an ...

136

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

137

Cervical Cancer Participation Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Participation

138

Cervical Cancer Screening Programs  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Organization

139

Prevent Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-839KB] High-quality PDF ... cervix, uterus, vagina, and vulva. Stay Informed Printable Versions Standard quality PDF [PDF-839KB] High-quality PDF ...

140

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

141

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

142

Anatomical transformation in mammals: developmental origin of aberrant cervical anatomy in tree sloths.  

PubMed

Mammalian cervical count has been fixed at seven for more than 200 million years. The rare exceptions to this evolutionary constraint have intrigued anatomists since the time of Cuvier, but the developmental processes that generate them are unknown. Here we evaluate competing hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of cervical variants in Bradypus and Choloepus, tree sloths that have broken the seven cervical vertebrae barrier independently and in opposite directions. Transitional and mediolaterally disjunct anatomy characterizes the cervicothoracic vertebral boundary in each genus, although polarities are reversed. The thoracolumbar, lumbosacral, and sacrocaudal boundaries are also disrupted, and are more extreme in individuals with more extreme cervical counts. Hypotheses of homologous, homeotic, meristic, or associational transformations of traditional vertebral column anatomy are not supported by these data. We identify global homeotic repatterning of abaxial relative to primaxial mesodermal derivatives as the origin of the anomalous cervical counts of tree sloths. This interpretation emphasizes the strong resistance of the "rule of seven" to evolutionary change, as morphological stasis has been maintained primaxially coincident with the generation of a functionally longer (Bradypus) or shorter (Choloepus) neck. PMID:19196334

Buchholtz, Emily A; Stepien, Courtney C

2009-01-01

143

Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

144

Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

145

Cervical Syphilitic Lesions Mimicking Cervical Cancer: a Rare Case Report.  

PubMed

A female with main clinical manifestation of postcoital vaginal bleeding presented to our hospital. The patient was initially diagnosed with cervical carcinoma by the clinicians of the local hospital. However, the biopsy of the cervical lesions revealed chronic inflammation and erosion of cervical mucosa. And the rapid plasma reagin ratio is 1:256. Finally, the patient was diagnosed with syphilitic cervicitis and treated with minocycline 0.1gram twice a day. The patient was cured after the treatment. PMID:25486010

Zhu, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Weijiang; Fei, Jing; Zhou, Jianwei

2014-12-01

146

Total Disc Arthroplasty and Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion in Cervical Spine: Competitive or Complimentary? Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Anterior cervical discectomy and arthrodesis has come to represent standard of care for patients with persistent radicular and/or myelopathic symptoms that have failed to improve with conservative treatments. One potential complication of the procedure is the accelerated degeneration of the vertebrae and the intervertebral discs adjacent to the level fused and the effects of fusion on those levels. The concern that fusion may be a contributing factor to accelerated adjacent segment degeneration led to increased interest in cervical disc replacement after anterior decompressive surgery. Several studies analyzing the short-term outcomes of the disc replacement procedure have been published since then, and the pros and cons of both procedures continue to remain a topic of debate among the scientific community. The analysis of published literature and our own experience has convinced us that the overall longer-term clinical outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and total disc replacement (TDR) in the general patient population are not significantly different in terms of symptomatic improvement, neurological improvement, and restoration to better quality of life. Age of the patients and number of affected levels may impact the outcomes and hence determine the choice of optimum procedure. To definitely compare the incidence of adjacent segment disease after these procedures, multi-institutional studies with predetermined and unanimously agreed upon clinical and radiological criteria should be undertaken and the results analyzed in an unbiased fashion. Until that time, it is reasonable to assume that ACDF as well as cervical TDR are both safe and effective procedures that may have outcome benefits in specific patient subgroups based upon demographics and clinical/radiological parameters at the time of surgery. PMID:24353966

Jawahar, Ajay; Nunley, Pierce

2012-01-01

147

[Aneurysmal bone cysts. First description of the extensive destruction of the upper cervical spine].  

PubMed

Aneurysmal bone cysts are not counted among the classic malignant tumors, although they are destructive locally as blood filled reactive bone lesions. Typically, they are found in the metaphysis of the long bones, while localizations on the spine are rare. A 16-year-old female patient presented with unspecific, progressive neck pain which had been present for half a year. The initial x-ray showed no noticeable pathology whatsoever. Subsequently, the complete destruction of the first cervical vertebrae was found. The tumor had completely infiltrated and completely surrounded the spinal chord. A combined approach was used as therapy: resection of the dorsal tumor portion with occipitocervical spondylodesis (C0-C4) and postoperative radiation of the remaining ventral portions. Currently, the patient is free of complaints and recurrence. The differential diagnosis of an aneurysmal bone cyst should also be considered in cases of unspecific cervical vertebral complaints in adolescents that are not otherwise explainable. PMID:17431575

Frangen, T M; Pennekamp, W; Kuhnen, C; Kiriyanthan, G; Muhr, G; Nicolas, V; Schinkel, C

2007-07-01

148

Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).  

PubMed

Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

2006-09-01

149

Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor  

PubMed Central

Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

2014-01-01

150

January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities  

Cancer.gov

In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

151

Simulation analysis for effects of bone loss on acceleration tolerance of human lumbar vertebra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the present study was to analyze and predict the changes in acceleration tolerance of human vertebra as a result of bone loss caused by long-term space flight. A human L3-L4 vertebra FEM model was constructed, in which the cancellous bone was separated, and surrounding ligaments were also taken into account. The simulation results demonstrated that bone loss has more of an effect on the acceleration tolerance in x-direction. The results serve to aid in the creation of new acceleration tolerance standards, ensuring astronauts return home safely after long-term space flight. This study shows that more attention should be focused on the bone degradation of crew members and to create new protective designs for space capsules in the future.

Ma, Honglei; Zhang, Feng; Zhu, Yu; Xiao, Yanhua; Wazir, Abrar

2014-02-01

152

Thoracic and lumbar vertebrae morphology in Lenke type 1 female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Pedicle screws are widely used in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgeries. Pedicle screw malposition may lead to serious vascular and neurologic complications. Knowledge of the morphometric anatomy of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae is essential for the surgeon while implanting pedicle screws. It has been reported that there is a reduction of pedicle width at the concavity of the curve in AIS patients. However, it is unclear if gender plays a role in this pedicle width pattern. The goal of this study is to assess the vertebrae morphology in a more homogeneous group of AIS patients - female patients with Lenke type 1 curve. Methods The thoracic and lumbar vertebra and pedicle morphometry of 17 consecutive Lenke type 1 female AIS patients was analyzed based on 1mm fine cut CT scans. Morphometric anatomy of 539 pedicles from T1 to L5 was studied. Measurements included pedicle length, chord length, transverse pedicle width, transverse pedicle angle and vertebral rotation angle. Results The mean age of the patients was 14 years old (range 12-18). The mean Cobb angle was 56° (range 43° -88°) and the mean angle of vertebral rotation varied between 4-13.8°. The apical vertebra was between T7 and T11. The transverse pedicle width was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) on the concave side in the apical region of the thoracic spine (T7 and T8), measuring between 2.1-2.2 mm on the concave side and 2.7-3.1 mm on the convex side. Meanwhile, in some upper thoracic vertebrae (T3, T4, T5), the width was significantly bigger (p < 0.05) on the concave side than on the convex side, measuring between 2.8-4 mm on the concave side and 1.8-2.4 mm on the convex side. In the lumbar spine, the width varied between 4.1-9.9 mm without significant differences between the concave and convex sides (p > 0.05). The pedicle length varied between 15.4-28.7 mm and was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) on the concave side at T4, T5 and L2. The chord length was shortest at T1, measuring 32.4 mm and increased gradually to 54.3 mm at L3 but no statistical difference was found between the concave and convex sides. The transverse pedicle angle varied between 11.8° and 35° and was significantly bigger on the concave side at T7 and on the convex side at L1 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The vertebrae morphology in Lenke type 1 female AIS patients is substantially different from the vertebrae in normal spines especially at the apex and in the upper thoracic region. This is consistent with some previous reports which did not distinguish between male and female patients. Our findings suggest that gender does not play a major role in the vertebrae morphology pattern of AIS patients. Furthermore, recognizing this pattern is critical in order to optimize pedicle screw instrumentation and may allow for some leeway adjustments in the pedicle screw trajectory regardless of the methods of implantation.

Hu, Xiaobang; Siemionow, Krzysztof B.

2014-01-01

153

Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the vertebral ... spinal column around the spinal cord. Symptoms of cervical spine problems include: pain that interferes with daily activities ...

154

Cervical cancer - screening and prevention  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

155

Pure traumatic upper cervical disc herniation causing spinal cord injury: a case report and review of literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract: One third of all spinal injuries involve cervical vertebrae, and the impact of injury to the cervical spinal cord is profound and requires systemic treatment. The role and timing of surgical decompression after an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) remains one of the most controversial topics pertaining to spinal surgery. Lack of controlled, prospective, multicenter clinical studies has contributed to confusion in optimal treatment methods for patients with injuries of the cervical spinal cord. Clinically, the question of whether surgical decompression improves motor recovery following SCI remains surrounded by controversy. Case: Two cases with a 32-year-old man who developed right -sided Brown-Séquard Syndrome Following a motor to car accident with the large right paramedian C3–C4 disc herniation, and ipsilateral spinal cord compression and a 30-year-old man with the syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury with motor impairment involving only upper extremities due to central C2–C3 disc herniation following a pedestrian accident are reported. Discectomy and anterior cervical fusion with the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage were performed. A complete motor deficit recovery and a marked sensitive deficit improvement were obtained. The need for and timing of surgical decompression in post traumatic spinal cord injury is controversial. Surgery may expedite neurological recovery in some patients and may provide additional neurological recovery when clinical improvement has plateaued or worsened. In our patient a complete motor deficit recovery was observed. Keywords: Cervical, Disc herniation, Spinal cord injury

Sharifi, Guive; Mosavi, Seyed Ali; Shafieezad, Misagh; Asgari Nosari, Massoud

2012-01-01

156

Identification of Apical Vertebra for Grading of Idiopathic Scoliosis using Image Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scoliosis is a 3-D deformity of spinal column, characterized by both lateral curvature and vertebral rotation. The disease\\u000a can be caused by congenital, developmental, or degenerative problems; but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause,\\u000a and this is known as idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral rotation has become increasingly prominent in the study of scoliosis\\u000a and the most deformed vertebra

H. Anitha; G. K. Prabhu

157

Cervical chrondrocutaneous branchial remnants.  

PubMed

Similar in appearance to preauricular tags but located in the lateral neck, cervical chondrocutaneous branchial remnants are a rather less common and less well known congenital lesion. A retrospective review of admissions at Sainte-Justine Hospital between 1980 and 1993 produced 20 cases of cervical tags, of which 17 were true cervical chrondrocutaneous branchial remnants and 3 were skin tags associated with a thyroglossal duct. Of the 17 true cervical chrondrocutaneous branchial remnants, 15 were operated on in our institution. The clinical characteristics, results of investigations, surgical data, pathologic findings, and associated anomalies were documented. Several interesting facts emerged, including a male predominance (11 of 17), a scarcity of bilateral lesions (1 of 17), the presence of an elastic cartilage core in all operated specimens (15 of 15), and a high incidence of associated anomalies (13 of 17). We suggest that the second branchial arch is the most likely origin for the lesion. We propose a clear, widely acceptable name for this anomaly in order to prevent further diagnostic confusion. Most important, although simple surgical excision is all that is required for treatment, a complete physical examination of the patient and possibly an ultrasound examination of the genitourinary tract are recommended because a cervical chrondrocutaneous branchial remnant has proven in many cases to be a visible "marker" for more serious associated anomalies. PMID:9207656

Atlan, G; Egerszegi, E P; Brochu, P; Caouette-Laberge, L; Bortoluzzi, P

1997-07-01

158

Mechanical properties of sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) vertebrae in relation to spinal deformity.  

PubMed

Approximately 35% of sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria exhibit spinal deformities ranging from compressed vertebrae and loss of intervertebral space to dislocated spines with vertebral degeneration and massive spondylosis caused by excessive mineralization both within vertebrae and outside the notochordal sheath. To identify the mechanical basis of these deformities, vertebral centra from affected (N=12) and non-affected (N=9) C. taurus were subjected to axial compression tests on an MTS 858 Bionix material testing system, after which mineral content was determined. Vertebral centra from affected sharks had significantly lower mineral content and material behavior in nearly all variables characterizing elasticity, plasticity and failure. These mechanical deficiencies are correlated with size at capture, capture method, vitamin C and zinc deficiency, aquarium size and swimming behavior in public aquaria. Non-affected C. taurus had greater stiffness and toughness even though these properties are generally incompatible in mineralized structures, suggesting that the biphasic (mineralized, unmineralized phases) nature of chondrichthyan vertebrae yields material behavior not otherwise observed in vertebrate skeletons. However, vertebral centra from non-affected sharks had lower mineral content (33%), stiffness (167 MPa), yield strain (14%) and ultimate strength (16 MPa) than other species of sharks and bony vertebrates, indicating that biomechanical precautions must be taken in the husbandry of this species. PMID:23997197

Huber, Daniel R; Neveu, Danielle E; Stinson, Charlotte M; Anderson, Paul A; Berzins, Ilze K

2013-11-15

159

Identification of apical vertebra for grading of idiopathic scoliosis using image processing.  

PubMed

Scoliosis is a 3-D deformity of spinal column, characterized by both lateral curvature and vertebral rotation. The disease can be caused by congenital, developmental, or degenerative problems; but most cases of scoliosis actually have no known cause, and this is known as idiopathic scoliosis. Vertebral rotation has become increasingly prominent in the study of scoliosis and the most deformed vertebra is named as apical vertebra. Apical vertebral deformity demonstrates significance in both preoperative and postoperative assessment, providing better appreciation of the impact of bracing or surgical interventions. Precise measurement of apical vertebral rotation in terms of grading is most valuable for the determination of reference value in normal and pathological conditions for better understanding of scoliosis. Routine quantitative evaluation of vertebral rotation is difficult and error prone due to limitations of observer characteristic and specific imaging property. This paper proposes automatic identification of the apical vertebra and its parameter that depends on the objective criteria of measurement using active contour models. The proposed technique is more accurate and is a reliable measurement compared to manual and computer-assisted system. PMID:21725622

Anitha, H; Prabhu, G K

2012-02-01

160

‘Monster… -omics’: on segmentation, re-segmentation, and vertebrae formation in amphibians and other vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Background The axial skeleton is one of the defining evolutionary landmarks of vertebrates. How this structure develops and how it has evolved in the different vertebrate lineages is, however, a matter of debate. Vertebrae and vertebral structures are derived from the embryonic somites, although the mechanisms of development are different between lineages. Discussion Using the anecdotal description of a teratological newt (Triturus dobrogicus) with an unusual malformation in its axial skeleton, we review, compare, and discuss the development of vertebral structures and, in particular, the development of centra from somitic cellular domains in different vertebrate groups. Vertebrae development through re-segmentation of the somitic sclerotomal cells is considered the general mechanism among vertebrates, which has been generalized from studies in amniotic model organisms. The prevalence of this mechanism among anamniotes is, however, controversial. We propose alternative developmental mechanisms for vertebrae formation that should be experimentally tested. Summary Research in model organisms, especially amniotes, is laying the foundations for a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of development of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, foundations that should expand the extent of future comparative studies. Although immersed in the ‘-omics’ era, we emphasize the need for an integrative and organismal approach in evolutionary developmental biology for a better understanding of the causal role of development in the evolution of morphological diversity in nature. PMID:23577917

2013-01-01

161

VACTERL association with a rare vertebral anomaly (butterfly vertebra) in a case of monochorionic twin.  

PubMed

The VATER/VACTERL association is typically defined by the presence of at least three of the following congenital malformations: vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac malformations, tracheo-esophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities (13). We report a rare case of a monochorionic twin gestation in which one of the infants had VACTERL association. Antenatal ultrasound showed bilateral renal dysplasia and cardiac anomaly (ASD) in twin A. Twin A was noted to have the following anomalies: a single umbilical artery, limb anomaly (right hand preaxial polydactyly), vertebral anomalies (T9 and T11 butterfly vertebras, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, anal and urethral atresia. A normal-sized stomach and normal amount of amniotic fluid were observed during the prenatal period with no other anomalies. Twin B (male) was healthy and no cardiac, renal, or congenital anomalies were demonstrated on ultrasound and physical examination. Infant A was also diagnosed as having VACTERL association because he had five of the core anomalies (V, A, C, R, L) of VACTERL association. Butterfly vertebra is an uncommon congenital spinal anomaly. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second case VACTERL association with butterfly vertebra in the literature. PMID:25059024

Sandal, G; Aslan, N; Duman, L; Ormeci, A R

2014-01-01

162

Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping  

PubMed Central

A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory

2014-01-01

163

Morphometrics of the skeleton of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Part I. The vertebrae, with comparisons to other species.  

PubMed

Morphometric analysis of vertebral structure in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is presented. Ontogenetic variation in Dermophis mexicanus is analyzed through the 100+ vertebrae composing the column. Vertebral structure in adult D. mexicanus is compared with that in Ichthyophis glutinosus and Typhlonectes compressicauda. Centra of the atlas, second, tenth, 20th, and 50th vertebrae grow at allometrically different rates in D. mexicanus, though the 20th and 50th are not significantly different. Growth appears significantly slower in several dimensions of anterior and posterior vertebrae relative to midtrunk vertebrae in all three species. Mensural patterns throughout the entire column are similar in the terrestrail burrowers D. mexicanus and I. glutinosus; patterns in the aquatic T. compressicauda differ substantially from those of the burrowing species and are strongly influenced by allometry. Of the 112 D. mexicanus examined, 13.4% had vertebral anomalies, usually fusions. PMID:7452726

Wake, M H

1980-08-01

164

The variation of cancellous bones at lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep.  

PubMed

This study aimed to compare the variation of cancellous bones at four skeletal sites: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib in ovariectomized sheep. Sixteen adult sheep were randomly divided into two groups: eight sheep were ovariectomized served as experimental group; the other eight untreated sheep were served as control group. Bone mineral density was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on lumbar vertebrae at baseline and twelve months after ovariectomy. After 12 months, lumbar vertebrae L3 and L4, femoral necks, mandibular angles and the fourth ribs were harvested for micro-CT scanning, histological analysis and biomechanical test. The results showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebra decreased significantly in twelfth month (p<0.05). The results of micro-CT showed that the bone volume/total volume decreased by 45.6%, 36.1% 21.3% and 18.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks, mandibular angles and ribs in experimental group (p<0.05) respectively. The trabecular number showed the same downtrend (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed trabecular area/tissue area decreased by 32.1%, 23.2% and 20.7% in lumbar vertebrae, femoral necks and mandibular angles respectively (p<0.05), but no significant difference in ribs. Specimens elastic modulus from lumbar vertebra, femoral neck and mandibular angle were 952±76MPa (628±70MPa), 961±173MPa (610±72MPa) and 595±60MPa (444±31MPa) in control group (experimental group) respectively. These datum indicated that the sensibility of cancellous bones to oestrogen deficiency in ovariectomized sheep was site-specific on a pattern as follows: lumbar vertebra, femoral neck, mandibular angle and rib. PMID:24769217

Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Qi; Shao, Bo; Xiao, Jianrui; Zhou, Hong; Niu, Qiang; Shen, Mingming; Liu, Baolin; Hu, Kaijin; Kong, Liang

2014-07-01

165

Symptom localization tests in the cervical spine: a descriptive study using imaging verification  

PubMed Central

The concept of isolation of a movement to a single specific spinal segment by blocking/stabilization is considered useful and important during both examination and treatment. This descriptive study endeavoured to determine whether a typical manual stabilizing procedure changes movement patterns in the cervical spine. Lateral radiographs were taken of five volunteers in active/assisted extension with and without manual fixation grasping with the thumb and fingers around the dorsal aspect of the neck at the level of the vertebral arch. Vertebral angular differences between the fixated and non-fixated movements were measured for intra-rater and inter-rater reliability using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and analyzed for differences using a student t-test. Intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra-rater reliability were fair to moderate whereas inter-rater reliability was excellent. Although not statistically significant, the results showed that in relation to the active extension, the vertebra above the fixated vertebrae moved slightly less (mean?=??0.08°; SD?=?2.55) as did the vertebrae two levels above fixation (mean?=??0.11°; SD?=?2.13). Movements of the vertebrae below the fixation and two levels below the fixation were also reduced (mean?=??1.09°; SD?=?2.07) and (mean?=??0.65°; SD?=?1.85) respectively. The results suggest the possibility of a three-point bending of the spinal column during fixation and symptom localization during fixation may be a product of soft tissue tension and/or pressure from the fixating fingers. Further research is necessary, including a design that allows consistency among all participants which is appropriately powered. PMID:21655392

Schomacher, Jochen; Learman, Ken

2010-01-01

166

Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-10-10

167

Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2015-02-10

168

Imaging of cervical lymphadenopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification and classification of cervical lymphadenopathy can be a challenging task for the general radiologist. Patients with a wide range of clinical presentation and disease states are often referred for imaging, although evaluation and staging of head and neck cancer is the most common indication. In addition to metastatic squamous carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract, the differential diagnosis

Arjun Vikram Kaji; Tamara Mohuchy; Joel D Swartz

1997-01-01

169

Herniated Cervical Disc  

MedlinePLUS

... may be recommended if you have severe arm pain. These are injections of corticosteroid into the epidural space (the area ... muscles along the spine. While occasionally useful for pain control, trigger point injections do not help heal a herniated cervical disc. ...

170

The effect of different hormone replacement therapy regimens on the mechanical properties of rat vertebrae.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of estrogen replacement, in concert with three different progestin regimens, on the mechanical properties of rat lumbar vertebrae. Ninety-two Sprague-Dawley rats (11 months old) were divided into six groups for treatment. The first group was an intact control, the second group (OVX) was ovariectomized only, and the third group (estrogen-only) was ovariectomized and received continuous estrogen through a 17 beta-estradiol implant. The remaining groups were ovariectomized and received estrogen and progestin (norethindrone, NET) therapy; 3 micrograms of NET was injected daily (estrogen plus continuous NET), or 6 micrograms of NET was injected for 14 consecutive days of a 28-day cycle (estrogen plus cyclic NET), or for 3 consecutive days of a 6-day cycle (estrogen plus interrupted NET). The animals were sacrificed after 6 months, and the vertebrae were dissected out. The vertebral processes of the fourth lumbar vertebrae were removed, and the density of the vertebral bodies was determined. They were then subjected to compression testing. We found that all three estrogen/progestin regimens maintain bone density and all mechanical properties at a level indistinguishable from the control. However, the cyclic and continuous NET treatment results were, with the exception of density, also indistinguishable from those of the ovariectomized group. The estrogen plus interrupted NET group on the other hand, has a significantly greater compressive modulus and density than the ovariectomized group. In conclusion, with respect to the ovariectomized group, the estrogen plus interrupted NET treatment resulted in a superior density and compressive modulus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7736321

Chachra, D; Kasra, M; Vanin, C M; MacLusky, N J; Casper, R F; Grynpas, M D

1995-02-01

171

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

172

Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2013-12-12

173

21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884...Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle...the cervix to collect menstrual flow or to aid artificial...

2010-04-01

174

Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... pre-cancers are treated Next Topic Additional resources Cervical cancer prevention and screening: Financial issues Financial issues can ... to tell you up front. National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program All states are making cervical ...

175

Adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump  

SciTech Connect

Sixteen women with adenocarcinoma of the cervical stump were treated over a 15-year period. The median survivals of 40 months for stage IB and 17 months for stages II and III were significantly worse compared with those for patients treated for cervical adenocarcinoma of the intact uterus or squamous carcinoma of the cervical stump. The poor results were due to both local and distant failure. Implications regarding tumor radiosensitivity and adjuvant therapy in these high-risk patients are discussed.

Goodman, H.M.; Niloff, J.M.; Buttlar, C.A.; Welch, W.R.; Marck, A.; Feuer, E.J.; Lahman, E.A.; Jenison, E.; Knapp, R.C. (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-11-01

176

An occult cervical spine fracture.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old athlete developed neck pain after being dropped on his head with his neck flexed while recreationally wrestling. Initial cervical spine radiographs were negative, but he continued to have neck and arm pain, especially after heading a wet soccer ball. Two months after the initial injury, he had a positive Spurling test; cervical spine CT then revealed a parasagittal linear fracture through the body of C-7. The patient avoided contact and collision activities and had no further physical problems. For patients who suffer cervical spine trauma, adequate visualization of the cervical spine can help prevent catastrophic outcomes. PMID:20086882

Khosla, R

1997-12-01

177

Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

2013-11-01

178

Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-29

179

Pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cervical dystonia and severe cervical dyskinesias with cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Surgical treatment of complex cervical dystonia and of cervical dyskinesias associated with cervical myelopathy is challenging. In this prospective study, the long term effect of chronic pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia and on combining the technique with spinal surgery in patients with severe cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy is described. Methods: Eight patients with a history of chronic dystonia who did not achieve adequate benefit from medical treatment or botulinum toxin injection participated in the study. Five patients had complex cervical dystonia with tonic postures and phasic movements. Three patients had rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy secondary to severe cervical dyskinesias and dystonia in the context of a generalised movement disorder. Quadripolar electrodes were implanted in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus with stereotactic CT and microelectrode guidance. In the three patients with secondary cervical myelopathy, spinal surgery was performed within a few weeks and included multilevel laminectomies and a four level cervical corporectomy with spinal stabilisation. Results: Improvement of the movement disorder was noted early after pallidal surgery, but the full benefit could be appreciated only with a delay of several months during chronic stimulation. Three months after surgery, patients with cervical dystonia had improved by 38% in the severity score, by 54% in the disability score, and by 38% in the pain score of a modified version of the Toronto western spasmodic torticollis rating scale. At a mean follow up of 20 months, the severity score had improved by 63%, the disability score by 69%, and the pain score by 50% compared with preoperatively. There was also sustained amelioration of cervical dyskinesias in the three patients who underwent spinal surgery. Lead fractures occurred in two patients. The mean amplitude needed for chronic deep brain stimulation was 3.8 V at a mean pulse width of 210 µs, which is higher than that used for pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Conclusions: Chronic pallidal stimualtion is effective for complex cervical dystonia and it is a useful adjunct in patients with cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy who undergo spinal surgery. PMID:11796777

Krauss, J; Loher, T; Pohle, T; Weber, S; Taub, E; Barlocher, C; Burgunder, J

2002-01-01

180

Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-02-01

181

[Cervical vertigo: myth or reality?].  

PubMed

Patients displaying vertigo associated with cervical symptoms: what is the origin? Diagnosis of cervical vertigo is sometimes retained. It remains very controversial. Indeed there is neither a convincing pathological mechanism nor a diagnostic test. Despite lack of strong benefit evidence, manual therapy can be offered to selected patients. PMID:19946992

Guinand, N; Guyot, J-P

2009-09-30

182

Spontaneous cervical intradural disc herniation.  

PubMed

Cervical intradural disc herniation (IDH) is a rare condition with very few case reports in the literature. We report a 64-year-old man who presented with sudden onset neck pain and rapidly progressing weakness in the left upper and lower limb. There was no history of trauma. MRI of the cervical spine showed a C6-C7 disc prolapse, for which he underwent a C6-C7 discectomy and fusion with bone graft through an anterior cervical approach. To our knowledge, all patients with a cervical IDH reported in the literature have a traumatic etiology. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first patient with a spontaneous cervical IDH. PMID:24210799

Warade, Abhijit G; Misra, Basant K

2014-05-01

183

Biomechanics of cervical laminoplasty: kinetic studies comparing different surgical techniques, temporal effects and the degree of level involvement.  

PubMed

Laminoplasty is a common surgical technique used to treat cervical myelopathy. Both voids and contradictory information exist in the literature with regard to the initial and long-term biomechanical consequences of cervical laminoplasty. In order to clarify the existing literature, as well as provide clinically useful information, we identified three specific aims: (1) to measure the long-term differences in kinetics between the open door laminoplasty (ODL) and French door laminoplasty (FDL) techniques; (2) to delineate differences in primary and long-term cervical motion after laminoplasty; and (3) to determine whether inclusion of additional levels in the laminoplasty procedure results in a change in immediate cervical biomechanics. The study design involved both an animal (caprine) model and in vitro surgical simulation. We kinematically evaluated the cervical spine specimens (C2-C7) by applying pure bending moment loads to the cephalad vertebra (C2), while constraining the caudal vertebra (C7). Resultant intervertebral rotations (C3-C6) were determined via stereophotogrammetry. Overall, the data indicate that both FDL and ODL significantly reduce range of motion 6 months postoperatively, compared with the un-operated spine. There were no significant differences between the two techniques after 6 months. We also showed that ODL produces a significant reduction in motion 6 months postoperatively compared with the immediate postoperative condition. Finally, the data indicated that extending the laminoplasty from two to four levels did not significantly change range of motion. The choice of technique should be based upon the surgeon's experience with these technically demanding procedures. In addition, initial stability considerations should not affect the decision to extend the laminoplasty to adjacent levels. Finally, the data also suggest that early changes in biomechanics should not be a major factor when considering whether immobilization of the cervical spine is necessary after laminoplasty. In fact, our temporal study, as well as previously reported clinical data, indicates that one should expect significantly decreased intervertebral motion 6 months after laminoplasty. Therefore, early physical therapy should be considered to preserve a more physiologic pattern of cervical range of motion. PMID:15007708

Puttlitz, Christian M; Deviren, Vedat; Smith, Jason A; Kleinstueck, Frank S; Tran, Quy N H; Thurlow, Ralph W; Eisele, Pamela; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2004-05-01

184

Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

2013-01-01

185

[Cervical ectopic thymus].  

PubMed

We present a case of ectopic thymus in an eight month old male baby, with a right lateral tumor of the neck. Ectopic thymus is a pathology rarely observed, its embryogenesis could explain its cervical localization. X Ray, ultrasonography, IRM, esophagoscophy and laryngoscophy may be helpful in the differential diagnosis with other tumors of the neck. Due to the fact that cystic lesions and neoplasis developments take place, the chosen treatment is the complete chirurgical extirpation. But at the absence of symptoms, no treatments is advisable because eventually the thymus spontaneously involutionates. PMID:10668274

Saracho Cornet, P L; Traversaro, M; Courel, J; Buteler, G; Moreno, P; Ferreo, G; Arias, M

1999-01-01

186

Segmentation anomalies of the vertebras and ribs: a developmental field defect: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed

Opitz has defined developmental field defects (DFD) as "any dysmorphogenetically reactive unit of the developing organism that leads to final structure." We have incorporated in our coding system specific codes to identify individual DFDs in each child, irrespective of the cause or type of the MCA pattern (i.e., chromosomal, mendelian, environmental, or unknown). Using this approach, we can analyze the group of defects included in the expression of each DFD as a discrete unit. To confirm our hypothesis that vertebral and rib anomalies constitute a DFD, we have studied all of our cases with segmentation anomalies of the spine and ribs, including hemivertebrae, fused or absent vertebrae, and "crab-like" thorax, all of which fall into the loosely defined groups of spondylothoracic dysplasia, costovertebral dysplasia, Jarcho-Levin syndrome, and others. The study was performed using the 18,743 malformed children from the ECEMC data files, 110 of them having vertebral/rib anomalies. PMID:8172249

Martínez-Frías, M L; Urioste, M

1994-01-01

187

Anterior cervical interbody constructs: effect of a repetitive compressive force on the endplate.  

PubMed

Graft subsidence following anterior cervical reconstruction can result in the loss of sagittal balance and recurring foraminal stenosis. This study examined the implant-endplate interface using a cyclic fatigue loading protocol in an attempt to model the subsidence seen in vivo. The superior endplate from 30 cervical vertebrae (C3 to T1) were harvested and biomechanically tested in axial compression with one of three implants: Fibular allograft; titanium mesh cage packed with cancellous chips; and trabecular metal. Each construct was cyclically loaded from 50 to 250?N for 10,000 cycles. Nondestructive cyclic loading of the cervical endplate-implant construct resulted in a stiffer construct independent of the type of the interbody implant tested. The trabecular metal construct demonstrated significantly more axial stability and significantly less subsidence in comparison to the titanium mesh construct. Although the allograft construct resulted in more subsidence than the trabecular metal construct, the difference was not significant and no difference was found when comparing axial stability. For all constructs, the majority of the subsidence during the cyclic testing occurred during the first 500 cycles and was followed by a more gradual settling in the remaining 9,500 cycles. PMID:22002745

Ordway, Nathaniel R; Rim, Byeong Cheol; Tan, Rong; Hickman, Rebecca; Fayyazi, Amir H

2012-04-01

188

Low-level mesodermal somatic mutation mosaicism: late-onset craniofacial and cervical spinal hyperostoses.  

PubMed

Craniofacial and cervical spinal hyperostoses are rarely seen in the absence of other abnormalities. Only seven patients with isolated cranial hyperostoses have been reported, and only a single patient with both calvarial and cervical vertebral hyperostoses. We report on an adult with late-onset right-sided asymmetrical hyperostoses of the cranium, mandible, and cervical vertebrae in the absence of an AKT1 mutation. At presentation, the patient displayed neither generalized overgrowth nor dysregulated adipose tissue. Standard polymerase chain reaction and Sanger sequencing of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded frontal bone and mandibular angular bone was negative for an AKT1 mutation. Though the patient's clinical manifestations did not fulfill the consensus diagnostic criteria of Proteus syndrome, the mosaic distribution of lesions, the sporadic occurrence, and the patient's progressive course were consistent with a somatic mosaicism similar to that syndrome. Hence, the patient's phenotype may have been caused by a very late mesodermal somatic mutation during embryogenesis. PMID:24357582

Kubota, Yoshitaka; Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Uchida, Michiko; Uchida, Yuuki; Akita, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Satoh, Kaneshige

2014-03-01

189

Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n?=?15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L?, 0.219 y?1for k, and ?0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae. PMID:23082225

Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

2012-01-01

190

Effects of Vibration in Forced Posture on Biochemical Bone Metabolism Indices, and Morphometric and Mechanical Properties of the Lumbar Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies have shown a relatively strong association between occupational lower back pain (LBP) and long-term exposure to vibration. However, there is limited knowledge of the impact of vibration and sedentariness on bone metabolism of the lumbar vertebra and the mechanism of bone-derived LBP. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vibration in forced posture (a seated posture) on biochemical bone metabolism indices, and morphometric and mechanical properties of the lumbar vertebra, and provide a scientific theoretical basis for the mechanism of bone-derived LBP, serum levels of Ca2+, (HPO4)2?, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and bone gla protein (BGP),the pathological changes and biomechanics of lumbar vertebra of New Zealand white rabbits were studied. The results demonstrate that both forced posture and vibration can cause pathological changes to the lumbar vertebra, which can result in bone-derived LBP, and vibration combined with a seated posture could cause further damage to bone metabolism. Serological changes can be used as early markers for clinical diagnosis of bone-derived LBP. PMID:24265702

Zhang, Li; Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

2013-01-01

191

Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.  

PubMed

Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

2014-11-01

192

Studying Biomarkers in Diagnosing Cervical Lesions in Patients With Abnormal Cervical Cells  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Endocervical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Atypical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Cervical Cancer; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Human Papilloma Virus Infection

2013-08-01

193

Three-dimensional analysis of sexual dimorphism in human thoracic vertebrae: implications for the respiratory system and spine morphology.  

PubMed

Sexual dimorphism is important for intraspecific variation and well studied in the human skeleton. In the thoracic part of the spine sexual dimorphism is expected for differences in the respiratory system related to body mass, lung capacity, and energetics, and in the reproductive system for adaptations to pregnancy (lower spine lordosis, posture). However, little is known about sexual dimorphism in this anatomical region. We use three-dimensional (3D)-geometric morphometrics to test hypotheses on sexual dimorphism in the first 10 thoracic vertebrae (T1-T10). Forty-six 3D-landmarks were measured on vertebrae of 24 adult females and males of known age and sex. Results confirm that male vertebrae are consistently larger than female ones. Males show more dorsally oriented transverse processes and relatively larger vertebral bodies in upper and lower thoracic vertebrae. Sexual dimorphism in lower thoracic vertebrae affects the orientation of the spinous processes, which is more horizontal in females but more caudal in males. Such regional pattering of sexual dimorphism emerges also from principal component analyses reflecting a complex interaction between the effects of sex and serial position on shape variation. Greater dorsal orientation of male transverse processes reorients the ribs and could lead to greater radial thorax diameters. This fits with greater male respiratory capacities, but may indicate also greater invagination of the male spine within the thorax. Horizontal orientation of the spinous processes in females could allow for a greater thoraco-lumbar lordosis during pregnancy, but more comparative research is necessary to test these hypotheses. PMID:25176047

Bastir, Markus; Higuero, Antonio; Ríos, Luís; García Martínez, Daniel

2014-12-01

194

Registration of 2D histological sections with 3D micro-CT datasets from small animal vertebrae and tibiae.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the registration of digitized thin 2D sections of mouse vertebrae and tibiae used for histomorphometry of trabecular bone structure into 3D micro computed tomography (?CT) datasets of the samples from which the sections were prepared. Intensity-based and segmentation-based registrations (SegRegs) of 2D sections and 3D ?CT datasets were applied. As the 2D sections were deformed during their preparation, affine registration for the vertebrae was used instead of rigid registration. Tibiae sections were additionally cut on the distal end, which subsequently undergone more deformation so that elastic registration was necessary. The Jaccard distance was used as registration quality measure. The quality of intensity-based registrations and SegRegs was practically equal, although precision errors of the elastic registration of segmentation masks in tibiae were lower, while those in vertebrae were lower for the intensity-based registration. Results of SegReg significantly depended on the segmentation of the ?CT datasets. Accuracy errors were reduced from approximately 64% to 42% when applying affine instead of rigid transformations for the vertebrae and from about 43% to 24% when using B-spline instead of rigid transformations for the tibiae. Accuracy errors can also be caused by the difference in spatial resolution between the thin sections (pixel size: 7.25 ?m) and the ?CT data (voxel size: 15 ?m). In the vertebrae, average deformations amounted to a 6.7% shortening along the direction of sectioning and a 4% extension along the perpendicular direction corresponding to 0.13-0.17 mm. Maximum offsets in the mouse tibiae were 0.16 mm on average. PMID:25136982

Museyko, Oleg; Marshall, Robert Percy; Lu, Jing; Hess, Andreas; Schett, Georg; Amling, Michael; Kalender, Willi A; Engelke, Klaus

2015-11-01

195

Ectopic cervical thymus: case report.  

PubMed

Ectopic cervical thymus is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical masses: this lesion is essentially asymptomatic and generally occupies a position in the neck along the carotid sheath, underneath the sterno-cleido-mastoid muscle. It is supposed that most of these masses arise as a consequence of migration defects during glandular embryogenesis. Ectopic thymus rarely invades contiguous structures but in the literature some cases of malignant transformation of aberrant cervical thymus have been reported. Some non-invasive investigations (MRI, ultrasonography) are useful but accurate diagnosis depends eventually on surgical excision and histologic examination. PMID:8877356

Lima, M; Ruggeri, G; Trizzino, V; Domini, M; Libri, M; Zanetti, G; Tani, G

1996-08-01

196

Cervical Tissue Engineering Using Silk Scaffolds and Human Cervical Cells  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous preterm birth is a frequent complication of pregnancy and a common cause of morbidity in childhood. Obstetricians suspect abnormalities of the cervix are implicated in a significant number of preterm births. The cervix is composed of fibrous connective tissue and undergoes significant remodeling in preparation for birth. We hypothesized that a tissue engineering strategy could be used to develop three-dimensional cervical-like tissue constructs that would be suitable for investigating cervical remodeling. Cervical cells were isolated from two premenopausal women undergoing hysterectomy for a benign gynecological condition, and the cells were seeded on porous silk scaffolds in the presence or absence of dynamic culture and with 10% or 20% serum. Morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties were measured during the 8-week culture period. Cervical cells proliferated in three-dimensions and synthesized an extracellular matrix with biochemical constituents and morphology similar to native tissue. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture was associated with significantly increased collagen deposition (p?cervical-like constructs constitute a novel model system for a range of fundamental and applied studies related to cervical remodeling. PMID:20121593

Sanchez, Cristina C.; Rice, William L.; Socrate, Simona; Kaplan, David L.

2010-01-01

197

Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). DESIGN AND SETTING: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. SUBJECTS: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 +/- 2.5 years, height = 181.0 +/- 5.8 cm, weight = 90 +/- 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). MEASUREMENTS: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. RESULTS: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r =.53, P <.01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r (2) =.58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r (2) =.48). Also, the spinal canal (r (2) =.66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r (2) =.23). CONCLUSIONS: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

Tierney, Ryan T; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G; Straub, Stephen J; Sitler, Michael R

2002-06-01

198

Cervical Spine Stenosis Measures in Normal Subjects  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare 2 methods of determining cervical spinal stenosis (Torg ratio, space available for the cord [SAC]); determine which of the components of the Torg ratio and the SAC account for more of the variability in the measures; and present standardized SAC values for normal subjects using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design and Setting: The research design consisted of a posttest-only, comparison-group design. The independent variable was method of measurement (Torg ratio and SAC). The dependent variables were Torg ratio and SAC scores. Subjects: Fourteen men (age = 24.4 ± 2.5 years, height = 181.0 ± 5.8 cm, weight = 90 ± 13.5 kg) participated in this study. The C3 to C7 vertebrae were examined in each subject (n = 70). Measurements: The Torg ratio was determined by dividing the sagittal spinal-canal diameter by the corresponding sagittal vertebral-body diameter. The SAC was determined by subtracting the sagittal spinal-cord diameter from the corresponding sagittal spinal-canal diameter. The Torg ratio and SAC were measured in millimeters. Results: The SAC ranged from 2.5 to 10.4 mm and was greatest at C7 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. The SAC was least at C3 or C5 in 71% (10 of 14) of the subjects. A Pearson product moment correlation revealed a significant relationship between the Torg ratio and SAC (r = .53, P < .01). Regression analyses revealed the vertebral body (r?2 = .58) accounted for more variability in the Torg ratio than the spinal canal (r?2 = .48). Also, the spinal canal (r?2 = .66) accounted for more variability in the SAC than the spinal cord (r?2 = .23). Conclusions: The SAC measure relies more on the spinal canal compared with the Torg ratio and, therefore, may be a more effective indicator of spinal stenosis. This is relevant clinically because neurologic injury related to stenosis is a function of the spinal canal and the spinal cord (not the vertebral body). Further research must be done, however, to validate the SAC measure. PMID:12937434

Tierney, Ryan T.; Maldjian, Catherine; Mattacola, Carl G.; Straub, Stephen J.; Sitler, Michael R.

2002-01-01

199

Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

200

Hemangiopericytoma of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A 28-year-old male presented with neck pain and dysesthesias in the right upper limb. On examination, he had a firm, well-defined midline posterior cervical mass discernible on palpation at the mid-cervical level. He had no neurological deficit. Neuroradiology revealed a variegated enhancing cervical mass is arising from C3 lamina. The mass extended into the right extradural space eroding the C3 lamina and posteriorly into the intermuscular plane. The tumor was excised totally. Histopathology of the tumor showed features of hemangiopericytoma (HPC). The patient underwent postoperative radiotherapy. Primary osseous spinal HPC are rare malignant extra-axial tumors that tend to recur and metastasize. Only two cases of primary osseous HPC have been reported earlier to involve the cervical spine. The clinical presentation and management of the present case with a review of the literature is presented. PMID:25210342

Ramdasi, Raghvendra V.; Nadkarni, Trimurti D.; Goel, Naina A.

2014-01-01

201

Cervical thymic cysts.  

PubMed

Thymic cysts are considered uncommon lesions in the differential diagnosis of pediatric neck masses. They usually present in the 1st decade after the age of 2 years, possibly because the thymus attains its greatest development before puberty. They may be found anywhere along the normal descent route of the thymus gland from the mandible to the sternal notch; 50% extend into the mediastinum. Most patients are asymptomatic, although respiratory complications may occur. A review of the operative records in our hospital over the last 10 years revealed two cases of cervical thymic cysts (CTC) in a 5- and a 9-year-old boy. Both children presented with an atraumatic, painless, enlarging mass in the left side of the neck anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Neither boy had respiratory problems or swallowing difficulties. Ultrasound and computed tomography showed a lesion consistent with a tentative diagnosis of a branchial cyst in one boy and an extensive cystic hygroma in the other. Both lesions were approached through a transverse cervical incision and, although closely adherent to the internal jugular vein, carotid artery, and vagus nerve, were resected completely. There were no postoperative complications and so far there has been no recurrence. CTCs are uncommon benign lesions that should be considered in the evaluation of neck masses in children. Preoperative diagnosis is unusual and, at this time, there is no preoperative radiologic test that can accurately identify a neck mass as a CTC. Histologic investigation of the excised specimen showing thymic tissue remnants with pathognomonic Hassall's corpuscles and cholesterol clefts in the cyst wall is the only definitive diagnosis. Evolution is benign. Intact, complete surgical excision remains the treatment of choice. PMID:12415385

De Caluwé, D; Ahmed, M; Puri, P

2002-09-01

202

Cervical Thymic Cyst Mimicking Laryngocele  

PubMed Central

Cervical thymic cysts are nearly 0.3% of all congenital cervical cysts. Thymic cysts are asymptomatic, but they rarely complain of dysphagia or tracheal obstruction symptoms. A soft, mobile, and painless mass increasing with valsalva maneuver directs the diagnosis of laryngocele. There has not been any study in the literature in which thymic cyst presenting like laryngocele. We hereby present a case of thymic cyst mimicking laryngocele that has not been reported so far. PMID:24455374

Ozturk, Kayhan; Elsurer, Cagdas; Bulut, Serap; Duran, Mutlu; Ugras, Serdar

2013-01-01

203

Cement interdigitation and bone-cement interface after augmenting fractured vertebrae: A cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Background The treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly over the last 20 years. There is still uncertainty about long-term and midterm effects of polymethyl methacrylate in trabecular bone. Preservation of the trabecular structures, as well as interdigitation of the cement with the surrounding bone, therefore has been gaining increasing attention. Interdigitation of cement is likely relevant for biological healing and the biomechanical augmentation process. In this study a cutting and grinding technique was used to evaluate the interdigitation for 4 augmentation techniques. Methods By use of a standardized protocol, wedge fractures were created in vertebrae taken from a fresh-frozen spine. Thereafter the vertebrae were assigned to 1 of 4 similar groups with regard to the vertebral size and force required to produce the fracture. The 4 groups were randomized to the following augmentation techniques: balloon kyphoplasty, radiofrequency (RF) kyphoplasty, shield kyphoplasty, and vertebral stenting. Histologic analysis was designed to examine the bone structure and interdigitation after the augmentation. Results For the void-creating procedures, the distance between bone and cement was 341.4 ± 173.7 µm and 413.6 ± 167.6 µm for vertebral stenting and balloon kyphoplasty, respectively. Specifically, the trabecular bone was condensed around the cement, forming a shield of condensed bone. The procedures without a balloon resulted in shorter distances of 151.2 ± 111.4 µm and 228.1 ± 183.6 µm for RF and shield kyphoplasty, respectively. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P < .0001). The percentage of interdigitation was higher for the procedures that did not use a balloon: 16.7% ± 9.7% for balloon kyphoplasty, 20.5% ± 12.9% for vertebral stenting, 66.45% ± 12.35% for RF kyphoplasty, and 48.61% ± 20.56% for shield kyphoplasty. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P < .00001). Conclusions Cavity-creating procedures reduce the cement interdigitation significantly and may accordingly reduce the effectiveness of the augmentation procedures.

Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Kratz, Marita; Baroud, Gamal; Becker, Stephan; Ruchholtz, Steffen

2012-01-01

204

Glycoprotein and Glycan in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

205

Cervical spine injury: tiger attack.  

PubMed

Reports of tiger attacks in the United States are rare. This article presents a case of a young woman who was violently attacked by a Siberian tiger and sustained penetrating trauma to the neck, cervical spine, and bilateral lower extremities. This article presents both diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients who may present with similar injuries. Animal bites from large animals are prone to infection in 10% to 20% of cases. Most infections are polymicrobial, with Pasteurella multicida being the most common isolate. Animal bites also mandate consideration of tetanus and rabies prophylaxis. The decision to administer postexposure rabies prophylaxis is dependent on the type of animal involved, whether the exposure was provoked, the local epidemiology of rabies, and the availability of the animal for observation or testing. Assessment of patients with cervical spine injury requires knowledge of possible associated injuries. Evaluation involves assessment of plain radiographs and computed tomography for evaluation of the cervical spine for bony injury. Furthermore, computed angiography is advantageous to noninvasively evaluate carotid or vertebral artery injury at the same setting in patients with deep cervical puncture wounds. Surgical treatment of unstable cervical spine fractures with lateral mass screw and rod fixation has been reported in the literature to have superior biomechanical properties compared to anterior and posterior instrumentation and fusion. In recent clinical studies, the use of lateral mass screws for traumatic injury of the cervical spine has been associated with excellent maintenance of alignment and minimal complications. PMID:19226051

Anderson, Meredith; Utter, Philip; Szatkowski, Jan; Patrick, Todd; Duncan, William; Turner, Norman; Dekutoski, Mark

2008-12-01

206

Cervical total disk replacement: complications and avoidance.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion for neurologic deficits, radicular arm pain, and neck pain refractory to conservative management are successful. The approach and procedure were first described in 1955 and have become the anterior cervical standard of care for orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons. Advancements and innovations have addressed disease processes of the cervical spine with motion-preserving technology. The possibility of obtaining anterior cervical decompression while maintaining adjacent segment motion led to the advent of cervical total disk replacement. The Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 cervical devices with other investigational device exemption trials under way. PMID:22082633

Salari, Behnam; McAfee, Paul C

2012-01-01

207

Interference screw fixation of cervical grafts. A combined in vitro biomechanical and in vivo animal study.  

PubMed

The dislodgement of an anterior bone graft in the cervical spine is a frequent complication of attempted fusion following discectomy or corpectomy. It has been hypothesized that fixation augmented with interference screws may increase the pullout strength of the construct and decrease the rate of these complications. In vitro mechanical tests and in vivo sheep studies were conducted to compare interference screw fixation methods for enhancing the fixation between the bone graft and the adjacent vertebra. Using human cadaver cervical spines, the anterior pullout strengths of cervical bone grafts were compared using fixation with and without the addition of interference screws for the in vitro mechanical testing. The mean pullout forces for a Smith-Robinson type bone graft alone was 58.1 N (SD 11.4 N); for the graft augmented with two 3.5 mm cancellous bone screws, 153.9 N (58.9 N); and for the graft with four 3.5 mm screws, 217.1 N (SD 69.9 N). The pullout strengths of the two- and four-3.5 mm screw constructs were significantly greater than the strength of the graft alone (P < 0.05). Similarly placed 2.7 mm cortical screws of the same length provided increased pullout strength (123.7 N 38.6 N and 142.5 N 38.2 N for two- and four-screw constructs, respectively); however, in comparison to the graft alone, these differences were not statistically significant. For both screw types, the four-screw fixations were stronger than the two-screw fixations, although these differences were not statistically significant. For the in vivo portion of the study, a single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion were performed on 20 sheep.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8367782

Vazquez-Seoane, P; Yoo, J; Zou, D; Fay, L A; Fredrickson, B E; Handal, J C; Yuan, H A; Edwards, W T

1993-06-15

208

Predicting mandibular growth increment on the basis of cervical vertebral dimensions in Iranian girls  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this longitudinal study was to establish an equation to predict incremental mandibular length on the basis of the analysis of the cervical vertebrae on a single cephalometric radiograph and to compare the predictive accuracy with the method by Mito et al. Methods Data consist of a group of 33 Iranian girls, 9 to 11 years old with two lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at a 24-month interval. For each individual, on the lateral cephalometric radiographs, points and lines for the description of the morphologic characteristics of the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies were traced and measured. The real mandibular length increment (MLI) in this period was determined by the difference between the second (24 months) and first (baseline) radiographs: MLI = Ar-Pog (second) ? Ar-Pog (first). An equation was determined to calculate mandibular length increments on the basis of the measurements in the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies. The predictive accuracy was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results The adjusted R2 for this equation was 54.9% which is a reliable value for evaluating prediction accuracy .The average error between the predicted increment and the actual increment was 0.149 mm for our method and 5.87 mm for the method by Mito et al. Discussion There are two items that contributed to easier and better prediction accuracy in our equation: (1) higher R2 and (2) fewer independent variables. In our subjects, the prediction accuracy was lower when using Mito et al.'s method, which could be due to genetic and environmental factors and selected age range. Conclusion These results indicate that cervical vertebral measurements, obtained in lateral cephalograms, are able to predict properly the mandibular growth potential. PMID:24326181

2013-01-01

209

Rapid Progression of Solitary Plasmacytoma to Multiple Myeloma in Lumbar Vertebra  

PubMed Central

The prognosis of solitary plasmacytoma varies greatly, with some patients recovering after surgical removal or local fractional radiation therapy, and others progressing to multiple myeloma years later. Primary detection of progression to multiple myeloma is important in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma. There have been several analyses of the risk factors involved in the early progression to multiple myeloma. We describe one case of solitary plasmacytoma of the lumbar vertebra that was treated with surgical decompression with stabilization and additional radiotherapy. The patient had no factors associated with rapid progression to multiple myeloma such as age, size, immunologic results, pathological findings, and serum free light chain ratio at the time of diagnosis. However, his condition progressed to multiple myeloma less than two months after the initial diagnosis of solitary plasmacytoma. We suggest that surgeons should be vigilant in watching for rapid progression to multiple myeloma even in case that the patient with solitary plasmacytoma has no risk factors for rapid progression to multiple myeloma. PMID:24379952

Yang, Jin Seo; Kang, Suk Hyung; Choi, Hyuk Jai

2013-01-01

210

Morphometrical dimensions of the sheep thoracolumbar vertebrae as seen on digitised CT images  

PubMed Central

The sheep spine is widely used as a model for preclinical research in human medicine to test new spinal implants and surgical procedures. Therefore, precise morphometric data are needed. The present study aimed to provide computed tomographic (CT) morphometry of sheep thoracolumbar spine. Five adult normal Merino sheep were included in this study. Sheep were anaesthetised and positioned in sternal recumbency. Subsequently, transverse and sagittal images were obtained using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Measurements of the vertebral bodies, pedicles, intervertebral disc and transverse processes were performed with dedicated software. Vertebral bodies and the spinal canal were wider than they were deep, most obviously in the lumbar vertebrae. The intervertebral discs were as much as 57.4% thicker in the lumbar than in the thoracic spine. The pedicles were higher and longer than they were wide over the entire thoracolumbar spine. In conclusion, the generated data can serve as a CT reference for the ovine thoracolumbar spine and may be helpful in using sheep spine as a model for human spinal research. PMID:24106508

Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

2013-01-01

211

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Is Associated with Increased Polyamine Oxidase and Diamine Oxidase Concentrations in Cervical Mucus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to establish whether reactive oxygen species, generated during oxidation of amines, catalyzed by polyamine oxidase (PAO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) in cervical secretions may play a role in the etiology of cervical cancer.Methods. Cervical mucus was obtained from women attending the gynecological outpatient department: 139 with and 154 without cytological evidence of cervical

M. S. Rogers; S. F. Yim; K. C. Li; C. C. Wang; M. Arumanayagam

2002-01-01

212

Kinematic Analysis of the Cervical Cord and Cervical Canal by Dynamic Neck Motion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Normal cervical sagittal length patterns were measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of sagittal length patterns between the cervical cord and the cervical canal in flexion-extension kinematics. Overview of Literature Cervical dynamic factors sometimes cause a cervical spondylotic myelopathy in elderly subjects and an overstretching myelopathy in juvenile subjects. Previous studies showed the length changing of the cervical cord in flexion and extension. However, there is no detailed literature about the relationship between cervical vertebral motion and cord distortion yet. Methods Sixty-two normal subjects (28 male and 34 female, 42.1±8.5 years old) without neck motion disturbances and abnormalities on cervical X-ray and MRI were enrolled in this study. Results The cervical cord length was significantly longer in flexion and significantly shorter in extension in all cervical cord sagittal lines. The cervical canal length pattern was also the same as the cervical cord. The elongation of the cervical cord and canal was the largest at the site of the posterior cervical canal and the shortest at the anterior canal site. The positions of the cerebellar tonsils were verified at each neck position. Conclusions The posterior elements of the cervical canal were most affected by neck motion. Movement directions of the upper cervical cord were verified among the various neck positions.

Suzuki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Hirosuke; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Shishido, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Kengo

2014-01-01

213

Nucleus pulposus cells derived IGF-1 and MCP-1 enhance osteoclastogenesis and vertebrae disruption in lumbar disc herniation  

PubMed Central

Study design: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation (LDH) cases were classified into bulging LDH, herniated LDH and prolapse LDH types according to imaging examination, and vertebrae disruptions were evaluated. Cytokines derived from the nucleus pulposus cells were detected, and their effects on osteoclastogenesis, as well as the mechanisms involved, were studied via an in vitro osteoclast differentiation system. Objective: To clarify the mechanisms of lumbar vertebrae resorption induced by lumbar herniation. Summary and background data: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation induced vertebrae erosion exacerbates quality of patients’ life and clinical outcome. Although nucleus pulposus cells derived cytokines were reported to play an important role in this pathogenesis, the fundamental mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. Methods: Chronic strained lumbar disc herniation patients were diagnosed with CT scan and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. RNA was extracted from 192 surgical specimens of the herniated lumbar disc and 29 surgical excisions of the lumbar disc from spinal injury patients. The expressions of osteoclastogenesis related cytokines and chemokines were examined using real time PCR. Monocytes were induced into osteoclast with M-CSF and RANKL in vitro, while the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were added into the differentiation procedure in order to evaluate the effects and explore the molecular mechanisms. Results: Vertebrae erosion had a positive relationship with lumbar disc herniation severity types. In all of the osteoclastogenesis related cytokines, the IGF-1 and MCP-1 were the most highly expressed in the nucleus pulposus cells. IGF-1 enhances activation of NF-kB signaling directly, but MCP-1 upregulated the expression of RANK, so that enhanced cellular sensitivity to RANKL resulted in increasing osteoclastogenesis and activity. Conclusion: Lumbar herniation induced overexpression of IGF-1 and MCP-1 in nucleus pulposus cells aggravated vertebral erosions. Hence, this study suggests that targeting osteoclastogenesis related cytokines has potential clinical significance in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation patients.

Zhu, Zhongjiao; Huang, Peng; Chong, Yanxue; George, Suraj K; Wen, Bingtao; Han, Na; Liu, Zhiqiang; Kang, Lixin; Lin, Nie

2014-01-01

214

Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

2007-03-01

215

Estimation of out-of-plane vertebra rotations on radiographic projections using CT data: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends previous research concerning in vivo intervertebral motion by means of single-plane fluoroscopy in an attempt to overcome 2D analysis limitations. Knowledge of out-of-plane vertebra rotations will extend the results provided by planar kinematic studies, which is particularly important for lateral bending investigation where axial rotation accompanies side bending, but is also valuable in sagittal analysis (e.g. indicating

Paolo Bifulco; Mario Sansone; Mario Cesarelli; Robert Allen; Marcello Bracale

2002-01-01

216

X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine  

MedlinePLUS

... Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine Print A A A Text Size What's in ... If You Have Questions What It Is A cervical spine X-ray is a safe and painless test ...

217

Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All ... Skin Uterine Cancer Home Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir ...

218

Suppurative cervical adenitis caused by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was isolated on culture of an aspirate from a 36-year-old woman with unilateral cervical adenitis. We believe this to be the first report of A. actinomycetemcomitans causing suppurative cervical adenitis. PMID:2356084

Poropatich, C; Tuazon, C U; Wilson, W

1990-06-01

219

NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

220

Age-related changes in osteometry, bone mineral density and osteophytosis of the lumbar vertebrae in Japanese macaques.  

PubMed

The age-related changes in lumbar vertebrae were studied in 77 young/full adult Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) (40 females, 37 males), in terms of their morphometry, density and osteophytosis, and the interrelationship between these three aspects. The most common age-related pattern of morphometric changes was an initial increase during young adulthood until reaching the peak and then a subsequent decrease with age. Most of the peaks were in the age group 15-20 and 10-15 years in females and males, respectively. In both sexes, the age-related decrease in the vertebral body depth (ventro-dorsal) was greater than in the height and width. The ventral height of the vertebral body relative to the dorsal height continuously decreased with age. The trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) continuously decreased after young adulthood. However, the magnitude of the decreased trabecular BMD with age was greater in females than in males, especially in the older age groups. Osteophytosis clearly increased with age in both sexes, but males showed an earlier appearance of osteophytes and females tended to have more severe osteophytes from 15 years old upwards. A correlation between the osteometry, density, and osteophytosis severity appeared in all vertebrae, but not all of these reached statistical significance after controlling for the influence of age. Although Japanese macaques showed the higher prevalence and rapid increase of osteophytosis, a similar age change profile was observed in the lumbar vertebrae of Japanese macaques and humans. PMID:25248843

Pomchote, Porrawee

2015-01-01

221

Validation of 3D surface reconstruction of vertebrae and spinal column using 3D ultrasound data - A pilot study.  

PubMed

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a three-dimensional deformity of spine associated with vertebra rotation. The Cobb angle and axial vertebral rotation are important parameters to assess the severity of scoliosis. However, the vertebral rotation is seldom measured from radiographs due to time consuming. Different techniques have been developed to extract 3D spinal information. Among many techniques, ultrasound imaging is a promising method. This pilot study reported an image processing method to reconstruct the posterior surface of vertebrae from 3D ultrasound data. Three cadaver vertebrae, a Sawbones spine phantom, and a spine from a child with AIS were used to validate the development. The in-vitro result showed the surface of the reconstructed image was visually similar to the original objects. The dimension measurement error was <5 mm and the Pearson correlation was >0.99. The results also showed a high accuracy in vertebral rotation with errors of 0.8 ± 0.3°, 2.8 ± 0.3° and 3.6 ± 0.5° for the rotation values of 0°, 15° and 30°, respectively. Meanwhile, the difference in the Cobb angle between the phantom and the image was 4° and the vertebral rotation at the apex was 2°. The Cobb angle measured from the in-vivo ultrasound image was 4° different from the radiograph. PMID:25550193

Nguyen, Duc V; Vo, Quang N; Le, Lawrence H; Lou, Edmond H M

2015-02-01

222

Neuropathology of Cervical Dystonia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to search for neuropathological changes in postmortem brain tissue of individuals with cervical dystonia (CD). Multiple regions of formalin-preserved brains were collected from patients with CD and controls and examined with an extensive battery of histopathological stains in a two-stage study design. In stage one, 4 CD brains underwent a broad screening neuropathological examination. In stage two, these 4 CD brains were combined with 2 additional CD brains, and the subjective findings were quantified and compared to 16 age-matched controls. The initial subjective neuropathological assessment revealed only two regions with relatively consistent changes. The substantia nigra had frequent ubiquitin-positive intranuclear inclusions known as Marinesco bodies. Additionally, the cerebellum showed patchy loss of Purkinje cells, areas of focal gliosis and torpedo bodies. Other brain regions showed minor or inconsistent changes. In the second stage of the analysis, quantitative studies failed to reveal significant differences in the numbers of Marinesco bodies in CD versus controls, but confirmed a significantly lower Purkinje cell density in CD. Molecular investigations revealed 4 of the CD cases and 2 controls to harbor sequence variants in non-coding regions of THAP1, and these cases had lower Purkinje cell densities regardless of whether they had CD. The findings suggest that subtle neuropathological changes such as lower Purkinje cell density may be found in primary CD when relevant brain regions are investigated with appropriate methods. PMID:23195594

Prudente, C.N.; Pardo, C.A.; Xiao, J.; Hanfelt, J.; Hess, E.J.; LeDoux, M.S.; Jinnah, H.A.

2012-01-01

223

Prenatal diagnosis of cervical chondrocutaneous vestige.  

PubMed

Cervical chondrocutaneous vestiges or remnants originate from anomalous development of the branchial arches in the fourth week of gestation. Owing to their relative rarity, published data of cervical chondrocutaneous vestiges remain scarce. We report on the diagnosis and associated anomalies of cervical chondrocutaneous vestiges in three fetuses. The association of cervical chondrocutaneous vestige with other anomalies emphasizes the importance of performing meticulous examination and biochemical marker analysis in affected cases. PMID:17948230

Gilboa, Y; Achiron, R; Zalel, Y; Bronshtein, M

2007-12-01

224

Cervical Spine Immobilization Device for Emergency Response  

E-print Network

Cervical Spine Immobilization Device for Emergency Response Alperen Degirmenci1 , Benjamin Goldberg Medical Center 1 Background Cervical spine injuries are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality-collar) is used to stabilize a patient's cervical spine and head in a neutral position. However, in many cases

225

The cervical spine in juvenile chronic arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: In patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) the cervical spine is often affected, leading to pain and functional limitations.Purpose: To describe the frequency of the radiographic abnormalities in the cervical spine of a large series of patients with JCA, examined after skeletal maturity.Study design: Consecutive patients with JCA, who had cervical spine radiographs available taken at adult age

Kari Laiho; Anneli Savolainen; Hannu Kautiainen; Pertti Kekki; Markku Kauppi

2002-01-01

226

A New Material Mapping Procedure for Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based, Continuum Finite Element Analyses of the Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Inaccuracies in the estimation of material properties and errors in the assignment of these properties into finite element models limit the reliability, accuracy, and precision of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element analyses of the vertebra. In this work, a new mesh-independent, material mapping procedure was developed to improve the quality of predictions of vertebral mechanical behavior from QCT-based finite element models. In this procedure, an intermediate step, called the material block model, was introduced to determine the distribution of material properties based on bone mineral density, and these properties were then mapped onto the finite element mesh. A sensitivity study was first conducted on a calibration phantom to understand the influence of the size of the material blocks on the computed bone mineral density. It was observed that varying the material block size produced only marginal changes in the predictions of mineral density. Finite element (FE) analyses were then conducted on a square column-shaped region of the vertebra and also on the entire vertebra in order to study the effect of material block size on the FE-derived outcomes. The predicted values of stiffness for the column and the vertebra decreased with decreasing block size. When these results were compared to those of a mesh convergence analysis, it was found that the influence of element size on vertebral stiffness was less than that of the material block size. This mapping procedure allows the material properties in a finite element study to be determined based on the block size required for an accurate representation of the material field, while the size of the finite elements can be selected independently and based on the required numerical accuracy of the finite element solution. The mesh-independent, material mapping procedure developed in this study could be particularly helpful in improving the accuracy of finite element analyses of vertebroplasty and spine metastases, as these analyses typically require mesh refinement at the interfaces between distinct materials. Moreover, the mapping procedure is not specific to the vertebra and could thus be applied to many other anatomic sites. PMID:21823740

Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.; Morgan, Elise F.

2012-01-01

227

Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its labelling diminishes with age. In summary, these observations raise the prospect that zebrafish, in addition to modelling skeletal development, may have utility in modelling age-related degenerative changes that affect the skeleton during senescence. PMID:24086633

Hayes, Anthony J.; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A.; Meakin, Lee B.; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L.

2013-01-01

228

No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction  

PubMed Central

Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

2013-01-01

229

Segmentation and feature extraction of cervical spine x-ray images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an R&D project in mixed text/image database design, the National Library of Medicine has archived a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine which were collected as part of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). To make this image data available and usable to a wide audience, we are investigating techniques for indexing the image content by automated or semi-automated means. Indexing of the images by features of interest to researchers in spine disease and structure requires effective segmentation of the vertebral anatomy. This paper describes work in progress toward this segmentation of the cervical spine images into anatomical components of interest, including anatomical landmarks for vertebral location, and segmentation and identification of individual vertebrae. Our work includes developing a reliable method for automatically fixing an anatomy-based coordinate system in the images, and work to adaptively threshold the images, using methods previously applied by researchers in cardioangiography. We describe the motivation for our work and present our current results in both areas.

Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

1999-05-01

230

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

231

ISASS Policy Statement - Cervical Interbody  

PubMed Central

Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement In 2011, CPT code 22551 was revised to combine or bundle CPT codes 63075 and 22554 when both procedures were performed at the same site/same surgical session. The add on code +22552 is used to report each additional interspace. 2014 heralded a downward pressure on this now prime target code (for non-coverage?) 22551 through an egregious insurer attempt to redefine cervical arthrodesis, effectively removing spine surgeon choice and altering best practice without clinical evidence. Currently, spine surgeons are equally split on the use of allograft versus cages for cervical arthrodesis. Structural allograft, CPT code 20931, is reported once per same surgical session, regardless of the number of allografts used. CPT code 22851 which is designated solely for cage use, has a higher reimbursement than structural allograft, and may be reported for each inner space. Hence, the rationale behind why some payers wrongly consider “spine cages NOT medically necessary for cervical fusion.” A timely consensus paper summarizing spine surgeon purview on the logical progressive evolution of cervical interbody fusion for ISASS/IASP membership was strategically identified as an advocacy focus by the ISASS Task Force. ISASS appreciates the authors’ charge with gratitude. This article has both teeth and transparent clinical real-world merit.

Singh, Kern; Qureshi, Sheeraz

2014-01-01

232

Pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by

D N Levine

1997-01-01

233

Cervical spine: sport injuries biomechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved and detailed 3-D FE model of human cervical spine was created using digitized geometric measurement. The model was validated with the in-vivo studies of Moroney [5], Panjabi [6] and Fuller [7]. Clinical instability of the spine for two cases involving flexion and compression loading (simulating injuries in motorcycle vaulting, football and diving accidents) were analyzed. The instability was

Abraham Tchako; Ali M. Sadegh

2005-01-01

234

Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

235

Cervical cancer screening in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the state of the art in cervical cancer screening in Greece by presenting the two regionally organised screening programmes that currently operate in the country. Both programmes were initiated in 1991 and are partly funded by the European Union. The Ormylia screening programme covers the population of Halkidiki (Northern Greece), a predominantly

E Riza; P Kyriakogianni-Psaropoulou; E Koumantakis; H Symiakaki; I Garas; A Linos

2000-01-01

236

Cervical cancer screening in Serbia.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common female malignancy in Serbia, after breast cancer, with 1089 new registered cases and an age-standardized incidence rate of 27.2 per 100,000 women in 2002. It is the fourth leading cause of cancer death with 452 deaths and an age-standardized death rate of 7.2 per 100,000 women. Compared with other European countries, the incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia is the highest. Regional differences in incidence are pronounced in Serbia with the lowest age-standardized incidence rate (16.6 per 100,000 women) registered in the Macvanski region and the highest in eastern Serbia and the region of Belgrade where the rates are double at 32.5-38.1 per 100,000 women. Cervical cancer prevention in Serbia has relied on opportunistic screening that is characterized by high coverage in younger and low coverage in middle-aged and older women. Screening of selected groups of women employed in large companies is performed annually by many regional hospitals but this approach has little effect on morbidity and mortality. Recently, the Ministry of Health nominated an Expert Group to develop and implement a national cervical cancer screening program. A number of pilot projects have been undertaken with the results used for development of a national programme for cervical cancer screening. This is expected to be finalized in 2007, and launched over a 3-years period in order to cover all women aged 25-64 in entire Serbia. PMID:17598502

Kesi?, Vesna; Jovi?evi?-Beki?, Ana; Vujnovi?, Melita

2007-04-01

237

Robotic Surgery for Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

The development of robotic technology has facilitated the application of minimally invasive techniques for the treatment and evaluation of patients with early, advanced, and recurrent cervical cancer. The application of robotic technology for selected patients with cervical cancer and the data available in the literature are addressed in the present review paper. The robotic radical hysterectomy technique developed at the Mayo Clinic Arizona is presented with data comparing 27 patients who underwent the robotic procedure with 2 matched groups of patients treated by laparoscopic (N = 31), and laparotomic radical hysterectomy (N = 35). A few other studies confirmed the feasibility and safety of robotic radical hysterectomy and comparisons to either to the laparoscopic or open approach were discussed. Based on data from the literature, minimally invasive techniques including laparoscopy and robotics are preferable to laparotomy for patients requiring radical hysterectomy, with some advantages noted for robotics over laparoscopy. A prospective randomised trial is currently being perfomred under the auspices of the American Association of Gyneoclogic Laparoscopists comparing minimally invasive radical hysterectomy (laparoscopy or robotics) with laparotomy. For early cervical cancer radical parametrectomy and fertility preserving trachelectomy have been performed using robotic technology and been shown to be feasible, safe, and easier to perform when compared to the laparoscopic approach. Similar benefits have been noted in the treatment of advanced and recurrent cervical cancer where complex procedures such as extraperitoneal paraortic lymphadenectomy and pelvic exenteration have been required. Conclusion: Robotic technology better facilitates the surgical approach as compared to laparoscopy for technically challenging operations performed to treat primary, early or advanced, and recurrent cervical cancer. Although patient advantages are similar or slightly improved with robotics, there are multiple advantages for surgeons. PMID:19108008

Zanagnolo, Vanna L.

2008-01-01

238

Human cancellous bone from T12-L1 vertebrae has unique microstructural and trabecular shear stress properties  

PubMed Central

Increase of trabecular stress variability with loss of bone mass has been implicated as a mechanism for increased cancellous bone fragility with age and disease. In the current study, a previous observation that trabecular shear stress estimates vary along the human spine such that the cancellous tissue from the thoracic 12 (T12)-lumbar 1 (L1) junction experiences the highest trabecular stresses for a given load was tested as a formal hypothesis using multiple human spines. Thoracic 4, T5, T7, T9, T10, T12, L1, L2, L4 and L5 vertebrae from 10 human cadaver spines were examined. One specimen in the central anterior region was cored in the supero-inferior (SI) direction and another in the postero-lateral region was cored in the transverse (TR) direction from each vertebra. Micro-CT-based large-scale finite element models were constructed for each specimen and compression in the long axis of the cylindrical specimens was simulated. Cancellous bone modulus and the mean, the standard deviation, variability and amplification of trabecular von Mises stresses were computed. Bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, connectivity density and degree of anisotropy were calculated using 3D stereology. The results were analyzed using a mixed model in which spine level was modeled using a quadratic polynomial. The maximum of trabecular shear stress amplification and minimum of bone volume fraction were found in the cancellous tissue from the T12-L1 location when results from the samples of the same vertebra were averaged. When groups were separated, microstructure and trabecular stresses varied with spine level, extrema being at the T12-L1 levels, for the TR specimens only. SI/TR ratio of measured parameters also had quadratic relationships with spine level, the extrema being located at T12-L1 levels for most parameters. For microstructural parameters, these ratios approached to a value of one at the T12-L1 level, suggesting that T12-L1 vertebrae have more uniform cancellous tissue properties than other levels. The mean intercept length in the secondary principal direction of trabecular orientation could account for the variation of all mechanical parameters with spine level. Our results support that cancellous tissue from T12-L1 levels is unique and may explain, in part, the higher incidence of vertebral fractures at these levels. PMID:18848654

Yeni, Yener N.; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Divine, George W.; Johnson, Evan M.; Cody, Dianna D.

2009-01-01

239

Radiographic characteristics of the hand and cervical spine in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva  

PubMed Central

Summary Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a disabling heritable disorder of connective tissue characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification in various extraskeletal sites. Early correct diagnosis of FOP is important to prevent additional iatrogenic harm or trauma. Congenital malformation of the great toes is a well-known diagnostic clue, but some patients show normal-appearing great toes. The thumb shortening and cervical spine abnormalities are other skeletal features often observed in FOP. This study aimed to address the quantitative assessment of these features in a cohort of patients with FOP, which potentially helps early diagnosis of FOP. Radiographs of the hand and cervical spine were retrospectively analyzed from a total of 18 FOP patients (9 males and 9 females) with an average age of 13.9 years (range 0.7–39.3 years). The elevated ratio of the second metacarpal bone to the distal phalanx of the thumb (> +1SD) was a consistent finding irrespective of the patient's age and gender. Infant FOP patients, in addition, exhibited an extremely high ratio of the second metacarpal bone to the first metacarpal bone (> +3SD). The height/depth ratio of the C5 vertebra increased in patients over 4 years of age (> +2SD). Additionally, the ratio of (height+depth) of the C5 spinous process to the C5 vertebral depth was markedly elevated in young patients (> +2SD). We quantitatively demonstrated the hand and cervical spine characteristics of FOP. These findings, which can be seen from early infancy, could be useful for early diagnosis of FOP even in patients without great toe abnormalities. PMID:25343126

Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Kamizono, Junji; Katagiri, Takenobu; Susami, Takafumi; Matsushita, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki

2014-01-01

240

Post laminoplasty cervical kyphosis—Case report  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Cervical kyphosis is a progressive cervical sagittal plane deformity that may cause a reduction in the ability to look horizontally, breathing and swallowing difficulties, sense of thoracic oppression and social isolation. Moreover, cervical kyphosis can cause myelopathy due to a direct compression by osteo-articular structures on the spinal cord or to a transitory ischaemic injury. The treatment of choice is surgery. The goals of surgery are: nervous structures decompression, cervical and global sagittal balance correction and vertebral stabilization and fusion. PRESENTATION OF CASE In October 2008 a 35 years old woman underwent surgical removal of a cervical-bulbar ependymoma with C1–C5 laminectomy and a C2–C5 laminoplasty. Five months after surgery, the patient developed a kyphotic posture, with intense neck and scapular girdle pain. The patients had a flexible cervical kyphosis. Therefore, we decided to perform an anterior surgical approach. We performed a corpectomy C4–C5 in order to achieve the anterior decompression; we placed a titanium expansion mesh. DISCUSSION Cervical kyphosis can be flexible or fixed. Some authors have reported the use of anterior surgery only for flexible cervical kyphosis as discectomy and corpectomy. This approach is useful for anterior column load sharing however it is not required for deformity correction. CONCLUSION The anterior approach is a good surgical option in flexible cervical kyphosis. It is of primary importance the sagittal alignment of the cervical spine in order to decompress the nervous structures and to guarantee a long-term stability. PMID:25462050

Dugoni, D.E.; Mancarella, C.; Landi, A.; Tarantino, R.; Ruggeri, A.G.; Delfini, R.

2014-01-01

241

Recovery Effects of a 180?mT Static Magnetic Field on Bone Mineral Density of Osteoporotic Lumbar Vertebrae in Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

The effects of a moderate-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) on osteoporosis of the lumbar vertebrae were studied in ovariectomized rats. A small disc magnet (maximum magnetic flux density 180?mT) was implanted to the right side of spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra. Female rats in the growth stage (10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) ovariectomized and implanted with a disc magnet (SMF); (ii) ovariectomized and implanted with a nonmagnetized disc (sham); (iii) ovariectomized alone (OVX) and (vi) intact, nonoperated cage control (CTL). The blood serum 17-?-estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the bone mineral density (BMD) values of the femurs and the lumbar vertebrae were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The E2 concentrations were statistically significantly lower for all three operated groups than those of the CTL group at the 6th week. Although there was no statistical significant difference in the E2 concentrations between the SMF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, the BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae proximal to the SMF-exposed area statistically significantly increased in the SMF-exposed group than in the sham-exposed group. These results suggest that the SMF increased the BMD values of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the ovariectomized rats. PMID:20953437

Xu, Shenzhi; Okano, Hideyuki; Tomita, Naohide; Ikada, Yoshito

2011-01-01

242

What You Need to Know about Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Español What You Need To Know About™ Cervical Cancer Posted: October 17, 2014 This booklet about invasive cervical cancer. Invasive cervical cancer has grown beyond the cells on the surface of the ...

243

Complications of Bryan cervical disc replacement.  

PubMed

The primary goals of cervical disc replacement are to avoid fusion in the affected segment, maintain the mobility and function of the involved cervical segments, allow patients to quickly return to routine activities and reduce or eliminate adjacent-segment disease. A large number of patients have already undergone, and more and more patients will in the future undergo, cervical disc replacement. The cervical device which best preserves movement, and has therefore been the device of choice, has been the Bryan cervical disc. Although a safe surgical technique has been demonstrated and favorable results of using the Bryan disc reported, some complications have also accompanied this arthroplasty. Complications of Bryan cervical disc replacement include those related to the operative approach and decompression process, loosening and failure of the device, postoperative kyphosis, heterotopic ossification, and loss of movement due to spontaneous fusion. In order to avoid these complications, strict patient selection criteria and a meticulous knowledge of anatomy are necessary. PMID:22009921

Cao, Jun-ming; Zhang, Ying-ze; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wen-yuan

2010-05-01

244

A Unique Case of Left Second Supernumerary and Left Third Bifid Intrathoracic Ribs with Block Vertebrae and Hypoplastic Left Lung  

PubMed Central

Intrathoracic rib (IR) is a very rare anomaly in which a normal, an accessory, or a bifid rib lies within the chest cavity and may originate from a vertebra or a rib. It is more commonly present on the right side, and sometimes it may be associated with vertebral anomalies. Only 50 cases have been reported to date in the literature. In most cases, the IR is an isolated finding; it is incidentally detected and is asymptomatic. The IR can be easily missed on a chest radiograph and can be mistaken initially for a pleural lesion, lung consolidation, other peripheral lung parenchymal lesions, or a bony lesion. It is, therefore, essential for physicians and radiologists to know about this entity and consider it in the differential diagnosis, to avoid further evaluation and unnecessary investigations. We present a unique case of three intrathoracic ribs, a left second supernumerary rib, left third depressed normonumerary rib, and bifid arm of the left third rib, with block vertebrae and hypoplastic left lung. To our knowledge, this is the first such case presentation in the published literature. PMID:24416613

Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Hasan, Islam Ali; Ahamad, Nazeer; Al Moosawi, Nawal M.

2013-01-01

245

A unique case of left second supernumerary and left third bifid intrathoracic ribs with block vertebrae and hypoplastic left lung.  

PubMed

Intrathoracic rib (IR) is a very rare anomaly in which a normal, an accessory, or a bifid rib lies within the chest cavity and may originate from a vertebra or a rib. It is more commonly present on the right side, and sometimes it may be associated with vertebral anomalies. Only 50 cases have been reported to date in the literature. In most cases, the IR is an isolated finding; it is incidentally detected and is asymptomatic. The IR can be easily missed on a chest radiograph and can be mistaken initially for a pleural lesion, lung consolidation, other peripheral lung parenchymal lesions, or a bony lesion. It is, therefore, essential for physicians and radiologists to know about this entity and consider it in the differential diagnosis, to avoid further evaluation and unnecessary investigations. We present a unique case of three intrathoracic ribs, a left second supernumerary rib, left third depressed normonumerary rib, and bifid arm of the left third rib, with block vertebrae and hypoplastic left lung. To our knowledge, this is the first such case presentation in the published literature. PMID:24416613

Mahajan, Parag Suresh; Hasan, Islam Ali; Ahamad, Nazeer; Al Moosawi, Nawal M

2013-01-01

246

Isolated Echinococcosis of cervical region  

PubMed Central

Echinococcosis, commonly called as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infestation caused by the larva of the genus Echinococcus in human. Isolated occurrence of Echinococcosis without any evidence of visceral disease is very rare. A thorough search of the literature revealed only 11 cases of isolated cervical Echinococcosis. We report here a very rare case of isolated hydatid cyst in a 45-year-old female patient, who presented with swelling in right cervical region about 5 cm below the angle of mandible with no evidence of the disease elsewhere in the body. The case was diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. The diagnosis was further supported by histopathology. We propose that the treating physician should also consider the differential diagnosis of Echinococcosis in the presence of an asymptomatic soft tissue mass, especially when the patient lives in an endemic area. PMID:25210241

Khare, Pratima; Kala, Pooja; Gupta, Renu; Chauhan, Nidhi

2014-01-01

247

Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis  

PubMed Central

Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia.

Gausepohl, Jeniffer S.; Wagner, Jonathan G.

2015-01-01

248

[Apparently primary malignant cervical adenopathy].  

PubMed

Despite a thorough examination it is not always possible to detect the primary cancer responsible for malignant cervical adenopathy. In the vast majority of cases the metastases arise from an epidermoid carcinoma of the upper respiratory or digestive tract. A possible diagnostic, but also therapeutic procedure is exploratory cervicotomy with extemporaneous examination. The prognosis is poor, both locally (glandular involvement) and generally (metastatic spread). PMID:1475606

Favre-Dauvergne, E; Szpirglas, H; Chikhani, L; Goudot, P; Divaris, M; Vaillant, J M

1992-01-01

249

Laparoscopic fertility sparing management of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Fertility can be preserved after conservative cervical surgery. We report on a 29-year-old woman who was obese, para 0, and diagnosed with cervical insufficiency at the first trimester of current pregnancy due to a previous trachelectomy. She underwent laparoscopic transabdominal cervical cerclage (LTCC) for cervical cancer. The surgery was successful and she was discharged two days later. The patient underwent a caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive approach associated with less pain and faster recovery, feasible even in obese women. PMID:24696772

Facchini, Chiara; Rapacchia, Giuseppina; Montanari, Giulia; Casadio, Paolo; Pilu, Gianluigi; Seracchioli, Renato

2014-04-01

250

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cervical carcinoma.  

PubMed

During the progression of epithelial cancer, cells usually lose epithelial characteristic features and gain a mesenchymal phenotype. Cervical cancer is a common female malignancy worldwide. Despite the generally good prognosis for early-stage cervical cancer patients, many patients still die as a result of metastasis and recurrence. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in the metastasis of primary tumors and provides molecular mechanisms for cervical cancer metastasis. Here we provide an up-to-date overview regarding the program of EMT in cervical cancer. In the stepwise progression of cervical cancer, human papilloma viral proteins contribute to the cell transformation and the conversion of typical epithelial cells to the epithelial carcinoma cells with hybrid epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics. Molecules related to the EMT program of cervical cancer cells are summarized in this review paper. Several soluble factors acting on their cognate receptors stimulate the mesenchymal transition of cervical epithelial cells. Ion transport system as well as cytoskeletal modulators also stimulate the progression of EMT program in cervical carcinoma cells. Transcriptional factors such as Snail, Twist1, Twist2, and six1 homeoproteins are involved in the complicated regulation and cervical cancer metastasis. Among the various signalings associated with EMT program, Snail is a central transcription factor which governs EMT program. In contrast to tumor promoters, several tumor suppressors such as SFRP1/2 and LMX-1A have been reported to suppress tumorigenesis as well as metastatic spread through inhibiting the EMT program. PMID:22347518

Lee, Mei-Yi; Shen, Meng-Ru

2012-01-01

251

MR and CT image fusion of the cervical spine: a noninvasive alternative to CT-myelography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT-Myelography (CTM) is routinely used for planning surgery for degenerative disease of the spine, but its invasive nature, significant potential morbidity, and high costs make a noninvasive substitute desirable. We report our work on evaluating CT and MR image fusion as an alternative to CTM. Because the spine is only piecewise rigid, a multi-rigid approach to the registration of spinal CT and MR images was developed (SPIE 2004), in which the spine on CT images is first segmented into separate vertebrae, each of which is then rigidly registered with the corresponding vertebra on MR images. The results are then blended to obtain fusion images. Since they contain information from both modalities, we hypothesized that fusion images would be equivalent to CTM. To test this we selected 34 patients who had undergone MRI and CTM for degenerative disease of the cervical spine, and used the multi-rigid approach to produce fused images. A clinical vignette for each patient was created and presented along with either CT/MR fusion images or CTM images. A group of spine surgeons are asked to formulate detailed surgical plans based on each set of images, and the surgical plans are compared. A similar study assessing diagnostic agreement is being performed with neuroradiologists, who also assess the accuracy of registration. Our work to date has demonstrated the feasibility of segmentation and multi-rigid fusion in clinical cases and the acceptability of the questionnaire to physicians. Preliminary analysis of one surgeon's and one neuroradiologist"s evaluation has been performed.

Hu, Yangqiu; Mirza, Sohail K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Haynor, David R.

2005-04-01

252

Multimodality evaluation of cervical tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical signs of radiotherapy failure are often not present until well after treatment has been completed. Methods which could predict the response of tumors either before or early into the radiotherapy schedule would have important implications for patient management. Recent studies performed at our institution suggest that MR perfusion imaging maya be useful in distinguishing between individuals who are likely to benefit from radiation therapy and those who are not. Because MR perfusion imaging reflects tissue vascularity as well as perfusion, quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) blood flow studies were performed to obtain an independent assessment of tumor perfusion. MR perfusion and PET quantitative blood flow studies were acquired on four women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. The MR perfusion studies were acquired on a 1 cm sagittal slice through the epicenter of the tumor mass. Quantitative PET blood flow studies were performed using an autoradiographic technique. The PET and MRI were registered using a manual interactive routine and the mean blood flow in the tumor was compared to the relative signal intensity in a corresponding region on the MR image. The mean blood flow in the cervical tumors ranged form 30-48 ml/min/100 grams. The observed blood flow values are consistent with the assumed relationship between MR contrast enhancement and the distribution of tissue perfusion. The information offered by these studies provides an additional window into the evaluation of the response of cervical tumors to radiation therapy.

Madsen, Mark T.; Mayr, Nina A.; Yuh, William T. C.; Ehrhardt, James C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ponto, Laura L. B.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hichwa, Richard D.

1997-05-01

253

Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug/Agent Toxicity by Tissue/Organ; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-02-12

254

Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

1997-01-01

255

Diffusion tensor imaging in primary cervical dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It is the traditional view that primary dystonia arises from abnormal basal ganglia function but causes no apparent morphological changes.Objective: To determine whether cervical dystonia leads to ultrastructural changes in the brain, using diffusion tensor imaging to compare brain structure in 15 patients with cervical dystonia with 10 healthy controls.Design: Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained

C Colosimo; P Pantano; V Calistri; P Totaro; G Fabbrini; A Berardelli

2005-01-01

256

Cervical cancer prevention using visual screening methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although cervical cancer is only the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths in women globally, it remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. The approach to cervical cancer prevention used in developed countries has failed in most of the world because widespread Pap smear screening and the evaluation by specialists of women who screen positive

Vanessa E. Cullins; Thomas C. Wright; Karen J. Beattie; Amy E. Pollack

1999-01-01

257

Cervical stability with lateral mass plating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a significant difference in stability between cervical spines instrumented with lateral mass plates affixed with unicortical versus bicortical Magerl screws.Methods used: Eleven human, cadaveric, cervical spines were harvested and radiographed, and all soft tissues except for supporting ligamentous structures were removed. Segments C3 through C5 were

Anthony Muffoletto; Walt Simmons; Jinping Yang; Kim Garges; Mukta Vadhva; Alexander Hadjipavlou

2002-01-01

258

Prognostic Factors in Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

.3% regressed spontaneously, and clinical progression was detected in 14.8%. To establish the prognostic factors associated with the clinical course of cervical HPV infections, the Cox propor- tional hazards regression model was applied . In the analysis, five variables were included : age, PAP-smear class, grade of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), HPV type, and colpo- scopic appearance at the first

V. KATAJA; S. SYRJANEN; R. MANTYJARVI; M. YLISKOSKI; S. SAARIKOSKI; K. SYRJANEN

1992-01-01

259

Giant Anterior Cervical Osteophyte Leading to Dysphagia  

PubMed Central

Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis(DISH). Large osteophytes can produce otolaryngological symptoms such as dysphagia, dysphonia, and foreign body sensation. We describe a DISH patient with giant anterior cervical osteophyte causing chronic dysphagia and dysphonia. A 56-year-old man presented with increasing dysphagia, dysphonia, neck pain and neck stiffness. Physical examination of the neck showed a non-tender and hard mass on the left side at the level of C4-5. Radiography showed extensive ossification of anterior longitudinal ligament along the left anterolateral aspect of vertebral bodies from C2 to T1. The ossification was espe cially prominent at the level of C4-5 and linear breakage was noted at same level. Esophagogram revealed a filling defect along the pharynx and lateral displacement of the esophagus. Giant anterior cervical osteophyte was removed through the leftsided anterolateral cervical approach to the spine. Anterior cervical interbody fusion at C4-5 was followed by posterior cervical fixation using lateral mass screws from C3 to C6. After surgery, dysphagia and dysphonia improved immediately. One year later, cervical CT showed bone fusion at C4-5 bodies and no recurrence of osteophyte. DISH is a common cause of anterior cervical osteophyte leading to progressive dysphagia. Keeping this clinical entity in the differential diagnosis is important in patients with progressive neck stiffness, dysphagia or dysphonia. And surgical treatment of symptomatic anterior cervical osteophyte due to DISH should be considered with a solid fusion procedure preventing postoperative instability or osteophyte progress. PMID:24757489

Hwang, Jin Seop; Chough, Chung Kee

2013-01-01

260

Pathology Case Study: Cervical Adenopathy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology, which describes a 78-year-old male who presented with a 6 month history of cervical adenopathy. Visitors are given patient history, microscopic description, differential diagnosis, and immunohistochemistry, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. A "Final Diagnosis" section provides a discussion of the findings as well as references. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

Craig, Fiona; Krishnamurti, Uma

2008-03-27

261

Quantitative assessment and training of isometric cervical extension strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and variability of repeated measurements of isometric cervical extension strength and determine the effect of 10 weeks of dynamic variable resistance cervical ex tension training on isometric cervical extension strength. Seventy-three subjects (age, 29 ± 12 years [mean ± SD]) completed isometric cervical extension strength tests on 4 separate days

Scott H. Leggett; James E. Graves; Michael L. Pollock; Michael Shank; David M. Carpenter; Bryon Holmes; Michael Fulton

1991-01-01

262

Slight head extension: does it change the sagittal cervical curve?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly believed that slight flexion\\/extension of the head will reverse the cervical lordosis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether slight head extension could result in a cervical kyphosis changing into a lordosis. Forty consecutive volunteer subjects with a cervical kyphosis and with flexion in their resting head position had a neutral lateral cervical radiograph

Deed E. Harrison; Donald D. Harrison; Tadeusz J. Janik; Burt Holland; Leonard A. Siskin

2001-01-01

263

A critical assessment of screening methods for cervical neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of cervical cancer screening is to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality by detecting and treating precancerous lesions. Conventional cytology is the most widely used cervical cancer screening test. Although cytology has been effective in reducing the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer in developed countries in both opportunistic and—more dramatically—organized national programs, it has been less

R. Sankaranarayanan; L. Gaffikin; M. Jacob; J. Sellors; S. Robles

2005-01-01

264

Resection of an upper cervical aneurysmal bone cyst and spinal reconstruction using a midline mandibular osteotomy in a pediatric patient.  

PubMed

The authors report on the surgical management of an extensive lesion of the upper cervical spine that required an uncommon transmandibular approach to facilitate exposure, resection, and stabilization in a pediatric patient. A 6-year-old boy with a large aneurysmal bone cyst of the C-2 vertebra presented with progressive weakness and right-sided neck pain. The lesion extended laterally into the soft tissue of the neck, inferiorly to C-4, and posteriorly around the spinal cord. A transmandibular osteotomy was performed to provide adequate exposure for complete resection of the mass and anterior C1-3 instrumentation and fusion. Subsequently, the patient underwent occiput to C-4 posterior instrumentation and fusion. The patient tolerated the operation well and had regained all function at 3 and 11 months' follow-up. No neurological complications or problems of speech, swallowing, or respiration occurred. Even in pediatric patients, the transmandibular approach for the treatment of upper cervical spine lesions is an effective method of maximizing exposure for complex lesions requiring resection and stabilization. PMID:24702619

McDowell, Michael M; Hanft, Simon J; Greenberg, Sophie A; Rahmati, Rahmatullah; Carrao, Vincent; Eisig, Sidney; Anderson, Richard C E

2014-06-01

265

Life history reconstruction of modern and fossil sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) by oxygen isotopic analysis of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth: Implication for paleoenvironmental reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate the use of oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite for tracking freshwater to marine migration in modern and fossil Pacific sockeye salmon. Oxygen isotope analyses of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth of three anadromous modern sockeye salmon from Alaska establish a basis for the interpretation of fossil vertebrae and tooth apatite from Pleistocene sockeye salmon of the Skokomish River Valley, Washington. High resolution ?18O profiles in salmon otoliths provide, at a monthly resolution, a detailed record of individual history including continental rearing, migration to sea, seasonal variation in sea surface temperatures during marine life, and spawning migration before capture. Pacific salmon teeth are constantly renewed with the last set of teeth forming under the influence of freshwater. Therefore, they do not allow inference concerning sea-run versus landlocked life history in fossil salmon. Salmon vertebrae are also ambiguous indicators of life history regarding fresh versus marine water because centra are minimally ossified in the freshwater stages of life and the outermost layer of vertebral bone might be resorbed to provide nutrients during the non-feeding phase of the spawning migration. Therefore, ?18O values of accretionary growth rings in sea-run salmon vertebrae are dominated by the marine signal only if they are not diagenetically altered in freshwater deposits. In Pleistocene sockeye reported here, neither the teeth nor vertebral apatite present clear marine ?18O values due to the combined effects of tooth replacement and diagenetic alteration of bone and dentine. ?18O(PO 4) values of fossil vertebrae are intermediate between ?18O(PO 4) values of enamel and basal tooth dentin. Assuming a similar rate of isotope exchange of vertebrae and dentine with freshwater during diagenesis, these results are interpreted to reflect formation of the teeth under the influence of freshwater, and formation of the vertebrae under the influence of oceanic water. Our approach demonstrates that when appropriate knowledge of tissue formation is available, isotopic differences between altered and unaltered tissue holds promise of distinguishing between marine and freshwater origin of the tissues.

Zazzo, A.; Smith, G. R.; Patterson, W. P.; Dufour, E.

2006-09-01

266

Transoral crossbow injury to the cervical spine: an unusual case of penetrating cervical spine injury.  

PubMed

The complexity of missile injuries to the cervical spine has increased as the technology that causes these injuries has become more sophisticated. Management requires adaptation of conventional neurosurgical approaches to the cervical spine in an effort to limit neurological deficit and establish stability. We report an unusual case of a 19-year-old man who suffered transoral penetration of the cervical spine by an arrow released by a crossbow at close range. PMID:2067619

Salvino, C K; Origitano, T C; Dries, D J; Shea, J F; Springhorn, M; Miller, C J

1991-06-01

267

Occipito-Cervical Fusion with the Cervical Cotrel-Dubousset Rod System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?Diseases and conditions which cause instability of the cranio-cervical junction and the adjacent upper cervical spine are\\u000a relatively common and potentially life-threatening. Direct internal occipito-cervical fusion (OCF) is a modern means of surgical\\u000a treatment in such cases, and has some advantages over simple immobilization of the affected segments. The present study was\\u000a designed to evaluate surgical handling, results, and complications

V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; W. Burkert

1998-01-01

268

Specific type epigenetic changes in cervical cancers.  

PubMed

Cancer is a genetic and epigenetic disease. Multiple genetic and epigenetic changes have been studied in cervical cancer; however, such changes are selected for during tumorigenesis and tumor aggression is not yet clear. Cervical cancer is a multistep process with accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in regulatory genes, leading to activation of oncogenes and inactivation or loss of tumor suppressor genes. In cervical cancer, epigenetic alterations can affect the expression of papillomaviral as well as host genes in relation to stages representing the multistep process of carcinogenesis. PMID:25421689

Zhao, Shuping

2015-01-01

269

Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive approaches and operative techniques are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of cervical spine disorders. Minimally invasive spine surgery attempts to decrease iatrogenic muscle injury, decrease pain, and speed postoperative recovery with the use of smaller incisions and specialized instruments. This article explains in detail minimally invasive approaches to the posterior spine, the techniques for posterior cervical foraminotomy and arthrodesis via lateral mass screw placement, and anterior cervical foraminotomy. Complications are also discussed. Additionally, illustrated cases are presented detailing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques. PMID:22082636

Celestre, Paul C; Pazmiño, Pablo R; Mikhael, Mark M; Wolf, Christopher F; Feldman, Lacey A; Lauryssen, Carl; Wang, Jeffrey C

2012-01-01

270

Heterotopic cervical pregnancy successfully treated with transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration and cervical-stay sutures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To present a case of a heterotopic cervical pregnancy successfully treated with transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration and cervical-stay sutures.Design: Case report.Setting: Tertiary academic IVF program.Patient(s): A 35-year-old woman who conceived from IVF-ET treatment at 5.5 weeks of gestation.Intervention(s): Transvaginal ultrasound–guided aspiration of the cervical pregnancy followed by cervical-stay sutures to control hemorrhage after aspiration.Main Outcome Measure(s): Recovery of the patient,

Dehan Chen; Isaac Kligman; Zev Rosenwaks

2001-01-01

271

Expression of PBK/TOPK in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

objectives: To evaluate the expression of PBK/TOPK (PDZ-binding kinase/T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase) and its clinical significance in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Methods: PBK/TOPK expression was detected in 28 cases of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CINI), 62 cases of high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 80 cases of cervical cancer by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Then, the correlation between PBK/TOPK expression and clinicopathological features was quantitatively analyzed by measuring the positive unit (PU). Results: PBK/TOPK expression was significantly greater in cervical cancer than that in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and CINI (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, PBK/TOPK expression in high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia was significantly higher compared with that in CINI (P < 0.05). In addition, PBK/TOPK expression in cervical cancer significantly correlated with histological type, differentiation, lymph node metastasis, vaginal and cervical invasion, TNM stage and tumor size (P < 0.05). Conclusion: PBK/TOPK expression is closely associated with cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, which may be served as a useful target for tumor diagnosis and immunotherapy.

Luo, Qiong; Lei, Bin; Liu, Shuguang; Chen, Yaowen; Sheng, Wenjie; Lin, Peixin; Li, Wenxia; Zhu, Haili; Shen, Hong

2014-01-01

272

Cervicitis  

MedlinePLUS

... during their adult life. Risks include: High-risk sexual behavior History of STIs Many sexual partners Sex (intercourse) ... Sexual partners who have engaged in high-risk sexual behavior or have had an STI Bacteria (such as ...

273

Pseudomonas vesicularis from cervical specimens.  

PubMed Central

Biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities of five strains of Pseudomonas vesicularis isolated from cervical cultures are reported. The organisms were recovered from Thayer-Martin medium, which, because of its inhibitory properties, restricts over-growth by most other species. Our findings agree with those of Kaltenbach and associates (J. Clin. Microbiol., 1:339--344, 1975) on the importance of esculin hydrolysis, maltose oxidation, and pigmentation in the identification of P. vesicularis. Comparative carbohydrate oxidation studies showed agreement in three of four methods (oxidative attack, buffered single substrate, King oxidative/fermentative medium). No oxidation of carbohydrates was observed in commercial oxidative/fermentative medium. In addition to biochemical characteristics, antibiograms can be useful auxiliary aids in the identification of P. vesicularis and in its differentiation from P. diminuta, a closely related species. PMID:567655

Otto, L A; Deboo, B S; Capers, E L; Pickett, M J

1978-01-01

274

Cervical spine arterio venous malformation  

PubMed Central

We present an unusual case of a young patient who presented to our emergency department with a history of sudden onset of pain on the left side of the neck and numbness to the left arm after lifting a small weight. Patient continued to work as normal for approximately 30?min after the event and then attended the emergency department as numbness in the left arm was not resolving. On examination there was no sensorymotor deficit in the lower limbs but neurological deficits were found in the upper limbs which made us suspect a diagnosis of cervical spine injury/brachial plexus. The patient then rapidly developed numbness in both upper and lower limbs and eventually became aphasic and developed a rapid, shallow respiration and was unable to maintain the airway. The patient was then intubated and ventilated. The patient was then transferred to a neurosurgical centre after the relevant investigations was found to have an arteriovenous malformation of spinal cord. PMID:23349172

Parla, Giridhar; Ameh, Victor

2013-01-01

275

Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. Methodology/Principal Findings After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were randomly divided into three groups. The conventional pedicle screw (CPS) was inserted directly into vertebrae in CPS group; PMMA was injected prior to insertion of CPS in PMMA-PS group; and the EPS was inserted in EPS group. Sheep were killed and biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis and histological observation were performed at both 6 and 12 weeks post-operation. At 6-week and 12-week, screw stabilities in EPS and PMMA-PS groups were significantly higher than that in CPS group, but there were no significant differences between EPS and PMMA-PS groups at two study periods. The screw stability in EPS group at 12-week was significantly higher than that at 6-week. The bone trabeculae around the expanding anterior part of EPS were more and denser than that in CPS group at 6-week and 12-week. PMMA was found without any degradation and absorption forming non-biological “screw-PMMA-bone” interface in PMMA-PS group, however, more and more bone trabeculae surrounded anterior part of EPS improving local bone quality and formed biological “screw-bone” interface. Conclusions/Significance EPS can markedly enhance screw stability with a similar effect to the traditional method of screw augmentation with PMMA in initial surgery in osteoporosis. EPS can form better biological interface between screw and bone than PMMA-PS. In addition, EPS have no risk of thermal injury, leakage and compression caused by PMMA. We propose EPS has a great application potential in augmentation of screw stability in osteoporosis in clinic. PMID:24086381

Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

2013-01-01

276

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2014-12-23

277

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is it? What can be done? Important: If you have had an accident that started your neck pain or if ...

278

New Chemotherapy Drug for Advanced Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, women with cervical cancer that has recurred or demonstrated resistance to previous chemotherapy and that cannot be treated surgically will be treated with the drug ixabepilone.

279

Perioperative stroke following anterior cervical discectomy.  

PubMed

We describe a case of postoperative stroke in a patient undergoing anterior cervical discectomy caused by a combination of intraoperative retraction of an atherosclerotic carotid vessel and arterial hypotension. PMID:20536291

Radhakrishnan, M; Bansal, S; Srihari, G S; Sampath, S; Rao, G S Umamaheswara

2010-10-01

280

Quantitative spectroscopy for detection of cervical dysplasia  

E-print Network

The current clinical standard for cervical cancer diagnosis is colposcopy, a procedure that involves visual inspection and biopsy of at-risk tissue, followed by histopathology. The major objective of colposcopy is detection ...

Mirkovi?, Jelena, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

281

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

282

Cervical cancer: particularities in HIV patients.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. It represents one of the most challenging public health problems in developing countries. HIV-infected women have a higher risk of cervical cancer which is an AIDS defining cancer. Cervical cancer treatment in HIV-infected and non-infected women is the same. HIV naive women must be prescribed combination antiretroviral therapy at the moment of HIV cancer diagnosis. A close collaboration between oncologist and infectiologist is mandatory to optimize HIV treatment. Among HIV-infected women, PAP-smear screening for early detection and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions is recommended. HPV vaccination is also recommended with the same efficacy and safety profile as the general population. PMID:25418597

Grellier, Noémie; Quéro, Laurent

2014-11-01

283

Airway management in cervical spine injury  

PubMed Central

To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury. PMID:24741498

Austin, Naola; Krishnamoorthy, Vijay; Dagal, Arman

2014-01-01

284

Cervical Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Translations LEEP (Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure) Th? Thu?t C?t Vòng ?i?n T? - Tiê?ng Viê?t (Vietnamese) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Prevent Cervical Cancer: Take Care of ...

285

Cervical cancer screening in Greece.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the state of the art in cervical cancer screening in Greece by presenting the two regionally organised screening programmes that currently operate in the country. Both programmes were initiated in 1991 and are partly funded by the European Union. The Ormylia screening programme covers the population of Halkidiki (Northern Greece), a predominantly rural area. The second programme covers the regions of Messinia and Ilia (Southern Greece). Both programmes are targeted at women aged 25-64 years of age and a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test is recommended every 2-3 years. Electoral and municipal registries are used to identify the target population and personal invitations are sent to the eligible women in the screening programme. The Ormylia programme is based at the Centre 'Our Lady Who Loves Mankind', whereas mobile units are used by the Messinia and Ilia programme. Slide reading for the Ormylia programme is performed in the cytology laboratory of Alexandra Hospital in Athens and epidemiological support is provided by the Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology (Medical School, University of Athens). A specifically designed database is used for data recording. Over 80% of the target population in the region have already been screened. Communication of results is by means of a personal letter upon a negative result and in person upon a suspicious result. Quality assurance in both programmes is based on the European protocol. These two programmes are the sole organised cervical cancer screening activities in Greece in the absence of a national programme. They employ well-trained personnel, they use modern equipment and have strict quality assurance procedures. PMID:11072209

Riza, E; Kyriakogianni-Psaropoulou, P; Koumantakis, E; Symiakaki, H; Garas, I; Linos, A

2000-11-01

286

Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad  

Cancer.gov

NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cervix coated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), a process known as VIA. Image depicts cervical cancer microvessel density which increases lethality of the cancer.

287

Vertigo in patients with cervical spine dysfunction.  

PubMed

To our knowledge, quantitative studies on the significance of disorders of the upper cervical spine as a cause of vertigo or impaired hearing do not exist. We examined the cervical spines of 67 patients who presented with symptoms of dizziness. Prior to the orthopaedic examination, causes of vertigo relating to the field of ENT and neurology had been ruled out. Fifty patients of the above-mentioned group were studied. They followed the outlined treatment protocol with physical therapy and were available for 3 months of follow-up. Thirty-one patients, hereinafter referred to as group A, were diagnosed with dysfunctions of the upper cervical spine. Nineteen patients, hereinafter referred to as group B, did not show signs of dysfunction. Cervical spine dysfunctions were documented as published by Bischoff. In group A dysfunctions were found at level C1 in 14 cases, at level C2 in 6 cases and at level C3 in 4 cases. In seven cases more than one upper cervical spine motion segment was affected. Dysfunctions were treated and resolved with mobilising and manipulative techniques of manual medicine. Regardless of cervical spine findings seen at the initial visit, group A and B patients received intensive outpatient physical therapy. At the final 3-month follow-up, 24 patients of group A (77.4%) reported an improvement of their chief symptom and 5 patients were completely free of vertigo. Improvement of vertigo was recorded in 5 group B patients (26.3%); however, nobody in group B was free of symptoms. We concluded that a functional examination of motion segments of the upper cervical spine is important in diagnosing and treating vertigo, because a non-resolved dysfunction of the upper cervical spine was a common cause of long-lasting dizziness in our population. PMID:9548360

Galm, R; Rittmeister, M; Schmitt, E

1998-01-01

288

Unique paleopathology in a pre-Columbian mummy remnant from Southern Peru--severe cervical rotation trauma with subluxation of the axis as cause of death.  

PubMed

We describe the multidisciplinary findings in a pre-Columbian mummy head from Southern Peru (Cahuachi, Nazca civilisation, radiocarbon dating between 120 and 750 AD) of a mature male individual (40-60 years) with the first two vertebrae attached in pathological position. Accordingly, the atlanto-axial transition (C1/C2) was significantly rotated and dislocated at 38° angle associated with a bulging brownish mass that considerably reduced the spinal canal by circa 60%. Using surface microscopy, endoscopy, high-resolution multi-slice computer tomography, paleohistology and immunohistochemistry, we identified an extensive epidural hematoma of the upper cervical spinal canal-extending into the skull cavity-obviously due to a rupture of the left vertebral artery at its transition between atlas and skull base. There were no signs of fractures of the skull or vertebrae. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations clearly identified dura, brain residues and densely packed corpuscular elements that proved to represent fresh epidural hematoma. Subsequent biochemical analysis provided no evidence for pre-mortal cocaine consumption. Stable isotope analysis, however, revealed significant and repeated changes in the nutrition during his last 9 months, suggesting high mobility. Finally, the significant narrowing of the rotational atlanto-axial dislocation and the epidural hematoma probably caused compression of the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata with subsequent respiratory arrest. In conclusion, we suggest that the man died within a short period of time (probably few minutes) in an upright position with the head rotated rapidly to the right side. In paleopathologic literature, trauma to the upper cervical spine has as yet only very rarely been described, and dislocation of the vertebral bodies has not been presented. PMID:20972881

Sokiranski, Roman; Pirsig, Wolfgang; Richter, Hans-Peter; Lösch, Sandra; Struck, Ulrich; Nerlich, Andreas G

2011-03-01

289

Multimodal entity coreference for cervical dysplasia diagnosis.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer for women. Existing screening programs for cervical cancer, such as Pap Smear, suffer from low sensitivity. Thus, many patients who are ill are not detected in the screening process. Using images of the cervix as an aid in cervical cancer screening has the potential to greatly improve sensitivity, and can be especially useful in resource-poor regions of the world. In this paper, we develop a data-driven computer algorithm for interpreting cervical images based on color and texture. We are able to obtain 74% sensitivity and 90% specificity when differentiating high-grade cervical lesions from low-grade lesions and normal tissue. On the same dataset, using Pap tests alone yields a sensitivity of 37% and specificity of 96%, and using HPV test alone gives a 57% sensitivity and 93% specificity. Furthermore, we develop a comprehensive algorithmic framework based on Multimodal Entity Coreference for combining various tests to perform disease classification and diagnosis. When integrating multiple tests, we adopt information gain and gradient-based approaches for learning the relative weights of different tests. In our evaluation, we present a novel algorithm that integrates cervical images, Pap, HPV, and patient age, which yields 83.21% sensitivity and 94.79% specificity, a statistically significant improvement over using any single source of information alone. PMID:25167547

Song, Dezhao; Kim, Edward; Huang, Xiaolei; Patruno, Joseph; Munoz-Avila, Hector; Heflin, Jeff; Long, L Rodney; Antani, Sameer

2015-01-01

290

Acute cervical epidural hematoma, screw pullout, and esophageal perforation after anterior cervical corpectomy surgery: report of a case.  

PubMed

To report a series of complications related to anterior cervical surgery in the same patient. There have been many reports of complications related to anterior cervical surgeries. These include cervical hematoma, instrumentation extrusion, or esophageal injury after anterior cervical decompression. However, there have been no reports of all these complications occurring in 1 patient. This is our report of a patient who experienced all 3 of these complications. The patient was a 73-year-old man suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy who was treated with C5 anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion with titanium mesh and bone graft. The patient successively experienced cervical hematoma, screw pullout, and esophageal perforation, and was treated accordingly. Although the patient suffered a series of complications after anterior cervical corpectomy, all the complications were treated successfully. It serves as a caution that a first complication such as hematoma in anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion should be given enough attention to prevent further complications. PMID:25692439

Li, Ye; Zhu, Qing-San; Liu, Jing-Chen; Wu, Yun-Tao

2015-02-01

291

Effects of Acupuncture Knife on Inflammatory Factors and Pain in Third Lumbar Vertebrae Transverse Process Syndrome Model Rats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to explore the long-term effects and pain relief mechanism of acupuncture knife on third lumbar vertebrae (L3) transverse process syndrome. Forty SD rats were randomized into control, model, electroacupuncture (EA), and acupuncture knife (AK) group. Except control rats, other rats were subjected to an operation to emulate L3 transverse process syndrome. Fourteen days after the operation, EA and AK rats were given electroacupuncture and acupuncture knife treatments, respectively. Fifty-six days after the operation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure substance P (SP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) in peripheral blood. The tail flick test was used to observe pain threshold. We found that rats with the simulation operation had significantly higher levels of SP, 5-HT, IL-1, IL-10, TNF-?, and TGF-?, while the AK rats had lower levels. In addition, the pain threshold of AK rats was similar to that of control rats. AK pretreatment could alleviate pain through modulating inflammatory response. PMID:25544854

Yu, Jia Ni; Guo, Chang Qing; Hu, Bo; Liu, Nai Gang; Sun, Hong Mei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Hai Xia; Guo, Yan; Liang, Chu Xi; Chen, Zhan Xia; Li, Xiao Hong

2014-01-01

292

Long-term safety of the aminobisphosphonate alendronate in adult dogs. II. Histomorphometric analysis of the L5 vertebrae.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a major health problem. Bisphosphonates are synthetic compounds that are taken up preferentially by the skeleton and suppress osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Alendronate (ALN) is an aminobisphosphonate used in the treatment of diseases characterized by increased bone resorption including osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to rule out possible adverse effects of the chronic administration of ALN on the quality of bone. Thirty-one 20- to 21-month-old beagles (n = 7-8 per group, females and males) were treated p.o. for 157 weeks with ALN at 0.00, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.00 mg/kg/day and labeled in vivo with oxytetracycline and calcein. Undecalcified bone sections obtained from the fifth lumbar vertebra were evaluated by static and dynamic histomorphometry. Cortical or cancellous bone volume and indices of architecture were not affected by treatment. Osteoid thickness and mineralization lag time were not changed by treatment. Tissue level bone turnover was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in males. The results indicate that long-term ALN administration at up to 5 times the dose used for treatment of osteoporosis in clinical trials causes no abnormalities in bone remodeling or bone structure. PMID:8558443

Balena, R; Markatos, A; Seedor, J G; Gentile, M; Stark, C; Peter, C P; Rodan, G A

1996-01-01

293

Increased Fusion Rates With Cervical Plating for Two Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. A retrospective review of all patients surgically treated with a two-level anterior cervical disc- ectomy and fusion with and without anterior plate fixa- tion by a single surgeon. Objectives. To compare the clinical and radiographic success of two-level discectomy and the effect of anterior cervical plate fixation. Summary of Background Data. Prior studies of multi- segment fusions have

Jeffrey C. Wang; Paul W. McDonough; Kevin K. Endow; Rick B. Delamarter

294

Changes in cervical sagittal alignment after single-level posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical diskectomy.  

PubMed

Study Design?Case series. Objective?Posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical diskectomy (PECD) can preserve the disk in patients with a foraminal disk herniation. However, progressive angulation at the operated segment is a concern, especially for patients with cervical lordosis?cervical lordosis after posterior PECD was analyzed. Methods?Medical records were reviewed of 32 consecutive patients (22 men, 10 women; mean age, 49?±?12 years) who had single-level foraminal soft disk herniation. The operation levels were as follows: C4-5 in 1 patient, C5-6 in 12, C6-7 in 18, and C7-T1 in 1. All patients were discharged the day after the operation, and neck motion was encouraged. All patients were followed for 30?±?7 months (range, 24 to 46 months), and 21/32 patients (66%) had radiographs taken at 25?±?11 months (range, 12 to 45 months). Radiologic parameters were assessed, including cervical curvature (C2-7), segmental Cobb's angle (SA), and anterior and posterior disk height (AH and PH, respectively) at the operative level. Results?At the last follow-up, 29/32 patients (91%) had no or minimal pain, and 3/32 patients had occasional pain. SA, AH, and PH were not significantly changed. Cervical lordosis?cervical lordosis?cervical curvature changed from -2.5?±?8.0 to -11.3?±?9.3 degrees (p?=?0.01). For patients with cervical lordosis???10 degrees, cervical curvature changed from -17.5?±?5.8 to -19.9?±?5.7 degrees (p?=?0.24). Conclusions?Cervical curvature does not worsen after posterior PECD. PMID:25648214

Kim, Chi Heon; Shin, Kyung-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung Bae; Kim, Jung Hee

2015-02-01

295

Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Material and methods. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. Results. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Conclusion. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist. PMID:25495570

Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

2015-02-01

296

Advisers Endorse HPV Test for Cervical Cancer Checks  

MedlinePLUS

... and the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. It followed U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval ... at the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, said in the news release. "We are lucky ...

297

Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

298

University of Arizona researchers report on cervical cancer study  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Monk is nationally recognized for his expertise in cervical cancer and chairs the Gynecologic Oncology Cervical Cancer Committee for the National Cancer Institute funded Gynecologic Oncology Group for the study published in NEJM.

299

6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian Past Issues / Spring 2007 ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Gynecologic Cancers Cervical, Endometrial, and Ovarian NCI estimates that endometrial, ...

300

Perinatal outcomes following conservative management of cervical dysplasia  

Cancer.gov

Preterm delivery outcomes following Preterm delivery outcomes following LEEP treatment of cervical LEEP treatment of cervical intraepithelial intraepithelial neoplasia neoplasia (CIN) (CIN) Audrey F. Audrey F. Saftlas Saftlas, PhD, MPH , PhD, MPH Department

301

What Are the Key Statistics about Cervical Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... factors for cervical cancer? What are the key statistics about cervical cancer? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

302

What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?  

MedlinePLUS

... cancer (such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; CIN) includes cryotherapy, laser treatment, and conization. Recent studies to see ... results in treating cervical pre-cancers. Last Medical Review: 09/19/2014 Last Revised: 01/07/2015 ...

303

Cervical Histopathology Variability Among Laboratories  

PubMed Central

To inform the proposed systematic adjudicative staining of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) and equivocal diagnoses, we characterized diagnostic heterogeneity across 15 laboratories. Laboratory-specific distributions of 37,486 biopsy specimen diagnoses were compared after adjusting for preceding cytology. In a subset of preceding cytology specimens, HPV16 genotyping was considered an indicator of lesion severity. Distributions of normal and CIN1 diagnoses varied widely, with laboratories favoring either normal (5.5%–57.7%) or CIN1 diagnoses (23.3%–86.7%; P < .001 for normal:CIN1 variability). Excluding extreme values, 6.2% to 14.4% of diagnoses were CIN2 (P < .001). For CIN2 diagnoses, HPV16 positivity in the preceding cytology varied between 39.0% in the largest laboratory and 57.4% in others (P < .001), suggesting differential interpretation, not population differences, as a cause of variability. In conclusion, the frequency of diagnoses requiring special staining (p16INK4a immunostaining) to adjudicate equivocal CIN2 will be sizable and vary between laboratories, especially if extended to a fraction of CIN1 lesions. PMID:23429369

Gage, Julia C.; Schiffman, Mark; Hunt, William C.; Joste, Nancy; Ghosh, Arpita; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wheeler, Cosette M.

2014-01-01

304

Predictive factors for acute proximal junctional failure after adult deformity surgery with upper instrumented vertebrae in the thoracolumbar spine.  

PubMed

Study Type?Retrospective cohort study. Introduction?Acute proximal junctional failure (APJF) was recently defined by the International Spine Study Group as: postoperative fracture of the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) or UIV?+?1; UIV implant failure; proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) increase?>?15 degrees; or need for proximal extension of the fusion within 6 months of surgery.1 The incidence and revision rates of APJF have been reported to be higher when the UIV is located in the lower thoracolumbar (TL) spine mostly because of high incidence of UIV or UIV?+?1 fractures.2 Sagittal deformity overcorrection has been considered as a potential risk factor.34 Objective?The purpose of this study is to assess independent predictive factors and timing for revisions of APJF in adult deformity patients with UIV in the TL (T9-L2) spine. Methods?Retrospective review of 135 consecutive patients with minimum 2-year follow-up, treated at a single institution for adult spinal deformity, all with UIV in the TL spine (T9-L2). Fusions were divided into three cohorts based on the UIV location (T9-T10 vs. T11-T12 vs. L1-L2). Demographic data were reviewed and radiographic parameters were measured preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, at 6 months and at the final follow-up. Incidence and failure modes of APJF, as well as timing for APJF revision are reported. Risk factors for APJF were assessed with univariate and multivariate regression analysis models. Results?A total of 135 consecutive patients were reviewed, with mean follow-up 42 months (24-126). Mean age was 66 years (24-86). There were no differences in the preoperative radiographic parameters between patients in any of the three cohorts with APJF. The incidence of APJF was 38.5%, with a trend toward higher APJF in the T9-T10 group (p?=?0.07) (Table 1). When UIV was at T10, the incidence of APJF was 57.1%, significantly higher than the adjacent vertebrae, T9 and T11 (p?=?0.03 and p?=?0.01, respectively). The overall revision rate for APJF was 17%, most often for UIV fracture, while PJK?>?15 degrees alone had the highest 2 and 5 years survival (100%) (Fig. 1). Univariate analysis revealed preoperative sagittal vertical axis?>?5 cm, postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees and thoracic kyphosis?>?30 degrees, and instrumentation to the pelvis as risk factors for APJF (Table 2). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees, and greater correction of lumbar lordosis (LL) as independent risk factors for APJF (Table 3). Conclusion?The incidence of APJF in adult deformity patients is high if the UIV is in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, with a trend toward higher rates when the UIV is at T10. Fracture at the UIV lead to the highest revision rate, while PJK?>?15 degrees without fracture or hardware failure had the longest revision-free survival. Postoperative PJA?>?5 degrees and greater correction of LL are independent risk factors for APJF. PMID:25278891

Annis, Prokopis; Lawrence, Brandon D; Spiker, William R; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Wei; Daubs, Michael D; Brodke, Darrel S

2014-10-01

305

?Np63 protein expression in uterine cervical and endometrial cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose\\u000a   To investigate the significance of p63 expression in uterine cervical and endometrial cancers.\\u000a Materials and methods\\u000a   ?Np63 protein expression was studied in a variety of 127 cases of uterine cervical lesions (20 non-neoplastic cervices, 43 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN], 54 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 40 adenocarcinomas, and 13 other histologic types) and 30 endometrioid type of endometrial adenocarcinomas by

Zhenhua Lin; Mingzhu Liu; Zhuhu Li; Changheon Kim; Eungseok Lee; Insun Kim

2006-01-01

306

Raman spectroscopic characterization on cervical neoplasm in biopsy direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy was applied to distinguish the spectroscopic information between normal cervical tissues (14) and cervical neoplasia (17), including low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (6) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (11). Standard pathological sections of these cervical tissues were measured from superficial to stroma layers. We have normalized significant Raman peaks, 1250 and 1579-1656 cm -1 by taking a ratio over a stationary Raman at 1004 cm -1, and successfully discriminated between normal and neoplasm cervical tissues.

Shin, Hsiao Hsin; Tsai, Yan Sheng; Wang, Tao Yuan; Chu, Shou Chia; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

2007-02-01

307

The future of cervical cancer prevention in Europe.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer remains a significant source of disease and death in Europe. However, we now have the means to prevent virtually every case of cervical cancer through comprehensive, population-based, organised cervical cancer prevention programmes that effectively integrate cervical screening with the new technologies and vaccines that are now available. Given the potential health benefits of these programmes in reducing disease incidence and mortality, their establishment is now an ethical imperative for all European countries. PMID:17598500

Davies, Philip; Bogdanovic-Guillion, Aleksandra; Grce, Magdalena; Sancho-Garnier, Hélène

2007-04-01

308

Th1 Cytokine Patterns in Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host's immune response to cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is poorly understood. In a longitudinal cohort of women with cervical HPV infections, defined by PCR-based HPV DNA testing, we used exfoliated cervical cells and reverse transcription-PCR to examine the cervical mucosal mRNA expression of cytokines involved in regulating cell-mediated immunity. We identified seven HPV-positive subjects who were found to

MARK SCOTT; DANIEL P. STITES; ANNA-BARBARA MOSCICKI

1999-01-01

309

Emerging Biological Treatments for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies is a major interest for public health. Cisplatin, in combination with external beam irradiation for locally advanced disease, or as monotherapy for recurrent/metastatic disease, has been the cornerstone of treatment for more than two decades. Other investigated cytotoxic therapies include paclitaxel, ifosfamide and topotecan, as single agents or in combination, revealing unsatisfactory results. In recent years, much effort has been made towards evaluating new drugs and developing innovative therapies to treat cervical cancer. Among the most investigated molecular targets are epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways, both playing a critical role in cervical cancer development. Studies with bevacizumab or VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase have given encouraging results in terms of clinical efficacy, without adding significant toxicity. A great number of other molecular agents targeting critical pathways in cervical malignant transformation are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials, reporting preliminary promising data. In the current review, we discuss novel therapeutic strategies which are being investigated for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. PMID:24494026

Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Di Lauro, Luigi; Vizza, Enrico; Tomao, Federica; Tomao, Silverio; Mancini, Emanuela; Vincenzoni, Cristina; Barba, Maddalena; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Venuti, Aldo

2014-01-01

310

Cervical Ripening in The Netherlands: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals). In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100%) applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2). In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006). In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006), 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006), 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections. PMID:23997770

Huisman, Claartje M. A.; Jozwiak, Marta; de Leeuw, Jan Willem; Mol, Ben Willem; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.

2013-01-01

311

Characterization of the Human Cervical Mucous Proteome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. Discovery of biomarkers for the early detection of cervical cancer would improve current screening practices and reduce the burden of disease. Objective In this study, we report characterization of the human cervical mucous proteome as the first step towards protein biomarker discovery. Methods The protein composition was characterized using one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We chose to use this combination of traditional biochemical techniques and proteomics to allow a more comprehensive analysis. Results and Conclusion A total of 107 unique proteins were identified, with plasma proteins being most abundant. These proteins represented the major functional categories of metabolism, immune response, and cellular transport. Removal of high molecular weight abundant proteins by immunoaffinity purification did not significantly increase the number of protein spots resolved. We also analyzed phosphorylated and glycosylated proteins by fluorescent post-staining procedures. The profiling of cervical mucous proteins and their post-translational modifications can be used to further our understanding of the cervical mucous proteome. PMID:20461121

Panicker, Gitika; Ye, Yiming; Wang, Dongxia

2010-01-01

312

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2015-01-30

313

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2014-12-19

314

Cervical Shedding of Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I Is Associated with Cervicitis  

PubMed Central

Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is sexually transmitted. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical shedding of HTLV-I DNA among Peruvian sex workers. HTLV tax DNA was detected in cervical specimens from 43 (68%) of 63 HTLV-I–infected sex workers and in samples obtained during 113 (52%) of 216 clinic visits between 1993 and 1997. Detection of HTLV DNA was associated with the presence of ?30 polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) within cervical mucus per 100×microscopic field (odds ratio [OR], 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–10.1) and with the presence of cervical secretions (OR, 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.4). Hormonal contraceptive use (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 0.8–3.6) and concomitant cervical infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.3–4.3) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6–3.7) were not significantly associated with HTLV-I shedding. Our results suggest that cervicitis may increase cervical HTLV-I shedding and the sexual transmission of this virus. PMID:12447745

Zunt, Joseph R.; Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Montano, Silvia M.; Thomas, Katherine K.; Alarcón, Jorge O. V.; Quijano, Eberth; Courtois, Barry N.; Sánchez, Jorge L.; Campos, Pablo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Guenthner, Patricia C.; Lal, Renu B.; Holmes, King K.

2009-01-01

315

Detection of human papillomavirus in urine and cervical swabs from patients with invasive cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of both human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer among Zimbabwean women, the ability to test for HPV infection of the uterine cervix is limited by a lack of an easy sample collection method that does not require gynecological examination. The presence of HPVs in urine and cervical swab samples collected from 43 women who presented with invasive cervical cancer was investigated. HPV detection was done by means of degenerate primers in a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Typing of HPVs was done using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. HPV was identified and typed in 98% (42/43) of cervical swabs and 72% (31/43) of paired urine samples. HPV type 16 was the most common (25/42, 59%), followed by types: 33 (13/42, 31%), 18 (6/42, 14%), and 31 (1/42, 2%). Type-specific concordance between cervical and urine samples was high (22/28, 79%). Therefore, the HPV types identified in urine samples in most cases represent the same HPV type infecting the cervical epithelium. The results suggest that urine may be a practical sample for testing of HPV urogenital infection. Further research is required before the detection of HPV in urine can be applied in the routine cervical screening programs. PMID:12858416

Stanczuk, Grazyna A; Kay, Patti; Allan, Bruce; Chirara, Mike; Tswana, Sam A; Bergstrom, Staffan; Sibanda, Elopy N; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2003-09-01

316

Comparison of Upper Cervical Flexion and Cervical Flexion Angle of Computer Workers with Upper Trapezius and Levator Scapular Pain  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] In this study, we compared upper cervical flexion and cervical flexion angle of computer workers with upper trapezius and levator scapular pain. [Subject] Eight male computer workers with upper trapezius muscle pain and eight others with levator scapular muscle pain participated. [Methods] Each subject was assessed in terms of upper cervical flexion angle and total cervical flexion angles using a cervical range of motion instrument after one hour of computer work. [Results] The upper cervical flexion angle of the group with levator scapular pain was significantly lower than that of the group with upper trapezius pain after computer work. The total cervical flexion angle of the group with upper trapezius pain was significantly lower than that of the group with levator scapular pain after computer work. [Conclusion] For selective and effective intervention for neck pain, therapists should evaluate upper and lower cervical motion individually. PMID:24648646

Yoo, Won-gyu

2014-01-01

317

Analysis for textural features in Nuclei of Cervical Cyto Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is one of the deadliest cancers that occur in women and the only way it could be curtailed is through an automated system. The sense of touch yields more information than visual and other senses. Here we have tried to exploit this concept by analyzing the textural features of cervical cyto images. The Nuclei of a Cervical cyto

K. Krishnaveni; S. Allwin; S. P. K. Kenny; G. Mariappan

2010-01-01

318

Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cervical & vaginal cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... pay for them. Related resources National Cancer Institute—cervical cancer information CDC—cervical cancer information U.S. Preventive Services ...

319

Cdc42 expression in cervical cancer and its effects on cervical tumor invasion and migration.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to examine Cdc42 expression in cervical cancer and explore its effects on invasion and migration capability of cervical cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect Cdc42 expression in normal cervical tissues as well as CIN I or below, CIN II or above, and cervical cancer tissues. Western blot analysis was used to explore Cdc42 expression in normal cervical cell line Crl-2614 and cervical cancer cell line HeLa. Plasmids of constitutively active Cdc42 (Cdc42 CA), wild-type Cdc42 (Cdc42 WT) and dominant negative Cdc42 (Cdc42 DN) were transfected, respectively, into HeLa cells to investigate the impacts of Cdc42 on migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells using Transwell and on cytoskeleton microfilaments using confocal microscopy after immunofluorescence staining. Cdc42 expression was gradually increased in the order of cervical tissues with CIN I or below, CIN II or above and cancer, showing significant difference (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in HeLa cells than in Crl-2614 cells (P<0.05). Migration ability of HeLa cells transfected with Cdc42 CA was significantly higher than that of non-transfected, as well as Cdc42 WT- or Cdc42 DN-transfected HeLa cells (P<0.05). Overexpression of Cdc42 CA can promote filopodia formation in HeLa cells. We concluded that Cdc42 overexpression significantly improved the ability of cervical cancer cells to migrate possibly due to improved pseudopodia formation. PMID:25394485

Ye, Hongnan; Zhang, Youyi; Geng, Li; Li, Zijian

2015-02-01

320

Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer  

SciTech Connect

A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

1986-06-20

321

Cervical vagal schwannoma. A case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Schwannoma originating from the cervical vagus nerve is an extremely rare neoplasm. Vagal nerve schwannoma usually occurs between the third and fifth decades of life, it does not show sex predilection both sexes being equally affected and it most often presents as a painless, slow-growing, lateral neck mass. The treatment of choice is complete surgical excision with preservation of the neural pathway, when it is possible. These tumours, in fact, are almost always benign and a conservative surgical approach is emphasized by most of the Authors. A case of a cervical vagal schwannoma, in a 33-year old male with a previous medical history of malignant lymphoma, is described. The clinical features, diagnosis, management and pathological findings of cervical vagal schwannoma are discussed. PMID:19609380

Chiofalo, MG; Longo, F; Marone, U; Franco, R; Petrillo, A; Pezzullo, L

2009-01-01

322

Acute hydrocephalus following cervical spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

We present a case of acute hydrocephalus secondary to cervical spinal cord injury in a patient with diffuse ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). A 75-year-old male patient visited the emergency department with tetraparesis and spinal shock. Imaging studies showed cervical spinal cord injury with hemorrhage and diffuse OPLL from C1 to C4. We performed decompressive laminectomy and occipitocervical fusion. Two days after surgery, his mental status had deteriorated to drowsiness with dilatation of the right pupil. Findings on brain computed tomography revealed acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage in the cerebellomedullary cistern, therefore, extraventricular drainage was performed immediately. Acute hydrocephalus as a complication of cervical spine trauma is rare, however, it should be considered if the patient shows deterioration of neurologic symptoms. PMID:24175033

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang Gu; Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Woo Kyung

2013-08-01

323

Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia  

PubMed Central

Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

2013-01-01

324

Isaptent--a new cervical dilator.  

PubMed

A new cervical dilator, Isaptent, was prepared from granulated Plantago ovata (Isapgol) seed husk. It was evaluated in a multicentric clinical trial for dilatation of the cervix in subjects opting for medical termination of pregnancy. The trial covered 804 women in over 21 centres in different parts of the country. The cases were between 15 to 45 years of age, 0 to 10 parity with a gestation period of 8 to 24 weeks. A single tent was used in 750 subjects and satisfactory dilatation was achieved in 94% of the cases. The cervical dilatation bore no relationship to age, parity and gestation period of the subjects. The tent provided self-lubrication, caused no apparent damage to the cervix and the vaginal flora remained unchanged in the randomly selected subjects in whom bacteriologic studies were performed. The outcome of the clinical trial and advantages of Isaptent over the other procedures used for cervical dilatation are discussed. PMID:6987038

Khanna, N M; Sarin, J P; Nandi, R C; Singh, S; Setty, B S; Kamboj, V P; Dhawan, B N; Singh, L; Kutty, D; Engineer, A D

1980-01-01

325

Polyamines as biomarkers of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) play critical roles in cell growth and transformation. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, is considered a putative protooncogene crucial to the regulation of cell growth and transformation. Cancer patients have elevated levels of polyamines in their physiological fluids compared to normal counterparts. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific suicide inhibitor of ODC, exhibits antitumor and antimetastasis activities, and displays effectiveness in many carcinogen-induced animal chemoprevention models. Therefore, we are using DFMO in a chemoprevention trial for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III), and evaluating patients for changes in polyamine metabolism as an intermediate marker of DFMO effect. A preliminary study showed that several milligrams of abnormal cervical biopsy tissue contained detectable levels of ODC activity and polyamines. Additionally, the presence of cadaverine suggested bacterial contamination of these tissues. For this reason, normal and abnormal biopsies collected during colposcopy were rinsed prior to frozen storage. In most patients, abnormal tissue showed greater ODC activities and lower spermidine/spermine ratios than normal tissues. Patients are now being treated with de-escalating doses of DFMO (1-0.06 g/m2/day) for one month. To study the effect of DFMO in patients with CIN III, we are collecting blood and cervical tissue specimens to measure the following parameters: plasma DFMO, ornithine and arginine levels; plasma N1-acetylspermidine levels; erythrocyte (blood polyamine carrier) free polyamine levels; cervical tissue free polyamine levels; cervical tissue N1-acetylspermidine levels; and cervical tissue ODC activities. N1-acetylspermidine will be examined as this compound is known to exist primarily in tumor tissues, not in normal tissues. We therefore established a high-performance liquid chromatography method for N1-acetylspermidine. We expect to find that polyamines are effective markers in analyzing DFMO effects in this chemoprevention trial, thus functioning as pharmacodynamic parameters as well as biomarkers for transformation. PMID:8747382

Nishioka, K; Melgarejo, A B; Lyon, R R; Mitchell, M F

1995-01-01

326

Cervical cleaning improves Pap smear quality  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening is an effective method of detecting cytological changes in the cervix before they lead to cervical cancer. However, the quality of a Pap smear can be compromised by inflammatory exudate, inadequate cellularity or failure to sample the transformation zone. We evaluated the effect of routine cervical cleaning on Pap smear quality. Methods In a primary care setting, we compared the quality of Pap smears obtained after cervical cleaning (with a dry, oversized cotton swab) with the quality of historical control slides obtained from the same women without prior cervical cleaning. The results for both groups were then compared with statistical averages for the province of British Columbia. Results Inflammatory exudate was reported in 1 (0.3%) of the 334 study smears and 72 (11.0%) of the 652 control smears (p < 0.001). Inadequate endocervical or metaplastic squamous cells were reported in 11 (3.3%) of the study smears and 90 (13.8%) of the control smears (p < 0.001). Inadequate cellularity was reported in 13 (3.9%) of the study smears and 9 (1.4%) of the control smears (p = 0.01). There were similar statistical differences between the study group and provincial averages. The results for the control group did not differ significantly from provincial averages (inflammatory exudate, 11.3%; inadequate endocervical cells, 14.7%; and poor cellularity, 2.7%). Interpretation Prior cervical cleaning with an oversized cotton swab was associated with a lower frequency of smears with inflammatory exudate or inadequate endocervical cells and, to a lesser degree, a higher frequency of smears with inadequate cellularity. PMID:14517124

Kotaska, Andrew J.; Matisic, Jasenka P.

2003-01-01

327

Correlation of Cervical Smear and Pathohistological Findings  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Introduction: In endeavor to suppress the cervical carcinoma there are several possible approaches including measures of primary and secondary prevention. So far effects of these measures on the number of cases and mortality rate of cervical carcinoma were modest. Only exception is organized testing based on cytological exam of the cervical smear – Pap test, which has proven to be highly effective in reducing the number of cases and mortality of cervical carcinoma in countries with this program. Goal: of this research is analysis of correlation between abnormal cytological test results and pathohistological diagnosis of all patients in the analyzed period. ] Material and methods: Research is descriptive, analytical, comparative, and partly epidemiological. Results of cytological and pathohistological diagnostic in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011 were used for analysis. All analyzed patients had colposcopy exam and Pap test, and patients with abnormal results of this test underwent cervical biopsy for pathohistological diagnostics. Results: We came to following results and conclusions: total number of L-SIL and H-SIL (PAPA III) results was 395 (6.20%) in comparison to total sample of 5894 (92.44%) patients. There is a statistically significant difference in relation to PHD result of cervical biopsy after L-SIL and H-SIL (PAPA II and IV), and highest statistical margin is in relation of CIN II changes to cytological findings, issued at Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology and other health institutions. We come to conclusion that the highest percentage of patients with L-SIL and H-SIL findings is in age group between 0-29 years old. Statistical analysis has shown a positive trend in number of younger patients with L-SIL and H-SIL (PAPA III and IV), with average age of patients in 2011 being 31.12±9.12 years old. PMID:24937933

Asotic, Amir; Taric, Suada; Asotic, Jasmina

2014-01-01

328

Management of Cervical Spine Injuries in Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: Although the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injury in sport has been significantly reduced over the past 3 decades, the injury warrants continued attention because of the altered quality of life that often accompanies such an injury. The purpose of our literature review was to provide athletic trainers with an understanding of the mechanisms, anatomical structures, and complications often associated with sport-related cervical spine injury. We also present the most current recommendations for management and treatment of these potentially catastrophic injuries. Data Sources: A review of the most pertinent literature between 1970 and 2005 was conducted using MEDLINE and the search terms spinal cord injury, cervical spine injury, neurosurgical trauma, cervical spinal stenosis, and catastrophic spine injury. Data Synthesis: Flexion of the head places the cervical spine into a straight line and prevents the neck musculature from assisting in force absorption. This mechanism is the primary cause of cervical fracture, dislocation, and quadriplegia. The most serious of the syndromes described in the literature involves a complete spinal cord injury with transverse myelopathy. This injury typically results in total loss of spinal function below the level of the lesion. Conclusions/Recommendations: Spinal trauma may result in a variety of clinical syndromes, according to the type and severity of the impact and bony displacement, as well as subsequent secondary insults such as hemorrhage, ischemia, and edema. Athletic trainers should be prepared to promptly recognize these potentially catastrophic injuries and follow the recommendations of the Inter-Association Task Force for the Appropriate Care of the Spine Injured Athlete in managing such injuries. PMID:17597954

Bailes, Julian E; Petschauer, Meredith; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Marano, Gary

2007-01-01

329

Gynecologic examination and cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients eligible for salvage surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy of gynecologic examination under general anesthesia with cervical biopsies after (chemo) radiation for cervical cancer to identify patients with residual disease who may benefit from salvage surgery. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In a retrospective cohort study data of all cervical cancer patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)

Esther R. Nijhuis; Bertha A. in ‘t Hout; Jantine J. Boomgaard; Joanne A. de Hullu; Elisabeth Pras; Harry Hollema; Jan G. Aalders; Hans W. Nijman; Pax H. B. Willemse; Marian J. E.. Mourits

2006-01-01

330

Four lateral mass screw fixation techniques in lower cervical spine following laminectomy: a finite element analysis study of stress distribution  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) techniques have been widely used for reconstructing and stabilizing the cervical spine; however, complications may result depending on the choice of surgeon. There are only a few reports related to LSF applications, even though fracture fixation has become a severe complication. This study establishes the three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine, and compares the stress distribution of the four LSF techniques (Magerl, Roy-Camille, Anderson, and An), following laminectomy -- to explore the risks of rupture after fixation. Method CT scans were performed on a healthy adult female volunteer, and Digital imaging and communication in medicine (Dicom) data was obtained. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio 12.0, Solidworks 2012, HyperMesh 10.1 and Abaqus 6.12 software programs were used to establish the intact model of the lower cervical spines (C3-C7), a postoperative model after laminectomy, and a reconstructive model after applying the LSF techniques. A compressive preload of 74 N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm was applied to the intact and reconstructive model, simulating normal flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The stress distribution of the four LSF techniques was compared by analyzing the maximum von Mises stress. Result The three-dimensional finite element model of the intact C3-C7 vertebrae was successfully established. This model consists of 503,911 elements and 93,390 nodes. During flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes, the intact model’s angular intersegmental range of motion was in good agreement with the results reported from the literature. The postoperative model after the three-segment laminectomy and the reconstructive model after applying the four LSF techniques were established based on the validated intact model. The stress distribution for the Magerl and Roy-Camille groups were more dispersive, and the maximum von Mises stress levels were lower than the other two groups in various conditions. Conclusion The LSF techniques of Magerl and Roy-Camille are safer methods for stabilizing the lower cervical spine. Therefore, these methods potentially have a lower risk of fixation fracture. PMID:25106498

2014-01-01

331

Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context. PMID:22754202

Kaarthigeyan, K

2012-01-01

332

Invasive cervical resorption: report on two cases.  

PubMed

Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption that may lead to tooth loss. This article presents the clinical and radiologic diagnoses and treatment modalities of invasive cervical resorption in 2 patients. In the first case, we did a slow orthodontic forced eruption to make the bone grow coronally. After 6 months, the tooth was extracted and an immediate implant was placed. Eight months later a zirconia crown was cemented. In the second case, we performed root canal treatment followed by a composite reconstruction of the defect. These 2 cases illustrate different approaches based on the extent of the defect. PMID:20580285

Roig, Miguel; Morelló, Sergio; Mercadé, Montse; Durán-Sindreu, Fernando

2010-10-01

333

Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection in Tunisian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Background: It is well established that certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the sexually transmitted agents etiologically\\u000a linked to cervical cancer. Sexual habits have been shown to be a major determining factor for HPV infection. A large study\\u000a was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical infection with HPV in Tunisian women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials

E. Hassen; A. Chaieb; M. Letaief; H. Khairi; A. Zakhama; S. Remadi; L. Chouchane

2003-01-01

334

Cervical myomectomy with uterine artery ligation at its origin.  

PubMed

This study was performed to examine the feasibility, blood loss, duration of surgery, and complications in patients with cervical myomas in whom the uterine artery was ligated before myomectomy. Laparoscopic cervical myomectomy was performed in 12 women with cervical myomas and menorrhagia. The uterine artery was ligated at its origin from the internal iliac as an initial step to reduce the blood loss. Myomectomy was subsequently performed, and the myomas were enucleated by incising the capsule anteriorly or posteriorly depending on their location. Hysterectomy was not necessary in any patient. Even large cervical myomas were removed with minimal blood loss. Laparoscopic cervical myomectomy is a minimally invasive and technically safe procedure. PMID:19835802

Sinha, Rakesh; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Lakhotia, Smita; Hegde, Aparna

2009-01-01

335

Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

2012-06-08

336

The Use of Computed Tomography Attenuation to Evaluate Osteoporosis Following Acute Fractures of the Thoracic and Lumbar Vertebra  

PubMed Central

Background: Relatively few patients have dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to quantify the magnitude of bone loss as they age. Recent work correlates mean computed tomography (CT) attenuation in the level I (L1) vertebra with bone mineral density (BMD), making it possible to objectively evaluate the magnitude of bone loss in osteoporosis by this method. The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of using CT scans in patients with acute thoracic and lumbar spine fractures to diagnose osteoporosis and using CT attenuation to evaluate the association between age and BMD. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients with acute fractures of the thoracic or lumbar spine who had also undergone an abdominal (or L1) CT scan and compared mean CT attenuation in L1 against threshold values. We also compared differences in CT attenuation between younger (<65 years) and older (?65 years) and older patients. Results: A total of 124 patients were evaluated (74 thoracic and 50 lumbar fractures). Overall, there was a strong correlation between age and bone density as measured by CT attenuation (r = ?.76). Among those with thoracic fractures (<65 years), mean CT attenuation was 196.51 HU. Forty-one patients were ?65 years and had mean CT attenuation of 105.90 HU (P < .001). In patients with lumbar fractures, 27 patients were <65 years and had a mean CT attenuation of 192.26 HU and 23 patients were ?65 years and had mean CT attenuation of 114.31 HU (P < .001). At the threshold of 110 HU, set for specificity, the magnitude of difference between the age-stratified cohorts was greater in the thoracic spine (P < .0001 vs P = .003). Discussion: Using opportunistic CT, we demonstrate the relative frequency of osteoporosis in patients with acute fractures of the thoracic and lumbar spine and confirm that the association increases with age. The CT attenuation may provide a cheap and convenient method to help confirm a clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis in patients with fractures. PMID:25360331

Cagan, Amanda; Morgan, Robert; Davis, Rick; Asis, Martin; Switzer, Julie; Polly, David W.

2014-01-01

337

Percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy for discogenic cervical headache due to soft disc herniation.  

PubMed

A discogenic cervical headache is a subtype of cervicogenic headache (CEH) that arises from a degenerative cervical disc abnormality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of percutaneous endoscopic cervical discectomy (PECD) for patients with chronic cervical headache due to soft cervical disc herniation. Seventeen patients underwent PECD for intractable headache. The inclusion criteria were soft disc herniation without segmental instability, proven by both local anesthesia and provocative discography for headache unresponsive to conservative treatment. The mean follow-up period was 37.6 months. Fifteen of the 17 patients (88.2%) showed successful outcomes based on the Macnab criteria. Pain scores on a visual analog scale (VAS) improved from a preoperative mean of 8.35 +/- 0.79 to 2.12 +/- 1.17, postoperatively (P < 0.01). The mean disc height decreased from 6.81 +/- 1.08 to 5.98 +/- 1.07 mm (P < 0.01). There was no newly developed segmental instability or spontaneous fusion on follow-up radiography. In conclusion, PECD appears to be effective for chronic severe discogenic cervical headache under strict inclusion criteria. PMID:16133482

Ahn, Y; Lee, S H; Chung, S E; Park, H S; Shin, S W

2005-12-01

338

Emerging therapeutic agents for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. The highest incidences occur in the developing world, where, in most countries, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in women. Although surgery and chemoradiotherapy can cure 80-95% of women with early stage cancer and 60% of locoregionally advanced cancer, the recurrent and metastatic disease remains a major cause of cancer death. The current cytotoxic treatment options for advanced and metastatic cancer demonstrate modest results, with response rates of maximum 30% and overall survival of less than 10 months. Given this limited degree of success with conventional therapies, interest has increased in other therapeutic alternatives. In this way, targeted agents are emerging as potential candidates for improving survival in cervical cancer patients. In this review we highlight the main current therapeutic strategies for cervical cancer and summarize the most relevant patents from the latest five years. Special attention was given to patents with potential applications in the clinical practice. PMID:19522698

Cornelio, Daniela B; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

2009-11-01

339

Posterior arch defects of the cervical spine  

SciTech Connect

Spondylolysis and absence of the pedicle are congenital anomalies of the posterior cervical spine. Their roentgenographic changes may be confused with other more serious entities which may necessitate either emergent therapy or require extensive diagnostic testing and treatment. Four cases are present and the literature is reviewed. A hypothesis for the embryologic etiology of these entities is proposed.

Schwartz, A.M.; Wechsler, R.J.; Landy, M.D.; Wetzner, S.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1982-05-01

340

Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p = 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult. PMID:7294930

Elerding, S C; Fernandez, R N; Grotta, J C; Lindberg, R D; Causay, L C; McMurtrey, M J

1981-01-01

341

Fractal Analysis of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) represent precursor lesions of cervical cancer. These neoplastic lesions are traditionally subdivided into three categories CIN 1, CIN 2, and CIN 3, using microscopical criteria. The relation between grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and its fractal dimension was investigated to establish a basis for an objective diagnosis using the method proposed. Methods Classical evaluation of the tissue samples was performed by an experienced gynecologic pathologist. Tissue samples were scanned and saved as digital images using Aperio scanner and software. After image segmentation the box counting method as well as multifractal methods were applied to determine the relation between fractal dimension and grades of CIN. A total of 46 images were used to compare the pathologist's neoplasia grades with the predicted groups obtained by fractal methods. Results Significant or highly significant differences between all grades of CIN could be found. The confusion matrix, comparing between pathologist's grading and predicted group by fractal methods showed a match of 87.1%. Multifractal spectra were able to differentiate between normal epithelium and low grade as well as high grade neoplasia. Conclusion Fractal dimension can be considered to be an objective parameter to grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. PMID:25302712

Fabrizii, Markus; Moinfar, Farid; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut

2014-01-01

342

Information provision in cervical screening in Australia.  

PubMed

The National Cervical Screening Program and associated state and territory organisations are responsible for promoting cervical screening. Communication via multiple media channels encourages women to be screened. However, some communications are not clear about the risk of cervical cancer and the protective capacity and reliability of the Pap test. The potential harms of screening are rarely presented. Women usually receive Pap tests from general practitioners, who often screen opportunistically during appointments. Screening targets and incentive payments encourage high screening rates. Consent is an important ethical principle in the delivery of all health care. Provision of material information is one of the elements of valid consent. The combination of arguably ambiguous communications, screening participation targets and opportunistic testing under time pressure seems likely to undermine opportunities for women to be informed. Of particular concern are women who are less likely to benefit, those who are more likely to experience harm, and some groups of disadvantaged women. Improved communications could include providing patients with information on the absolute risk of cervical cancer, and the morbidity and mortality benefits and harms of screening. Screening programs internationally have begun providing such information. Areas for further research include the appropriate roles of the programs, screeners and individuals in providing and seeking information. Such work would identify the optimum method for informing women in the screening process. PMID:25163384

Williams, Jane H; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie

2014-09-01

343

Related Resources for Cervical Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

NCI has comprehensive research-based information on cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment, genetics and supportive care. Our information specialists can answer questions related to cancer, including cervical cancer screening and treatment. You can contact us by phone, online chat, or e-mail.

344

Immunocytochemical analysis of the cervical Pap smear.  

PubMed

Although immunostained cervical Pap smears are not yet FDA approved for clinical use, it is very likely that they will become widely employed in the near future to identify neoplastic squamous and iendocervical glandular cells when screening liquid-based cytological preparations (i.e., SurePath™ or ThinPrep™). The current problem with cytology complemented by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is poor specificity. HPV testing provides superior sensitivity, but many women are infected with the virus, while very few have had persistent infections leading to carcinoma. Pathologists routinely use antibodies directed against the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (p16(INK4a)) or a combination of antibodies directed against topoisomerase-2-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein-2 (as in ProEx™ C) to improve diagnostic precision and accuracy in cervical tissue biopsies. This chapter will describe the immunocytochemical methods used by our group to immunostain cervical Pap smears and provide significantly improved positive predictive value when screening for cervical cancer. PMID:25348308

Morgan, Terry K; Berlin, Michelle

2015-01-01

345

Survivin promoter polymorphism and cervical carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background Survivin, a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation. A common polymorphism at the survivin gene promoter (G/C at position 31) was shown to be correlated with survivin gene expression in cancer cell lines. Aim To investigate whether this polymorphism could be involved in the development of human papillomavirus (HPV)?associated cervical carcinoma. Methods Survivin promoter polymorphism was detected in patients with cervical cancer, in patients with equivocal cytological atypia and in a control population using polymerase chain reaction (PCR?restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR?single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. HPV was typed in patients with cervical cancer and cytological atypia using PCR?RFLP. Results No statistically significant differences were found in the genotype distributions of the survivin promoter variants among our study groups. Conclusions The survivin promoter polymorphism at position 31 may not represent an increased risk for the development of cervical cancer, at least in the population studied here. PMID:16714396

Borbély, A A; Murvai, M; Szarka, K; Kónya, J; Gergely, L; Hernádi, Z; Veress, G

2007-01-01

346

Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

2005-01-01

347

On prediction of the strength levels and failure patterns of human vertebrae using quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method.  

PubMed

This paper presents an effective patient-specific approach for prediction of failure initiation and growth in human vertebra using the general framework of the quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element method (FEM). The studies were carried out on 13 vertebrae (lumbar and thoracic), excised from 3 cadavers with the average age of 42 years old. Initially, 4 samples were QCT scanned and the images were directly converted into voxel-based 3D finite element models for linear and nonlinear analyses. The equivalent plastic strains obtained from the nonlinear analyses were used to predict the occurrence of local failures and development of the failure patterns. In the linear analyses, the strain energy density measure was used to identify the critical elements and predict the failure patterns. Subsequently, the samples were destructively tested in uniaxial compression and the experimental load-displacement diagrams were obtained. The plain radiographic images of the tested samples were also examined for observation of the failure patterns. In continuation, the presence of osteolytic defects in vertebrae was simulated by creation of artificial cavities within 9 remaining samples using a computer numerical control (CNC) milling machine. The same protocol was followed for scanning, modeling, and destructive testing of these samples. A strong correlation was found between the predicted and measured strengths. Finally, a typical vertebroplasty treatment was simulated by injection of low-viscosity bone cement within 3 compressed samples. The failure patterns and the associated load levels for these samples were also predicted using the QCT voxel-based FEM. PMID:19457486

Mirzaei, Majid; Zeinali, Ahad; Razmjoo, Arash; Nazemi, Majid

2009-08-01

348

Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean  

SciTech Connect

The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

2006-06-08

349

Cervical cancer: Can it be prevented?  

PubMed

Cervical cancer prevention requires a multipronged approach involving primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. The key element under primary prevention is human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. So far, only prophylactic HPV vaccines which prevent HPV infection by one or more subtypes are commercially available. Therapeutic HPV vaccines which aid in clearing established infection are still under trial. Secondary prevention entails early detection of precancerous lesions and its success is determined by the population coverage and the efficacy of the screening technique. A number of techniques are in use, including cytology, visual inspection (using the naked eye, magnivisualizer, acetic acid and Lugol's iodine), HPV testing and a combination of these methods. Updated screening guidelines have been advocated by the American Cancer Society in light of the role of HPV on cervical carcinogenesis. Recent research has also focussed on novel biomarkers that can predict progression to cancer in screen positive women and help to differentiate those who need treatment from those who can be left for follow-up. Last but not the least, effective treatment of precancerous lesions can help to reduce the incidence of invasive cervical cancer and this constitutes tertiary prevention. A combination of these approaches can help to prevent the burden of cervical cancer and its antecedent morbidity and mortality, but all of these are not feasible in all settings due to resource and allocation constraints. Thus, all countries, especially low and middle income ones, have to determine their own cocktail of approaches that work before we can say with certainty that yes, cervical cancer can be prevented. PMID:25302177

Aggarwal, Pakhee

2014-10-10

350

Torsion and Bending in the Neck and Tail of Sauropod Dinosaurs and the Function of Cervical Ribs: Insights from Functional Morphology and Biomechanics  

PubMed Central

The long necks of sauropods have been subject to many studies regarding their posture and flexibility. Length of the neck varies among groups. Here, we investigate neck posture and morphology in several clades from a mechanical viewpoint. Emphasis is put on comparing sauropod necks and tails with structures in living archosaurs and mammals. Differences in the use made of necks and tails lead to clear-cut differences in the mechanical loads occurring in the same models. Ways of sustaining loads are identified by theoretical considerations. If the observed skeletal structures are suited to resist the estimated loading in a particular posture, this concordance is taken as an argument that this posture or movement was of importance during the life of the individual. Apart from the often-discussed bending in side view, we analyze the often overlooked torsion. Because torsional stresses in a homogenous element concentrate near the periphery, a cylindrical cross section gives greatest strength, and the direction of forces is oblique. In a vertebrate neck, during e.g. shaking the head and twisting the neck, oblique muscles, like the mm. scaleni, if activated unilaterally initiate movement, counterbalance the torsional moments and keep the joints between neck vertebrae in equilibrium. If activated bilaterally, these muscles keep the neck balanced in an energy-saving upright posture. The tendons of the mm. scaleni may have ossified as cervical ribs The long cervical ribs in brachiosaurids and mamenchisaurids seem to have limited flexibility, whereas the shorter cervical ribs in Diplodocidae allowed free movement. The tails of sauropods do not show pronounced adaptation to torsion, and seem to have been carried more or less in a horizontal, extended posture. In this respect, sauropod tails resemble the necks of herbivorous cursorial mammals. These analyses provide an improved understanding of neck use that will be extended to other sauropods in subsequent studies. PMID:24205268

Preuschoft, Holger; Klein, Nicole

2013-01-01

351

78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability...

2013-06-17

352

75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

2010-02-18

353

77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

2012-11-05

354

76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

2011-05-26

355

Large scale study of HPV genotypes in cervical cancer and different cytological cervical specimens in Thailand.  

PubMed

Identification of high-risk HPV genotypes in patients is essential for vaccination and prevention programs while the geographic distribution of cervical cancer varies widely. HPV 16 is the major cause of cervical cancer followed by HPV 18, HPV 31, HPV 52, or HPV 58 depending on geographic area. In this study, the distribution of HPV genotypes in cervical specimens from women living in Thailand was analyzed by HPV testing with electrochemical DNA chip and PCR direct sequencing. The 716 specimens were grouped according to their cytological grades; 100 normal, 100 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 100 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 416 specimens of cervical cancer. The results showed that HPV 16, HPV 18, HPV 52, and HPV 58 are the most common HPV genotypes in Thailand, respectively. With respect to age, women below the age of 26 years were almost negative for high-risk HPV DNA exclusively. Conversely, high prevalence of high-risk HPV DNA and abnormal cytology were usually found in women between 26 and 45 years while cervical cancer was detected mainly in women above the age of 45 years. To increase protection efficiency, a vaccine including HPV 52 and HPV 58 should be offered to Asian women, and primary HPV screening should start at 26-30 years of age. PMID:24127280

Chansaenroj, Jira; Junyangdikul, Pairoj; Chinchai, Teeraporn; Swangvaree, Sukumarn; Karalak, Anant; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Poovorawan, Yong

2014-04-01

356

Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed

With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women. J. Med. Virol. 87:508-515, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25418873

Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; The Hpv ScreeVacc Working Group Anna Iossa Karin Louise Andersson Livia Brandigi Carmelina Di Pierro Massimo Confortini Miriam Levi Sara Boccalini Laura Indiani Antonino Sala Tommaso Tanini Angela Bechini Chiara Azzari

2015-03-01

357

Use of Fidji Cervical Cage in the Treatment of Cervical Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality  

PubMed Central

Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) is a rare condition seen in adults. Many interbody fusion cages have been developed for its treatment, but clinical studies of Fidji cervical cage are still scarce. A total number of five patients (four male and one female) were reviewed. The ages of the patients ranged from 40 to 60 years. All the patients underwent neurological and radiological examinations. Neurological and functional outcomes were assessed on the basis of Frankel's grade. Three of the patients were Frankel B, and the rest two were Frankel C. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed for the evaluation of spinal cord and intervertebral disc injury. Anterior cervical discectomy and Fidji cervical cage fusion were performed for all. The fusion status was evaluated on the basis of X-rays. After surgical intervention, the clinical symptoms improved for all the patients. The disc interspaces in all the patients achieved solid union at final follow-up. Fidji cervical cage is very efficient in achieving cervical fusion in patients with SCIWORA. There are few complications associated with the use of this cage, and the functional and neurological outcomes are satisfactory. PMID:23844369

2013-01-01

358

Epigenetics and cervical cancer: from pathogenesis to therapy.  

PubMed

Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been found in most of the cervical cancer cases, additional genetic and epigenetic changes are required for disease progression. Previously, it was thought that only genetic mutation plays a key role in cervical cancer development. But recent advances in the biology of cervical cancer revealed that epigenetic alteration is common in cervical carcinogenesis and metastasis. Epigenetic alteration due to aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification has been extensively studied in cervical cancer. Recent research strategies keep insight into noncoding RNAs, especially miRNA and lncRNA. At the same time, interest has been grown to study the utility of these changes as biomarkers to determine disease progression as well as use them as the therapeutic targets. This study has been aimed to review the recent progress of epigenetic study for cervical cancer research including role of these epigenetic changes in disease progression, their prognostic values, and their use in targeted therapy. PMID:24554414

Fang, Jinchuan; Zhang, Hai; Jin, Sufang

2014-06-01

359

Cervical Thymic Cyst in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Cervical thymic cysts (CTCs) are unusual lesions, representing only 1% of cystic cervical masses. Diagnosis of this condition in adults is even rarer. We report a 34-year-old female who presented with asymptomatic progressively growing left-sided neck swelling. Neck ultrasound (US) showed a large cystic lesion with septation, compressing the ipsilateral vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the US findings. Surgical excision was performed which subsequently showed findings consistent with CTC. CTC in adult is extremely rare, with few reported cases identified in the literature. Thymic gland anomalies in the neck are the consequences of an arrest in the descent of the gland, sequestration of the thymic tissue, or failure of involution. The diagnosis of this condition is rarely done prior to surgical excision. The clinical presentation, radiologic imaging, surgical findings, and histologic appearance are all essential components to make the correct diagnosis of this very rare differential diagnosis of cystic lateral neck swelling. PMID:24876986

Alzahrani, Hassan A.; Iqbal, Javeria M.; Abu Shaheen, Amani K.; Al Harthi, Bandar N.

2014-01-01

360

Cervical Symmetric Dumbbell Ganglioneuromas Causing Severe Paresis  

PubMed Central

We report an extremely rare case with bilateral and symmetric dumbbell ganglioneuromas of the cervical spine in an elderly patient. A 72-year-old man came by ambulance to our hospital due to progressive incomplete paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral symmetric dumbbell tumors at the C1/2 level. We performed total resection of the intracanalar tumor, aiming at complete decompression of the spinal cord, and partial and subtotal resection of foraminal outside portions. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen indicated the tumor cells to be spindle cells with the presence of ganglion cells and no cellular pleomorphism, suggesting a diagnosis of ganglioneuroma. Although the surgery was not curative, the postoperative course was uneventful and provided a satisfactory outcome. This is the fourth known case of cervical ganglioneuromas of the bilateral symmetric dumbbell type. PMID:24596609

Miyamoto, Kei; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Kito, Yusuke; Fushimi, Kazunari; Shimizu, Katsuji

2014-01-01

361

Tapia Syndrome after Cervical Spine Surgery  

PubMed Central

Tapia syndrome is a rare entity characterized by unilateral paralysis of the tongue and vocal cord caused by Xth and XIIth cranial nerve lesions. However, there has been no report of Tapia syndrome immediately following spine surgery. A 47-year-old man underwent posterior decompressive laminectomy for cervical stenosis. The surgery took about 117 minutes and it was uneventful. Postoperatively he developed hoarseness of voice during speech, with deviation of tongue protrusion. On laryngoscopic examination, paralysis of the left side of the tongue and the soft palate was found and complete palsy of the left vocal cord was noted. After excluding surgical cause and craniocervical lesion, a clinical diagnosis of Tapia syndrome was made. Here we report a rare case of Tapia syndrome developed after posterior approach for cervical spine surgery and discuss the possible mechanisms of this uncommon syndrome. PMID:24891858

Kang, Jung Hoon; Kim, Dong Min

2013-01-01

362

Pediatric cervical spine injuries: a comprehensive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cervical spine injuries can be life-altering issues in the pediatric population. The aim of the present paper was to review\\u000a this literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusions  A comprehensive knowledge of the special anatomy and biomechanics of the spine of children is essential in diagnosis and treating\\u000a issues related to spine injuries.

Martin Mortazavi; Pankaj A. Gore; Steve Chang; R. Shane Tubbs; Nicholas Theodore

2011-01-01

363

Role of cervical cytology in gynaecological practice.  

PubMed

Exfoliative cytopathology is a potent tool for the early detection and thereby eradication of cervical cancer and reducing mortality for many others. Besides, it has a vital role to play in diagnosis and therapy of infections specially trichomoniasis for which it gives a permanent record. The simplicity and rapidity of the technique is the greatest advantage for screening a wider group of population and thus guide us toward further diagnostic procedures. PMID:7186715

Narone, J N; Wadhawan, S; Narone, R K; Wacha, D S

364

Survivin promoter polymorphism and cervical carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Survivin, a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation. A common polymorphism at the survivin gene promoter (G\\/C at position 31) was shown to be correlated with survivin gene expression in cancer cell lines.Aim: To investigate whether this polymorphism could be involved in the development of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical

A A Borbe?ly; M Murvai; K Szarka; J Ko?nya; L Gergely; Z Herna?di; G Veress

2007-01-01

365

Cervical Cystic Hygroma in an Adult  

PubMed Central

Cystic hygromas/lymphangiomas are extremely rare malformations in adults. They are usually seen in infants and children under 2 years of age. En bloc resection is difficult due to the adhesive characteristics of the tumors. Inadequate surgical intervention often leads to recurrent disease. We report herein the case of a cystic hygroma/lymphangioma that presented as an uncommon mass on the cervical region in an adult, together with its histopathological, radiologic, and operative features.

Derin, Serhan; ?ahan, Murat; Dere, Yelda; Çullu, Ne?at; ?ahan, Leyla

2014-01-01

366

Cervical thymic cyst in childhood: a case report.  

PubMed

Cervical thymic cysts are rare cervical masses which usually present in the first decade of life accounting for 0.3% - 1% of all congenital neck masses. Due to its rarity thymic cysts are seldom included in the differential diagnosis of cystic cervical mass and are often mistaken for more common conditions such as branchial cleft cyst or cystic hygroma. Herein we present a case of a 6-year-old girl with a right lateral cervical cystic mass with multiple septae extended from mandibular angle along the neurovascular bundle of the neck which revealed to be a thymic cyst at histopathology. PMID:25329248

Betti, Marta; Hoseini, Nasim Hanie; Martin, Alessandra; Buccoliero, Annamaria; Messineo, Antonio; Ghionzoli, Marco

2015-02-01

367

Surgery for postarthrodesis adjacent-cervical segment degeneration.  

PubMed

Anterior cervical decompression and fusion has gained popularity because of its applicability to a variety of cervical spine disorders. The authors of long-term follow-up studies have demonstrated the development of degenerative changes in segments adjacent to fusion. So-called adjacent-segment disease causes symptomatic deterioration in up to 25% of the patients who have undergone anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The causes of this condition are debated in the literature. The authors provide a review of the available literature on the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of postarthrodesis adjacent-segment degenerative disease. PMID:15347224

Azmi, Hooman; Schlenk, Richard P

2003-09-15

368

Syndrome of the cervical plexus caused by high cervical nerve root compression.  

PubMed

Lesions affecting the roots of the cervical plexus can cause a syndrome not previously described. The C3-C4 disc space is the most likely to be involved, but pressure on the C5 root can also produce facial, auricular, or retroauricular pain. Motor innervation to the diaphragm can be affected, and even the uppermost disc space at C2-C3 might be implicated. Findings on examination findings are sparse, although sensory impairment in areas of cervical plexus innervation has been observed. In a series of 1000 cervical decompression cases (both anterior and posterior) for disc disease or similar processes, only 10 instances of this syndrome have been found. Paresthesia or episodic shock-like pain affecting the ear, para-auricular, lower occipital, and mandibular areas prompted by head turning or extension are the most common complaints. PMID:2034343

Kessler, L A; Abla, A

1991-04-01

369

Treatment of cervical precancers: back to basics.  

PubMed

Both ablative (cervical cryotherapy, laser ablation) and excisional methods (loop electrosurgical excision procedure, cold knife conization) can be effective at treating cervical precancer. Excisional procedures are associated with adverse obstetric outcomes including preterm delivery and perinatal mortality with the depth of excision potentially contributing to the adverse outcomes. Ablative therapies are now used much less commonly than loop electrosurgical excision procedure but have less of an effect on adverse obstetric outcomes and hence are effective alternatives for treating cervical precancer in reproductive-aged women. Morphometric data indicate that the vast majority of precancerous lesions are less than 5 mm deep, suggesting that treatments that reach 6-7 mm below the epithelium are adequate in women with satisfactory colposcopy. Cone biopsies, "top-hat" loop electrosurgical excision procedures, or the use of loop electrodes greater than 10 mm are therefore unnecessary for the majority of reproductive-aged women and increase risk of adverse obstetric outcomes. New consensus guidelines allow observation instead of treatment in appropriately selected young women. Until the association of excisional methods with adverse obstetric outcomes is clarified with more data, ablative methods should be revitalized and used by health care providers in appropriately selected patients. Treatment should be individualized based on patient's age, fertility desires, and colpopathologic findings. PMID:24807323

Khan, Michelle J; Smith-McCune, Karen K

2014-06-01

370

Chest roentgenography in tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy.  

PubMed

The primary site of infection in tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis is lungs, from where bacilli reach gland through circulation. This study was done in the department of chest medicine, NRS Medical College, Kolkata, and was designed to find out chest x-ray abnormalities in apparently chest asymptomatic confirmed tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis without associate disease. The diagnosis of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis was confirmed by fine needle aspiration cytology and/or smear for acid-fast bacillus, and chest x-ray (PA view) was done in all confirmed cases (n = 183). Normal chest x-ray was found in 132 cases (72.13%) and abnormal chest x-ray in 51 cases (27.87%). Pulmonary infiltration, the commonest radiological finding was detected in 32 cases (17.49%), hilar enlargement in 17 cases (9.29%), right paratracheal opacity in 2 (1.09%), obliteration of costophrenic angles in 3 cases (1.64%) and miliary mottling in one case (0.55%). Upper zonal predominance of lung parenchymal infiltrations was noted in 12.57% and right lung involvement in 16.39%. Single zone was affected in 9.84% cases and multiple zones were involved in 7.65% cases. We observed right hilar enlargement in 6.56%, left hilar lymphadenopathy in 4.37% and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy in 2.73% cases. We concluded that routine chest x-ray PA view should be done in all tuberculous lymphadenitis before categorisation and starting of treatment. PMID:24592755

Bhattacharyya, Sujit Kumar; Mandal, Pranab; Sarkar, Supriya; Shamim, Shelley; Sit, Niranjan Kumar; Ghoshal, Aloke Gopal

2013-03-01

371

78 FR 65451 - Agency Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...the actual data collection instrument. DATES: Comments must be...2900-- NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...65452

2013-10-31

372

Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels of analysis: naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. Results These revealed that women were unprepared for screening results showing cervical cell changes, since they had no symptoms. When diagnosed, participants believed that they had early-stage cancer, leading to feelings of vulnerability and an increased need to care for themselves. Later on, an understanding of HPV as the basis for diagnosis and the realization that disease might not be accompanied by symptoms developed. The outcome for participants was a life experience, which they used to encourage others to participate in screening and to suggest ways that information about screening and HPV might reach a wider Greenlandic population. Conclusion Women living through the process of cervical disease, treatment and follow-up develop knowledge about HPV, cervical cell changes, cervical disease and their connection, which, if used to inform cervical screening programmes, will improve the quality of information about HPV, cervical cancer and screening participation. This includes that verbal and written information given at the point of screening and diagnosis needs to be complemented by visual imagery. PMID:23984277

Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle; Bradley, Stephen K.; Møller, Suzanne

2013-01-01

373

Effect of posterior subsidence on cervical alignment after anterior cervical corpectomy and reconstruction using titanium mesh cages in degenerative cervical disease.  

PubMed

Subsidence after anterior cervical reconstruction using a titanium mesh cage (TMC) has been a matter of debate. The authors investigated and analyzed subsidence and its effect on clinical and radiologic parameters after cervical reconstruction using a TMC for degenerative cervical disease. Thirty consecutive patients with degenerative cervical spine disorders underwent anterior cervical corpectomy followed by reconstruction with TMC. Twenty-four patients underwent a single-level corpectomy, and six patients underwent a two-level corpectomy. Clinical outcomes were assessed using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Fusion status, anterior and posterior subsidence of the TMC, segmental angle (SA) and cervical sagittal angle (CSA) were assessed by lateral and flexion-extension radiographs of the neck. The mean follow-up period was 27.6 months (range, 24 to 49 months). The VAS, NDI and JOA scores were all significantly improved at the last follow-up. No instances of radiolucency or motion-related pseudoarthrosis were detected on radiographic analysis, yielding a fusion rate of 100%. Subsidence occurred in 28 of 30 patients (93.3%). The average anterior subsidence of the cage was 1.4 ± 0.9 mm, and the average posterior subsidence was 2.9 ± 1.2 mm. The SA and CSA at the final follow-up were significantly increased toward a lordotic angle. Anterior cervical reconstruction using TMC and plating in patients with cervical degenerative disease provides good clinical and radiologic outcomes. Cage subsidence occurred frequently, especially at the posterior part of the cage. Despite the prominent posterior subsidence of the TMC, SA and CSA were improved on final follow-up radiographs, suggesting that posterior subsidence may contribute to cervical lordosis. PMID:24957629

Jang, Jae-Won; Lee, Jung-Kil; Lee, Jung-Heon; Hur, Hyuk; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Soo-Han

2014-10-01

374

Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 2. Cervical spine soft tissue responses and biomechanical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The responses and contributions of the soft tissue structures of the human neck are described with a focus on mathematical modeling. Spinal ligaments, intervertebral discs, zygapophysial joints, and uncovertebral joints of the cervical spine are included. Finite element modeling approaches have been emphasized. Representative data relevant to the development and execution of the model are discussed. A brief description

Narayan Yoganandan; Srirangam Kumaresan; Frank A Pintar

2001-01-01

375

Potential of Cervical Electrosurgical Excision Procedure for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential, treatment efficacy, specimen adequacy, and acute complication rate associated with electrosurgical excision procedure (EEP) of the cervix for the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Analysis was performed retrospectively on 153 consecutive patients who underwent EEP under colposcopic guidance. Patients with negative endocervical curettage (ECC), adequate colposcopy, and biopsy-proven

Thomas J. Herzog; Sybilann Williams; Lisa M. Adler; Janet S. Rader; Richard T. Kubiniec; H. Marvin Camel; David G. Mutch

1995-01-01

376

I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the  

E-print Network

. Detection 1) PAP smear § Fluid-based test allows for the separation of cervical cells for more accurate the results of the Pap #12;11/12/12 5 The transformation zone is the critical area to sample when performing

Dever, Jennifer A.

377

A panel of regulated proteins in serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

We developed a discovery-validation mass-spectrometry-based pipeline to identify a set of proteins that are regulated in serum of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and squamous cell cervical cancer using iTRAQ, label-free shotgun, and targeted mass-spectrometric quantification. In the discovery stage we used a "pooling" strategy for the comparative analysis of immunodepleted serum and revealed 15 up- and 26 down-regulated proteins in patients with early- (CES) and late-stage (CLS) cervical cancer. The analysis of nondepleted serum samples from patients with CIN, CES, an CLS and healthy controls showed significant changes in abundance of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein. We validated our findings using a fast UHPLC/MRM method in an independent set of serum samples from patients with cervical cancer or CIN and healthy controls as well as serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer (more than 400 samples in total). The panel of six proteins showed 67% sensitivity and 88% specificity for discrimination of patients with CIN from healthy controls, a stage of the disease where current protein-based biomarkers, for example, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), fail to show any discrimination. Additionally, combining the six-protein panel with SCCA improves the discrimination of patients with CES and CLS from healthy controls. PMID:25232869

Boichenko, Alexander P; Govorukhina, Natalia; Klip, Harry G; van der Zee, A G J; Güzel, Co?kun; Luider, Theo M; Bischoff, Rainer

2014-11-01

378

Optoelectronic method for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optoelectronic method is one of the most promising concepts of biophysical program of the diagnostics of CIN and cervical cancer. Objectives of the work are evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of the optoelectronic method in the detection of CIN and cervical cancer. The paper shows correlation between the pNOR number and sensitivity/specificity of the optoelectronic method. The study included 293 patients with abnormal cervical cytology result and the following examinations: examination with the use of the optoelectronic method — Truscreen, colposcopic examination, and histopathologic biopsy. Specificity of the optoelectronic method for LGSIL was estimated at 65.70%, for HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix amounted to 90.38%. Specificity of the optoelectronic method used to confirm lack of cervical pathology was estimated at 78.89%. The field under the ROC curve for the optoelectronic method was estimated at 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92) which shows high diagnostic value of the test in the detection of HGSIL and squamous cell carcinoma. The optoelectronic method is characterised by high usefulness in the detection of CIN, present in the squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma of cervix.

Pruski, D.; Przybylski, M.; K?dzia, W.; K?dzia, H.; Jagielska-Pruska, J.; Spaczy?ski, M.

2011-12-01

379

Long latency trigemino-cervical reflex in patients with cervical dystonia.  

PubMed

Trigemino-cervical reflex (TCR) is elicited by stimulation of face using various modalities. TCR reflects the interaction between trigeminal system and cervical motoneurons. Such a specific interaction is assumed to play role in development of cervical dystonia (CD) through superior colliculus. In this study, we aimed to investigate alterations of the functional relationship between those structures in CD and in a subgroup with dystonic tremor. A total of consecutive 23 patients with primary CD (7 men, 16 women) and 16 age and sex matched control subjects (7 men, 9 women) were included in this study. TCR was obtained after percutaneous electrical stimulation (with duration of 0.5 ms) of infraorbital branch of trigeminal nerve while recording over splenius capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Presence and onset latencies of TCR did not differ significantly between patients with CD and controls, and same pattern of muscle activation occurred in both groups. Responses of patient group seemed to have higher amplitudes and to be more persistent. There were no significant side-to-side differences of TCR probability, latency, amplitude or duration with respect to the side of head deviation in CD. Increased amplitudes and durations of responses probably reflect increased excitability of the reflex circuit. We suggest that similar latencies and response pattern in comparison to healthy individuals decrease the possibility of structural disturbance. TCR is probably under bilateral basal ganglia and dopaminergic control. Alterations of trigemino-cervical pathway are more extensive and are not solely due to local changes of brainstem interneurons. PMID:25056194

Gündüz, Ay?egül; Ergin, Hayal; K?z?ltan, Meral E

2015-01-01

380

Modern posterior screw techniques in the pediatric cervical spine  

PubMed Central

Treatment of children with cervical spine disorders requiring fusion is a challenging endeavor for a variety of reasons. The size of the patients, the corresponding abnormal bony anatomy, the inherent ligamentous laxity of children, and the relative rarity of the disorders all play a part in difficulty of treatment. The benefits of modern posterior cervical instrumentation in children, defined as rigid screw-rod systems, have been shown to be many including: improved arthrodesis rates, diminished times in halo-vest immobilization, and improved reduction of deformities. The anatomy of children and the corresponding pathology seen frequently is at the upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction given the relatively large head size of children and the horizontal facets at these regions predisposing them to instability or deformity. Posterior screw fixation, while challenging, allows for a rigid base to allow for fusion in these upper cervical areas which are predisposed to pseudarthrosis with non-rigid fixation. A thorough understanding of the anatomy of the cervical spine, the morphology of the cervical spine, and the available screw options is paramount for placing posterior cervical screws in children. The purpose of this review is to discuss both the anatomical and clinical descriptions related to posterior screw placement in the cervical spine in children. PMID:24829871

Hedequist, Daniel J

2014-01-01

381

Human Papillomavirus 45 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-positive cervical samples from 36 countries. A total of 43 HPV45 sequence variants were identified that formed 5 phylogenetic sublineages, A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2, the distribution of which varied by geographical region. Among 192 cases of cervical cancer and 101 controls, the B2 sublineage was significantly overrepresented in cervical cancer, both overall and in Africa and Europe separately. We show that the sequence analysis of E6 and E7 allows the classification of HPV45 variants and that the risk of cervical cancer may differ by HPV45 variant sublineage. IMPORTANCE This work describes the largest study to date of human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45)-positive cervical samples and provides a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification for use in epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of HPV45 genetic variants, particularly as our findings suggest that the B2 sublineage of HPV45 is associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer. PMID:24501412

Chen, Alyce A.; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Boon, Debby; Gheit, Tarik; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia

2014-01-01

382

Measurement of cervical multifidus contraction pattern with ultrasound imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep muscle training has become the focus of research and exercise for patients with chronic neck pain. The objective of this in vivo study was to establish a non-invasive assessment tool for the activation of deep cervical muscles. The pattern of the change in the thickness of the cervical multifidus is described with a mathematical equation and used to compare

Jo-Ping Lee; Chung-Li Wang; Yio-Wha Shau; Shwu-Fen Wang

2009-01-01

383

Cervical Endometriosis, a Case Presenting With Intractable Spotting  

PubMed Central

Abstract and Introduction Abstract Cervix uteri is regarded as an infrequent localization for endometriosis. With widespread use of invasive cervical procedures, however, an increased incidence can be expected. Limited awareness of the clinical appearance of the disease may account for its apparent rarity. This presentation aims to refocus attention to the disease by reviewing the case of a woman who presented to us with minimal metrorrhagia, which is a rare symptom of cervical endometriosis. Introduction Although reports of cervical endometriosis were relatively frequent in the 1950s and 1960s, one finds few recent reports of cervical endometriosis; this may account for the common idea that cervix uteri is a rare localization for endometriosis. In a colposcopic examination series published in 1987,[1] the incidence of cervical endometriosis was reported to be between 0.11% and 2.4%. Procedures traumatizing the cervix increase the likelihood of development of cervical endometriosis.[2] As biopsy, loop excision procedures, and laser treatments are more commonly performed than they were at the time of these earlier reports, an increase in the prevalence of cervical endometriosis can be expected. The purpose of this report is 2-fold: to remind clinicians of the neglected topic of endometriosis of the uterine cervix and to show that cervical endometriosis can be encountered in different clinical presentations. PMID:16369442

Ata, Baris; Ates, Ugur; Usta, Taner; Attar, Erkut

2005-01-01

384

Association of Burners with Cervical Canal and Foraminal Stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the burner phenomenon is associated with cervical canal and foraminal stenosis in a scholastic population. Lateral cervical radiographs were reviewed for 64 athletes, 15 to 18 years of age, who had sustained at least one burner. Controls consisted of age-matched athletes who had sustained head or neck trauma without evidence of

John D. Kelly; David Aliquo; Michael R. Sitler; Charles Odgers; Ray A. Moyer

2000-01-01

385

Vertebral Artery Injuries Following Chiropractic Cervical Spine Manipulation —Case Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients undergoing cervical spinal manipulations for nonneurologic diseases and with no previous neurologic signs or symptoms all developed significant neurologic deficits, one fatal, following manipulations of the cervical spine. Both the literature and the authors' series show that a number of patients have a prodrome prior to the onset of neurologic changes. There is no established therapy for the

Robert Raskind; Charles M. North

1990-01-01

386

Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

2012-01-01

387

A review of californium-252 neutron brachytherapy for cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1976 a clinical trial has been conducted to test the feasibility, the potential, and to develop methods for using the neutron-emitting radioactive isotope, californium-252 (Cf-252), for the treatment of cervical cancer. A total of 218 patients were treated in the initial study period from 1976 until 1983. The trials initially treated advanced cervical cancer patients using different doses and

Yosh Maruyama; John R. van Nagell; Justine Yoneda; Elvis S. Donaldson; Holly H. Gallion; Deborah Powell; Richard J. Kryscio

1991-01-01

388

Is Cervical Elongation Associated with Pelvic Organ Prolapse?  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Hypothesis It is commonly believed that pelvic organ prolapse is associated with cervical elongation. However, cervical lengths have not been formally compared between women with prolapse and those with normal support. Methods Cervix and uterine corpus lengths were measured on magnetic resonance images in a case-control study of 51 women with prolapse and 46 women with normal support determined by pelvic organ prolapse (POP) quantification (POP-Q) examination. Group matching ensured similar demographics in both groups. Ranges for normal cervical lengths were determined from the values in the control group in order to evaluate for cervical elongation amongst women with prolapse. Results The cervix is 36.4% (8.6 mm) longer in women with prolapse than in women with normal pelvic support (p < 0.001). Linear regression modeling suggests the feature most highly associated with cervical length is the degree of uterine descent (POP-Q point C). Approximately 40% of women with prolapse have cervical elongation. 57% of cervical elongation in prolapse can be explained by a logistic-regression based model including POP-Q point C, body mass index and menopausal status. Conclusion Cervical elongation is found in one-third of women with pelvic organ prolapse, with the extent of elongation increasing with greater degrees of uterine descent. PMID:22527546

Berger, Mitchell B.; Ramanah, Rajeev; Guire, Kenneth E.; DeLancey, John O. L.

2012-01-01

389

Delivering cervical cancer prevention services in low-resource settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of any cervical cancer prevention program should be threefold: to achieve high coverage of the population at risk, to screen women with an accurate test as part of high-quality services, and to ensure that women with positive test results are properly managed. This article focuses on the experiences of the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention (ACCP) in delivery

J. Bradley; M. Barone; C. Mahé; R. Lewis; S. Luciani

2005-01-01

390

Challenges in implementing a cervical screening program in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Cervical Health Implementation Project was initiated with the aim of developing and evaluating health system interventions for improving public sector cervical screening services. The project was conducted between January 2001 and May 2003 in three districts in South Africa. This paper describes the districts, interventions and their evaluation, and discusses the implications of these findings for the roll

J. Moodley; M. Kawonga; J. Bradley; M. Hoffman

2006-01-01

391

Epidemiologic Classification of Human Papillomavirus Types Associated with Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the risk associated with the various HPV types has not been adequately assessed. methods We pooled data from 11 case-control studies from nine countries involving 1918 wom- en with histologically confirmed squamous-cell cervical cancer and 1928 control wom- en. A common protocol and questionnaire were

Nubia Muñoz; F. Xavier Bosch; Silvia de Sanjosé; Rolando Herrero; Xavier Castellsagué; Keerti V. Shah; Peter J. F. Snijders; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

2003-01-01

392

Spectroscopic Detection of Cervical Pre-Cancer through Radial Basis  

E-print Network

early detection and treatment. However, cur- rent detection techniques, such as Pap smear and colposcopy intraepithelial lesion (SIL). Currently, a Pap smear is used to #12;screen for cervical cancer (Kurman et al., 1994). In a Pap test, a large number of cells obtained by scraping the cervical epithelium are smeared

Ghosh, Joydeep

393

Marriage and childbearing in relation to cervical cancer.  

PubMed

In order to assess any correlation between cervical cancer and age at marriage and childbearing, matched control groups were formed. From the comparison it appears that cervical cancer patients are more likely to be married and to have married at an earlier age than control women. In the same age groups at marriage there was no difference in the number of children between the cervical cancer patients and the control women. It appeared that cervical cancer patients had their first child earlier than control women. There were more illegitimate children in the cervical cancer groups than in the control groups, but after the wedding date there were no differences between the cervical cancer groups and the control groups in the time between the wedding date and the date of birth of the first child. The data show that after pregnancy or childbirth, in particular at an early age, there is a greater risk of getting a cervical cancer. By contrast, nulliparous married women seem to have a low risk of cervical cancer. PMID:264057

de Graaff, J; Stolte, L A; Janssens, J

1977-01-01

394

Untypable human papillomavirus infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among women with abnormal cervical cytology.  

PubMed

The risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and/or invasive cervical cancer associated with untypable human papillomavirus (HPV) infections has been not investigated fully. HPV infection caused by 18 high-risk and 7 low-risk genotypes as detected by the INNO-LIPA genotyping system, was investigated in 4,258 women with abnormal Pap smear referred to a colposcopic service. The prevalence of HPV infection was 76.1%. Rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3+ were 0.88% (9/1,017) in HPV-negative subjects, 1.8% (7/380) in subjects with untypable HPV infection, 3.2% (11/343) in subjects with single/multiple low-risk types, 28.3% (201/709) in subjects with multiple low and high-risk types, 15.2% (162/1,069) in subjects with single high-risk types, and 31.2% (229/733) in those with multiple high-risk types. Compared to women without any HPV infection, the odds ratios of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ or grade 3+ in subjects with untypable or low-risk HPV genotypes were 5.73 (95% CI?=?2.79-11.78) and 12.4 (95% CI?=?6.31-24.5, P?=?0.014 compared to untypable) and 3.1 (95% CI?=?1.11-8.16) and 7.1 (95% CI?=?2.9-17.2, P?=?0.07 compared to untypable), respectively. In the subgroup of subjects with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or negative colposcopy/biopsy, the progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2+ at follow-up (median 25 months, range 6-70) was 2% (14/684), 3.4% (7/205), and 5.6% (11/195, P?=?0.04 compared to negative) among negative, untypable, and low-risk HPV infection, respectively. The risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia associated with untypable HPV infection was higher than that recorded among uninfected women, but lower than the risk associated with low- or high-risk HPV genotypes. PMID:24692002

Spinillo, Arsenio; Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Alberizzi, Paola; Silini, Enrico Maria; Dal Bello, Barbara

2014-07-01

395

Vertebral Artery Dissection as a Cause of Cervical Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

The acute onset of neck pain and arm weakness is most commonly due to cervical radiculopathy or inflammatory brachial plexopathy. Rarely, extracranial vertebral artery dissection may cause radiculopathy in the absence of brainstem ischemia. We describe a case of vertebral artery dissection presenting as cervical radiculopathy in a previously healthy 43-year-old woman who presented with proximal left arm weakness and neck pain aggravated by movement. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed dissection of the left vertebral artery with an intramural hematoma compressing the left C5 and C6 nerve roots. Antiplatelet treatment was commenced, and full power returned after 2 months. Recognition of vertebral artery dissection on cervical MRI as a possible cause of cervical radiculopathy is important to avoid interventions within the intervertebral foramen such as surgery or nerve root sleeve injection. Treatment with antithrombotic agents is important to prevent secondary ischemic events. PMID:24353851

Khangure, Mark; Silbert, Peter Linton

2013-01-01

396

Prospects of molecularly-targeted therapies for cervical cancer treatment.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide and is responsible for 275.000 deaths each year. The development of cervical cancer has been linked to cell cycle disturbances caused by persistent expression of the high- risk HPV oncoproteins (E5, E6 and E7), which modulate the expression of host genes and cellular microRNAs. An estimated 5 million women throughout the world are currently infected by HPV and several of them will develop invasive cervical cancer. Despite failures in conventional screening tests, approved therapies have no direct effect on HPV infection. Therefore, effective therapy for cervical cancer is still urgently needed, particularly in developing countries where more than 85% of fatal cases occur. In this way, in this paper we review the current molecular targeted therapies which are being explored and may have a significant impact on the treatment of HPV- related cervical dysplasia and carcinoma. PMID:25479546

de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Gomes Leitão, Maria da Conceição; Coimbra, Eliane Campos

2014-12-01

397

Regrowth of Cervical Intradural Lipoma without Spinal Dysraphism  

PubMed Central

A 49 years old male patient who suffered from deterioration of posterior neck pain, left hand numbness, left lower limb pain and gait disturbance for 3 years visited our outpatient department. He had been diagnosed as non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma and operated in August 1990. On the radiologic images, we found the regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma from C2 to C7 level, which surrounds and compresses the cervical spinal cord. Previous subtotal laminectomy from C2 to C7 and severe cervical lordosis were also found. Appropriate debulking of lipoma mass without duroplasty was successfully done with intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). We are following up the patient for 24 months via outpatient department, his neurologic symptoms such as hand numbness, gait disturbance, left lower limb pain and posterior neck pain have improved. We describe a rare case of regrowth of non-dysraphic cervical intradural lipoma. PMID:25328656

Son, Doo Kyung; Choi, Chang Hwa; Song, Geun Sung

2014-01-01

398

Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

2014-01-01

399

38 CFR 4.45 - The joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...metatarsal and tarsal joints of the lower extremities, the cervical vertebrae, the dorsal vertebrae, and the lumbar vertebrae...be a group of minor joints, ratable on disturbance of lumbar spine...

2013-07-01

400

38 CFR 4.45 - The joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...metatarsal and tarsal joints of the lower extremities, the cervical vertebrae, the dorsal vertebrae, and the lumbar vertebrae...be a group of minor joints, ratable on disturbance of lumbar spine...

2012-07-01

401

38 CFR 4.45 - The joints.  

...metatarsal and tarsal joints of the lower extremities, the cervical vertebrae, the dorsal vertebrae, and the lumbar vertebrae...be a group of minor joints, ratable on disturbance of lumbar spine...

2014-07-01

402

38 CFR 4.45 - The joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...metatarsal and tarsal joints of the lower extremities, the cervical vertebrae, the dorsal vertebrae, and the lumbar vertebrae...be a group of minor joints, ratable on disturbance of lumbar spine...

2011-07-01

403

38 CFR 4.45 - The joints.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...metatarsal and tarsal joints of the lower extremities, the cervical vertebrae, the dorsal vertebrae, and the lumbar vertebrae...be a group of minor joints, ratable on disturbance of lumbar spine...

2010-07-01

404

Image-based brachytherapy for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; definitive radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for patients with node positive or locally advanced tumors > 4 cm. Brachytherapy is an important part of definitive radiotherapy shown to improve overall survival. While results for two-dimensional X-ray based brachytherapy have been good in terms of local control especially for early stage disease, unexplained toxicities and treatment failures remain. Improvements in brachytherapy planning have more recently paved the way for three-dimensional image-based brachytherapy with volumetric optimization which increases tumor control, reduces toxicity, and helps predict outcomes. Advantages of image-based brachytherapy include: improved tumor coverage (especially for large volume disease), decreased dose to critical organs (especially for small cervix), confirmation of applicator placement, and accounting for sigmoid colon dose. A number of modalities for image-based brachytherapy have emerged including: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), CT-MRI hybrid, and ultrasound with respective benefits and outcomes data. For practical application of image-based brachytherapy the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Working Group and American Brachytherapy Society working group guideline serve as invaluable tools, additionally here-in we outline our institutional clinical integration of these guidelines. While the body of literature supporting image-based brachytherapy continues to evolve a number of uncertainties and challenges remain including: applicator reconstruction, increasing resource/cost demands, mobile four-dimensional targets and organs-at-risk, and accurate contouring of “grey zones” to avoid marginal miss. Ongoing studies, including the prospective EMBRACE (an international study of MRI-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer) trial, along with continued improvements in imaging, contouring, quality assurance, physics, and brachytherapy delivery promise to perpetuate the advancement of image-based brachytherapy to optimize outcomes for cervical cancer patients. PMID:25493230

Vargo, John A; Beriwal, Sushil

2014-01-01

405

Why women still die from cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervicovaginal cytology, known as Pap smear, is the most effective screening test in medical oncology. Introduced by Dr. George Papanicolaou in 1940, the Pap smear is now being recognized as a major contributor to the remarkable decrease in cervical cancer morbidity and mortality among women throughout the world. However, there are still significant numbers of women who lose their lives to cervical cancer every day. To overcome this major problem, first, we must search for the reasons for these lost lives and then take appropriate measures to resolve the existing issues. There is now substantial evidence that emphasizes the importance of an effective screening program. This program must integrate education and accessibility to health care for all women regardless of age, race, ethnic background and socioeconomic status. The public, the media, the government and health care providers must also become acutely aware of the inherent difficulties involved in providing a high-quality Pap smear. Compounded by medicolegal pressures and reimbursement issues, the Pap smear has become one of the more difficult tests to perform. Current reimbursement mechanisms are not appropriate for the cost of providing the service and cannot guarantee the resources necessary for a high-quality Pap smear. Congress should consider mandating direct billing to the patient for the service, so that cervicovaginal cytology could be reimbursed on a level commensurate with the requirements of providing quality service. A concerted effort should also be made to enhance the level of public knowledge about the issues surrounding Pap smear. This could be achieved by fostering the idea of designating a "Cervical Cancer Awareness Month," and by encouraging the spirit of community networking. PMID:9379163

Masood, S

1997-01-01

406

Cervical cancer screening among Chinese Americans  

PubMed Central

Study purpose Chinese women in North America have high rates of invasive cervical cancer and low levels of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing use. This study examined Pap testing barriers and facilitators among Chinese American women. Basic procedures A community-based, in-person survey of Chinese women was conducted in Seattle, Washington during 1999. Four hundred and thirty-two women in the 20–79 years age-group were included in this analysis. The main outcome measures were a history of at least one previous Pap smear and Pap testing within the last 2 years. Main findings Nineteen percent of the respondents had never received cervical cancer screening and 36% had not been screened in the previous 2 years. Eight characteristics were independently associated with a history of at least one Pap smear: being married, thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concerns about embarrassment or cancer being discovered, having received a physician or family recommendation, having obtained family planning services in North America, and having a regular provider. The following characteristics were independently associated with recent screening: thinking Pap testing is necessary for sexually inactive women, lack of concern about embarrassment, having received a physician recommendation, having obtained obstetric services in North America, and having a regular provider. Principal conclusions Pap testing levels among the study respondents were well below the National Cancer Institute’s Year 2000 goals. The findings suggest that cervical cancer control interventions for Chinese are more likely to be effective if they are multifaceted. © 2002 International Society for Preventive Oncology. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:12102148

Taylor, Victoria M.; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping; Yasui, Yutaka; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Kuniyuki, Alan; Acorda, Elizabeth; Lin, Kathy; Hislop, Gregory

2006-01-01

407

Image-based brachytherapy for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide; definitive radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy is the accepted standard of care for patients with node positive or locally advanced tumors > 4 cm. Brachytherapy is an important part of definitive radiotherapy shown to improve overall survival. While results for two-dimensional X-ray based brachytherapy have been good in terms of local control especially for early stage disease, unexplained toxicities and treatment failures remain. Improvements in brachytherapy planning have more recently paved the way for three-dimensional image-based brachytherapy with volumetric optimization which increases tumor control, reduces toxicity, and helps predict outcomes. Advantages of image-based brachytherapy include: improved tumor coverage (especially for large volume disease), decreased dose to critical organs (especially for small cervix), confirmation of applicator placement, and accounting for sigmoid colon dose. A number of modalities for image-based brachytherapy have emerged including: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), CT-MRI hybrid, and ultrasound with respective benefits and outcomes data. For practical application of image-based brachytherapy the Groupe Europeen de Curietherapie-European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Working Group and American Brachytherapy Society working group guideline serve as invaluable tools, additionally here-in we outline our institutional clinical integration of these guidelines. While the body of literature supporting image-based brachytherapy continues to evolve a number of uncertainties and challenges remain including: applicator reconstruction, increasing resource/cost demands, mobile four-dimensional targets and organs-at-risk, and accurate contouring of "grey zones" to avoid marginal miss. Ongoing studies, including the prospective EMBRACE (an international study of MRI-guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer) trial, along with continued improvements in imaging, contouring, quality assurance, physics, and brachytherapy delivery promise to perpetuate the advancement of image-based brachytherapy to optimize outcomes for cervical cancer patients. PMID:25493230

Vargo, John A; Beriwal, Sushil

2014-12-10

408

ACOG Practice Bulletin Number 131: Screening for cervical cancer.  

PubMed

The incidence of cervical cancer in the United States has decreased more than 50% in the past 30 years because of widespread screening with cervical cytology. In 1975, the rate was 14.8 per 100,000 women. By 2008, it had been reduced to 6.6 per 100,000 women. Mortality from the disease has undergone a similar decrease from 5.55 per 100,000 women in 1975 to 2.38 per 100,000 women in 2008 (1). The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that there will be 12,170 new cases of cervical cancer in the United States in 2012, with 4,220 deaths from the disease (2). Cervical cancer is much more common worldwide, particularly in countries without screening programs, with an estimated 530,000 new cases of the disease and 275,000 resultant deaths each year (3, 4). When cervical cancer screening programs have been introduced into communities, marked reductions in cervical cancer incidence have followed (5, 6). New technologies for cervical cancer screening continue to evolve as do recommendations for managing the results. In addition, there are different risk-benefit considerations for women at different ages, as reflected in age-specific screening recommendations. The ACS, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP), and the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) have recently updated their joint guidelines for cervical cancer screening (7), and an update to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations also has been issued (8). The purpose of this document is to provide a review of the best available evidence regarding screening for cervical cancer. PMID:23090560

2012-11-01

409

Slight head extension: does it change the sagittal cervical curve?  

PubMed

It is commonly believed that slight flexion/extension of the head will reverse the cervical lordosis. The goal of the present study was to determine whether slight head extension could result in a cervical kyphosis changing into a lordosis. Forty consecutive volunteer subjects with a cervical kyphosis and with flexion in their resting head position had a neutral lateral cervical radiograph followed immediately by a lateral cervical view taken in an extended head position to level the bite line. Subjects were patients at a spine clinic in Elko, Nevada. All radiographs were digitized. Global and segmental angles of the cervical curve were compared for any change in angle due to slight extension of the head. The average extension of the head required to level the bite line was 13.9 degrees. This head extension was not substantially correlated with any segmental or global angle of lordosis. Subjects were categorized into those requiring slight head extension (0 degree-13.9 degrees) and those requiring a significant head extension (> 13.9 degrees). In the slight head extension group, the average change in global angle between posterior tangents on C2 and C7 was 6.9 degrees, and 80% of this change occurred in C1-C4. In the significant head extension group, the average change in global angle between posterior tangents on C2 and C7 was 11.0 degrees, and the major portion of this change occurred in C1-C4. Out of 40 subjects, only one subject, who was in the significant head extension group and had only a minor segmental kyphosis, changed from kyphosis to lordosis. The results show that slight extension of the head does not change a reversed cervical curve into a cervical lordosis as measured on lateral cervical radiographs. Only small extension angle changes (mean sum = 4.8 degrees) in the upper cervical segments (C2-C4) occur in head extension of 14 degrees or less. PMID:11345637

Harrison, D E; Harrison, D D; Janik, T J; Holland, B; Siskin, L A

2001-04-01

410

Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

2013-01-01

411

Nonoperative Modalities to Treat Symptomatic Cervical Spondylosis  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis. PMID:21991426

Hirpara, Kieran Michael; Butler, Joseph S.; Dolan, Roisin T.; O'Byrne, John M.; Poynton, Ashley R.

2012-01-01

412

Robotic radical parametrectomy in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Radical parametrectomy is indicated in cases of undiagnosed early-stage invasive cervical carcinoma discovered after simple hysterectomy performed for a presumed benign disease process. This radical surgical procedure is rarely performed for benign disease; however, there are some benign conditions such as endometriosis or ovarian remnant syndrome which may require wide excision, including parametria. Traditionally, radical parametrectomy has been performed via laparotomy; however, a minimally invasive approach via laparoscopy has been reported to be feasible and safe. Here we describe the robotic surgical approach to radical parametrectomy. PMID:21860209

Zapardiel, Ignacio; Zanagnolo, Vanna; Magrina, Javier F; Magtibay, Paul M

2011-01-01

413

Cervical extradural meningioma with rapidly progressive myelopathy.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old man noticed numbness of both hands. Muscle strength in the upper and lower extremities progressively deteriorated, and he became unable to stand or hold a cup over a five-day period. MRI showed an extradural tumour encasing the anterior, posterior and right lateral aspects of the cervical spinal cord, maximal at C3-4 but extending to C1, and emerging from the right C3-4 intervertebral foramen. At surgery, the tumour was entirely extradural. Histological examination revealed a meningioma. The patient recovered without neurological deficit with no recurrence 3 years after surgery. PMID:16542842

Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kubota, Toshihiko; Sato, Kazufumi; Hirose, Satoshi

2006-04-01

414

Targeting angiogenesis in advanced cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Patients with advanced stage or recurrent cervical cancer represent a population with limited chemotherapeutic options. More specifically, patients with recurrent disease have a poor salvage rate, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. This year, the first prospective phase III clinical trial exploring the anti-angiogenic agent, bevacizumab, was published, meeting its primary endpoint, with a significant improvement in overall survival. As such, a review of anti-angiogenic therapy in the treatment of this disease is warranted. PMID:25364393

Eskander, Ramez N; Tewari, Krishnansu S

2014-11-01

415

Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data. PMID:24955419

Ng, Siew Cheok; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

2014-01-01

416

ISASS Policy Statement – Cervical Artificial Disc  

PubMed Central

Morgan Lorio, MD, FACS, Chair, ISASS Task Force on Coding & Reimbursement The ISASS Task Force reached out to Domagoj Coric, MD to provide a timely summation on cervical disc arthroplasty given his special interest and recent IASP championship of this innovative technology to insure enhanced spine patient access. The ISASS Task Force is pleased with this step towards published ISASS societal policy and applauds Dr. Coric's effort; if ISASS is to continue to succeed we must continually harness the voluntary talents and energies of our members with gratitude.

2014-01-01

417

Quantification of isometric cervical strength at different ranges of flexion and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Studies have demonstrated that cervical strength is affected by injury to the neck. Cervical strength measurements are influenced by the protocol used for the measurements. Previous studies have determined the isometric cervical strength only at a few degrees of range of neck motion. The present study was aimed at quantifying cervical strength at neutral, 25%, 50% and 75% of

Laxmi Suryanarayana; Shrawan Kumar

2005-01-01

418

Unusual case of cervical syphilis with Piringer-Kuchinka-like lymphadenitis.  

PubMed

Syphilis rarely presents with cervical lymphadenopathy. We describe a patient with a cervical mass associated with weight loss, asthenia, and night sweats. The mass was excised and histological examination suggested Piringer-Kuchinka lymphadenitis, which is usually present in cervical toxoplasmosis. To the best of our knowledge, Piringer-Kuchinka lymphadenitis has not previously been reported in cervical syphilis. PMID:25277646

Moreno-Sánchez, Manuel; González-García, Raúl; García, Carlos Moreno; Monje, Florencio

2014-12-01

419

Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

420

Methods of cervical ripening and labor induction.  

PubMed

The overall rate of induction of labor in the United States in 1993 was 134 per 1,000 live births, or over 527,000 of the four million births that occur annually in the United States. Indications for labor induction include postdate pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), and maternal medical complications, such as diabetes mellitus and pregnancy-induced hypertension. This article briefly reviews common indications for induction of labor and the importance of cervical ripening. It then addresses methods used to hasten cervical ripening and to induce labor, ranging from the more "natural" and noninvasive methods, such as nipple stimulation, to the newest commercially available formulation of prostaglandin. Methods well documented in the scientific literature, as well as those commonly used but less well studied, are included. Although one may argue about the "invasive" nature of these methods, they are addressed, in general, from the most natural methods to the latest pharmacologic methods, and they include the following: sexual intercourse, nipple/breast stimulation, herbal preparations, homeopathic solutions, castor oil, enemas, acupuncture, membrane sweeping or stripping, mechanical dilation (balloon catheters, laminaria, and synthetic osmotic dilators), amniotomy, and pharmacologic hormonal preparations (prostaglandin E2, oxytocin, misoprostol, mifepristone, and relaxin). PMID:9107114

Summers, L

1997-01-01

421

Cervical lymph node diseases in children  

PubMed Central

The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

2014-01-01

422

An intradural cervical chordoma mimicking schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Chordoma is a relatively rare tumor originating from the embryonic remnants of the notochord. This is an aggressive, slow growing and invasive tumor. It occurs mostly at the two ends of neuroaxis which is more frequent in the sacrococcygeal region. Chordoma in vertebral column is very rare. This tumor is extradural in origin and compresses neural tissues and makes the patient symptomatic. This tumor found extremely rare in the spinal region as an intradural tumor. The present study reports a rare case of intradural chordoma tumor as well as its clinical manifestations and treatment options. Case: The patient was a 50-year-old female presented with 9 months history of progressively worsening neck pain, cervical spine chordoma resembling neurinoma and right arm numbness. Physical examination showed no weakness in her limbs, but she had upward plantar reflex and mild hyperreflexia. In a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the cervical spine there was an ill-defined enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of C2-C3 body caused cord compression more severe in right side as well as foraminal scalloping. The patient underwent surgery and after midline posterior cervical incision and paravertebral muscle stripping a laminectomy was performed from C1 through C4 using a high speed drill. Needle biopsy revealed chordoma on frozen section and all of accessible parts of tumor were excised. The gross and microscopic histopathological appearance was consistent with chordoma. Chordomas are malignant tumors that arise from remains of embryonic notochord. These ectopic rests of notochord termed “ecchordosis physaliphora “can be found in approximately 2% of autopsies. These are aggressive, slow growing, locally invasive and destructive tumors those occur in the midline of neuroaxis. They generally thought to account for 2% to 4% of all primary bone neoplasms and 1% to 4% malignant bone neoplasms. They are the most frequent primary malignant spinal tumors after plasmacytomas. The incidence has been estimated to be 0.51 cases per million. The most common location is sacrococcygeal region followed by the clivus. These two locations account for approximately 90% of chordomas. Of the tumors that do not arise in the sacrum or clivus, half occur in the cervical region, with the remainder found in the lumbar or thoracic region, in descending order of frequency. Cervical spine chordomas account for 6% of all cases. Distal metastasis most often occurs in young patients, those with sacrococcygeal or vertebral tumors, and those with atypical histological features. These tumors usually spread to contiguous anatomical structures, but they may be found in distant sites (skin, musculoskeletal system, brain, and other internal organs). Seeding of the tumor has also been reported, and the likely mechanism seems to be tumor cell of contamination during the surgical procedures. The usual radiological findings in chordomas of spine are destructive or lytic lesions with occasional sclerotic changes. They tend to lie anterolateral, rather than dorsal towards the cord, and reportedly known to invade the dura. The midline location, destructive nature, soft tissue mass formation and calcification are the radiological hallmarks of chordomas. Computed Tomography (CT) scan is the best imaging modality to delineate areas of osteolytic, osteosclerotic, or mixed areas of bone destruction.Chordoma is usually known as a hypovascular tumor which grows in a lobulated manner. Septal enhancement which reflects a lobulated growth pattern is seen in both CT and MRI and even in gross examination. Other epidural tumors include neurinoma, neurofibroma, meningioma, neuroblastoma, hemangioma, lymphoma and metastases. Their differentiation from chordoma may be difficult due to the same enhancement pattern on CT and MRI. A dumbbell-shaped chordoma is a rare pathogenic condition. The dumbbell shape is a characteristic finding of neurinomas in spine but in spinal neurinomas extention to transverse foramina has not yet been reported. Although our case mimicked a

Samadian, Mohammad; Shafizad, Misagh

2012-01-01

423

Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention in India: Implementation Science Priorities  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact. PMID:24217555

Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

2013-01-01

424

Cervical Mucus Properties Stratify Risk for Preterm Birth  

PubMed Central

Background Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. Methods and Findings To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction. PMID:23936335

Jaishankar, Aditya; Friedlander, Ronn S.; Lieleg, Oliver; Doyle, Patrick S.; McKinley, Gareth; House, Michael; Ribbeck, Katharina

2013-01-01

425

Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. Methods. We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic regression with adjustment for age at blood sampling, and weighted by the genotype-specific inverse probability of death between diagnosis and sampling. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox regression with time since diagnosis as underlying time, and with adjustment for age at diagnosis and stratification by cancer stage. Results. The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased mortality due to cervical cancer (HR 4.55, 95% CI 1.70-12.2), however, the association was reduced after stratification by cancer stage (HR 2.53, 95% CI 0.84-7.59). Conclusion. Carriage of FLG mutations was not associated with the risk of cervical cancer. PMID:25383447

Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik; Ullum, Henrik; Høgdall, Claus Kim; Palle, Connie; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Linneberg, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K; Melbye, Mads; Thyssen, Jacob P

2015-02-01

426

Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cause of cancer in women in the world. During the past few decades tremendous strides have been made toward decreasing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer with the implementation of various prevention and screening strategies. The causative agent linked to cervical cancer development and its precursors is the human papillomavirus (HPV). Prevention and screening measures for cervical cancer are paramount because the ability to identify and treat the illness at its premature stage often disrupts the process of neoplasia. Cervical carcinogenesis can be the result of infections from multiple high-risk HPV types that act synergistically. This imposes a level of complexity to identifying and vaccinating against the actual causative agent. Additionally, most HPV infections spontaneously clear. Therefore, screening strategies should optimally weigh the benefits and risks of screening to avoid the discovery and needless treatment of transient HPV infections. This article provides an update of the preventative and screening methods for cervical cancer, mainly HPV vaccination, screening with Pap smear cytology, and HPV testing. It also provides a discussion of the newest United States 2012 guidelines for cervical cancer screening, which changed the age to begin and end screening and lengthened the screening intervals. PMID:25302174

McGraw, Shaniqua L; Ferrante, Jeanne M

2014-10-10

427

Retrospective cost analysis of cervical laminectomy and fusion versus cervical laminoplasty in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical laminoplasty (CLP) and posterior cervical laminectomy and fusion (CLF) are well-established surgical procedures used in the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). In situations of clinical equipoise, an influential factor in procedural decision making could be the economic effect of the chosen procedure. The object of this study is to compare and analyze the total hospital costs and charges pertaining to patients undergoing CLP or CLF for the treatment of CSM. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 81 consecutive patients from a single institution; 55 patients were treated with CLP and 26 with CLF. CLP was performed via the double-door allograft technique that does not require implants, whereas laminectomy fusion procedures included metallic instrumentation. We analyzed 10,682 individual costs (HC) and charges (HCh) for all patients, as obtained from hospital accounting data. The Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to estimate the physicians’ fees as such fees are not accounted for via hospital billing records. Total cost (TC) therefore equaled the sum of the hospital cost and the estimated physicians’ fees. Results The mean length of stay was 3.7 days for CLP and 5.9 days for CLF (P < .01). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to age, gender, previous surgical history, and medical insurance. The TC mean was $17,734 for CLP and $37,413 for CLF (P < .01). Mean HCh for CLP was 42% of that for CLF, and therefore the mean charge for CLF was 238% of that for CLP (P < .01). Mean HC was $15,426 for CLP and $32,125 for CLF (P < .01); the main contributor was implant cost (mean $2582). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that, in clinically similar populations, CLP results in reduced length of stay, TC, and hospital charges. In CSM cases requiring posterior decompression, we demonstrate CLP to be a less costly procedure. However, in the presence of neck pain, kyphotic deformity, or gross instability, this procedure may not be sufficient and posterior CLF may be required.

Warren, Daniel T.; Ricart-Hoffiz, Pedro A.; Andres, Tate M.; Hoelscher, Christian M.; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S.; Goldstein, Jeffrey A.; Bendo, John A.

2013-01-01

428

Headache and Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... cases the spine may be involved, frequently the cervical spine (the vertebrae of the neck). The areas of the neck most commonly afflicted by rheumatoid arthritis are the first and second cervical vertebra. The more common form of arthritis is ...

429

Objective Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer by Tissue Protein Profile Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein profiles of homogenized normal cervical tissue samples from hysterectomy subjects and cancerous cervical tissues from biopsy samples collected from patients with different stages of cervical cancer were recorded using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Laser Induced Fluorescence (HPLC-LIF). The Protein profiles were subjected to Principle Component Analysis to derive statistically significant parameters. Diagnosis of sample types were carried out by matching three parameters—scores of factors, squared residuals, and Mahalanobis Distance. ROC and Youden's Index curves for calibration standards were used for objective estimation of the optimum threshold for decision making and performance.

Patil, Ajeetkumar; Bhat, Sujatha; Rai, Lavanya; Kartha, V. B.; Chidangil, Santhosh

2011-07-01

430

A survey of management strategies for noncarious cervical lesions.  

PubMed

Both causation and management of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) (abfractions, wedge-shaped defects, stress-induced cervical lesions, and cervical erosion) remain debatable. A survey of clinicians' perceptions was therefore conducted at a recent professional meeting to determine optimal approaches to NCCL management. Examples of lesions differing in depth (1, 2, and 3 mm) were presented as being either sensitive or nonsensitive, and participants recorded their responses to the presented individual scenarios. This report provides information regarding correlations between increases in lesion depth, lesion sensitivity, and professionals' willingness to restore them. It was also noted that decisions to ensure mechanical retention positively influenced estimates for restoration longevity. PMID:24392484

Estafan, Ashraf; Bartlett, David; Goldstein, Gary

2014-01-01

431

Primary strategies for HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention.  

PubMed

Counseling messages for tobacco cessation, condom use, circumcision, and selective choice in the number of sexual partners can help reduce the risk of cervical cancer. Other sexual behavioral and reproductive risk factors for cervical cancer are a younger age at first intercourse and at first full-term pregnancy as well as increasing duration of combined hormonal oral contraceptive use. Micronutrients and supplements can reduce the risk of human papillomavirus infection, persistence, progression, and regression. Some human papillomavirus infections can be prevented by vaccination. Cervical cancer is best prevented by screening. PMID:24686336

Harper, Diane M; Demars, Leslie R

2014-06-01

432

Liquid scintillation spectrometry of 5-fluorouracil in cervical tissue following in vitro surface application of a bioadhesive cervical patch.  

PubMed

The potential use of bioadhesive technology for the treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia was investigated. A cervical patch was designed containing 5-fluorouracil in a bioadhesive matrix and polyvinyl chloride as the backing layer. The concentration of 5-fluorouracil at specified tissue depths from the cervical surface was determined in vitro in relation to the ability of the drug to reach precancerous foci in cervical crypts up to 4 mm below the tissue surface. Thus, tissue was exposed to drug-loaded patches spiked with 5-fluorouracil-6-3H and subsequently sectioned to obtain tissue slices at different depths. The concentration of 5-fluorouracil was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Drug penetration into cervical tissue exceeded a depth of 5.5 mm. Furthermore, the concentration in the tissue depended on the drug loading in the patch. Patches containing 10 and 20 mg of 5-fluorouracil produced a linear drug gradient that was established after a 4 hour application of the patch and persisted over 24 hours. However, patches containing 3.5 mg of 5-fluorouracil displayed signs of drug exhaustion after 24 hours. The penetration characteristics of 5-fluorouracil through cervical tissue using the cervical patch delivery system were sufficiently favourable to warrant further clinical investigations. PMID:7816762

Woolfson, A D; McCafferty, D F; McCarron, P A; Price, J H

1994-09-01

433

Efectos hipoalgésicos y de movilidad cervical tras la manipulación vertebral cervical o la manipulación vertebral dorsal en pacientes con cervicalgia mecánica subaguda: estudio piloto  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo compare the immediate effects on neck pain, active cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds after a single cervical or thoracic spine manipulation in patients with subacute mechanical neck pain.

R. Ortega Santiago; O. R. Martínez Segura; A. I. de la Llave Rincón; J. D. Pérez Bruzón; C. Fernández de las Peñas

434

Local and global subaxial cervical spine biomechanics after single-level fusion or cervical arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

An experimental in vitro biomechanical study was conducted on human cadaveric spines to evaluate the motion segment (C4–C5) and global subaxial cervical spine motion after placement of a cervical arthroplasty device (Altia TDI™,Amedica, Salt Lake City, UT) as compared to both the intact spine and a single-level fusion. Six specimens (C2–C7) were tested in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation under a ± 1.5 Nm moment with a 100 N axial follower load. Following the intact spine was tested; the cervical arthroplasty device was implanted at C4–C5 and tested. Then, a fusion using lateral mass fixation and an anterior plate was simulated and tested. Stiffness and range of motion (ROM) data were calculated. The ROM of the C4–C5 motion segment with the arthroplasty device was similar to that of the intact spine in flexion/extension and slightly less in lateral bending and rotation, while the fusion construct allowed significantly less motion in all directions. The fusion construct caused broader effects of increasing motion in the remaining segments of the subaxial cervical spine, whereas the TDI did not alter the adjacent and remote motion segments. The fusion construct was also far stiffer in all motion planes than the intact motion segment and the TDI, while the artificial disc treated level was slightly stiffer than the intact segment. The Altia TDI allows for a magnitude of motion similar to that of the intact spine at the treated and adjacent levels in the in vitro setting. PMID:19585159

Finn, Michael A.; Daubs, Michael; Patel, Alpesh; Bachus, Kent N.

2009-01-01

435

Management of Chronic Pain of Cervical Disc Herniation and Radiculitis with Fluoroscopic Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injections  

PubMed Central

Study Design: A randomized, double-blind, active controlled trial. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids in the management of chronic neck pain and upper extremity pain in patients with disc herniation and radiculitis. Summary of Background Data: Epidural injections in managing chronic neck and upper extremity pain are commonly employed interventions. However, their long-term effectiveness, indications, and medical necessity, of their use and their role in various pathologies responsible for persistent neck and upper extremity pain continue to be debated, even though, neck and upper extremity pain secondary to disc herniation and radiculitis, is described as the common indication. There is also paucity of high quality literature. Methods: One-hundred twenty patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group I patients received cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%, 5 mL); Group II patients received 0.5% lidocaine, 4 mL, mixed with 1 mL of nonparticulate betamethasone. Primary outcome measure was ? 50 improvement in pain and function. Outcome assessments included Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, employment, and changes in weight. Results: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement (? 50%) was demonstrated in 72% of patients who received local anesthetic only and 68% who received local anesthetic and steroids. In the successful group of participants, significant improvement was illustrated in 77% in local anesthetic group and 82% in local anesthetic with steroid group. Conclusions: Cervical interlaminar epidural injections with or without steroids may provide significant improvement in pain and function for patients with cervical disc herniation and radiculitis. PMID:22859902

Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A.; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Wargo, Bradley W.; Malla, Yogesh

2012-01-01

436

A Meta-Analysis Comparing the Results of Cervical Disc Arthroplasty with Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) for the Treatment of Symptomatic Cervical Disc Disease  

PubMed Central

Background: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a standard treatment for symptomatic cervical disc disease, but pseudarthrosis and accelerated adjacent-level disc degeneration may develop. Cervical disc arthroplasty was developed to preserve the kinematics of the functional spinal unit. Trials comparing arthroplasty with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion have shown unclear benefits in terms of clinical results, neck motion at the operated level, adverse events, and the need for secondary surgical procedures. Methods: Only randomized clinical trials were included in this meta-analysis, and the search strategy followed the requirements of the Cochrane Library Handbook. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each included study and extracted the relevant data. Results: Twenty-seven randomized clinical trials were included; twelve studies were Level I and fifteen were Level II. The results of the meta-analysis indicated longer operative times, more blood loss, lower neck and arm pain scores reported on a visual analog scale, better neurological success, greater motion at the operated level, fewer secondary surgical procedures, and fewer such procedures that involved supplemental fixation or revision in the arthroplasty group compared with the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion group. These differences were significant (p < 0.05). The two groups had similar lengths of hospital stay, Neck Disability Index scores, and rates of adverse events, removals, and reoperations (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The meta-analysis revealed that anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was associated with shorter operative times and less blood loss compared with arthroplasty. Other outcomes after arthroplasty (length of hospital stay, clinical indices, range of motion at the operated level, adverse events, and secondary surgical procedures) were superior or equivalent to the outcomes after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23515991

Gao, Yu; Liu, Ming; Li, Tao; Huang, Fuguo; Tang, Tingting; Xiang, Zhou

2013-01-01

437

Primary cervical hydatid cyst: a rare occurrence  

PubMed Central

Hydatid disease, a parasitic infection is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It has serious impact on health and economy especially in countries where it is endemic. It occurs frequently in liver and lung. The disease is chronic and cyst can localize in different organs. A hydatid cyst occurrence in the head and neck is extremely rare. To know the distribution of disease can help in its control and prevention. We report a case of primary cervical hydatid cyst in 20 year old female. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose hydatid cyst in rare locations like this. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of benign swellings of head and neck region, so that it can be managed during surgery to prevent acute anaphylaxis. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915595218376646 PMID:23157817

2012-01-01

438

Nucleolar organising regions in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed Central

The variations in the numbers of nucleolar organising regions (NORs) among different grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were investigated using a silver staining technique. Twenty four biopsy specimens were studied (six normal and six of each of the three grades of CIN) by staining paraffin wax sections using a silver (AgNOR) method that stains the NORS as multiple black dots within nuclei (AgNORs). The number of AgNORs in the nuclei of cells in the basal half of the squamous epithelium was counted, and the average number of AgNORs in each cell calculated for each specimen (the AgNOR count). There was no difference in the number of AgNORs in the squamous epithelium of normal biopsy specimens and those showing CIN1 and CIN2, but there was a small but significant increase in the CIN3 group. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:2463271

Rowlands, D C

1988-01-01

439

Helical Tomotherapy in Cervical Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose:\\u000a   To evaluate the acute toxicity of simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique for dose escalation with helical tomotherapy\\u000a (HT) in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods:\\u000a   20 patients (FIGO IB1 pN1-IIIB) underwent primary chemoradiation. Prior to chemoradiation, a laparoscopic\\u000a pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy was performed. A boost region was defined using titanium clips during staging for

Simone Marnitz; Carmen Stromberger; Michael Kawgan-Kagan; Waldemar Wlodarczyk; Ulrich Jahn; Achim Schneider; Uwe Ulrich; Volker Budach; Christhardt Köhler

2010-01-01