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1

Cervical vertebrae anomalies-incidental findings on lateral cephalograms.  

PubMed

Three cases of abnormal incidental findings on lateral cephalogram are presented. These patients reported for orthodontic consultation in their adolescence. While studying the patients' cephalograms, abnormal radiographic findings were discovered in their cervical vertebrae. Because the patients were asymptomatic, early diagnosis based on these radiographic findings made the patients aware of the situations. Lifestyle changes were instituted with specialist consultation in two patients to prevent or delay the onset of symptoms of an underlying pathology. Patients were educated about the likely future course of these findings. Specialist follow-up was advised to all the patients. PMID:18193959

Soni, Priyavrat; Sharma, Vineet; Sengupta, Jaideep

2008-01-01

2

Modularity and Complete Natural Homeoses in Cervical Vertebrae of Extant and Extinct Penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cervical system of extant penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) is organised into morphological modules, each with its biomechanical\\u000a function. Indeed, for these marine pelagic birds to acquire hydrodynamic morphology, the folding of the neck is essential.\\u000a Despite a common general structure, the cervical vertebrae exhibit morphological differences depending on their positioning.\\u000a These characteristics are identified as apparent cases of complete natural

Geoffrey Guinard; Didier Marchand

2010-01-01

3

Cervical canal stenosis caused by progressive fusion and enlargement of cervical vertebrae with features of Proteus syndrome and Klippel-Feil syndrome.  

PubMed

We report the case of a female who presented with progressive fusion and an enlargement of the cervical vertebrae. Her cervical deformity gradually progressed with age, and the abnormal bony protrusion into the spinal canal caused myelopathy. We resected the affected vertebrae to decompress the spinal cord and performed combined anterior-posterior spinal fusion. The progression of the spinal deformity and enlargement of vertebrae stopped after surgery. The enlargement of vertebrae in the present case resembled that observed in Proteus syndrome; however, autonomous vertebral fusion has not been reported previously in patients with this condition. Our report may help expand the knowledge on developmental spine disorders. PMID:23760594

Sugita, Shurei; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Ohya, Junichi; Taniguchi, Yuki; Takeshita, Katsushi; Haga, Nobuhiko; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Sakae

2013-06-13

4

Estimation of orientation and position of cervical vertebrae for segmentation with active shape models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiologists are always looking for more reliable and robust methods to help them assess, describe and classify bone structures in x-ray images. Although, in the recent years, computer-assisted techniques have proven to be useful in this regard, they still face difficult challenges such as inter-subject variability in shape and a lack of contrast in the digitized images of radiographs. These challenges have focused the attention of the computer vision research community on techniques that employ deformable models. One such technique, i.e., Active Shape Models (ASM), has received significant attention due to its ability to capture the shape variability and to deal with the poor quality of the images in a straightforward manner. However, as is often the case with iterative optimization techniques, success of the ASM search step is highly dependent on the initial positioning of the mean shape on the target image. Within the specific framework of automatic, cervical vertebra segmentation, we have developed and tested an up-front preprocessing algorithm that estimates the orientation and position of the cervical vertebrae in x-ray images and leads to a more accurate, initial placement of the mean shape. The algorithm estimates the orientation of the spine by calculating parallel-beam line integrals of the x-ray images. The position of the spine is estimated by considering the density of edges perpendicular to the line integral that gives the estimate of the orientation. The output of the algorithm is a bounding box surrounding the cervical spine area. Morphometric points placed by expert radiologists on a set of 40, digitized radiographs were used to quantify the efficacy of the estimation. This test yielded acceptable results in estimating the orientation and the locating of the cervical spine.

Zamora, Gilberto; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Mitra, Sunanda; Long, L. Rodney

2001-07-01

5

Transgenic Over-Expression of Growth Differentiation Factor 11 Propeptide in Skeleton Results in Transformation of the Seventh Cervical Vertebra Into a Thoracic Vertebra  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is one of the significant genes that control skeletal formation. Knockout of GDF11 function causes abnormal patterning of the anterior/posterior axial skeleton. The mRNA of GDF11 is initially translated to a precursor protein that undergoes a proteolytic cleavage to generate the C-terminal peptide or mature GDF11, and the N-terminal peptide named GDF11 propeptide. The propeptide can antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To investigate the effects of GDF11 propeptide on GDF11 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that over-express the propeptide cDNA in skeletal tissue. The transgenic mice showed formation of extra ribs on the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) as a result of transformation of the C7 vertebra into a thoracic vertebra. The GDF11 propeptide transgene mRNA was detected in tail tissue in embryos and was highly expressed in tail and calvaria bones after birth. A high frequency of C7 rib formation was noticed in the transgenic mouse line with a high level of transgene expression. The anterior boundaries of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 mRNA in situ expressions showed cranial shifts from their normal prevertebra locations in transgenic embryos. These results demonstrated significant effects of GDF11 propeptide transgene on vertebral formation, which are likely occurring through depressing GDF11 function and altered locations of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 expression.

LI, ZICONG; KAWASUMI, MIYURI; ZHAO, BAOPING; MOISYADI, STEFAN; YANG, JINZENG

2011-01-01

6

Osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae and occipital bone: A case report and brief review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a common complication of radiation therapy. We present the first case reported in the literature of ORN involving the first and second cervical vertebrae and occipital bone in a patient who was treated with surgery and radiation therapy 9 years prior for a TxN3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the left neck arising from an unknown primary origin.

Alan A. Tan Lim; Daniel W. Karakla; Dale V. Watkins

1999-01-01

7

An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'  

PubMed Central

Background Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially introduced 'fixations' as an attempt to introduce a 'gold standard' has met with frustration and frequent mechanical failure. Because direct comparison against a 'gold standard' allows the validity, specificity and sensitivity of a test to be calculated, the identification of a realistic 'gold standard' against which motion palpation can be evaluated is essential. The objective of this study was to introduce a new, realistic, 'gold standard', the congenital block vertebra (CBV) to assess the validity of motion palpation in detecting a true fixation. Methods Twenty fourth year chiropractic students examined the cervical spines of three subjects with single level congenital block vertebrae, using two commonly employed motion palpation tests. The examiners, who were blinded to the presence of congenital block vertebrae, were asked to identify the most hypomobile segment(s). The congenital block segments included two subjects with fusion at the C2–3 level and one with fusion at C5-6. Exclusion criteria included subjects who were frankly symptomatic, had moderate or severe degenerative changes in their cervical spines, or displayed signs of cervical instability. Spinal levels were marked on the subject's skin overlying the facet joints from C1 to C7 bilaterally and the motion segments were then marked alphabetically with 'A' corresponding to C1-2. Kappa coefficients (K) were calculated to determine the validity of motion palpation to detect the congenitally fused segments as the 'most hypomobile' segments. Sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic procedure were also calculated. Results Kappa coefficients (K) showed substantial overall agreement for identification of the segment of greatest hypomobility (K = 0.65), with substantial (K = 0.76) and moderate (K = 0.46) agreement for hypomobility at C2-3 and C5-6 respectively. Sensitivity ranged from 55% at the C5-6 CBV to 78% at the C2-3 level. Specificity of the procedure was high (91 – 98%). Conclusion This study indicates that relatively inexperienced examiners are capable of correctly identifying inter-segmental fixations (CBV) in the cervical spine using 2 commonly employed motion palpation tests. The use of a 'gold standard' (CBV) in this study and the substantial agreement achieved lends support to the validity of motion palpation in detecting major spinal fixations in the cervical spine.

Humphreys, Barry K; Delahaye, Marianne; Peterson, Cynthia K

2004-01-01

8

DEFECTS IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE IN BORIC ACID-EXPOSED RAT EMBRYOS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ANTERIOR SHIFTS OF HOX GENE EXPRESSION DOMAINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Defects in cervical vertebrae in boric acid-exposed rat embryos are associated with anterior shifts of hox gene expression domains Nathalie Wery,1 Michael G. Narotsky,2 Nathalie Pacico,1 Robert J. Kavlock,2 Jacques J. Picard,1 AND Francoise Gofflot,1* 1Unit of Developme...

9

Fracture of the First Cervical Vertebra in a High School Football Player: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Objective: To present the case of a high school football player with a burst fracture of the ring of C1 resulting from a “spearing” tackle. Background: Cervical spine fractures are rare in collision sports, but their potentially grave consequences mean that they must be given special attention. Spearing was banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the National Federation of High School Athletic Associations in 1976, and the number of cervical spine fractures in high school and college football players has fallen dramatically. However, cervical spine fractures do still occur, and they present a diagnostic challenge to sports medicine professionals. Differential Diagnosis: Cervical sprain. Treatment: Treatment consists of halo-vest immobilization. Surgical fusion may be necessary for unstable C1-C2 fractures, although initial halo-vest treatment is usually attempted. Uniqueness: A 17-year-old defensive back attempted to make a tackle with his head lowered. He was struck on the superolateral aspect of the helmet by the opposing running back. He remained in the game for another play, but then left the field under his own power, complaining of neck stiffness and headache. Physical examination revealed upper trapezius and occiput tenderness, bilateral cervical muscle spasm, and pain at all extremes of voluntary cervical movement. He was alert and oriented, with a normal neurologic examination. Treatment with ice was attempted but was discontinued due to increased pain and stiffness. Heat resulted in decreased pain and stiffness, but his symptoms persisted, and he was trans- ported to the emergency room. Plain radiographs were read as negative, but a CT scan demonstrated a burst fracture of Cl. He was treated with halo-vest immobilization for 8 weeks and a rigid cervical collar for 8 additional weeks. Physical therapy was then initiated, and normal cervical range of motion and strength were restored within 6 weeks. The athlete competed in track 6 months after the injury and continues to play recreational sports without difficulty. At clinical follow-up 8 months after injury, he had full, painless cervical range of motion and a normal neurologic examination. Conclusions: A potentially devastating cervical spine injury can present insidiously, without dramatic signs or symptoms. Therefore, sports medicine professionals must retain a high index of suspicion when evaluating athletes with cervical spine complaints. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.

Trupiano, Tim P.; Sampson, Michelle L.; Weise, Marc W.

1997-01-01

10

Dermoid sinus in a crossbred Rhodesian ridgeback dog involving the second cervical vertebra.  

PubMed

A 4-year-old neutered Rhodesian ridgeback/dalmatian crossbred bitch was presented with a cervical, dorsal midline cutaneous swelling after 2 unsuccessful attempts at surgical resection of a dermoid sinus. Radiographs of the cervical spine indicated a C2 transosseous communication with the vertebral canal. Ultrasonographic evaluation demonstrated 2 interlinking cavities terminating close to C2. Complete resection of the sinus tract necessitated a partial dorsal laminectomy. Histology confirmed the diagnosis. This case is compared to similar cases in the literature. PMID:9120862

Lambrechts, N

1996-09-01

11

Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the spine: report of a case involving a cervical vertebra.  

PubMed

Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the spine is a rare entity. Only 26 cases, of which 11 were located in the cervical spine, are to be found in the literature. We report a 56-year-old male patient with cervicobrachialgia of half year's duration. Radiographs showed a diffuse destruction of the vertebral body and the spinous process of C4. A biopsy of the spinous process confirmed histopathologically a fibrous dysplasia. Due to minor symptoms, no surgical treatment was performed or is planned unless in case of increasing pain, an acute instability or neurological symptoms. PMID:17004074

Proschek, D; Orler, R; Stauffer, E; Heini, P

2006-09-27

12

[Effect of design and implantation technique on risk of progressive sintering of various cervical vertebrae cages].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the subsidence of differently designed cervical interbody fusion devices under defined conditions. Forty-five bovine vertebral bodies were dissected from soft tissue and cartilage. The bony end plate was then taken off by 0, 1, and 2 mm. Five vertebral bodies of each abrasion depth were prepared for the uptake of a fusion device. Thus, three different fusion devices of comparable size underwent biomechanic testing in a Zwick testing machine with 4000 cycles of axial compression between 50 and 1000 N. Every 1000 cycles, the subsidence into the vertebral body was measured. Abrasion of the end plate resulted in an increased subsidence. The cage with rectangular shape and the cage with cylindric body and lateral wings showed better resistance to axial compression as long as the end plate remained intact. When the end plate was taken off, the subsidence was as high as in the cylindric cage, of which the subsidence did not correlate to the end plate abrasion. During preparation of the implant bed, the cortical bone of the end plate must be treated carefully. In cases of intact end plate, rectangular supporting areas can decrease the risk of subsidence. PMID:12089796

Fürderer, S; Schöllhuber, F; Rompe, J D; Eysel, P

2002-05-01

13

Correlation Analysis of the Hyoid Bone Position in Relation to the Cranial Base, Mandible and Cervical Part of Vertebra with Particular Reference to Bimaxillary Relations / Teleroentgenogram Analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The relationship among the orofacial system and the rest of the body ,both in functional and anatomical terms was the subject of numerous scientific studies. The optimum position of the bone structures of orofacial system provides performance of intact vital functions, such as breathing or swallowing. Hyoid bone represents a link between the head and neck. Although located in the neck, hyoid bone due to its brachial origin belongs to the visceral skeleton. The purpose of the research: a) To determine the position of the hyoid bone, in relation to the cranial base, mandible and cervical part of the vertebra; b) To determine the linear measures of hyoid bone and its constituents and c) to Identify on the profile teleroengen image, whether there are differences in the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship. The examinees and methods: 30 profile teleroengen images of patients aged 17-18 years of both sexes were used for this study. To study the position of hyoid bone depending on the saggital maxillo-mandibular relationship respondents were divided into groups based on the ANB-angle values. The first group is ortognat patients with ANBangle values, from 1 to 4°. The second group included patients with distal jaw relationship, that is, whose values of ANB-angle were greater than / or 5°. The third group consists of patients with ANB-angle value of 0 or negative. Results and Conclusion: The position of hyoid bone is not constant, but depends on the maxillo-mandibular anterior posterior relationships. Length of hyoid bones and greater horns of hyoid bone differs with respect to the sagittal malocclusion. In relation to the cranial base and maxillary bones flat position of the hyoid bone is highly correlated. A positive correlation was found with relation to the cervical vertebra, while the dependence is determined in relation to the steep mandibular plane.

Deljo, Emsudina; Filipovic, Mediha; Babacic, Rafeta; Grabus, Jasmina

2012-01-01

14

Cervical Fracture  

MedlinePLUS

... Copyright 2007 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Cervical Fracture (Broken Neck) The seven bones in the neck ... connect it to the shoulders and body. A fracture, or break, in one of the cervical vertebrae ...

15

Cervical spondylosis  

MedlinePLUS

... on the cartilage and bones of the neck (cervical vertebrae). It is a common cause of chronic neck ... spondylosis is caused by chronic wear on the cervical spine. This includes the disks or cushions between the ...

16

Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs  

PubMed Central

The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism.

Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

2010-01-01

17

Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.).  

PubMed

This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0-6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form - as a chordacentrum - was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3-V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20-V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays - lepidotrichs - of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a significant increase in abdominal cavity volume. PMID:23587057

Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

2013-04-15

18

Posterolateral tunnels and ponticuli in human atlas vertebrae.  

PubMed

The posterolateral tunnel on the superior surface of the first cervical (atlas) vertebra is of normal occurrence in monkeys and other lower animals, but its presence in the form of a tunnel-like canal, for the passage of the third part of the vertebral artery over the posterior arch of the human atlas vertebra is not reported. The aim of the present study was to detect the presence of such a canal, in addition to other types of ponticuli (little bridges) reported by earlier investigators, in macerated atlas vertebrae and routine cadaveric dissections. The posterolateral tunnel was detected in 1.14%, and the posterior and lateral ponticuli in 6.57 and 2% of vertebrae. Probably the bony roof of the posterolateral tunnel serves the purpose of additional lateral extension for the attachment of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in quadrupeds, where the load of the head is supported by the extensor muscles of the neck, ligaments and posterior atlanto-occipital membrane. In man, where the weight of the head is borne by the vertical loading of the superior articular process of the atlas, the roof of the tunnel has disappeared. PMID:11554511

Hasan, M; Shukla, S; Siddiqui, M S; Singh, D

2001-09-01

19

Hierarchical segmentation of vertebrae from x-ray images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of vertebrae segmentation in digitized x-ray images is addressed with a hierarchical approach that combines three different methodologies. As a starting point, two customized active shape models are trained on data sets of cervical and lumbar images, respectively. Here, a methodology to include edge information in the gray-level modeling part of the active shape models is developed to increase the representativeness of the model and to improve the chances of finding vertebral boundaries. Active shape models' initialization shortcoming is then addressed by a customized implementation of the Generalized Hough Transform, which provides an estimate of the pose of the vertebrae within target images. Active shape models' shortcoming of lack of local deformation is addressed by a customized implementation of the technique of Deformable Models. In this implementation, an energy minimization approach is employed in which the external energy term is extracted from the training set of images and the internal energy terms control the shape of the template. Segmentation results on data sets of cervical and lumbar images show that the proposed hierarchical approach produces errors of less than 3mm in 75% of the cervical images and 6.4mm in 50% of the lumbar images.

Zamora, Gilberto; Sari-Sarraf, Hamed; Long, L. Rodney

2003-05-01

20

Cervical spine in patients with diastrophic dysplasia - radiographic findings in 122 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In previous studies, typical radiological findings in the cervical spine of patients with diastrophic dysplasia (DD) have been kyphosis, displacement of the vertebrae, spina bifida occulta (SBO), anterior hypoplasia of vertebrae C3-5, and hyperplasia and dysmorphism of the odontoid process. Objectives. To make a radiological analysis of the cervical spine in patients with DD. Materials and methods. The study

Ville M. Remes; Eino J. Marttinen; Mikko S. Poussa; Ilkka J. Helenius; Jari I. Peltonen

2002-01-01

21

Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel\\u000a in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds\\u000a and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this

Gerald Mayr

2007-01-01

22

Shape regression for vertebra fracture quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate and reliable identification and quantification of vertebral fractures constitute a challenge both in clinical trials and in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Various efforts have been made to develop reliable, objective, and reproducible methods for assessing vertebral fractures, but at present there is no consensus concerning a universally accepted diagnostic definition of vertebral fractures. In this project we want to investigate whether or not it is possible to accurately reconstruct the shape of a normal vertebra, using a neighbouring vertebra as prior information. The reconstructed shape can then be used to develop a novel vertebra fracture measure, by comparing the segmented vertebra shape with its reconstructed normal shape. The vertebrae in lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine were manually annotated by a medical expert. With this dataset we built a shape model, with equidistant point distribution between the four corner points. Based on the shape model, a multiple linear regression model of a normal vertebra shape was developed for each dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation. The reconstructed shape was calculated for each dataset using these regression models. The average prediction error for the annotated shape was on average 3%.

Lund, Michael Tillge; de Bruijne, Marleen; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

2005-04-01

23

Radiological cervical arthritis in populations.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of cervical rheumatoid arthritis and its relationship to rheumatoid serum factors and erosive arthritis in peripheral joints has been studied in radiographs of the cervical spine and of the hands and feet drawn from 12 population samples. The changes were graded in accordance with the Atlas of Standard Radiographs of Arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis of the cervical spine (grades 2-4) was observed in 4.1% of males and 4.7% of females aged 15 and over. Prevalence was greatest in those born before 1900, 15% of whom were affected. There was a significant association with the sheep cell agglutination test but not with the bentonite flocculation test, though the latter correlated well with erosive arthritis in the joints of the hands and feet. Arthritis of the cervical spine showed a significant correlation with both seropositive and seronegative erosive arthritis in the peripheral joints. A significantly higher prevalence of cervical arthritis than expected was noted in two population samples, one in Germany and the other in West Africa, though in neither was there a high prevalence of peripheral arthritis. The German population had relatively high antistreptolysin titres. A low prevalence of cervical arthritis was noted in populations in Czechoslovakia and in Arizona. 'Congenital' block vertebra had a prevalence of 0.9% in persons born before 1935, but none was observed in those born since. The figures suggest that environmental influences predisposing to cervical arthritis and block vertebra have changed in the last 40 years.

Lawrence, J S

1976-01-01

24

Primary eosinophilic granuloma of adult cervical spine presenting as a radiculomyelopathy.  

PubMed

We report a case of 29-year-old man diagnosed as a primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) lesion of the seventh cervical vertebra. He had paresthesia on both arms, and grasping weakness for 10 days. Cervical magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed an enhancing mass with ventral epidural bulging and cord compression on the seventh cervical vertebra. Additionally, we performed spine series MRI, bone scan and positive emission tomography for confirmation of other bone lesions. These studies showed no other pathological lesions. He underwent anterior cervical corpectomy of the seventh cervical vertebra and plate fixation with iliac bone graft. After surgical management, neurological symptoms were much improved. Histopathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of EG. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence at 12 months postoperative cervical MRI follow-up. We reported symptomatic primary EG of cervical spine successfully treated with surgical resection. PMID:24044083

Bang, Woo-Seok; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

2013-07-31

25

Primary Eosinophilic Granuloma of Adult Cervical Spine Presenting as a Radiculomyelopathy  

PubMed Central

We report a case of 29-year-old man diagnosed as a primary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) lesion of the seventh cervical vertebra. He had paresthesia on both arms, and grasping weakness for 10 days. Cervical magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed an enhancing mass with ventral epidural bulging and cord compression on the seventh cervical vertebra. Additionally, we performed spine series MRI, bone scan and positive emission tomography for confirmation of other bone lesions. These studies showed no other pathological lesions. He underwent anterior cervical corpectomy of the seventh cervical vertebra and plate fixation with iliac bone graft. After surgical management, neurological symptoms were much improved. Histopathologic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of EG. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence at 12 months postoperative cervical MRI follow-up. We reported symptomatic primary EG of cervical spine successfully treated with surgical resection.

Bang, Woo-Seok; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

2013-01-01

26

A unique case of cervical osteochondroma causing dysphagia.  

PubMed

Osteochondroma of the spine is a rare condition. It may present in solitary form or with multiple exostoses or hereditary multiple exostoses. In this article, we report a 22-year-old male case who was diagnosed with cervical osteochondroma, originating from the third and fourth cervical vertebra. PMID:23834138

Gulati, Ajay; Mittal, Amit; Singal, Rikki; Gupta, Samita; Garg, Varun

27

Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

Mayr, Gerald

2007-08-01

28

Determination of lowest instrumented vertebra by the location of apical vertebra in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We postulated that the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) can be determined based on the apical vertebra. Seventy-two Lenke\\u000a type 1 patients (average age: 13.6 years) receiving posterior spinal fusion were randomised into two groups. In group A, the\\u000a apical vertebra was used to determine the LIV and in group B the neutral vertebra was used. All patients had Cobb angles <90°

Fenghua Tao; Zhicai Shi; Yang Xie; Feng Pan; Yungang Wu; Ye Zhang; Zhiwei Wang; Ming Li

2011-01-01

29

Cervical myositis ossificans traumatica: a rare location  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   An unusual case of myositis ossificans traumatica lesion located in the paraspinal region is reported. Despite the contiguity\\u000a of the lesion with the cervical vertebrae and ominous appearance of the biopsy material, the history of antecedent trauma\\u000a and computed tomography findings allowed preoperative accurate diagnosis. To our knowledge, myositis ossificans traumatica\\u000a located in the cervical paraspinal region is very

T. Baysal; O. Baysal; K. Sarac; N. Elmali; R. Kutlu; Y. Ersoy

1999-01-01

30

Cervical Spine Loads and Intervertebral Motions During Whiplash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To quantify the dynamic loads and intervertebral motions throughout the cervical spine during simulated rear impacts.Methods. Using a biofidelic whole cervical spine model with muscle force replication and surrogate head and bench-top mini-sled, impacts were simulated at 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 8 g horizontal accelerations of the T1 vertebra. Inverse dynamics was used to calculate the dynamic cervical spine

Paul C. Ivancic; Manohar M. Panjabi; Shigeki Ito

2006-01-01

31

Identification and classification of spine vertebrae by automated methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are currently working toward developing computer-assisted methods for the indexing of a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images by biomedical content. These images were collected as part of a nationwide health survey and form a research resource for osteoarthitis and bone morphometry. This task requires the development of algorithms to robustly analyze the x-ray contents for key landmarks, to segment the vertebral bodies, to accurately measure geometric features of the individual vertebrae and inter-vertebral areas, and to classify the spine anatomy into normal or abnormal classes for conditions of interest, including anterior osteophytes and disc space narrowing. Subtasks of this work have been created and divided among collaborators. In this paper, we provide a technical description of the overall task, report on progress made by collaborators, and provide the most recent results of our own research into obtaining first-order location of the spine region of interest by automated methods. We are currently concentrating on images of the cervical spine, but will expand the work to include the lumbar spine as well. Development of successful image processing techniques for computer-assisted indexing of medical image collections is expected to have a significant impact within the medical research and patient care systems.

Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

2001-07-01

32

Anterior cervical decompression and fusion using the Coventry cervical spreader and dowel inserter.  

PubMed

Instrumentation for use in anterior cervical interbody fusion is described which allows controlled spreading of the adjacent vertebrae and accurate placement of the dowel. A portion of our experience with this instrument is analysed to support our belief that it is safer and more effective than conventional spreaders with a lower risk of damage to the graft or surrounding structures. PMID:8267892

Mylonas, C; Whatmore, W J

1993-01-01

33

Biomechanical allometry in hominoid thoracic vertebrae.  

PubMed

Considerable differences in spinal morphology have been noted between humans and other hominoids. Although comparative analyses of the external morphology of vertebrae have been performed, much less is known regarding variations in internal morphology (density) and biomechanical performance among humans and closely related non-human primates. In the current study we utilize density calibrated computed tomography images of thoracic vertebral bodies from hominoids (n=8-15 per species, human specimens 20-40 years of age) to obtain estimates of vertebral bone strength in axial compression and anteroposterior bending and to determine how estimates of strength scale with animal body mass. Our biomechanical analysis suggests that the strength of thoracic vertebral bodies is related to body mass (M) through power law relationships (y proportional, variant M(b)) in which the exponent b is 0.89 (reduced major axis) for prediction of axial compressive strength and is equal to 1.89 (reduced major axis) for prediction of bending strength. No differences in the relationship between body mass and strength were observed among hominoids. However, thoracic vertebrae from humans were found to be disproportionately larger in terms of vertebral length (distance between cranial and caudal endplates) and overall vertebral body volume (p<0.05). Additionally, vertebral bodies from humans were significantly less dense than in other hominoids (p<0.05). We suggest that reduced density in human vertebral bodies is a result of a systemic increase in porosity of cancellous bone in humans, while increased vertebral body volume and length are a result of functional adaptation during growth resulting in a vertebral bone structure that is just as strong, relative to body mass, as in other hominoids. PMID:19427672

Hernandez, C J; Loomis, D A; Cotter, M M; Schifle, A L; Anderson, L C; Elsmore, L; Kunos, C; Latimer, B

2009-05-08

34

Dynamic sagittal flexibility coefficients of the human cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to determine the dynamic sagittal flexibility coefficients, including coupling coefficients, throughout the human cervical spine using rear impacts. A biofidelic whole cervical spine model (n=6) with muscle force replication and surrogate head was rear impacted at 5g peak horizontal accelerations of the T1 vertebra within a bench-top mini-sled. The dynamic main and coupling

Paul C. Ivancic; Shigeki Ito; Manohar M. Panjabi

2007-01-01

35

Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual\\u000a ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation\\u000a was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra,\\u000a tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak

Manohar M. Panjabi; Andrew K. Simpson; Paul C. Ivancic; Adam M. Pearson; Yasuhiro Tominaga; James J. Yue

2007-01-01

36

Halifax clamps: efficacy and complications in posterior cervical stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Trauma, neoplasia, rheumatoid arthritis. Down's syndrome, and inflammatory conditions are well-known causes of spinal instability. The Halifax clamp is a method of posterior cervical stabilization that is attached to the adjoining laminae and tightened until no movement between involved vertebrae is possible. Our experience with cases that have utilized Halifax interlaminar clamps, their results and complications are presented.METHODS We

Allen H. Maniker; Michael Schulger; Harry L. Duran

1995-01-01

37

Factors affecting the interface of cervical spine facet screws placed in the technique by Roy-Camille et al  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of bone cement, length of burr hole and bone density on pullout force and insertional screw torque of cervical spine facet screws. Both facets of 24 human cervical vertebrae were scanned for bone mineral density (BMD) and assigned to two groups for measuring of insertional screw torque and pullout strength.

T. R. Pitzen; S. Zenner; D. Barbier; T. Georg; W. I. Steudel

2004-01-01

38

Region-based enhancement of chest and cervical spine radiographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a region-based image processing method to enhance selective radiodense regions on digital radiographs. We employ a wavelet filtering technique to locate the radiodense regions-of-interest and then apply different degrees of enhancement procedure to them. The enhancement procedure is based on an unsharp masking technique controlled by a set of sigmoidal functions. The method was tested on computed chest radiographs to improve the visualization of the mediastinum and radiodense spine areas. The enhanced chest images showed improved visualization in the mediastinum area, and the visibility of vascular structures which were obscured by the diaphragm and mediastinum was improved. To demonstrate the method's potential in other medical image processing tasks, we applied it to cervical spine images. The processed cervical spine images also showed better visualization of the seventh cervical vertebrae and the first thoracic vertebrae in the high radiodense area caused by the superimposition of the patient's shoulder tissue over these regions of interest.

Lin, Jyh-Shien; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Li, Huai; Legendre, Kevin; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

1996-04-01

39

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

40

Cervical dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... No. 99: management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. Obstet Gynecol . 2008;112(6):1419-1444. Wright ... consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical screening: tests andcervical histology. Am Fam Physician . 2009;80:147-155.

41

An improved level set method for vertebra CT image segmentation  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical diagnosis and therapy for the lumbar disc herniation requires accurate vertebra segmentation. The complex anatomical structure and the degenerative deformations of the vertebrae makes its segmentation challenging. Methods An improved level set method, namely edge- and region-based level set method (ERBLS), is proposed for vertebra CT images segmentation. By considering the gradient information and local region characteristics of images, the proposed model can efficiently segment images with intensity inhomogeneity and blurry or discontinuous boundaries. To reduce the dependency on manual initialization in many active contour models and for an automatic segmentation, a simple initialization method for the level set function is built, which utilizes the Otsu threshold. In addition, the need of the costly re-initialization procedure is completely eliminated. Results Experimental results on both synthetic and real images demonstrated that the proposed ERBLS model is very robust and efficient. Compared with the well-known local binary fitting (LBF) model, our method is much more computationally efficient and much less sensitive to the initial contour. The proposed method has also applied to 56 patient data sets and produced very promising results. Conclusions An improved level set method suitable for vertebra CT images segmentation is proposed. It has the flexibility of segmenting the vertebra CT images with blurry or discontinuous edges, internal inhomogeneity and no need of re-initialization.

2013-01-01

42

Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.  

PubMed

Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

2010-04-07

43

Cervical characteristics of Noonan syndrome.  

PubMed

Background/ObjectivesA short neck and low posterior hairline are characteristics of Noonan syndrome (NS) and are hallmarks of basilar invagination/impression. However, it is seldom that NS has been directly linked with this symptom. Thus, this study aimed to investigate basilar impression in NS subjects compared with control subjects and individuals exhibiting Turner Syndrome (TS).Subjects/MethodsThe degree of basilar impression and vertical positional differences of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae and hyoid bone in NS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), TS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), and control subjects (n = 9, mean age: 12.0 years) were investigated using lateral cephalometric radiographs. Differences between the three groups were compared using the Steel-Dwass test. Vertical positional differences in the anatomical structures within each group were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test accompanied by a Bonferroni-Holm correction.ResultsThe distance by which the odontoid tip extended past McGregor's line in subjects with NS was significantly greater compared with TS and control subjects. The third and fourth cervical vertebrae were positioned significantly superiorly in subjects with NS compared with TS and control subjects and, in NS, were also significantly superior to the hyoid bone. There was no difference in the position of the hyoid bone itself between the groups.Conclusion/ImplicationThese results suggest that basilar impression may be a frequently found symptom of NS. PMID:23660838

Miyamoto, Jun J; Yabunaka, Tomoe; Moriyama, Keiji

2013-05-01

44

Repeated percutaneous vertebroplasty for refracture of cemented vertebrae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Percutaneous vertebroplasty is an efficient procedure to treat painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. However,\\u000a refracture of cemented vertebrae occurs rarely after percutaneous vertebroplasty. This study was undertaken to investigate\\u000a the incidence, characteristics, predisposing factors, and mistakes in technique associated with refracture of the same vertebra\\u000a after percutaneous vertebroplasty.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 2001 to 2008, PVP with bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) was carried

Lih-Huei Chen; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Jen-Chung Liao; Po-Liang Lai; Chi-Chien Niu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Tsung-Ting Tsai; Wen-Jer Chen

2011-01-01

45

Cervical spinal cord injury caused by vertebral body fracture in a patient with concomitant OALL and OPLL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We encountered a case of cervical spinal cord injury associated with cervical vertebral dislocation fracture that occurred\\u000a in a patient with concomitant ossification of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments. The cervical vertebrae were\\u000a injured by hyperextension in a car accident. On admission, shearing fracture was noted in the OALL region and vertebral body\\u000a OPLL region over the posterior column

O. Obayashi; K. Kaneko; M. Yokoyama; Y. Shimamura; T. Muta; A. Itoi; H. Kurosawa

2008-01-01

46

Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

1997-09-15

47

Terminal plate fracture in vertebrae of the aged.  

PubMed

The terminal plate fracture of human vertebrae was studied morphologically on midsagittal specimens from 92 autopsy cases which included 82 patients over 60 years. 1. Histologically, the terminal plate fracture was classified into three types by its representative histology. (a) Fracture with intervertebral disk (ID) prolapse: a healed fracture characterized by the presence of the prolapsed ID at the fractured site. ID prolapse in the marrow cavity may or may not be present. The group includes the typical case of the Schmorl's nodule. (b) Fracture with the granulation tissue: The fracture site was embedded by the granulation tissue. Callus and ID prolapse, if any, were insignificant. (c) Diffuse replacement of the hyaline cartilage layer by osteoid tissue: The alteration is seen often at a concaved surface of the terminal plate of significantly deformed vertebrae. 2. The fracture may be classified by the depth of the ID prolapse. (a) Grade 1: ID prolapse may be seen within the fracture aperture, but, not in the marrow cavity. (b) Grade 2: ID prolapse is confined to a labyrinth of subcortical trabeculae. (c) Grade 3: ID prolapse extends to a deep marrow space. The typical Schmorl's nodule belongs to this group. 3. In the present study, the terminal plate fracture was noted in 78% of the patients over 60 years. The female group was affected more often (68% in male, 86% in female). Grade 2 was more often seen in atrophic vertebrae than Grade 1. However, in Grade 3, the fracture appeared unrelated to the atrophy of the vertebrae. 4. The terminal plate fracture was more often seen in the lower deck than the upper deck at the site of two-thirds dorsal from the ventral edge of the vertebral body. The site corresponds roughly to the nucleus pulposus. 5. Histologic variations of the terminal plate fracture and of ID prolapse may relate to senescence of both vertebrae and ID. PMID:824804

Tanaka, Y; Kimula, Y

1976-10-01

48

Cervical Cancer (PDQ): Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical cancer using the Pap test has decreased the number ...

49

Ghost infantile vertebrae and hemipelves within adult skeleton from thorotrast administration in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 adults who had received thorotrast intravenously at ages 2 and 3 years, respectively, radiopaque outlines of their infantile vertebrae were seen in the adult vertebrae. Similar ghosts of the hemipelves were present in the pelvis of 1 patient. Autopsy findings and autoradiographs in 1 patient strongly suggest that persisting thorotrast deposits in the infantile vertebrae and pelvis have

J. G. Teplick; G. L. Head; M. E. Kricun; M. E. Hasin

1978-01-01

50

Cervical pharyngostomy.  

PubMed Central

The technique of cervical pharyngostomy is presented as a safe alternative procedure to the nasogastric tube for patients requiring prolonged periods of gastrointestinal decompression or tube feeding. The results in 21 cases are described. The complication rate is low and the use of cervical pharyngostomy is therefore justified in that it reduces patient discomfort and makes treatment more efficient. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Farndon, J. R.; Taylor, R. M.

1977-01-01

51

Finite Element Analysis of Cervical Spine Plate Using Double Cage Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-Objective: To analyze the biomechanical influences on cervical vertebra after the removal of nucleus going with the cervical disc degradation, and to inspect the immediate stability and bone fusion rate with artificial double Cage fusion setting into intervertebral disc.Methods: to establish precisely with CAE method four finite element models as followed: C3-6 normal height disc model, C4-5 height decreased disc

Bingzhi Chen; Wei Zhao; Yuedong Wang; Suming Xie

2010-01-01

52

Cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Squamous cell cervical cancer incidence and mortality have been reduced dramatically as a result of successful screening in many countries. The incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma continues to increase. There has been concentrated effort toward improving early detection and screening by utilizing molecular biomarker assays. The FIGO staging system for cervical cancer was revised in 2009. Fertility preservation can be offered to patients with early-stage cervical cancer through radical trachelectomy, although radical hysterectomy remains the surgical standard of care. Concurrent chemotherapy with radiation has been shown to have a survival advantage in patients with advanced-stage disease. Improvements in radiation techniques and molecular targeted therapy are the current research venues in cervical cancer. PMID:22640713

Lea, Jayanthi S; Lin, Ken Y

2012-04-24

53

Reduced thoracic vertebrae metastases following post mastectomy parasternal irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of 118 women with breast cancer metastatic to bone is presented. All had originally received post mastectomy adjuvant radiation therapy for Stage II (T2 N0, T2 N1, T1 N1) infiltrating duct carcinoma of breast. Sixty-two women (group A) received a parasternal portal and 56 women (group B) did not. There was significantly less metastatic involvement of the mid-dorsal vertebrae D5- 6-7-8, 13% in group A compared to 60% in group B. The mean time to diagnosis of metastatic disease was 33 months (group A) and 36 months (group B). The dose of radiation to the vertebrae through which the parasternal beam exited was estimated at between 1000-1600 rad over three to four weeks. This observation may have significant implications for the management of high risk operable breast cancer.

Hercbergs, A.; Werner, A.; Brenner, H.J.

1985-04-01

54

Automatic construction of statistical shape models for vertebrae.  

PubMed

For segmenting complex structures like vertebrae, a priori knowledge by means of statistical shape models (SSMs) is often incorporated. One of the main challenges using SSMs is the solution of the correspondence problem. In this work we present a generic automated approach for solving the correspondence problem for vertebrae. We determine two closed loops on a reference shape and propagate them consistently to the remaining shapes of the training set. Then every shape is cut along these loops and parameterized to a rectangle. There, we optimize a novel combined energy to establish the correspondences and to reduce the unavoidable area and angle distortion. Finally, we present an adaptive resampling method to achieve a good shape representation. A qualitative and quantitative evaluation shows that using our method we can generate SSMs of higher quality than the ICP approach. PMID:21995066

Becker, Meike; Kirschner, Matthias; Fuhrmann, Simon; Wesarg, Stefan

2011-01-01

55

Klippel-Feil syndrome associated with congenital cervical dislocation: report of an autopsy case.  

PubMed

Klippel-Feil syndrome is an uncommon congenital anomaly that is characterized by abnormal fusion of the cervical vertebrae and occasionally accompanied by various anomalies of other bones and internal organs. We report the autopsy case of a 5-year-old girl with this syndrome ssociated with congenital cervical dislocation, with special reference to the pathological findings of the vertebral column and spinal cord. Principal anomalies of the cranio-spinal axis were as follows: partial defect of the clivus, scoliosis, hypoplasia of the whole cervical vertebrae, anterior dislocation of C7 with S-shaped deformity of the spinal canal, fusion of the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae, fusion of the vertebral bodies of C6 and C7 with collapse of C7, and spina bifida occulta of L5 and S1. In addition to these skeletal anomalies, subarachnoid vascular malformation in the medulla oblongata, a bronchogenic cyst in the posterior mediastinum, anomalous lobation of the lungs, and the mobile cecum were found at autopsy. The cervical cord showed an increase of the antero-posterior diameter, multifocal spongy changes of the white matter, and partial branching or duplication of the central canal. The brain showed features of anoxic encephalopathy. The partial defect of the clivus, C7 dislocation, and various lesions of the medulla oblongata and cervical cord were interpreted as integral components of, or lesions closely associated with, Klippel-Feil syndrome. PMID:22762890

Shintaku, Masayuki; Wada, Kyosuke; Koyama, Takashi; Kohno, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Takeshi; Hida, Shinya

56

Minimally invasive anterior approach for kyphoplasty of the first thoracic vertebra in a patient with multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

A vertebral body collapse of the first thoracic vertebra (T1) was diagnosed after radiological investigation in an adult male suffering for severe dorsal pain due to suspected multiple myeloma (MM). According to the principles of minimally invasive neurosurgery and the aesthetic needs of the patient, an open T1 kyphoplasty was performed by means of a right anterior approach through the inferior brow of the neck, generally utilized for the anterior approaches to the cervical spine. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of MM and the postoperative radiological investigation showed a good vertebral body (VB) restoration. No gross neurological deficit was noted and the patient was discharged within a few days after a good recovery. Kyphoplasty is a percutaneous technique utilized by means of a posterior approach for VB restoration from T4 to the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) in patients with vertebral body compression fractures (VCFs) of osteoporotic, traumatic and neoplastic origin. Anatomic obstacles make the performance of posterior kyphoplasty from T1 to T4 very difficult. To the best of our knowledge no anterior approach for T1 kyphoplasty has been reported in the literature. Our experience gives us the opportunity to emphasize this approach and this technique for the minimally invasive treatment of the VCFs of this segment of the spine. PMID:18306128

Gigante, N; Pierangeli, E

2008-02-01

57

First cervical vertebra (atlas) fracture mechanism studies using finite element method.  

PubMed

Injury mechanisms and stress distribution patterns are important in the clinical evaluation of spinal injuries. Recognition and interpretation of the failure patterns help to determine spinal instability and consequently the choice of treatment. Although, the biomechanics responses of the atlas have received much attention, it has not been investigated using theoretical modeling. Mathematical techniques such as finite element model will provide further understanding to the injury mechanisms of the atlas, which is important for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of spinal injuries. In the present study, a detailed three-dimensional finite element model of the human atlas (C1) was constructed, with the geometrical data obtained using a three-dimensional digitizer. Anterior arch, superior/inferior articular processes, transverse processes, posterior arch and posterior tubercule were modeled using eight-noded brick elements. Using the material properties from literature, the 7808-finite element model was exercised under three simulated axial compressive mode of pressure loading and boundary conditions to investigate the sites of failure reported in vivo and in vitro. This report demonstrates high concentration of localized stress at the anterior and posterior archs of the atlas, which agrees well with those reported in the literature. Furthermore, under simulated hyperextension, our results agreed well with the experimental findings, which show that the groove of the posterior arch is subjected to enormous bending moment. The close agreement of the failure location provided confidence to perform further analysis and in vitro experiments. These results may be potentially used to supplement experimental research in understanding the clinical biomechanics of the atlas. PMID:11425074

Teo, E C; Ng, H W

2001-01-01

58

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What is cervical ...

59

Cervical Adenocarcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... The most common subtype of cervical cancer, called squamous cell carcinoma, arises from the surface lining of the ectocervix, ... successful at decreasing the number of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, it has not yet been ...

60

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... by an infection of the cervix, including a yeast infection, infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV), the herpes virus, or many other infections. Abnormal cells. These changes are called cervical dysplasia. The cells ...

61

Cervical Cap  

MedlinePLUS

... girl for a cervical cap. During a pelvic exam, the doctor will determine which size cap is ... About Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Breast and Pelvic Exams Female Reproductive System Emergency Contraception Birth Control Pill ...

62

Cervical radiculopathy.  

PubMed

The history, pathoanatomy and pathophysiology, clinical picture, differential diagnosis, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of cervical radiculopathy are reviewed. The review is based on a 10-year Medline literature search, review of bibliographies in textbooks, and bibliographies in articles obtained through the search. Cervical radiculopathy, although recognized early in the 20th century, was first associated with disc pathology in the mid-1930s. It is most commonly caused by disc herniation or cervical spondylosis. History and physical examination using pain location, manual muscle testing, and specialized testing (Spurling's maneuver) will usually suffice to diagnose the radiculopathy and determine the root level involved. Diagnostic imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, or myelography should be used as presurgical evaluative tools or when tumor or other etiology besides disc herniation or spondylosis is suspected. Electromyography is of benefit in distinguishing various entities that clinically present similar to cervical radiculopathy and can also help to "date" the lesion. Treatment of this disorder has not been systematically studied in a controlled fashion. However, using a variety of different treatments, the radiculopathy usually improves without the need for surgery. Indications for surgery are unremitting pain despite a full trial of non-surgical management, progressive weakness, or new or progressive cervical myelopathy. Prospective studies evaluating the various treatment options would be of great benefit in guiding practitioners toward optimum cost-effective evaluation and care of the patient with cervical radiculopathy. PMID:8129590

Ellenberg, M R; Honet, J C; Treanor, W J

1994-03-01

63

Cervical Cancer Screening  

MedlinePLUS

What is cervical cancer screening? Cervical cancer screening is used to find changes in the cells of the cervix that could lead ... includes the FAQ Human Papillomavirus Infection]. How is cervical cancer screening done? Cervical cancer screening is simple and ...

64

Cervical Cancer Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Foundation for Women’s Cancer Home Types of Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Symptoms Symptoms Cervical cancer ... Stay Connected About Gynecologic Cancers Types of Gynecologic Cancers Cervical Cancer Screening and Prevention Primary Prevention with Cervical ...

65

Surgical management of high cervical disc prolapse associated with basilar invagination--two case reports.  

PubMed

C3-4 cervical disc prolapse was associated with basilar invagination and short neck in a 21-year-old man and additionally with an extensive Klippel-Feil abnormality and fusion of multiple cervical vertebrae in a 32-year-old man. The transoral surgical route was adopted for cervical discectomy in the latter case and an additional odontoidectomy in the former case. Interbody plate and screw fixation was carried out in the patient with Klippel-Feil abnormality. Both the patients were relieved of symptoms and remained asymptomatic at follow up. Simultaneous fixation procedure is not mandatory after transoral surgery in patients with basilar invagination. PMID:15095969

Goel, Atul; Phalke, Umesh; Cacciola, Francesco; Muzumdar, Dattatraya

2004-03-01

66

Quantitative Analyses of Pediatric Cervical Spine Ossification Patterns Using Computed Tomography  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to quantify ossification processes of the human pediatric cervical spine. Computed tomography images were obtained from a high resolution scanner according to clinical protocols. Bone window images were used to identify the presence of the primary synchondroses of the atlas, axis, and C3 vertebrae in 101 children. Principles of logistic regression were used to determine probability distributions as a function of subject age for each synchondrosis for each vertebra. The mean and 95% upper and 95% lower confidence intervals are given for each dataset delineating probability curves. Posterior ossifications preceded bilateral anterior closures of the synchondroses in all vertebrae. However, ossifications occurred at different ages. Logistic regression results for closures of different synchondrosis indicated p-values of <0.001 for the atlas, ranging from 0.002 to <0.001 for the axis, and 0.021 to 0.005 for the C3 vertebra. Fifty percent probability of three, two, and one synchondroses occurred at 2.53, 6.97, and 7.57 years of age for the atlas; 3.59, 4.74, and 5.7 years of age for the axis; and 1.28, 2.22, and 3.17 years of age for the third cervical vertebrae, respectively. Ossifications occurring at different ages indicate non-uniform maturations of bone growth/strength. They provide an anatomical rationale to reexamine dummies, scaling processes, and injury metrics for improved understanding of pediatric neck injuries

Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A.; Lew, Sean M.; Rao, Raj D.; Rangarajan, Nagarajan

2011-01-01

67

The position of the aorta in relation to the vertebra in patients with idiopathic thoracic scoliosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One CT-scan at the central part of the vertebral body of the apical vertebra of 32 patients with right convex thoracic idiopathic\\u000a scoliosis and one CT-scan of either T8 or T9 of 22 normal subjects are included in this study. The position of the aorta in\\u000a relation to the apical vertebra of the scoliotic patients and the corresponding vertebra of

B Sevastik; B Xiong; R Hedlund; J Sevastik

1996-01-01

68

Multirigid registration of MR and CT images of the cervical spine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present our work on fusion of MR and CT images of the cervical spine. To achieve the required registration accuracy of approximately 1mm, the spine is treated as a collection of rigid vertebrae, and a separate rigid body transformation applied to each (Hawkes). This in turn requires segmentation of the CT datasets into separate vertebral images, which is difficult because the narrow planes separating adjacent vertebrae are parallel to the axial plane of the CT scans. We solve this problem by evolving all the vertebral contours simultaneously using a level set method, and use contour competition to estimate the position of the vertebral edges when a clean separation between adjacent vertebrae is not seen. Contour competition is based in turn on the vertical scan principle: no part of a given vertebra is vertically below any part of an inferior vertebra. Once segmentation is complete, the individual rigid body transforms are then estimated using mutual information maximization, and the CT images of the vertebrae superimposed on the MR scans. The resultant fused images contain the bony detail of CT and the soft tissue discrimination of MR and appear to be diagnostically equivalent, or superior, to CT myelograms. A formal test of these conclusions is planned for the next phase of our work.

Hu, Yangqiu; Haynor, David R.

2004-05-01

69

METHANOL EXPOSURE DURING GASTRULATION CAUSES HOLOPROSENCEPHALY, FACIAL DYSGENESIS AND CERVICAL VERTEBRAL MALFORMATIONS IN C57BL/6J MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure of pregnant CD-1 mice to methanol during the period of gastrulation results in exencephaly, cleft palate, and cervical vertebra malformations (Rogers and Mole, 1997, Teratology 55, 364). C57BL/6J mice are sensitive to the teratogenicity of ethanol; fetuses of this strai...

70

Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... DS00167 ">Cervical cancer Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Try Mayo Clinic Health Letter ... answers to live stronger, longer and healthier at any age ...

71

Cervical Cryotherapy  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical Cryotherapy What is cryotherapy? Cryotherapy or a freezing treatment is a safe and effective way to destroy abnormal cells that have been found on ... simple procedure to do. Why do I need cryotherapy? Your last Pap smear detected abnormal cells on ...

72

Periosteal structure and development in a rat caudal vertebra.  

PubMed Central

Female Sprague-Dawley rats from birth to 300 days were used to study the bone/soft tissue interrelationships of the 14th caudal vertebra with particular emphasis on the periosteum throughout growth, development and maturation. The growth of the rats follows a sigmoid curve with three phases, a developmental, a rapid growth and a maturation phase. The width/length ratio of the bone and the thickness of the periosteum are closely concurrent, with a rapid decrease during the developmental phase and a levelling off during the rapid growth phase. SEM studies established that the caudal vertebra has symmetrical lateral sides and a pronounced concavity on the ventral surface where the main vascular plexus is located. Morphological changes in the periosteum cna be described as occurring in three layers and reflect the stages seen in general somatic growth. The inner cambial layer initially contains elongated but functional osteoblasts; these become cuboidal during the rapid growth phase and ultimately are flattened and quiescent. The mid-zone with its vessels, undifferentiated and mononuclear phagocytic cells also attains its maximum development in the rapid growth period and then gradually involutes. The fibrous periosteum consists of a syncytial arrangement of fibroblasts in a collagenous matrix which becomes increasingly dense although reduced in width. Sharpey fibre bundles connect the bone with the fibrous periosteum and these become thicker with age. The mid-zone of the periosteum has not been described previously. Besides having a nutritive role and providing progenitor cells it is thought to act as a buffer modulating the interaction between bone and the covering soft tissues. With age and the deletion of the mid-zone a less sensitive periosteal response to stress can be expected. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15

Ellender, G; Feik, S A; Carach, B J

1988-01-01

73

Lumbosacral transitional vertebra causing Bertolotti's syndrome: a case report and review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Lumbosacral transitional vertebra is an anatomical variation of the fifth lumbar vertebra in which an enlarged transverse process can form a joint or fusion with the sacrum or ilium. The association of that variant with low back pain and the change in the biomechanical properties of the lumbar spine is called Bertolotti's syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case

Georgios Paraskevas; Alexandros Tzaveas; Georgios Koutras; Konstantinos Natsis

2009-01-01

74

Variations in strength of vertebrae with age and their relation to osteoporosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae were obtained at post mortem examinations of human subjects in the range 26 to 86 years and at the same time specimens were taken from the iliac crests for histological assessment of trabecular density (iliac crest score). After removal of pedicles and spinous processes the vertebrae were compressed in a testing machine to mechanical failure.

G. H. Bell; Olive Dunbar; J. S. Beck; A. Gibb

1967-01-01

75

Dropped Shoulder Syndrome: A Cause of Lower Cervical Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Cervical radiculopathy is a pathological process involving a nerve root of the cervical spine. The most common causes of radiculopathy are cervical disc herniation followed by cervical spondylosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dropped shoulder as a cause of lower cervical radiculopathy. Methods In total, 132 patients, comprising 105 women (79.5%) and 27 men (20.5%; female : male ratio of 4 : 1) and a mean age of 36.7 years (range 18-58 years), were included in this study. All of the patients presented with shoulder pain, and were investigated by cervical X-ray, cervical magnetic resonance imaging, serum muscle enzymes, and electromyography (EMG)/nerve-conduction studies. Results Ninety six patients (72.7%) exhibited visually detectable dropped shoulder. The lateral view X-ray of the cervical region revealed eight or more vertebrae. In 119 patients (90.2%), the EMG revealed a mild-to-moderate or moderate denervation patterns in the abductor digiti minimi, first dorsal interosseous, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles, while the abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis, and triceps brachii were denervated in 102 patients (77.3%). All of the patients had lower cervical paraspinal muscles with a denervation pattern. Conclusions Three criteria for diagnosing dropped shoulder syndrome have been suggested: pain with consistent anatomical distribution, X-ray abnormalities, and EMG abnormalities. Compression of the cervical roots by muscle spasm has been proposed as the cause of dropped shoulder syndrome; this possibility is discussed herein.

2011-01-01

76

Minimally invasive surgery for osteoid osteoma of the cervical spine using microendoscopic discectomy system.  

PubMed

We report herein the case of an 18-year-old man who underwent endoscopic resection for an osteoid osteoma in the seventh cervical facet joint. The patient had experienced right neck pain for approximately one year, but no neurological abnormalities were noted. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging suggested an osteoid osteoma in the superior articular process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The tumor was resected microendoscopically. Operative time was 1 hour 29 minutes, and blood loss was 5 mL. During the two years since surgery, the patient has remained pain free with no cervical spine instability. We thus propose microendoscopic surgery for osteoid osteoma developing in a posterior element of the cervical spine is a potentially effective operative procedure. PMID:23741555

Nakamura, Yukako; Yabuki, Shoji; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

2013-05-22

77

Minimally Invasive Surgery for Osteoid Osteoma of the Cervical Spine Using Microendoscopic Discectomy System  

PubMed Central

We report herein the case of an 18-year-old man who underwent endoscopic resection for an osteoid osteoma in the seventh cervical facet joint. The patient had experienced right neck pain for approximately one year, but no neurological abnormalities were noted. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging suggested an osteoid osteoma in the superior articular process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The tumor was resected microendoscopically. Operative time was 1 hour 29 minutes, and blood loss was 5 mL. During the two years since surgery, the patient has remained pain free with no cervical spine instability. We thus propose microendoscopic surgery for osteoid osteoma developing in a posterior element of the cervical spine is a potentially effective operative procedure.

Yabuki, Shoji; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

2013-01-01

78

Cervical chemonucleolysis.  

PubMed

Forty patients with 44 cervical disc herniations were injected with 1500 to 1800 U of chymopapain from September 1988 to March 1992. After prophylactic H1-H2 receptor antagonist administration and under neuroleptanalgesia, a needle was inserted into the disk through an anterolateral approach, guided by x-ray monitoring. The discography performed before the enzyme injection confirmed the herniation in every case. The diagnosis was established by radiculography, computerized tomography (CT) scan, radiculo-CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or discography. Average follow up was 21.4 months (range: 3 to 43). Overall, there were 34 (85%) satisfactory results, 3 fair (7.5%), and 3 poor (7.5%) results. There were no complications, and the average hospital stay was 26 hours. Post-injection MRI performed in 18 cases confirmed the complete disappearance of the herniation in 13 cases. These data support the efficacy and innocuity of chymopapain chemonucleolysis in managing soft cervical disk herniations. PMID:7761313

Gomez-Castresana, F B; Vazquez Herrero, C; Baltes Horche, J L

1995-03-01

79

Lifelines: Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Lifelines: Cervical Cancer Play Pause Volume Up Volume Down Mute Unmute Fast Forward Rewind Lifelines™ Cancer Education Series: Resources for Multicultural Media Breast Cancer Cervical Cancer Colorectal Cancer

80

[An application of balloon probes. Preoperative electrophysiological test of the tolerance to temporal occlusion of the artery of cervical enlargement].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of testing of the temporary occlusion of origin of the radiculo-medullar artery for the cervical enlargement by balloon occlusion and both testing by clinical evaluation and evaluation of somesthesic evoked potentials and F wave. This testing allowed the surgical removal of a malignant tumor of the cervical vertebra including the vertebral artery and the origin of the radiculo-medullar artery for the cervical enlargement. About this case, they discuss possibilities and the theorical value of these pre-operative tests. PMID:6579392

Chiras, J; Gaston, A; Bouhours, P G; Héraut, L A; Henry, P; Bories, J; Roy-Camille

1983-01-01

81

[Percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA) in osteoporosis of the vertebrae--an experimental study].  

PubMed

The present study was conducted with the aim of establishing whether minimally invasive percutaneous techniques used to stabilize osteoporotic vertebrae are technically feasible. Two different methods were investigated in human thoracolumbar cadaveric vertebrae. In the first technique, special titanium implants were placed via a postero-lateral approach. With the second method, the vertebrae were filled with different types of cement of different viscosities. After each procedure, the vertebrae were examined with conventional X-ray and CT scans. The first technique proved quite unsuccessful--the insertion of the titanium implants proving difficult despite the use of special instruments. The results achieved with the second method were much better. The use of low-viscosity bone cement produced the best results. Despite a single lateral point of entry, the vertebrae were almost completely filled right into the contralateral side. Lumbar vertebrae required an average volume of cement of 7 ml (range: 6.5-10 ml) and thoracic vertebrae 5.5 ml (range: 4-7 ml). Specially developed cement application devices made possible problem-free, controlled introduction of the cement. PMID:10472725

Jerosch, J; Filler, T J; Peuker, E T; Grönemeyer, D; Gevargez, A; Grundei, H

82

Partial lumbosacral transitional vertebrae: 2 cases of unilateral sacralization  

PubMed Central

Objective Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are relatively common skeletal anomalies with a debated role in low back pain. There are few documented cases of conservative care being used to address LSTV-associated symptomatology. The current report discusses chiropractic management of 2 patients with unilateral sacralization. Clinical Features Two patients with LSTV involving unilateral sacralization of L5, a Castellvi type IIIa variant, presented with back pain to a chiropractic clinic. Each case presented with symptomatology similar to piriformis syndrome. Intervention and Outcome Manual therapy, including spinal manipulation soft tissue therapies and exercise/stretching, was used to address the presenting symptoms. Approximately 2 weeks after initial treatment, the first patient subjectively reported a 70% improvement in symptoms, with lumbar extension increased to full in active range of motion at the lumbar spine but with continued tenderness and hypertonicity at the left piriformis and gluteus medius. After 4 weeks of treatment, the second patient reported improvement in pain and perceived mobility, although prolonged standing remained an aggravating factor. Although both showed improvement, neither case resulted in complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusion The presenting cases demonstrated partial resolution of symptoms after chiropractic management. It is proposed that sacralization is a possible cause of back pain in these cases.

Muir, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

83

Sex assessment using measurements of the first lumbar vertebra.  

PubMed

Sex determination is a vital part of the medico-legal system but can be difficult in cases where the integrity of the body has been compromised. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for sex assessment from measurements of the first lumber vertebrate. Twenty-nine linear measurements and five ratios were collected from 113 Chinese adult males and 97 Chinese adult females using digital three-dimensional anthropometry methods. By using discriminant analysis, we found that 23 linear measurements and two ratios identified sexual dimorphism (P<0.01), with predictive accuracy ranging from 57.1% to 86.6%. Using a stepwise method of discriminant function analysis, we found three dimensions predicted sex with 88.6% accuracy: (a) upper end-plate width (EPWu), (b) left pedicle height (PHl), and (c) middle end-plate depth (EPDm). This study shows that a single first lumber vertebra can be used for this purpose, and that the discriminant equation will help forensic determination of sex in the Chinese population. PMID:22169166

Zheng, Wen Xu; Cheng, Fu Bo; Cheng, Kai Liang; Tian, Yong; Lai, Ying; Zhang, Wen Song; Zheng, Ya Juan; Li, You Qiong

2011-12-14

84

Foam phantom development for artificial vertebrae used for surgical training.  

PubMed

Currently the surgical training of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty is performed on patients or specimens. To improve patient safety, a project was initiated to develop an Augmented Reality simulator for the surgical training of these interventions. Artificial vertebral segments should be integrated to provide realistic haptic feedback. To reach this, resulting forces during needle insertions (trans- and extrapedicular) into formalin-fixed vertebral specimens were measured. The same insertion procedure was also performed on six customized polyurethane blocks with varying mechanical parameters. Based on the results of these measurements, a specific foam phantom was generated and the insertion force measured. Additionally a parametric model for the needle insertion into bone was designed calculating three characteristic parameters for all insertion measurements. The resulting insertion force for the foam phantom was comparable to the specimen measurements and the parametric model provided comprehensible characteristic parameters. Based on the resulting force during needle insertion into human vertebrae, a possible foam recipe for manufacturing artificial segments was found. Furthermore, the parametric model provides characteristic parameters for the assessment of phantoms as well as the development of its production process. PMID:23367241

Fuerst, David; Stephan, Daniel; Augat, Peter; Schrempf, Andreas

2012-01-01

85

Periosteal changes in mechanically stressed rat caudal vertebrae.  

PubMed Central

When a caudal vertebra is stressed by looping the tail, remodelling results with increased formation of bone on the inner (concave) side of the loop and decreased formation on the corresponding outer (convex) side. The initial morphological changes in periosteum under stress are examined by histology, autoradiography and transmission electron microscopy. Vessel damage appears minimal and thus seems unlikely to be a trigger for the remodelling process. On stress application the connective tissue relationships in the fibrous component of the periosteum are altered immediately but changes in the osteogenic layer are delayed. On the inner side, the midzone between the cellular periosteum and the fibrous periosteum becomes drawn out and enlarged, with reorientation of the cells perpendicular to the bone. This reflects the tension exerted on the bone surface through the elastic recoil of the fibrous periosteum. On the outer side, the midzone becomes narrowed as the taut fibrous periosteum exerts a compressive force on it. The midzone, which shows a delayed response and the greatest structural change with altered stress, may buffer the osteogenic layer and so play an important role in bone remodelling. The results have considerable bearing on the establishment of bone form during normal growth and development. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6

Ellender, G; Feik, S A; Ramm-Anderson, S M

1989-01-01

86

Prevent Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... professional printing [PDF-2.7MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ... is cervical. HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. HPV is a very common virus, passed from ...

87

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed Central

The theoretical and practical reasons for replacing the terms "cervical dysplasia" and "cervical carcinoma in situ" by the single diagnostic entity of "cervical intraepithelial neoplasia" are reviewed and the advantages and drawbacks of this newer terminology discussed. The histological characteristics and cytological features of the various grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia are described and the differential diagnosis of this lesion is considered. Images

Buckley, C H; Butler, E B; Fox, H

1982-01-01

88

Cervical angina.  

PubMed

Cervical angina, resembling true angina pectoris, but resulting from cervical spondylosis and nerve root compression, is also known as pseudoangina. This report describes 164 patients treated over a 22-year period. Patients included 103 men and 61 women, with ages ranging from 45 to 68 years and averaging 54 years of age. The duration of symptoms prior to definitive diagnosis averaged ten months and ranged from ten to 18 months. Most patients had consulted at least two cardiologists prior to diagnosis. The results of stress testing were abnormal in ten patients, but none underwent angiography. Symptoms common to all patients, in varying severity, included neck pain and stiffness, occipital headache, arm pain with sensory symptoms. Neurologic deficit was found in only three instances. The majority of patients responded satisfactorily to a standard nonsurgical regimen, employed for at least three months, involving the use of a hard collar, intermittent traction, isometric exercise, and a combination of anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxant medications. In cases where disability persisted, myelography was usually employed and when confirming nerve root compression, anterior disc excision and spine fusion were performed. Such treatment was required in only 38 cases and resulted in complete relief of complaints in all but five instances in which fusion failure required re-operation with ultimate success. Fusion usually was completed in three months, during which time the patient was required to wear a hard collar. PMID:2296405

Jacobs, B

1990-01-01

89

The early origin of vertebral anomalies, as illustrated by a 'butterfly vertebra'.  

PubMed Central

An anomalous (butterfly) eleventh thoracic vertebra in a fetus of 63 mm greatest length is described and graphic reconstructions (together with normal controls) are provided. The cartilaginous hemicentra are separated by disc-like material. Cartilaginous bars to adjacent vertebrae are present. The neural arch is complete. The notochord is not duplicated. Only one comparable case in the embryonic period has been described previously. After a discussion of cleft vertebrae in the human and in experimental animals, a developmental timetable of the appearance of several vertebral anomalies is provided. The sensitive period for butterfly vertebrae, depending on the mode of origin, seems to be 3-6 postovulatory weeks. More severe anomalies, such as the split notochord syndrome, appear earlier. It is concluded that most of the vertebral anomalies discussed arise during the embryonic period proper, although the timing of a few, such as spina bifida occulta, extends into the early fetal period. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5

Muller, F; O'Rahilly, R; Benson, D R

1986-01-01

90

Kinematics of human cadaver cervical spine during low-speed rear-end impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study are to measure the relative linear and angular displacements of each pair of adjacent cervical vertebrae and to compute the deformation of the facet joint capsule during low posterior-anterior (+Gx) acceleration without significant hyperextension of the head. A HYGE type mini-sled has been successfully developed to conduct whole body cadaver tests with a high-speed x-ray

Bing Deng

1999-01-01

91

[Morphologic changes in the cervical division of the spinal column in the Klippel-Feil syndrome].  

PubMed

The authors describe a patient with abnormal development of the cervical vertebrae and the formation of a block typical of the Klippel-Weil syndrome, as well as craniovertebral synostosis with the complete absence of the atlantooccipital joint, a bizarre and complicated course of the canals of vertebral arteries and sublingual nerves. They also outline the mechanisms of the possible development in such conditions of neurological symptomatology and disorders of cerebral, spinal and radiculo-neural blood circulation. PMID:3739470

Mel'nik, A I; Mel'nik, E A

1986-01-01

92

[Preoperative embolization of cervical bone metastasis with radio-controlled direct puncture].  

PubMed

Surgery of vertebral hypervascular metastasis can take advantage of preoperative embolization to make the surgical procedure easier to perform. Usually, embolizations are executed by vascular tract. We report a case of one cervical metastasis located in C4 for which embolization was executed with direct puncture of the vertebra. This method has the advantage to be feasible whatever tumoral vascularization, and more particularly in case of departure of radiculo-medullary artery or any other cephalic vessel from the tumoral site. PMID:1306583

Herbreteau, D; Guichard, J P; Reizine, D; Aymard, A; Levy, C; Augereau, B; Merland, J J

1992-01-01

93

Radiotherapy in Ewing tumors of the vertebrae: Treatment results and local relapse analysis of the Chess 81/86 and EICESS 92 trials  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Treatment results in patients with Ewing tumors of the vertebrae enrolled in the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81, 86, and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) 92 trials were analyzed with special emphasis on radiation-associated factors. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 116 patients with primary tumors of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae treated between 1981 and 1999. Furthermore, a relapse analysis was done on those patients who underwent radiotherapy and subsequently had a local recurrence. Results: A total of 64.6% of the patients received definitive radiotherapy; 27.5% of patients had surgery and radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (3.4%) underwent definitive surgery. Twenty-seven patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. 22.4% of the total group developed a local relapse. Among the subgroup with definitive radiotherapy, local recurrence was seen in 17 of 75 patients (22.6%). Event-free survival and survival at 5 years were 47% and 58%, respectively. Of the 14 evaluable patients with a local relapse after radiotherapy, 13 were in-field. No correlation between radiation dose and local control could be found. Conclusion: Surgery with wide resection margins is rarely possible. The results after definitive radiotherapy in vertebral tumors are comparable to those of other tumor sites when definitive radiotherapy is given. Nearly all local relapses after radiotherapy are in-field.

Schuck, Andreas [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: schuck@uni-muenster.de; Ahrens, Susanne [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Schorlemer, Ines von [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Kuhlen, Michaela [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Paulussen, Michael [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Hunold, Andrea [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Gosheger, Georg [Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Winkelmann, Winfried [Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Halle, Halle (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Juergens, Heribert [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

2005-12-01

94

Effects of ascorbic and citric acid on beef lumbar vertebrae marrow colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citric acid was evaluated as a way of improving ascorbic acid’s ability to stabilize beef lumbar vertebrae colour in high-oxygen packaging (MAP; 80% O2\\/20% CO2). Vertebrae were treated with citric acid (1%, 3%, or 10%), ascorbic acid (1%, 3%, or 10%), or a combination of both. Citric acid demonstrated no positive effects (P>0.05), compared with ascorbic acid, which inhibited (P<0.05)

R. A. Mancini; M. C. Hunt; M. Seyfert; D. H. Kropf; K. A. Hachmeister; T. J. Herald; D. E. Johnson

2007-01-01

95

The relation between the spatial distribution of vertebral artery compromise and exposure to cervical manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose\\u000a   The vertebral artery is made up of four segments, one of which (V3) is connected to highly mobile cervical vertebrae. This\\u000a connection underlies the common assumption that persons with pre-event histories of mechanical neck movements, such as cervical\\u000a spine manipulation (cSMT), should experience increased V3 dissection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Two of the largest case series of vertebral artery dissection

Gregory N. Kawchuk; Gian S. Jhangri; Eric L. Hurwitz; Shari Wynd; S. Haldeman; Michael D. Hill

2008-01-01

96

Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

97

Pars Inter-Articularis and Laminar Morphology of the Terminal Lumbar Vertebra in Lumbosacral Transitional Variations  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbo-sacral transitional variations are common in the general population. Structural inadequacies of the terminal lumbar vertebral pars interarticularis (PI) and lamina have often been implicated as important factors for lumbo-sacral instability. Aims: Quantifying dimensions of PI and laminae in terminal lumbar vertebrae associated with lumbosacral transitions and compare them with their normal counterparts. Materials and Methods: Fourth lumbar vertebrae in spines involved with complete sacralization of the fifth lumbar (L5) vertebrae and L5 vertebrae associated with lumbosacral accessory articulation were measured for the height, width and thickness of the PI and the laminae on both sides and compared to normal vertebrae. Results: Dimensions in sacralization associated terminal vertebrae were smaller than the normal. The height of the PI and the widths of laminae were observed to be significantly smaller in terminal lumbar segment in sacralized specimen. Lumbo-sacral accessory articulations demonstrated smaller overall dimensions of several parameters. Lamiane in the last lumbar segment associated with lumbo-sacral transitions demonstrate smaller dimensions compared to the normal ones. Sacralization results in maximum diminution of these parameters. Conclusions: Smaller PI may predispose spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis at lumbo-sacral junctions associated with transitional variations, and warrant special attention to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

Mahato, Niladri Kumar

2013-01-01

98

Lumbar vertebra morphometry and stereological assesment of intervertebral space volumetry: a methodological study.  

PubMed

The use of technology in the treatment of degenerative spinal diseases has undergone rapid clinical and scientific development. It has been extensively studied in combination with various techniques for spinal stabilization from both the anterior and posterior approach. Minimally invasive and instrumental approach via posterior fixation is increasingly being used for the treatment of adult degenerative disc disease, stenosis, and deformity of the lumbar vertebrae. Posterior access to the lumbar disc spaces for posterolateral fusion scan has been technically challenging, frequently requiring the use of an approach surgery for adequate exposure. For successful surgery and suitable instrumental design, adequate anatomical knowledge of the lumbar vertebra is also needed. Anatomic features of lumbar vertebrae are of importance for posterior screw fixation technique. The morphometry of L1-L5 has been studied to facilitate the safe application of pedicle screws. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the morphometric landmarks of lumbar vertebrae such as pedicle, vertebral body, vertebral foramen, intervertebral space height and volume for safe surgical intervention using a posterior fixation approach to offer anatomical supports for lumbar discectomy, stenosis and cases of deformity. The features of the L1-L5 vertebral body, the detailed morphometric parameters of lumbar vertebrae and the intervertebral space were analyzed using computerized tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging and also dry lumbar vertebrae. Additionally, intervertebral space volumes were measured using stereological methods to ensure safe surgical intervention. PMID:21550221

Karabekir, Hamit S; Gocmen-Mas, Nuket; Edizer, Mete; Ertekin, Tolga; Yazici, Canan; Atamturk, Derya

2011-04-02

99

Fast and robust 3D vertebra segmentation using statistical shape models.  

PubMed

We propose a top-down fully automatic 3D vertebra segmentation algorithm using global shape-related as well as local appearance-related prior information. The former is brought into the system by a global statistical shape model built from annotated training data, i.e., annotated CT volumes. The latter is handled by a machine learning-based component, i.e., a boundary detector, providing a strong discriminative model for vertebra surface appearance by making use of local context-encoding features. This boundary detector, which is essentially a probabilistic boosting-tree classifier, is also learnt from annotated training data. Contextual information is taken into account by representing vertebra surface candidate voxels with high-dimensional vectors of 3D steerable features derived from the observed volume intensities. Our system does not only consider the body of the individual vertebrae but also the spinal processes. Before segmentation, the image parts depicting individual vertebrae are spatially normalized with respect to their bounding box information in terms of translation, orientation, and scale leading to more accurate results. We evaluate segmentation accuracy on 7 CT volumes each depicting 22 vertebrae. The results indicate a symmetric point-to-mesh surface error of 1.37 ± 0.37 mm, which matches the current state-of-the-art. PMID:24110453

Mirzaalian, Hengameh; Wels, Michael; Heimann, Tobias; Kelm, B Michael; Suehling, Michael

2013-07-01

100

Effectiveness of postural and instrumental reduction in the treatment of thoracolumbar vertebra fracture  

PubMed Central

We compared the effectiveness of postural reduction and instrumental reduction in the treatment of thoracolumbar and lumbar vertebra fracture in 40 patients. Under general anaesthesia, postural reduction in a stretching prone position was first performed. Instrumental reduction and fixation were then conducted. Radiographs were made after each reduction. Comparisons between the two films and the fracture films were made based on the changes in prevertebral height of both the fractured vertebra and the adjacent superior and inferior intervertebral spaces. It was found that the recovery of the prevertebral height in postural and instrumental reductions was basically identical. The recovery of the prevertebral height in the intervertebral spaces was more significant in instrumental reduction. Both reductions were ineffective in patients whose compression of the diseased vertebra was more than two-thirds of the normal. In cases of lower lumbar vertebra fractures, the effect of both reductions was unsatisfactory. Our findings indicated that the effectiveness of the reduction of vertebra fracture depends on the quantitative change of the spongy bone of the injured vertebra. Instrumental reduction only exerts an indirect tension. Postural reduction is effective in reducing thoracolumbar vertebral fracture, while instrumental reduction exerts only a relatively weak effect but it is particularly useful to maintain the result of postural reduction.

Zhou, Xiaozhong; Yu, Chun; Cheng, Maohua; Dong, Qirong; Qian, Zhongming

2007-01-01

101

Epiphyseal union of the cervical vertebral centra: its relationship to skeletal age and maturation of thoracic vertebral centra.  

PubMed

Epiphyseal union stages for cervical vertebral centra (ring epiphyses) were documented for 55 individuals (females and males, ages 14-27 years) from the Terry Collection, using the Albert and Maples method 1, to examine both its relationship to age at death and to thoracic data collected from the same individuals using the same method. Results showed a moderate correlation between cervical ring union and age (r = 0.63, p = 0.000), and a fairly low correlation between cervical and thoracic ring union (r = 0.41, p = 0.002). Paired samples t-tests yielded a statistically significant difference between cervical and thoracic union mean values (p = 0.01). Union progressed earlier in cervical vertebrae and in females. Results indicated fairly substantial variation in both sexes. Findings may serve as a basic guideline for estimating a general age range at death for unknown skeletal remains and to corroborate findings from other skeletal age indicators. PMID:23866072

Albert, Midori A; Maier, Christopher A

2013-07-18

102

Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study  

PubMed Central

Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD), diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10–L2) were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm) were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a) standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation); b) screw with medial cortical perforation; and c) screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra (P = 0.105), but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD (P = 0.901). Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.

Saraf, Shyam K; Singh, Ravindra P; Singh, Vakil; Varma, Ashish

2013-01-01

103

Gender dependent cervical spine anatomical differences in size-matched volunteers - biomed 2009.  

PubMed

The objective was to examine significant differences in the bony structure of cervical spine vertebrae based on gender and spinal level that may influence injury risk in women following automotive rear impact. Male and female subjects were recruited for a separate study and data from two subsets were selected for inclusion in this study. Subjects were size-matched based on sitting height (17 males, 11 females) and head circumference (9 males, 18 females). Axial CT scans were obtained of the cervical spine from the C1 through C6. Bony boundaries of cervical vertebrae were defined using image-analysis software and biomechanically-relevant dimensions were derived at spinal levels C2 through C6. Six of seven vertebral dimensions were significantly dependent upon gender and spinal level in both subgroups. Male vertebrae had larger dimensions for each metric. Depth dimensions were greatest at caudal and cranial extents, whereas width dimensions were smallest at C2 and increased caudally. Greater linear and areal dimensions in size-matched male subjects indicates a more stable cervical spinal column that may be more capable of resisting inertial loading of the head-neck complex during automotive rear impacts. Although the explanation for greater injury susceptibility in females is likely multi-factorial, including differences in spinal material properties, soft tissue tolerance thresholds, occupant-seatback orientation, and neck muscle size/orientations, the present study has identified significant differences in cervical spine anatomical dimensions that may contribute to greater rates of whiplash injury in that population. PMID:19369755

Stemper, Brian D; Derosia, John J; Yogananan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Shender, Barry S; Paskoff, Glenn R

2009-01-01

104

Posterior Cervical Bone Screws  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Smith MD et al, Spine 1993: 18, 1984. Page 3. POSTERIOR CERVICAL BONE SCREWS ... Page 4. POSTERIOR CERVICAL BONE SCREWS ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

105

ICSN - Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Cervical

106

Smoking and Cervical Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

Smoking and Cervical Cancer If you smoke, you have an increased chance of developing precancerous lesions of the cervix (called moderate or ... and an increase in the chance of developing cervical cancer. Smoking greatly increases your risk for dysplasia and ...

107

Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)  

MedlinePLUS

... Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve) Some people have neck pain that ... The medical term for this condition is cervical radiculopathy. Understanding your spine and how it works can ...

108

Fully automatic detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge about the vertebrae is a valuable source of information for several annotation tasks. In recent years, the research community spent a considerable effort for detecting, segmenting and analyzing the vertebrae and the spine in various image modalities like CT or MR. Most of these methods rely on prior knowledge like the location of the vertebrae or other initial information like the manual detection of the spine. Furthermore, the majority of these methods require a complete volume scan. With the existence of use cases where only a single slice is available, there arises a demand for methods allowing the detection of the vertebrae in 2D images. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic and parameterless algorithm for detecting the vertebrae in 2D CT images. Our algorithm starts with detecting candidate locations by taking the density of bone-like structures into account. Afterwards, the candidate locations are extended into candidate regions for which certain image features are extracted. The resulting feature vectors are compared to a sample set of previously annotated and processed images in order to determine the best candidate region. In a final step, the result region is readjusted until convergence to a locally optimal position. Our new method is validated on a real world data set of more than 9 329 images of 34 patients being annotated by a clinician in order to provide a realistic ground truth.

Graf, Franz; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Strukelj, Michael; Cavallaro, Alexander

2011-03-01

109

Lumbar spine segmentation using a statistical multi-vertebrae anatomical shape+pose model.  

PubMed

Segmentation of the spinal column from computed tomography (CT) images is a preprocessing step for a range of image-guided interventions. One intervention that would benefit from accurate segmentation is spinal needle injection. Previous spinal segmentation techniques have primarily focused on identification and separate segmentation of each vertebra. Recently, statistical multi-object shape models have been introduced to extract common statistical characteristics between several anatomies. These models can be used for segmentation purposes because they are robust, accurate, and computationally tractable. In this paper, we develop a statistical multi-vertebrae shape+pose model and propose a novel registration-based technique to segment the CT images of spine. The multi-vertebrae statistical model captures the variations in shape and pose simultaneously, which reduces the number of registration parameters. We validate our technique in terms of accuracy and robustness of multi-vertebrae segmentation of CT images acquired from lumbar vertebrae of 32 subjects. The mean error of the proposed technique is below 2 mm, which is sufficient for many spinal needle injection procedures, such as facet joint injections. PMID:23771318

Rasoulian, Abtin; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang

2013-06-12

110

Automatic location of vertebrae on DXA images using random forest regression.  

PubMed

We provide a fully automatic method of segmenting vertebrae in DXA images. This is of clinical relevance to the diagnosis of osteoporosis by vertebral fracture, and to grading fractures in clinical trials. In order to locate the vertebrae we train detectors for the upper and lower vertebral endplates. Each detector uses random forest regressor voting applied to Haar-like input features. The regressors are applied at a grid of points across the image, and each tree votes for an endplate centre position. Modes in the smoothed vote image are endplate candidates, some of which are the neighbouring vertebrae of the one sought. The ambiguity is resolved by applying geometric constraints to the connections between vertebrae, although there can be some ambiguity about where the sequence starts (e.g., is the lowest vertebra L4 or L5, fig 2a). The endplate centres are used to initialise a final phase of active appearance model search for a detailed solution. The method is applied to a dataset of 320 DXA images. Accuracy is comparable to manually initialised AAM segmentation in 91% of images, but multiple grade 3 fractures can cause some edge confusion in severely osteoporotic cases. PMID:23286151

Roberts, M G; Cootes, Timothy F; Adams, J E

2012-01-01

111

[Radiologic-anatomic correlation of thoracic vertebrae and rib shadows in chest digital radiograph].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to provide an introduction to parsing the radiologic appearance of thoracic vertebrae and ribs. In the study, the radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was applied to promote further understanding of normal chest radiographs. The thoracic vertebrae and ribs of chest radiographs were compared with each macroscopic radiologic and computed tomography (CT) image. The rib parsed the linear shadow of the body of the rib. The macroscopic and radiologic images of thoracic vertebrae and ribs were evaluated to explain their normal radiologic findings. The results of such correlation were summarized as follows: 1) The lamina of the vertebral arch was visualized due to anterior rotation of the upper thoracic vertebrae. 2) The density ratio of the thoracic-vertebrae shadow was almost the same in the vertebral body and vertebral arch. 3) The linear shadow superimposed on the rib corresponded to the inferior margin of the rib. The radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was useful to evaluate normal radiologic findings, and the study was useful to radiological technologists. PMID:18187897

Yamaguchi, Isao; Itoh, Harumi

2007-10-20

112

Le rachis cervical rhumatoïde  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spine involvement occurs in over half of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The most common abnormality is atlantoaxial dislocation, followed by atlantooccipital arthritis with cranial settling and by lesions of the lower cervical spine. Cervical spine involvement usually occurs in patients with severe RA. Pain and evidence of spinal cord injury are the main symptoms. The presence of symptoms

Agnès Bouchaud-Chabot; Frédéric Lioté

2002-01-01

113

Decompression for cervical myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextCervical spondylotic myelopathy is a degenerative condition of the cervical spine. Surgical decompression is considered the gold standard of treatment, yet multiple published studies failed to yield consistent clinical results. Properly designed clinical outcomes studies using physiological, functional, and self-reported measures have the ability to define the best intervention for this disease entity. Many validated outcomes measures for cervical

Brian T. Jankowitz; Peter C. Gerszten

2006-01-01

114

Retroperitoneal paraganglioma with metastasis to the abdominal vertebra: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Extra-adrenal paraganglioma of the retroperitoneum with metastasis to the vertebra is very rare. To our knowledge this is the first report of this kind of disease in the literature. Case presentation Here, we present an oroginal case of paraganglioma of the retroperitoneum with metastasis to the abdominal vertebra in a 42-year-old female patient who was successfully treated by complete removal of the tumor and its metastasis. The patient was followed up for four years and remained disease-free. Conclusion Our case demonstrated the need to consider paraganglioma of the retroperitoneum in the differential diagnosis of retroperitoneal mass, metastatic tumors to the vertebra, and the importance of radical surgery for a successful management of the disease. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1956611954880197

2013-01-01

115

Heterogeneous Computing for Vertebra Detection and Segmentation in X-Ray Images  

PubMed Central

The context of this work is related to the vertebra segmentation. The method we propose is based on the active shape model (ASM). An original approach taking advantage of the edge polygonal approximation was developed to locate the vertebra positions in a X-ray image. Despite the fact that segmentation results show good efficiency, the time is a key variable that has always to be optimized in a medical context. Therefore, we present how vertebra extraction can efficiently be performed in exploiting the full computing power of parallel (GPU) and heterogeneous (multi-CPU/multi-GPU) architectures. We propose a parallel hybrid implementation of the most intensive steps enabling to boost performance. Experimentations have been conducted using a set of high-resolution X-ray medical images, showing a global speedup ranging from 3 to 22, by comparison with the CPU implementation. Data transfer times between CPU and GPU memories were included in the execution times of our proposed implementation.

Lecron, Fabian; Mahmoudi, Sidi Ahmed; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Said; Manneback, Pierre

2011-01-01

116

Small leucine-rich proteoglycans in the vertebrae of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.  

PubMed

We analysed the distribution and expression of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) decorin, biglycan and lumican in vertebral columns of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. with and without radiographically detectable deformities. Vertebral deformities are a reoccurring problem in salmon and other intensively farmed species, and an understanding of the components involved in the pathologic development of the vertebrae is important in order to find adequate solutions to this problem. Using immunohistology and light microscopy, we found that in non-deformed vertebrae biglycan, lumican and decorin were all expressed in osteoblasts at the vertebral growth zones and at the ossification front of the chondrocytic arches. Hence, the SLRPs are expressed in regions where intramembranous and endochondral ossification take place. In addition, mRNA expression of biglycan, decorin and lumican was demonstrated in a primary osteoblast culture established from Atlantic salmon, supporting the in vivo findings. Transcription of the SLRPs increased during differentiation of the osteoblasts in vitro and where lumican mRNA expression increased later in the differentiation compared with decorin and biglycan. Intriguingly, in vertebral fusions, biglycan, decorin and lumican protein expression was extended to trans-differentiating cells at the border between arch centra and osteoblast growth zones. In addition, mRNA expression of biglycan, decorin and lumican differed between non-deformed and fused vertebrae, as shown by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Western blotting revealed an additional band of biglycan in fused vertebrae which had a higher molecular weight than in non-deformed vertebrae. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed more spectral focality in the endplates of vertebral fusions and significantly more non-reducible collagen crosslinks compared with non-deformed vertebrae, thus identifying differences in bone structure. PMID:24062553

Pedersen, Mona E; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Kohler, Achim; Baeverfjord, Grete; Enersen, Grethe; Ruyter, Bente; Takle, Harald; Hannesson, Kirsten O

2013-09-24

117

Operative outcome of unstable lower cervical fracture dislocation by lateral mass screw fixation or anterior plating.  

PubMed

From February 2009 to September 2012, 15 patients (13 males, 2 females; age range, 18-55 years) with the lower cervical fracture dislocation were treated at NRS Medical College, Kolkata. The fracture dislocation occurred in the following cervical segments: C5 (n = 8), C7 (n = 3), C4 (n = 2), and C6 (n = 2). Forteen patients were associated with neurological deficit graded according to ASIA impairment scale. The time interval between Injury and operation was from 3 to 22 days. Eight patients underwent anterior fusion with anterior locked-cervical plate fixation; 7 patients underwent posterior fusion and the lateral mass screw fixation. During each follow-up clinical and radiological parameters were measured; bone fusion and internal fixation condition were observed by x-ray and the neurological recovery was measured by ASIA impairment scale. Follow-up duration was from 3 months to 30 months in different patients which revealed fusion between vertebrae and significant neurological recovery. The fusion time was 4 to 6 months and there was also no instability of vertebrae or loosening of the internal fixation at 12 months. The selection of operative treatment of subaxial cervical spine injury depends upon neurological and radiological criteria. Both posterior and anterior surgical approaches are viable alternatives for treating subaxial spine injuries with different indication and risk profiles. In case of incomplete neurological injury there is significant improvement. Operative treatment certainly decreases the complications related to prolonged immobilisation in recovery phase by making the patient mobile early. PMID:23785912

Sarkar, Partha Sarathi; Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Kumar; Bera, Amiya Kumar; Latif, Abdul

2012-11-01

118

Cadaveric morphometric anatomy of C-1 vertebra in relation to lateral mass screw placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The increasing use of lateral mass screw placements for atlanto-axial arthrodesis has made it necessary to have a detailed\\u000a knowledge of the anatomy of the C-1 vertebra for optimal placement of the screws.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the present study, morphometeric analysis was performed on 54 dry C-1 vertebrae. Measurements were taken by a digital caliper\\u000a to define the working area available for

Tulika Gupta

2008-01-01

119

Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP) changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD) procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs) performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction. PMID:24023587

Gudavalli, M R; Potluri, T; Carandang, G; Havey, R M; Voronov, L I; Cox, J M; Rowell, R M; Kruse, R A; Joachim, G C; Patwardhan, A G; Henderson, C N R; Goertz, C

2013-08-20

120

Cervical chondroid chordoma in a standard dachshund: a case report.  

PubMed

A ten-year-old male standard dachshund was presented with a history of neck pain and progressive gait disturbances. Following a neurological examination and diagnostic imaging, including CT, a neoplastic lesion involving the third and fourth cervical vertebrae was suspected. The lesion included an extradural mass on the right side of the spinal canal causing a local compression of the cervical cord. Surgery, using a modified dorsal laminectomy procedure, was performed in order to decompress the cervical spinal cord. Histopathological examination of the extradural mass indicated that the tumour was a chondroid chordoma. Following discharge, the quality of life for the dog was very good for a sustained period, but clinical signs recurred at 22 months. The dog was euthanased 25 months post-surgery. On post-mortem examination, a regrowth of neoplastic tissue was found to have infiltrated the bone and spinal cord at C3-C4. This is the first report to show that palliative surgery can offer successful long-lasting treatment of chondroid chordoma of the cervical spine in the dog. PMID:22017812

Stigen, Øyvind; Ottesen, Nina; Gamlem, Hans; Åkesson, Caroline P

2011-10-21

121

Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP) changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD) procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs) performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction.

Gudavalli, M. R.; Potluri, T.; Carandang, G.; Havey, R. M.; Voronov, L. I.; Cox, J. M.; Rowell, R. M.; Kruse, R. A.; Joachim, G. C.; Patwardhan, A. G.; Henderson, C. N. R.; Goertz, C.

2013-01-01

122

An unusual case of IgE-multiple myeloma presenting with systemic amyloidosis 2 years after cervical plasmacytoma resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 69-year-old man suffered from a fractured cervical vertebra, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solitary mass occupying\\u000a the injured lesion. Surgical resection of the mass was conducted, and the infiltration of plasma cells expressing IgE-? monoclonal\\u000a protein was shown on pathological investigation. Concurrently, a monoclonal band of IgE-? was shown in the sera on immunoelectrophoresis,\\u000a and the proliferation of

Masao Hagihara; Jian Hua; Morihiro Inoue; Naohiko Michikawa

2010-01-01

123

Reliability of manual examination and frequency of symptomatic cervical motion segment dysfunction in cervicogenic headache.  

PubMed

This study investigated the reliability of manual examination procedures and the frequency that each or multiple segments in the upper cervical spine above the C4 vertebra were the dominant source of pain in subjects with cervicogenic headache (CGH). Eighty subjects were evaluated, 60 with CGH (39 females, mean age 33 years) and arbitrarily a further 20 asymptomatic subjects (13 females, mean age 34 years) included to reduce examiner bias, but subsequently omitted from data analysis. Two experienced physiotherapists examined on the same day each subject with standard manual examination procedures, independently rating each segment in the upper cervical spine above the C4 vertebra for involvement. Examiners were blind to each other's findings and the subject's clinical status. Standard and adjusted Kappa coefficients were calculated for each segment in symptomatic subjects only. Chi-squared analysis for goodness of fit was used to identify the segment that was most frequently determined the predominant symptomatic segment. Manual examination above the C4 vertebra showed good reliability. The C1/2 segment was most commonly symptomatic, with a positive finding at this segment in 63% of cases. The high frequency of C1/2 involvement in CGH highlights the importance of examination and treatment procedures for this motion segment. PMID:20609613

Hall, Toby; Briffa, Kathy; Hopper, Diana; Robinson, Kim

2010-07-06

124

An investigation into the validity of cervical spine motion palpation using subjects with congenital block vertebrae as a 'gold standard'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of manipulative therapy for treating back and neck pain has been demonstrated, the validity of many of the procedures used to detect joint dysfunction has not been confirmed. Practitioners of manual medicine frequently employ motion palpation as a diagnostic tool, despite conflicting evidence regarding its utility and reliability. The introduction of various spinal models with artificially

Barry K Humphreys; Marianne Delahaye; Cynthia K Peterson

2004-01-01

125

Pathological fracture of a lumbar vertebra caused by rheumatoid arthritis – a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?We describe a case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with collapse of the L3 lumbar vertebra for which surgery was performed. The\\u000a pathogenesis of lumbar lesions affected by RA is discussed and the literature reviewed.

T. Nakase; K. Fujiwara; J. Kohno; H. Owaki; T. Tomita; K. Yonenobu; T. Ochi

1998-01-01

126

New Finds at the Swartkrans Australopithecine Site (contd): Two New Early Hominid Vertebrae from Swartkrans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last week Dr C. K. Brain introduced the Swartkrans cave site and described some recent discoveries there. Dr J. T. Robinson now describes two hominid vertebrae which he suggests belonged to a Poranthropus individual ; Mr R. J. Clarke, Dr F. Clark Howell and Dr C. K. Brain present evidence for the view that two different hominids once lived at

J. T. Robinson

1970-01-01

127

Anatomic considerations of the second sacral vertebra and dorsal screw placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct measurements and measurements from images of axial cross-sections on 20 cadaveric sacra that had been scanned on computer were used in this study. The measurements, including parameters from the vertebral body, lateral mass and spinal canal of the second sacral vertebra (S2) were performed. The length of the screw path and the optimal angulation of the screw placement for

N. A. Ebraheim; J. Lu; H. Yang; B. E. Heck; R. A. Yeasting

1998-01-01

128

Anatomic considerations of the second sacral vertebra and dorsal screw placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Direct measurements and measurements from images of axial cross-sections on 20 cadaveric sacra that had been scanned on computer were used in this study. The measurements, including parameters from the vertebral body, lateral mass and spinal canal of the second sacral vertebra (S2) were performed. The length of the screw path and the optimal angulation of the screw placement

N. A. Ebraheim; J. Lu; H. Yang; B. E. Heck; R. A. Yeasting

1997-01-01

129

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN THE SEQUENCE OF CAUDAL VERTEBRAE OF SOME TITANOSAUR SAUROPODS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

original English) In the proximal caudal vertebrae of many titanosaurs a variation in centrum morphology is observed, here interpreted as the result of a change in the distribution of caudofemoralis muscles. These changes involve the inclination and development of the lateral surfaces and the width of the ventral surface of the centrum. The lateral surfaces of caudals 7-8 of Titanosaurus

Leonardo SALGADO; Rodolfo GARCÍA

130

Efficacy analysis of pedicle screw internal fixation of fractured vertebrae in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to discuss the method and effect of posterior internal fixation of thoracolumbar fractures strengthened by the vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of fractured vertebrae. Patients with single thoracolumbar fractures were examined retrospectively. Fourteen patients (group A) had been treated with vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of a fractured vertebra and sixteen patients (group B) received traditional double-plate fixation, as a control. All patients were diagnosed with fresh fractures with a complete unilateral or bilateral pedicle and no explosion of the inferior half of the vertebral body or inferior endplate. In group A, patients received conventional posterior distraction and lumbar lordosis restoration, as well as pedicle screws in the fractured vertebra in a vertical direction to relieve stress to achieve a local stress balance. All patients were followed up postoperatively for 4–18 months (average, 12.6 months). The vertical stress pedicle screw fixation assisted in the reduction of vertebrae fracture, which reduced the postoperative Cobb’s angle loss. There was a significant difference in the change of Cobb’s angle between the two groups one year after surgery (P<0.01). Conditional application of pedicle screws in a single thoracolumbar fracture enhances the stability of the internal fixation system and is conducive to the correction of kyphosis and maintenance of the corrective effects.

HUANG, WEIJIE; LUO, TAO

2013-01-01

131

Biomechanics of Cervical"Skip' Corpectomy versus Standard Multilevel Corpectomy.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: In vitro biomechanical study of flexibility with finite element simulation to estimate screw stresses. OBJECTIVE:: To compare cervical spinal stability after a standard plated three-level corpectomy with stability after a plated three-level "skip" corpectomy where the middle vertebra is left intact (i.e., two one-level corpectomies), and to quantify pullout forces acting on the screws during various loading modes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: Clinically, three-level cervical plated corpectomy has a high rate of failure, partially because only four contact points affix the plate to the upper and lower intact vertebrae. Leaving the intermediate vertebral body intact for additional fixation points may overcome this problem while still allowing dural sac decompression. METHODS:: Quasistatic nonconstraining torque (maximum 1 Nm) induced flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation while angular motion was recorded stereophotogrammetrically. Specimens were tested intact and after corpectomy with standard plated and strut-grafted three-level corpectomy (7 specimens) or 'skip' corpectomy (7 specimens). Screw stresses were quantified using a validated finite element model of C3-C7 mimicking experimentally tested groups. Skip corpectomy with C5 screws omitted was also simulated. RESULTS:: Plated skip corpectomy tended to be more stable than plated standard corpectomy, but the difference was not significant. Compared to standard plated corpectomy, plated skip corpectomy reduced peak screw pull-out force during axial rotation (mode of loading of highest peak force) by 15% (4-screw attachment) and 19% (6-screw attachment). CONCLUSIONS:: Skip corpectomy is a good alternative to standard three-level corpectomy to improve stability, especially during lateral bending. Under pure moment loading, the screws of a cervical multilevel plate experience the highest pullout forces during axial rotation. Thus, limiting this movement in patients undergoing plated multilevel corpectomy may be reasonable, especially until solid fusion is achieved. PMID:22801457

Yilmaz, Murat; Yüksel, K Zafer; Baek, Seungwon; Sawa, Anna G U; Dalbayrak, Sedat; Sonntag, Volker K H; Crawford, Neil R

2012-07-13

132

Clinical and radiological morphometry of posterior parts of thoracic and lumbal vertebras.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to measure clinically important dimensions of thoracic and lumbal vertebras. Charts of one-hundred and seventeen patients with implanted internal fixateur on the thoracic and lumbal spine between 01.01. 2008. and 31.3.2010. at the Department for Orthopedics and Traumatology, of the Sarajevo Clinical center were retrieved, and only 14 patients, with 46 vetrtebras and 89 pedicles have had complete documentation (clearly visible measured structures on X-ray and CT scans). Digitalized antero-posterior and latero-lateral X-ray, and transversal and sagital CT scans were basic inputs for measurement of height and width of the pedicle--PH, PW, axial and vertical cortico-cortical transpedicular distances--AL, VL, and interpedicular distance--IP. The correction of enlargement on X-ray pictures was performed according to known dimensions of implants and length scale on CT scans. Enlargement of those parameters, from T1 to L5 level was from 50 to 150%. This increasing was not always linear, sometimes there was even decreasing. For instance, the IP on second and third thoracic vertebra was shorter compared to the first thoracic vertebra. Pedicles from the third to the eighth thoracic vertebra were narrower compared to the second thoracic vertebra. The importance of this work is in to analyze the mentioned dimensions by methods available to the clinician. Every other in vivo measurement is impossible because of the excessive surgical approach, while preoperative CT scanning with a great number of slices per one millimeter for this purpose is not ethical. PMID:23390827

Bis?evi?, Mirza; Bis?evi?, Sejla; Ljuca, Farid; Smrke, Barbara U R; Kapur, Eldan; Tezer, Mehmet; Smrke, Dragica

2012-12-01

133

L5 vertebrectomy for the surgical treatment of tumoral and traumatic lesions of L5 vertebra  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics and the surgical results of seven patients treated with L5 vertebrectomy. The pathologies, clinical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative radiological findings, surgical techniques, and instrumentation for seven patients operated on between 1998 and 2009 are presented in this article. Biopsies were performed on all patients except those involving trauma. Patients were followed up at three-month intervals in the first year, at 6-month intervals in the second year, and on a regular basis afterward. One patient had a traumatic L5 burst fracture; the other six had tumoral pathologies in the L5 vertebrae. One tumoral lesion was a chordoma, another was a hemangioma, and the remaining four were metastatic lesions. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy were performed for the metastatic tumor patients during the postoperative period. Patients with renal cancer and chordoma survived for 3 years; patients with lung cancer and bladder cancer survived for 1 year; and patients with breast cancer survived for 16 months. The lumbosacral region presents significant stabilization problems because of the presence of sacral slope. In our opinion, if the lesion involves only the L5 vertebra, anterior cage-filled bone cement or bone graft should be performed, as dictated by the pathology and posterior transpedicular instrumentation. If the lesion involves the L4 vertebra or the sacrum and the L5 vertebra, the instrumentation can be extended to cover other segments with sacral attachments. The present cases involved only L5 vertebra and treatment with short-segment stabilization covering the anterior and posterior columns.

Kaner, Tuncay; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Ozer, Ali Fahir

2012-01-01

134

Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is characterized with weakness and wasting of upper limb muscles without sensory or lower\\u000a limb involvement. Two different mechanisms have been proposed in the pathophysiology of cervical spondylotic amyotrophy. One\\u000a is selective damage to the ventral root or the anterior horn, and the other is vascular insufficiency to the anterior horn\\u000a cell. Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is classified

Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2011-01-01

135

Baguera cervical disc prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high performance tool, the disc prosthesis, endows the degenerative cervical rachidian pathology. It allows us to fill\\u000a the fusions’ lacunas by protecting the adjacent levels from an accelerated degeneration while preserving the anatomical and\\u000a physiological characteristics of the cervical spine, especially its mobility. At the present time, there exist several models\\u000a of cervical disc prosthesis on the market.

M. Benmekhbi; J. Mortada; G. Lungu; D. Eichler; R. Srour; J. M. Vital

2008-01-01

136

Cervical Radiculopathy: Surgical Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

... Copyright 2010 American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Cervical Radiculopathy: Surgical Treatment Options When symptoms of cervical radiculopathy persist or worsen despite nonsurgical treatments, surgical options ...

137

Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females  

PubMed Central

Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall’s tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. Conclusion The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor.

Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

2012-01-01

138

Bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of the fourth lumbar vertebra: a case report  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spondylolysis, a well known cause of low back pain, usually affects the pars interarticularis of a lower lumbar vertebra and rarely involves the articular processes. We report a rare case of bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4 vertebra that caused spinal canal stenosis with a significant segmental instability at L4/5 and scoliosis. A 31-year-old male who had suffered from low back pain since he was a teenager presented with numbness of the right lower leg and scoliosis. Plain X-rays revealed bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4, anterolisthesis of the L4 vertebral body, and right lateral wedging of the L4/5 disc with compensatory scoliosis in the cephalad portion of the spine. MR images revealed spinal canal stenosis at the L4/5 disc level. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion of the L4/5 was performed, and his symptoms were relieved.

Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

2012-01-01

139

Bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of the fourth lumbar vertebra: a case report.  

PubMed

Lumbar spondylolysis, a well known cause of low back pain, usually affects the pars interarticularis of a lower lumbar vertebra and rarely involves the articular processes. We report a rare case of bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4 vertebra that caused spinal canal stenosis with a significant segmental instability at L4/5 and scoliosis. A 31-year-old male who had suffered from low back pain since he was a teenager presented with numbness of the right lower leg and scoliosis. Plain X-rays revealed bilateral spondylolysis of inferior articular processes of L4, anterolisthesis of the L4 vertebral body, and right lateral wedging of the L4/5 disc with compensatory scoliosis in the cephalad portion of the spine. MR images revealed spinal canal stenosis at the L4/5 disc level. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion of the L4/5 was performed, and his symptoms were relieved. PMID:22111522

Koakutsu, Tomoaki; Morozumi, Naoki; Hoshikawa, Takeshi; Ogawa, Shinji; Ishii, Yushin; Itoi, Eiji

2011-11-23

140

Observations on the current and future surgical management of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae.  

PubMed

Five cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are described. Clinical features, radiologic appearance, and poor prognosis are emphasized. Four patients had some degree of neurologic deficit at the time of presentation and in three cases there was an increasing kyphosis. In two patients, spinal instrumentation with Harrington apparatus supplemented removal of hydatid material, and its use improved the previous neurologic deficit with stabilization of kyphosis. The antihelmintic drug mebendazole was used in two cases. PMID:3787324

Levack, B; Kernohan, J; Edgar, M A; Ransford, A O

141

Heterogeneity of bone mineral density and fatigue failure of human vertebrae.  

PubMed

There is increasing interest in using the heterogeneity of tissue properties in a bone for predicting its fracture risk. Heterogeneity of volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is of particular interest as these measurements are clinically feasible. Previous examinations of the relationship between the BMD heterogeneity and the mechanical behavior of human vertebrae only considered quasistatic strength and were with limited number of samples. McCubbrey et al. (1995) studied the value of regional BMDs for predicting vertebral fatigue life, determined from short-cycle tests at force levels scaled with the estimated strength of the vertebra, but the focus of that work was in best predictor subsets without a specific focus on the heterogeneity of BMD or the positive vs negative direction of the relationships. The previous analysis also did not take into account the censored nature of the fatigue life data. As such, whether BMD heterogeneity is positively or negatively associated with fatigue life and whether this is independent of the average or minimum BMD are not clear. In the present work, we revisited the McCubbrey data for a preliminary examination of the relationship between BMD heterogeneity and fatigue life using survival analysis. The analysis suggests that BMD heterogeneity measured as the intra-vertebral standard deviation of BMDs in a vertebra is negatively associated with short cycle (high-amplitude) fatigue life independent of the average BMD. The results motivate further studies on the role of BMD heterogeneity in fatigue failure and clinical fracture risk of human vertebrae. PMID:23538003

Yeni, Yener N; Poisson, Laila M; Flynn, Michael J

2013-03-26

142

Heterogeneous computing for vertebra detection and segmentation in x-ray images.  

PubMed

The context of this work is related to the vertebra segmentation. The method we propose is based on the active shape model (ASM). An original approach taking advantage of the edge polygonal approximation was developed to locate the vertebra positions in a X-ray image. Despite the fact that segmentation results show good efficiency, the time is a key variable that has always to be optimized in a medical context. Therefore, we present how vertebra extraction can efficiently be performed in exploiting the full computing power of parallel (GPU) and heterogeneous (multi-CPU/multi-GPU) architectures. We propose a parallel hybrid implementation of the most intensive steps enabling to boost performance. Experimentations have been conducted using a set of high-resolution X-ray medical images, showing a global speedup ranging from 3 to 22, by comparison with the CPU implementation. Data transfer times between CPU and GPU memories were included in the execution times of our proposed implementation. PMID:21860613

Lecron, Fabian; Mahmoudi, Sidi Ahmed; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd; Manneback, Pierre

2011-08-09

143

Enhanced detection of the vertebrae in 2D CT-images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, a considerable amount of methods have been proposed for detecting and reconstructing the spine and the vertebrae from CT and MR scans. The results are either used for examining the vertebrae or serve as a preprocessing step for further detection and annotation tasks. In this paper, we propose a method for reliably detecting the position of the vertebrae on a single slice of a transversal body CT scan. Thus, our method is not restricted by the available portion of the 3D scan, but even suffices with a single 2D image. A further advantage of our method is that detection does not require adjusting parameters or direct user interaction. Technically, our method is based on an imaging pipeline comprising five steps: The input image is preprocessed. The relevant region of the image is extracted. Then, a set of candidate locations is selected based on bone density. In the next step, image features are extracted from the surrounding of the candidate locations and an instance-based learning approach is used for selecting the best candidate. Finally, a refinement step optimizes the best candidate region. Our proposed method is validated on a large diverse data set of more than 8 000 images and improves the accuracy in terms of area overlap and distance from the true position significantly compared to the only other method being proposed for this task so far.

Graf, Franz; Greil, Robert; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Schubert, Matthias; Cavallaro, Alexander

2012-02-01

144

Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

2006-03-01

145

Mechanical properties of sand tiger shark (Carcharias taurus) vertebrae in relation to spinal deformity.  

PubMed

Approximately 35% of sand tiger sharks (Carcharias taurus) in public aquaria exhibit spinal deformities ranging from compressed vertebrae and loss of intervertebral space to dislocated spines with vertebral degeneration and massive spondylosis caused by excessive mineralization both within vertebrae and outside the notochordal sheath. To identify the mechanical basis of these deformities, vertebral centra from affected (N=12) and non-affected (N=9) C. taurus were subjected to axial compression tests on an MTS 858 Bionix material testing system, after which mineral content was determined. Vertebral centra from affected sharks had significantly lower mineral content and material behavior in nearly all variables characterizing elasticity, plasticity and failure. These mechanical deficiencies are correlated with size at capture, capture method, vitamin C and zinc deficiency, aquarium size and swimming behavior in public aquaria. Non-affected C. taurus had greater stiffness and toughness even though these properties are generally incompatible in mineralized structures, suggesting that the biphasic (mineralized, unmineralized phases) nature of chondrichthyan vertebrae yields material behavior not otherwise observed in vertebrate skeletons. However, vertebral centra from non-affected sharks had lower mineral content (33%), stiffness (167 MPa), yield strain (14%) and ultimate strength (16 MPa) than other species of sharks and bony vertebrates, indicating that biomechanical precautions must be taken in the husbandry of this species. PMID:23997197

Huber, Daniel R; Neveu, Danielle E; Stinson, Charlotte M; Anderson, Paul A; Berzins, Ilze K

2013-08-30

146

Revised Vertebral Count in the "Longest-Necked Vertebrate" Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and Clarification of the Cervical-Dorsal Transition in Plesiosauria  

PubMed Central

Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a “lost” cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term “pectorals” to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length). This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the “longest necked” animals ever to have lived.

Sachs, Sven; Kear, Benjamin P.; Everhart, Michael J.

2013-01-01

147

A QCT Based Nonlinear Finite Element Method Proposed for Predicting Failure Initiation Load and Locationin Vertebrae Affected by Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this study was to present an effective specimen-specific approach for predicting failure initiation load and location\\u000a incadaveric vertebrae with simulated osteo-lytic defects. Nine thoraco-lumbar vertebrae excised from three cadavers were used\\u000a as the samples in which the defects were simulated. The samples were then scanned using the QCT and their sectional images\\u000a were segmentated and converted into

A. Zeinali; B. Hashemi

148

Cervical spine injury.  

PubMed

Once a child is determined to be at risk of having a cervical spine injury, clinicians must take appropriate precautions to avoid potential worsening of neurologic deficits. Occasionally these decisions are made in the absence of adequate cervical spine imaging when dealing with a child's unstable airway or other life-threatening injuries. Furthermore, clinicians have to make decisions regarding appropriate diagnostic testing to evaluate for potential injury. Decisions regarding testing should take into consideration the clinical presentation of the patient, aiming to order appropriate testing for those at risk and avoid unnecessary testing for those without signs of cervical spine injury. PMID:24093899

Leonard, Julie C

2013-08-20

149

Evaluation of traumatic lateral cervical spine computed radiography images: quality control acceptability of images for clinical diagnosis, hardcopy versus high-resolution monitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computed radiography images of 100 randomly selected traumatic cervical spine series were evaluated. The studies were reviewed on the laser printed hardcopy and 2K monitor soft copy images. In addition to the cervical vertebrae, the cervico-thoracic vertebral body interface must be recognized for a lateral c-spine image to be acceptable. The level of visualization of the spine was on average, 1/2 vertebral body better on the monitor than the hardcopy image. In 8% of cases, this improve visualization allowed clearance of the lateral cervical spine thereby expediting patient care in this critical area. This presentation will cover the quality of images and techniques to improve the success rate for clearing the cervical spine.

Leckie, Robert G.; Sheehy, Monet R.; Cade, Lawrence; Goeringer, Fred; Meyers, Chris A.; Parker, James E.; Smith, Donald V.; Freedman, Matthew T.

1993-06-01

150

Cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy: clinical evaluation and surgical treatment.  

PubMed Central

The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result in early degenerative changes of the vertebrae which may enhance the radiculo-myelopathy. The four patients were treated with an anterior discectomy with interbody fusion. They were bedridden pre-operatively but all have since been able to walk with or without a cane. It is concluded that early anterior decompression with interbody fusion is a treatment of choice for cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in association with athetoid cerebral palsy. Images

Hirose, G; Kadoya, S

1984-01-01

151

Cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy: clinical evaluation and surgical treatment.  

PubMed

The acute onset of symptoms of severe cervical radiculo-myelopathy in four patients with athetoid-dystonic cerebral palsy is reported. Neurological and radiological examination showed that the spondylotic changes of the cervical spine were responsible for new neurological deficits leading to the patients being bedridden. Dystonic-athetoid neck movements may cause excessive axial neck rotation as well as flexion and extension movements of the spine. These repetitive exaggerated movements may result in early degenerative changes of the vertebrae which may enhance the radiculo-myelopathy. The four patients were treated with an anterior discectomy with interbody fusion. They were bedridden pre-operatively but all have since been able to walk with or without a cane. It is concluded that early anterior decompression with interbody fusion is a treatment of choice for cervical spondylotic radiculo-myelopathy in association with athetoid cerebral palsy. PMID:6470718

Hirose, G; Kadoya, S

1984-08-01

152

Multiple hydatid cysts of the neck, the nasopharynx and the skull base revealing cervical vertebral hydatid disease.  

PubMed

Hydatid disease is caused by the parasitic tapeworm Echinococcus. This parasite in larval stage can thrive in many parts of the body, most commonly in the liver and the lung. Hydatid disease in the head and neck is uncommon and hydatid cyst presents rarely as a cervical mass. Cervical vertebral echinococcosis is rare. We report a 14-year-old girl with multiple cervical spine hydatid cysts of the C1-C2 vertebrae that spread into the surrounding paravertebral tissues and involve the nasopharynx and the skull base particularly the left jugular foramen. This process has caused a progressive swelling in the left side of the neck located in the retrostyloid compartment of the parapharyngeal space with paralysis of cranial nerves (VI, IX, X, XI, XII). The diagnosis was made based on the image obtained from CT and MRI examinations. Characteristics of this rare disease, diagnosis and treatment difficulty are discussed. PMID:12745160

El Kohen, Asma; Benjelloun, Abdelaziz; El Quessar, Abdeljalil; Derraz, Said; Lazrak, Abdenasser; Jazouli, Nezha; Kzadri, Mohamed

2003-06-01

153

Morphometric analyses of the cervical superior facets and implications for facet dislocation.  

PubMed

The articular facets of the cervical spine have been well addressed; however, little information is available on the relationship of the superior facets of the cervical spine to traumatic dislocation in the literature. Morphometric analyses of the superior facets of 30 dried cervical spines from C3 to C7 were performed to determine any morphological differences. The angle of the superior facet with respect to the transverse plane was also measured on computed tomography (CT) scans of 30 patients having neck injury without fracture/dislocation. The vertical and surface lengths of the superior facet were significantly lower (P < 0.01) at C6-C7 levels than at C3-5 levels. The anteroposterior diameter of the superior facet was smaller (P < 0.05) at C6 and C7 levels compared to C3-5 levels. Although the superior facet joint surface is in a more coronal orientation in lower cervical vertebrae, the inclination of the superior facet is more horizontal relative to the transverse plane when measured in vivo. A combination of lower height, smaller anteroposterior diameter of the superior facet, and a more horizontally oriented superior facet at C6 and C7 levels in vivo may explain the predilection of translation relative to one another in the lower cervical spine. PMID:17111154

Ebraheim, Nabil A; Patil, Vishwas; Liu, Jiayong; Haman, Steve P; Yeasting, Richard A

2006-11-17

154

What Is Cervical Cancer?  

MedlinePLUS

... About 80% to 90% of cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. These cancers develop in the squamous cells that ... up of cells that are like squamous cells. Squamous cell carcinomas most often begin where the exocervix joins the ...

155

The cervical cap (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The cervical cap is a flexible rubber cup-like device that is filled with spermicide and self-inserted over the cervix ... left in place several hours after intercourse. The cap is a prescribed device fitted by a health ...

156

Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

157

Cervical cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections that are causally associated with invasive cervical cancer\\u000a may be within our grasp, it is unlikely that these approaches will replace existing cervical cancer screening strategies for\\u000a many years. Experts agree and data support periodic cytology screening for young-adult women using one of several technologies.\\u000a Recent analyses of cost-effectiveness suggest that the

Dorothy J. Wiley; Bradley J. Monk; Emmanuel Masongsong; Kristina Morgan

2004-01-01

158

[Cervical discopathy, cervical migraine and vertebrobasilar arterial insufficiency: Clinical correlations].  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of cervical migraine may suggest that a connection exists between it and cervical discopathy and also vertebrobasilar arterial insufficiency. This correlation was studied in a group of 103 patients subjected to clinical observations. In 83 of them cervical discopathy was found, in 69 cervical migraine and in 40 vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present. Among those with discopathy migraine was present in 63.6% of cases, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency in 31%. In patients with cervical migraine degenerative changes of the type of cervical discopathy were present in 90% of cases, although in only 56.5% of cases clinical signs were present connected with these changes. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency was present in 45% of patients with cervical migraine, that is more frequently than in discopathy. In the group with vertebrobasilar insufficiency radiological changes in the cervical spine were present in 77.5% of cases and the same proportion of patients in this group had cervical migraine. These numbers confirm the connection between cervical migraine and radiological changes and clinical manifestations of discopathy, and they indicate also that cervical migraine may be a successive stage of vascular changes leading to circulatory failure in the area supplied by vertebral arteries. This failure may have a different course and pathological mechanism. In 12.5% of patients in this group no cervical migraine or radiological changes were demonstrated. The term "cervical migraine" seems inappropriate since this type of headache has another substrate and mechanism than true migraine. PMID:714220

Domza?, T; Zaleska, B; Kwasucki, J

159

The vertebrae of prematurely aging mice as a skeletal model of involutional osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress in bone increases with age, which leads to bone frailty and a high fracture risk. Animal models show that early changes in trabecular structure occur in age-related osteopenia. These models might be valuable to assess the contribution of oxidative stress in age-related bone loss. Premature aging mice (PAM) have previously been characterized as a model of premature immunological and neurological senescence. PAM long bones (mainly consisting of cortical bone) display features of aging bone. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the vertebrae, representing a unique poorly loaded type of trabecular bone in mice, in PAM and no PAM (NPAM) controls. PAM showed an anxious behaviour, based on physical activity evaluation. These mice had decreased bone mineral density (0.078 mg/cm² in NPAM vs 0.070 g/cm² in PAM; p?0.05); a decreased number of osteocytes per bone field (404±36 in NPAM vs 320±27 in PAM; p?0.01); and downregulation of various osteoblastic genes and low eroded surface/bone surface, 4.2±0.5 in NPAM vs 1.9±0.2 in PAM; p?0.01). This was associated with increased expression of oxidative stress markers, Foxo1 and GADD45, in PAM vertebrae. Mesenchymal progenitors in the bone marrow of PAM have a poor mineralization capacity (assessed by the number of mineralized nodules and suface), and showed a lower response to an osteogenic input -represented by parathormone-related protein-, compared to NPAM. Collectively, these results indicate that PAM vertebrae show osteopenia related to diminished bone formation and remodeling. Our findings further support the validity of PAM as a suitable model for involutional osteoporosis and its treatment. PMID:23673876

Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Cruces, Julia; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Irene; Lozano, Daniel; Ardura, Juan Antonio; Villanueva-Peñacarrillo, María L; De la Fuente, Mónica; Esbrit, Pedro

2013-05-15

160

Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).  

PubMed

Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

2006-09-01

161

Stabilisation with dorsal and ventral fixation of a traumatic cervical instability in a dog.  

PubMed

This case study reports the outcome of dorsal and ventral stabilisation of a traumatic cervical instability in a dog. A 2-year-old, male Pointer was admitted following a motor vehicle accident. Clinical examination revealed non-ambulatory tetraparesis, severe neck pain and upper motor neuron changes in all limbs. Deep pain response was present. Subluxation of C2/3 and fractures of the dorsal spinous process and lamina of C2 were observed on radiographs. Ventral stabilisation was performed with screws and bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate). For dorsal fixation of the fractures, screws and cerclage wire were used. The dog stood up independently after 1 month, was able to walk 1.5 months postoperatively and had recovered completely at 1 year following surgery. We conclude that combined stabilisation techniques are effective for this type of cervical fracture in which the dorsal, middle and ventral structures of the vertebra are severely disrupted. PMID:19796163

Ozak, A; Nisbet, H O; Yardimci, C; Sirin, Y S

2009-10-01

162

Complementary angles. A simplification of sagittal plane rotational assessment in cervical instability.  

PubMed

The use of complementary angle measurement improves the physician's ability to quantify the magnitude of the angle of rotation directly. By constructing a right triangle, with its base determined by the inferior end plate of the vertebral body, the angle of sagittal plane rotation can be determined readily. A perpendicular line drawn from the inferior end plate of the vertebra to the adjacent superior vertebra's inferior end plate will create an acute angle. This angle is complementary to the angle of sagittal plane rotation for this motion segment. The sum of two complementary angles, the acute angle described and the angle of sagittal plane rotation is equal to 90. Assessment of cervical spinal stability is crucial to the physician caring for traumatized patients. A checklist previously was developed by others to evaluate spinal stability; this relied heavily on the findings of routine lateral radiographs. Differences in the angle of sagittal plane rotational of greater than 11 between adjacent vertebra were equivalent to two points on this checklist, and five points or more suggested instability. PMID:8516706

Knight, R Q

1993-05-01

163

Induction of osteosarcomas in mouse lumbar vertebrae by repeated external beta-irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Besides skin tumors, osteosarcomas were induced at high frequency in the lumbar vertebrae of ICR mice by repeated local external irradiation of the back with /sup 90/Sr-/sup 90/Y beta-rays when irradiation was repeated three times a week until tumors appeared. The optimum dose range for osteosarcoma induction was 250-350 cGy per exposure at the surface of the back, or 125-175 cGy at the depth of the center of the bone. With the same irradiation schedule, the optimal dose of radiation for induction of osteosarcomas was much lower than that for induction of skin tumors.

Ootsuyama, A.; Tanooka, H.

1989-03-15

164

Chiropractic management of a patient with low back pain and Castellvi type II lumbosacral transitional vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to report the chiropractic management of a patient with low back pain and Castellvi type II lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV). Clinical Features A patient with previously undiagnosed LSTV presented with moderate low back pain. Interventions and Outcome Manual therapy, soft tissue therapy, and exercise/stretching were included in the initial treatment plan. Following a short course of treatment, the presenting symptoms resolved; however, they returned after 3 symptom-free months. At that time, radiographs were ordered and the LSTV were identified. Following another course of chiropractic care, the patient's symptoms resolved. Conclusions Chiropractic management resulted in resolution of symptoms for this patient with LSTV.

Muir, Jeffrey M.

2012-01-01

165

Sensitivity analysis for registration of vertebrae in ultrasound and computed tomography images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 250,000 lumbar spin operations are performed annually in the United States. Because of this large number of projected surgeries, improvements in surgical procedures can have a tremendous practical impact. We are developing a method to quickly and accurately register surface points extracted from ultrasound images of a vertebra to surfaces extracted from computed tomography images. Identification of surface points in ultrasound images is a challenging task, since points must be extracted in real time and sine large portions of the vertebral surface are invisible in the ultrasound image.

Herring, Jeannette L.; Maurer, Calvin R.; Dawant, Benoit M.

1998-06-01

166

Operative Treatment of Cervical Myelopathy: Cervical Laminoplasty  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is a degenerative process which may result in clinical signs and symptoms which require surgical intervention. Many treatment options have been proposed with various degrees of technical difficulty and technique sensitive benefits. We review laminoplasty as a motion-sparing posterior decompressive method. Current literature supports the use of laminoplasty for indicated decompression. We also decribe our surgical technique for an open-door, or “hinged”, laminoplasty.

Braly, Brett A.; Lunardini, David; Cornett, Chris; Donaldson, William F.

2012-01-01

167

Orofacial manual therapy improves cervical movement impairment associated with headache and features of temporomandibular dysfunction: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

There is evidence that temporomandibular disorder (TMD) may be a contributing factor to cervicogenic headache (CGH), in part because of the influence of dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint on the cervical spine. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether orofacial treatment in addition to cervical manual therapy, was more effective than cervical manual therapy alone on measures of cervical movement impairment in patients with features of CGH and signs of TMD. In this study, 43 patients (27 women) with headache for more than 3-months and with some features of CGH and signs of TMD were randomly assigned to receive either cervical manual therapy (usual care) or orofacial manual therapy to address TMD in addition to usual care. Subjects were assessed at baseline, after 6 treatment sessions (3-months), and at 6-months follow-up. 38 subjects (25 female) completed all analysis at 6-months follow-up. The outcome criteria were: cervical range of movement (including the C1-2 flexion-rotation test) and manual examination of the upper 3 cervical vertebra. The group that received orofacial treatment in addition to usual care showed significant reduction in all aspects of cervical impairment after the treatment period. These improvements persisted to the 6-month follow-up, but were not observed in the usual care group at any point. These observations together with previous reports indicate that manual therapists should look for features of TMD when examining patients with headache, particularly if treatment fails when directed to the cervical spine. PMID:23415640

von Piekartz, Harry; Hall, Toby

2013-02-14

168

COL11A1 gene is associated with limbus vertebra in gymnasts.  

PubMed

Several studies have shown higher frequencies of radiological abnormalities among gymnasts. Recently, the gene encoding the ?1 chain of type XI collagen, (COL11A1) (rs 1676486), was associated with lumbar disc herniation in the Japanese population. We hypothesized that there was a significant relationship between abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the lumbar spine and the COL11A1 4603C/T gene polymorphism in collegiate gymnasts. Our study participants included 103 Japanese collegiate gymnasts (70 men and 33 women). Radiological abnormalities were evaluated using T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Genotyping for COL11A1 was performed for all the participants. By using logistic regression analysis, we observed significant associations between limbus vertebra and age (adjusted odds ratio=0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.96), sporting experience (adjusted odds ratio=1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.14-1.94), and a TT genotype (adjusted odds ratio=7.83, 95% confidence interval: 1.33-46.03). We conclude that a TT genotype of COL11A1 polymorphism may be a significant risk factor for limbus vertebra in Japanese collegiate gymnasts. PMID:22510797

Koyama, K; Nakazato, K; Min, S; Gushiken, K; Hatakeda, Y; Seo, K; Hiranuma, K

2012-04-17

169

Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

2013-10-01

170

Remodelling of bone and bones: growth of normal and transplanted caudal vertebrae.  

PubMed Central

Changes in the rate of growth, shape and structure of the 8th, 16th and 22nd caudal vertebrae of 4 and 24-27 days old Sprague-Dawley rats were studied in situ and in three different non-functional transplantation sites for 12 weeks. With increasing size, maturity and age the three vertebrae showed progressively decreasing growth, changes in shape and structural abnormalities. The smallest anlages grew faster and matured sooner than normal, so that their length equalled that of controls. Central endochondral necrosis in older bones was associated with decreased longitudinal growth but in some younger ones, despite a perforation of the cartilage and herniation of the nucleus pulposus into the marrow cavity of the shaft, growth proceeded at near normal rates. The free ends of older, larger transplants grew faster than the abutting ends joined by joint connective tissue, indicating that central necrosis of cartilage resulted from impaired nutrient diffusion. The results suggest that the cartilage model may possess an inherent capacity to produce a certain limited amount of bone tissue which may be distributed either in the form of long and thin or short and inwaisted bones, depending on the balance of forces between interstitial cartilage expansion and the restraining ensheathing periosteal-perichondrial tissues. This basic form may be modified further by functional forces. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 9

Feik, S A; Storey, E

1983-01-01

171

Tracheal injury added to cervical bone destruction due to the impact of hitting the water surface: four immersed adult bodies.  

PubMed

In the forensic examinations of cases of falling, two properties of the water surface, namely its nature as a hard, flat object and as a soft and ungraspable substance must be appreciated. Namely, at the moment of impact, the water surface exerts a greater resistance against relatively broad areas like the head, face and trunk than against the extremities that have a small area. Therefore, total resistance against the whole body would promote flexure. We experienced 72 autopsy cases of immersed bodies during a 4-year period. The cause of death for 64 of these with or without cervical vertebra fracture was drowning. In these cases, the various heights of the falls could often be estimated at the scene. A characteristic pattern of cervical injury with involvement of hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage in addition to cervical vertebra fracture plus rare involvement of the trachea was identified. When a fall from a relatively low height is broken by the water surface, to a certain degree physical findings that differ from those seen in falls to the ground from extreme heights are left mediated by different underlying mechanisms. PMID:23465544

Zuka, Masahiko; Ohshima, Tohru

2013-03-01

172

Manipulation of the cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In New Zealand, a new approach to manual therapy of the cervical spine has integrated physiotherapy and osteopathy techniques. The combination of the philosophies of these two professions has added a new dimension to the management of cervical spine pain. Emphasis is placed on issues of safety, such as the degree of cervical rotation and comfort for both the patient

W. A Hing; D. A Reid; M Monaghan

2003-01-01

173

Cervical hibernoma and lipoblastomatosis.  

PubMed

Lipoblastoma and lipoblastomatosis are rare benign soft-tissue tumoral lesions resembling fetal adipose tissue. A total of 16 cases of lipoblastoma of the neck were reported in the literature, and only 3 were described in the posterior side of the neck. Hibernoma is a rare benign adipose tumor composed of brown fat cells and only about ten cases occurring in the cervical area have been reported. We reported two rare cases of adipose tissue tumors. The first case was a male infant aged 12 months who had a cervical mass on the posterior side of the neck. He underwent a complete resection of the lesion and the pathologic study revealed lipoblastomatosis. The second case was a 36-year-old man with an anterior cervical mass, which moved with swallowing. A resection was made and the histological analysis showed hibernoma. PMID:23579754

Nardi, Carlos Eduardo Molinari; Barreto, Leonardo; Carvalho, Leda Viegas de; Guimarães, André Vicente

2013-03-01

174

Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation  

PubMed Central

Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra, tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak rotations and anterior sliding (displacement of upper articulating facet surface along the lower), separation and compression (displacement of upper facet away from and towards the lower), and lateral shear were determined at the anterior and posterior edges of the right and left facets and statistically compared (P < 0.05). First, peak facet separation occurred, and was significantly greater at the left posterior facet edge, as compared to the anterior edges. Next, peak flexion rotation and anterior facet sliding occurred, followed by peak facet compression. The highest average facet translation peaks were 22.0 mm for anterior sliding, 7.9 mm for separation, 9.9 mm for compression and 3.6 mm for lateral shear. The highest average rotation of 63° occurred in flexion, significantly greater than all other directions. These events occurred, on average, within 0.29 s following impact. During BFD, the main sagittal motions included facet separation, flexion rotation, anterior sliding, followed by compression, however, non-sagittal motions also existed. These motions indicated that unilateral dislocation may precede bilateral dislocation.

Panjabi, Manohar M.; Simpson, Andrew K.; Pearson, Adam M.; Tominaga, Yasuhiro; Yue, James J.

2007-01-01

175

Automatic localization of target vertebrae in spine surgery using fast CT-to-fluoroscopy (3D-2D) image registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Localization of target vertebrae is an essential step in minimally invasive spine surgery, with conventional methods relying on "level counting" - i.e., manual counting of vertebrae under fluoroscopy starting from readily identifiable anatomy (e.g., the sacrum). The approach requires an undesirable level of radiation, time, and is prone to counting errors due to the similar appearance of vertebrae in projection images; wrong-level surgery occurs in 1 of every ~3000 cases. This paper proposes a method to automatically localize target vertebrae in x-ray projections using 3D-2D registration between preoperative CT (in which vertebrae are preoperatively labeled) and intraoperative fluoroscopy. The registration uses an intensity-based approach with a gradient-based similarity metric and the CMA-ES algorithm for optimization. Digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) and a robust similarity metric are computed on GPU to accelerate the process. Evaluation in clinical CT data included 5,000 PA and LAT projections randomly perturbed to simulate human variability in setup of mobile intraoperative C-arm. The method demonstrated 100% success for PA view (projection error: 0.42mm) and 99.8% success for LAT view (projection error: 0.37mm). Initial implementation on GPU provided automatic target localization within about 3 sec, with further improvement underway via multi-GPU. The ability to automatically label vertebrae in fluoroscopy promises to streamline surgical workflow, improve patient safety, and reduce wrong-site surgeries, especially in large patients for whom manual methods are time consuming and error prone.

Otake, Y.; Schafer, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Zbijewski, W.; Kleinszig, G.; Graumann, R.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2012-02-01

176

3D reconstruction of the lumbar vertebrae from anteroposterior and lateral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.  

PubMed

Current vertebral fracture prevention measures use Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) to quantify the density of the vertebrae and subsequently determine the risk of fracture. This modality however only provides information about the projected Bone Mineral Density (BMD) while the shape and spatial distribution of the bone determines the strength of the vertebrae. Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) allows for the measurement of the vertebral dimensions and volumetric densities, which have been shown to be able to determine the fracture risk more reliably than DXA. However, for the high cost and high radiation dose, QCT is not used in clinical routine for fracture risk assessment. In this work, we therefore propose a method to reconstruct the 3D shape and density volume of lumbar vertebrae from an anteroposterior (AP) and lateral DXA image used in clinical routine. The method is evaluated for the L2, L3 and L4 vertebra. Of these vertebrae a statistical model of the vertebral shape and density distribution is first constructed from a large dataset of QCT scans. All three models are then simultaneously registered onto both AP and lateral DXA image. The shape and volumetric BMD at several regions of the reconstructed vertebrae is then evaluated with respect to the ground truth QCT volumes. For the L2, L3 and L4 vertebrae respectively the shape was reconstructed with a mean (2RMS) point-to-surface distance of 1.00 (2.64) mm, 0.93(2.52) mm and 1.34(3.72) mm and a strong correlation (r > 0.82) was found between the trabecular volumetric BMD extracted from the reconstructions and from the same subject QCT scans. These results indicate that the proposed method is able to accurately reconstruct the 3D shape and density volume of the lumbar vertebrae from AP and lateral DXA, which can potentially improve the fracture risk estimation accuracy with respect to the currently used DXA derived areal BMD measurements. PMID:23466075

Whitmarsh, Tristan; Humbert, Ludovic; Del Río Barquero, Luis M; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Frangi, Alejandro F

2013-02-13

177

Cervical motion segment replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

When symptoms bring to light a cervical spine degenerative disc process that requires surgical intervention, a symptom relieving procedure such as decompression, followed by functional restoration, arthroplasty, offers the benefit of prophylaxis of accelerated spondylosis at the operated level. In addition, by altering the biomechanical stress factors at adjacent levels, theoretically it should offer prophylactic benefit at these levels as

Vincent E. Bryan Jr; J Goffin; A Casey; P Kehr; K Liebig; C Logroscino; F Van Calenbergh; J van Loon; Universitaire Ziekenhuizen

2002-01-01

178

5. Cervical facet pain.  

PubMed

More than 50% of patients presenting to a pain clinic with neck pain may suffer from facet-related pain. The most common symptom is unilateral pain without radiation to the arm. Rotation and retroflexion are frequently painful or limited. The history should exclude risk factors for serious underlying pathology (red flags). Radiculopathy may be excluded with neurologic testing. Direct correlation between degenerative changes observed with plain radiography, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging and pain has not been proven. Conservative treatment options for cervical facet pain such as physiotherapy, manipulation, and mobilization, although supported by little evidence, are frequently applied before considering interventional treatments. Interventional pain management techniques, including intra-articular steroid injections, medial branch blocks, and radiofrequency treatment, may be considered (0). At present, there is no evidence to support cervical intra-articular corticosteroid injection. When applied, this should be done in the context of a study. Therapeutic repetitive medial branch blocks, with or without corticosteroid added to the local anesthetic, result in a comparable short-term pain relief (2 B+). Radiofrequency treatment of the ramus medialis of the cervical ramus dorsalis (facet) may be considered. The evidence to support its use in the management of degenerative cervical facet joint pain is derived from observational studies (2 C+). PMID:20415728

van Eerd, Maarten; Patijn, Jacob; Lataster, Arno; Rosenquist, Richard W; van Kleef, Maarten; Mekhail, Nagy; Van Zundert, Jan

179

Segmentation anomalies of the vertebras and ribs: a developmental field defect: epidemiologic evidence.  

PubMed

Opitz has defined developmental field defects (DFD) as "any dysmorphogenetically reactive unit of the developing organism that leads to final structure." We have incorporated in our coding system specific codes to identify individual DFDs in each child, irrespective of the cause or type of the MCA pattern (i.e., chromosomal, mendelian, environmental, or unknown). Using this approach, we can analyze the group of defects included in the expression of each DFD as a discrete unit. To confirm our hypothesis that vertebral and rib anomalies constitute a DFD, we have studied all of our cases with segmentation anomalies of the spine and ribs, including hemivertebrae, fused or absent vertebrae, and "crab-like" thorax, all of which fall into the loosely defined groups of spondylothoracic dysplasia, costovertebral dysplasia, Jarcho-Levin syndrome, and others. The study was performed using the 18,743 malformed children from the ECEMC data files, 110 of them having vertebral/rib anomalies. PMID:8172249

Martínez-Frías, M L; Urioste, M

1994-01-01

180

Nordic walking--is it suitable for patients with fractured vertebra?  

PubMed

This article brings the biomechanical analysis of sport--Nordic walking--for patients with osteoporotic fractured vertebrae and shows that it is suitable for them. Based on the biomechanical model of skeletal load we have developed a method of walking movement for patients, different from the method of walking movement for healthy people. And so came into being the "first sport" for patients with osteoporotic fractures. They can go for regular walks in easy terrains outdoors with friends and family, and so be liberated from social isolation. It requires only one-off financial costs of buying the poles and special footwear (Tab. 7, Fig. 3, Ref. 14). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk. PMID:18814434

Wendlova, J

2008-01-01

181

[Tilting of vertebrae at the lower vertebral column rates according to importance (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Evaluation of 1876 x-ray films taken within a period of 10 years in an orthopaedic specialist practice because of lumbar vertebral column syndromes, leads to the following findings: 1. Measurement of the connecting lines between the highest point of both iliac crests on the one hand, and the caudal limitation of the arcuate outlines of the lumbar vertebrae 4 and 5 on the other, is tilted at an angle of at least 2 degrees in 663 patients (35.3 ol). 2. It is suggested that this phenomenon be characterized as vertebral tilting. 3. This method of measurement is useful in actual practice on account of its simplicit and easy interpretation. 4. Even slight degrees of tilting will usually result in significant scoliosis and will obviously lead prematurely and to an increased extent to secondary arthrotic changes in the movable segment. Hence, from the clinical point of view, these must be considered as prediscosis. PMID:7467721

Bengert, O

1980-10-01

182

Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

2013-06-14

183

Differences in endplate deformation of the adjacent and augmented vertebra following cement augmentation  

PubMed Central

Vertebral cement augmentation can restore the stiffness and strength of a fractured vertebra and relieve chronic pain. Previous finite element analysis, biomechanical tests and clinical studies have indirectly associated new adjacent vertebral fractures following augmentation to altered loading. The aim of this repeated measures in situ biomechanical study was to determine the changes in the adjacent and augmented endplate deformation following cement augmentation of human cadaveric functional spine units (FSU) using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The surrounding soft tissue and posterior elements of 22 cadaveric human FSU were removed. FSU were assigned to two groups, control (n = 8) (loaded on day 1 and day 2) and augmented (n = 14) (loaded on day 1, augmented 20% cement fill, and loaded on day 2). The augmented group was further subdivided into a prophylactic augmentation group (n = 9), and vertebrae which spontaneously fractured during loading on day 1 (n = 5). The FSU were axially loaded (200, 1,000, 1,500–2,000 N) within a custom made radiolucent, saline filled loading device. At each loading step, FSUs were scanned using the micro-CT. Endplate heights were determined using custom software. No significant increase in endplate deformation following cement augmentation was noted for the adjacent endplate (P > 0.05). The deformation of the augmented endplate was significantly reduced following cement augmentation for both the prophylactic and fracture group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively). Endplate deformation of the controls showed no statistically significant differences between loading on day 1 and day 2. A linear relationship was noted between the applied compressive load and endplate deflection (R2 = 0.58). Evidence of significant endplate deformation differences between unaugmented and augmented FSU, while evident for the augmented endplate, was not present for the adjacent endplate. This non-invasive micro-CT method may also be useful to investigate endplate failure, and parameters that predict vertebral failure.

Boyd, S. K.; Heini, P. F.; Ferguson, S. J.

2009-01-01

184

Mechanics and validation of an in vivo device to apply torsional loading to caudal vertebrae.  

PubMed

Axial loading of vertebral bodies has been shown to modulate growth. Longitudinal growth of the vertebral body is impaired by compressive forces while growth is stimulated by distraction. Investigations of torsional loading on the growth plate in the literature are few. The purposes of this study were two-fold: (1) to develop a torque device to apply torsional loads on caudal vertebrae and (2) investigate numerically and in vivo the feasibility of the application of the torque on the growth plate. A controllable torque device was developed and validated in the laboratory. A finite element study was implemented to examine mechanically the deformation of the growth plate and disk. A rat tail model was used with six 5-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Three rats received a static torsional load, and three rats received no torque and served as sham control rats. A histological study was undertaken to investigate possible morphological changes in the growth plate, disk, and caudal bone. The device successfully applied a controlled torsional load to the caudal vertebrae. The limited study using finite element analysis (FEA) and histology demonstrated that applied torque increased lateral disk height and increased disk width. The study also found that the growth plate height increased, and the width decreased as well as a curved displacement of the growth plate. No significant changes were observed from the in vivo study in the bone. The torsional device does apply controlled torque and is well tolerated by the animal. This study with limited samples appears to result in morphological changes in the growth plate and disk. The use of this device to further investigate changes in the disk and growth plate is feasible. PMID:23722167

Rizza, Robert; Liu, Xuecheng

2013-08-01

185

Postcoital bleeding due to cervical endometriosis.  

PubMed

Endometriosis of the uterine cervix is a rare lesion that is generally asymptomatic in gynaecological practice. We present a case with postcoital bleeding due to a cervical mass mimicking cervical polyp or fibroma which was histologically proven as cervical endometriosis later. Cervical endometriosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cervical masses with postcoital bleeding. PMID:23376669

Seval, Mehmet Murat; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Atak, Zeliha; Guresci, Servet

2013-01-31

186

Estimation of out-of-plane vertebra rotations on radiographic projections using CT data: a simulation study.  

PubMed

This study extends previous research concerning in vivo intervertebral motion by means of single-plane fluoroscopy in an attempt to overcome 2D analysis limitations. Knowledge of out-of-plane vertebra rotations will extend the results provided by planar kinematic studies, which is particularly important for lateral bending investigation where axial rotation accompanies side bending, but is also valuable in sagittal analysis (e.g. indicating an absence of coupled axial rotation). Combining a fluoroscopic projection of a vertebra with volumetric information provided by CT data, vertebra 3D position can be estimated. Out-of-plane vertebral rotations are estimated by comparing Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs) in different orientations with a reference fluoroscopic projection, maximising the image cross-correlation index. DRRs have been computed from CT-data using a ray-casting algorithm. In this work a feasibility study of the method was performed by means of a computer simulation. To this end the CT volume (vertebra L4, segmented) provided by the Visible Human Project was utilised and reference fluoroscopic projections were simulated in different orientations adding various levels of noise. Accuracy and precision of the proposed method was determined. Error analysis reveals that an accuracy of less than 1 degree can be achieved in computation of out-of-plane vertebral angles. PMID:11996848

Bifulco, Paolo; Sansone, Mario; Cesarelli, Mario; Allen, Robert; Bracale, Marcello

2002-05-01

187

Experimental study using diode laser in discs: the healing process in discs and adjacent vertebrae after laser irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and secondary changes following diode laser irradiation of intervertebral discs were studied in rabbits. A quartz fiber was inserted into the discs, and laser irradiation was applied. Subsequently, the lumbar vertebrae were extracted en bloc, and subjected to sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histologic examination immediately after irradiation, and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after irradiation. MR

Kumi Naga; Sadaaki Nakai; Kazuyuki Maehara; Seiji Nishimoto

2004-01-01

188

Age and Growth of Endangered Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) Verified with LA-ICP-MS Analysis of Vertebrae  

PubMed Central

Endangered smalltooth sawfish (Pristis pectinata) were opportunistically sampled in south Florida and aged by counting opaque bands in sectioned vertebrae (n?=?15). Small sample size precluded traditional age verification, but fish collected in spring and summer had translucent vertebrae margins, while fish collected in winter had opaque margins. Trends in Sr:Ca measured across vertebrae with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry corresponded well to annual salinity trends observed in sawfish estuarine nursery habitats in south Florida, thus serve as a chemical marker verifying annual formation of opaque bands. Based on that finding and assumptions about mean birth date and timing of opaque band formation, estimated age ranged from 0.4 y for a 0.60 m total length (TL) male to 14.0 y for a 4.35 m TL female. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters computed from size at age data were 4.48 m for L?, 0.219 y?1for k, and ?0.81 y for t0. Results of this study have important implications for sawfish conservation as well as for inferring habitat residency of euryhaline elasmobranchs via chemical analysis of vertebrae.

Scharer, Rachel M.; Patterson III, William F.; Carlson, John K.; Poulakis, Gregg R.

2012-01-01

189

Early Damage in Tibia and Vertebrae of the Mouse after Incorporation of Ra exp 224 (Thorium X). AN Autoradiographic Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We investigated the early cell damage of the osteogenous mesenchyma in the proximal tibia metaphysis as well as in the opening zone of the lumbar vertebra of female and male NMRI-mice after incorporation of RA 224. Two dose groups were applied which, in t...

C. Zahn

1977-01-01

190

Snake-based approach for segmenting pedicles in radiographs and its application in three-dimensional vertebrae reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gradient vector flow (GVF) snake based method was proposed for pedicle segmentation in vertebral radiographs. Since pedicles were oval-shaped, the elliptical shape prior was used to constrain the evolution of the GVF snake. From segmented pedicles, some landmarks were automatically identified for 3D stereoradiographic reconstruction of vertebrae to reduce the observer variability. Ten radiographs including 260 pedicles were used

Junhua Zhang; Xinling Shi; Yuanyuan Wang; Liang Lv; Jun Wu

2010-01-01

191

A finite element analysis of a T12 vertebra in two consecutive examinations to evaluate the progress of osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is a metabolic disease that causes bones to become fragile and be more likely to break. As basic clinical examinations to detect osteoporosis, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computer tomography (QCT) are used. In the framework of a typical clinical examination, QCT scans were obtained from the T12 vertebra of an elderly woman and osteoporosis was diagnosed. One year later, new QCT scans were obtained in order to evaluate her clinical condition. Using both sets as primary information, two patient-specific finite element (FE) models were created and analyzed under compressive load. Vertebral bone was treated as orthotropic material and its elastic modulus was set as an indirect function of Hounsfield Units (HU). Commercial software for medical image processing and FE analysis, along with in house codes, were used for the mechanical analysis of the FE models. Alterations in the geometry/shape of the vertebra as well as in the distributions of several mechanical quantities were detected between the two FE models. As far as the volume of the vertebra is concerned, it augmented by a percentage of 9.7% while the volume of the vertebral body alone increased by 5.6%. In all the maximum values of the mechanical quantities a measurable reduction was observed (axial compressive displacement: 37.9%, von Mises stress: 23.8%, von Mises strains: 15.1%) and all the investigated distributions in the second FE model became smoother. Finally, the percentage of volume with von Mises strains greater than 4500 microstrain dropped from 8.9%, in the first examination, to 4.9% in the second one. Clinically, the prescribed medication seems to have reinforced the structural stability of the vertebra as a whole and through external remodeling the shape of the vertebra changed in a way that the majority of its volume was relieved from stresses and strains of high magnitude. PMID:19186094

Provatidis, C; Vossou, C; Petropoulou, E; Balanika, A; Lyritis, G

2009-01-30

192

Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck)  

MedlinePLUS

... to a cervical disk herniation, also known as radiculopathy or a "pinched nerve." Epidural injection in the ... orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00575) Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve) Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve) (http://orthoinfo. ...

193

Cervical and Thoracic Spine Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cervical spine injuries are very common in contact sports such as wrestling, football, hockey, and rugby. It has been estimated\\u000a that up to 15% of football athletes suffer from some cervical spine injury. The National Center for Catastrophic Sports Injury\\u000a reported over the 12-yr period between 1982 and 1994 there were 450 catastrophic injuries, and 75% involved the cervical spine

Pierre d’Hemecourt; Jessica Flynn Deede

194

Synthetic cervical mucus formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic formulation has been developed with viscosity, spinnbarkeit, and pH comparable to that reported for human cervical mucus. The formulation contains guar gum crosslinked with borate ion, mucin (dried porcine gastric), and a mixed preservative system in pH 7.4, 0.1M phosphate buffer. The guar gum source, mucin concentration, and method of preparation were shown to be critical factors in

Br??d T Burruano; Roger L Schnaare; Daniel Malamud

2002-01-01

195

Recurrent cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  There are limited treatment options for patients with recurrent cervical carcinoma. Because of low response rates and a negligible\\u000a impact on long-term survival, the use of chemotherapy in patients with unresectable recurrent disease should be considered\\u000a palliative. Generally, radiation therapy in previously irradiated patients is considered palliative. For patients who develop\\u000a recurrent disease after definitive surgery who have not

Mario M. Leitao; Dennis S. Chi

2002-01-01

196

Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau

2001-01-01

197

Disparities and Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cervical cancer became a preventable disease with the introduction of the Papanicolaou smear (Pap smear) in the 1940s. Trend\\u000a data show that incidence rates have decreased steadily over the past several decades in both white and African American women\\u000a living in the United States (American Cancer Society 2007). Mortality rates have declined steadily over the past several decades\\u000a as well

Marcela del Carmen; Teresa Diaz-Montez

198

Traumatic cervical artery dissection.  

PubMed

Traumatic cervical artery dissection (TCAD) is a complication of severe blunt head or neck trauma, the main cause being motor vehicle accidents. TCAD are increasingly recognized, and incidences of up to 0.86% for internal carotid and 0.53% for traumatic vertebral artery dissections (TVAD) among blunt trauma victims are reported. Diagnostic evaluation for TCAD is mandatory in the presence of (1) hemorrhage of potential arterial origin originating from the nose, ears, mouth, or a wound; (2) expanding cervical hematoma; (3) cervical bruit in a patient >50 years of age; (4) evidence of acute infarct at brain imaging; (5) unexplained central or lateralizing neurological deficit or transient ischemic attack, or (6) Horner syndrome, neck or head pain. In addition, a number of centers screen asymptomatic patients with blunt trauma for TCAD. Catheter angiography is the standard of reference for diagnosis of TCAD. Color duplex ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance angiography are noninvasive screening alternatives, but each method has its diagnostic limitations compared to catheter angiography. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs may prevent ischemic stroke, but bleeding from traumatized tissues may offset the benefits of antithrombotic treatment. Endovascular therapy of dissected vessels, thrombarterectomy, direct suture of intimal tears, and extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered in exceptional cases. Neurological outcome is probably worse in TCAD compared to spontaneous CAD, although it is unclear whether this is due to dissection-induced ischemic stroke or associated traumatic lesions. PMID:17290111

Nedeltchev, Krassen; Baumgartner, Ralf W

2005-01-01

199

In vivo 3D kinematics of the cervical spine segments during pre-manipulative positioning at the C4/C5 level.  

PubMed

Segmental range of motion (ROM) during high-velocity manipulative spinal treatment is generally considered an important factor for the risk of adverse side effects, especially in the cervical spine region. Among the many techniques reported, the so-called multiple-component technique (MCT) is increasingly recommended. Such a technique is assumed to induce a relatively low three-dimensional (3D) segmental ROM compared with other techniques. The aims of our study are to quantify the 3D segmental ROM and to determine the pattern of motion between cervical vertebrae during the pre-manipulative position at the C4-C5 level. Ten healthy volunteers participated in this study. Two CT scans were conducted: one in a neutral position and the other in the pre-manipulative positioning. The manipulation using MCT was carried out by a skilled practitioner. During positioning, the head was rotated to the left and bent laterally to the right, and the upper cervical spine was rotated to the left and bent laterally to the right. In contrast, the lower cervical spine underwent right rotation and was bent laterally to the right. Segmental ROM was lower than the values obtained during active physiological rotation (P < 0.05). This study provides new insight into the 3D kinematics of the cervical spine during manipulation. An unexpected mechanism of counter-rotation was identified at the lower cervical levels and could represent a valuable and convenient way for precisely focussing on the level for manipulation. PMID:23347773

Salem, Walid; Klein, Paul

2013-01-21

200

Asymptomatic retropharyngeal abscess related to cervical Pott's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pott's disease is an uncommon manifestation of tuberculosis, which usually involves thoracic or lumbar vertebrae. The body of the vertebrae is most severely affected and a compression fracture is an almost inevitable consequence of the disease. A paravertabral abscess generally accompanies vertebral involvement. Tenderness over the involved vertebrae, weakness of the related muscles, and paraesthesia are the usual symptoms. In

Fatih Öktem; M. Güven Güvenç; Süleyman Y?lmaz; D. Tuna Edizer; Batuhan Kara

2006-01-01

201

Pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with cervical dystonia and severe cervical dyskinesias with cervical myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Surgical treatment of complex cervical dystonia and of cervical dyskinesias associated with cervical myelopathy is challenging. In this prospective study, the long term effect of chronic pallidal stimulation in cervical dystonia and on combining the technique with spinal surgery in patients with severe cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy is described. Methods: Eight patients with a history of chronic dystonia who did not achieve adequate benefit from medical treatment or botulinum toxin injection participated in the study. Five patients had complex cervical dystonia with tonic postures and phasic movements. Three patients had rapidly progressive cervical myelopathy secondary to severe cervical dyskinesias and dystonia in the context of a generalised movement disorder. Quadripolar electrodes were implanted in the posteroventral lateral globus pallidus internus with stereotactic CT and microelectrode guidance. In the three patients with secondary cervical myelopathy, spinal surgery was performed within a few weeks and included multilevel laminectomies and a four level cervical corporectomy with spinal stabilisation. Results: Improvement of the movement disorder was noted early after pallidal surgery, but the full benefit could be appreciated only with a delay of several months during chronic stimulation. Three months after surgery, patients with cervical dystonia had improved by 38% in the severity score, by 54% in the disability score, and by 38% in the pain score of a modified version of the Toronto western spasmodic torticollis rating scale. At a mean follow up of 20 months, the severity score had improved by 63%, the disability score by 69%, and the pain score by 50% compared with preoperatively. There was also sustained amelioration of cervical dyskinesias in the three patients who underwent spinal surgery. Lead fractures occurred in two patients. The mean amplitude needed for chronic deep brain stimulation was 3.8 V at a mean pulse width of 210 µs, which is higher than that used for pallidal stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Conclusions: Chronic pallidal stimualtion is effective for complex cervical dystonia and it is a useful adjunct in patients with cervical dyskinesias and secondary cervical myelopathy who undergo spinal surgery.

Krauss, J; Loher, T; Pohle, T; Weber, S; Taub, E; Barlocher, C; Burgunder, J

2002-01-01

202

Cervical vertebral motions and biomechanical responses to direct loading of human head.  

PubMed

There is little known data characterizing the biomechanical responses of the human head and neck under direct head loading conditions. However, the evaluation of the appropriateness of current crash test dummy head-neck systems is easily accomplished. Such an effort, using experimental means, generates and provides characterizations of human head-neck response to several direct head loading conditions. Low-level impact loads were applied to the head and face of volunteers and dummies. The resultant forces and moments at the occipital condyle were calculated. For the volunteers, activation of the neck musculature was determined using electromyography (EMG). In addition, cervical vertebral motions of the volunteers have been taken by means of X-ray cineradiography. The Ethics Committee of Tsukuba University approved the protocol of the experiments in advance. External force of about 210 N was applied to the head and face of five volunteers with an average age of 25 for the duration of 100 msec or so, via a strap at one of four locations in various directions: (1) an upward load applied to the chin, (2) a rearward load applied to the chin without facial mask, (3) a rearward load applied to the chin with the facial mask, and (4) a rearward load applied to the forehead. The same impact force as those for the human volunteers was also applied to HY-III, THOR, and BioRID. We found that cervical vertebral motions differ markedly according to the difference in impact loading condition. Some particular characteristics are also found, such as the flexion or extension of the upper cervical vertebrae (C0, C1, and C2) or middle cervical vertebrae (C3-C4), showing that the modes of cervical vertebral motions are markedly different among the different loading conditions. We also found that the biofidelity of dummies to neck response characteristics of the volunteers at the low-level impact loads is in the order of BioRID, THOR, and HY-III. It is relevant in this regard that the BioRID dummy was designed for a low-severity impact environment, whereas THOR and HY-III were optimized for higher-severity impacts. PMID:16210199

Ono, Koshiro; Kaneoka, Koji; Hattori, Shinichiro; Ujihashi, Sadayuki; Takhounts, Eric G; Haffner, Mark P; Eppinger, Rolf H

2003-06-01

203

Quantitative plutonium microdistribution in bone tissue of vertebra from a Mayak worker.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, the quantitative relationships of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in humans as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium. PMID:20838087

Lyovkina, Yekaterina V; Miller, Scott C; Romanov, Sergey A; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P; Belosokhov, Maxim V

2010-10-01

204

Morphometrical dimensions of the sheep thoracolumbar vertebrae as seen on digitised CT images.  

PubMed

The sheep spine is widely used as a model for preclinical research in human medicine to test new spinal implants and surgical procedures. Therefore, precise morphometric data are needed. The present study aimed to provide computed tomographic (CT) morphometry of sheep thoracolumbar spine. Five adult normal Merino sheep were included in this study. Sheep were anaesthetised and positioned in sternal recumbency. Subsequently, transverse and sagittal images were obtained using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Measurements of the vertebral bodies, pedicles, intervertebral disc and transverse processes were performed with dedicated software. Vertebral bodies and the spinal canal were wider than they were deep, most obviously in the lumbar vertebrae. The intervertebral discs were as much as 57.4% thicker in the lumbar than in the thoracic spine. The pedicles were higher and longer than they were wide over the entire thoracolumbar spine. In conclusion, the generated data can serve as a CT reference for the ovine thoracolumbar spine and may be helpful in using sheep spine as a model for human spinal research. PMID:24106508

Mageed, Mahmoud; Berner, Dagmar; Jülke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

2013-09-27

205

Automated spine and vertebrae detection in CT images using object-based image analysis.  

PubMed

Although computer assistance has become common in medical practice, some of the most challenging tasks that remain unsolved are in the area of automatic detection and recognition. The human visual perception is in general far superior to computer vision algorithms. Object-based image analysis is a relatively new approach that aims to lift image analysis from a pixel-based processing to a semantic region-based processing of images. It allows effective integration of reasoning processes and contextual concepts into the recognition method. In this paper, we present an approach that applies object-based image analysis to the task of detecting the spine in computed tomography images. A spine detection would be of great benefit in several contexts, from the automatic labeling of vertebrae to the assessment of spinal pathologies. We show with our approach how region-based features, contextual information and domain knowledge, especially concerning the typical shape and structure of the spine and its components, can be used effectively in the analysis process. The results of our approach are promising with a detection rate for vertebral bodies of 96% and a precision of 99%. We also gain a good two-dimensional segmentation of the spine along the more central slices and a coarse three-dimensional segmentation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23946190

Schwier, M; Chitiboi, T; Hülnhagen, T; Hahn, H K

2013-08-14

206

Using ultrasound imaging to identify landmarks in vertebra models to assess spinal deformity.  

PubMed

Scoliosis is a type of spinal deformity that commonly develops in adolescents. Cobb angle, using the most tilted vertebrae, is the gold standard to assess scoliosis on radiographs. However, regularly taking radiographs introduces harmful ionizing radiation to patients, thus non-ionizing radiation methods have been explored for many years. Ultrasound has been proposed as one of the non-ionizing radiation methods to measure the deformity. This research was divided into two studies: 1) to investigate the reliability and repeatability of a new proposed method to measure Cobb angle; 2) to determine if landmarks can be identified from ultrasound images to measure curvature of spine. Based on the two studies, the feasibility of using ultrasound images to assess spinal deformity will be determined. Thirty-nine radiographs were used in the first study. The new method agreed well with the traditional Cobb method with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) value greater than 0.7 in different severity groups, and the average angle difference was 1.6° ± 3.1°. The second study showed laminae and transverse processes could be recognized from ultrasound images. The difference of the width of the laminae between the phantom and the ultrasound image was 0.3 mm. Therefore, it is feasible to use the proposed method and the laminae from the ultrasound images to assess the severity of scoliosis. PMID:22256320

Chen, Wei; Lou, Edmond H M; Le, Lawrence H

2011-01-01

207

Micro-CT Imaging of Rat Bone and Lumber Vertebra using Synchrotron Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Micro-tomographic imaging with a spatial resolution on the micrometer scale offers owes a high potential to perform certain types of measurements that were not feasible with other techniques or conventional laboratory methods. The synchrotron X-ray source gives substantial advantages because of its high brilliance and continuous X-ray spectrum. Based on this, visualized the microstructure of rat bone and lumber vertebra was visualized using 20, 25 and 30 keV synchrotron X-rays. We utilized the data which was acquired at different energies for multi-model imaging and to estimate the Ca/P ratio. Up to now there has been no research carried out using these images for the estimation of the calcium content, with synchrotron X-rays. The results are based on the analysis of images and gray values obtained at different energies. We introduce this new method in order to measure the calcium content by means of high resolution synchrotron micro-CT.

Rao, Donepudi V. [Department of Physics, Sir. C.R.R. (A) College, Eluru-534007., W.G. Dt., A.P. (India); Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Akatsuka, Takao; Yuasa, Tetsyua [Department of Bio-System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tromba, Giuliana [SYRMEP, Elettra, Trieste (Italy); Gigante, Giovanni E. [SDepartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ''La Sapienza'' 00185, Roma (Italy)

2009-03-10

208

QUANTITATIVE PLUTONIUM MICRODISTRIBUTION IN BONE TISSUE OF VERTEBRA FROM A MAYAK WORKER  

PubMed Central

The purpose was to obtain quantitative data on plutonium microdistribution in different structural elements of human bone tissue for local dose assessment and dosimetric models validation. A sample of the thoracic vertebra was obtained from a former Mayak worker with a rather high plutonium burden. Additional information was obtained on occupational and exposure history, medical history, and measured plutonium content in organs. Plutonium was detected in bone sections from its fission tracks in polycarbonate film using neutron-induced autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of randomly selected microscopic fields on one of the autoradiographs was performed. Data included fission fragment tracks in different bone tissue and surface areas. Quantitative information on plutonium microdistribution in human bone tissue was obtained for the first time. From these data, quantitative relationship of plutonium decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface in cortical and trabecular fractions were defined as 2.0 and 0.4, correspondingly. The measured quantitative relationship of decays in bone volume to decays on bone surface does not coincide with recommended models for the cortical bone fraction by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Biokinetic model parameters of extrapulmonary compartments might need to be adjusted after expansion of the data set on quantitative plutonium microdistribution in other bone types in human as well as other cases with different exposure patterns and types of plutonium.

Lyovkina, Yekaterina V.; Miller, Scott C.; Romanov, Sergey A.; Krahenbuhl, Melinda P.; Belosokhov, Maxim V.

2010-01-01

209

Morphometrical dimensions of the sheep thoracolumbar vertebrae as seen on digitised CT images  

PubMed Central

The sheep spine is widely used as a model for preclinical research in human medicine to test new spinal implants and surgical procedures. Therefore, precise morphometric data are needed. The present study aimed to provide computed tomographic (CT) morphometry of sheep thoracolumbar spine. Five adult normal Merino sheep were included in this study. Sheep were anaesthetised and positioned in sternal recumbency. Subsequently, transverse and sagittal images were obtained using a multi-detector-row helical CT scanner. Measurements of the vertebral bodies, pedicles, intervertebral disc and transverse processes were performed with dedicated software. Vertebral bodies and the spinal canal were wider than they were deep, most obviously in the lumbar vertebrae. The intervertebral discs were as much as 57.4% thicker in the lumbar than in the thoracic spine. The pedicles were higher and longer than they were wide over the entire thoracolumbar spine. In conclusion, the generated data can serve as a CT reference for the ovine thoracolumbar spine and may be helpful in using sheep spine as a model for human spinal research.

Berner, Dagmar; Julke, Henriette; Hohaus, Christian; Brehm, Walter; Gerlach, Kerstin

2013-01-01

210

Innervation patterns of PGP 9.5-positive nerve fibers within the human lumbar vertebra  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc injury or degeneration is a common cause of low back pain, and yet the specific source of pain remains ambiguous in many cases. Previous research indicates that the central vertebral endplate is highly innervated and can elicit pain responses to pressure. In effort to trace the origin of nerves located at the endplate, we used protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) to stain neurofibers and then quantified the spatial pattern of nerve distribution within a human L4 lumbar vertebra. The majority of nerves were adjacent to blood vessel walls, and consequently the nerve distribution closely resembled previously established vascularity patterns. We observed that the majority of nerves enter the vertebral body posteriorly, via the basivertebral foramen, and cluster in the vertebral center. These nerves follow the course of the nutrient artery, which enters the vertebral body through the basivertebral foramen, then branches toward the superior and inferior endplates. Our observations support the notion that nerves found at the central endplate could originate from sinuvertebral nerves accompanying the nutrient artery into the vertebral body. We also stained neighboring histological sections with calcitonin gene-related protein and noted significant co-localization with PGP 9.5, substantiating a nociceptive role for the nerves constituting our distribution pattern.

Bailey, Jeannie F; Liebenberg, Ellen; Degmetich, Sean; Lotz, Jeffrey C

2011-01-01

211

Anatomical Morphometric Study of the Cervical Uncinate Process and Surrounding Structures  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to elucidate the anatomic relationships between the uncinate process and surrounding neurovascular structures to prevent possible complications in anterior cervical surgery. Methods Twenty-eight formalin-fixed cervical spines were removed from adult cadavers and were studied. The authors investigated the morphometric relationships between the uncinate process, vertebral artery and adjacent nerve roots. Results The height of the uncinate process was 5.6-7.5 mm and the width was 5.8-8.0 mm. The angle between the posterior tip of the uncinate process and vertebral artery was 32.2-42.4°. The distance from the upper tip of the uncinate process to the vertebral body immediately above was 2.1-3.3 mm, and this distance was narrowest at the fifth cervical vertebrae. The distance from the posterior tip of the uncinate process to the nerve root was 1.3-2.0 mm. The distance from the uncinate process to the vertebral artery was measured at three different points of the uncinate process : upper-posterior tip, lateral wall and the most antero-medial point of the uncinate process, and the distances were 3.6-6.1 mm, 1.7-2.8 mm, and 4.2-5.7 mm, respectively. The distance from the uncinate process tip to the vertebral artery and the angle between the uncinate process tip and vertebral artery were significantly different between the right and left side. Conclusion These data provide guidelines for anterior cervical surgery, and will aid in reducing neurovascular injury during anterior cervical surgery, especially in anterior microforaminotomy.

Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jae Hack; Kim, Ji Hoon; Chun, Kwon Soo; Doh, Jae Won

2012-01-01

212

The biomechanical assessment of the cervical inter-vertebral kinematics, between DDD patients ICR based study  

PubMed Central

Abstract: It is very important to pay more attention to spine from the biomechanical perspective. It would allow the analysis of initial conditions of the vertebral disc degeneration syndrome and adopting of normal spine kinematics to compare and match it with a degenerated disc and providing a biomechanical index as an indicator for the conduct of any surgical intervention including arthroplasty to maximize restoring spinal biomechanical motion. It is clear that the head movement is possible with the help of muscles. However, the shape and type of motion depends on the structure and shape of the cervical spine and the interaction between them. Cervical spine kinematics depends on the anatomy of the bones and joints. Bazhdok et al (2000) investigated the cervical kinematics and mechanical behavior of the spine and its anatomical connections. They have examined the atlanto- occipital joint motion during flexion-extension and rotation as well as the mechanism of paradoxical motion of atlanto- axial joint by radiography. Bifalkou et al (2011) studied the inter-vertebral motion based on arc kinematic commentary of video fluoroscopy. They showed that the diagnosis of biomechanical instability can be done based on the kinematic examination of the spine obtained in sagittal images. They also declared that the fluoroscopy can be used as a tool for study. Using an automated algorithm, image adaption was carried out and the motion direction of vertebrae was tracked. In the present study, some patients were selected among patients with cervical disc degeneration. Following imaging by fluoroscopy, the instantaneous center of the spinal action was calculated. It was used as a biomechanical criterion and the treatment group was compared with the healthy group. The loci of the instantaneous centers of the two groups were compared and its difference with the value of healthy group was calculated. A biomechanical criterion was introduced as a basis for comparison of normal and degenerated discs. Keywords: Cervical, Degeneration, Cases selection

Saveh, Amir Hossein; Zali, Ali Reza; Seddighi, Amir Saeed; Zarghi, Afsaneh; Chizari, Mahmoud; Hanafiah, Yussof

2012-01-01

213

[Combined spinal and epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery in a patient with a cervical fracture at C2].  

PubMed

There are only a few reports on cesarean section in a patient with cervical fracture without spinal cord injury (SCI). Such patients have high risks for deterioration of SCI following general or regional anesthesia. Here, we present a patient with a fracture of C2 vertebra who underwent cesarean section safely under combined spinal and epidural anesthesia(CSEA). A 30-year-old woman had a fracture of the C2 cervical vertebra (Hangman's fracture) due to a traffic accident at 34 weeks of gestation. Conservative immobilization of the head and neck was done with a neck collar (Philadelphia brace) in order to prevent subsequent SCI after the spine injury. Pre-viability amniorrhexis was seen at 37 weeks' gestation, and an emergency cesarean section was scheduled under combined epidural and spinal anesthesia (CSEA). Her neck and head were carefully fixed before, during and after surgery in order to prevent subsequent SCI. As a result, cesarean section under CSEA was successfully performed in the patient without any deterioration of the spine and/or SCI. PMID:23697203

Mochidome, Mariko; Sakamoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Hidenori; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kawamata, Mikito

2013-04-01

214

Cervical SNAGs: a biomechanical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustained natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) is a mobilization technique commonly used in the treatment of painful movement restrictions of the cervical spine. In the manual therapy literature, the biological basis and empirical efficacy of cervical SNAGs have received scant attention. In particular, an examination of their potential biological basis in order to stimulate informed discussion seems overdue. This paper

A. Hearn; D. A. Rivett

2002-01-01

215

Skin Relapse from Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cutaneous lymphangitis carcinomatosis from cervical carcinoma is a very rare form of tumor metastatization; only anecdotal cases are reported in the literature. Most of the patients with skin relapse experienced metastasis as a single or multiple nodules.Case. A case of cutaneous lymphangitis carcinomatosis mimicking contact dermatitis was diagnosed at our institution in a patient affected by cervical carcinoma stage

Innocenza Palaia; Roberto Angioli; Giuseppe Cutillo; Natalina Manci; Pierluigi Benedetti Panici

2002-01-01

216

Optimal Positioning for Cervical Immobilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: We hypothesized that optimal positioning of the head and neck to protect the spinal cord during cervical spine immobilization can be determined with reference to external landmarks. In this study we sought to determine the optimal position for cervical spine immobilization using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to define this optimal position in a clinically reproducible fashion. Methods:

Robert A. De Lorenzo; James E. Olson; Mike Boska; Renate Johnston; Glenn C. Hamilton; James Augustine

1996-01-01

217

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical spine: case report and review of the literatures.  

PubMed

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) in the spinal column is extremely rare and there has been no report of such a lesion involving C1 and C2 in English literature so far. Here, we report and characterize the first case of xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine. This case report draws attention to the fact that solitary xanthogranuloma should be considered among possible diagnoses of spinal tumor in children and young adults. An 18-year-old female patient presented to the hospital with intermittent pain in the right side of the neck. MRI studies revealed a huge soft tissue mass to the right side of the C1 and C2 vertebras, and osseous destruction can be found in the cervical spine CT scan. Complete surgical removal of the tumor and occipital-cervical instrumentation with autogenous bone graft were performed with no complications. The patient was free of pain immediately after the surgery with intact neurological functions. Follow-up MRI 6 and 12 months after the surgery showed no residue or recurrence of the tumor. Our report and the literature review indicate that isolated JXG does not show any predilections of localization inside the central nervous system. So a solitary xanthogranuloma should be considered among possible diagnoses of spinal tumor in susceptible patients. Localized JXG shows isointense signals in MRI and enhances homogeneously with gadolinium. Immunohistochemical studies can ensure the diagnosis. Whenever possible, total surgical removal alone seems to be curative. PMID:18228052

Cao, Dong; Ma, Junming; Yang, Xinghai; Xiao, Jianru

2008-01-29

218

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical spine: case report and review of the literatures  

PubMed Central

Solitary juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) in the spinal column is extremely rare and there has been no report of such a lesion involving C1 and C2 in English literature so far. Here, we report and characterize the first case of xanthogranuloma of the upper cervical spine. This case report draws attention to the fact that solitary xanthogranuloma should be considered among possible diagnoses of spinal tumor in children and young adults. An 18-year-old female patient presented to the hospital with intermittent pain in the right side of the neck. MRI studies revealed a huge soft tissue mass to the right side of the C1 and C2 vertebras, and osseous destruction can be found in the cervical spine CT scan. Complete surgical removal of the tumor and occipital–cervical instrumentation with autogenous bone graft were performed with no complications. The patient was free of pain immediately after the surgery with intact neurological functions. Follow-up MRI 6 and 12 months after the surgery showed no residue or recurrence of the tumor. Our report and the literature review indicate that isolated JXG does not show any predilections of localization inside the central nervous system. So a solitary xanthogranuloma should be considered among possible diagnoses of spinal tumor in susceptible patients. Localized JXG shows isointense signals in MRI and enhances homogeneously with gadolinium. Immunohistochemical studies can ensure the diagnosis. Whenever possible, total surgical removal alone seems to be curative.

Cao, Dong; Ma, Junming; Yang, Xinghai

2008-01-01

219

Fractures of the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative.

Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaca; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcisio Eloy Pessoa

2013-01-01

220

Intraosseous schwannoma of D12 thoracic vertebra: diagnosis and surgical management with 5-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraosseous schwannomas or neurilemomas are rare benign neoplasms that account for less than 0.2% of primary bone tumours.\\u000a Very rarely they have been observed in lumbar vertebrae. We report a neurilemoma involving the lower thoracic spine and present\\u000a the clinical, radiological and histological findings with surgical management and 5-year follow-up. An 18-year-old-male presented\\u000a with back pain and deteriorating locomotor function.

Qaisar Choudry; Fizan Younis; Roger B. Smith

2007-01-01

221

Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Thracic Vertebra Presenting with Sudden Paraplegia and Back Pain: A Pathologic Case Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solitary plasmacytoma (SPC) accounts for 5% of plasma cell neoplasm. SPC of the spine is relatively rare, and SPC presenting\\u000a with sudden paraplegia is very rare. A 53 year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of sudden severe paraplegia\\u000a and back pain. Emergency MRI revealed a tumor of the thoracic vertebra no. 10 (Th10). Pressure fracture of the Th10 was

Tadashi Terada

2011-01-01

222

Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

2007-03-01

223

Construction and Accuracy Assessment of Patient-Specific Biocompatible Drill Template for Cervical Anterior Transpedicular Screw (ATPS) Insertion: An In Vitro Study  

PubMed Central

Background With the properties of three-column fixation and anterior-approach-only procedure, anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) is ideal for severe multilevel traumatic cervical instabilities. However, the accurate insertion of ATPS remains challenging. Here we constructed a patient-specific biocompatible drill template and evaluated its accuracy in assisting ATPS insertion. Methods After ethical approval, 24 formalin-preserved cervical vertebrae (C2–C7) were CT scanned. 3D reconstruction models of cervical vertebra were obtained with 2-mm-diameter virtual pin tracts at the central pedicles. The 3D models were used for rapid prototyping (RP) printing. A 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was then inserted into the pin tract of the RP model before polymethylmethacrylate was used to construct the patient-specific biocompatible drill template. After removal of the anterior soft tissue, a 2-mm-diameter Kirschner wire was inserted into the cervical pedicle with the assistance of drill template. Cadaveric cervical spines with pin tracts were subsequently scanned using the same CT scanner. A 3D reconstruction was performed of the scanned spines to get 3D models of the vertebrae containing the actual pin tracts. The deviations were calculated between 3D models with virtual and actual pin tracts at the middle point of the cervical pedicle. 3D models of 3.5 mm-diameter screws were used in simulated insertion to grade the screw positions. Findings The patient-specific biocompatible drill template was constructed to assist ATPS insertion successfully. There were no significant differences between medial/lateral deviations (P?=?0.797) or between superior/inferior deviations (P?=?0.741). The absolute deviation values were 0.82±0.75 mm and 1.10±0.96 mm in axial and sagittal planes, respectively. In the simulated insertion, the screws in non-critical position were 44/48 (91.7%). Conclusions The patient-specific drill template is biocompatible, easy-to-apply and accurate in assisting ATPS insertion. Its clinical applications should be further researched.

Kong, Xiangxue; Zhao, Weidong; Tang, Lei; Li, Jianyi; Ouyang, Jun

2013-01-01

224

Role of trabecular microfractures in failure of human vertebrae estimated by the finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spine fractures are the most frequent complication of osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. In case of the spine, the trabecular network plays the main role in load carrying and distribution. A correct description of mechanical properties of this bone structure helps to differentiate between strong and weak bones and can be useful for fracture prediction and treatment monitoring. By means of the finite element method (FEM), applied to ?CT images, we modelled biomechanical processes in probes during loading and correlated the estimated failure load with the maximum compressive strength (MCS), obtained in real biomechanical tests. We studied a sample of 151 specimens taken from the trabecular part of human vertebrae in vitro, visualised using ?CT imaging at an isotropic resolution of 26?m and tested by uniaxial compression. Besides the standard way of estimating failure load, which takes into account only strong micro-fractures, we also included small micro-fractures, what improved the correlation with MCS (Pearson's correlation coefficient r=0.78 vs. r=0.58). This correlation coefficient was larger than that for both the standard morphometric parameters (r=0.73 for bone volume fraction) and for texture measures defined by the local (an-) isotropic scaling indices method (r=0.55) and Minkowski Functionals (r=0.61). However, the performance of the FEM was different for subsamples selected according to the MCS value. The correlation increased for strong specimens (r=0.88), slightly decreased for weak specimens (r=0.68) and markedly dropped for specimens with medium MCS, e.g. between 60

Sidorenko, Irina N.; Bauer, Jan; Monetti, Roberto; Müller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K.; Räth, Christoph W.

2009-02-01

225

Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis.  

PubMed

Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its labelling diminishes with age. In summary, these observations raise the prospect that zebrafish, in addition to modelling skeletal development, may have utility in modelling age-related degenerative changes that affect the skeleton during senescence. PMID:24086633

Hayes, Anthony J; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A; Meakin, Lee B; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L

2013-09-24

226

Risk Factors of New Compression Fractures in Adjacent Vertebrae after Percutaneous Vertebroplasty  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate risk factors related to the development of new fractures in adjacent vertebrae after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Overview of Literature Recent reports indicate that undue numbers of new fractures in adjacent vertebral bodies occur after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Methods One hundred four of 369 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebroplasty were followed for over 1 year. Fifty-four patients (51.9%) subsequently suffered from adjacent vertebral fractures. Age, lumbar lordotic angle, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence, bone mineral density, amounts of cement injected, the restoration of vertebral height, kyphotic angle differences preexisting fracture, and intradiscal cement leakage were noted. Results Average bone mineral density was -3.52 in the fracture group and -2.91 in the fracture-free group; the risk of adjacent vertebral fracture increased as bone mineral density decreased (p < 0.05). Intradiscal cement leakage occurred in 18 patients (33.3%) in the fracture group, indicating that the risk of adjacent vertebral fracture increased with intradiscal cement leakage. In addition, 36 patients (66.7%) in the fracture group had a pre-existing fracture; thus, the presence of a preexisting fracture was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of an adjacent vertebral fracture (p < 0.05). Higher restoration rates are associated with a greater likelihood of developing adjacent vertebral fractures (p < 0.05). Conclusions The factors found to contribute significantly to new fractures in adjacent vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty were a lower bone mineral density, a greater restoration rate of vertebral height, a pre-existing fracture, and intradiscal cement leakage.

Kim, Myung-Ho; Lee, Andrew S.; Yoon, Sung-Hyun

2011-01-01

227

Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its labelling diminishes with age. In summary, these observations raise the prospect that zebrafish, in addition to modelling skeletal development, may have utility in modelling age-related degenerative changes that affect the skeleton during senescence.

Hayes, Anthony J.; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A.; Meakin, Lee B.; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L.

2013-01-01

228

“Double cervical rib with uncommon presentation”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double or Bilateral cervical ribs. Pseudo arthrosis of cervical rib with first rib causing neurovascular complication is a\\u000a rare congenital anomaly. We report a case of young man who presented with intermittent claudication in the right hand and\\u000a involvement of peripheral nerves. He had bilateral cervical ribs. Left side cervical rib was small. Right side cervical rib\\u000a had pseudo arthrosis

Mahadev Dixit; Mohan Gan; Narendra Nishanimath; Bhaskar Venkatakrishnaiah Bhagyalakshmi; Prashant Sajjan; Aruneshwari Dayal

2010-01-01

229

Teaching NeuroImages: intermittent symptomatic occlusion of the vertebral artery caused by a cervical osteophyte.  

PubMed

A 77-year-old man presented with 2 episodes of waking up with symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia (figure, A and B) within 6 months. A CT angiogram showed narrowing of the right vertebral artery due to extrinsic compression by an osteophyte of the superior articular process of the fourth cervical vertebra, compromising the foramen transversarium (figure, C and D). Dynamic angiography demonstrated intermittent vascular occlusion associated with head turning (figure, E-G). After recurrence, surgical decompression of the vertebral artery was performed. Extrinsic compressions of the vertebral artery is rare.(1) The most frequent signs are those of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Surgical treatment has been proposed when conservative management fails.(1). PMID:23359379

Mourand, Isabelle; Azakri, Souhayla; Boniface, Guillaume; Bonafé, Alain; Maldonado, Igor Lima

2013-01-29

230

Studying Biomarkers in Diagnosing Cervical Lesions in Patients With Abnormal Cervical Cells  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Atypical Endocervical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia; Atypical Glandular Cell of Undetermined Significance; Cervical Cancer; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Human Papilloma Virus Infection

2013-08-01

231

Solitary, spontaneous cervical and large bone fractures in aluminum osteodystrophy.  

PubMed

Aluminum-induced bone disease in uremic patients receiving dialysis was first described a little more than 10 years ago. The epidemic form of the disease was seen in centers where there was a high aluminum content in the water dialysate. Although this problem has been corrected, sporadic forms of the disease continue to be noted in dialyzed and nondialyzed patients. Multiple fractures are a radiological feature of aluminum-related bone disease. Fractures of the ribs and hips and vertebral crush fractures are the usual manifestations. We present four patients whose nontraumatic fractures involved large bones, without evidence of multiple fractures. In two of the patients symptoms were vague and subacute; a third patient with a subcapital fracture was ambulatory. Only in one patient (fractured dens) were symptoms acute enough to warrant immediate radiography. One of the patients had no symptoms pertaining to a fracture of C5 with retrolisthesis. Rib fractures are common in this condition but were seen in only one patient, in whom they were detected 8 years previously. Healing was not seen in any of the fractures. In patients receiving dialysis the presence of spontaneous fractures of large bones or cervical vertebrae, which may be clinically silent or vaguely symptomatic, should raise the possibility of aluminum-induced osteomalacia even if these fractures are solitary. PMID:2020868

Sundaram, M; Dessner, D; Ballal, S

1991-01-01

232

[A case of intradural xanthogranuloma in the upper cervical spine].  

PubMed

An 18-year-old female patient suffered from posterior neck pain and gait disturbance. The neurological examination revealed left hemiparesis, general hyperreflexia and hypoalgesia on the right neck and upper limb, and left trunk and lower limb. MRI showed a large mass lesion in the right side of the spinal canal at the level of the C1 cervical spine, which was obviously compressing the spinal cord. An operation was performed through a right suboccipital craniectomy and right hemilaminectomy of the first vertebra. Though the mass lesion in the subarachnoid space compressed the spinal cord, it adhered neither to the spinal cord nor to the nerve roots. However, as it clearly adhered to the dura mater, the attachment site was also completely removed. In the pathological examination, lymphocyte, foamed macrophage and the giant cell of Touton type were shown. The immunohistochemical study with CD68 (Kp1) was positive, but it was negative for the lysozyme, neuron specific enolase and S-100 protein. The diagnosis was xanthogranuloma. The patient recovered completely after the operation. This is a rare case of juvenile type xanthogranuloma. This lesion in the spinal canal has usually its onset in the adult age. PMID:9266569

Oyama, H; Ikeda, K; Inoue, S; Katsumata, T; Murakami, S; Doi, A

1997-08-01

233

Is the use of the cervical vertebrae maturation method justified to determine skeletal age? A comparison of radiation dose of two strategies for skeletal age estimation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess effective doses of a lateral cephalogram radiograph with and without thyroid shield and compare the differences with the radiation dose of a hand-wrist radiograph. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed at 19 different sites in the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull (RANDO phantom). Analogue lateral cephalograms with and without thyroid shield (67kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) and hand-wrist radiographs (40kV, 250 mA, 10 mAs) were obtained. The effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations. The effective dose for conventional lateral cephalogram without a thyroid shield was 5.03 microsieverts (µSv). By applying a thyroid shield to the RANDO phantom, a remarkable dose reduction of 1.73 µSv could be achieved. The effective dose of a conventional hand-wrist radiograph was calculated to be 0.16 µSv. Adding the effective dose of the hand-wrist radiograph to the effective dose of the lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield resulted in a cumulative effective dose of 3.46 µSv. Without thyroid shield, the effective dose of a lateral cephalogram was approximately 1.5-fold increased than the cumulative effective dose of a hand-wrist radiograph and a lateral cephalogram with thyroid shield. Thyroid is an organ that is very sensitive to radiation exposure. Its shielding will significantly reduce the effective dose. An additional hand-wrist radiograph, involving no vulnerable tissues, however, causes very little radiation risk. In accordance with the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle, if an evaluation of skeletal age is indicated, an additional hand-wrist radiograph seems much more justifiable than removing the thyroid shield. PMID:22828078

Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Peltomäki, Timo; Schätzle, Marc

2012-07-24

234

Anterior Cervical Arachnoid Cyst  

PubMed Central

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome.

Sharifi, Give

2013-01-01

235

Anterior cervical arachnoid cyst.  

PubMed

This report is composed of two patients with anteriorly located cervical intradural arachnoid cyst and review of 24 cases in Englishlanguage literature. Both of our patients were in the first two decades of life with neck pain and motor weakness. With suspicious diagnosis of anterior arachnoid cyst surgery was carried out in both cases, though laminectomy in one and laminoplasty in the other. The cyst wall was widely fenestrated with subsequent subtotal excision of the cyst. Both cases had good long-term outcome. The review disclosed male predominance. 73% of the patients were diagnosed within the first two decades of life. Neck pain and motor weakness were the dominant signs and symptoms of this pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging showing a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing cyst was the best mode of diagnosis. Wide cyst fenestration with waying CSF into subarachnoid cyst was the most appropriate and applied surgery with optimal outcome. PMID:23741550

Rahimizadeh, Abolfazl; Sharifi, Give

2013-05-22

236

Cervical Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials  

Cancer.gov

Programs and Projects Cervical Cancer Clinical Trials Ongoing Phase I/II Prevention Trials Funded and Monitored by the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG) Principal Investigator Funding Mechanism Title of Award

237

Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)  

MedlinePLUS

The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... processes on the vertebral bodies (osteophytes), which compress spinal nerves, trauma, and narrowing (stenosis) of the spinal ...

238

Prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Patients with signs and/or symptoms of cervical spondylotic myelopathy are frequently encountered in spinal practice. Exact numbers of prevalence or incidence are not known. METHODS: A literature search was performed by an experienced librarian in Pubmed, Embase, and Scopus. After selection of articles based on titles and abstracts, a full text review was performed. The prevalence of people needing surgical treatment was also estimated in a neurosurgical practice with a population adherence of 1.7 million people and a known referral pattern of the neurologists; all patients operated upon because of cervical spondylotic myelopathy between July 2009 and July 2012 were collected and prevalence calculated. RESULTS: The search of the literature did not reveal any article reporting an incidence or prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Eighty of 5,992 patients were operated upon because of a cervical spondylotic myelopathy: 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSION: Surprisingly, an extensive search of the literature did not reveal exact data about the incidence or prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The prevalence of surgically treated cervical spondylotic myelopathy was estimated as 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. Although the population adherence to the surgical practice is reasonably fixed and referral patterns are known, this estimate will still be too low for various reasons. At best, this estimate is the minimal prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy that has been operated upon. To address the exact incidence or prevalence of cervical spondylotic myelopathy in general or needing surgical treatment, other investigations are warranted. PMID:23616201

Boogaarts, Hieronymus D; Bartels, Ronald H M A

2013-04-25

239

Infections of the Cervical Spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Spinal infections are relatively rare, accounting for only 2–4% of all osteomyelitis infections, and are located preferentially\\u000a in the thoracic and lumbar segments. Although the cervical segment is the less common spine localization, cervical spinal\\u000a infections present the highest incidence of neurological involvement [6].\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Recent advances in diagnosis and management — with the introduction of antibiotics and more aggressive surgery

Luca Denaro; Umile Giuseppe Longo; Vincenzo Denaro

240

Phenotypic integration among trabecular and cortical bone traits establishes mechanical functionality of inbred mouse vertebrae.  

PubMed

Conventional approaches to identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regulating bone mass and fragility are limited because they examine cortical and trabecular traits independently. Prior work examining long bones from young adult mice and humans indicated that skeletal traits are functionally related and that compensatory interactions among morphological and compositional traits are critical for establishing mechanical function. However, it is not known whether trait covariation (i.e., phenotypic integration) also is important for establishing mechanical function in more complex, corticocancellous structures. Covariation among trabecular, cortical, and compositional bone traits was examined in the context of mechanical functionality for L(4) vertebral bodies across a panel of 16-wk-old female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains. The unique pattern of randomization of the A/J and C57BL/6J (B6) genome among the RI panel provides a powerful tool that can be used to measure the tendency for different traits to covary and to study the biology of complex traits. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting vertebral size and mass are buffered by changes in the relative amounts of cortical and trabecular bone and overall mineralization. Despite inheriting random sets of A/J and B6 genomes, the RI strains inherited nonrandom sets of cortical and trabecular bone traits. Path analysis, which is a multivariate analysis that shows how multiple traits covary simultaneously when confounding variables like body size are taken into consideration, showed that RI strains that tended to have smaller vertebrae relative to body size achieved mechanical functionality by increasing mineralization and the relative amounts of cortical and trabecular bone. The interdependence among corticocancellous traits in the vertebral body indicated that variation in trabecular bone traits among inbred mouse strains, which is often thought to arise from genetic factors, is also determined in part by the adaptive response to variation in traits describing the cortical shell. The covariation among corticocancellous traits has important implications for genetic analyses and for interpreting the response of bone to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19063678

Tommasini, Steven M; Hu, Bin; Nadeau, Joseph H; Jepsen, Karl J

2009-04-01

241

Intermittent cervical traction for cervical radiculopathy caused by large-volume herniated disks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the use of intermittent cervical traction in managing 4 patients with cervical radiculopathy and large-volume herniated disks. Clinical Features: Four patients had neck pain radiating to the arm. The clinical examination was typical in all cases for radiculopathy of cervical origin. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine revealed large-volume herniated disks in all patients. Intervention

Constantine Constantoyannis; Demetres Konstantinou; Harry Kourtopoulos; Nicolas Papadakis

2002-01-01

242

Use of cervical spine manipulation under anesthesia for management of cervical disk herniation, cervical radiculopathy, and associated cervicogenic headache syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To demonstrate the benefits of cervical spine manipulation with the patient under anesthesia as an approach to treating a patient with chronic cervical disk herniation, associated cervical radiculopathy, and cervicogenic headache syndrome. Clinical Features: The patient had neck pain with radiating paresthesia into the right upper extremity and incapacitating headaches and had no response to 6 months of conservative

James Herzog

1999-01-01

243

Recovery Effects of a 180 mT Static Magnetic Field on Bone Mineral Density of Osteoporotic Lumbar Vertebrae in Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

The effects of a moderate-intensity static magnetic field (SMF) on osteoporosis of the lumbar vertebrae were studied in ovariectomized rats. A small disc magnet (maximum magnetic flux density 180?mT) was implanted to the right side of spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra. Female rats in the growth stage (10 weeks old) were randomly divided into 4 groups: (i) ovariectomized and implanted with a disc magnet (SMF); (ii) ovariectomized and implanted with a nonmagnetized disc (sham); (iii) ovariectomized alone (OVX) and (vi) intact, nonoperated cage control (CTL). The blood serum 17-?-estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay, and the bone mineral density (BMD) values of the femurs and the lumbar vertebrae were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The E2 concentrations were statistically significantly lower for all three operated groups than those of the CTL group at the 6th week. Although there was no statistical significant difference in the E2 concentrations between the SMF-exposed and sham-exposed groups, the BMD values of the lumbar vertebrae proximal to the SMF-exposed area statistically significantly increased in the SMF-exposed group than in the sham-exposed group. These results suggest that the SMF increased the BMD values of osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae in the ovariectomized rats.

Xu, Shenzhi; Okano, Hideyuki; Tomita, Naohide; Ikada, Yoshito

2011-01-01

244

NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

245

Cervical Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Doing Related Links Inside Knowledge Campaign Survivor Stories Television Public Service ... Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity The rate of women getting cervical cancer or dying from cervical cancer ...

246

Surgical Management of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylosis is a common degenerative condition that is a significant cause of morbidity. This review discusses the pathophysiology and natural history of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and focuses on the current literature evaluating the clinical management of these patients.

Hsu, Wesley; Dorsi, Michael J.; Witham, Timothy F.

2010-01-01

247

21 CFR 884.3200 - Cervical drain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Obstetrical and Gynecological Prosthetic Devices § 884.3200 Cervical drain. (a) Identification. A cervical drain is a device designed to provide...

2013-04-01

248

Dysphagia and hypervitaminosis A: Cervical hyperostosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebral hyperostosis typically predominates at the thoracic spine and causes only minor symptoms. Involvement of the cervical spine may cause dysphagia due to pressure on the esophagus. We report three cases of dysphagia revealing cervical hyperostosis.

Daniel Wendling; Chafika Hafsaoui; Jean-Marie Laurain; Michel Runge; Nadine Magy-Bertrand; Clément Prati

2009-01-01

249

Cervical Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Posterior Laminoforaminotomy  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old man who had lateral cervical disc herniation underwent cervical posterior laminoforaminotomy at C5-6 and C6-7 level right side. During the operation, there was no serious surgical bleeding event. After operation, he complained persistent right shoulder pain and neck pain. Repeated magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed diffuse cervical epidural hematoma (EDH) extending from C5 to T1 level right side and spinal cord compression at C5-6-7 level. He underwent exploration. There was active bleeding at muscular layer. Muscular active bleeding was controlled and intramuscular hematoma was removed. The patient's symptom was reduced after second operation. Symptomatic postoperative spinal EDH requiring reoperation is rare. Meticulous bleeding control is important before wound closure. In addition, if patient presents persistent or aggravated pain after operation, rapid evaluation using MRI and second look operation is needed as soon as possible.

Choi, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Sang-Ho

2013-01-01

250

Validation of a Non-Invasive Technique to Precisely Measure In Vivo Three-Dimensional Cervical Spine Movement  

PubMed Central

Study Design In vivo validation during functional loading. Objective To determine the accuracy and repeatability of a model-based tracking technique that combines subject-specific CT models and high-speed biplane X-ray images to measure three-dimensional (3D) in vivo cervical spine motion. Summary of Background Data Accurate 3D spine motion is difficult to obtain in vivo during physiological loading due to the inability to directly attach measurement equipment to individual vertebrae. Previous measurement systems were limited by two-dimensional (2D) results and/or their need for manual identification of anatomical landmarks, precipitating unreliable and inaccurate results. All previous techniques lack the ability to capture true 3D motion during dynamic functional loading. Methods Three subjects had 1.0 mm diameter tantalum beads implanted into their fused and adjacent vertebrae during ACDF surgery. High resolution CT scans were obtained following surgery and used to create subject-specific 3D models of each cervical vertebra. Biplane X-rays were collected at 30 frames per second while the subjects performed flexion/extension and axial rotation movements six months after surgery. Individual bone motion, intervertebral kinematics, and arthrokinematics derived from dynamic RSA served as a gold standard to evaluate the accuracy of the model-based tracking technique. Results Individual bones were tracked with an average precision of 0.19 mm and 0.33 mm in non-fused and fused bones, respectively. Precision in measuring 3D joint kinematics in fused and adjacent segments averaged 0.4 mm for translations and 1.1° for rotations, while anterior and posterior disc height above and below the fusion were measured with a precision ranging between 0.2 mm and 0.4 mm. The variability in 3D joint kinematics associated with tracking the same trial repeatedly was 0.02 mm in translation and 0.06° in rotation. Conclusions 3D cervical spine motion can be precisely measured in vivo with sub-millimeter accuracy during functional loading without the need for bead implantation. Fusion instrumentation did not diminish the accuracy of kinematic and arthrokinematic results. The semi-automated model-based tracking technique has excellent repeatability.

Anderst, William J; Baillargeon, Emma; Donaldson, William F; Lee, Joon Y; Kang, James D

2011-01-01

251

A model of tissue differentiation and bone remodelling in fractured vertebrae treated with minimally invasive percutaneous fixation.  

PubMed

In spite of the consolidated clinical use of minimally invasive percutaneous fixation techniques, little is reported in the literature providing a mechanobiological explanation for how the design of fixation devices can affect the healing process within fractured vertebrae. The aim of this study was to develop a multi-scale mechano-regulation model capable of predicting how the patterns of tissue differentiation within a vertebral fracture change in the presence or in the absence of fixation devices and how the dimensions of the device, and the materials it is made from (Ti-6Al-4V alloy and cobalt chrome alloy) can affect the outcome of the healing process. The macro-scale model simulates the spinal segment L3-L4-L5, including the fractured body of the L4 vertebra, while the micro-scale model represents a fractured portion of cancellous bone. The macro-scale model also includes a minimally invasive percutaneous fixation device. The model predicts that fixation devices significantly shorten healing times. Increasing values of the rod diameter D and decreasing values of its radius of curvature R lead to shorter durations of the healing period. Manufacturing the rods in cobalt chrome alloy is also predicted to reduce slightly the healing period by providing greater mechanical stability within the fracture callus. PMID:22752875

Boccaccio, A; Kelly, D J; Pappalettere, C

2012-06-30

252

Contact pressure in the facet joint during sagittal bending of the cadaveric cervical spine.  

PubMed

The facet joint contributes to the normal biomechanical function of the spine by transmitting loads and limiting motions via articular contact. However, little is known about the contact pressure response for this joint. Such information can provide a quantitative measure of the facet joint's local environment. The objective of this study was to measure facet pressure during physiologic bending in the cervical spine, using a joint capsule-sparing technique. Flexion and extension bending moments were applied to six human cadaveric cervical spines. Global motions (C2-T1) were defined using infra-red cameras to track markers on each vertebra. Contact pressure in the C5-C6 facet was also measured using a tip-mounted pressure transducer inserted into the joint space through a hole in the postero-inferior region of the C5 lateral mass. Facet contact pressure increased by 67.6 ± 26.9 kPa under a 2.4 Nm extension moment and decreased by 10.3 ± 9.7 kPa under a 2.7 Nm flexion moment. The mean rotation of the overall cervical specimen motion segments was 9.6 ± 0.8° and was 1.6 ± 0.7° for the C5-C6 joint, respectively, for extension. The change in pressure during extension was linearly related to both the change in moment (51.4 ± 42.6 kPa/Nm) and the change in C5-C6 angle (18.0 ± 108.9 kPa/deg). Contact pressure in the inferior region of the cervical facet joint increases during extension as the articular surfaces come in contact, and decreases in flexion as the joint opens, similar to reports in the lumbar spine despite the difference in facet orientation in those spinal regions. Joint contact pressure is linearly related to both sagittal moment and spinal rotation. Cartilage degeneration and the presence of meniscoids may account for the variation in the pressure profiles measured during physiologic sagittal bending. This study shows that cervical facet contact pressure can be directly measured with minimal disruption to the joint and is the first to provide local pressure values for the cervical joint in a cadaveric model. PMID:21823743

Jaumard, Nicolas V; Bauman, Joel A; Weisshaar, Christine L; Guarino, Benjamin B; Welch, William C; Winkelstein, Beth A

2011-07-01

253

HPV and cervical cancer: screening or vaccination?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the demonstration of the superior validity of human papillomavirus (HPV) tests in screening for cervical cancer and the arrival of highly efficacious HPV 16 and 18 vaccines, cervical cancer prevention enters a time of sustainable introduction in developing countries. Multidisciplinary efforts and novel protocols are being developed, and challenging situations are being faced to make cervical cancer, still the

F X Bosch; X Castellsagué; S de Sanjosé

2008-01-01

254

Cervical spine curvature during simulated whiplash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To develop a new method to describe cervical spine curvature and evaluate the potential for injury in the upper and lower cervical spine during simulated whiplash. Design. A method was developed to integrate the upper and lower cervical spine rotations and describe the spine curvature. Background. In vivo and in vitro whiplash simulations have documented the development of an

Manohar M. Panjabi; Adam M. Pearson; Shigeki Ito; Paul C. Ivancic; Jaw-Lin Wang

2004-01-01

255

HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

Szarewski, Anne

2012-12-01

256

Somatosensory evoked potentials following nerve and segmental stimulation do not confirm cervical radiculopathy with sensory deficit.  

PubMed Central

Twenty eight patients with unilateral cervical radiculopathy were studied by somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) from nerve stimulation at the wrist and from skin stimulation at the first, third or fifth finger depending on the root involved. In order to evaluate the reliability of various "radicular SEP patterns" as described in the literature, absolute latencies and side-to-side differences of the brachial plexus component from the supraclavicular fossa (N9), the medullary component (N13) from the cervical vertebra Cv7, and the primary cortical component (N20, P25) were assessed. Side-to-side differences of the amplitudes of N20/P25 and of the conduction times across the intervertebral fossa (interval N9-N13) were analysed. After nerve stimulation, 68% of the patients had false negative findings on the symptomatic, while 36% had positive findings on the asymptomatic side. After segmental stimulation, 72% of the patients had false negative findings on the symptomatic, while 22% had positive findings on the asymptomatic side. It is concluded that SEPs following nerve and segmental stimulation do not reliably confirm clear-cut already established diagnoses of unilateral radiculopathy with sensory and motor deficit. Therefore, they will not be helpful in the electrophysiological investigation of cervicobrachialgias of unknown origin.

Schmid, U D; Hess, C W; Ludin, H P

1988-01-01

257

[Wide esophageal wall rupture as iatrogenic complication of anterior cervical spine surgery].  

PubMed

The case of 19-year old men with iatrogenic esophageal wall perforation is presented. The patient underwent anterior cervical stabilization using plate and screw for fracture of the C4 and C5 vertebra followed by an abscess of prevertebral space with discharging pus and food from the wound. The general condition was poor. Symptoms included: pneumonia, pleuritis with effusion, septicemia with mediastinitis, fever up to 40 and quadriplegia on neurological examination. During surgical procedure the implant loose but was still fixed into the esophagus causing a large defect in the posterior wall of the hypopharynx and cervical part of esophagus was found. The patient undergone three step surgery with wide drainage of prevertebral abscess, removing of osteosynthetic plate removal and formation of pedicle flap with sterno-cleido-mastoideus muscule. The finnal fourth procedure with using of pediculed infrahyoid flap gave an excellent result. During 160 days hospitalization the pus culture showed growth of the 11 bacterials species (like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and 2 species of fungus. He was treated 13 types of antybiotics. This special case we present because of live threatening complication (mediastinitis) and complicated clinical course as well as because of unique technique of the defect closure, i.e. the infrahyoid flap occurred to be successful. PMID:16521458

Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Pabiszczak, Maciej; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Szyfter, Witold

2005-01-01

258

Autograft versus interbody fusion cage without plate fixation in the cervical spine: a randomized clinical study using radiostereometry  

PubMed Central

A primary object with a fusion cage is avoidance of graft collapse with subsequent subsidence and malalignment of the cervical spine that is observed after bone grafting alone. No randomized studies exist that demonstrate the difference between these two methods in terms of graft subsidence and angulation of the fused segment. The size of the study population was calculated to be 24 patients to reach a significant difference at the 95% CI level. Patients with one-level cervical radiculopathy scheduled for surgery were randomized to anterior discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with autograft or to fusion cage, both without plate fixation. Tantalum markers were inserted in the two adjacent vertebrae at the end of surgery. Radiostereometry was performed immediately postoperatively and at regular intervals for 2 years. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the clinical outcome and an unbiased observer graded the outcome after 2 years. No significant differences were found between the two methods after 2 years in regard of narrowing of the disc space (mean 1.7 and 1.4 mm, respectively) or deformation of the fused segment into flexion (mean 7.7° and 4.6°, respectively). Patients in the cage group had a significantly better clinical outcome. The findings of subsidence and flexion deformation of the fused segment after 2 years seem to be of no clinical importance after one-level cervical disc surgery. However, in multi-level surgery using the same methods, an additive effect of the deformations of the fused segments may affect the clinical outcome.

Zoega, Bjorn; Rosen, Hans

2007-01-01

259

Cervical Whiplash: Considerations in the Rehabilitation of Cervical Myofascial Injury  

PubMed Central

Cervical whiplash, usually the result of impact injuries at high speed, is a typically 20th-century problem. This article describes the biomechanical stresses that result in whiplash and outlines the treatment programs that can be expected to help the patient through the four stages of recovery to achieve functional rehabilitation.

Ameis, Arthur

1986-01-01

260

Cervical spine in Treacher Collins syndrome.  

PubMed

Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital syndrome with characteristic craniofacial malformations, which are well described in the literature. However, the presence of cervical spine dysmorphology in this syndrome has been minimally described. This study reviews cervical spine radiographs of 40 patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. In this sample, 7 of 40 patients displayed cervical spine anomalies, with 3 of these patients displaying multiple cervical spine anomalies. The patterns of spinal anomalies were variable, suggesting that the underlying genetic mutation has variable expressivity in cervical spine development as it does elsewhere in the craniofacial skeleton. PMID:22627438

Pun, Amy Hoi-Ying; Clark, Bruce Eric; David, David John; Anderson, Peter John

2012-05-01

261

Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation.  

PubMed

Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors' clinic and treated by PCN. The patients' gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 +/- 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3-4, 30 cases at C4-5, 40 cases at C5-6, and 35 cases at C6-7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) > or =11 degrees or horizontal displacement (HD) > or =3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery. PMID:18830638

Li, Jian; Yan, Deng-lu; Zhang, Zai-Heng

2008-10-01

262

Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors’ clinic and treated by PCN. The patients’ gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 ± 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3–4, 30 cases at C4–5, 40 cases at C5–6, and 35 cases at C6–7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) ?11° or horizontal displacement (HD) ?3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery.

Li, Jian; Zhang, Zai-Heng

2008-01-01

263

Cervical Remodeling during Pregnancy and Parturition  

PubMed Central

Appropriate and timely cervical remodeling is key for successful birth. Premature cervical opening can result in preterm birth which occurs in 12.5% of pregnancies. Research focused on the mechanisms of term and preterm cervical remodeling is essential to prevent prematurity. This review highlights recent findings that better define molecular processes driving progressive disorganization of the cervical extracellular matrix. This includes studies that redefine the role of immune cells and identify diverse functions of the cervical epithelia and hyaluronan in remodeling. New investigations proposing that infection-induced premature cervical remodeling is distinct from the normal process are presented. Recent advances in our understanding of term and preterm cervical remodeling provide new directions for investigation and compel investigators to reevaluate currently accepted models.

Timmons, Brenda; Akins, Meredith; Mahendroo, Mala

2010-01-01

264

Mixed reality simulation of rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Until quite recently spinal disorder problems in the U.S. have been operated by fusing cervical vertebrae instead of replacement of the cervical disc with an artificial disc. Cervical disc replacement is a recently approved procedure in the U.S. It is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in the medical field due to the deficiencies in available diagnostic tools and insufficient number of surgical practices For physicians and surgical instrument developers, it is critical to understand how to successfully deploy the new artificial disc replacement systems. Without proper understanding and practice of the deployment procedure, it is possible to injure the vertebral body. Mixed reality (MR) and virtual reality (VR) surgical simulators are becoming an indispensable part of physicians’ training, since they offer a risk free training environment. In this study, MR simulation framework and intricacies involved in the development of a MR simulator for the rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery are investigated. The major components that make up the MR surgical simulator with motion tracking system are addressed. Findings A mixed reality surgical simulator that targets rasping procedure in the artificial cervical disc replacement surgery with a VICON motion tracking system was developed. There were several challenges in the development of MR surgical simulator. First, the assembly of different hardware components for surgical simulation development that involves knowledge and application of interdisciplinary fields such as signal processing, computer vision and graphics, along with the design and placements of sensors etc . Second challenge was the creation of a physically correct model of the rasping procedure in order to attain critical forces. This challenge was handled with finite element modeling. The third challenge was minimization of error in mapping movements of an actor in real model to a virtual model in a process called registration. This issue was overcome by a two-way (virtual object to real domain and real domain to virtual object) semi-automatic registration method. Conclusions The applicability of the VICON MR setting for the ACDR surgical simulator is demonstrated. The main stream problems encountered in MR surgical simulator development are addressed. First, an effective environment for MR surgical development is constructed. Second, the strain and the stress intensities and critical forces are simulated under the various rasp instrument loadings with impacts that are applied on intervertebral surfaces of the anterior vertebrae throughout the rasping procedure. Third, two approaches are introduced to solve the registration problem in MR setting. Results show that our system creates an effective environment for surgical simulation development and solves tedious and time-consuming registration problems caused by misalignments. Further, the MR ACDR surgery simulator was tested by 5 different physicians who found that the MR simulator is effective enough to teach the anatomical details of cervical discs and to grasp the basics of the ACDR surgery and rasping procedure

2010-01-01

265

Cervical cancer screening in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe the state of the art in cervical cancer screening in Greece by presenting the two regionally organised screening programmes that currently operate in the country. Both programmes were initiated in 1991 and are partly funded by the European Union. The Ormylia screening programme covers the population of Halkidiki (Northern Greece), a predominantly

E Riza; P Kyriakogianni-Psaropoulou; E Koumantakis; H Symiakaki; I Garas; A Linos

2000-01-01

266

Data Analysis in Cervical Trauma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cervical spine in lateral view is discussed and a method based on digital statistical analysis is used to reproduce quantitative data of the curvature. Part I is a study based on the lateral view in the neutral position in 142 aviators. The radiograms...

L. A. Levin H. T. Andersen L. E. Kazarian P. Hayes H. U. Sverdrup

1989-01-01

267

Genetic events in cervical carcinoma  

SciTech Connect

Cervical carcinoma is the fifth most common cancer world-wide and the second major cause of cancer related death in women. Recent studies have suggested that chromosome 10, particularly the short arm, may be significant in the pathogenesis of the disease. The relationship has not, however, been investigated directly in cervical tumor material. We analyzed 21 paired blood and tumor samples from patients with cervical carcinoma for allele loss on chromosome 10. Ten polymorphic loci spanning the length of chromosome 10 were used including 4 RFLPs and 4 microsatellite markers. Tumor samples were carefully dissected to remove the majority of contaminating normal tissue. Twenty of the 21 pairs were heterozygous for at least one locus. Loss of heterozygosity for one or more chromosome 10 loci was observed in 5 out of the 20 informative cases (25%). One sample showed the apparent loss of an entire copy of chromosome 10. In 3 cases allele loss was confined to loci on the short arm of chromosome 10. We are currently using further markers mapped to chromosome 10p to define the shortest consistent region of allele loss. We suggest that this region may contain one or more tumor suppressor genes involved in the development and/or progression of cervical carcinoma.

Sarkar, S.; Tai, C.C.; Mowatt, J. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [and others

1994-09-01

268

[Chronic functional dislocation of the cervical spine with radiculo-spinal effects. Discectomy by anterior route and fusion without graft].  

PubMed

X ray dynamic study of cerevical spine movements in 12 patients with neurological impairment has shown an abnormal mobility between two vertebrae in the anterior or posterior direction. This abnormal mobility which has been called functional dislocation, is situated usually over major discarthrosic lesions rather than under. This dislocation, which appears during voluntary and automatic movements of the head and neck has been qualified chronic. A discectomie through an anterior surgical approach and a bony fusion of vertebral bodies without any graft at the dislocation site lead to 10 good results. 2 failures have been imputed to the fact that there was a 10 years evolution of a tetraplegia before operation. The pathogenesis of chronic functional dislocation of the cervical spine is discussed with regard to compression and stretching of the spinal cord, roots and arteries of both. Traumatism of vertebral arteries during dislocation remain under discussion. PMID:1013573

Pertuiset, B; Lyon-Caen, O

1976-12-01

269

Evaluation of filler materials used for uniform load distribution at boundaries during structural biomechanical testing of whole vertebrae.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the compressive mechanical properties of filler materials, Wood's metal, dental stone, and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), which are widely used for performing structural testing of whole vertebrae. The effect of strain rate and specimen size on the mechanical properties of the filler materials was examined using standardized specimens and mechanical testing. Because Wood's metal can be reused after remelting, the effect of remelting on the mechanical properties was tested by comparing them before and after remelting. Finite element (FE) models were built to simulate the effect of filler material size and properties on the stiffness of vertebral body construct in compression. Modulus, yield strain, and yield strength were not different between batches (melt-remelt) of Wood's metal. Strain rate had no effect on the modulus of Wood's metal, however, Young's modulus decreased with increasing strain rate in dental stone whereas increased in PMMA. Both Wood's metal and dental stone were significantly stiffer than PMMA (12.7 +/- 1.8 GPa, 10.4 +/- 3.4 GPa, and 2.9 +/- 0.4 GPa, respectively). PMMA had greater yield strength than Wood's metal (62.9 +/- 8.7 MPa and 26.2 +/- 2.6 MPa). All materials exhibited size-dependent modulus values. The FE results indicated that filler materials, if not accounted for, could cause more than 9% variation in vertebral body stiffness. We conclude that Wood's metal is a superior moldable bonding material for biomechanical testing of whole bones, especially whole vertebrae, compared to the other candidate materials. PMID:16532630

Kim, Do-Gyoon; Dong, X Neil; Cao, Ting; Baker, Kevin C; Shaffer, Richard R; Fyhrie, David P; Yeni, Yener N

2006-02-01

270

A physical, chemical, and mechanical study of lumbar vertebrae from normal, ovariectomized, and nandrolone decanoate-treated cynomolgus monkeys ( macaca fascicularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys have previously been investigated as a nonhuman primate model of postmenopausal osteoporosis (Jerome et al., Bone Miner 9:527–540; 1994). In the present study, Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) was used to verify that differences in bone mineral quality and quantity in the vertebrae of mature intact (INT) and ovariectomized (ovx) monkeys were analogous to those seen in

S. J Gadeleta; A. L Boskey; E Paschalis; C Carlson; F Menschik; T Baldini; M Peterson; C. M Rimnac

2000-01-01

271

Burst fracture of the first lumbar vertebra and conus-cauda syndrome complicating a single convulsive seizure: A challenge of diagnosis in the Emergency Department  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractures of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae as a direct consequence of generalized epileptic convulsions are the most common non-traumatic type of fracture complicating epileptic seizures. The majority of these fractures are compression fractures that occur with minimal symptoms and virtually no permanent neurological sequela. Nevertheless, muscle contractions generated during generalized motor seizures can result in severe axial skeletal trauma

Fereydoon Roohi; Andrew Fox

2006-01-01

272

Metric and morphological study of the upper cervical spine from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain).  

PubMed

In this article, the upper cervical spine remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) middle Pleistocene site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) are described and analyzed. To date, this site has yielded more than 5000 human fossils belonging to a minimum of 28 individuals of the species Homo heidelbergensis. At least eleven individuals are represented by the upper cervical (C1 and C2) specimens: six adults and five subadults, one of which could represent an adolescent individual. The most complete adult vertebrae (three atlases and three axes) are described, measured, and compared with other fossil hominins and modern humans. These six specimens are associated with one another and represent three individuals. In addition, one of these sets of cervical vertebrae is associated with Cranium 5 (Individual XXI) from the site. The metric analysis demonstrates that the Sima de los Huesos atlases and axes are metrically more similar to Neandertals than to our modern human comparative sample. The SH atlases share with Neandertals a sagittally elongated canal. The most remarkable feature of the SH (and Neandertal) axes is that they are craniocaudally low and mediolaterally wide compared to our modern male sample. Morphologically, the SH sample shares with Neandertals a higher frequency of caudally projected anterior atlas arch, which could reflect greater development of the longus colli muscle. In other features, such as the frequency of weakly developed tubercles for the attachment of the transverse ligament of the atlas, the Sima de los Huesos fossils show intermediate frequencies between our modern comparative samples and the Neandertals, which could represent the primitive condition. Our results are consistent with the previous phylogenetic interpretation of H. heidelbergensis as an exclusively European species, ancestral only to H. neanderthalensis. PMID:17467038

Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Carretero, José Miguel; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Rodríguez-García, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Martínez, Ignacio

2007-04-30

273

MR and CT image fusion of the cervical spine: a noninvasive alternative to CT-myelography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CT-Myelography (CTM) is routinely used for planning surgery for degenerative disease of the spine, but its invasive nature, significant potential morbidity, and high costs make a noninvasive substitute desirable. We report our work on evaluating CT and MR image fusion as an alternative to CTM. Because the spine is only piecewise rigid, a multi-rigid approach to the registration of spinal CT and MR images was developed (SPIE 2004), in which the spine on CT images is first segmented into separate vertebrae, each of which is then rigidly registered with the corresponding vertebra on MR images. The results are then blended to obtain fusion images. Since they contain information from both modalities, we hypothesized that fusion images would be equivalent to CTM. To test this we selected 34 patients who had undergone MRI and CTM for degenerative disease of the cervical spine, and used the multi-rigid approach to produce fused images. A clinical vignette for each patient was created and presented along with either CT/MR fusion images or CTM images. A group of spine surgeons are asked to formulate detailed surgical plans based on each set of images, and the surgical plans are compared. A similar study assessing diagnostic agreement is being performed with neuroradiologists, who also assess the accuracy of registration. Our work to date has demonstrated the feasibility of segmentation and multi-rigid fusion in clinical cases and the acceptability of the questionnaire to physicians. Preliminary analysis of one surgeon's and one neuroradiologist"s evaluation has been performed.

Hu, Yangqiu; Mirza, Sohail K.; Jarvik, Jeffrey G.; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Haynor, David R.

2005-04-01

274

Efficacy of Sphaeranthus indicus and cream of Lawsonia inermis in cervical erosion with cervicitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo compare the efficacy and safety of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and cream of Lawsonia inermis Linn and Plumbi oxidum with placebo in the healing of erosion and relief of symptoms in cervical erosion with cervicitis.

Shabana Hashmi; Wajeeha Begum; Arshiya Sultana

2011-01-01

275

Pulsed radiofrequency of cervical medial branches for treatment of whiplash-related cervical zygapophysial joint pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of pulsed RF lesioning of cervical medial branches in patients with whiplash-related chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain in whom other conservative treatments failed.

Po-Chou Liliang; Kang Lu; Ching-Hua Hsieh; Chia-Yi Kao; Kuo-Wei Wang; Han-Jung Chen

2008-01-01

276

Hospital Stays for Cervical Cancer, 2004. Statistical Brief No. 22.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cervical cancer is preventable and curable if detected early. Timely cervical cancer screening through Papanicolaou (Pap) tests has been recognized as the most effective way to identify the earliest signs of cervical cancer. Although the number of women n...

A. Elixhauser C. A. Russo M. Milenkovic

2007-01-01

277

Cervical Cancer Overlooked in Less-Developed Nations  

MedlinePLUS

... August 13, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Cervical Cancer International Health Women's Health TUESDAY, Aug. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Cervical ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Cervical Cancer International Health Women's Health Recent Health News Page last updated ...

278

Cervical enamel: a danger zone.  

PubMed

The British Standards Institutions's document (1974) recommending toothpaste specifications states that 'There is no evidence that any toothpaste ever produces a level of abrasion causing harm to dental enamel'. This paper questions the assumption that the enamel crown, especially at the cervical margin, is able to cope with modern dietary insult and a 'good' oral hygiene regimen, regardless of the enamel abrasivity of the dentifrice used. Once the enamel crown is breached the underlying dentine is sensitive and vulnerable to physical damage. In this work the potential rates of erosive and abrasive loss are related to the thickness of the protective enamel and to the relevance of fluoride treatments for adults. It is suggested that improvements in dental care and an increased tooth life expectancy now make the loss of tooth tissues at the cervical margin more important than is apparent at first sight. PMID:291708

Davis, W B

1979-10-01

279

Cervical spine curvature during simulated whiplash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To develop a new method to describe cervical spine curvature and evaluate the potential for injury in the upper and lower cervical spine during simulated whiplash.Design. A method was developed to integrate the upper and lower cervical spine rotations and describe the spine curvature.Background. In vivo and in vitro whiplash simulations have documented the development of an S-shape curvature

Manohar M. Panjabi; Adam M. Pearson; Shigeki Ito; Paul C. Ivancic; Jaw-Lin Wang

2004-01-01

280

Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the tissues of the cervix. The Cancer Genome Atlas is studying the two main types of cervical cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma develops in the thin, flat, squamous cells that line the vagina. Adenocarcinoma arises in the glandular cells in the vagina that secrete mucus. Risk factors for cervical cancer include smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In the future, the HPV vaccine will lower the infection rate.

281

Imaging of endometrial and cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review the ever increasing role of imaging in endometrial and cervical cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a (MRI) has emerged as the most widely used technique in the management of women with gynaecological cancer. In endometrial\\u000a cancer, MRI is reliable in identifying myometrial and cervical invasion and extra-uterine disease, thereby informing preoperative\\u000a surgical planning. In cervical cancer, MRI

Shilpa Patel; Sidath H. Liyanage; Anju Sahdev; Andrea G. Rockall; Rodney H. Reznek

2010-01-01

282

Molecular Genetics of Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with its higher incidence in developing\\u000a countries (1). Strong clinical and experimental evidence demonstrated that the high-risk (HR) types of human papilloma virus (HPV) play\\u000a a central role in causing cervical cancer, although a role of multiple risk factors has been suggested too. Not only

Valeria Masciullo; Antonio Giordano

283

Cervical epidural steroid injections in the management of cervical radiculitis: interlaminar versus transforaminal. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been recent concern regarding the safety of cervical epidural steroid injections. The decision to proceed with treatment\\u000a requires balancing the risk and benefits. This article is an in depth review of the efficacy, complications, and technique\\u000a of both interlaminar and transforaminal cervical epidural steroid injections in the management of cervical radiculitis.

Christopher W. Huston

2009-01-01

284

Cervical competence as a continuum: A study of ultrasonographic cervical length and obstetric performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the hypothesis that cervical competence is a continuum that is related to cervical length and is reflected by pregnancy history.STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasonography in women with prior preterm delivery at ? 26 weeks, 27 to 32 weeks, and 33 to 35 weeks compared with

Jay D. Iams; Francee F. Johnson; Jiri Sonck; Larry Sachs; Cathy Gebauer; Philip Samuels

1995-01-01

285

Comparison of Adverse Events Between the Bryan Artificial Cervical Disc and Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design. Randomized controlled study. Objective. To compare the rates of adverse events associated with disc arthroplasty versus those of anterior cervical discectomy and arthrodesis with allograft and plate. Summary of Background Data. Cervical disc arthro- plasty as a substitute for fusion has been developed to maintain motion and, theoretically, prevent adjacent seg- ment degeneration. Currently, cervical arthroplasty de- vices

Paul A. Anderson; Rick C. Sasso; K. Daniel Riew

2008-01-01

286

Amyotrophic cervical myelopathy in adolescence.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and radiological features in seven patients who had asymmetric muscular atrophy of the hand and forearm when young are reported and a new hypothesis for its aetiology is proposed. Investigation of body growth curves (a surrogate for velocity of arm growth) showed close relation between (a) the age when the body height increased most rapidly and the onset age of this disorder, and (b) the age when the rapid body growth period ended and the age when symptom progression ceased. Cervical radiological evidence is provided showing asymmetric anterior cord atrophy, disappearance of slackness of dorsal roots in neck extension, and anterior and lateral displacement of the lower cervical cord against the posterior aspects of the vertebral bodies during neck flexion. These results suggest that disproportionate shortening of the dorsal roots is further accentuated during the juvenile growth spurt, which determines the onset and self limited course of the condition, and that repeated neck flexion causes micro-trauma and relative ischaemia of anterior horn cells, which finally results in atrophy of the muscles innervated by motoneurons with long axons. Predisposing anatomical factors are a straight neck due to lack of physiological cervical lordosis and the presence of foreshortened dorsal roots. Images

Toma, S; Shiozawa, Z

1995-01-01

287

Multimodality evaluation of cervical tumors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical signs of radiotherapy failure are often not present until well after treatment has been completed. Methods which could predict the response of tumors either before or early into the radiotherapy schedule would have important implications for patient management. Recent studies performed at our institution suggest that MR perfusion imaging maya be useful in distinguishing between individuals who are likely to benefit from radiation therapy and those who are not. Because MR perfusion imaging reflects tissue vascularity as well as perfusion, quantitative positron emission tomographic (PET) blood flow studies were performed to obtain an independent assessment of tumor perfusion. MR perfusion and PET quantitative blood flow studies were acquired on four women diagnosed with advanced cervical cancer. The MR perfusion studies were acquired on a 1 cm sagittal slice through the epicenter of the tumor mass. Quantitative PET blood flow studies were performed using an autoradiographic technique. The PET and MRI were registered using a manual interactive routine and the mean blood flow in the tumor was compared to the relative signal intensity in a corresponding region on the MR image. The mean blood flow in the cervical tumors ranged form 30-48 ml/min/100 grams. The observed blood flow values are consistent with the assumed relationship between MR contrast enhancement and the distribution of tissue perfusion. The information offered by these studies provides an additional window into the evaluation of the response of cervical tumors to radiation therapy.

Madsen, Mark T.; Mayr, Nina A.; Yuh, William T.; Ehrhardt, James C.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Ponto, Laura L.; Vannier, Michael W.; Hichwa, Richard D.

1997-05-01

288

Cervical aortic arch with aneurysm formation.  

PubMed

Cervical aortic arch is a very rare anomaly presented as a pulsatile mass on the neck and usually with symptoms of dysphagia, cough and hoarseness. Rarer than the cervical aortic arch, is the aneurysm formation and, despite the equal sex distribution of cervical aortic arch, aneurysm formation always occurs in young females with only nine cases reported. We report herein a 24-year-old woman, diagnosed as cervical aortic arch with aneurysm formation due to basophilic degeneration, treated successfully with surgical intervention. To our knowledge no similar case has been reported. PMID:9845153

Farsak, B; Yilmaz, M; Kaplan, S; Böke, E

1998-10-01

289

Degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis has received insufficient attention, in contrast to degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.\\u000a In fact, degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis may be more common than previously thought.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In order to provide appropriate guidelines for the treatment of degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis, a systematic review\\u000a of degenerative cervical spondylolisthesis was performed. An English literature search from January 1947 to November 2010\\u000a was completed with

Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

2011-01-01

290

Unusual complication of cervical tuberculous lymphadenopathy.  

PubMed

Lymphadenopathy is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis; cervical region being the most frequent site. Yet, tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy is rarely associated with Internal Jugular Vein (IJV) thrombosis. We report right IJV thrombosis with isolated cervical tuberculous lymphadenopathy in a 22-year-old woman. Anti-tuberculous treatment resulted in complete regression of lymphadenopathy but anticoagulation treatment failed to restore the caliber of thrombosed IJV to normal. Thrombosis of adjacent IJV is a potential complication of delay in diagnosis and treatment of cervical lymphnode tuberculosis. PMID:21434555

Gowrinath, K; Nizamiz, Mohammed Ismail; Kumar, B E Phanil; Suneetha, P; Kishor, V H

2011-01-01

291

Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. Methodology/Principal Findings After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were randomly divided into three groups. The conventional pedicle screw (CPS) was inserted directly into vertebrae in CPS group; PMMA was injected prior to insertion of CPS in PMMA-PS group; and the EPS was inserted in EPS group. Sheep were killed and biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis and histological observation were performed at both 6 and 12 weeks post-operation. At 6-week and 12-week, screw stabilities in EPS and PMMA-PS groups were significantly higher than that in CPS group, but there were no significant differences between EPS and PMMA-PS groups at two study periods. The screw stability in EPS group at 12-week was significantly higher than that at 6-week. The bone trabeculae around the expanding anterior part of EPS were more and denser than that in CPS group at 6-week and 12-week. PMMA was found without any degradation and absorption forming non-biological “screw-PMMA-bone” interface in PMMA-PS group, however, more and more bone trabeculae surrounded anterior part of EPS improving local bone quality and formed biological “screw-bone” interface. Conclusions/Significance EPS can markedly enhance screw stability with a similar effect to the traditional method of screw augmentation with PMMA in initial surgery in osteoporosis. EPS can form better biological interface between screw and bone than PMMA-PS. In addition, EPS have no risk of thermal injury, leakage and compression caused by PMMA. We propose EPS has a great application potential in augmentation of screw stability in osteoporosis in clinic.

Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

2013-01-01

292

Placement of pedicle screws using three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation in lumbar vertebrae with axial rotation.  

PubMed

Despite potential advantages of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation, there still remain a lot of controversies about the indications of this technology, especially whether it is worthy of being used in placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spine. However, according to the inconsistent conclusions reported in the literature and our experiences, the traditional method relying on anatomical landmarks and fluoroscopic views to guide lumbar pedicle screw insertion is unable to meet the requirement of precise screw placement. Based on our observation, screw malposition seems to occur concomitant with vertebral axial rotation which is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation can provide the most valuable axial images in real-time, so it may be useful for placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spine. This study was intended to evaluate the effect of axial rotation of lumbar vertebrae on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using the traditional method, as well as assess the value of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation in improving the accuracy. Sixteen lumbar simulation models at different degrees of axial rotation (0°, 5°, 10°, and 20°), with every four assigned the same degree, were equally divided into two groups (traditional method group and three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation group). Random placement of pedicle screws was carried out, followed by CT scan postoperatively. Then the outer pedicle cortex contours were depicted from reconstructed sectional pedicle images using Photoshop. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was evaluated by determining the interrelationship between screw trajectory and pedicle cortex (quality), and measuring the shortest distance from pedicle screw axis to outer cortex of the pedicle (quantity). Eighty pedicle screws were implanted, respectively, in each group. In traditional method group, statistical difference existed in the accuracy of pedicle screw placement at different axial rotational degrees (P < 0.05). With degrees increasing, the accuracy declined. The accuracy of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation group was higher than traditional method group in vertebrae with axial rotation (P < 0.01). In qualitative evaluation, the accuracy of the two methods had statistical difference when the degree was 20°, and in quantitative evaluation, statistical difference existed in 5°, 10°, and 20° of vertebral axial rotation. PMID:20821028

Tian, Wei; Lang, Zhao

2010-09-06

293

Experimental study using diode laser in discs: the healing process in discs and adjacent vertebrae after laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct and secondary changes following diode laser irradiation of intervertebral discs were studied in rabbits. A quartz fiber was inserted into the discs, and laser irradiation was applied. Subsequently, the lumbar vertebrae were extracted en bloc, and subjected to sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and histologic examination immediately after irradiation, and 3, 12, and 24 weeks after irradiation. MR images showed low signal intensity of the intervertebral discs on T2-weighted images 3 weeks after irradiation, which remained unchanged to 24 weeks. Although the signal intensity of the adjacent vertebral bodies remained unchanged on T1-weighted images, the intensity was high on T2-weighted images 3 weeks after irradiation, but had reverted to normal or was low 12 to 24 weeks after irradiation. On histologic examination, the inner layer of the annulus fibrosus was seen to protrude into the void created by vaporization of the nucleus pulposus 3 weeks after irradiation. Multinuclear chondrocytes were observed, as if the disc was being reconstructed. Fibrous tissue in the epiphysis and metaphysis was observed soon after irradiation but decreased over time and was replaced by normal bone marrow.

Naga, Kumi; Nakai, Sadaaki; Maehara, Kazuyuki; Nishimoto, Seiji

2004-09-01

294

A morphological adaptation of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae to lumbar hyperlordosis in young and adult females  

PubMed Central

The lumbar shape in females is thought to be unique, compensating for lumbar hyperlordosis. Yet, the morphological adaptation of various vertebral parameters in the thoracic and lumbar spine to this unique posture in young and adult females has only been partially addressed in the literature. Our aim was to investigate the gender association to vertebral shape in the thoracic and lumbar spine as a possible adaptation to lumbar hyperlordosis in young and adult females. A three-dimensional digitizer was used to measure the vertebral body sagittal wedging, relative spinous process thickness, and relative interfacet width at the T1–L5 level. Two hundred and forty complete, non-pathological skeletons of adults and 32 skeletons of young individuals were assessed. Three major results were found to be independent of age and ethnicity: (a) VB sagittal wedging in females was significantly less kyphotic than males from T9 to L2 (T11 excluded) with a cumulative mean difference of 8.8°; (b) females had a significantly relatively thinner lumbar spinous processes and (c) females had a relatively wider superior interfacet distance (T9–T10 and L1–L4) than males. We conclude that the combination of less kyphotic VB wedging in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar vertebrae, relatively greater interspinous space and larger interfacet width in the lumbar spine in females are key architectural elements in the lumbar hyperlordosis in females and may compensate for the bipedal obstetric load during pregnancy.

Dar, Gali; Peleg, Smadar; Steinberg, Nili; Medlej, Bahaa; May, Hila; Abbas, Janan; Hershkovitz, Israel

2009-01-01

295

Delayed diagnosis of post-traumatic C7 vertebra anterior subluxation with an unusual neurological pattern: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Post-traumatic subluxations are potentially devastating injuries to the axial skeleton. Of utmost priority are an expedient and timely diagnosis and realignment because of its association with spinal cord and nerve root trauma, which lead to progressive deleterious neurological deficits. A good radiological study of the occipitocervical joint and first thoracic vertebra is key to a successful early diagnosis. However, cases might still fail to be diagnosed, leading to trouble. A case of post-traumatic subluxation at the C7 vertebral level with an unusual neurological pattern is presented here. Case presentation A 35-year-old farmer from the Sindh province of Pakistan presented to our neurology department after a fall 2 months earlier and complained of lower limb pain and difficulty in walking. He had numbness in both of his lower limbs up to his umbilical region, with sparing of bladder function along with intact strength in the upper extremities bilaterally. Conclusions Our case highlights the unusual sparing of upper limbs and intact urinary continence with severe lower limb deficits in a 70% subluxation. Our case is unusual because highly detrimental effects such as quadriplegia are expected with such extreme subluxation, but our patient presented with only lower limb deficits. This case serves as a reminder to emergency medicine doctors, spine surgeons, and even radiologists (a) to evaluate spine injuries by using computed tomography in trauma patients to identify artifact around a suspected injury and (b) to be mindful of negative conventional radiographs.

2013-01-01

296

Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction of the spine from a single X-ray image and prior vertebra models.  

PubMed

The lateral bending test is routinely used by clinicians for the preoperative assessment of spinal mobility. The evaluation of bending motion is usually based on the qualitative analysis of a two-dimensional (2-D) antero-posterior X-ray image. The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction technique that is a prerequisite for the quantitative 3-D analysis of lateral bending motion. An algorithm was developed for the 3-D reconstruction of the spine from a single X-ray image. The X-ray is calibrated using a small calibration object and an explicit calibration algorithm. The information contained in the single X-ray is completed by registering a priori 3-D geometric models of individual vertebrae. Part of the error yielded by the 3-D/2-D registration is corrected by a vertebral alignment constraint that aims to minimize intervertebral dislocations. Three-dimensional models of 15 different scoliosis patients, obtained from a standard stereo-radiographic 3-D reconstruction, were used in simulation and validation experiments. Experimental results show that the new method is robust and accurate. With pessimistic levels of simulated noise, the average root mean square reconstruction error is 2.89 mm, which is appropriate for common clinical applications. PMID:15376511

Novosad, Justin; Cheriet, Farida; Petit, Yvan; Labelle, Hubert

2004-09-01

297

Traumatic cervical syringomyelia related to birth injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rare case of cervical syringomyelia related to breech delivery is reported. The initial diagnosis was bilateral brachial plexus palsy due to birth injury, which was revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to be traumatic syringomyelia. The usefulness of MRI in the early diagnosis of cervical cord birth injury, especially in differentiating between brachial plexus palsy due to birth injury

Nobuhito Morota; Keizo Sakamoto; Norio Kobayashi

1992-01-01

298

How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with 'high risk' genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer

Richard Roden; T.-C. Wu

2006-01-01

299

Vaccination to prevent and treat cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary etiologic agents of cervical cancer. Thus, cervical cancer and other HPV-associated malignancies might be prevented or treated by HPV vaccines. Transmission of papillomavirus may be prevented by the generation of antibodies to capsid proteins L1 and L2 that neutralize viral infection. However, because the capsid proteins are not expressed at detectable levels by infected

Richard B. S Roden; Morris Ling; T.-C Wu

2004-01-01

300

Convergence of cervical and trigeminal sensory afferents.  

PubMed

Cranial nociceptive perception shows a distinct topographic distribution, with the trigeminal nerve receiving sensory information from the anterior portions of the head, the greater occipital nerve, and branches of the upper cervical roots in the posterior regions. However, this distribution is not respected during headache attacks, even if the etiology of the headache is specific for only one nerve. Nociceptive information from the trigeminal and cervical territories activates the neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis that extend to the C2 spinal segment and lateral cervical nucleus in the dorsolateral cervical area. These neurons are classified as multimodal because they receive sensory information from more than one afferent type. Clinically, trigeminal activation produces symptoms in the trigeminal and cervical territory and cervical activation produces symptoms in the cervical and trigeminal territory. The overlap between the trigeminal nerve and cervical is known as a convergence mechanism. For some time, convergence mechanisms were thought to be secondary to clinical observations. However, animal studies and clinical evidence have expanded our knowledge of convergence mechanisms. In this paper, the role of convergence mechanisms in nociceptive physiology, physiopathology of the headaches, clinical diagnosis, and therapeutic conduct are reviewed. PMID:12946291

Piovesan, Elcio J; Kowacs, Pedro A; Oshinsky, Michael L

2003-10-01

301

Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have examined the role of tests for human papillomavirus (HPV) in screening for cervical cancer but as yet the relevance is unclear. We looked at HPV testing for types 16, 18, 31, and 33 on material taken at the time of a cervical smear in 2009 eligible women having routine screening. Women with any degree of dyskaryosis or

J. Cuzick; A. Szarewski; G. Terry; A. Hanby; P. Maddox; M. Anderson; S. J. Steele; J. Guillebaud; C. Kocjean

1995-01-01

302

Cervical arterial dysfunction assessment and manual therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a clinical overview of cervical arterial dysfunction (CAD) for manual therapists who treat patients presenting with cervical pain and headache syndromes. An overview of vertebrobasilar arterial insufficiency (VBI) is given, with reference to assessment procedures recommended by commonly used guidelines. We suggest that the evidence supporting contemporary practice is limited and present a more holistic,

Roger Kerry; Alan J. Taylor

2006-01-01

303

Biomechanics of Upper Cervical Spine Injuries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cervical spine injuries continue to form a significant problem in the U.S.A., in spite of major advances in their medical management. The goal of the study was to produce clinical fractures experimentally, using fresh cadaveric cervical spine specimens. T...

M. Panjabi

1993-01-01

304

Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

2008-01-01

305

Risk of cervical cancer after HPV vaccination.  

PubMed

It will likely be more than 20 years before there is unequivocal evidence available that HPV vaccination decreases the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. However, existing data strongly suggests that as many as 440,000 cervical cancer cases and 220,000 deaths due to this malignancy will be prevented with the establishment of an effective worldwide HPV immunization program. PMID:23016781

Markman, Maurie

2013-01-01

306

New insights into cervical cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality. For over 50 years, cervical cytology has been the gold standard for cervical cancer screening. Because of its profound effect on cervical cancer mortality in nations that have adopted screening programs, the Pap smear is widely accepted as the model screening test. Since its introduction, many studies have analyzed the Pap smear and found that it is not without its shortcomings including low sensitivity for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3. Additionally, the discovery of infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) as a necessary step in the development of cervical cancer has led to the development of HPV testing as an adjunct to cytology screening. More recently, researchers have compared HPV testing and cytology in the primary screening of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss cytologic testing limitations, the role of HPV DNA testing as an alternative screening tool, the impact of the HPV vaccine on screening, and future directions in cervical cancer screening.

Boone, Jonathan D.; Erickson, Britt K.

2012-01-01

307

Coral grafts used in cervical interbody fusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along this study, we evaluate an osseous substitute, natural Coral used in the lower cer-vical spine interbody fusions. We reviewed, in a retrospective study, 66 cases of lower cervical discopathies treated by radiculo-medullar decompression, coral arthrodesis and anterior osteosynthesis.

K. Ghiamphy; F. Gosset; P. Kehr

1999-01-01

308

Subsidence and Nonunion after Anterior Cervical Interbody Fusion Using a Stand-Alone Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Cage  

PubMed Central

Background The purposes of the present study are to evaluate the subsidence and nonunion that occurred after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using a stand-alone intervertebral cage and to analyze the risk factors for the complications. Methods Thirty-eight patients (47 segments) who underwent anterior cervical fusion using a stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and an autologous cancellous iliac bone graft from June 2003 to August 2008 were enrolled in this study. The anterior and posterior segmental heights and the distance from the anterior edge of the upper vertebra to the anterior margin of the cage were measured on the plain radiographs. Subsidence was defined as ? a 2 mm (minor) or 3 mm (major) decrease of the segmental height at the final follow-up compared to that measured at the immediate postoperative period. Nonunion was evaluated according to the instability being ? 2 mm in the interspinous distance on the flexion-extension lateral radiographs. Results The anterior and posterior segmental heights decreased from the immediate postoperative period to the final follow-up at 1.33 ± 1.46 mm and 0.81 ± 1.27 mm, respectively. Subsidence ? 2 mm and 3 mm were observed in 12 segments (25.5%) and 7 segments (14.9%), respectively. Among the expected risk factors for subsidence, a smaller anteroposterior (AP) diameter (14 mm vs. 12 mm) of cages (p = 0.034; odds ratio [OR], 0.017) and larger intraoperative distraction (p = 0.041; OR, 3.988) had a significantly higher risk of subsidence. Intervertebral nonunion was observed in 7 segments (7/47, 14.9%). Compared with the union group, the nonunion group had a significantly higher ratio of two-level fusion to one-level fusions (p = 0.001). Conclusions Anterior cervical fusion using a stand-alone cage with a large AP diameter while preventing anterior intraoperative over-distraction will be helpful to prevent the subsidence of cages. Two-level cervical fusion might require more careful attention for avoiding nonunion.

Yang, Jae Jun; Yu, Chang Hun; Yeom, Jin Sup; Lee, Jae Hyup; Lee, Choon-Ki

2011-01-01

309

Two different causes of acute respiratory failure in a patient with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis and ankylosed cervical spine.  

PubMed

We report a case of 73-year-old man with massive hyperostosis of the cervical spine associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), resulting in dysphagia, hoarseness and acute respiratory insufficiency. An emergency operation was performed, which involved excision of osteophytes at the level of C6-C7, compressing the trachea against enlarged sternoclavicular joints, also affected by DISH. Approximately 3 years later, the patient sustained a whiplash injury in a low impact car accident, resulting in a C3-C4 fracture dislocation, which was not immediately diagnosed because he did not seek medical attention after the accident. For the next 6 months, he had constant cervical pain, which was growing worse and eventually became associated with dysphagia and dyspnoea, ending once again in acute respiratory failure due to bilateral palsy of the vocal cords. The patient underwent a second operation, which comprised partial reduction and combined anteroposterior fixation of the fractured vertebrae. Twenty months after the second operation, mild hoarseness was still present, but all other symptoms had disappeared. The clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the two unusual complications of DISH are discussed. PMID:19798518

Vengust, Rok; Mihalic, René; Turel, Matjaz

2009-10-02

310

Cervical radiculopathy: current diagnostic and treatment options.  

PubMed

Cervical nerve root compression, in contrast to nerve root irritation, results in an objective neurologic deficit of the affected nerve root. The purpose of this article is to highlight current diagnostic and treatment options that have proven efficient and safe in managing cervical root compression. The natural history of cervical disc disease and the clinical patterns and causes of cervical radiculopathy are reviewed. Electromyography and reformatted mutiplanar CT scans in addition to MRI are valuable diagnostic modalities. Although anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion remains the gold standard of treatment, microendoscopic foraminotomies and discectomies done from posterior and anterior approaches are effective and safe. The role of disc arthroplasty in the treatment of radiculopathy is evolving. PMID:19327260

Nasca, Richard J

2009-01-01

311

An approach to 2D\\/3D registration of a vertebra in 2D X-ray fluoroscopies with 3D CT images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to use pre-operative images during an operation for navigation, they must be registered to the patient's coordinate system in the operating theater or to an intra-operative image. One problem in this area is the registration of a vertebra in intra-operatively acquired x-ray fluoroscopies with 3D CT images obtained before the intervention. The result can be used to support

Jtirgen Weese; Thorsten M. Buzug; Cristian Lorenz; Carola Fassnacht

1997-01-01

312

Past, present, and future of cervical arthroplasty.  

PubMed

Cervical arthroplasty was developed in an attempt to maintain cervical motion and potentially to avoid or minimize adjacent-segment degeneration. If cervical arthroplasty is successful, the long-term results of surgery for cervical disc disease should improve. However, problems associated with cervical arthroplasty have been reported: these include kyphosis, heterotopic ossification-induced motion limitation, no motion preservation even at the index level, and a higher revision rate in a limited number of cases compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). In addition, for degenerative cervical disc disorders, the risk of developing adjacent segment degeneration more than 2 years after surgery is reportedly similar for ACDF and cervical arthroplasty. Cervical disc arthroplasty is an emerging motion-sparing technology and is currently undergoing evaluation in many countries as an alternative to arthrodesis for the treatment of cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. The decision whether to use arthrodesis or arthroplasty is a difficult one. The achievement of good prosthetic performance demands exacting implantation techniques to ensure correct placement. This fact underlines the increasing importance of special instrumentation and surgical skills that involve an understanding of prosthetic lubrication, wear, and biologic effects and familiarity with currently available information regarding kinematics, basic science, testing, and early clinical results. Fortunately, a number of devices are at the late preclinical study stage or at the early clinical trial stage, and results in many cases are promising. In the near future, it is likely that new designs will be produced to replace spinal discs totally or partially in a pathologic entity-specific manner. PMID:23803346

Hyun Oh, Chang; Hwan Yoon, Seung

2013-01-01

313

Genetics Home Reference: Klippel-Feil syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae), which is present from birth. Three major features ... to incomplete separation of the vertebrae, specifically the cervical vertebrae, in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Some people ...

314

[The incidence of cervical dystocia and disorders of cervical involution in the post partum cow].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to obtain information on the frequency of cervical dystocia and involution disorders of the canalis cervicalis after difficult dystocia and to characterise factors possibly influencing these pathological conditions. Therefore 317 difficult births in the cow (extraction: 123; foetotomy: 82; caesarean section: 112) and the involution of the cervical canal were documented during the first ten days post partum. In total a cervical dystocia could be diagnosed 53 times (16.7% related to the total number of births). This kind of birth disorder is regularly followed by a caesarean section (p < 0.001). Animals who show a narrowness in the cervix were older than the cows without cervical dystocia (p < 0.05). The same correlation could be detected for the number of births. Animals with delivery problems associated with the cervix had already given birth to more calves than cows who were not affected by cervical disorders (p < 0.01). 58 cows developed a disorder of the cervical involution (18.3% related to the total number of deliveries). This puerperal disorder can be frequently observed after foetotomy (p < 0.001). A correlation between the incidence of disorders of cervical involution and the age or the parity of the animals could not be detected. In the same way, cows with a diagnosis of a cervical dystocia did not develop more frequently disorders of cervical involution than animals who showed a physiological dilation of the cervical canal intra partum. PMID:14746054

Wehrend, A; Bostedt, H

2003-12-01

315

Cervical arthroplasty for myelopathy adjacent to previous multisegmental fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of cervical arthroplasty for the treatment of degenerative cervical pathology. In its relative infancy, the applications for this technique are still being explored. In this report, we present the use of cervical arthroplasty in the treatment of progressive cervical myelopathy due to adjacent segment disease related to previous multisegmental

Ralph J. Mobbs; Nicholas Mehan; Peter Khong

2009-01-01

316

Multiple HPV infection in cervical cancer screened by HPVDNAChip™  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the distribution of high-risk HPV type infection in cervical cancer using newly developed oligonucleotide chips (HPVDNAChips™). The study subjects included 80 cases of cervical neoplasia and 746 controls with a normal Pap smear. For HPV genotyping, the commercially available HPVDNAChips™ was used. The risk of cervical cancer was increased in women with a family history of cervical

Sang Ah Lee; Daehee Kang; Sang Soo Seo; Jeongmi Kim Jeong; Keun Young Yoo; Yong Tark Jeon; Jae Weon Kim; Noh Hyun Park; Soon Beom Kang; Hyo Pyo Lee; Yong Sang Song

2003-01-01

317

Cervical cytology biobanking in Europe.  

PubMed

A cervical cytology biobank (CCB) is an extension of current cytopathology laboratory practice consisting in the systematic storage of Pap smears or liquid-based cytology samples from women participating in cervical cancer screening with the explicit purpose to facilitate future scientific research and quality audit of preventive services. A CCB should use an internationally agreed uniform cytology terminology, be integrated in a national or regional screening registry, and be linked to other registries (histology, cancer, vaccination). Legal and ethical principles concerning personal integrity and data safety must be respected strictly. Biobank-based studies require approval of ethical review boards. A CCB is an almost inexhaustible resource for fundamental and applied biological research. In particular, it can contribute to answering questions on the natural history of HPV infection and HPV-induced lesions and cancers, screening effectiveness, exploration of new biomarkers, and surveillance of the short- and long-term effects of the introduction of HPV vaccination. To understand the limitations of CCB, more studies are needed on the quality of samples in relation to sample type, storage procedures, and duration of storage. PMID:20872354

Arbyn, Marc; Van Veen, Evert-Ben; Andersson, Kristin; Bogers, Johannes; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bergeron, Christine; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Dillner, Joakim

318

DNA vaccines for cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly type 16, has been associated with more than 99% of cervical cancers. There are two HPV oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7, which play a major role in the induction and maintenance of cellular transformation. Thus, immunotherapy targeting these proteins may be employed for the control of HPV-associated cervical lesions. Although the commercially available preventive HPV vaccines are highly efficient in preventing new HPV infection, they do not have therapeutic effects against established HPV infection or HPV-associated lesions. Since T cell-mediated immunity is important for treating established HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions, therapeutic HPV vaccine should aim at generating potent E6 and E7-specific T cell-mediated immune responses. DNA vaccines have now developed into a promising approach for antigen-specific T cell-mediated immunotherapy to combat infection and cancer. Because dendritic cells are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells, and are highly effective in priming antigen-specific T cells, several DNA vaccines have employed innovative strategies to modify the properties of dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of the DNA vaccine potency. These studies have revealed impressive pre-clinical data that has led to several ongoing HPV DNA vaccine clinical trials.

Huang, Chien-Fu; Monie, Archana; Weng, Wei-Hung; Wu, TC

2010-01-01

319

Functional cervical myelography with iohexol.  

PubMed

Thirty patients underwent functional cervical myelography, i.e. radiographs in the lateral view were obtained in extension as well as in flexion of the neck. Sagittal tomography was performed in both positions. Widening of the subarachnoid space and decreased sagittal diameter of the spinal cord due to shortening were demonstrated in the lateral view in flexion. In some cases with advanced narrowing or spinal block in extension, such widening in flexion resulted in better diagnostic images by providing passage of the contrast medium caudally. Although iohexol (Omnipaque, Nyegaard & Co., Oslo) was regularly forced into the posterior cranial fossa by the movements, the frequency of side effects was approximately the same as in our former trials with iohexol in conventional cervical myelography. EEG changes occurred in two patients (7%). A sitting position for 3-4 min after the examination followed by an elevated head end of the bed was probably important for preventing side effects from the contrast medium. Specific questioning revealed twice as many subjective side effects as reported after general questions alone. PMID:4010921

Nakstad, P; Aaserud, O; Ganes, T; Nyberg-Hansen, R

1985-01-01

320

Cortical Margining Capabilities of Fins Associated with Ventral Cervical Spine Instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Fins incorporated into the design of a dynamic cervical spine implant have been employed to enhance axial load-bearing ability, yet their true biomechanical advantages, if any, have not been defined. Therefore, the goal of this study was to assess the biomechanical and axial load-bearing contributions of the fin components of the DOC ventral cervical stabilization system. Eighteen fresh cadaveric thoracic vertebrae (T1-T3) were obtained. Three test conditions were devised and studied: Condition A (DOC implants with fins were placed against the superior endplate and bone screws were not inserted); Condition B (DOC implant without fins was placed and bone screws were inserted); and Condition C (DOC implant with fins were placed against the superior endplate and bone screws were inserted). Specimens were tested by applying a pure axial compressive load to the superior platform of the DOC construct, and load-displacement data were collected. Condition C specimens had the greatest stiffness (459 ± 80 N/mm) and yield load (526±168 N). Condition A specimens were the least stiff (266±53 N/mm), and had the smallest yield loads (180±54 N). The yield load of condition A plus condition B was approximately equal to that of condition C, with condition A contributing about one-third and condition B contributing two-thirds of the overall load-bearing capacity. Although the screws alone contributed to a substantial portion of axial load-bearing ability, the addition of the fins further increased load-bearing capabilities.

Kwon, Heum-Dai; Cho, Yong-Eun

2005-01-01

321

Spinal epidural haematoma after blunt trauma to the neck and hyperflection of the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Spinal epidural haematomas (sEDH) can be regarded as rare events, in principle a spontaneous and a traumatic aetiology can be distinguished. Spontaneous spinal epidural haematomas can arise, e.g. from vascular malformations, coagulopathies, etc. On the other hand, traumatic sEDH are related to, e.g. spinal trauma or intraoperative vascular injuries. With regard to clinical significance, spinal epidural haematomas accompanied by transient mild neurological symptoms up to lethal outcomes have been observed. We report on a 53-year-old male alcoholic who was found in the kitchen of his asylum in a grotesquely fixed body position, with his head and cervical spine in a maximum anteflected position. A general practitioner had ruled for a non-natural manner of death due to "broken neck" and alcohol intoxication, therefore, the prosecution authorities called for a medicolegal autopsy. At autopsy, paravertebral soft tissue haemorrhage in between the shoulder blades was disclosed. Furthermore, a spinal epidural haematoma, extending from the foramen magnum down to the middle portion of the thoracic spine was found. No fractures of vertebrae nor lesions of spine ligaments or bleedings of intervertebral discs were found. Blood alcohol concentration was determined 1.92 g/l and urine alcohol concentration was 1.76 g/l. Further morphological findings were cerebral oedema and cardiac hypertrophy; the urinary bladder was found filled to bursting. Neuropathological investigations confirmed the presence of the spinal epidural haematoma and assigned lethal significance to this finding. There were no histological signs of axonal injury. Reconstruction revealed that when sitting on a chair in a drunk condition, the individual's upper part of the body had fallen backwards in the corner and subsequently got stuck with maximum anteflection of the head and cervical spine, causing rupture of vessels and spinal epidural haematoma. Acute respiratory failure caused by impairment of the phrenic nerve following spinal epidural haematoma with potential synergism of alcohol intoxication was ascertained as the cause of death. PMID:16289414

Padosch, S A; Dettmeyer, R B; Schmidt, P H; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

2005-11-10

322

The relationship between the cervical spinal canal diameter and the pathological changes in the cervical spine  

PubMed Central

A congenitally narrow cervical spinal canal has been established as an important risk factor for the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. However, few reports have described the mechanism underlying this risk. In this study, we investigate the relationship between cervical spinal canal narrowing and pathological changes in the cervical spine using positional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two hundred and ninety-five symptomatic patients underwent cervical MRI in the weight-bearing position with dynamic motion (flexion, neutral, and extension) of the cervical spine. The sagittal cervical spinal canal diameter and cervical segmental angular motion were measured and calculated. Each segment was assessed for the extent of intervertebral disc degeneration and cervical cord compression. Based on the sagittal canal diameter, the subjects were classified into three groups: A, subjects with a congenitally narrow canal, diameter of less than 13 mm; B, subjects with a normal canal, diameter of 13–15 mm; C, subjects with a wide canal, diameter of more than 15 mm. When compared with Groups A and B, the disc degeneration grades at the C3-4, C5-6, and C6-7 segments and the cervical cord compression scores at the C3-4 and C5-6 segments showed significant differences. Additionally, when compare with Groups A and C, the disc degeneration grades at all segments, except C2-3, and the cervical cord compression scores at all segments, except C2-3, showed significant differences. With respect to the cervical kinematics, few differences in the kinematics were observed between Groups B and C, however, the kinematics in Group A was different with other two groups. In Group A, the segmental mobility at the C4-5 and C6-7 segments were significantly higher than those observed in Group B, and the segmental mobility at the C3-4 segment was significantly lower than that observed in Groups B or C. We demonstrated the unique pathological and kinematic traits of cervical spine that exist in a congenitally narrow canal. We hypothesize that kinematic trait associated with a congenitally narrow canal may greatly contribute to pathological changes in the cervical spine. Our results suggest that cervical spinal canal diameter of less than 13 mm may be associated with an increased risk for development of pathological changes in cervical intervertebral discs. Subsequently, the presence of a congenitally narrow canal can expose individuals to a greater risk of developing cervical spinal stenosis.

Morishita, Yuichiro; Naito, Masatoshi; Hymanson, Henry; Miyazaki, Masashi; Wu, Guizhong

2009-01-01

323

HLA and susceptibility to cervical neoplasia.  

PubMed

The association between cervical neoplasia and certain HLA phenotypes observed in different studies has not been consistent. By serological typing, the association between HLA antigens, cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was studied in a group of 172 and 116 patients, respectively. We demonstrated an increased frequency of B63 in patients with HPV types other than HPV 16 or 18, and B55 in patients that were negative for all HPV types. The association between cervical carcinoma and DQ3, described in various populations, was not observed in the present study. However, we confirmed other previously observed associations between cervical cancer and class II antigens, i.e., a positive correlation with DR15 irrespective of the HPV status, with DR3 in patients harboring HPV types other than HPV 16 or 18, and with DR11 among HPV 16 positive patients. In contrast, a negative correlation between DR13 and HPV positive cervical cancer was observed which suggests protection of this antigen against HPV-associated cervical cancer. A slight increase of DR15 and DQ4 antigens was observed in CIN patients, suggesting that these specific HLA antigens may be important in determining the risk of CIN. PMID:10363725

Krul, E J; Schipper, R F; Schreuder, G M; Fleuren, G J; Kenter, G G; Melief, C J

1999-04-01

324

A Biomechanical Comparison of Intralaminar C7 Screw Constructs with and without Offset Connector Used for C6-7 Cervical Spine Immobilization : A Finite Element Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The offset connector can allow medial and lateral variability and facilitate intralaminar screw incorporation into the construct. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without offset connector using a three dimensional finite element model of a C6-7 cervical spine segment. Methods Finite element models representing C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without the offset connector were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the two techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Results ROM for intralaminar screw construct with offset connector was less than the construct without the offset connector in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in both constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in the construct without offset connector was found to be 12-30% higher than the corresponding stresses in the construct with offset connector in the three principal directions. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the intralaminar screw fixation with offset connector is better than the construct without offset connector in terms of biomechanical stability. Construct with the offset connector reduces the ROM of C6-7 segment more significantly compared to the construct without the offset connector and causes lower stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex.

Qasim, Muhammad; Natarajan, Raghu N.; An, Howard S.

2013-01-01

325

MRI morphometric characterisation of the paediatric cervical spine and spinal cord in children with MPS IVA (Morquio-Brailsford syndrome).  

PubMed

Nearly all children with MPS IVA develop skeletal deformities affecting the spine. At the atlanto-axial spine, odontoid hypoplasia occurs. GAG deposition around the dens, leads to peri-odontoid infiltration. Transverse/alar ligament incompetence causes instability. Atlanto-axial instability is associated with cord compression and myelopathy, leading to major morbidity and mortality. Intervention is often required. Does the presence of widened bullet shaped vertebra in platyspondily encroach on the spinal canal and cause spinal stenosis in MPS IVA? So far, there have been no standardised morphometric measurements of the paediatric MPS IVA cervical spine to evaluate whether there is pre-existing spinal stenosis predisposing to compressive myelopathy or whether this is purely an acquired process secondary to instability and compression. This study provides the first radiological quantitative analysis of the cervical spine and spinal cord in a series of affected children. MRI morphometry indicates that the MPS IVA spine is narrower at C1-2 level giving an inverted funnel shape. There is no evidence of a reduction in the Torg ratio (canal-body ratio) in the cervical spine. The spinal canal does not exceed 11 mm at any level, significantly smaller than normal historical cohorts (14 mm). The sagittal diameter and axial surface area of both spinal canal and cord are reduced. C1-2 level cord compression was evident in the canal-cord ratio but the Torg ratio was not predictive of cord compression. In MPS IVA the reduction in the space available for the cord (SAC) is multifactorial rather than due to congenital spinal stenosis. PMID:23404316

Solanki, Guirish A; Lo, William B; Hendriksz, Christian J

2013-02-13

326

Effects of advanced age on the morphometry and degenerative state of the cervical spine in a rat model.  

PubMed

Aging causes changes in the geometry of the human cervical spine that may influence the tissue response to applied loads. Rat models are often used to study spinal cord injuries (SCI) and have the potential to enhance our understanding of the effect of age on SCI. The goal of this study was to characterize the morphometry and degenerative state of the cervical spine in Fisher 344 rats, and to determine the influence of age on these variables. Fifteen rats were split into three age groups: young adult (3 months of age), aged (12-18 months) and geriatric (30 months). Following tissue harvest we used a ?CT scanner to image the cervical and upper thoracic spine from each specimen. Analysis software was used to measure variables including canal pinch diameter (the most rostral point on the dorsal aspect of a vertebral body to the most caudal aspect of the lamina on the immediately rostral vertebra), vertebral canal depth, width, and area, vertebral body height, depth, width, and area, and intervertebral disc thickness. Orthopaedic surgeons used midsagittal images to rate the degenerative state of the intervertebral discs. For all measures except disc thickness there was a significant increase (mean (SD) = 15.0 (9.7)%) for the aged compared to young specimens (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between the aged and geriatric specimens for only vertebral body depth (P = 0.016) and area (P = 0.020). Intervertebral disc degeneration was significantly greater on the ventral aspect of the spinal column (P < 0.001), with a trend toward increased degeneration in the geriatric specimens (P = 0.069). The results suggest that age-related morphometric differences may need to be accounted for in experimental aging models of SCI in rats. PMID:21714115

Laing, Andrew C; Cox, Riley; Tetzlaff, Wolfram; Oxland, Thomas

2011-06-28

327

Cervical spondylosis: ventral or dorsal surgery.  

PubMed

Cervical spondylosis is a result of degenerative changes of the cervical spine. Neurological symptoms of myelopathy result from the narrowing of the spinal canal, causing spinal cord compression. Surgical management of cervical stenosis requires an understanding of the interplay between multiple pathological and biomechanical factors contributing to this disease process. Surgical decompression can be addressed from a ventral, dorsal, or combined approach. The authors discuss the technical aspects of the surgical decision making process regarding the decision to approach the spine from a ventral or dorsal orientation. PMID:17204873

Witwer, Brian P; Trost, Gregory R

2007-01-01

328

Minimally invasive approaches to the cervical spine.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive approaches and operative techniques are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of cervical spine disorders. Minimally invasive spine surgery attempts to decrease iatrogenic muscle injury, decrease pain, and speed postoperative recovery with the use of smaller incisions and specialized instruments. This article explains in detail minimally invasive approaches to the posterior spine, the techniques for posterior cervical foraminotomy and arthrodesis via lateral mass screw placement, and anterior cervical foraminotomy. Complications are also discussed. Additionally, illustrated cases are presented detailing the use of minimally invasive surgical techniques. PMID:22082636

Celestre, Paul C; Pazmiño, Pablo R; Mikhael, Mark M; Wolf, Christopher F; Feldman, Lacey A; Lauryssen, Carl; Wang, Jeffrey C

2011-10-13

329

Modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy for cervical radiculopathy: a technical note and early results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective analysis of the first twenty patients operated for cervical radiculopathy by a new modification of transcorporeal\\u000a anterior cervical foraminotomy technique. To evaluate early results of a functional disc surgery in which decompression for\\u000a the cervical radiculopathy is done by drilling a hole in the upper vertebral body and most of the disc tissue is preserved.\\u000a Earlier approaches to

Gun Choi; Sang-Ho Lee; Arun Bhanot; Yu Sik Chae; Byungjoo Jung; Seungcheol Lee

2007-01-01

330

Cervical Radiculopathy due to Cervical Degenerative Diseases : Anatomy, Diagnosis and Treatment  

PubMed Central

A cervical radiculopathy is the most common symptom of cervical degenerative disease and its natural course is generally favorable. With a precise diagnosis using appropriate tools, the majority of patients will respond well to conservative treatment. Cervical radiculopathy with persistent radicular pain after conservative treatment and progressive or profound motor weakness may require surgery. Options for surgical management are extensive. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses, so the choice will depend on the patient's clinical profile and the surgeon's judgment.

Kim, Kyoung-Tae

2010-01-01

331

Cervicitis  

MedlinePLUS

... not-for-profit organization and proceeds from Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not ... of the non-Mayo products and services advertised. Advertising and sponsorship policy Advertising and sponsorship opportunities About ...

332

Congenital narrowing of the cervical spinal canal.  

PubMed Central

The clinical and laboratory findings in six patients with congenital narrowing of the cervical spinal canal and neurological symptoms are described. A variable age of onset and an entirely male occurrence were found. Signs and symptoms of spinal cord dysfunction predominated in all but one patient. Symptoms were produced in five patients by increased physical activity alone. Congenital narrowing of the cervical spinal canal may result in cord compression without a history of injury and occasionally without evidence of significant bony degenerative changes. The clinical features may be distinguishable from those found in cervical spondylosis without congenital narrowing. Intermittent claudication of the cervical spinal cord appears to be an important feature of this syndrome. Surgery improved four out of five people.

Kessler, J T

1975-01-01

333

Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

North American Spine Society Public Education Series Cervical Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment How important is ... physician before starting any exercises. The Importance of Exercise for the Neck Spine experts agree that physical ...

334

Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

335

Sonographic demonstration of cervical esophageal web.  

PubMed

We report a case of esophageal web demonstrated with sonography in a 45-year-old woman with dysphagia. The esophageal web was incidentally detected as a circumferential hypoechoic membrane on sonograms of the cervical esophagus. PMID:16547989

Rokade, Muktachand Laxman

336

New Chemotherapy Drug for Advanced Cervical Cancer  

Cancer.gov

In this clinical trial, women with cervical cancer that has recurred or demonstrated resistance to previous chemotherapy and that cannot be treated surgically will be treated with the drug ixabepilone.

337

Cervical Spondylosis: Recognition, Differential Diagnosis, and Management  

PubMed Central

In contemporary clinical practice, the prevalence of neck pain in the general population is approximately 15%. The challenge for the primary care specialist is to be able to recognize the more serious disorders that require early referral. Additionally, it is important to have the confidence to institute specific treatment for nonurgent conditions in order to avoid unnecessary referral of patients with generally self-limiting conditions. Cervical spondylosis is a general and nonspecific term that encompasses a broad spectrum of afflictions but, for purposes of clarity, can be organized into three clinical syndromes: Type I Syndrome (Cervical Radiculopathy); Type II Syndrome (Cervical Myelopathy); and Type III Syndrome (Axial Joint Pain). It is important to remember that shoulder problems can masquerade as cervical problems, and vice versa (e.g. adhesive capsulitis, recurrent anterior subluxation, impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tear, etc.). A number of management options, including pharmaceutical, physical therapy, and psychological therapies, are available once a diagnosis has been made.

Voorhies, Rand M.

2001-01-01

338

Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet. The project is in 3 phases: (1) hardware/software ...

B. A. Crothers D. C. Wilbur J. A. Gelfand J. H. Eichhorn M. S. Ro

2008-01-01

339

Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... ensure coverage of cervical cancer screening for private health insurance Twenty-six states and the District of Columbia ... large employers. Women who have self-insured based health insurance should check with their health plans to see ...

340

Factors affecting sagittal malalignment due to cage subsidence in standalone cage assisted anterior cervical fusion  

PubMed Central

Fusion of cervical spine in kyphotic alignment has been proven to produce an acceleration of degenerative changes at adjacent levels. Stand-alone cages are reported to have a relatively high incidence of implant subsidence with secondary kyphotic deformity. This malalignment may theoretically lead to adjacent segment disease in the long term. The prospective study analysed possible risk factors leading to cage subsidence with resulting sagittal malalignment of cervical spine. Radiographic data of 100 consecutive patients with compressive radiculo-/myelopathy due to degenerative disc prolapse or osteophyte formation were prospectively collected in those who were treated by anterior cervical discectomy and implantation of single type interbody fusion cage. One hundred and forty four implants were inserted altogether at one or two levels as stand-alone cervical spacers without any bone graft or graft substitute. All patients underwent standard anterior cervical discectomy and the interbody implants were placed under fluoroscopy guidance. Plain radiographs were obtained on postoperative days one and three to verify position of the implant. Clinical and radiographic follow-up data were obtained at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months and than annually in outpatient clinic. Radiographs were evaluated with respect to existing subsidence of implants. Subsidence was defined as more than 2 mm reduction in segmental height due to implant migration into the adjacent end-plates. Groups of subsided and non-subsided implants were statistically compared with respect to spacer distance to the anterior rim of vertebral body, spacer versus end-plate surface ratio, amount of bone removed from adjacent vertebral bodies during decompression and pre- versus immediate postoperative intervertebral space height ratio. There were 18 (18%) patients with 19 (13.2%) subsided cages in total. No patients experienced any symptoms. At 2 years, there was no radiographic evidence of accelerated adjacent segment degeneration. All cases of subsidence occurred at the anterior portion of the implant: 17 cases into the inferior vertebra, 1 into the superior and 1 into both vertebral bodies. In most cases, the process of implant settling started during the perioperative period and its progression did not exceed three postoperative months. There was an 8.7° average loss of segmental lordosis (measured by Cobb angle). Average distance of subsided intervertebral implants from anterior vertebral rim was found to be 2.59 mm, while that of non-subsided was only 0.82 mm (P < 0.001). Spacer versus end-plate surface ratio was significantly smaller in subsided implants (P < 0.001). Ratio of pre- and immediate postoperative height of the intervertebral space did not show significant difference between the two groups (i.e. subsided cages were not in overdistracted segments). Similarly, comparison of pre- and postoperative amount of bone mass in both adjacent vertebral bodies did not show a significant difference. Appropriate implant selection and placement appear to be the key factors influencing cage subsidence and secondary kyphotisation of box-shaped, stand-alone cages in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Mechanical support of the implant by cortical bone of the anterior osteophyte and maximal cage to end-plate surface ratio seem to be crucial in the prevention of postoperative loss of lordosis. Our results were not able to reflect the importance of end-plate integrity maintenance; the authors would, however, caution against mechanical end-plate damage. Intraoperative overdistraction was not shown to be a significant risk factor in this study. The significance of implant subsidence in acceleration of degenerative changes in adjacent segments remains to be evaluated during a longer follow-up.

Suchomel, Petr

2007-01-01

341

Factors affecting sagittal malalignment due to cage subsidence in standalone cage assisted anterior cervical fusion.  

PubMed

Fusion of cervical spine in kyphotic alignment has been proven to produce an acceleration of degenerative changes at adjacent levels. Stand-alone cages are reported to have a relatively high incidence of implant subsidence with secondary kyphotic deformity. This malalignment may theoretically lead to adjacent segment disease in the long term. The prospective study analysed possible risk factors leading to cage subsidence with resulting sagittal malalignment of cervical spine. Radiographic data of 100 consecutive patients with compressive radiculo-/myelopathy due to degenerative disc prolapse or osteophyte formation were prospectively collected in those who were treated by anterior cervical discectomy and implantation of single type interbody fusion cage. One hundred and forty four implants were inserted altogether at one or two levels as stand-alone cervical spacers without any bone graft or graft substitute. All patients underwent standard anterior cervical discectomy and the interbody implants were placed under fluoroscopy guidance. Plain radiographs were obtained on postoperative days one and three to verify position of the implant. Clinical and radiographic follow-up data were obtained at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months and than annually in outpatient clinic. Radiographs were evaluated with respect to existing subsidence of implants. Subsidence was defined as more than 2 mm reduction in segmental height due to implant migration into the adjacent end-plates. Groups of subsided and non-subsided implants were statistically compared with respect to spacer distance to the anterior rim of vertebral body, spacer versus end-plate surface ratio, amount of bone removed from adjacent vertebral bodies during decompression and pre- versus immediate postoperative intervertebral space height ratio. There were 18 (18%) patients with 19 (13.2%) subsided cages in total. No patients experienced any symptoms. At 2 years, there was no radiographic evidence of accelerated adjacent segment degeneration. All cases of subsidence occurred at the anterior portion of the implant: 17 cases into the inferior vertebra, 1 into the superior and 1 into both vertebral bodies. In most cases, the process of implant settling started during the perioperative period and its progression did not exceed three postoperative months. There was an 8.7 degrees average loss of segmental lordosis (measured by Cobb angle). Average distance of subsided intervertebral implants from anterior vertebral rim was found to be 2.59 mm, while that of non-subsided was only 0.82 mm (P < 0.001). Spacer versus end-plate surface ratio was significantly smaller in subsided implants (P < 0.001). Ratio of pre- and immediate postoperative height of the intervertebral space did not show significant difference between the two groups (i.e. subsided cages were not in overdistracted segments). Similarly, comparison of pre- and postoperative amount of bone mass in both adjacent vertebral bodies did not show a significant difference. Appropriate implant selection and placement appear to be the key factors influencing cage subsidence and secondary kyphotisation of box-shaped, stand-alone cages in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Mechanical support of the implant by cortical bone of the anterior osteophyte and maximal cage to end-plate surface ratio seem to be crucial in the prevention of postoperative loss of lordosis. Our results were not able to reflect the importance of end-plate integrity maintenance; the authors would, however, caution against mechanical end-plate damage. Intraoperative overdistraction was not shown to be a significant risk factor in this study. The significance of implant subsidence in acceleration of degenerative changes in adjacent segments remains to be evaluated during a longer follow-up. PMID:17221174

Barsa, Pavel; Suchomel, Petr

2007-01-13

342

Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer, mainly caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, is the leading cancer in Indian women and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Though there are several methods of prevention of cervical cancer, prevention by vaccination is emerging as the most effective option, with the availability of two vaccines. Several studies have been published examining the vaccine's efficacy, immunogenicity and safety. Questions and controversy remain regarding mandatory vaccination, need for booster doses and cost-effectiveness, particularly in the Indian context.

Kaarthigeyan, K.

2012-01-01

343

Recruitment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Prevention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The aim of this study was to describe recruitment strategies for a single-visit cervical cancer prevention study.Methods. From January through December 1999, low-income, predominantly Latino women were recruited to participate in a single-visit cervical cancer prevention study. For the first 6 months, all women who had ever visited one of two community-based study clinics were invited to participate (clinic

W. R. Brewster; H. Anton-Culver; A. Ziogas; J. Largent; S. Howe; F. A. Hubbell; A. Manetta

2002-01-01

344

Ethical Dilemmas of Cervical Cancer Screening  

PubMed Central

Cervical screening presents several ethical dilemmas to family physicians. The author reviews the risks associated with screening, costs versus benefits of running a screening program, and the issues surrounding patient autonomy and patient coercion. Is saving one life worthwhile, and at what cost? Cervical screening programs are imperative in family practice, but only if harm to the patient is minimized and ethical objections are addressed.

Snadden, David

1992-01-01

345

[Direct cervical myelography using iotrolan 300].  

PubMed

A prospective study of direct cervical myelography with Iotrolan 300 showed the following advantages: 1. Clear differentiation of the nerve roots. 2. Increased retention of contrast in the cervical region. 3. Improved contrast compared with conventional contrast media. 4. Optimal contrast temperature was found to be between 20 and 22 degrees C. 5. Reduction in non-specific and central nervous system complications. PMID:1847546

Volle, E; Hedde, J P; Gormanns, R

1991-02-01

346

Cervical meningocele in association with spinal abnormalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case report This case report presents a newborn baby girl, who was diagnosed at birth with a mid-cervical meningocele. Further radiographic workup by MRI revealed co-existing thoracic diplomyelia and bilateral tethered cords. At birth the patient was found to be neurologically intact. Surgery was performed at 4 months of age, the patient undergoing simultaneous repair of the cervical meningocele, exploration of

Carlos H. Feltes; Kostas N. Fountas; Vassilios G. Dimopoulos; Ana I. Escurra; Angel Boev; Effie Z. Kapsalaki; JoeSam Robinson; E. Christopher Troup

2004-01-01

347

Tonsillar remnants and painful cervical lymphadenopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical lymphadenitis is a common accompaniment of acute recurrent and chronic tonsillitis, which usually settles following medical treatment and\\/or tonsillectomy.Occasionally, painful cervical lymphadenitis affecting the jugulodigastric node persists despite apparently adequate treatment.We present a case series of seven patients where earache and\\/or painful jugulodigastric lymphadenitis were the predominant persistent symptoms in young adults (mean age of 34.5). A CT scan

Kamarjit S Mangat; Sunil N Dutt; Swarup V Chavda; Ahmes L Pahor

2003-01-01

348

Unilateral Pallidal Stimulation in Cervical Dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) is a focal dystonia of the cervical region. Various treatment modalities have been performed with variable success rates. We present a 42-year-old woman complaining of involuntary head rotation for the last 3 years. Different medical treatments had been used for 3 years. Botulinum toxin injections resulted in temporary and moderate improvement for periods of 3–4 months.

Mehmet Zileli; Berna Zileli

1999-01-01

349

Cervical spinal cord injury in sapho syndrome.  

PubMed

Cervical spinal fracture and pseudarthrosis are previously described causes of spinal cord injury (SCI) in patients with spondylarthropathy. SAPHO (Synovitis Acne Pustulosis Hyperostosis Osteitis) syndrome is a recently recognized rheumatic condition characterized by hyperostosis and arthro-osteitis of the upper anterior chest wall, spinal involvement similar to spondylarthropathies and skin manifestations including palmoplantar pustulosis and pustular psoriasis. We report the first case of SAPHO syndrome disclosed by SCI related to cervical spine ankylosis. PMID:10338354

Deltombe, T; Nisolle, J F; Boutsen, Y; Gustin, T; Gilliard, C; Hanson, P

1999-04-01

350

Multifactorial Etiology of Cervical Cancer: A Hypothesis  

PubMed Central

Cancer of the cervix is the second most common life-threatening cancer among women worldwide, with incidence rates ranging from 4.8 per 100,000 women per year in the Middle East to 44.3 per 100,000 in East Africa. Epidemiologic and clinical data demonstrate that human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV-16 and HPV-18, play at least a major if not a necessary role in the etiology of cervical cancer. However, many investigators acknowledge that HPV is not sufficient to induce cervical cancer and that a multifactorial etiology is likely. HPV can be found in a growing proportion of patients with cervical cancer, approaching 100%, but is not yet found in every patient with disease. Other factors, such as herpes simplex virus type 2 infections, cigarette smoking, vaginal douching, nutrition, and use of oral contraceptives, have been proposed as contributing factors. In the first half of the 20th century, Peyton Rous and colleagues demonstrated the joint action of tars and Shope papillomavirus to consistently induce squamous cell carcinomas in rabbits. Using the Rous model as a prototype, one might hypothesize that some cases of cervical cancer arise from an interaction between oncogenic viruses and cervical tar exposures. Cervical tar exposures include cigarette smoking, use of tar-based vaginal douches, and long years of inhaling smoke from wood- and coal-burning stoves in poorly ventilated kitchens.

Haverkos, Harry W.

2005-01-01

351

Conservative Treatment in Early Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to describe fertility preservation methods to improve quality of life of early stages of cervical cancer. Recent finding: Although definite treatment of early stages of cervical cancer including stages IA,IB1 and IIA non-bulky is radial hysterectomy, this method is used in perimenopousal period in which fertility preservation is not important. Whenever fertility preservation is so important, some methods like radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic lymphadenectomy are used to rule out lymphatic metastases. Summary: If any visible lesion on cervix is found, pelvic MRI is helpful and during operation, trachelectomy samples are sent for frozen section and margin study. Radical trachelectomy is done vaginal or abdominal. Overall relapse rate of cervical cancer in radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy is the same. Complications of radical trachelectomy include chronic vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, inflammation and ulcer due to cercelage, amenorrhea, cervical stenosis and pregnancy complications following trachelectomy including 2nd trimester abortion and premature labor following cervical prematurity.The best and preferred method of labor is cesarean section. Neoadjuant chemotherapy followed by radical trachelectomy in large cervical lesions is a suitable treatment. Ultraconservative operations like large cold knife conization, simple trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy and sentinel lymph node mapping are suitable for very small lesions.

Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Barooti, Esmat; Miratashi-Yazdi, Ashrafosadat; Dehghani, Atefe

2013-01-01

352

Down syndrome. Cervical spine abnormalities and problems.  

PubMed

A review of the radiographs of 34 individuals with Down syndrome (DS), between 5 and 21 years of age, demonstrated subluxation of atlantoaxial instability (C1-C2) greater than 5 mm in three of the 34 individuals (9 percent). This is in general agreement with previously reported ranges of 10 to 20 percent. A review of the cervical spine radiographs of adults with DS, between 26 and 42 years of age, showed no subluxation but significant degenerative changes of the cervical spine with spur formation, narrowing of foramina, narrowing of the disc inner space, and osteophyte formation. In both the DS child and the DS adult, the cervical spine may be an area of significant potential problems. In all cases any complaints of cervical pain or historical/clinical findings suggestive of neurologic involvement should initiate evaluation of the cervical spine. Baseline radiographic studies of the cervical spine are indicated in all DS children older than 5 years of age and should be considered in all DS adults, particularly those 30 years of age and older. PMID:2970908

Van Dyke, D C; Gahagan, C A

1988-09-01

353

Investigations of (Delta)14C, (delta)13C, and (delta)15N in vertebrae of white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) from the eastern North Pacific Ocean  

SciTech Connect

The white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) has a complex life history that is characterized by large scale movements and a highly variable diet. Estimates of age and growth for the white shark from the eastern North Pacific Ocean indicate they have a slow growth rate and a relatively high longevity. Age, growth, and longevity estimates useful for stock assessment and fishery models, however, require some form of validation. By counting vertebral growth band pairs, ages can be estimated, but because not all sharks deposit annual growth bands and many are not easily discernable, it is necessary to validate growth band periodicity with an independent method. Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) age validation uses the discrete {sup 14}C signal produced from thermonuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s that is retained in skeletal structures as a time-specific marker. Growth band pairs in vertebrae, estimated as annual and spanning the 1930s to 1990s, were analyzed for {Delta}{sup 14}C and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of {sup 14}C age validation for a wide-ranging species with a complex life history and to use stable isotope measurements in vertebrae as a means of resolving complexity introduced into the {sup 14}C chronology by ontogenetic shifts in diet and habitat. Stable isotopes provided useful trophic position information; however, validation of age estimates was confounded by what may have been some combination of the dietary source of carbon to the vertebrae, large-scale movement patterns, and steep {sup 14}C gradients with depth in the eastern North Pacific Ocean.

Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Coale, K H

2006-06-08

354

Manual Physical Therapy, Cervical Traction, and Strengthening Exercises in Patients With Cervical Radiculopathy: A Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Design: A case series of consecutive patients with cervical radiculopathy. Background: A multitude of physical therapy interventions have been proposed to be effective in the management of cervical radiculopathy. However, outcome studies using consistent treatment approaches on a well-defined sample of patients are lacking. The purpose of this case series is to describe the outcomes of a consecutive series

Joshua A. Cleland; Julie M. Whitman; Julie M. Fritz; Jessica A. Palmer

2005-01-01

355

Is there an interaction between cervical length and cervical microbiology in the pathogenesis of preterm labour?  

PubMed

Transvaginal ultrasound of the cervix is increasingly used to estimate cervical length during pregnancy. Initially used to determine a possible need for cervical suture, the technique has been shown to be of value in the prediction of preterm delivery In addition, bacterial vaginosis has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. We hypothesised that shortening of the cervix and potential cervical pathogens, in particular the presence of bacterial vaginosis, act synergistically in the pathogenesis of premature labour. Three hundred and sixteen women were recruited for prospective longitudinal follow-up, with both transvaginal ultrasound and cervical bacteriology performed at approximately 18 and 28 weeks gestation. A strong correlation was found between a shortened cervix and preterm delivery (p<0.02 at 18 weeks; p<0.001 at 28 weeks). Women with both a short cervix and cervical pathogens had the highest risk of preterm delivery (43%), although not significantly greater than a short cervix with normal cervical flora (31% preterm delivery). In the presence of a normal cervical length, preterm delivery rates in the presence of normal flora and potential cervical pathogens were much lower (9% and 5% respectively). PMID:11453267

Dowd, J; Permezel, M; Garland, S; de Crespigny, L

2001-05-01

356

Evaluation of Langerhans' Cells in the Cervical Epithelium of Women with Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) results in a more permissive environment for malignant transformation. In squamous epithelia the Langerhans' cell (LC) is responsible for antigen presentation. Studies that use S-100 immunostaining demonstrate low LCs in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) while those that use other methods have shown normal numbers of LCs. This observation led us to postulate that

Joseph P. Connor; Karen Ferrer; John P. Kane; Jeffrey M. Goldberg

1999-01-01

357

Cervical and mediastinal hematoma: presentation of an asymptomatic cervical parathyroid adenoma: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spontaneous rupture with extracapsular hemorrhage of a cervical parathyroid adenoma is a rare cause of cervical and mediastinal hematoma. We describe this case to emphasize that a failure to consider this diagnosis may result in delayed operative intervention with potentially fatal complications.

Michele Tonerini; Eugenio Orsitto; Luisa Fratini; Alessandra Tozzini; Andrea Chelli; Stefano Santi; Mauro Rossi

2004-01-01

358

Differential expression of keratins 10, 17, and 19 in normal cervical epithelium, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the value of immunohistochemistry in defining a keratin profile to aid cervical histopathological diagnosis. METHODS: Immunohistochemical localisation of keratins 17, 10, and 19 was studied in 268 cervical biopsies from 216 women including normal epithelia (with and without human papilloma virus), low and high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and invasive carcinoma. The percentage of positive immunostaining was scored using a Kontron MOP videoplan image analyser. RESULTS: All major categories of cervical epithelia expressed these keratins to varying degrees. The median percentage of immunostaining for keratin 10 was 40% in normal tissue compared with just 1% in invasive carcinoma (p < 0.0001). The medians for keratin 17 were 0% in the normal group and 80% in carcinomas (p < 0.0001). By contrast, there was no significant difference in staining for keratin 19. Using a combination of the keratin 10 and 17 percentages, it was possible to separate the carcinomas from the benign conditions with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93%. Further analyses within the groups revealed more extensive staining for keratins 10 and 19 in reserve cell hyperplasia, immature squamous metaplasia, and congenital transformation zone. CONCLUSIONS: The morphological variety within the cervix is reflected, in part, by distinct keratin patterns. There are striking differences in the patterns of keratins 10 and 17 between infiltrating squamous carcinoma and normal cervical epithelia.

Maddox, P; Sasieni, P; Szarewski, A; Anderson, M; Hanby, A

1999-01-01

359

Surgical management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed

Introduction: The surgical procedure by the anterior, posterior and combined antero-posterior approaches had applied for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Methods: During the treatment process, all patients were pre-operatively as well post-operatively graded according to Japanese Orthopaedics Association. Several surgical methods such as anterior approach, posterior approach, and combined antero-posterior approach have been addressed for CSM patients, with the choice based on the pathogenesis of the myelopathy. The main indications for surgery were evidence of myelopathy on physical examinations, a JOA score below 13 points help with spinal cord compression observed on plain X-ray, CT scan, MRI studies. Results: The pre-operative JOA scores were 7.60±1.23 in laminoplasty, 8.30±1.03 in diskectomy and corpectomy and 7.10±1.20 in combined antero-posterior approach patients. At the follow-up after three months the JOA scores were laminoplasty 13.30±1.30, diskectomy and corpectomy 13.55±1.15 and combined antero-posterior 13.50±1.08. The JOA recovery rate averaged, 61.08±11.25% in laminoplasty, 60.67±10.60% in diskectomy and corpectomy and 64.67±10.72% in combined antero-posterior approach. The high- signal intensity changed to normal in 18 out of 28 and no any kyphotic change and instability were found in cervical spine at the follow up. Conclusions: Patients with OPLL (continuous, segmental and mixed type), stenosis of cervical spinal canal, multilevel cervical spondylosis, large and high ossification of IVDP with stenosis were improved with laminoplasty. Patients with PIVD, CSM with kyphosis, post laminectomy , OPLL herniated type, unstable vertebral alignment, stenosis by osteophytes, were improved with anterior approach . Ossified or deformed OPLL, unstable vertebral with stenosis ,OPLL or OYL with cervical meandearing (swan-neck) were improved with Combined anterior and posterior approach. Keywords: Cervical spondylotic mylopathy, anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion, corpectomy. PMID:23591248

Sah, S; Wang, L; Dahal, M; Acharya, P; Dwivedi, R

360

A study of cervical spine kinematics and joint capsule strain in rear impacts using a human FE model.  

PubMed

Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of whiplash injury. Recently, the cervical facet joint capsules have been focused on as a potential site of injury. An experimental approach has been taken to analyze the vertebral motion and to estimate joint capsule stretch that was thought to be a potential cause of pain. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kinematics of the cervical facet joint using a human FE model in order to better understand the injury mechanism. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was used to visually analyze the local and global kinematics of the spine. Soft tissues in the neck were newly modeled and introduced into THUMS for estimating the loading level in rear impacts. The model was first validated against human test data in the literature by comparing vertebrae motion as well as head and neck responses. Joint capsule strain was estimated from a maximum principal strain output from the elements representing the capsule tissues. A rear-end collision was then simulated using THUMS and a prototype seat model, assuming a delta-V of 25 km/h. The trajectory of the vertebrae was analyzed in a local coordinate system defined along the joint surface. Strain growth in the joint capsules was explained, as related to contact events between the occupant and the seat. A new seat concept was proposed to help lessen the loading level to the neck soft tissues. The foam material of the seat back was softened, the initial gap behind the head was reduced and the head restraint was stiffened for firm support. The lower seat back frame was also reinforced to withstand the impact severity at the given delta-V. Another rear impact simulation was conducted using the new seat concept model to examine the effectiveness of the new concept. The joint capsule strain was found to be relatively lower with the new seat concept. The study also discusses the influence of seat parameters to the vertebral motion and the resultant strain in the joint capsules. The meaning of the contact timing of the head to the head restraint was examined based on the results in terms of correlation with injury indicators such as NIC and the joint capsule strain. PMID:17311176

Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Junji

2006-11-01

361

Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus infection. Most human papillomavirus infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (especially type 16) can cause cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. The virus exclusively infects epithelium and produces new viral particles only in fully mature epithelial cells. Human papillomavirus disrupts normal cell-cycle control, promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of human papillomavirus type 16 and 18, and human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 6, and 11 virus-like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. Human papillomavirus testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low-grade cytology and as a test of cure after treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by human papillomavirus testing could enable screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved. PMID:23618600

Crosbie, Emma J; Einstein, Mark H; Franceschi, Silvia; Kitchener, Henry C

2013-04-23

362

Perinatal outcomes following conservative management of cervical dysplasia  

Cancer.gov

Preterm delivery outcomes following Preterm delivery outcomes following LEEP treatment of cervical LEEP treatment of cervical intraepithelial intraepithelial neoplasia neoplasia (CIN) (CIN) Audrey F. Audrey F. Saftlas Saftlas, PhD, MPH , PhD, MPH Department

363

Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act of 2000  

MedlinePLUS

... Local Program Web Badges Cancer Home Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act of 2000 On October ... William Clinton signed into law the Breast and Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment Act of 2000 (Public Law ...

364

Pap Tests and Cervical Health: A Healthy Habit for You  

MedlinePLUS

Cervical cancer is largely preventable and curable with regular Pap tests and pelvic exams. This page provides answers ... expect, as well as the important benefits of cervical cancer screening, can help put you more at ease ...

365

Clinical Characteristics of Cervical Migraine (Klinicheskie Osobennosti Sheinoi Migreni).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Headaches are one of the leading complaints in cervical migraine. Along with a careful anamnesis, these characteristic pains should suggest the presence of cervical migraine. They start in the cervicooccipital area, most often on one side, and spread to t...

A. Y. Ratner

1970-01-01

366

Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)  

Cancer.gov

A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

367

Cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate clinical-radiological features of cervical myelopathy due to degenerative spondylolisthesis (DSL). Methods A total of 448 patients were operated for cervical myelopathy at Nishitaga National Hospital between 2000 and 2003. Of these patients, DSL at the symptomatic disc level was observed in 22 (4.9%) patients. Clinical features were investigated by medical records, and radiological features were investigated by radiographs. Results Disc levels of DSL were C3/4 in 6 cases and C4/5 in 16 cases. Distance of anterior slippage was 2 to 5 mm (average 2.9 mm) in flexion position. Space available for the spinal cord (SAC) was 11 to 15 mm (average 12.8 mm) in flexion position and 11 to 18 mm (average14.6 mm) in extension position; 11 cases were reducible and 11 cases were irreducible in extension position. Myelograms demonstrated compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position. Compression of spinal cord was not demonstrated in flexion position. C5-7 lordosis angle was lower than control. C5-7 range of motion (ROM) was reduced compared to controls. These alterations were statistically significant. Conclusions DSL occurs in the mid-cervical spine. Lower cervical spine demonstrated restricted ROM and lower lordosis angle. Pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy due to DSL is compression of spinal cord by the ligamentum flavum in extension position and not by reduced SAC in flexion position.

2011-01-01

368

Cervical Ripening in The Netherlands: A Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals). In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100%) applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2). In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006). In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006), 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006), 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections.

Huisman, Claartje M. A.; Jozwiak, Marta; de Leeuw, Jan Willem; Mol, Ben Willem; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.

2013-01-01

369

Progesterone signaling inhibits cervical carcinogenesis in mice.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus is the main cause of cervical cancer, yet other nonviral cofactors are also required for the disease. The uterine cervix is a hormone-responsive tissue, and female hormones have been implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. A transgenic mouse model expressing human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 and/or E7 has proven useful to study a mechanism of hormone actions in the context of this common malignancy. Estrogen and estrogen receptor ? are required for the development of cervical cancer in this mouse model. Estrogen receptor ? is known to up-regulate expression of the progesterone receptor, which, on activation by its ligands, either promotes or inhibits carcinogenesis, depending on the tissue context. Here, we report that progesterone receptor inhibits cervical and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner. We also report that synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate promotes regression of cancers and precancerous lesions in the female lower reproductive tracts (ie, cervix and vagina) in the human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that progesterone signaling is inhibitory for cervical carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24012679

Yoo, Young A; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F; Demayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

2013-09-05

370

Cervical ripening in the Netherlands: a survey.  

PubMed

Objective. We aim to investigate methods and use of cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean delivery in The Netherlands. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a postal survey in all Dutch hospitals with a labor ward. One gynecologist per hospital was addressed and was asked to respond on behalf of the staff. The questionnaire contained 31 questions concerning cervical ripening and induction of labor. We compared this survey to a similar Dutch survey conducted in 2006. Results. Response rate was 78% (70/92 hospitals). In women without a prior cesarean and in need of cervical ripening, all hospitals (100%) applied prostaglandins (either E1 or E2). In women with a prior cesarean, 21.4% of the hospitals performed an elective cesarean section if delivery was indicated (26.0% in 2006). In case of cervical ripening, 72.7% used mechanical methods (49.1% in 2006), 20.0% used prostaglandins (40.4% in 2006), 3.6% used a combination of prostaglandins and mechanical methods, and 3.6% used membrane-sweeping or oxytocin. Conclusions. In 2010, in The Netherlands, prostaglandins and Foley catheters were the preferred methods for cervical ripening in women without and with a prior cesarean, respectively. Use of mechanical methods in women with a prior cesarean has increased rapidly between 2006 and 2010, corresponding with decreasing use of prostaglandins and elective repeat cesarean sections. PMID:23997770

Huisman, Claartje M A; Jozwiak, Marta; de Leeuw, Jan Willem; Mol, Ben Willem; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M

2013-06-26

371

A Prospective, Randomized Trial Comparing Expansile Cervical Laminoplasty versus Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion for Multi-level Cervical Myelopathy.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND:: Controversy exists as to the best posterior operative procedure to treat multi-level compressive cervical spondylotic myelopathy. OBJECTIVE:: To determine clinical, radiological and patient satisfaction outcomes between these two surgical procedures. METHODS:: We performed a prospective, randomized study of Expansile Cervical Laminoplasty (ECL) vs. Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion (CLF) in patients suffering from cervical spondylotic myelopathy. End-points included the SF-36, the NDI, VAS, modified JOA score, Nurick score and radiographic measures. RESULTS:: A survey of academic North American spine surgeons (n=30) demonstrated that CLF is the most commonly used (70%) posterior procedure to treat multi-level spondylotic cervical myelopathy. A total of 16 patients were randomized: CLF (n=7) / ECL (n=9). Both groups showed improvements in their Nurick grade and JOA score postoperatively, but only the improvement in the Nurick grade for the ECL group was statistically significant (p<0.05). The cervical ROM between C2 and C7 was reduced by 75% in the CLF group and by only 20% in the ECL group when comparing pre- and post-op range of motion. The overall increase in canal area was significantly (p<0.001) greater in the CLF, but there was a suggestion that the adjacent level was more narrowed in the CLF group in as little as 1 year post-operative. CONCLUSION:: ECL compares favorably in many respects to CLF. While patient numbers are small, there were significant improvements in pain measures in the ECL group while still maintaining range of motion. Restoration of spinal canal area was superior in the CLF group. PMID:21817931

Manzano, Glen R; Casella, Gizelda; Wang, Michael Y; D O D C, Steven Vanni; Levi, Allan D

2011-08-02

372

Cervical Cancer Screening Among Southeast Asian American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of cervical cancer is high among Southeast Asian American women, but their participation in preventive cervical\\u000a cancer screening is alarmingly low. This paper reviews the literature on factors associated with participation in cervical\\u000a cancer screening among women of Vietnamese, Cambodian and Hmong descent in the United States. These factors include acculturation,\\u000a age, marital status, knowledge about cervical cancer,

Ivy K. HoKhanh; Khanh T. Dinh

2011-01-01

373

Raman spectroscopic characterization on cervical neoplasm in biopsy direction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy was applied to distinguish the spectroscopic information between normal cervical tissues (14) and cervical neoplasia (17), including low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (6) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (11). Standard pathological sections of these cervical tissues were measured from superficial to stroma layers. We have normalized significant Raman peaks, 1250 and 1579-1656 cm-1 by taking a ratio over a stationary Raman at 1004 cm-1, and successfully discriminated between normal and neoplasm cervical tissues.

Shin, Hsiao Hsin; Tsai, Yan Sheng; Wang, Tao Yuan; Chu, Shou Chia; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

2007-03-01

374

Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of gynaecological complaints and tested for HPV by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Corresponding cervical cancer biopsy specimens were also available for HPV analysis. Neither the examining cytopathologist nor the molecular biologist was aware of the study design. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected in the smears of 16 patients with cervical cancer missed previously by cytology. HPV 16 and 18 were found predominantly in those smears taken up to six years before the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The smears of the two remaining patients were reclassified as inadequate for cytology or contained no suitable DNA for PCR. In 15 patients the same HPV type could be found in the smears and the cervical cancer biopsy specimens. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that high risk HPV types can be detected in archival smears classified as false negative on cytology and that cytological screening errors may be reduced if combined with PCR testing for HPV.

Walboomers, J M; de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; Risse, E K; Helmerhorst, T J; Voorhorst, F J; Meijer, C J

1995-01-01

375

Cervical thymuses exist, but no cervical thymomas develop in thoracic thymoma-prone BUF rats  

PubMed Central

To confirm the existence of the cervical thymus and the development of cervical thymoma in thymoma-prone BUF/Mna (BUF) rats, we examined cervical organs and adjacent tissues, and thoracic thymic tissues of the three inbred strains, BUF, ACI/NMna (ACI), and WKY/NCrj (WKY), and 11 congenic strains, in which genetic regions of rat nude (Rnu), thymus enlargement-1 and thymus enlargement-2 (Ten1 and Ten2), thymoma susceptibility of rat-1 (Tsr1), atrophy of fast-twitch muscles-1 (Aftm1) and proteinuria of rat-1 (Pur1) were transferred into BUF, ACI or WKY rats. These organs and tissues were fixed en block in 10% formalin and cut coronally into four to six slices of 3-mm thickness, depending on the age of the rat, and embedded together in one block for each rat. Sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. Cervical thymuses were detected in 12–21% of rats from these inbred and congenic strains. No cervical thymuses were found in BUF-Rnu/Rnu rats, which were athymic. All of 42 BUF, 2 of 55 BUF-Rnu/+ and 28 of 33 ACI-Tsr1/Tsr1 rats survived more than 52 weeks, and developed thoracic thymoma, but no cervical thymomas did. It is therefore clear that cervical thymuses behave differently from thoracic thymuses in spontaneous thymomagenesis in BUF rats.

Yamada, Tetsuji; Matsuyama, Mutsushi; Yanagida, Takamasa; Kato, Kazuo; Sugiura, Seiji; Kuroda, Makoto

2011-01-01

376

Human Papilloma Virus, Cellular Genetics and Susceptibility to Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Human papillmoa virus; cervical cancer; genetic susceptibility; polymorphisms ABSTRACT Research in relation to the etiology of cervical cancer has made substantial progress in the last two decades both in scientific and operational terms. In many countries, HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and cervical cancer remains the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Although high

Sreekala Nair; M Radhakrishna Pillai

2005-01-01

377

Social inequities along the cervical cancer continuum: a structured review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo reveal areas of research\\/knowledge related to social inequities and cervical cancer. Methods: A Medline search was performed looking for US based research on cervical cancer and social inequities since 1990. The papers found were organized into cells defined by a cancer disparities grid. Results: The majority of research published about cervical cancer and social inequities in the US, lies

Sara J. Newmann; Elizabeth O. Garner

2005-01-01

378

Vaccines Against Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer: Promises and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are major threats to the health of women world- wide. The introduction of screening tests to detect cer- vical cancer precursor lesions has reduced cervical cancer rates in the developed world, but not in devel- oping countries. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic agent of cervical cancer and dyspla- sia.

Ali Mahdavi; Bradley J. Monk

379

Analysis on risk factors for cervical cancer using induction technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in woman worldwide. New approach to the analysis of risk factors and management of cervical cancer is discussed in this study. We identified the combined patterns of cervical cancer risk factors including demographic, environmental and genetic factors using induction technique. We compared logistic regression and a decision tree algorithm, CHAID (Chi-squared

Seung Hee Ho; Sun Ha Jee; Jong-eun Lee; Jong Sup Park

2004-01-01

380

Cervical and Vaginal Cancer Screening (Pap Test and Pelvic Exam)  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Cervical & vaginal cancer screenings How often is it covered? Medicare Part ... doctor accepts assignment . Related resources National Cancer Institute—cervical cancer information CDC—cervical cancer information U.S. Preventive Services ...

381

Radiculopathy and Myelopathy in Patients with Primary Cervical Dystonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a prospective series of 34 incident patients with primary cervical dystonia (CD), 6 showed clinical or radiological signs of cervical radiculopathy (RP) or myelopathy (MP) during the course of their movement disorder. Age at onset in these patients was in the range reported for pure spondylotic cervical RP without an accompanying movement disorder. Radiologically, spondylosis was mild in 1

Johann M. Hagenah; Alexandra Vieregge; Peter Vieregge

2001-01-01

382

Pediatric Cervical Spine Injury Sustained in Falls From Low Heights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To determine whether history and clinical examination findings can identify young children who have sustained cervical injury after falling short distances. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the medical records of children younger than 6 years old with the diagnosis of cervical vertebral fracture or cervical spinal cord injury after a fall of less than 5 feet.

Gary R Schwartz; Seth W Wright; Joel A Fein; Jacqueline Sugarman; Joel Pasternack; Steven Salhanick

1997-01-01

383

Interobserver reliability of digital and endovaginal ultrasonographic cervical length measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to prospectively evaluate the interobserver reliability of digital and endovaginal ultrasonographic cervical length measurements.STUDY DESIGN: Forty-three women were recruited from our antepartum clinic to participate in this study. Two independent and blinded digital cervical examinations were performed by the first author and a second examiner. Instructions were given to estimate the cervical length in millimeters. After

Jay Goldberg; Roger B. Newman; Philip F. Rust

1997-01-01

384

Integrating Human Papillomavirus Vaccination in Cervical Cancer Control Programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Screening with Pap cytology has substantially reduced cervical cancer morbidity and mortality during the last 50 years in high-income countries. Unfortunately, in resource-poor countries, Pap screening has either not been effectively implemented or has failed to reduce cervical cancer rates. Cervical cancer in these countries thus remains a major public health problem. Infection with certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types is

Eduardo L. Franco; François Coutlée; Alex Ferenczy

2009-01-01

385

Ballroom dancing and cervical radiculopathy: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dance injuries associated with cervical radiculopathy have not been described in the literature. This report describes the case of an international-style ballroom dancer who developed a cervical radiculopathy as a result of frequent lateral rotation and hyperextension of the cervical spine during dancing. The patient's symptoms and signs suggestive of a left C7 radiculopathy were confirmed and documented by both

Patricia A. Tsung; Gregory J. Mulford

1998-01-01

386

Isometric cervical extension force and dimensions of semispinalis capitis muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of the human cervical region has a special complexity. Ultrasonography is a scanning technique, which has been successfully used to identify and measure the cervical muscle dimensions. The purpose of this study was to detect with the use of real-time ultrasonography the dimen- sional changes of the human semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) during isometric cervical extension. Six junior

Asghar Rezasoltani; Jari Ylinen; Veikko Vihko

387

Surgical and conservative treatment of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy and myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary One hundred and fourteen patients were admitted to our department for evaluation of their cervical spondylogenetic symptoms, including local cervical pain, radiculopathy and myelopathy. This retrospective study gives the results, expressed as improved, unchanged or worse, of anterior surgery, posterior surgery and conservative treatment. Local cervical pain improved in about half of the patients, without any difference between the

O. Arnasson; C. A. Carlsson; L. Pellettieri

1987-01-01

388

Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

2013-09-09

389

Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy  

PubMed Central

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications.

Galbraith, J. G.; Butler, J. S.; Dolan, A. M.; O'Byrne, J. M.

2012-01-01

390

Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer  

SciTech Connect

A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

1986-06-20

391

Cervical osteoplastic laminotomy using autogenous bone.  

PubMed

Cervical foraminotomies are performed from the fifth to the eighth cervical nerve roots on both sides. On the side with more marked radiculopathies the laminae are osteotomized to the full extent, but not so completely on the other side. The mass of laminae from C-3 to C-7 is lifted up using the incompletely severed side of the laminae as the fulcrum. The removed spinous processes of C-6 and C-7 are adjusted and fixed between the articular joints and the lifted laminae from C-4 to C-6. This procedure prevents extradural scar formation, there are no complications caused by foreign bodies, postoperative neuroimaging is possible because no metallic artifact is formed, and extensive decompression is achieved for the cervical cord and nerve roots. PMID:8907015

Yamagami, T; Handa, H; Higashi, K; Nishihara, K

1996-02-01

392

[Cervicogenic headache caused by lower cervical spondylosis].  

PubMed

We report a rare case of severe facial pain and headache due to cervical spondylosis successfully treated by surgical intervention. A 48-year-old woman had been suffering from severe left side facial pain and headache since she was 44 years old. Analgesics were not effective. At 48 years of age, a magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed a degenerated disk at the C5/6 level with encroachment on the foramina and the cord. Anesthetic blockade to the C5/6 facet joint was effective, but was temporary. After the anterior decompression and stabilization using a titanium cage, the pain disappeared completely and has not recurred through 1 year of follow up. This report indicates that lower cervical root compression may cause cervicogenic headache, which can be treated effectively by surgical intervention. PMID:19432099

Kawabori, Masahito; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu

2009-05-01

393

Cervical cancer: is vaccination necessary in India?  

PubMed

In India, cervical cancer is the most common woman-related cancer, followed by breast cancer. The rate of cervical cancer in India is fourth worldwide. Two vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, both targeting HPV-16 and 18 which account for 70% of invasive cervical carcinomas, are licensed in the United States and numerous countries worldwide. Both vaccine formulations have shown excellent efficacy with minimal toxicity in active female population but numerous questions arise in vaccinating like cost effectiveness, lack of proven efficacy against other HPV strains, social acceptance of HPV vaccination and other ethical issues. The main objective of this study is to emphasis the advantages and disadvantages of the vaccination in India. PMID:23725195

Farhath, Seema; Vijaya, P P; Mumtaj, P

2013-01-01

394

Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar\\u000a spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis\\u000a and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)\\u000a in the elderly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 79 patients aged 65 or

Motohiro Kawasaki; Toshikazu Tani; Takahiro Ushida; Kenji Ishida

2007-01-01

395

A comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and corpectomy in patients with multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The optimal surgical approach for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) has not been defined, and the relative\\u000a merits of multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy (2-level or skip 1-level\\u000a corpectomy) and fusion (ACCF) remain controversial. However, few comparative studies have been conducted on these two surgical\\u000a approaches.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study retrospectively reviewed the case histories of

Qiushui Lin; Xuhui Zhou; Xinwei Wang; Peng Cao; Nicholas Tsai; Wen Yuan

396

Cervical softening in late pregnant sheep by infusion of prostaglandin E-2 into a cervical artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Cervical softening was induced in late pregnant sheep by infusion of PGE-2 into a cervical artery. The effect of this treatment was assessed by measurement of the extensibility in vitro of a strip of cervical tissue. After infusion of a saline\\/ethanol mixture extensibility was 2\\\\m=.\\\\84\\\\m=x\\\\ 10\\\\m=-\\\\3 \\\\m=+-\\\\0\\\\m=.\\\\3\\\\m=x\\\\ 10\\\\m=-\\\\3 min\\\\m=-\\\\1 (mean \\\\m=+-\\\\s.e.m., N = 5); after infusion of PGE-2 it

W. L. Ledgert; D. A. Ellwood; M. J. Taylor

1983-01-01

397

Pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by an anterior spondylotic bar. METHODS: The spinal cord cross section, at the level of a spondylotic bar, is modelled as a circular disc subject to forces applied at its circumference. These forces differ for the two theories. From the pattern of forces at the circumference the distribution of shear stresses in the interior of the disc-that is, over the transverse section of the spinal cord-is calculated. With the assumption that highly stressed areas are most subject to damage, the stress pattern predicted by each theory can be compared to the topographic neuropathology of CSM. RESULTS: The predicted stress pattern of the dentate tension theory corresponds to the reported neuropathology, whereas the predicted stress pattern of the compression theory does not. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly favour the theory that CSM is caused by tensile stresses transmitted to the spinal cord from the dura via the dentate ligaments. A spondylotic bar can increase dentate tension by displacing the spinal cord dorsally, while the dural attachments of the dentate, anchored by the dural root sleeves and dural ligaments, are displaced less. The spondylotic bar may also increase dentate tension by interfering locally with dural stretch during neck flexion, the resultant increase in dural stress being transmitted to the spinal cord via the dentate ligaments. Flexion of the neck increases dural tension and should be avoided in the conservative treatment of CSM. Both anterior and posterior extradural surgical operations can diminish dentate tension, which may explain their usefulness in CSM. The generality of these results must be tempered by the simplifying assumptions required for the mathematical model. Images

Levine, D N

1997-01-01

398

Keratin expression in cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Using a panel of 21 monoclonal and 2 polyclonal keratin antibodies, capable of detecting separately 11 subtypes of their epithelial intermediate filament proteins at the single cell level, we investigated keratin expression in 16 squamous cell carcinomas, 9 adenocarcinomas, and 3 adenosquamous carcinomas of the human uterine cervix. The keratin phenotype of the keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma was found to be most complex comprising keratins 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, and usually keratin 10. The nonkeratinizing variety of the squamous cell carcinoma expressed keratins 6, 14, 17, and 19 in all cases, usually 4, 5, 7, 8, and 18, and sometimes keratins 10, 13, and 16. Adenocarcinomas displayed a less complex keratin expression pattern comprising keratins 7, 8, 17, 18, and 19, while keratin 14 was often present and keratins 4, 5, 10 and 13 were sporadically found in individual cells in a few cases. These keratin phenotypes may be useful in differential diagnostic considerations when distinguishing between keratinizing and nonkeratinizing carcinomas (using keratin 10, 13, and 16 antibodies), and also in the distinction between nonkeratinizing carcinomas and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, which do not express keratins 5 and 6. Keratin 17 may also be useful in distinguishing carcinomas of the cervix from those of the colon and also from mesotheliomas. Furthermore the presence of keratin 17 in a CIN I, II, or III lesion may indicate progressive potential while its absence could be indicative of a regressive behavior. Because most carcinomas express keratins 8, 14, 17, 18, and 19, we propose that this expression pattern reflects the origin of cervical cancer from a common progenitor cell, i.e., the endocervical reserve cell that has been shown to express keratins 5, 8, 14, 17, 18, and 19. PMID:1379783

Smedts, F; Ramaekers, F; Troyanovsky, S; Pruszczynski, M; Link, M; Lane, B; Leigh, I; Schijf, C; Vooijs, P

1992-08-01

399

Axial Neck Pain after Cervical Laminoplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective It has been demonstrated that cervical laminoplasty is an effective and safe method of treating multi-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. However, recent reports have suggested that axial neck pain is frequently encountered after cervical laminoplasty. The aim of the present study was to determine clinical significance of the C7 spinous process on axial neck pain after cervical laminoplasty. Methods A total of 31 consecutive patients that underwent cervical laminoplasty between March 2002 and December 2008 were reviewed. The authors evaluated and compared axial neck pain and lordotic angle in patients that underwent C7 spinous process preserving surgery (group 1, n = 16) and in patients in which the C7 spinous process was sacrificed (group 2, n = 15). Results Severe or moderate early axial pain occurred in 56.2% of patients in group 1 and in 86.6% in group 2. Severe or moderate late axial pain occurred in 12.5% in group 1 and in 73.3% in group 2. Eighty-Six percent of patients in group 2 and 43% in group 1 experienced aggravation of their axial neck pain during the early postoperative period. Aggravation of axial neck pain during early postoperative period was less common in group 1 but not statistically significant (p = 0.073). Sixty-six percent of patients in group 2 and 12% in group 1 had aggravated axial neck pain at late postoperative period and aggravation of late axial neck pain was significantly less common in group 1 (p = 0.002). Conclusion The present study demonstrates that C7 spinous process preserving laminoplasty decreases the incidence of aggravated axial neck pain after cervical laminoplasty.

Cho, Chul Bum; Oh, Jong Yang; Park, Hae Kwan; Lee, Kyung Jin; Rha, Hyoung Kyun

2010-01-01

400

Capability of new features from FTIR spectral of cervical cells for cervical precancerous diagnostic system using MLP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability and reliability of Infrared (IR) spectroscopy to distinguish normal and abnormal cells has opened this research to obtain new features from IR spectral of cervical cells to be fed into multilayered perceptrons (MLP) networks. In order for neural networks to be used as cervical precancerous diagnostic system, the features of cervical cell were used as inputs for neural

Yessi Jusman; Siti Noraini Sulaiman; Nor Ashidi Mat Isa; Intan Aidha Yusoff; R. Adnan; N. H. Othman; Ahmad Zaki

2009-01-01

401

Cervical spine injuries in rugby players.  

PubMed

Nine patients with serious cervical spine injuries that occurred while they were playing rugby were seen in a British Columbia acute spinal cord injury unit during the period 1975-82. All the injuries had occurred during the "scrum" or the "tackle". Two of the patients were rendered permanently quadriplegic, and one patient died. There is a need for a central registry that would record all cervical spine injuries in rugby players as well as for changes in the rules of the game. PMID:6697282

Sovio, O M; Van Peteghem, P K; Schweigel, J F

1984-03-15

402

Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection in Tunisian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Background: It is well established that certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the sexually transmitted agents etiologically\\u000a linked to cervical cancer. Sexual habits have been shown to be a major determining factor for HPV infection. A large study\\u000a was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical infection with HPV in Tunisian women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials

E. Hassen; A. Chaieb; M. Letaief; H. Khairi; A. Zakhama; S. Remadi; L. Chouchane

2003-01-01

403

Women's lay knowledge of cervical cancer/cervical screening: accounting for non-attendance at cervical screening clinics.  

PubMed

An assessment of women's knowledge of cervical screening and cervical cancer was considered important as up to 92% of those dying from this form of cancer had never been tested. What were the reasons which determined their non-attendance? Issues to be addressed were reactions to invitation, women's knowledge of screening, and the possible factors which they envisaged as being associated with cervical cancer. Other issues to be considered were practical problems associated with attendance, and preference for the sex and professional status of the health professionals involved; 187 women in a general practitioner practice in Lothian, Scotland were targeted by questionnaire. As with other studies in this field 50% of those contacted were ineligible for a variety of reasons. Seventy-two women completed the questionnaire, providing a mix of qualitative and quantitative data. Although the majority of women felt the invitation to attend screening was clear and easy to understand, there was a lack of knowledge with regard to both the screening itself and the possible causes of cervical cancer. The main 'causes' were seen as higher sexual activity among those aged under 37 and smoking and a virus by those over 37. The majority of women showed preference for a female professional to take the smear. Practical problems of time and venue were not considered insurmountable. The main reasons cited for non-compliance were the fear and dislike of the test itself. PMID:9756225

Neilson, A; Jones, R K

1998-09-01

404

Cervical ribs: identification on MRI and clinical relevance.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of cervical ribs on cervical spine MRI and clinical relevance, we reviewed 2500 studies for cervical ribs and compression of neurovascular structures and compared to CT, when available. Brachial plexus or subclavian artery contact by cervical rib was identified on MRI and/or CT in 12 cases with diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome in one. Cervical ribs were identified on 1.2% (25/2083) of examinations, lower than on CT (2%), but MRI may offer equivalent anatomic explanation for patient symptoms. PMID:23759210

Walden, Michael J; Adin, Mehmet E; Visagan, Ravindran; Viertel, Valentina G; Intrapiromkul, Jarunee; Maluf, Fernando; Patel, Neil V; Alluwaimi, Fatma; Lin, Doris; Yousem, David M

2013-06-04

405

AAC11 Overexpression Induces Invasion and Protects Cervical Cancer Cells from Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the genes involved in cervical carcinogenesis, we applied the mRNA differential display (DD) method to analyze normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer, metastatic lymph node, and cervical cancer cell line. We cloned a 491-bp cDNA fragment, CC231, which was present in metastatic tissue and cervical cancer cell line, but absent in normal cervical and cervical cancer tissues. The 491

Jin Woo Kim; Hyun Suk Cho; Jeong Hyun Kim; Soo Young Hur; Tae Eung Kim; Joon Mo Lee; In-Kyung Kim; Sung Eun Namkoong

2000-01-01

406

Is posterior fusion necessary with laminectomy in the cervical spine?  

PubMed Central

Background: Cervical decompressive laminectomy is a common procedure for addressing multilevel cervical spine pathology. The most common reasons for performing simultaneous posterior cervical fusion include the prevention of progressive postlaminectomy kyphotic deformity or other types of instability which can contribute to late neurological deterioration. Methods: The medical literature (Pub Med with MeSH) concerning cervical laminectomy, posterior cervical fusion, and complications of laminectomy/fusion was reviewed. Additionally, references from the articles were queried to find additional literature. Results: Multiple studies concluded that cervical laminectomy versus laminectomy and fusion produced similar short-term postoperative outcomes. Careful patient selection was warranted to minimize the complications associated with cervical laminectomy alone; these included postoperative kyphosis (6–46%) and late deterioration (10–37%). The addition of a posterior cervical fusion was associated with relatively low complication rates, and avoided the evolution of late deformity or delayed neurological deterioration. Conclusion: Although the short-term results of cervical laminectomy versus laminectomy and fusion are similar, there appear to be more complications associated with performing laminectomy alone over the long term. Here, we reviewed the pros and cons of posterior cervical decompression alone versus decompression with fusion/instrumentation to treat cervical pathology, highlighting the complications associated with each surgical alternative.

McAllister, Beck D.; Rebholz, Brandon J.; Wang, Jeffery C.

2012-01-01

407

Cervical cytology in serous and endometrioid endometrial cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of abnormal cervical cytology in preoperative cervical cytology of patients diagnosed with uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). In addition, associations between abnormal cervical cytology and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In this multicentre study, EEC patients diagnosed at two hospitals from 1999 to 2009 and UPSC patients diagnosed at five hospitals from 1992 to 2009, were included. Revision of the histologic slides was performed systematically and independently by 3 gynecopathologists. Cervical cytology within six months before histopathologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was available for 267 EEC and 80 UPSC patients. Cervical cytology with atypical, malignant, or normal endometrial cells in postmenopausal women was considered as abnormal cytology, specific for endometrial pathology. Abnormal cervical cytology was found in 87.5% of UPSC patients, compared with 37.8% in EEC patients. In UPSC, abnormal cytology was associated with extrauterine spread of disease (P=0.043). In EEC, abnormal cytology was associated with cervical involvement (P=0.034). In both EEC and UPSC patients, abnormal cervical cytology was not associated with survival. In conclusion, abnormal cervical cytology was more frequently found in UPSC patients. It was associated with extrauterine disease in UPSC patients, and with cervical involvement in EEC patients. More prospective research should be performed to assess the true clinical value of preoperative cervical cytology in endometrial cancer patients. PMID:23722512

Roelofsen, Thijs; Geels, Yvette P; Pijnenborg, Johanna M A; van Ham, Maaike A P C; Zomer, Saskia F; van Tilburg, Johanna M Wiersma; Snijders, Marc P M L; Siebers, Albert G; Bulten, Johan; Massuger, Leon F A G

2013-07-01

408

Surgical anatomy of the cervical sympathetic trunk during anterolateral approach to cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sympathetic trunk is sometimes damaged during the anterior and anterolateral approach to the cervical spine, resulting\\u000a in Horner’s syndrome. No quantitative regional anatomy in fresh human cadavers describing the course and location of the cervical\\u000a sympathetic trunk (CST) and its relation to the longus colli muscle (LCM) is available in the literature. The aims of this\\u000a study are to

Erdinc Civelek; Aykut Karasu; Tufan Cansever; Kemal Hepgul; Talat Kiris; Ak?n Sabanc?; Ali Canbolat

2008-01-01

409

An overview of prevention and early detection of cervical cancers  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer still remains the most common cancer affecting the Indian women. India alone contributes 25.41% and 26.48% of the global burden of cervical cancer cases and mortality, respectively. Ironically, unlike most other cancers, cervical cancer can be prevented through screening by identifying and treating the precancerous lesions, any time during the course of its long natural history, thus preventing the potential progression to cervical carcinoma. Several screening methods, both traditional and newer technologies, are available to screen women for cervical precancers and cancers. No screening test is perfect and hence the choice of screening test will depend on the setting where it is to be used. Similarly, various methods are available for treatment of cervical precancers and the selection will depend on the cost, morbidity, requirement of reliable biopsy specimens, resources available, etc. The recommendations of screening for cervical cancer in the Indian scenario are discussed.

Mishra, Gauravi A.; Pimple, Sharmila A.; Shastri, Surendra S.

2011-01-01

410

Evaluation and management of acute cervical spine trauma.  

PubMed

The evaluation and management of cervical spine injuries is a core component of the practice of emergency medicine. This article focuses on evaluation and management of blunt cervical spine trauma by the emergency physician. Pertinent anatomy of the cervical spine and specific cervical spine fractures are discussed, with an emphasis on unstable injuries and associated spinal cord pathology. The association of vertebral artery injury with cervical spine fracture is addressed, followed by a review of the most recent literature on prehospital care. Initial considerations in the emergency department, including cervical spine stabilization and airway management, are reviewed. The most current recommendations for cervical spine imaging with regard to indications and modalities are covered. Finally, emergency department management and disposition of patients with spinal cord injuries are reviewed. PMID:20971389

Pimentel, Laura; Diegelmann, Laura

2010-11-01

411

Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head an neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population observed over the same period of time (p . 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

1981-01-01

412

Sildenafil-induced cervical spinal cord infarction.  

PubMed

We present a patient with an acute cervical spinal cord infarction resulting from the use of sildenafil (Viagra) in combination with his hypertension medication. Symptoms were acute and rapidly progressive, and MR imaging with DWI was crucial in confirming the diagnosis. PMID:21903916

Walden, J E; Castillo, M

2011-09-08

413

HPV - a vaccine against cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most cervical cancer is caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV). Protection against the major cancer-causing serotypes of this virus by vaccination is now a reality for New Zealand women. Internationally two manufacturers have candidate HPV vaccines: the bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmith Kline) and the tetravalent Gardasil (CSL and Merck & Co). This article focuses on Gardasil, as this vaccine is now available

N. Desmond; H. Petousis-Harris; N. Turner

2006-01-01

414

Pathophysiology and treatment for cervical flexion myelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that spinal cord compression by the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs during neck flexion cause cervical flexion myelopathy (CFM). However, the exact pathophysiology of CFM is still unknown, and surgical treatment for CFM remains controversial. We examined retrospectively patients with CFM based on studies of the clinical features, neuroradiological findings, and neurophysiological assessments. The objectives of

Yoshinori Fujimoto; Shinichi Oka; Nobuhiro Tanaka; Kohichiro Nishikawa; Hiroyuki Kawagoe; Itsushi Baba

2002-01-01

415

Posterior approach to the degenerative cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminoplasty has been gradually accepted as a treatment for choice for cervical compression myelopathy. The historical perspective of laminoplasty is described. The aims of laminoplasty are to expand the spinal canal, to secure spinal stability, to preserve the protective function of the spine, and to preserve spinal mobility. Laminoplasty is indicated in myelopathic patients with a developmentally narrow spinal canal

Kazuo Yonenobu; Takenori Oda

2003-01-01

416

Posterior approach to the degenerative cervical spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laminoplasty has been gradually accepted as a treatment for choice for cervical compression myelopathy. The historical perspective of laminoplasty is described. The aims of laminoplasty are to expand the spinal canal, to secure spinal stability, to preserve the protective function of the spine, and to preserve spinal mobility. Laminoplasty is indicated in myelopathic patients with a developmentally narrow spinal canal

Kazuo Yonenobu; Takenori Oda

417

Screening Sexually Active Teenagers for Cervical Abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Sexually active teenagers are at increased risk of developing cervical abnormalities. It is therefore important to screen them with an annual Pap smear. The techniques of this test are reviewed, as are the importance of sexually transmitted diseases in the development of cytologic abnormalities, the pathophysiology of virus-induced changes, and the terminology of reporting.

Erdstein, Julius; Pavilanis, Alan V.

1991-01-01

418

Carotid artery disease following external cervical irradiation  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective study of 910 patients surviving at least five years after cervical irradiation for Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or primary head and neck neoplasms showed the incidence of stroke following cervical irradiation was 63 of 910 patients (6.3%) during a mean period of observation of nine years. This represents a trend toward an increased risk for this population over the expected incidence of 38 strokes for a matched population observed over the same period of time (p = 0.39). A prospective study of 118 similar patients currently living five years after cervical radiotherapy was performed to determine the incidence of carotid artery disease occurring as a consequence of neck irradiation. Abnormal carotid phonoangiograms (CPA) were found in 25% of the patients and abnormal oculoplethysmographs (OPG) were found in 17%. These studies represent significant carotid lesions that are not expected in such a population. It is concluded that the carotid stenoses demonstrated are most likely a consequence of prior irradiation. Patients that are five-year survivors of cervical irradiation should have noninvasive vascular laboratory studies performed as part of their routine follow-up examinations in order to detect these carotid lesions while they are occult.

Elerding, S.C.; Fernandez, R.N.; Grotta, J.C.; Lindberg, R.D.; Causay, L.C.; McMurtrey, M.J.

1981-11-01

419

A Screening System for Cervical Cancer Cytology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for screening cervical cytological preparations is described which employs the Leitz Texture Analyzer System (E. Leitz, Rockleigh, N. J.) quantitative staining with acridine orange, and a fluorescence standard. The instrumentation scans cells on microscope slides and detects objects which it interprets to be nuclei with excess total nuclear green fluorescence intensity (Previous results employing manual measurements have indicated

JAMES F. GOLDEN; SEYMOUR S. WEST; HUGH M. SHINGLETON; ACE K. ECHOLS

420

Ultrasound assessment of cervical artery dissection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this chapter is to present ultrasound and, in particular, color duplex sonography (CDS) assessment of spontaneous dissection of the cervical internal carotid (sICAD) and vertebral (sVAD) arteries. The examination, typical ultrasound findings and pitfalls in the acute sICAD and sVAD, detection of microembolic signals, and recanalization will be discussed. PMID:17290115

Benninger, D H; Caso, V; Baumgartner, R W

2005-01-01

421

Anterior Cervical Fusion Using Preserved Bone Allografts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In summary, the following points can be made: (1) Freeze-dried allografts have been used successfully in anterior cervical fusions; (2) the additional morbidity of the iliac crest incision is avoided; (3) 92% of the graft levels fused in this series and w...

J. R. Schneider R. W. Bright

1976-01-01

422

Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

2005-01-01

423

Upper cervical instability: are clinical tests reliable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the reliability of a selection of manual tests used for the examination of instability of the upper cervical region.Eleven children with Down's syndrome were examined by four independent examiners with different levels of experience in manual therapy. Three tests as described by Van der El (1992) were used: the lateral

E Cattrysse; R. A. H. M Swinkels; R. A. B Oostendorp; W Duquet

1997-01-01

424

Cervical Spline Analysis for Ejection Injury Prediction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed a sagittal plane mathematical model for the cervical spine (including T6-T1, C7-C1 and skull). In our model the moments due to the weight of the head and neck and the effect of external forces are balanced by forces generated internally ...

S. Gracovetsky H. F. Farfan C. D. Helleur

1982-01-01

425

Cervical spine response in frontal crash.  

PubMed

Predicting neck response and injury resulting from motor vehicle accidents is essential to improving occupant protection. A detailed human cervical spine finite element model has been developed, with material properties and geometry determined a priori of any validation, for the evaluation of global kinematics and tissue-level response. Model validation was based on flexion/extension response at the segment level, tension response of the whole ligamentous cervical spine, head kinematic response from volunteer frontal impacts, and soft tissue response from cadaveric whole cervical spine frontal impacts. The validation responses were rated as 0.79, assessed using advanced cross-correlation analysis, indicating the model exhibits good biofidelity. The model was then used to evaluate soft tissue response in frontal impact scenarios ranging from 8G to 22G in severity. Disc strains were highest in the C4-C5-C6 segments, and ligament strains were greatest in the ISL and LF ligaments. Both ligament and disc fiber strain levels exceeded the failure tolerances in the 22G case, in agreement with existing data. This study demonstrated that a cervical spine model can be developed at the tissue level and provide accurate biofidelic kinematic and local tissue response, leading to injury prediction in automotive crash scenarios. PMID:21665513

Panzer, Matthew B; Fice, Jason B; Cronin, Duane S

2011-06-14

426

Cervical spine response in frontal crash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting neck response and injury resulting from motor vehicle accidents is essential to improving occupant protection. A detailed human cervical spine finite element model has been developed, with material properties and geometry determined a priori of any validation, for the evaluation of global kinematics and tissue-level response. Model validation was based on flexion\\/extension response at the segment level, tension response

Matthew B. Panzer; Jason B. Fice; Duane S. Cronin

2011-01-01

427

Angiogenesis, Thrombospondin1 and Cervical Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Angiogenesis, the growth of new vessels from existing vasculature, plays an essential role in tumor development. The process involves interaction among cancer cells, endothelial cells, and components of the extracellular matrix, and is regulated by the balance of angiogenesis activators and angiogenesis inhibitors. This review profiles some fundamental concepts of angiogenesis, the importance of angiogenesis in cervical neoplasm, and

Ming-Ping Wu; Cheng-Yang Chou

2005-01-01

428

Regulation of hyaluronan expression during cervical ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preparation for birth, the uterine cervix undergoes a remarkable transformation from a closed, rigid structure to a distensible, remodeled configuration that stretches to allow passage of a fetus. Cervical ripening requires changes in the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix. These include an increase in the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) prior to parturition. We show that the increase in

Kelly J. Straach; John M. Shelton; James A. Richardson; Vincent C. Hascall; Mala S. Mahendroo

2005-01-01

429

Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic…

Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

2005-01-01

430

Tensile properties of the human muscular and ligamentous cervical spine.  

PubMed

Tensile neck injuries are amongst the most serious cervical injuries. However, because neither reliable human cervical tensile tolerance data nor tensile structural data are currently available, the quantification of tensile injury risk is limited. The purpose of this study is to provide previously unavailable kinetic and tolerance data for the ligamentous cervical spine and determine the effect of neck muscle on tensile load response and tolerance. Using six male human cadaver specimens, isolated ligamentous cervical spine tests (occiput - T1) were conducted to quantify the significant differences in kinetics due to head end condition and anteroposterior eccentricity of the tensile load. The spine was then separated into motion segments for tension failure testing. The upper cervical spine tolerance of 2400 +/- 270 N (occiput-C2) was found to be significantly greater (p < 0.01) than the lower cervical spine tolerance of 1780 +/- 230 N (C4-C5 and C6-C7 segments). Data from these experiments were used to develop and validate a computational model of the ligamentous spine. The model predicted the end condition and eccentricity responses for the tensile force-displacement relationship. Cervical muscular geometry data derived from cadaver dissection and MRI imaging were used to incorporate a muscular response into the model. The cervical musculature under maximal stimulation increased the tolerance of the cervical spine from 1800 N to 4160 N. In addition, the cervical musculature resulted in a shift in the site of injury from the lower cervical spine to the upper cervical spine and offers an explanation for the mechanism of upper cervical spine tension injuries observed clinically. The results from this study predict a range in tensile tolerance from 1.8 - 4.2 kN based on the varying role of the cervical musculature. PMID:17458720

Van Ee, C A; Nightingale, R W; Camacho, D L; Chancey, V C; Knaub, K E; Sun, E A; Myers, B S

2000-11-01

431

An unusual case of IgE-multiple myeloma presenting with systemic amyloidosis 2 years after cervical plasmacytoma resection.  

PubMed

A 69-year-old man suffered from a fractured cervical vertebra, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solitary mass occupying the injured lesion. Surgical resection of the mass was conducted, and the infiltration of plasma cells expressing IgE-lambda monoclonal protein was shown on pathological investigation. Concurrently, a monoclonal band of IgE-lambda was shown in the sera on immunoelectrophoresis, and the proliferation of plasma cells (more than 10%) was also detected in bone marrow aspirates. A rare IgE-multiple myeloma (MM) was diagnosed, and careful monthly follow-up was started. During this observation period, the level of IgE gradually increased and, at 2 years after the initial diagnosis, bilateral leg edema and ascites with marked hepatosplenomegaly appeared. Combination chemotherapy of melphalan and prednisolone (MP) was started, which resulted in the partial, transient resolution of symptoms. Additional treatment with bortezomib and dexamethasone could neither resolve these clinical symptoms nor decrease the serum IgE concentration. At 5 months after the start of chemotherapy, amyloid deposition was suggested based on typical echocardiographic findings, and the diagnosis of amyloidosis was confirmed based on the histopathology of a liver biopsy. In spite of MP plus thalidomide treatment, cardiac failure due to amyloidosis aggravated, and the patient died of multiple organ failure. This is the second reported case in which IgE-MM was complicated by systemic amyloidosis. PMID:20697853

Hagihara, Masao; Hua, Jian; Inoue, Morihiro; Michikawa, Naohiko

2010-08-10

432

Geometry of coplanar stereoscopic radiographic pairs for analysis of the lateral cervical radiograph: a study using mathematical models  

PubMed Central

Objective This study evaluated 3-dimensional (3D) assessments of points of interest on a phantom replica of the human skull and cervical vertebrae to better understand how structures are represented in space using mathematical methods. Methods Three basic geometric equations derived from the “Law of Similar Triangles” are introduced, and measurements are taken after 4 trials to demonstrate how 3D data extracted from 2-dimensional (2D) digitized radiographic pairs can be used to produce coordinate points associated with 3 areas on the atlas. Results An analysis of variance test for multiple group comparison shows no significant statistical difference between 4 trials (P = 0.995). In addition, 6 strong positive correlations are evident using Pearson product-moment coefficient test (r = 0.9008 through 0.9977, P = 0.002). Conclusion This study suggests that it is possible to use coplanar stereoscopic radiographic pairs to define an object's location in 3D space by taking retrospective measurements directly from 2D digitized radiographs.

Briggs, Lafayette

2011-01-01

433

Validity of surface markers placement on the cervical spine for craniocervical posture assessment.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a physical therapist to place surface markers on the skin over spinous process of C2, C4, C6, and C7 by evaluating the markers positioning using radiographs. A total of 39 healthy female subjects participated. From 39 subjects, 22 had 2 radiographs taken and 17 had 1 radiograph taken. This study presents the results from the 22 subjects and from all 39 subjects together. The markers used were visible on the radiographs. The surface markers placement was tested by using percentage agreement. The criteria used were based on the direction of palpation. Only the markers placed that presented the center of the markers tip aligned to the tip of the spinous process was considered an acceptable placement. Only one level of agreement was considered. A misplaced marker was measured by its relation with the vertebra above or below. From the 22 subjects, the total percentage of agreement was 87.5%. Of the 12.5% error, 1.7% (3) occurred attempting to find C2; 4.5% (8) for C4; 3.4% (6) for C6; and 2.8% (5) for C7. From the total of 39 subjects, the total percentage of agreement was 87.8%. Of the 12.2% error 1.3% (2) occurred attempting to find C2; 2.6% (4) for C4; 3.2% (5) for C6; and 5.2% (8) for C7. Based on the results from this study, clinicians and researchers should take into account possible errors on surface markers placement on the cervical spine when measuring craniocervical posture using photographs. PMID:23158022

Gadotti, I C; Magee, D

2012-11-15

434

Non-destructive evaluation of the effects of combined bisphosphonate and photodynamic therapy on bone strain in metastatic vertebrae using image registration.  

PubMed

Skeletal metastases most frequently affect the vertebral column and may lead to severe consequences including fracture. Clinical management of skeletal metastases often utilizes a multimodal treatment approach, including bisphosphonates (BPs). Previous work has demonstrated the synergistic potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with BP in treating osteolytic disease through structural, histologic, and destructive mechanical testing analyses. Recent work has developed and validated image-based methods that may be used to non-destructively determine mechanical stability in whole bones, and enable their use for additional (i.e. histologic) analysis. In this work we use an intensity-based 3D image registration technique to compare the strain patterns throughout untreated control and BP + PDT treated rnu/rnu rat spinal motion segments with osteolytic metastases. It was hypothesized that the combination treatment will reduce average and maximum strain values and restore the pattern of strain to that of healthy vertebrae. Mean, median, and 90th percentile strains in the control group were significantly higher than the treatment group. High strain areas in both groups were observed around the endplates; in the control group, large areas of high strains were also observed around the lesions and adjacent to the dorsal wall. Absence of high strains adjacent to the dorsal wall (similar to healthy vertebrae) may correspond to a reduced risk of burst fracture following BP + PDT therapy. This study demonstrates the application of non-destructive image analysis to quantify the positive mechanical effects of combined BP + PDT treatment in the metastatic spine. PMID:21818534

Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Won, Emily; Hardisty, Michael R; Akens, Margarete K; Wise-Milestone, Lisa M; Whyne, Cari M

2011-08-05

435