Sample records for cervical vertebrae

  1. Neurological and Osteological Definitions of Cervical Vertebrae in Mammals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Giffin; M. Gillett

    1996-01-01

    The presence of seven cervical vertebrae is an almost universal mammalian trait. The posterior boundary of the cervical series is traditionally defined osteologically, but its location is also predictable using neurological markers of the brachial plexus. The existence of three living mammalian genera with osteologi-cally defined cervical counts other than seven offers the opportunity to examine the coincidence of osteological

  2. [Whiplash injury analysis of cervical vertebra by finite element method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Li, Zheng-Dong; Shao, Yu; Chen, Yi-Jiu

    2015-02-01

    Finite element method (FEM) is an effective mathematical method for stress analysis, and has been gradually applied in the study of biomechanics of human body structures. This paper reviews the construction, development, materials assignment and verification of FEM model of cervical vertebra, and it also states the research results of injury mechanism of whiplash injury and biomechanical response analysis of the cervical vertebra using FEM by researchers at home and abroad. PMID:26058135

  3. Stabilization of metastatic lesions affecting the second cervical vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph F.; Shafqat, Asseer; Devitt, Aiden; McCabe, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Metastatic spine disease is an ever-increasing burden on health care systems. Certain levels in the spine confer unique biomechanical characteristics and hence are of interest. Isolated C2 lesions are rare. We aimed to review our results in surgical management of C2 lesions. Materials and Methods: We reviewed all surgical stabilizations of metastatic spine lesions over the preceding 4 years. Six patients with C2 lesions were identified. Of these five underwent surgical stabilization primarily for disease affecting the second cervical vertebra. Case notes and radiology were reviewed to determine presentation, outcomes and complications. Results: Cases were treated primarily by posterior instrumentation from either occiput or C1 to the subaxial cervical spine. The median survivorship after surgery was 283 days. There were no cases of infection, VTE or implant failure. There were no cases of neurologic deterioration with all maintaining Frankel E grading. Conclusion: Metastatic lesions affecting the second cervical vertebra are rare. A variety of stabilization options tailored to the individual lesions, including occipitocervical fixation, in this small series was successful in maintaining stability and resolution of symptoms. PMID:25972709

  4. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of cervical vertebra: An uncommon presentation.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Sonia; Singh, Sunita; Sethi, Divya; Mahapatra, Qury Sabita

    2014-04-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant primary bone tumor primarily seen in the long bones. Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranium is quite uncommon occurring in 1% of the cases. We report the occurrence of this rare lesion in a 24-year-old male presenting with progressively increasing swelling in left mastoid region mimicking a mastoid abscess which was later diagnosed on Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as a small round cell tumor as Ewing's sarcoma. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed a typical moth eaten appearance in the first and second cervical vertebra. PMID:25126127

  5. Pneumatic structures in the cervical vertebrae of the Late Jurassic Tendaguru sauropods Brachiosaurus brancai and Dicraeosaurus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Schwarz; Guido Fritsch

    2006-01-01

    The presacral vertebrae of sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded and invaded by a complex system of pneumatic diverticula, which originated most probably from cervical air sacs connected with the respiratory apparatus. Cervical vertebrae of Brachiosaurus brancai and Dicraeosaurus sp., two sauropods from the Late Jurassic (?Oxfordian-Kimmerigian-Tithonian) eastern African locality Tendaguru, were examined with computed tomography to visualize internal pneumatic structures. With

  6. Position of the cervical vertebrae during helmet removal and cervical collar application in football and hockey.

    PubMed

    Prinsen, R K; Syrotuik, D G; Reid, D C

    1995-07-01

    There is lack of consensus among prehospital personnel (athletic therapists, paramedics, sport physiotherapists) concerning specific aspects of initial care and assessment of injured athletes presenting signs and symptoms of a cervical spine injury (CSI). In instances of serious injury involving the head and/or spine, complicated by altered levels of consciousness, protective equipment such as helmets and shoulder pads may provide a hinderance to prompt, safe and efficient management. Specifically, there is disagreement concerning the need or advisability of removing protective head gear, as in the case of football and hockey athletes. Using the technique of fluoroscopy, the cervical spine displacement of 21 male football and hockey athletes was determined while wearing protective shoulder pads and protective head equipment at the following times (a) during helmet removal, (b) during cervical collar application, and (c) as the helmetless head was allowed to rest. Subsequent frame-by-frame video arthokinematic analysis, using computer-assisted digitization, showed significant alterations in the position of adjacent cervical vertebrae during helmet removal, cervical collar application, and head rest. Results suggest that stabilization and transportation of football and hockey athletes with suspected CSI in their respective protective equipment is recommended in order to reduce the risk of further trauma by unnecessary cervical spine motion. PMID:7670970

  7. Europe's largest dinosaur? A giant brachiosaurid cervical vertebra from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous) of southern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren Naish; David M. Martill; David Cooper; Kent A. Stevens

    2004-01-01

    A single brachiosaurid sauropod cervical vertebra from the Wessex Formation (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight is remarkable for its size. With a partial centrum length (i.e., excluding evidence of the anterior condyle) of 745mm it represents the largest sauropod cervical reported from Europe and is close in size to cervical vertebrae of the giant brachiosaurid Brachiosaurus brancai

  8. Europe's largest dinosaur? A giant brachiosaurid cervical vertebra from the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous) of southern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren Naisha; David M. Martilla; David Cooper; Kent A. Stevens

    A single brachiosaurid sauropod cervical vertebra from the Wessex Formation (Barremian, Early Cretaceous) of the Isle of Wight is remarkable for its size. With a partial centrum length (i.e., excluding evidence of the anterior condyle) of 745 mm it represents the largest sauropod cervical reported from Europe and is close in size to cervical vertebrae of the giant brachiosaurid Brachiosaurus

  9. Cervical Vertebrae Tracking in Video-Fluoroscopy Using the Normalized Gradient Field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rianne Reinartz; Bram Platel; Toon Boselie; Henk Van Mameren; Henk Van Santbrink; Bart M. Ter Haar Romeny

    2009-01-01

    For patients with neck problems valuable functional and diagnostic information can be obtained from a fluoroscopy video of\\u000a a flexion-extension movement of the cervical spine. In most cases physicians have to manually extract the vertebrae, making\\u000a the analysis of these video sequences tedious and time consuming. In this paper we propose an automatic fast and precise method\\u000a for tracking cervical

  10. Osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae in patients irradiated for head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Yasuhiro; Okuno, Yoshishige; Tagawa, Yumiko; Ueki, Nami; Itoh, Kyo; Shinohara, Shogo; Kikuchi, Masahiro

    2010-06-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the common late adverse effects that follow radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. ORN usually develops on the mandible and less frequently on the maxilla. We present three cases of ORN of the cervical vertebrae, which is rarely reported. Two patients suffered from secondary osteomyelitis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy with a hyperfractionated and an accelerated hyperfractionated regimen, respectively. For these patients, the high intensity of treatment was considered the cause of ORN. The third patient underwent concurrent chemoradiation therapy for upper thoracic esophageal cancer and subsequently underwent endoscopic laser resection and radiation therapy for hypopharyngeal cancer. ORN developed in the area of reirradiation. In this case, an excessive radiation dose was considered the cause. ORN of cervical vertebrae, different from that of the mandible and maxilla, has a risk of radiculopathy and myelopathy. In the future, ORN of cervical vertebrae will increase because metachronous double cancers will increase and opportunities for reirradiation, in turn, will increase. To prevent this, it is necessary to optimize the treatment schedule for radiation therapy, including the total dose, fractionation, and concurrent chemotherapy, and to decrease the volume of cervical vertebrae within the irradiation field. PMID:20585930

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Datana, Sanjeev; Kumar, Prasanna; Kumar Roy, Supriya; Londhe, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Purpose: The patients with cleft lip and palate have a higher risk of cervical vertebrae anomalies than do patients in general population. The aim of present study was to determine the prevalence of various upper cervical spine anomalies in different type of clefts. Procedures: Lateral cephalograms of 128 patients (66 males, 62 females) with cleft lip and palate, and 125 (60 males, 65 females) non syndromic patients without cleft lip and palate were selected at random from archive. Cephalograms of the patients were traced and the diagnosis of any cervical vertebrae anomaly was noted. Anomalies were categorized as either: posterior arch deficiency or fusions. Main findings: Prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies in the c lef t group was 20. 3% while it was 6.4% in the control group. Further cervical vertebrae anomalies were 16.6% in the CPO group, 19.1% in the BCLP group, and 22.2% in the UCLP group. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of cervical vertebrae anomalies was observed in cleft lip and palate patients. The prevalenc e obser ved is 3 times more in clef t group than c ontrol group. How to cite this article: Datana S, Bhalla A, Kumar P, Roy SK, Londhe S. Comparative Evaluation of Prevalence of Upper Cervical Vertebrae Anomalies in Cleft Lip/Palate Patients: A Retrospective Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):168-171. PMID:25709295

  12. Osteoradionecrosis of the cervical vertebrae in patients irradiated for head and neck cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Kosaka; Yoshishige Okuno; Yumiko Tagawa; Nami Ueki; Kyo Itoh; Shogo Shinohara; Masahiro Kikuchi

    2010-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the common late adverse effects that follow radiation therapy for head and neck cancers.\\u000a ORN usually develops on the mandible and less frequently on the maxilla. We present three cases of ORN of the cervical vertebrae,\\u000a which is rarely reported. Two patients suffered from secondary osteomyelitis after neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by definitive\\u000a concurrent chemoradiation therapy

  13. A thorny question: the taxonomic identity of the Pirro Nord cervical vertebrae revisited.

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Colombero, Simone; Delfino, Massimo; Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Pavia, Marco; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    The past geographic distribution of the genus Theropithecus (Primates: Cercopithecidae) is mainly restricted to Africa. Outside that continent, the earliest reported records of this genus consist of a calcaneus of cf. Theropithecus sp. from 'Ubeidiya (Israel, 1.6-1.2 Ma [millions of years ago]), as well as three associated cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord (Italy, 1.7-1.3 Ma) attributed to Theropithecus sp. The attribution of the Pirro Nord vertebrae to this genus has been disputed on morphometric grounds, although their assignment to a large-bodied cercopithecid has remained undisputed. Here we report unpublished cervical vertebral specimens with a similar morphology and, given their significance for the paleobiogeography of Theropithecus (purportedly representing its earliest European record), we re-evaluate their taxonomic attribution. In particular, we reconsider the possibility that they belong to another non-primate mammal recorded at this site. Based on both qualitative and metric morphological comparisons, we strongly favor an alternative attribution of the cervical vertebrae from Pirro Nord to the large porcupine Hystrix refossa, which is widely documented at the site by both dentognathic and other postcranial remains. We therefore conclude that the dispersal of Theropithecus out of Africa before ca. 1 Ma (when it is recorded by dental remains from Cueva Victoria, Spain) is currently based only on the calcaneus from 'Ubeidiya tentatively attributed to this genus. PMID:25042286

  14. [Cervical vertebra-induced hearing and equilibrium disorders. Recent clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Elies, W

    1984-12-01

    The contribution of cervical spine disorders to cochleovestibular symptoms was based on the evaluation of patients complaining of dizziness and/or inner ear hearing loss, treated in the ENT Department of Tubingen University between 1977 and 1982. Cervicogenic vertigo was provoked by movements of the cervical spine, but the latter rarely caused tinnitus and never induced hearing loss. The diagnosis between a vascular or proprioceptive nystagmus may be made on the presence of lesions of the cervical spine. These are disorders of the cranio-cervical or the thoraco-cervical region especially and much less often due to osteochondrosis of the vertebrae. The findings of a cervical osteochondrosis has no diagnostic value unless vertigo is provoked by head movements. In cervical vertigo the thoraco-cervical region should be examined to prove a thoracic outlet syndrome. In selected cases operative treatment is possible, eg. transoral resection of the dental process of the axis, resection of the posterior arch of the atlas, myotomy of the anterior scalenus muscle or decompression of the vertebral artery. PMID:6530373

  15. Assessing the validity of a novel model of vertebral artery type of cervical syndrome induced by injecting sclerosing agent next to transverse process of cervical vertebra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhexing Shou; Lin Shen; Pengcheng Xiong

    2010-01-01

    Summary  The efficacy of injecting sclerosing agent next to transverse process of cervical vertebra to induce vertebral artery type\\u000a of cervical syndrome (CSA) was observed. Twenty rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the model group and the control\\u000a group. The rabbits in the model group were injected with sclerosing agent next to transverse process of cervical vertebray,\\u000a on the contrary,

  16. Transgenic over-expression of growth differentiation factor 11 propeptide in skeleton results in transformation of the seventh cervical vertebra into a thoracic vertebra.

    PubMed

    Li, Zicong; Kawasumi, Miyuri; Zhao, Baoping; Moisyadi, Stefan; Yang, Jinzeng

    2010-11-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is one of the significant genes that control skeletal formation. Knockout of GDF11 function causes abnormal patterning of the anterior/posterior axial skeleton. The mRNA of GDF11 is initially translated to a precursor protein that undergoes a proteolytic cleavage to generate the C-terminal peptide or mature GDF11, and the N-terminal peptide named GDF11 propeptide. The propeptide can antagonize GDF11 activity in vitro. To investigate the effects of GDF11 propeptide on GDF11 function in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that over-express the propeptide cDNA in skeletal tissue. The transgenic mice showed formation of extra ribs on the seventh cervical vertebra (C7) as a result of transformation of the C7 vertebra into a thoracic vertebra. The GDF11 propeptide transgene mRNA was detected in tail tissue in embryos and was highly expressed in tail and calvaria bones after birth. A high frequency of C7 rib formation was noticed in the transgenic mouse line with a high level of transgene expression. The anterior boundaries of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 mRNA in situ expressions showed cranial shifts from their normal prevertebra locations in transgenic embryos. These results demonstrated significant effects of GDF11 propeptide transgene on vertebral formation, which are likely occurring through depressing GDF11 function and altered locations of Hoxa-4 and Hoxa-5 expression. PMID:21049546

  17. Skeletal maturation in individuals with Down's syndrome: Comparison between PGS curve, cervical vertebrae and bones of the hand and wrist

    PubMed Central

    Carinhena, Glauber; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Sannomiya, Eduardo Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This study was conducted with the aim of adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) curve. It also aimed to test the reliability and agreement between those methods and the method of hand and wrist radiograph when compared two by two and all together. Methods The sample comprised 72 radiographs, with 36 lateral radiographs of the head and 36 hand-wrist radiographs of 36 subjects with Down's syndrome (DS), 13 female and 23 male, aged between 8 years and 6 months and 18 years and 7 months, with an average age of 13 years and 10 months. Results and Conclusions Results revealed that adapting the methods developed by Martins and Sakima to assess skeletal maturation by cervical vertebrae in the curve of PGS is practical and useful in determining the stage of growth and development of individuals. The stages of maturation evaluated by cervical vertebrae and ossification centers observed in radiographs of the hand and wrist were considered reliable, with excellent level of agreement between the methods by Hassel and Farman as well as Baccetti, Franchi and McNamara Jr and Martins and Sakima. Additionally, results revealed an agreement that ranged between reasonable to good for the three methods used to assess the skeletal maturation, showing statistical significance. PMID:25279522

  18. Giant prolactinoma presenting as a skull base tumor with erosion of the cervical vertebrae: pronounced responsiveness to dopamine agonist treatment.

    PubMed

    Bjerg, Mia L; Rosendal, Frederikke; Nielsen, Edith; Ulhøi, Benedikte Palm; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2014-08-27

    Giant prolactinomas are rare and usually associated with symptoms attributable to hypopituitarism and compression of juxtasellar structures such as the cranial nerves of the cavernous sinus and the optic chiasm. Occasionally, they masquerade as skull base tumors with atypical symptoms. We describe a patient who presented with a low-energy trauma in the neck region that led to the initial diagnosis of a large skull base tumor eroding the cervical vertebrae. After stabilizing surgery, the patient responded to dopamine agonist therapy with normalization of serum prolactin levels and pronounced reduction in tumor volume. PMID:25162753

  19. Artificial disc and vertebra system: a novel motion preservation device for cervical spinal disease after vertebral corpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jun; Lu, Meng; Lu, Teng; Liang, Baobao; Xu, Junkui; Qin, Jie; Cai, Xuan; Huang, Sihua; Wang, Dong; Li, Haopeng; He, Xijing

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the range of motion and stability of the human cadaveric cervical spine after the implantation of a novel artificial disc and vertebra system by comparing an intact group and a fusion group. METHODS: Biomechanical tests were conducted on 18 human cadaveric cervical specimens. The range of motion and the stability index range of motion were measured to study the function and stability of the artificial disc and vertebra system of the intact group compared with the fusion group. RESULTS: In all cases, the artificial disc and vertebra system maintained intervertebral motion and reestablished vertebral height at the operative level. After its implantation, there was no significant difference in the range of motion (ROM) of C3–7 in all directions in the non-fusion group compared with the intact group (p>0.05), but significant differences were detected in flexion, extension and axial rotation compared with the fusion group (p<0.05). The ROM of adjacent segments (C3?4, C6?7) of the non-fusion group decreased significantly in some directions compared with the fusion group (p<0.05). Significant differences in the C4-6 ROM in some directions were detected between the non-fusion group and the intact group. In the fusion group, the C4?6 ROM in all directions decreased significantly compared with the intact and non-fusion groups (p<0.01). The stability index ROM (SI-ROM) of some directions was negative in the non-fusion group, and a significant difference in SI-ROM was only found in the C4?6 segment of the non-fusion group compared with the fusion group. CONCLUSION: An artificial disc and vertebra system could restore vertebral height and preserve the dynamic function of the surgical area and could theoretically reduce the risk of adjacent segment degeneration compared with the anterior fusion procedure. However, our results should be considered with caution because of the low power of the study. The use of a larger sample should be considered in future studies.

  20. DEFECTS IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE IN BORIC ACID-EXPOSED RAT EMBRYOS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ANTERIOR SHIFTS OF HOX GENE EXPRESSION DOMAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defects in cervical vertebrae in boric acid-exposed rat embryos are associated with anterior shifts of hox gene expression domains Nathalie Wery,1 Michael G. Narotsky,2 Nathalie Pacico,1 Robert J. Kavlock,2 Jacques J. Picard,1 AND Francoise Gofflot,1* 1Unit of Developme...

  1. The Cervical Spine of the American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata pratincola): I. Anatomy of the Vertebrae and Regionalization in Their S-Shaped Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Krings, Markus; Nyakatura, John A.; Fischer, Martin S.; Wagner, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Background Owls possess an extraordinary neck and head mobility. To understand this mobility it is necessary to have an anatomical description of cervical vertebrae with an emphasis on those criteria that are relevant for head positioning. No functional description specific to owls is available. Methodology/Principal findings X-ray films and micro-CT scans were recorded from American barn owls (Tyto furcata pratincola) and used to obtain three-dimensional head movements and three-dimensional models of the 14 cervical vertebrae (C1?C14). The diameter of the vertebral canal, the zygapophyseal protrusion, the distance between joint centers, and the pitching angle were quantified. Whereas the first two variables are purely osteological characteristics of single vertebrae, the latter two take into account interactions between vertebrae. These variables change in characteristic ways from cranial to caudal. The vertebral canal is wide in the cranial and caudal neck regions, but narrow in the middle, where both the zygapophyseal protrusion and the distance between joint centers are large. Pitching angles are more negative in the cranial and caudal neck regions than in the middle region. Cluster analysis suggested a complex regionalization. Whereas the borders (C1 and C13/C14) formed stable clusters, the other cervical vertebrae were sorted into 4 or 5 additional clusters. The borders of the clusters were influenced by the variables analyzed. Conclusions/Significance A statistical analysis was used to evaluate the regionalization of the cervical spine in the barn owl. While earlier measurements have shown that there appear to be three regions of flexibility of the neck, our indicators suggest 3–7 regions. These many regions allow a high degree of flexibility, potentially facilitating the large head turns that barn owls are able to make. The cervical vertebral series of other species should also be investigated using statistical criteria to further characterize morphology and the potential movements associated with it. PMID:24651767

  2. Corpectomy with Adjacent-Level Kyphoplasty to Treat Metastatic Lung Cancer in Three Contiguous Cervical Vertebrae Causing Focal Neurologic Compromise

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Antony H.; Way, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objectives?Decompression of metastatic spinal cord compression has been shown to improve quality of life and prolong ambulation in patients undergoing palliative treatment. We report a case of metastatic cervical myelopathy treated with a combined approach using corpectomy and stabilization together with balloon kyphoplasty to allow adequate decompression and immediate stability in a patient with significant destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies. Methods?The cervical spine was approached anteriorly and decompressed with a C7 corpectomy. Subsequent stability was achieved with insertion of a trabecular metal cage. Balloon kyphoplasty was used to treat lytic lesions within the posterior body of the adjacent vertebrae for pain relief and increased stability. Additional stability was achieved through the application of an anterior plate. Results?Full limited decompression and stabilization were successfully achieved. The patient had no further neurologic deterioration and made modest improvements that allowed a return to independent ambulation. Conclusion?This limited approach may be an option for patients with metastatic spinal cord compression, lytic destruction of adjacent vertebral bodies, and limited life expectancy. PMID:25844288

  3. Relevance of discrete traits in forensic anthropology: From the first cervical vertebra to the pelvic girdle.

    PubMed

    Verna, Emeline; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Adalian, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    In forensic anthropology, identification begins by determining the sex, age, ancestry and stature of the individuals. Asymptomatic variations present on the skeleton, known as discrete traits, can be useful to identify individuals, or at least contribute to complete their biological profile. We decided to focus our work on the upper part of the skeleton, from the first vertebra to the pelvic girdle, and we chose to present 8 discrete traits (spina bifida occulta, butterfly vertebra, supraclavicular nerve foramen, coracoclavicular joint, os acromiale, suprascapular foramen, manubrium foramen and pubic spine), because they show a frequency lower than 10%. We examined 502 anonymous CT scans from polytraumatized individuals, aged 15 to 65 years, in order to detect the selected discrete traits. Age and sex were known for each subject. Thin sections in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes and 3D volume rendering images were created and examined for the visualization of the selected discrete traits. Supraclavicular foramina were found only in males and only on the left clavicle. Coracoclavicular joints were observed only in males. The majority of individuals with a suprascapular foramen were older than 50 years of age. Pubic spines were observed mostly in females. Other traits did not present significant association with sex, age and laterality. No association between traits was highlighted. Better knowledge of human skeletal variations will help anthropologists come closer to a positive identification, especially if these variations are rare, therefore making them more discriminant. PMID:26048863

  4. [Meta-analysis of the cumulative effects of piloting G-loads on the cervical vertebrae].

    PubMed

    Bukhtiiarov, I V; Kukushkin, Iu A; Bogomolov, A V; Vasil'ev, A Iu; Iadov, V V

    2001-01-01

    On the data of meta-analysis performed in 10 independent Russian and international studies of the cumulative effects of piloting g-loads on functioning of the vertebral column cervical segment, the conclusion has been made concerning a statistically significant linkage between the degenerative dystrophic diseases of the vertebral column and regular exposure to the +Gz loads. PMID:11589150

  5. Cervical vertebrae subluxation.

    PubMed

    Hopla, D M; Mazur, J M; Bass, R M

    1983-09-01

    Rotary subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint is an uncommon complication of head and neck surgery and infections. Reported sequelae of this disorder range from torticollis to death from compression of the spinal cord. Two cases of C1-C2 rotary subluxation will be discussed. These complications occurred following otitis media, repair of choanal atresia, and an adenoidectomy. The literature is reviewed. PMID:6888127

  6. Artificial Cervical Vertebra and Intervertebral Complex Replacement through the Anterior Approach in Animal Model: A Biomechanical and In Vivo Evaluation of a Successful Goat Model

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jie; He, Xijing; Wang, Dong; Qi, Peng; Guo, Lei; Huang, Sihua; Cai, Xuan; Li, Haopeng; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This was an in vitro and in vivo study to develop a novel artificial cervical vertebra and intervertebral complex (ACVC) joint in a goat model to provide a new method for treating degenerative disc disease in the cervical spine. The objectives of this study were to test the safety, validity, and effectiveness of ACVC by goat model and to provide preclinical data for a clinical trial in humans in future. We designed the ACVC based on the radiological and anatomical data on goat and human cervical spines, established an animal model by implanting the ACVC into goat cervical spines in vitro prior to in vivo implantation through the anterior approach, and evaluated clinical, radiological, biomechanical parameters after implantation. The X-ray radiological data revealed similarities between goat and human intervertebral angles at the levels of C2-3, C3-4, and C4-5, and between goat and human lordosis angles at the levels of C3-4 and C4-5. In the in vivo implantation, the goats successfully endured the entire experimental procedure and recovered well after the surgery. The radiological results showed that there was no dislocation of the ACVC and that the ACVC successfully restored the intervertebral disc height after the surgery. The biomechanical data showed that there was no significant difference in range of motion (ROM) or neural zone (NZ) between the control group and the ACVC group in flexion-extension and lateral bending before or after the fatigue test. The ROM and NZ of the ACVC group were greater than those of the control group for rotation. In conclusion, the goat provides an excellent animal model for the biomechanical study of the cervical spine. The ACVC is able to provide instant stability after surgery and to preserve normal motion in the cervical spine. PMID:23300816

  7. Mechanical implications of pneumatic neck vertebrae in sauropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz-Wings, Daniela; Meyer, Christian A.; Frey, Eberhard; Manz-Steiner, Hans-Rudolf; Schumacher, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The pre-sacral vertebrae of most sauropod dinosaurs were surrounded by interconnected, air-filled diverticula, penetrating into the bones and creating an intricate internal cavity system within the vertebrae. Computational finite-element models of two sauropod cervical vertebrae now demonstrate the mechanical reason for vertebral pneumaticity. The analyses show that the structure of the cervical vertebrae leads to an even distribution of all occurring stress fields along the vertebrae, concentrated mainly on their external surface and the vertebral laminae. The regions between vertebral laminae and the interior part of the vertebral body including thin bony struts and septa are mostly unloaded and pneumatic structures are positioned in these regions of minimal stress. The morphology of sauropod cervical vertebrae was influenced by strongly segmented axial neck muscles, which require only small attachment areas on each vertebra, and pneumatic epithelia that are able to resorb bone that is not mechanically loaded. The interaction of these soft tissues with the bony tissue of the vertebrae produced lightweight, air-filled vertebrae in which most stresses were borne by the external cortical bone. Cervical pneumaticity was therefore an important prerequisite for neck enlargement in sauropods. Thus, we expect that vertebral pneumaticity in other parts of the body to have a similar role in enabling gigantism. PMID:19801376

  8. Cervical Stenosis, Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the entire cervical spinal cord through two operations: laminectomy and laminoplasty. In both of these operations, the ... portions of the back of the vertebra. In laminectomy, the back of the vertebra is completely removed. ...

  9. [Measurement and clinical significance of cervical lordosis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ting; Wang, Xiang; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2014-12-01

    Measurement of cervical lordosis is the basic method for evaluating cervical function, and important reference for determine treatment decision. However, how to choose appropriate measurement in accordance with different situation, as well as the relationship among these methods is not clear. An increasing number of studies suggested that different measurements could directly affect the judgment of cervical lordosis. Therefore, comparative study of cervical vertebrae plays an important role in clinical treatment for cervical spondylosis under different cervical curvature conditions. PMID:25638900

  10. Automated localization of vertebra landmarks in MRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Akshay; Narasimhamurthy, Anand; Rao, V. S. Veeravasarapu; Vaidya, Vivek

    2011-03-01

    The identification of key landmark points in an MR spine image is an important step for tasks such as vertebra counting. In this paper, we propose a template matching based approach for automatic detection of two key landmark points, namely the second cervical vertebra (C2) and the sacrum from sagittal MR images. The approach is comprised of an approximate localization of vertebral column followed by matching with appropriate templates in order to detect/localize the landmarks. A straightforward extension of the work described here is an automated classification of spine section(s). It also serves as a useful building block for further automatic processing such as extraction of regions of interest for subsequent image processing and also in aiding the counting of vertebra.

  11. Pediatric cervical spine instability

    PubMed Central

    El Hage, Samer; Rachkidi, Rami; Kharrat, Khalil; Dagher, Fernand; Kreichati, Gabi

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spine instability in children is rare but not exceptional and may be due to many factors. Although it mostly occurs at the upper cervical spine, all vertebrae from the occiput to T1 may be involved. It may be acute or chronic, occurring secondary to trauma or due to congenital anomaly, skeletal or metabolic dystrophy or rheumatoid arthritis. It can be isolated or associated with other musculoskeletal or visceral anomalies. A thorough knowledge of embryology, anatomy, physiology and physiopathology of the cervical spine in children is essential to avoid pitfalls, recognize normal variants and identify children at risk of developing cervical spine instability and undertake the appropriate treatment. PMID:19308585

  12. Regional changes in vertebra morphology during ontogeny reflect the life history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fjelldal, Per G; Totland, Geir K; Hansen, Tom; Kryvi, Harald; Wang, Xiyuan; Søndergaard, Jens L; Grotmol, Sindre

    2013-01-01

    This study examined vertebra formation, morphology, regional characters, and bending properties of the vertebral column of Atlantic cod throughout its life cycle (0–6 years). The first structure to form was the foremost neural arch, 21 days post hatching (dph), and the first vertebra centrum to form – as a chordacentrum – was the 3rd centrum at 28 dph. Thereafter, the notochord centra developed in a regular sequence towards the head and caudal fin. All vertebrae were formed within 50 dph. The vertebral column consisted of 52 (± 2) vertebrae (V) and could be divided into four distinct regions: (i) the cervical region (neck) (V1 and V2), characterized by short vertebra centra, prominent neural spines and absence of articulations with ribs; (ii) the abdominal region (trunk) (V3–V19), characterized by vertebrae with wing-shaped transverse processes (parapophyses) that all articulate with a rib; (iii) the caudal region (tail) (V20–V40), where the vertebra centra have haemal arches with prominent haemal spines; (iv) the ural region (V41 to the last vertebra), characterized by broad neural and haemal spines, providing sites of origin for muscles inserting on the fin rays – lepidotrichs – of the tail fin. The number of vertebrae in the cervical, abdominal and caudal regions was found to be constant, whereas in the ural region, numbers varied from 12 to 15. Geometric modelling based on combination of vertebra lengths, diameters and intervertebral distances showed an even flexibility throughout the column, except in the ural region, where flexibility increased. Throughout ontogeny, the vertebra centra of the different regions followed distinct patterns of growth; the relative length of the vertebrae increased in the cervical and abdominal regions, and decreased in the caudal and ural regions with increasing age. This may reflect changes in swimming mode with age, and/or that the production of large volumes of gametes during sexual maturation requires a significant increase in abdominal cavity volume. PMID:23587057

  13. Anatomical and functional perspectives of the cervical spine: Part I: the “normal” cervical spine †

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, Marion; Mior, Silvano

    1989-01-01

    This is the first of a three part series describing the clinical issues surrounding the radiographic assessment of the cervical spine. Defined in this literature review is the working definition of cervical stability. Described are the “normal” anatomical relationships between the cervical vertebrae for both the adult and the child, as portrayed by lateral radiographs. Also presented is a review of available documentation regarding the normal segmental function of the vertebrae in the upper and in the lower cervical spine. The next two parts in this series will deal with the definitions and radiographic evaluation of cervical hypermobility and instability respectively.

  14. Vertebrae length and ultra-structure measurements of collagen fibrils and mineral content in the vertebrae of lordotic gilthead seabreams (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Berillis, Panagiotis; Panagiotopoulos, Nikolaos; Boursiaki, Vaia; Karapanagiotidis, Ioannis T; Mente, Eleni

    2015-08-01

    Skeletal deformities of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) are a major factor affecting the production cost, the external morphology and survival and growth of the fish. Adult individuals of S. aurata were collected from a commercial fish farm in Greece and were divided into two groups: one with the presence of lordosis, a skeletal deformity, and one without any skeletal deformity. Fishes were X-rayed, and cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae lengths were measured. Vertebrae were taken from the site of the vertebral column where lordosis occurred. One part was decalcified and prepared for collagen examination with transmission electron microscopy, and the rest were incinerated, and the Ca and P contents were measured. The stoichiometries of the samples were obtained by EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The same procedure was followed for fish without skeletal deformities (vertebrae were taken from the middle region of the vertebral column). The decalcified vertebrae parts were examined with TEM, collagen micrographs were taken and the fibrils' periods and diameters were measured. There were no significant differences for both Ca and P or the collagen fibrils' periods between the two fish groups. The mean lengths of the cervical, abdominal and caudal vertebrae where lordosis occurred were similar to the lengths of the respective regions of the individuals without the skeletal deformity. The TEM examination showed a significantly smaller mean vertebrae collagen fibril diameter from the fishes with lordosis compared with those from the controls, revealing the significance of collagen to bone structure. PMID:26000955

  15. Cervical uncinate process: an anatomic study for anterior decompression of the cervical spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lu; N. A. Ebraheim; H. Yang; M. Skie; R. A. Yeasting

    1998-01-01

    Morphometric evaluation of 54 dry cervical spines from C3 to C7 (a total of 270 cervical vertebrae) was performed to determine the bony boundaries of the uncinate process for resection of the uncinate process for access to posterolateral osteophytes or herniated disks at the time of anterior cervical diskectomy. The uncinate processes were significantly higher (p < 0.01) at the

  16. X-Ray Exam: Cervical Spine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or hand. It can detect fractures in the cervical vertebrae or dislocation of the joints between the vertebrae. It's commonly done after someone has been in an automobile or other accident and has had an injury to the head, neck, or back, especially if ...

  17. [Cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Iwanami, Akio; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-10-01

    Japan has now become an aging society. In 2014, people aged more than 65 years old accounted for 25.1% of Japan's entire population. Aging is associated with an increased risk of problems related to the locomotive organs. Deterioration of locomotive ability causes falls or tumbles, which would be a threat to good health and longevity of aged people. To maintain the locomotive ability of the elderly, therefore, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association starts a campaign to promote awareness and prevention of "locomotive syndrome". Cervical spondylosis is a disorder for age-related wear affecting the disks and vertebrae of cervical spine. It would also be a cause of "locomotive syndrome". Here, we give an outline of this disease and introduce its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25509798

  18. Biplanar Reconstruction Scoliotic Vertebrae Using Statistical Models

    E-print Network

    Mignotte, Max

    Biplanar Reconstruction Scoliotic Vertebrae Using Statistical Models Benameur , , #) Mignotte, Montréal, Canada E­mail:sbenameur@livia.etsmtl.ca Abstract This paper presents a reconstruction method knowledge on geometrical structure each vertebra. geometrical knowledge efficiently captured a statistical

  19. Cervical spine in patients with diastrophic dysplasia - radiographic findings in 122 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ville M. Remes; Eino J. Marttinen; Mikko S. Poussa; Ilkka J. Helenius; Jari I. Peltonen

    2002-01-01

    Background. In previous studies, typical radiological findings in the cervical spine of patients with diastrophic dysplasia (DD) have been kyphosis, displacement of the vertebrae, spina bifida occulta (SBO), anterior hypoplasia of vertebrae C3-5, and hyperplasia and dysmorphism of the odontoid process. Objectives. To make a radiological analysis of the cervical spine in patients with DD. Materials and methods. The study

  20. Risk factors in cervical spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Dharmendra; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical spondylosis is essentially a degenerative disorder common after fourth decade. It has been seen that radiological evidence of cervical spondylosis do not necessarily co-relate with clinical findings. This discrepancy has been attributed to the morphometric dimensions of the vertebrae, age, sex, race, occupation, weight and height of the patients. Objective The objective of this study is to co-relate the variables like age, sex, race, occupation, vertebral body diameter, canal diameter, canal body ratio of cervical spine vertebrae with cervical spondylosis cases with normal population. Methods In this hospital based, case control, consent based, cross-sectional, clinico-radiological study 200 individuals (controls-100, cases-100) who were subjected to lateral projection radiographs of cervical spine. Their age, sex, race, occupation, height, weight and mid-sagittal canal diameter (CD), sagittal vertebral body diameter (VBD) and the canal-body ratio (CBR) of the cervical vertebrae was recorded and analyzed statistically. Results There was no relation between vertebral dimensions and clinical groups. In radiculopathy group, age and height showed significance on univariate analysis. While only age remained significant on multivariate analysis. In neck pain group age, sex, and height showed significance on univariate analysis while in multivariate analysis age, sex and occupation were significant risk factors. PMID:25983502

  1. Multiple noncontiguous fractures of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Shear, P; Hugenholtz, H; Richard, M T; Russell, N A; Peterson, E W; Benoit, B G; da Silva, V F

    1988-05-01

    Multiple noncontiguous fracture-subluxations of the cervical spine are fractures and subluxations separated by at least one normal intervening cervical vertebra. A review of all 66 consecutive cervical spine fractures treated by the Division of Neurosurgery at the University of Ottawa during 26 consecutive months revealed six such cases (9%). These injuries are more common than previously recognized. Special consideration is required in their treatment because of the presence of a mobile intermediate segment in some of these patients. PMID:3367408

  2. Fully automatic vertebra detection in x-ray images based on multi-class SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2012-02-01

    Automatically detecting vertebral bodies in X-Ray images is a very complex task, especially because of the noise and the low contrast resulting in that kind of medical imagery modality. Therefore, the contributions in the literature are mainly interested in only 2 medical imagery modalities: Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance (MR). Few works are dedicated to the conventional X-Ray radiography and propose mostly semi-automatic methods. However, vertebra detection is a key step in many medical applications such as vertebra segmentation, vertebral morphometry, etc. In this work, we develop a fully automatic approach for the vertebra detection, based on a learning method. The idea is to detect a vertebra by its anterior corners without human intervention. To this end, the points of interest in the radiograph are firstly detected by an edge polygonal approximation. Then, a SIFT descriptor is used to train an SVM-model. Therefore, each point of interest can be classified in order to detect if it belongs to a vertebra or not. Our approach has been assessed by the detection of 250 cervical vertebræ on radiographs. The results show a very high precision with a corner detection rate of 90.4% and a vertebra detection rate from 81.6% to 86.5%.

  3. Hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Kaoutzanis, M; Anagnostopoulos, D; Apostolou, A

    1989-01-01

    Six cases of hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae are described. Four patients presented with paraparesis and sphincter disturbances while the other two presented with low back pain and sciatica. Myelographic findings were positive in all six patients. The CT scans showed a paravertebral mass with destruction of bone in two cases. The nuclear magnetic resonance performed in one patient showed the exact extent of the disease all along the spine. Posterior laminectomy with decompression of the spinal cord and removal of the hydatid cysts was performed in all six patients. After the operation four patients received oral treatment with mebendazole. The patients with paraparesis showed little improvement of their neurological status. The two patients with low back pain and sciatica showed marked improvement. Hydatid disease affecting the vertebrae presents with neurological complications due to cord compression. The prognosis remains poor in spite of laminectomy, although removal of the hydatid cysts and long-term mebendazole medication may result in relief of symptoms. PMID:2741736

  4. Cervical uncinate process: an anatomic study for anterior decompression of the cervical spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Lu; N. A. Ebraheim; H. Yang; M. Skie; R. A. Yeasting

    1998-01-01

    Summary Morphometric evaluation of 54 dry cervical spines from C3 to C7 (a total of 270 cervical vertebrae) was performed to determine the bony boundaries of the uncinate process for resection of the uncinate process for access to posterolateral osteophytes or herniated disks at the time of anterior cervical diskectomy. The uncinate processes were significantly higher (p<0.01) at the C4

  5. Imaging techniques for radiography of cervical vertebrae using CT images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinori Maruyama; Hideki Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    A good positioning technique is essential for obtaining accurate diagnostic information in radiography. In this study, we developed the imaging techniques which produce a plane image using CT images in order to assist the students' positioning practice under the X-ray equipment. First, we scanned the skull phantom by CT (computed tomography) and obtained CT images. Next, we measure the positioning

  6. Shape regression for vertebra fracture quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Michael Tillge; de Bruijne, Marleen; Tanko, Laszlo B.; Nielsen, Mads

    2005-04-01

    Accurate and reliable identification and quantification of vertebral fractures constitute a challenge both in clinical trials and in diagnosis of osteoporosis. Various efforts have been made to develop reliable, objective, and reproducible methods for assessing vertebral fractures, but at present there is no consensus concerning a universally accepted diagnostic definition of vertebral fractures. In this project we want to investigate whether or not it is possible to accurately reconstruct the shape of a normal vertebra, using a neighbouring vertebra as prior information. The reconstructed shape can then be used to develop a novel vertebra fracture measure, by comparing the segmented vertebra shape with its reconstructed normal shape. The vertebrae in lateral x-rays of the lumbar spine were manually annotated by a medical expert. With this dataset we built a shape model, with equidistant point distribution between the four corner points. Based on the shape model, a multiple linear regression model of a normal vertebra shape was developed for each dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation. The reconstructed shape was calculated for each dataset using these regression models. The average prediction error for the annotated shape was on average 3%.

  7. Vertebral artery injury in a patient with fractured C4 vertebra.

    PubMed

    Bani?, Tihomir; Bani?, Morana; Cvjetko, Ivan; Somun, Nenad; Bili?, Vide; Vidjak, Vinko; Pavi?, Vladimir; Coc, Ivan; Koki?, Tomislav; Kejlal, Zvonko

    2014-09-01

    Vertebral artery injuries due to cervical spine trauma, although rarely described in the literature, are relatively common. While most of them will remain asymptomatic, a small percentage of patients may suffer life threatening complications. We report a case of the right vertebral artery injury in a patient with fracture of C4 vertebra, successfully treated with endovascular approach. A 78-year-old male patient was hospitalized for cervical spine injury caused by falling off the tractor. Radiological assessment revealed fracture of C4 vertebra with proximal two-thirds of C4 body dislocated five millimeters dorsally. Significant swelling of soft prevertebral tissues distally of C2 segment was also present. During emergency surgery using standard anterior approach for cervical spine, excessive bleeding started from the injured right vertebral artery. Bleeding was stopped by tamponade with oxidized regenerated cellulose sheet and C4-C5 anterior fixation; then partial reduction of displacement was done. Fifteen days later, after angiography, endovascular repair of the right vertebral artery was performed using percutaneous stent graft. Follow up computed tomography scan angiography showed valid stent patency without contrast extravasation. In cases of cervical spine trauma, surgeon should always be prepared to manage injury of vertebral artery. Bleeding can primarily be stopped by hemostatic packing, and definitive repair can be successfully achieved by endovascular approach using percutaneous stent graft. PMID:25509251

  8. Evaluating the V2 Segment of the Vertebral Artery with Computed Tomography to Assess Risks During Cervical Spinal Surgery: An Anatomic Study on Cadaver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mustafa Güvençer; Süleyman Men; Sait Naderi

    Purpose: The second segment (V2) of the vertebral artery is located in the transverse foramen of the C6-2 cervical vertebrae. It is at risk of injury during anterior, anterolateral and posterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine. The aim of this study is to measure and evaluate the relationship between the V2 segment and bony landmarks of the cervical vertebrae.

  9. Automated vertebra identification in CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehm, Matthias; Klinder, Tobias; Kneser, Reinhard; Lorenz, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we describe and compare methods for automatically identifying individual vertebrae in arbitrary CT images. The identification is an essential precondition for a subsequent model-based segmentation, which is used in a wide field of orthopedic, neurological, and oncological applications, e.g., spinal biopsies or the insertion of pedicle screws. Since adjacent vertebrae show similar characteristics, an automated labeling of the spine column is a very challenging task, especially if no surrounding reference structures can be taken into account. Furthermore, vertebra identification is complicated due to the fact that many images are bounded to a very limited field of view and may contain only few vertebrae. We propose and evaluate two methods for automatically labeling the spine column by evaluating similarities between given models and vertebral objects. In one method, object boundary information is taken into account by applying a Generalized Hough Transform (GHT) for each vertebral object. In the other method, appearance models containing mean gray value information are registered to each vertebral object using cross and local correlation as similarity measures for the optimization function. The GHT is advantageous in terms of computational performance but cuts back concerning the identification rate. A correct labeling of the vertebral column has been successfully performed on 93% of the test set consisting of 63 disparate input images using rigid image registration with local correlation as similarity measure.

  10. Cervical facet joint kinematics during bilateral facet dislocation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manohar M. Panjabi; Andrew K. Simpson; Paul C. Ivancic; Adam M. Pearson; Yasuhiro Tominaga; James J. Yue

    2007-01-01

    Previous biomechanical models of cervical bilateral facet dislocation (BFD) are limited to quasi-static loading or manual\\u000a ligament transection. The goal of the present study was to determine the facet joint kinematics during high-speed BFD. Dislocation\\u000a was simulated using ten cervical functional spinal units with muscle force replication by frontal impact of the lower vertebra,\\u000a tilted posteriorly by 42.5°. Average peak

  11. Anterior cervical discectomy in a patient with huge thyroid tissue (goiter).

    PubMed

    Gulsen, Salih

    2014-11-01

    Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) may hinder to reach anterior part of the vertebrae or may impose more retraction than usual. The patient had left arm pain, and his left biceps muscle strength was 3/5 and triceps muscle strength was 4/5. Physical examination of his neck showed no abnormality. We performed anterior cervical discectomy, but we did not reach to the anterior part of the vertebrae due to enlarged thyroid gland even making moderately forceful medial retraction. It is therefore, we performed thyroidectomy previously, and later we performed anterior cervical discectomy at the level of cervical 5-6 and cervical 6-7. It will be wise to excise the goiter and later continue to cervical discectomy rather than using forceful retraction in cases with no preoperative detection as in our case to prevent damage of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hoarseness due to pressure effect of the medial retraction during the anterior cervical approach. PMID:25540554

  12. Anterior cervical discectomy in a patient with huge thyroid tissue (goiter)

    PubMed Central

    Gulsen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) may hinder to reach anterior part of the vertebrae or may impose more retraction than usual. The patient had left arm pain, and his left biceps muscle strength was 3/5 and triceps muscle strength was 4/5. Physical examination of his neck showed no abnormality. We performed anterior cervical discectomy, but we did not reach to the anterior part of the vertebrae due to enlarged thyroid gland even making moderately forceful medial retraction. It is therefore, we performed thyroidectomy previously, and later we performed anterior cervical discectomy at the level of cervical 5-6 and cervical 6-7. It will be wise to excise the goiter and later continue to cervical discectomy rather than using forceful retraction in cases with no preoperative detection as in our case to prevent damage of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hoarseness due to pressure effect of the medial retraction during the anterior cervical approach. PMID:25540554

  13. Benign notochordal cell tumor: a retrospective study of 11 cases with 13 vertebra bodies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaomei; Xia, Chunyan; Liu, Dong; Liu, Huimin; Wang, Chenguang; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the clinical data, MRI, pathological diagnosis, treatment and long-term effects of benign notochordal cell tumor (BNCT), a newly described novel spine tumor. Methods: We retrospectively studied 11 patients’ clinical data of the above. Results: The ratio of males to females was 4:7, and the average age was 49.2 years (range, 18-74 years). Cervical vertebra (5; 38.5%) and thoracic vertebra (5; 38.5%) were the most frequent site followed by the lumbar vertebra (3; 23%). Pain was the main symptom except case 2 who were diagnosed accidently because of prostate cancer. The mean delay from first clinical symptoms to diagnosis was ranged from 2 months to 20 years. MRI showed all BNCTs were osteolytic lesions with hypointense on T1-weighted sequences, hyperintense on T2-weighted sequences. There were 4 vertebral bodies with wedge fracture. There were two cases that had two noncontiguous vertebral bodies with BNCT. In histology, marrow replacement was noted by multivacuolated physaliphorous cells immunoreactive for CK, EMA and S100 protein. All 10 cases except case 2 had vertebral reconstruction and fixation with different methods. Of the 11 patients, 9 had full follow-up data which showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis without further treatment. Conclusion: Noncontiguous multi-centricity BNCTs are rare. No specific vertebrae are more frequently involved. Once BNCT is diagnosed by pathology, the surgical intervention is necessary for the patients with obvious clinical symptoms although it is benign. There is no evidence of BNCT recurrence or metastasis. PMID:25120733

  14. Some borderlands of the cervical spine. Pt. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kattan, K.R.; Pais, M.J.

    1982-03-01

    The complexity of the structure of the cervical spine as well superimposition by the parts of adjacent vertebrae, as well as other structures may cause some abnormalities to be overlooked. Among those abnormalities are, the short sagittal diameter, neoplasm in the cancellous part of the vertebral bodies, spurs in the apophyseal joints, trauma, infection and others.

  15. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. ...

  16. Leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Shin, Jun Jae; Chae, Gue Tae

    2010-07-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Mycobacterium leprae that leads to leprotic neuropathy involving the peripheral nerve and several characteristic skin lesions. Skeletal involvement can occur in peripheral joints, such as the wrist and the ankle. However, there is no report of an axial leprotic lesion involving the spine or paraspinal soft tissue. The authors report the first case of a leprotic cervical lesion involving the axial skeletal system. A 48-year-old male presented with neck pain and severe pain in the right suprascapular area and left arm. Preoperative MRI of the cervical spine revealed signal changes in the prevertebral soft tissue at the level of the C3, 4, 5 vertebral bodies. There were a lower signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2WI of the bone marrow at the level of the C5 and C6 vertebral bodies, and a C5/6 segmental ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. There were herniated cervical disc on the left C5/6 with C6 root and the right side of C6/7 with a C7 root compression. He was previously diagnosed with leprosy when he was 14 years old and received treatment intermittently over the course of 7 years. But patient did not disclose his past history. Surgical intervention was conducted using an anterior cervical approach. An incision was made in the anterior longitudinal ligament at C5/6, and a pinkish gray friable gelatinous material was observed on the C5/6 disc and on the anterior lower one-third surface of the C5 vertebral body. Specimens were obtained and subjected to pathological evaluation and microbiological culture. After C5/6 and C6/7 discectomies, nerve root decompression and autologous iliac bone grafting were performed at the C5/6 and C6/7 levels. The C5-6-7 vertebrae were fixed with an Atlantis cervical locking plate and a screw system. The pathological report indicated chronic inflammation with heavy plasma cell infiltration on the specimen. We sent the specimens to the Institute of Hansen's Disease, and polymerase chain reaction for leprosy tested positive. After surgery, his pain disappeared and he was given a prescription for antileprotic drugs. The authors describe the first case of leprotic cervical spondylodiscitis that was operatively treated in a 48-year-old patient with known leprosy history since his 14 years old. PMID:20372941

  17. Preoperative Embolization of Cervical Spine Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Sylvia C.; Strecker, Ernst-Peter [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Diakonissenkrankenhaus, Diakonissenstrasse 28, D-76199 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ackermann, Ludwig W.; Harms, Juergen [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach Guttmannstrasse 1, D-76307 Karlsbad (Germany)

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the technical success rate, complications, and effect on intraoperative blood loss of preoperative transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 38 patients with tumors of the cervical spine; 69 vertebrae were affected. Polyvinyl alcohol particles, coils, gelfoam particles, either alone or in combination, were used for preoperative tumor embolization. After embolization a total of 57 corporectomies with titanium basket implantation were performed. Results: In 36 of 38 patients, complete (n= 27) or partial (n= 9) embolization was achieved. In 23 patients one vertebral artery was completely occluded by coil placement, and in one patient the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries were occluded in addition. No neurological complications could be directly related to the embolization, but two postoperative brain stem infarctions occurred. The mean intraoperative blood loss was 2.4 L. Conclusion: Transarterial embolization of cervical spine tumors is a safe and effective procedure to facilitate extensive surgery.

  18. [Hibernoma and cervical rib: two rare diseases, the same manifestation].

    PubMed

    Antunes, J; Santos, S; Andrade, N; Simões, F; Salgado, C

    2013-07-01

    The hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, derived from remnants of fetal brown adipose tissue. A cervical rib is a supernumerary or accessory rib derived from the 7th cervical vertebra. CLINCAL CASE: 2-year-old girl, previously healthy, referenced to Pediatrics consultation, for left supraclavicular mass. No history of infectious diseases or systemic symptoms. At exam presented mass in supraclavicular left region, 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter, hard, mobile, non-adherent to the deep planes. Laboratory tests exclude an infectious or lymphoproliferative disease. In cervical radiograph we observed bilateral cervical ribs. Cervical ultrasound revealed calcified nodule 0.8 cm, compatible with calcified adenopathy. Biopsy was performed and histology revealed a hibernoma, which was completely removed surgically. This case illustrates the association of two diagnoses, uncommon in children. These were made during the investigation of lymphadenopathies, a frequent reason for pediatrics consultation. PMID:24482907

  19. [Cervical teratoma].

    PubMed

    Lindhardt, Christian; Kristensen, Søren

    2003-04-21

    We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with a cervical teratoma. Cervical teratomas are rare tumors in infancy and childhood, commonly presenting as large cervical masses and often diagnosed before birth. In the actual case the teratoma was present at birth but was very small and had a little pseudoduct, which was mistaken for a median cervical cyst. It is emphasized that knowledge of teratomas although often benign in infants and children is essential since they have a malignant potential. If detected early surgical removal is curative provided it is complete. PMID:12768909

  20. Quantitative Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Korean Girls

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Bo-Ram; Kim, Yong-Il; Maki, Koutaro; Son, Woo-Sung

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to examine the correlation between skeletal maturation status and parameters from the odontoid process/body of the second vertebra and the bodies of third and fourth cervical vertebrae and simultaneously build multiple regression models to be able to estimate skeletal maturation status in Korean girls. Hand-wrist radiographs and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained from 74 Korean girls (6–18 years of age). CBCT-generated cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) was used to demarcate the odontoid process and the body of the second cervical vertebra, based on the dentocentral synchondrosis. Correlation coefficient analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used for each parameter of the cervical vertebrae (P < 0.05). Forty-seven of 64 parameters from CBCT-generated CVM (independent variables) exhibited statistically significant correlations (P < 0.05). The multiple regression model with the greatest R2 had six parameters (PH2/W2, UW2/W2, (OH+AH2)/LW2, UW3/LW3, D3, and H4/W4) as independent variables with a variance inflation factor (VIF) of <2. CBCT-generated CVM was able to include parameters from the second cervical vertebral body and odontoid process, respectively, for the multiple regression models. This suggests that quantitative analysis might be used to estimate skeletal maturation status. PMID:25878721

  1. Tracking Lumbar Vertebrae in Digital Videofluoroscopic Video Automatically

    E-print Network

    Wong, Kenneth K.Y.

    consensus that the diagnosis and the treatment of low back pain can be aided by analysing spinal movement [2 propose a method in which an active contour (or snake) will attach to the vertebrae automatically

  2. Posterior stabilization with an interlaminar clamp in cervical injuries: technical note and review of the long term experience with the method.

    PubMed

    Holness, R O; Huestis, W S; Howes, W J; Langille, R A

    1984-03-01

    An alternative method of cervical fixation utilizing a stainless steel clamp is described. The clamp is applied to the adjoining laminae of involved vertebrae in those cervical dislocations and subluxations with posterior instability. The long term results of this method have been most satisfactory, as indicated by our follow-up of 51 patients treated during the last decade. PMID:6709158

  3. Cervical polyps

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical polyps are fingerlike growths on the lower part of the uterus that connects with the vagina ( ... The exact cause of cervical polyps is not known. They may occur with: An abnormal response to increased levels of the female hormone estrogen Chronic ...

  4. Dysphagia and airway obstruction due to large cervical osteophyte in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Varsak, Yasin Kür?ad; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif; Arba?, Hamdi

    2014-07-01

    Anterior cervical osteophytes are excessive bony formation of cervical vertebra bodies. They are common but rarely symptomatic lesions mostly seen in geriatric population. Large anterior cervical osteophytes may cause symptoms such as dysphagia, dyspnea, dysphonia, and odynophagia. They have been attributed to multiple etiologies including diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, following trauma, cervical spondylitis, and infectious spondylitis. However, symptomatic large anterior cervical osteophyte with ankylosing spondylitis is extremely rare. Surgical excision is the main treatment for symptomatic cases. We report a case of a 53-year-old man with airway obstruction and dysphagia due to large cervical osteophyte who has a history of ankylosing spondylitis, and we also addressed the etiological factors and management of large symptomatic cervical osteophytes. PMID:24905946

  5. Human Vagus Nerve Branching in the Cervical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Niels; Glätzner, Juliane; Feja, Christine; Kühne, Christian; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Planitzer, Uwe; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Tillmann, Bernhard N.; Winkler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Vagus nerve stimulation is increasingly applied to treat epilepsy, psychiatric conditions and potentially chronic heart failure. After implanting vagus nerve electrodes to the cervical vagus nerve, side effects such as voice alterations and dyspnea or missing therapeutic effects are observed at different frequencies. Cervical vagus nerve branching might partly be responsible for these effects. However, vagus nerve branching has not yet been described in the context of vagus nerve stimulation. Materials and Methods Branching of the cervical vagus nerve was investigated macroscopically in 35 body donors (66 cervical sides) in the carotid sheath. After X-ray imaging for determining the vertebral levels of cervical vagus nerve branching, samples were removed to confirm histologically the nerve and to calculate cervical vagus nerve diameters and cross-sections. Results Cervical vagus nerve branching was observed in 29% of all cases (26% unilaterally, 3% bilaterally) and proven histologically in all cases. Right-sided branching (22%) was more common than left-sided branching (12%) and occurred on the level of the fourth and fifth vertebra on the left and on the level of the second to fifth vertebra on the right side. Vagus nerves without branching were significantly larger than vagus nerves with branches, concerning their diameters (4.79 mm vs. 3.78 mm) and cross-sections (7.24 mm2 vs. 5.28 mm2). Discussion Cervical vagus nerve branching is considerably more frequent than described previously. The side-dependent differences of vagus nerve branching may be linked to the asymmetric effects of the vagus nerve. Cervical vagus nerve branching should be taken into account when identifying main trunk of the vagus nerve for implanting electrodes to minimize potential side effects or lacking therapeutic benefits of vagus nerve stimulation. PMID:25679804

  6. Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths

    PubMed Central

    Reumer, Jelle W.F.; ten Broek, Clara M.A.

    2014-01-01

    The number of cervical vertebrae in mammals is highly conserved at seven. We have shown that changes of this number are selected against due to a coupling with major congenital abnormalities (pleiotropic effects). Here we show that the incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in Late Pleistocene mammoths from the North Sea is high (33.3%) and approximately 10 times higher than that of extant elephants (3.6%). Abnormal numbers were due to the presence of large cervical ribs on the seventh vertebra, which we deduced from the presence of rib articulation facets on sixth (posterior side) and seventh (anterior side) cervical vertebrae. The incidence of abnormal cervical vertebral numbers in mammoths appears to be much higher than in other mammalian species, apart from exceptional sloths, manatees and dugongs and indicates a vulnerable condition. We argue that the increased incidence of cervical ribs in mammoths is probably caused by inbreeding and adverse conditions that impact early pregnancies in declining populations close to extinction in the Late Pleistocene. PMID:24711969

  7. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Inside Knowledge: Get the Facts About Gynecologic Cancer campaign. The ... the facts about gynecologic cancer, providing important “inside knowledge” about their bodies and health. What is cervical ...

  8. Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and chlamydia. HPV is the virus that can cause genital warts. It seems to be very closely connected with these changes. Risk factors for cervical cancer Starting to have sex early (before age 18) ...

  9. Finite element modeling of the cervical spine: role of intervertebral disc under axial and eccentric loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srirangam Kumaresan; Narayan Yoganandan; Frank A Pintar; Dennis J Maiman

    1999-01-01

    An anatomically accurate, three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element model of the human cervical spine was developed using computed tomography images and cryomicrotome sections. The detailed model included the cortical bone, cancellous core, endplate, lamina, pedicle, transverse processes and spinous processes of the vertebrae; the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral discs; the uncovertebral joints; the articular cartilage, the synovial

  10. Cervical neurofibromatosis with quadriparesis: Management by fibular strut graft

    PubMed Central

    Laohacharoensombat, Wichien; Wajanavisit, Wiwat; Woratanarat, Patarawan

    2010-01-01

    This is a case report of an eight-year old boy with neurofibromatosis and a 120° dystrophic kyphosis of the cervical spine. He presented with progressive quadriparesis caused by spondyloptosis of the C2/C3, and was successfully treated by skull traction and one-stage anterior fibular strut graft lying between the tubercle of the atlas through the C2 body slot and lower vertebrae. At seven years follow-up there was, loosening of lower vertebral screws which allowed growth and residual mobility of lower vertebral joints while the fusion of upper cervical spines was still solid. PMID:20165684

  11. An unusual case of high cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Velnar, Tomaz; Smrkolj, Vladimir; Cerovic, Ognjen; Pecaric Meglic, Nuska; Tauscher, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Isolated spinal cord injuries can rarely be found in patients with no traumatic radiological abnormalities of the spine. Stenoses of the medullary canal and degeneration of cervical spine are the predisposing factors. A case report of a 68-year-old patient is described, who developed quadriplegia with cardiac arrest due to isolated cervical spinal cord injury while jumping on a trampoline. Compressions of the spinal cord with intramedullary and epidural haemorrhage between vertebrae C3 and C6 were observed with no traumatic radiological abnormalities of the spine skeleton. PMID:20602295

  12. Cervical Intervertebral Disc Protrusion in Two Horses

    PubMed Central

    Foss, R. R.; Genetzky, R. M.; Riedesel, E. A.; Graham, C.

    1983-01-01

    Two horses with ataxia of all four limbs were found to have cervical intervertebral disc protrusion. Severe pelvic limb ataxia, proprioceptive deficits and spasticity were present in both horses with similar but less severe signs in the thoracic limbs. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was within normal limits. Metrizamide myelography allowed definitive diagnosis in one case when a compression of the spinal cord was demonstrated at the level of the second intervertebral space. In the second case, an intervertebral disc protrusion between cervical vertebrae 6 and 7 was found at necropsy. Fiber degeneration with poor myelin staining characterized the spinal cords histologically. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2a.Figure 2b.Figure 3. PMID:17422269

  13. Morphometric Analysis of Axis and Its Clinical Significance -An Anatomical Study of Indian Human Axis Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Prabhat; Ansari, Mohd Salahuddin; Ravi, K.S.; Khare, Satyam

    2015-01-01

    Background The atlas and axis vertebra have unique shape and complex relationship with vertebral artery. Fracture of dens of axis accounts for 7-27% of all cervical spine fractures, but surgeries in these regions are highly risky because of the reported incidences of vertebral artery injury. Aim and Objectives The study was designed to measure morphometric data of human axis vertebra, of Indian origin. The different anatomical parameters on dry specimen of human axis vertebrae were established and the results were compared with other studies. Materials and Methods Thirty intact human axis vertebrae were measured with digital vernier caliper and mini-inclinometer. Various linear and angular parameters of axis were observed. Results The mean distance from the midline of body to the tip of transverse process of axis was 29.32 mm on right side and 29.06mm on left side. The mean distance from the midline of body to the lateral most edge of superior articulating facet was 22.8 mm on right side and 22.6 mm on left side. The mean value of anterior and posterior height of axis was 34.33±2.69mm and 30.56±2.78mm respectively. The anterior and posterior height of body of axis was 19.67 mm and 16.67mm respectively. Mean A-P and transverse diameter of inferior surface of axis was 15.42mm and 17.7mm respectively. Mean transverse diameter and mean A-P diameter of odontoid process was 9.32 mm and 10.1 mm respectively. Mean anterior and posterior height of the odontoid process was 14.66 mm and 13.89mm respectively. Mean of dens axis sagittal angle (angle between an axis that was imagined to pass longitudinally through the dens axis and the vertical line on a sagittal plane) was 13.23 degree. The shape of superior articulating facets of C2 varies from oval to circular. In the present study, 84% of SAF were oval and 16% were circular. Inferior articulating facets were circular in shape in 90% cases, and oval in 10% vertebra. Mean pedicle width was 10.07mm on right side and 10.52mm on left side. Mean transverse diameter of vertebral canal was 22.37±1.73mm. Mean of A-P diameter of vertebral canal at inlet was 18.31±2.05mm and mean of A-P diameter of vertebral canal at outlet was 14.84±1.63mm. Conclusion These results obtained from this study may be helpful for the surgeons in avoiding and minimizing complications such as vertebral artery injury, cranial nerve damage and injury to other vital structures while doing surgery around cranio-vertebral region.

  14. Main parameters of the mechanical properties of human vertebrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Anikin; A. S. Obysov

    1979-01-01

    In our experiments the correlation coefficient between the tensile strength parameter and the mobility of the vertebrae was found to be equal to 0.92. From a biomechanical standpoint, the support for the human spine is a part of the sacral region where the center of gravity of the body is located, in the same way as the support for the

  15. Vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jantien J. Boomgaard; Karin S. Dekker; Elsabet van Rensburg; Corlia van den Berg; Illse Niemand; Roosmarie H. Bam; Hendrik S. Cronjé

    1999-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the possible association among vaginitis, cervicitis, and cervical length in pregnancy. Study Design: Primigravid volunteers, between 20 and 36 weeks’ gestation (n = 210), were examined. Vaginitis was diagnosed by pH determination and wet mount smear, cervicitis was diagnosed by cervicography, and cervical length was diagnosed by vaginal ultrasonographic measurement. Patients with both vaginitis and

  16. Vertebrae in Compression: Mechanical Behavior of Arches and Centra in the Gray Smooth-Hound Shark

    E-print Network

    Long Jr., John H.

    Vertebrae in Compression: Mechanical Behavior of Arches and Centra in the Gray Smooth-Hound Shark, Poughkeepsie, New York 12604 ABSTRACT In swimming sharks, vertebrae are sub- jected, in part, to compressive cartilages in compression, to determine the ma- terial properties of shark vertebrae, and to document

  17. Cervical laminoplasty for cervical myeloradiculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Ozuna; Rick B. Delamarter

    1996-01-01

    The role for treatment of conditions resulting in cervical spondylotic myeloradiculopathy through posterior approaches is discussed. The indications and advantages of a posterior approach andin particular laminoplasty are reviewed. Various techniques of laminoplasty are presented. The senior author's technique and series in expansive open door laminoplasty is also reviewed. The series was a prospective study performed to evaluate the clinical

  18. Dropped Shoulder Syndrome: A Cause of Lower Cervical Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cervical radiculopathy is a pathological process involving a nerve root of the cervical spine. The most common causes of radiculopathy are cervical disc herniation followed by cervical spondylosis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dropped shoulder as a cause of lower cervical radiculopathy. Methods In total, 132 patients, comprising 105 women (79.5%) and 27 men (20.5%; female : male ratio of 4 : 1) and a mean age of 36.7 years (range 18-58 years), were included in this study. All of the patients presented with shoulder pain, and were investigated by cervical X-ray, cervical magnetic resonance imaging, serum muscle enzymes, and electromyography (EMG)/nerve-conduction studies. Results Ninety six patients (72.7%) exhibited visually detectable dropped shoulder. The lateral view X-ray of the cervical region revealed eight or more vertebrae. In 119 patients (90.2%), the EMG revealed a mild-to-moderate or moderate denervation patterns in the abductor digiti minimi, first dorsal interosseous, and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles, while the abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis, and triceps brachii were denervated in 102 patients (77.3%). All of the patients had lower cervical paraspinal muscles with a denervation pattern. Conclusions Three criteria for diagnosing dropped shoulder syndrome have been suggested: pain with consistent anatomical distribution, X-ray abnormalities, and EMG abnormalities. Compression of the cervical roots by muscle spasm has been proposed as the cause of dropped shoulder syndrome; this possibility is discussed herein. PMID:21779296

  19. The methodology of locating painful responsible vertebrae in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Liu, Hao; Yang, Peng; Yang, Huilin

    2015-01-01

    For vertebroplasty, it is necessary to determine certain vertebrae which should be primarily treated in multilevel osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). The case presents that a 63-year-old female patient suffering from back pain, has received vertebroplasty four times to achieve pain relief, including total fourteen vertebrae. Retrospectively, it is choosing improper vertebrae to be treated that fails to relieve pain repeatedly. We come up with the term of painful responsible vertebrae which cause back pain in OVCFs, and illustrate clinical evidence of imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, to locate painful responsible vertebrae preoperatively.

  20. Slit fracture through two adjacent cervical vertebrae: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Tracy L; Leclercq, Toussaint A; Chirico, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 15 year old male who presented complaining of neck pain and upper extremity radicular symptoms one day post trampoline trauma. He was diagnosed with a nondisplaced vertical or "slit fracture" at C5 and C6. It is believed that the mechanism of injury, trampoline trauma, allowed this unusual fracture. A review of the literature provides some insight regarding speed of force and fracture displacement that may have relevance in this particular case. A review of the literature failed to find a previous report of such an event PMID:20088307

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRANIAL AND MANDIBULAR GROWTH AND THE STAGES OF MATURATION OF THE CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    PubMed Central

    Damian, Melissa Feres; Cechinato, Fernando; Molina, Rafael Dagnese; Woitchunas, Fábio Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Quantification of the expectation of craniofacial growth during the pubertal growth spurt (PGS) is helpful in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Thus, this study investigated whether the stages of the vertebral maturation index (VMI) would be valid for estimating cranial and mandibular growth during the initial stages of PGS, testing the null hypothesis that these structures do not demonstrate differential growth dependent on the maturation stage. A study population of 45 patients of both genders with 2 lateral cephalometric radiographs, taken at a 12-month interval, was selected from files. All patients should not have been previously submitted to orthodontic treatment and should be before or during the peak stage of PGS. The S-N and Co-Gn cephalometric measurements were traced on both radiographs of each patient, by computed cephalometric tracings, for evaluation of skull and mandible, respectively. The growth of these structures was established by the difference between the measurements obtained on both tracings. The VMI stage was also estimated on the radiographs, determining the position of patients on the PGS curve at two periods, baseline and after 12 months. Cephalometric tracings and VMI estimates were performed by two calibrated examiners. Descriptive statistics revealed that both cephalometric measurements increased during the study period, especially Co-Gn, which demonstrated (ANOVA and Tukey's test; 5% significance level), a statistically significant peak of development (p = 0.001), when the patient was in the VMI stage representing the PGS peak. It was concluded that the VMI stages were valid for the analysis of cranial growth and especially of mandibular growth at the initial stages of PGS, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. PMID:19089113

  2. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... scan – cervical spine; Computed tomography scan – cervical spine; CT scan - cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Once you are inside the scanner, the ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA View/Download: Small: 612x612 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  4. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVB View/Download: Small: 594x640 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical Cancer Stage IA View/Download: Small: 720x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical cancer; drawing shows a cross-section of the ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Pictures Browse Search Quick Search Image Details Cervical Cancer Stage IVA View/Download: Small: 756x576 View Download Add to My Pictures Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  7. Cervical dysplasia - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. It is a cancer of the ... smear is the screening procedure used to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in ...

  8. Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae and its prevalence in the Australian population.

    PubMed

    French, Heath D; Somasundaram, Arjuna J; Schaefer, Nathan R; Laherty, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Study Design?Retrospective cohort study. Objective?Lumbosacral transitional vertebrae (LSTV) are a common congenital anomaly, and they can be accurately identified on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs of the lumbosacral spine. This study attempts to determine the prevalence of this congenital anomaly and to increase awareness among all clinicians to reduce the risk of surgical and procedural errors in patients with LSTV. Methods?A retrospective review of 5,941 AP and lateral lumbar radiographs was performed. Transitional vertebrae were identified and categorized under the Castellvi classification. Results?The prevalence of LSTV in the study population was 9.9%. Lumbarized S1 and sacralized L5 were seen in 5.8 and 4.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusion?LSTV are a common normal variant and can be a factor in spinal surgery at incorrect levels. It is essential that all clinicians are aware of this common congenital anomaly. PMID:25396103

  9. Giant-cell reparative granuloma of the thoracic vertebra.

    PubMed

    Inoue, H; Tsuneyoshi, M; Enjoji, M; Shinohara, N; Yokoyama, K

    1986-05-01

    Giant-cell reparative granuloma occurring in the thoracic vertebra of a 16-year-old girl is presented, and the literature concerning the subject is reviewed. This report is of the second documented case with this essentially rare lesion arising in the vertebra. Microscopically, the lesion was characterized by a reactive granulation tissue with formation of reactive osteoid, collagenization and vascularization, and focal accumulations of giant cells, particularly around hemorrhagic portions. The patient is doing well without further recurrence 38 months after the second therapeutic curettage. The authors describe the clinicopathologic features of this particular case because of its rarity in location, and briefly discuss the difference from other giant-cell lesions of bone mainly in view of differential diagnosis. PMID:3739707

  10. Cervical neoplasia originating from the vagus nerve in a dog.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, C; Hartmann, K; Fischer, A; Hirschberger, J; Hafner, A; Schmidt, P

    2000-03-01

    An eight-year-old intact male Bernese mountain dog was referred with a history of chronic vomiting, coughing and signs of respiratory distress. Other historical findings included lethargy, weight loss and choking. On presentation, clinical findings were Horner's syndrome, ipsilateral laryngeal hemiplegia, coughing, gagging, respiratory distress and vomiting. Lateral cervical radiographs showed ill-defined mineralisation in the soft tissue ventral to the third cervical vertebra, while ultrasonography of the neck revealed a well marginated heterogeneous mass with focal hyperechogenic lesions and acoustic shadowing. Results of an ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate suggested neoplasia. At necropsy, a large tumour was detected in the ventral cervical region, originating from the right vagosympathetic trunk. In view of the infiltrating pattern, the cellular pleomorphism and the numerous mitoses on histopathological examination, the tumour was classified as a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour. PMID:10759381

  11. Minimally Invasive Surgery for Osteoid Osteoma of the Cervical Spine Using Microendoscopic Discectomy System

    PubMed Central

    Yabuki, Shoji; Kikuchi, Shin-Ichi; Konno, Shin-Ichi

    2013-01-01

    We report herein the case of an 18-year-old man who underwent endoscopic resection for an osteoid osteoma in the seventh cervical facet joint. The patient had experienced right neck pain for approximately one year, but no neurological abnormalities were noted. Cervical magnetic resonance imaging suggested an osteoid osteoma in the superior articular process of the seventh cervical vertebra. The tumor was resected microendoscopically. Operative time was 1 hour 29 minutes, and blood loss was 5 mL. During the two years since surgery, the patient has remained pain free with no cervical spine instability. We thus propose microendoscopic surgery for osteoid osteoma developing in a posterior element of the cervical spine is a potentially effective operative procedure. PMID:23741555

  12. Identification of vertebra-like elements and their possible differentiation from sclerotomes in the hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Kinya G.; Fujimoto, Satoko; Oisi, Yasuhiro; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The hagfish, a group of extant jawless fish, are known to lack true vertebrae and, for this reason, have often been excluded from the group Vertebrata. However, it has yet to be conclusively shown whether hagfish lack all vertebra-like structures, and whether their somites follow developmental processes and patterning distinct from those in lampreys and gnathostomes. Here we report the presence of vertebra-like cartilages in the in-shore hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri. These elements arise as small nodules occupying anatomical positions comparable to those of gnathostome vertebrae. Examination of hagfish embryos suggests that the ventromedial portion of a somite transforms into mesenchymal cells that express cognates of Pax1/9 and Twist, strikingly similar to the pattern of sclerotome development in gnathostomes. We conclude that the vertebra-like elements in the hagfish are homologous to gnathostome vertebrae, implying that this animal underwent secondary reduction of vertebrae in most of the trunk. PMID:21712821

  13. Adaptive geodesic transform for segmentation of vertebrae on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Shu, Liao; Hermosillo, Gerardo; Zhan, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral segmentation is a critical first step in any quantitative evaluation of vertebral pathology using CT images. This is especially challenging because bone marrow tissue has the same intensity profile as the muscle surrounding the bone. Thus simple methods such as thresholding or adaptive k-means fail to accurately segment vertebrae. While several other algorithms such as level sets may be used for segmentation any algorithm that is clinically deployable has to work in under a few seconds. To address these dual challenges we present here, a new algorithm based on the geodesic distance transform that is capable of segmenting the spinal vertebrae in under one second. To achieve this we extend the theory of the geodesic distance transforms proposed in1 to incorporate high level anatomical knowledge through adaptive weighting of image gradients. Such knowledge may be provided by the user directly or may be automatically generated by another algorithm. We incorporate information 'learnt' using a previously published machine learning algorithm2 to segment the L1 to L5 vertebrae. While we present a particular application here, the adaptive geodesic transform is a generic concept which can be applied to segmentation of other organs as well.

  14. Cervical spine mobility analysis on radiographs: a fully automatic approach.

    PubMed

    Lecron, Fabian; Benjelloun, Mohammed; Mahmoudi, Saïd

    2012-12-01

    Conventional X-ray radiography remains nowadays the most common method to analyze spinal mobility in two dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a framework dedicated to the fully automatic cervical spine mobility analysis on X-ray images. To this aim, we propose an approach based on three main steps: fully automatic vertebra detection, vertebra segmentation and angular measurement. The accuracy of the method was assessed for a total of 245 vertebræ. For the vertebra detection, we proposed an adapted version of two descriptors, namely Scale-invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded-up Robust Features (SURF), coupled with a multi-class Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. Vertebræ are successfully detected in 89.8% of cases and it is demonstrated that SURF slightly outperforms SIFT. The Active Shape Model approach was considered as a segmentation procedure. We observed that a statistical shape model specific to the vertebral level improves the results. Angular errors of cervical spine mobility are presented. We showed that these errors remain within the inter-operator variability of the reference method. PMID:22981777

  15. Spaceflight effects on biomechanical and biochemical properties of rat vertebrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zernicke, R. F.; Vailas, A. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Kaplansky, A.; Salem, G. J.; Martinez, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The biomechanical and biochemical responses of lumbar vertebral bodies during a 12.5-day spaceflight (Cosmos 1887 biosatellite) were determined for rapidly growing rats (90-day-old, Czechoslovakian-Wistar). By use of age-matched vivarium controls (normal cage environment) and synchronous controls (simulated flight conditions), as well as a basal control group (killed before lift-off on the 1st day of flight), the combined influences of growth and space-flight could be examined. Centra of the sixth lumbar vertebrae (L6) were compressed to 50% strain at a fast strain rate while immersed in physiological buffer (37 degrees C). The body masses of vivarium and synchronous controls were significantly heavier than either the flight or basal controls. The flight group had an L6 vertebral body compressional stiffness that was 39% less than the vivarium controls, 47% less than the synchronous control, and 16% less than the basal controls. In addition, the average initial maximum load of the flight L6 was 22% less than vivarium controls and 18% less than the synchronous controls, whereas the linear compressional load of the flight group averaged 34% less than the vivarium and 25% less than the synchronous groups. The structural properties of the vertebrae from the 12.5-day-younger basal group closely resembled the flight vertebrae. Calcium, phosphorous, and hydroxyproline concentrations were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the lack of strength and stiffness development in spaceflight, coupled with a smaller proportion of mature hydroxypyridinoline cross-links, suggested that the 12.5 days of spaceflight slowed the maturation of trabecular bone in the vertebral bodies of rapidly growing rats.

  16. Cervical orthoses.

    PubMed

    Beavis, A

    1989-04-01

    A biomechanical study is presented to compare the effectiveness of three types of off-the-shelf cervical orthoses and one custom-fit collar in restricting cervical spine motion. A group of 10 normal subjects was studied. The measurements of flexion and extension, lateral side flexion and axial rotation were recorded using various measurement techniques. Interface pressures at the chin and occiput were also measured, along with the warming effect of the collars. The results indicated that all the collars restricted neck movements, for example, the Plastazote collar by 50% of flexion and extension, and that there was no significant difference between off-the-shelf Plastazote and custom-fit collars in restricting movement. Significantly high interface pressures were recorded at the chin, with the subjects wearing the hard and Plastazote orthoses. The warming effect of the soft collar was equal to that of a wool scarf. The study was aimed at improving prescription and although the subjective observations were not validated, the subjects concluded that the custom-fit collars were more comfortable; an important point with such a high rejection rate. PMID:2717386

  17. Segmentation of lumbar vertebrae from clinical CT using active shape models and GVF-snake.

    PubMed

    Al-Helo, Samah; Alomari, Raja' S; Chaudhary, Vipin; Al-Zoubi, M B

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar area of the vertebral column bears the most load of the human body and thus it is responsible for the major portion of lower back pain from which 80% to 90% of people suffer from during their lifetime. Vertebra related diseases are mainly fracture and are usually diagnosed from X-ray radiographs or CT scans depending on the severity of the problem. In this paper, we propose a fully automated lumbar vertebra segmentation that accurately and robustly produces a smooth contour around each of the vertebrae. This segmentation is very useful in any subsequent CAD system for diagnosis and quantification of vertebrae fractures. It also serves the radiologist during the clinical routine. Our method shows an excellent level of vertebra boundary smootheness that was visually approved by our collaborating radiologist for each vertebra and each case from our fifty cases dataset that includes both normal and abnormal cases. PMID:22256205

  18. Intraosseous pneumatocysts of the cervical spine: a report of four cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Husain, Mohammed A; Tetradis, Sotirios; Mallya, Sanjay M

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatocysts are benign, gas-containing lesions, most commonly observed affecting the vertebrae, sacrum, and ileum. Most often, these lesions are asymptomatic and are detected incidentally during imaging examinations. Although once believed to be a rare lesion, recent studies suggest that it is more common than previously thought. We present four cases of pneumatocysts affecting the cervical vertebrae detected as incidental findings on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Given the increased use of CBCT in dentistry to evaluate the maxillofacial structures, it is likely that dentists will encounter this lesion on CBCT scans that encompass the superior cervical spine. Recognition of the pathognomonic features of this benign, innocuous lesion is important to avoid unnecessary investigations and causing alarm to the patient. We also present a comprehensive review of the literature on the demographic characteristics and clinical presentation of this relatively unknown lesion. PMID:25446506

  19. Cervical Vertebral Trabecular Bone Mineral Density in Great Danes With and Without Osseous-Associated Cervical Spondylomyelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J.; da Costa, R.C.; Martin-Vaquero, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Great Danes (GDs) with osseous-associated cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM) have osteoarthritis (OA) of the cervical vertebrae. OA is often associated with increases in bone mineral density (BMD) in people and dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives To compare the trabecular BMD of the cervical vertebrae between clinically normal (control) GDs and GDs with osseous-associated CSM by using computed tomography (CT). We hypothesized that the vertebral trabecular BMD of CSM-affected GDs would be higher than that of control GDs. Animals Client-owned GDs: 12 controls, 10 CSM affected. Methods Prospective study. CT of the cervical vertebral column was obtained alongside a calibration phantom. By placing a circular region of interest at the articular process joints, vertebral body, pedicles, and within each rod of the calibration phantom, trabecular BMD was measured in Hounsfield units, which were converted to diphosphate equivalent densities. Trabecular BMD measurements were compared between CSM-affected and control dogs, and between males and females within the control group. Results Differences between CSM-affected and control dogs were not significant for the articular processes (mean = ?39; P = .37; 95% CI: ?102 to 24), vertebral bodies (mean = ?62; P = .08; 95% CI: ?129 to 6), or pedicles (mean = ?36; P = .51; 95% CI: ?105 to 33). Differences between female and male were not significant. Conclusions and Clinical Importance This study revealed no difference in BMD between control and CSM-affected GDs. Based on our findings no association was detected between cervical OA and BMD in GDs with CSM. PMID:25312453

  20. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer This page lists cancer ... Cervical Cancer Drug Combinations Used in Cervical Cancer Drugs Approved to Prevent Cervical Cancer Cervarix (Recombinant HPV ...

  1. A three-dimensional finite element model of the cervical spine: an investigation of whiplash injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Guo Zhang; Fang Wang; Rui Zhou; Qiang Xue

    2011-01-01

    Very few finite element models of the cervical spine have been developed to investigate internal stress on the soft tissues\\u000a under whiplash loading situation. In the present work, an approach was used to generate a finite element model of the head\\u000a (C0), the vertebrae (C1–T1) and their soft tissues. The global acceleration and displacement, the neck injury criterion (NIC),\\u000a segmental

  2. Three-dimensional assessment of the intervertebral kinematics after Mobi-C total disc replacement at the cervical spine in vivo using the EOS stereoradiography system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc-Antoine Rousseau; Sébastien Laporte; Thierry Dufour; Jean-Paul Steib; Jean-Yves Lazennec; Wafa Skalli

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundBecause 3-dimensional computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the spinal architecture is done with the patient in the supine position, stereoradiography may be more clinically relevant for the measurement of the relative displacements of the cervical vertebrae in vivo in the upright position. The innovative EOS stereoradiography system was used for measuring the relative angular displacements of the

  3. Intervertebral and intravertebral ratios in Doberman pinscher dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Ronaldo C; Johnson, Jacqueline A

    2012-01-01

    No screening method is currently available to differentiate dogs with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy. Intravertebral and intervertebral ratios are used in horses and can predict cervical vertebral malformation. Intervertebral ratios could be a useful screening method for canine cervical spondylomyelopathy. Our purpose was to compare cervical intervertebral and intravertebral ratios in normal vs. affected Doberman pinschers. Forty dogs were studied, 27 affected and 13 normal. Cervical radiographs were obtained in all dogs. The minimum intra- and intervertebral sagittal diameter ratios were established for each cervical vertebrae and disc space from C(2) to C(7) . Comparisons were made between groups and specific vertebral body and disc levels. The effect of gender, age, and method of measurement (analog or digital radiographs) was also studied. There was no difference in either the intervertebral or intravertebral ratio between normal vs. affected dogs. The ratios decreased progressively along the cervical spine, being smallest at C(6) -C(7) and C(7) , respectively. Age, gender, and method of measurement had a significant influence on both inter- and intravertebral ratios, with smaller ratios seen as dogs aged and in male dogs. Based on our results, inter- or intravertebral ratios have no value to distinguish between clinically normal Doberman pinschers and Doberman pinschers with cervical spondylomyelopathy. PMID:22702434

  4. Identification of vertebra-like elements and their possible differentiation from sclerotomes in the hagfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kinya G. Ota; Satoko Fujimoto; Yasuhiro Oisi; Shigeru Kuratani

    2011-01-01

    The hagfish, a group of extant jawless fish, are known to lack true vertebrae and, for this reason, have often been excluded from the group Vertebrata. However, it has yet to be conclusively shown whether hagfish lack all vertebra-like structures, and whether their somites follow developmental processes and patterning distinct from those in lampreys and gnathostomes. Here we report the

  5. A study of vertebra number in pigs confirms the effect of vertnin and reveals additional QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Formation of the vertebral column is a critical developmental stage in mammals that is strictly controlled in most species. The pig is quite unique as considerable variation exists in number of thoracic vertebra as well as number of lumbar vertebra. At least two genes have been identified that affec...

  6. Simulation of the behaviour of the L1 vertebra for different material properties and loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Ibrahim; Truumees, Eeric; van der Meulen, Marjolein C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite element models of the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L2) and isolated L1 vertebra were developed to investigate the role of material properties and loading conditions on vertebral stresses and strains to predict fracture risk. The geometry of the vertebrae was obtained from CT images. The isolated vertebra model included an L1 vertebra loaded through polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates located at the top and bottom of the vertebra, and the segment model included T12 to L2 vertebrae and seven ligaments, fibrous intervertebral discs and facet joints. Each model was examined with both homogeneous and spatially varying bone tissue properties. Stresses and strains were compared for uniform compression and for flexion. Including material heterogeneity remarkably reduced the stiffness of the isolated L1 vertebra, and increased the magnitudes of the minimum principal strains and stresses in the mid-transverse section. The stress and strain distributions further changed when physiological loading was applied to the L1 vertebra. In the segment models, including heterogeneous material properties increased the magnitude of the minimum principal strain by 158% in the centre of the mid-transverse section. Overall, the inclusion of heterogeneity and physiological loading increased magnitude of the strains up to 346% in flexion and 273% in compression. PMID:22149220

  7. Ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride scan: an old sign in a new modality.

    PubMed

    Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Kuzminski, Samuel; James, Olga

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of ivory vertebra on 18F-sodium fluoride. A prostate cancer patient had a 18F-sodium fluoride PET scan to evaluate overall spread of disease. In addition to other findings of metastatic disease, the patient had an ivory vertebra. PMID:24566404

  8. Variations in strength of vertebrae with age and their relation to osteoporosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Bell; Olive Dunbar; J. S. Beck; A. Gibb

    1967-01-01

    Fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae were obtained at post mortem examinations of human subjects in the range 26 to 86 years and at the same time specimens were taken from the iliac crests for histological assessment of trabecular density (iliac crest score). After removal of pedicles and spinous processes the vertebrae were compressed in a testing machine to mechanical failure.

  9. Smoking and Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... been found in cervical mucus. These substances, called carcinogens, may damage the genes in cervical cells. Because ... www.smokefree.gov/ American Cancer ... Lung Association: http://www.ffsonline.org/ Centers for Disease ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes ...

  11. Cervical spondylosis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Cervical spondylosis is a disorder that results from abnormal growth of the bones of the neck and ... Progressive neck pain is a key indication of cervical spondylosis. It may be the only symptom in ...

  12. [Cervical ranula].

    PubMed

    Geurts, T W; van den Akker, H P; Balm, A J

    2004-02-21

    Three patients, 2 men aged 21 and 39 years, respectively, and 1 woman aged 29 years, presented with a unilateral swelling of the neck, with no accompanying symptoms. In the youngest man the diagnosis of a 'plunging ranula' was made after repeated fine needle aspiration yielded viscous yellowish mucus with a high amylase content. In the oldest man the diagnosis was made during the operation and in the woman the diagnosis was finally made after two surgical explorations in the neck. In all 3, no recurrence occurred after removal of the involved salivary glands. A cervical ranula is an extension of a pseudocyst of the glandula sublingualis. Important clues for the diagnosis of a 'plunging ranula' are: the simultaneous presence of a ranula in the floor of the mouth (or a history of one), a characteristic cystic mass in the submandibular space with an extension into the sublingual space on CT and/or MRI, and the aspiration of amylase-containing mucus. Excision of the sublingual gland as the source of salivary leakage is the therapy of choice in a case of 'plunging ranula', with drainage of mucus from the ranula into the oral cavity. As the 'plunging ranula' represents a pseudocyst without an epithelial lining, excision is not indicated. PMID:15032092

  13. Missed upper cervical spine fracture: clinical and radiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Lemire, Joe J

    1997-01-01

    Objective: This report presents a case of missed upper cervical spine fracture following a motor vehicle accident and illustrates various clinical and radiographic considerations necessary in the evaluation of post traumatic cervical spine injuries. Specific clinical signs and symptoms, as well as radiographic clues should prompt the astute clinician to suspect a fracture even when plain film radiographs have been reported as normal. Clinical features: A 44-year-old male was referred for an orthopaedic consultation for assessment of headaches following a high speed head-on motor vehicle accident eleven weeks prior to his presentation. Cervical spine radiographs taken at an emergency ward the day of the collision were reported as essentially normal. Subsequent radiographs taken eleven weeks later revealed a fracture through the body of axis with anterior displacement of atlas. A review of the initial radiographs clearly demonstrated signs suggesting an upper cervical fracture. Intervention and outcome: Initially the patient was prescribed a soft collar which he wore daily until an orthopaedic consultation eleven weeks later. Fifteen weeks following trauma, the patient was considered for surgical intervention, due to persistent headaches associated with the development of neurological signs suggestive of early onset of cervical myelopathy. Conclusion: Cervical spine fractures can have disastrous consequences if not detected early. A thorough clinical and radiological evaluation is essential in any patient presenting with a history of neck or head trauma. Repeated plain film radiographs are imperative in the event of inadequate visualization of the cervical vertebrae. When in doubt, further imaging studies such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are required to rule out a fracture. ImagesFigure 1AFigure 1BFigure 2Figure 3

  14. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  15. Veliparib, Topotecan Hydrochloride, and Filgrastim or Pegfilgrastim in Treating Patients With Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-02

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  16. Morphometric evaluation of subaxial cervical spine using multi-detector computerized tomography (MD-CT) scan: the consideration for cervical pedicle screws fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) insertion is a technically demanding procedure. The quantitative understanding of cervical pedicle morphology, especially the narrowest part of cervical pedicle or isthmus, would minimize the risk of catastrophic damage to surrounding neurovascular structures and improve surgical outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate morphology and quantify cortical thickness of the cervical isthmus by using Multi-detector Computerized Tomography (MD-CT) scan. Methods The cervical CT scans were performed in 74 patients (37 males and 37 females) with 1-mm slice thickness and then retro-reconstructed into sagittal and coronal planes to measure various cervical parameters as follows: outer pedicle width (OPW), inner pedicle width (IPW), outer pedicle height (OPH), inner pedicle height (IPH), pedicle cortical thickness, pedicle sagittal angle (PSA), and pedicle transverse angle (PTA). Results Total numbers of 740 pedicles were measured in this present study. The mean OPW and IPW significantly increased from C3 to C7 while the mean OPH and IPH of those showed non-significant difference between any measured levels. The medial-lateral cortical thickness was significantly smaller than the superior-inferior one. PTA in the upper cervical spine was significantly wider than the lower ones. The PSA changed from upward inclination at upper cervical spine to the downward inclination at lower cervical spine. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that cervical vertebra has relatively small and narrow inner pedicle canal with thick outer pedicle cortex and also shows a variable in pedicle width and inconsistent transverse angle. To enhance the safety of CPS insertion, the entry point and trajectories should be determined individually by using preoperative MD-CT scan and the inner pedicle width should be a key parameter to determine the screw dimensions. PMID:24725394

  17. Intra-operative computer navigation guided cervical pedicle screw insertion in thirty-three complex cervical spine deformities

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, S.; Kanna, P. Rishi Mugesh; Shetty, T. Ajoy Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cervical pedicle screw fixation is challenging due to the small osseous morphometrics and the close proximity of neurovascular elements. Computer navigation has been reported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement. There are very few studies assessing its efficacy in the presence of deformity. Also cervical pedicle screw insertion in children has not been described before. We evaluated the safety and accuracy of Iso-C 3D-navigated pedicle screws in the deformed cervical spine. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients including 15 children formed the study group. One hundred and forty-five cervical pedicle screws were inserted using Iso-C 3D-based computer navigation in patients undergoing cervical spine stabilization for craniovertebral junction anomalies, cervico-thoracic deformities and cervical instabilities due to trauma, post-surgery and degenerative disorders. The accuracy and containment of screw placement was assessed from postoperative computerized tomography scans. Results: One hundred and thirty (89.7%) screws were well contained inside the pedicles. Nine (6.1%) Type A and six (4.2%) Type B pedicle breaches were observed. In 136 levels, the screws were inserted in the classical description of pedicle screw application and in nine deformed vertebra, the screws were inserted in a non-classical fashion, taking purchase of the best bone stock. None of them had a critical breach. No patient had any neurovascular complications. Conclusion: Iso-C navigation improves the safety and accuracy of pedicle screw insertion and is not only successful in achieving secure pedicle fixation but also in identifying the best available bone stock for three-column bone fixation in altered anatomy. The advantages conferred by cervical pedicle screws can be extended to the pediatric population also. PMID:20890413

  18. Vaccines against cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Kathrin U

    2004-11-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the genital tract are a major threat to women's health worldwide. Although the introduction of screening tests to detect cervical cancer and its precursor lesions has reduced overall cervical cancer rates in the developed world, the approach was largely unsuccessful for developing countries, primarily due to a lack of appropriate infrastructures and high costs. Annually, 470,000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed worldwide, of which 80% occur in developing countries. Despite advances in treatment of cervical cancer, approximately half of the women afflicted with the disease will die. Over 20 years of dedicated research has provided conclusive evidence that a subset of human papillomaviruses are the aetiological agents for cervical cancer. Finding a viral origin for this disease provided the basis to fight cervical cancer using prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination. Both vaccine approaches are reviewed here, with an emphasis on recent clinical data. PMID:15500408

  19. Intradiscal Pressure Changes during Manual Cervical Distraction: A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Gudavalli, M. R.; Potluri, T.; Carandang, G.; Havey, R. M.; Voronov, L. I.; Cox, J. M.; Rowell, R. M.; Kruse, R. A.; Joachim, G. C.; Patwardhan, A. G.; Henderson, C. N. R.; Goertz, C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intradiscal pressure (IDP) changes in the lower cervical spine during a manual cervical distraction (MCD) procedure. Incisions were made anteriorly, and pressure transducers were inserted into each nucleus at lower cervical discs. Four skilled doctors of chiropractic (DCs) performed MCD procedure on nine specimens in prone position with contacts at C5 or at C6 vertebrae with the headpiece in different positions. IDP changes, traction forces, and manually applied posterior-to-anterior forces were analyzed using descriptive statistics. IDP decreases were observed during MCD procedure at all lower cervical levels C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7. The mean IDP decreases were as high as 168.7 KPa. Mean traction forces were as high as 119.2 N. Posterior-to-anterior forces applied during manual traction were as high as 82.6 N. Intraclinician reliability for IDP decrease was high for all four DCs. While two DCs had high intraclinician reliability for applied traction force, the other two DCs demonstrated only moderate reliability. IDP decreases were greatest during moving flexion and traction. They were progressevely less pronouced with neutral traction, fixed flexion and traction, and generalized traction. PMID:24023587

  20. Radiotherapy in Ewing tumors of the vertebrae: Treatment results and local relapse analysis of the Chess 81/86 and EICESS 92 trials

    SciTech Connect

    Schuck, Andreas [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: schuck@uni-muenster.de; Ahrens, Susanne [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Schorlemer, Ines von [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Kuhlen, Michaela [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Paulussen, Michael [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Hunold, Andrea [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Gosheger, Georg [Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Winkelmann, Winfried [Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Dunst, Juergen [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Halle, Halle (Germany); Willich, Normann [Department of Radiotherapy, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Juergens, Heribert [Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Treatment results in patients with Ewing tumors of the vertebrae enrolled in the Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (CESS) 81, 86, and the European Intergroup Cooperative Ewing's Sarcoma Study (EICESS) 92 trials were analyzed with special emphasis on radiation-associated factors. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 116 patients with primary tumors of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebrae treated between 1981 and 1999. Furthermore, a relapse analysis was done on those patients who underwent radiotherapy and subsequently had a local recurrence. Results: A total of 64.6% of the patients received definitive radiotherapy; 27.5% of patients had surgery and radiotherapy. Only 4 patients (3.4%) underwent definitive surgery. Twenty-seven patients presented with metastases at diagnosis. 22.4% of the total group developed a local relapse. Among the subgroup with definitive radiotherapy, local recurrence was seen in 17 of 75 patients (22.6%). Event-free survival and survival at 5 years were 47% and 58%, respectively. Of the 14 evaluable patients with a local relapse after radiotherapy, 13 were in-field. No correlation between radiation dose and local control could be found. Conclusion: Surgery with wide resection margins is rarely possible. The results after definitive radiotherapy in vertebral tumors are comparable to those of other tumor sites when definitive radiotherapy is given. Nearly all local relapses after radiotherapy are in-field.

  1. [Preliminary application of the fusion cage of biomimetic n-HA/PA66 composites in anterior cervical intervertebral fusion].

    PubMed

    Ou, Yunsheng; Jiang, Dianming; Quan, Zhengxue; An, Hong; Tang, Ke; Li, Jia; Shen, Changhuan

    2010-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and the safety of the fusion cage made of biomimetic nano-hydroxyapatite and polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composites for the structural reconstruction and the restoration of height of vertebral body in the case of cervical spondylosis by anterior surgical procedures. 52 patients with cervical spondylosis, received the therapy by discectomy with or without vertebrae resection and decompression, and the fusion cage of n-HA/PA66 vertebra implant with bone chip, and titanium plate system was fixed. All cases were followed up for 6 to 25 months. All the patients' preoperative symptoms subsided without any serious complication, and no patient complained of lasting soreness. No effusion or flare was found, and no recurrence happened in the follow-up. The preoperative JOA score was 10.4, and post-operative JOA score 15.7. The X-ray films of all cases demonstrated successful fusion with good curvature and height, and there was no sinking or collapse. The stability was satisfactory; the reconstructive height of vertebra was maintained. No complications such as infection and screw broken came into being. The fusion cage of the biomimetic n-HA/PA66 composites can effectively restore the height and structure of vertebra. It may have the potential for use as a satisfactory prosthestic vertebral body replacement. PMID:20481312

  2. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N; Wisner, Erik R; Prutton, Jamie W; Madigan, John E

    2014-11-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  3. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N.; Wisner, Erik R.; Prutton, Jamie W.; Madigan, John E.

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae. PMID:25392550

  4. Cervical Klippel-Feil syndrome predisposing an elderly African man to central cord myelopathy following minor trauma.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, A Olufemi; Akinyemi, R Olusola

    2010-09-01

    An otherwise-healthy, active 83-year-old Nigerian man developed reversible central cord myelopathy from a mild fall on a level surface. Cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed C5, 6, and 7 block vertebrae and marked disc extrusions only at the immediately adjoining upper and lower non-fused segments of the cervical spine. There was no spinal canal stenosis otherwise. We think that the unique presentation of this case of Klippel-Feil syndrome further supports the impression that following fusion (congenital or acquired) of one segment of the spinal column, hypermobility of the non-fused adjoining segments may strongly predispose to more disc extrusions. PMID:21327144

  5. A new method for the automatic identification of the dimensional features of vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Di Angelo, L; Di Stefano, P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper a new automatic approach to determine the accurate measure of human vertebrae is proposed. The aim is to speed up the measurement process and to reduce the uncertainties that typically affect the measurement carried out by traditional approaches. The proposed method uses a 3D model of the vertebra obtained from CT-scans or 3D scanning, from which some characteristic dimensions are detected. For this purpose, specific rules to identify morphological features, from which to detect dimensional features unambiguously and accurately, are put forward and implemented in original software. The automatic method which is here proposed is verified by analysing real vertebrae and is then compared with the state-of-the-art methods for vertebra measurement. PMID:25985887

  6. Studies on the intraosseous blood circulation and the bone marrow pressure in human lumbar vertebrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Tsuji; T. Tamaki

    1978-01-01

    Studies on the bone blood circulation of the 4th lumbar vertebra in patients with or without spondylosis were carried out using the method of radiation clearance study, intravertebral blood gas analysis, intravertebral pressure measurements and osteovenography.

  7. Get Tested for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Tested for Cervical Cancer Get Tested for Cervical Cancer The Basics Take Action! Ver en español ... tests) and follow-up care can help prevent cervical cancer. You can get a Pap test (sometimes ...

  8. Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

    2011-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is characterized with weakness and wasting of upper limb muscles without sensory or lower\\u000a limb involvement. Two different mechanisms have been proposed in the pathophysiology of cervical spondylotic amyotrophy. One\\u000a is selective damage to the ventral root or the anterior horn, and the other is vascular insufficiency to the anterior horn\\u000a cell. Cervical spondylotic amyotrophy is classified

  9. Lateral mass fixation in subaxial cervical spine: anatomic review.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Elrahmany; Ihab, Zidan; Moaz, Anwar; Ayman, Nabawi; Haitham, Abo-Elw

    2012-03-01

    Introduction?The cervical spine is a highly mobile segment of the spinal column, liable to a variety of diseases and susceptible to trauma. It is a complex region where many vital structures lie in close proximity. Lateral mass screw fixation has become the method of choice in stabilizing subaxial cervical spine among other posterior cervical fixation techniques whenever the posterior elements are absent or compromised. Objective?This study examined cervical specimens of cadavers and cervical computed tomography (CT) scans to minimize as much as possible complications of cervical lateral mass screw placement such as vertebral artery or nerve root injuries, facet joint violations, or inadequate placement. Methods?Forty normal cervical CT scans, obtained from the emergency unit as part of the trauma workup, were included in this study plus 10 cervical cadaveric specimens obtained from the Alexandria Neuro-anatomy laboratory. There were three fixed parameters for screw insertion in this study. First, the point of screw insertion was the midpoint of the lateral mass; it was the crossing point between the sagittal and axial planes of the posterior cortex of the lateral mass. Second, the direction of the screw in the craniocaudal plane was 30 degrees cranially to avoid facet joint penetration. Third, the exit point of the screw was located on the ventral cortex of the lateral mass just lateral to the root of the transverse process in the midaxial cut of each lateral mass, to make a sound bicortical fixation without injuring the vertebral artery or the nerve root. The selected screw trajectory in this study was the line drawn between the inlet and exit points. The depth and width of the lateral mass of the cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 were measured as well as the angle of screw trajectory from the sagittal plane. All these measures were applied on the cadaveric specimens to make sure that no injury to the vertebral artery, nerve root, or facet joint occurred. Results?As regards the collected measurements of the lateral mass of all subaxial cervical vertebrae, the study revealed that the average depth of the lateral mass was 12.83?±?1.28 mm. The average width of the lateral mass was 11.92?±?0.96 mm. The average divergent angle of bicortical screw insertion without injury to the vertebral artery or the nerve root was 19.51?±?1.83 degrees. As regard the cadaveric specimens, based on all the collected measurements taken from the CT scans, there was no reported injury to the vertebral arteries or nerve roots or penetration to the facet joints. Conclusion?Lateral mass fixation can be applied easily and safely for all levels of subaxial cervical spine from C3 to C6 with the following parameters: (1) the point of entry is the midpoint of the lateral mass; (2) the screw trajectory is directed 30 degrees cranially and 20 degrees laterally; (3) the screw length is 13 to 15 mm. PMID:24353945

  10. Bone Lose of the Ancient Mediterranean lumbar vertebrae : Iasos, 6th century ad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaya, Serdar; Solmaz, Ilker; Il?ca, A. Turan; Karaçal?o?lu, Özgür; Damla Y?lmaz, Nalan; Ba?o?lu, Ok?an; K?l?c, Selim; Izci, Yusuf

    Evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) of the ancient peoples has received great interest by anthropologists. The aims of this study are to investigate the lumbar vertebrae of the Iasos people during the Byzantine period, in order to determine the prevalence of bone loss and to interpret dietary conditions of ancient Mediterranean populations. Lumbar vertebrae belonging to twenty eight skeletons of the 6th c AD were analyzed by radiographs and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD values for each biologic sex and age group were compared. The correlation between the BMD and radiological features was also analyzed. The mean BMD was 0.940 g/cm2. BMD was decreased by aging in both sexes, but it was not significant. Osteopenia was found in 11 (39%) and osteoporosis in 4 (14.3%) out 28 vertebrae. The BMD was normal in 13 (46%) out of 28 vertebrae. Osteopenia was present in 7 (38%) of 18 male vertebrae and 4 (40%) of 10 female vertebrae. The spine score was high in the male group and there was a strong positive correlation between the BMD and spine score for both sexes. This study revealed that the BMD decreased by aging and that osteopenia was a problem in both sexes of the Iasos people during the 6th c AD. There was no correlation between the BMD and radiological features for age groups and biological sexes.

  11. Automatic lumbar vertebra segmentation from clinical CT for wedge compression fracture diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subarna; Alomari, Raja'S.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2011-03-01

    Lumbar vertebral fractures vary greatly in types and causes and usually result from severe trauma or pathological conditions such as osteoporosis. Lumbar wedge compression fractures are amongst the most common ones where the vertebra is severely compressed forming a wedge shape and causing pain and pressure on the nerve roots and the spine. Since vertebral segmentation is the first step in any automated diagnosis task, we present a fully automated method for robustly localizing and segmenting the vertebrae for preparation of vertebral fracture diagnosis. Our segmentation method consists of five main steps towards the CAD(Computer-Aided Diagnosis) system: 1) Localization of the intervertebral discs. 2) Localization of the vertebral skeleton. 3) Segmentation of the individual vertebra. 4) Detection of the vertebrae center line and 5) Detection of the vertebrae major boundary points. Our segmentation results are promising with an average error of 1.5mm (modified Hausdorff distance metric) on 50 clinical CT cases i.e. a total of 250 lumbar vertebrae. We also present promising preliminary results for automatic wedge compression fracture diagnosis on 15 cases, 7 of which have one or more vertebral compression fracture, and obtain an accuracy of 97.33%.

  12. Bevacizumab, Radiation Therapy, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-22

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer

  13. [Anterior cervical fusion on the lower cervical spine: own clinical experience].

    PubMed

    Pazdernyik, Szilárd; Sándor, László; Elek, Péter; Barzó, Pál

    2010-01-30

    Both acute and chronic instability of the cervical spine can be succesfully treated by anterior crevical fusion. The main goal is to create a spondylodesis through which the instable motion segments are fixed in the position defined by the surgeon. The spondylodesis is realised by the bone healing of the intervertebral space. The consolidation itself is facilitated by the operative stabilisation of the segments involved, and also by the implantation/transplantation of the osteoproductive/osteoinductive materials. The sooner consolidation is achieved, the more likely it is to be able to avoid the material dependent complications and/or that of dislocation. So as to support this theory a retrospective clinical/radiological study was performed. During this the length and the safety of the consolidation was measured by applying various anterior cervical plating systems. A total of 485 patients having cervical injuries or degenerative disc disease were treated by anterior cervical plating. For bone transplantation partly pure autolog spongious partly autolog cortico-spongious morsalised bone chips, furthermore autolog tricortical bone block were applied. A standard protocoll was used for data collection, evaluation and also follow-up. The patients treated with plate systems were divided into 3 groups: Group 1: Non-locked H-plate system with autogeneous cancellous bone (155 trauma patients, for a total of 210 cervical motion segments, 1.35 segments/patients). Group 2: Non-locked H-plate system with tricortical autograft (167 patients, for a total of 290 cervical motion segments, 1.73 segments/patients). Group 3: Locked cervical plate system with tricortical autograft (73 patients, for a total of 110 cervical motion segments, 1.5 segments/patients). Patients treated with standalone cage belong to group 4. These cages were filled with autogenous cortico-spongiosus bone chips (90 patients, for a total of 90 cervical motion segments, 1.0 segments/patients). Evaluations included postoperative clinical, X-ray and CT examination, and follow-ups at 6, 16, 52, and 104 weeks. We established three grades, and classified the degree of bony fusion between the graft and vertebra: not-yet-fused, fused or non-union. When evaluating the results the following statements/observations were made: a) There is a fast and safe consolidation in the case of those patients that underwent dinamic disc osteosynthesis (p = 0.00001). b) Whereas performing fixation with non-locked or locked screw plate systems and strutgrafted with tricortical autograft created prolonged healing requiring months and developed non-unions more often (non-locked screw-plate system versus locked screw-plate system) (p > 0.05). c) Using locked screw-plate fixation systems non-union rate in our study was 21%, suggesting that this form of fixation has only a limited use. d) In our study complete consolidation without pseudoarthrosis was achieved by using standalone cages filled with autolog cortico-spongiosus bone chips, but bony healing was delayed due to cage coating and the substitution of pure autogenous spongiosa for cortico-spongiosus bone chips. It is recommended to treat acute/chronic instability of the cervical spine both by using non-fixed plate system with autolog cancellosus bone and by standalone cage filled with cortico-spongiosus bone chips as well. It is worth keeping in mind that by applying this lattest an extra surgery to harvest the graft will be avoided. PMID:20420121

  14. Retardation of skeletal development and cervical abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor in chondrogenic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nakamoto, Mika; Honda, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Hirai, Hisamaru; Narumiya, Shuh; Kakizuka, Akira

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal formation is a fundamental element of body patterning and is strictly regulated both temporally and spatially by a variety of molecules. Among these, retinoic acid (RA) has been shown to be involved in normal skeletal development. However, its pleiotropic effects have caused difficulty in identifying its crucial target cells and molecular mechanisms for each effect. Development of cartilage primordia is an important process in defining the skeletal structures. To address the role of RA in skeletal formation, we have generated mice expressing a dominant-negative retinoic acid receptor (RAR) in chondrogenic cells by using the type II collagen ?1 promoter, and we have analyzed their phenotypes. These mice exhibited small cartilage primordia during development and retarded skeletal formation in both embryonic and postnatal periods. They also showed selective degeneration in their cervical vertebrae combined with homeotic transformations, but not in their extremities. The cervical phenotypes are reminiscent of phenotypes involving homeobox genes. We found that the expression of Hoxa-4 was indeed reduced in the cartilage primordia of cervical vertebrae of embryonic day 12.5 embryos. These observations demonstrate that endogenous RA acts directly on chondrogenic cells to promote skeletal growth in both embryonic and growing periods, and it regulates the proper formation of cervical vertebrae. Furthermore, RA apparently specifies the identities of the cervical vertebrae through the regulation of homeobox genes in the chondrogenic cells. Great similarities of the phenotypes between our mice and reported RAR knockout mice revealed that chondrogenic cells are a principal RA target during complex cascades of skeletal development. PMID:9636177

  15. Changes in Bone Density after Cancer Treatment in Patients with Cervical and Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Lim; Yoon, Man Soo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ari; Kim, Min Joung; Lee, Ji Young; Song, Yong Jung; Ji, Yong Il; Kim, Ki Hyung; Chun, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cancer treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine (LS) and femur in the postmenopausal women with cervical or endometrial cancer without bone metastasis compared to normal control postmenopausal women. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the BMD data in the LS, femur neck (FN) and trochanter (FT) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and laboratory data of bone turnover markers at baseline and after one year in 130 patients with cervical cancer, 68 patients with endometrial cancer, and 225 healthy controls. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the T-scores of basal BMD in LS and femur between patients with endometrial cancer and controls, and only T-score of basal BMD at the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4) was significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer compared to controls. One year later, T-scores of BMD at all LS sites and FN in patients with cervical cancer and T-scores of BMD at L3, L4, FN, and FT in those with endometrial cancer after cancer treatment were significantly lower compared to controls. Lower proportions of normal BMD at all skeletal sites except L2 in patients with endometrial cancer and those at L1, L4, and FN in patients with cervical cancer were observed compared to controls after cancer treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cancer treatment increase bone loss in postmenopausal women with cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:25553092

  16. Cervical Discitis in Children.

    PubMed

    Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak

    2015-07-01

    Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786

  17. Reassessment of spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias age and growth using vertebrae and dorsal-fin spines.

    PubMed

    Bubley, W J; Kneebone, J; Sulikowski, J A; Tsang, P C W

    2012-04-01

    Male and female spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias were collected in the western North Atlantic Ocean in the Gulf of Maine between July 2006 and June 2009. Squalus acanthias ranged from 25 to 102 cm stretch total length and were caught during all months of the year except January. Age estimates derived from banding patterns visible in both the vertebrae and second dorsal-fin spines were compared. Vertebral growth increments were visualized using a modified histological staining technique, which was verified as appropriate for obtaining age estimates. Marginal increment analysis of vertebrae verified the increment periodicity, suggesting annual band deposition. Based on increased precision and accuracy of age estimates, as well as more biologically realistic parameters generated in growth models, the current study found that vertebrae provided a more reliable and accurate means of estimating age in S. acanthias than the second dorsal-fin spine. Age estimates obtained from vertebrae ranged from <1 year-old to 17 years for male and 24 years for female S. acanthias. The two-parameter von Bertalanffy growth model fit to vertebrae-derived age estimates produced parameters of L? = 94·23 cm and k = 0·11 for males and L? = 100·76 cm and k = 0·12 for females. While these growth parameters differed from those previously reported for S. acanthias in the western North Atlantic Ocean, the causes of such differences were beyond the scope of the current study and remain to be determined. PMID:22497385

  18. Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy and Laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. O’Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

    \\u000a Posterior decompressive procedures are fundamental tools in the surgical treatment of symptomatic cervical degenerative spine\\u000a disease [1–4]. Even as anterior cervical procedures have gained prominence, posterior cervical laminoforaminotomy still provides\\u000a symptomatic relief in 92–97% of patients with radiculopathy from foraminal stenosis or lateral herniated discs [3, 5]. Similarly,\\u000a posterior cervical decompression for cervical stenosis achieves neurological improvement in 62.5–83% of

  19. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-05

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. [Cervical cerclage in 2008].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Senat, M-V; Gervaise, A; Deffieux, X; Faivre, E; Frydman, R; Fernandez, H

    2008-11-01

    Cervical cerclage is a common surgical technique that has been used for more than 50 years to prevent preterm deliveries and in the management of a threatened second trimester loss. However, it remains one of the most controversial interventions in obstetrics and this is probably due to difficulties in diagnosing cervical insufficiency, which is based on a history of recurrent second trimester loss or early preterm delivery following painless cervical dilatation in the absence of contractions or bleeding. This article reviews in 2008 the current literature regarding the efficacy of elective cerclage, ultrasound-indicated cerclage, emergency cerclage, and cervico-isthmic cerclage for singletons and multiple pregnancies. PMID:18922730

  1. [Adjustable thoracic-lumbar vertebrae fixation and traction brace: development and clinical usage].

    PubMed

    Zhao, W R

    1992-12-01

    We developed an adjustable traction and fixation brace for thoracolumbar vertebrae, which is made from heat-sensitive plastics and consisted of four pieces of oppositely directed bolts serving as the elevation dropping system. The brace has strong anti-bending strength and draught force. With which, every direction of movement of the spinal column can be restrained effectively and the vertical pressure on the diseased vertebrae can be eased. The biomechanical effect of this brace is in accordance with the demand of spinal cord biomechanics. It can be used at 1-2 weeks after injury. It can be used in patients with thoracic-lumbar fracture, tumour and tuberculosis after operation. The efficacy rate of 98% was achieved in 102 patients. 31 patients with injured thoracic-lumbar vertebrae could walk and squat down without any pain and complication, and the deformity was corrected or alleviated. PMID:1339745

  2. Cephalometric Investigation of First Cervical Vertebrae Morphology and Hyoid Position in Young Adults with Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Gündüz Arslan, Seher; Dilde?, Neval; Devecioglu Kama, Jalen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to examine hyoid bone position and C1 (atlas) morphology in males and females and analyze these parameters with respect to different sagittal skeletal patterns via cephalometry, with the goal of identifying cephalometric norms. Lateral cephalometric radiographs from 120 individuals (average age: 21.1?±?2.9 years) were classified according to their ANB angle (Class I, II, or III) and used to assess 14 parameters. Class I and II patients showed significant differences in Hy-NSL, Hy-PD, Hy-CVT, Lum, and a-p measurements. These parameters were consistently larger in males than in females. Intergroup comparisons among males showed significant differences in the SNA, ANB, Hy-CVT, X, and Z measurements. The hyoid was positioned more inferiorly and anteriorly and was more prominent in males than in females in all groups. Among participants exhibiting a Class I skeletal pattern, C1 was also larger in the anterior-posterior direction in males than in females. In the sagittal plane, the hyoid was positioned similarly in males with either Class I or III skeletal patterns but was positioned posteriorly in males with a Class II skeletal pattern. In addition, the vertical position of C1 varied with sagittal skeletal pattern in males. PMID:25152900

  3. The demands of professional opera singing on cranio-cervical posture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Gillian; Skinner, Margot

    2009-04-01

    Difficulty with singing is a rare but important complication following cervical spine surgery but there is little objective information regarding the cervical and head postural changes taking place during singing. The aim of this study was to identify postural changes in the cranio-cervical region associated with the demands of voice production in professional opera singing. The two Roentgen-cephalograms, one of which are taken whilst performing a specified singing task were taken from 18 professional opera students, 12 females (mean age 20.86 +/- 3.07 years) and six males (18.66 +/- 1.36 years). A paired t test compared mean cranio-cervical postural and pharyngeal/hyoid variables between the two registrations (P = 0.05). The association between the cranio-cervical postural variables and the pharyngeal/hyoid region in each registration position was examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. In singing, the position of the atlas with respect to the true vertical (P < 0.001), the axis (P < 0.001) and the C4 vertebra both with respect to the horizontal (P < 0.001), and the axis with respect to the cranium (P < 0.001), were all significantly different to those at rest. Of the cranio-cervical postural variables in the singing registration, the angles measuring positional change of the atlas and C4 relative to the true horizontal were shown be significantly related to an increased pharyngeal airway space at the C3 level (P < 0.01). An appreciation of the requirement for the cervical spine to undergo postural change during professional opera singing has relevance to the potential impact on voice quality in professional opera singers should they undergo cervical spine surgery. PMID:19165506

  4. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  5. Cervical Cancer Other Characteristics

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer (Archived Tables): Home Other

  6. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 17 PM You are here: Home Recommendations for Primary Care Practice Published Recommendations Recommendation Summary Cervical Cancer: Screening ... are one-page documents that provide guidance to primary care clinicians for using recommendations in practice. This summary ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing shows cancer in the cervix, the vagina, and ... that connect the kidneys to the bladder). The drawing shows the ureter on the right blocked by ...

  8. Giant Ventral Midline Schwannoma of Cervical Spine : Agonies and Nuances

    PubMed Central

    Chagla, Aadil; Goel, Atul

    2010-01-01

    Pure ventral midline giant schwannoma is an extremely rare entity. Spinal intradural extramedullary schwannomas commonly occur posterolateral or anterolateral to the spinal cord. A case of a pure midline ventrally situated giant pan cervical extramedullary schwannoma in an 18-year-old male patient with compressive myelopathy and sphincter involvement is presented. Spinal MR imaging showed a midline ventrally situated extramedullary tumor with severe spinal cord compression extending from clivus to C7 vertebra. It was resected through a posterolateral approach. Histology was consistent with a schwannoma. Post operative MR imaging showed no evidence of the tumor. The radiological features, pathogenesis and surgical strategies in management of these difficult tumors are discussed and the relevant literature is briefly reviewed. PMID:20617092

  9. Late migration of threaded wire (schanz screw) from right distal clavicle to the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hsu, Horng-Chaung; Huan, Chun-Yin; Chen, Hsien-Te; Fong, Yi-Chin

    2009-01-01

    We report a 49-year-old man who had undergone osteosynthesis to treat right distal clavicular fracture with a threaded wire (Schanz screw). The wire could not be removed due to its firm fixation within the bone. Eight years later, migration of the broken wire to the right 7th cervical vertebra punctured the lamina, with no spinal cord injury noted. The threaded wire was extracted from the C7 lamina emergently. No complication occurred after pin removal or during the 1-year postoperative follow-up. PMID:19181599

  10. Revised vertebral count in the "longest-necked vertebrate" Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and clarification of the cervical-dorsal transition in Plesiosauria.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Sven; Kear, Benjamin P; Everhart, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a "lost" cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term "pectorals" to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length). This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the "longest necked" animals ever to have lived. PMID:23940656

  11. Revised Vertebral Count in the “Longest-Necked Vertebrate” Elasmosaurus platyurus Cope 1868, and Clarification of the Cervical-Dorsal Transition in Plesiosauria

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Sven; Kear, Benjamin P.; Everhart, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians are renowned for their immensely long necks, and indeed, possessed the highest number of cervical vertebrae for any known vertebrate. Historically, the largest count has been attributed to the iconic Elasmosaurus platyurus from the Late Cretaceous of Kansas, but estimates for the total neck series in this taxon have varied between published reports. Accurately determining the number of vertebral centra vis-à-vis the maximum length of the neck in plesiosaurians has significant implications for phylogenetic character designations, as well as the inconsistent terminology applied to some osteological structures. With these issues in mind, we reassessed the holotype of E. platyurus as a model for standardizing the debated cervical-dorsal transition in plesiosaurians, and during this procedure, documented a “lost” cervical centrum. Our revision also advocates retention of the term “pectorals” to describe the usually three or more distinctive vertebrae close to the cranial margin of the forelimb girdle that bear a functional rib facet transected by the neurocentral suture, and thus conjointly formed by both the parapophysis on the centrum body and diapophysis from the neural arch (irrespective of rib length). This morphology is unambiguously distinguishable from standard cervicals, in which the functional rib facet is borne exclusively on the centrum, and dorsals in which the rib articulation is situated above the neurocentral suture and functionally borne only by the transverse process of the neural arch. Given these easily distinguishable definitions, the maximum number of neck vertebrae preserved in E. platyurus is 72; this is only three vertebrae shorter than the recently described Albertonectes, which together with E. platyurus constitute the “longest necked” animals ever to have lived. PMID:23940656

  12. Radiation Therapy Plus Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  13. Anatomical transformation in mammals: developmental origin of aberrant cervical anatomy in tree sloths.

    PubMed

    Buchholtz, Emily A; Stepien, Courtney C

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian cervical count has been fixed at seven for more than 200 million years. The rare exceptions to this evolutionary constraint have intrigued anatomists since the time of Cuvier, but the developmental processes that generate them are unknown. Here we evaluate competing hypotheses for the evolutionary origin of cervical variants in Bradypus and Choloepus, tree sloths that have broken the seven cervical vertebrae barrier independently and in opposite directions. Transitional and mediolaterally disjunct anatomy characterizes the cervicothoracic vertebral boundary in each genus, although polarities are reversed. The thoracolumbar, lumbosacral, and sacrocaudal boundaries are also disrupted, and are more extreme in individuals with more extreme cervical counts. Hypotheses of homologous, homeotic, meristic, or associational transformations of traditional vertebral column anatomy are not supported by these data. We identify global homeotic repatterning of abaxial relative to primaxial mesodermal derivatives as the origin of the anomalous cervical counts of tree sloths. This interpretation emphasizes the strong resistance of the "rule of seven" to evolutionary change, as morphological stasis has been maintained primaxially coincident with the generation of a functionally longer (Bradypus) or shorter (Choloepus) neck. PMID:19196334

  14. Effects of Lateral Mass Screw Rod Fixation to the Stability of Cervical Spine after Laminectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Ruwaida; Kashani, Jamal; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul

    There are many cases of injury in the cervical spine due to degenerative disorder, trauma or instability. This condition may produce pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve coming from the spine. The aim of this study was, to analyze the stabilization of the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy via computational simulation. For that purpose, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for the multilevel cervical spine segment (C1-C7) was developed using computed tomography (CT) data. There are various decompression techniques that can be applied to overcome the injury. Usually, decompression procedures will create an unstable spine. Therefore, in these situations, the spine is often surgically restabilized by using fusion and instrumentation. In this study, a lateral mass screw-rod fixation was created to stabilize the cervical spine after laminectomy. Material properties of the titanium alloy were assigned on the implants. The requirements moments and boundary conditions were applied on simulated implanted bone. Result showed that the bone without implant has a higher flexion and extension angle in comparison to the bone with implant under applied 1Nm moment. The bone without implant has maximum stress distribution at the vertebrae and ligaments. However, the bone with implant has maximum stress distribution at the screws and rods. Overall, the lateral mass screw-rod fixation provides stability to the cervical spine after undergoing laminectomy.

  15. The Determination of Age and Rate of Growth from Vertebrae of the Channel Catfish, Ictalurus Lacustris Punctatus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Appelget; Lloyd L. Smith Jr

    1951-01-01

    Age and rate-of-growth calculations were made from the fifth vertebrae of 535 channel catfish (Ictalurus lacustris punctatus) taken from Pool 9 of the upper Mississippi River at Lansing, Iowa. Vertebrae were collected during the summers of 1945 and 1946 and examined with the aid of a standard scale projector. They were prepared by removal of adhering material with a solution

  16. Traumatic fracture through the neurocentral synchondroses of L3 vertebra in a 5-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Gali; Militianu, Daniela

    2015-10-01

    Neurocentral synchondroses (NCS) are growth plates that contribute to the transverse growth of the vertebra. Fractures through these NCS are very rare and none have been reported in the lumbar spine. We present a rare case of a traumatic fracture through the neurocentral synchondroses of L3 vertebra in a 5-year-old child. PMID:25975183

  17. Testing an inference of function from structure: Snake vertebrae do the twist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad R. Moon

    1999-01-01

    The zygapophyses and zygosphene-zygantrum articulations of snake vertebrae are hypothesized to restrict or eliminate vertebral torsion. This hypothesis is apparently based solely on the inference of function from structure, despite the limitations of such inferences, as well as contradictory observations and measurements. In this study, I observed and measured axial torsion in gopher snakes, Pituophis melanoleucus. To examine the structural

  18. Compressive strength of elderly vertebrae is reduced by disc degeneration and additional flexion.

    PubMed

    Maquer, Ghislain; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Huber, Gerd; Morlock, Michael M; Zysset, Philippe K

    2015-02-01

    Computer tomography (CT)-based finite element (FE) models assess vertebral strength better than dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Osteoporotic vertebrae are usually loaded via degenerated intervertebral discs (IVD) and potentially at higher risk under forward bending, but the influences of the IVD and loading conditions are generally overlooked. Accordingly, magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 14 lumbar discs to generate FE models for the healthiest and most degenerated specimens. Compression, torsion, bending, flexion and extension conducted experimentally were used to calibrate both models. They were combined with CT-based FE models of 12 lumbar vertebral bodies to evaluate the effect of disc degeneration compared to a loading via endplates embedded in a stiff resin, the usual experimental paradigm. Compression and lifting were simulated, load and damage pattern were evaluated at failure. Adding flexion to the compression (lifting) and higher disc degeneration reduces the failure load (8-14%, 5-7%) and increases damage in the vertebrae. Under both loading scenarios, decreasing the disc height slightly increases the failure load; embedding and degenerated IVD provides respectively the highest and lowest failure load. Embedded vertebrae are more brittle, but failure loads induced via IVDs correlate highly with vertebral strength. In conclusion, osteoporotic vertebrae with degenerated IVDs are consistently weaker-especially under lifting, but clinical assessment of their strength is possible via FE analysis without extensive disc modelling, by extrapolating measures from the embedded situation. PMID:25460926

  19. Efficacy analysis of pedicle screw internal fixation of fractured vertebrae in the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijie; Luo, Tao

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the method and effect of posterior internal fixation of thoracolumbar fractures strengthened by the vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of fractured vertebrae. Patients with single thoracolumbar fractures were examined retrospectively. Fourteen patients (group A) had been treated with vertical stress pedicle screw fixation of a fractured vertebra and sixteen patients (group B) received traditional double-plate fixation, as a control. All patients were diagnosed with fresh fractures with a complete unilateral or bilateral pedicle and no explosion of the inferior half of the vertebral body or inferior endplate. In group A, patients received conventional posterior distraction and lumbar lordosis restoration, as well as pedicle screws in the fractured vertebra in a vertical direction to relieve stress to achieve a local stress balance. All patients were followed up postoperatively for 4-18 months (average, 12.6 months). The vertical stress pedicle screw fixation assisted in the reduction of vertebrae fracture, which reduced the postoperative Cobb's angle loss. There was a significant difference in the change of Cobb's angle between the two groups one year after surgery (P<0.01). Conditional application of pedicle screws in a single thoracolumbar fracture enhances the stability of the internal fixation system and is conducive to the correction of kyphosis and maintenance of the corrective effects. PMID:23407593

  20. Altered Function of Lumbar Nerve Roots in Patients With Transitional Lumbosacral Vertebrae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Soo Chang; Hiroshi NAKAGAWA

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study was conducted on the preoperative neurologic symptoms of patients with lumbar herniated discs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possibility that the muscle innervation pattern and the sensory dermatomes of lumbar nerve roots are altered when a lumbosacral transitional vertebra is present. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In 1962, McCulloch et al suggested with intraoperative recordings that the

  1. Segmentation of lumbar vertebrae from clinical CT using active shape models and GVF-snake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samah Al-Helo; Raja' S. Alomari; Vipin Chaudhary; M. B. Al-Zoubi

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar area of the vertebral column bears the most load of the human body and thus it is responsible for the major portion of lower back pain from which 80% to 90% of people suffer from during their lifetime. Vertebra related diseases are mainly fracture and are usually diagnosed from X-ray radiographs or CT scans depending on the severity of

  2. Reliability and reproducibility of interapical distance assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae in scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin; Koh, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Sik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the interobserver reliability and intraobserver reproducibility of interapical distance (IAD) and to analyze its correlation with the Cobb angle (CA). [Subjects and Methods] IAD, a handy tool for assessment of the lateral deviation of vertebrae with a metric scale, was defined as the horizontal distance between one apical vertebra and its counterpart, the opposite apical vertebra in the case of a double curve and the farthest vertebra in the case of a single curve. Fifty full-length, standing anteroposterior radiographs of “idiopathic scoliosis” were reviewed. Three investigators independently measure the CA and IAD at the same time and remeasured the IAD on the same radiograph a week later. [Results] There was no interobserver difference (reliability) in the measurement of IAD or statistical differences in intraobserver reproducibility for each observer. IAD was well correlated with the CA for each observer (r=0.765, r=0.737, and r=0.764). [Conclusion] IAD is useful when assessing lateral deviation in scoliosis and may be a reliable and reproducible index that is well correlated with the CA, and it can be used as a supplementary measure to describe the overall derangement of scoliosis in the coronal plane. PMID:25995588

  3. Osteoporosis of Lumbar Vertebrae and Calcification of Abdominal Aorta in Women Living in Durban

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Dent; H. E. Engelbrecht; R. C. Godfrey

    1968-01-01

    To try to establish whether mechanical stress and muscular activity in earlier life influence the incidence and severity of spinal osteoporosis in old age lateral x-ray films of the lumbar vertebrae were obtained from three matched groups, each of 100 women 50 to 90 years old. Group A was of rural Bantu accustomed to carrying heavy loads on their heads.

  4. Cervical Perineural Cyst Masquerading as a Cervical Spinal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  5. Cervical perineural cyst masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Vijay P; Zanwar, Atul; Karande, Anuradha; Agrawal, Amit

    2014-04-01

    Tarlov (perineural) cysts of the nerve roots are common and usually incidental findings during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. There are only a few case reports where cervical symptomatic perineural cysts have been described in the literature. We report such a case where a high cervical perineural cyst was masquerading as a cervical spinal tumor. PMID:24761204

  6. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Cancer.gov

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  7. Spinal surgery -- cervical - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The cervical spinal column is made up of vertebral bodies which protect the spinal cord. ... Cervical spine disease is usually caused by herniated intervertebral discs, abnormal growth of bony processes on the ...

  8. [Contribution of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method to dentofacial orthopedics: update].

    PubMed

    Elhaddaoui, R; Benyahia, H; Azaroual, F; Zaoui, F

    2014-11-01

    The successful orthopedic treatment of skeletal Class II malocclusions is closely related to the reasoned determination of the optimal time to initiate the treatment. This is why various methods have been proposed to assess skeletal maturation, such as a hand-wrist radiograph or the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method. The hand-wrist radiograph was up to now the most frequently used method to assess skeletal maturation. However, the clinical and biological limitations of this technique, as well as the need to perform an additional radiograph, were reasons to develop another method to explore the maturation stages of visible cervical vertebrae on a simple lateral cephalometric radiograph. The authors compare the 2 methods and prove the greater contribution of the CVM method compared to the hand-wrist radiograph. PMID:25444244

  9. Follicular cervicitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Seema; Rajni

    2004-04-01

    Chronic follicular cervicitis (CFC) is a benign inflammatory condition which can be easily diagnosed with a fair degree of assurance on pap stained cervical smears, thus preventing the need for cervical biopsy. We report a case of CFC in a postmenopausal woman. PMID:16295497

  10. A non-invasive technique for measurement of cervical vertebral angle: report of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Descarreaux, Martin; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Teasdale, Normand

    2003-06-01

    Non-invasive methods have traditionally been used to assess spine positioning and range of motion. Recently, the use of prediction models derived from external stick markers and videographic analysis has been shown to be effective at predicting lumbosacral and segmental lumbar vertebral angles. The objective of this study was to develop a similar non-invasive method to predict cervical vertebral inclination in forward head flexion. Fourteen subjects with no history of trauma or inflammatory or arthritic disorders (mean age: 25+/-1 years) participated in this study on a voluntary basis. Radiographic and videographic measurements of four external markers (C0, C2, C6, C7) were taken for each subject at three different static head positions (neutral, and 30 degrees and 60 degrees of flexion). The data obtained from nine subjects with normal cervical configuration (lordosis) were used to develop statistical models predicting the radiographic segmental angles (dependent variables) from external markers (independent variables). A multiple regression model was developed for each vertebra (C1 to C6). These regression models predict the inclination of each cervical vertebra at three different neck angles with positional data derived from the four external skin markers. Adjusted R2 values of 0.97, 0.93, 0.93, 0.96, 0.95 and 0.89 were obtained for C1, C2, C3, C4, C5 and C6, respectively. The prediction models developed in this study can explain a large part of the variance for the relative contribution of each vertebral segment to global neck flexion and provide a greater accuracy then using external stick markers only. These models were not able to adequately predict the vertebral angular positioning of subjects presenting a cervical alordosis or kyphosis. PMID:12800005

  11. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc arthroplasty devices have come onto the market and completed Food and Drug Administration Investigational Device Exemption trials. Though some of the early results demonstrate equivalency of arthroplasty to fusion, compelling evidence of benefits in terms of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration are lacking. In addition, non-industry-sponsored studies indicate that these devices are equivalent to fusion in terms of adjacent segment degeneration. Longer-term studies will eventually provide the definitive answer. PMID:24353955

  12. Assessment of ultrasound as a diagnostic modality for detecting potentially unstable cervical spine fractures in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Deepak; Sinha, Tej Prakash; Bhoi, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early cervical spine clearance is extremely important in unconscious trauma patients and may be difficult to achieve in emergency setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of standard portable ultrasound in detecting potentially unstable cervical spine injuries in severe traumatic brain injured (TBI) patients during initial resuscitation. Materials and Methods: This retro-prospective pilot study carried out over 1-month period (June–July 2013) after approval from the institutional ethics committee. Initially, the technique of cervical ultrasound was standardized by the authors and tested on ten admitted patients of cervical spine injury. To assess feasibility in the emergency setting, three hemodynamically stable pediatric patients (?18 years) with isolated severe head injury (Glasgow coma scale ?8) coming to emergency department underwent an ultrasound examination. Results: The best window for the cervical spine was through the anterior triangle using the linear array probe (6–13 MHz). In the ten patients with documented cervical spine injury, bilateral facet dislocation at C5–C6 was seen in 4 patients and at C6–C7 was seen in 3 patients. C5 burst fracture was present in one and cervical vertebra (C2) anterolisthesis was seen in one patient. Cervical ultrasound could easily detect fracture lines, canal compromise and ligamental injury in all cases. Ultrasound examination of the cervical spine was possible in the emergency setting, even in unstable patients and could be done without moving the neck. Conclusions: Cervical ultrasound may be a useful tool for detecting potentially unstable cervical spine injury in TBI patients, especially those who are hemodynamically unstable.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging features of cervical spinal cord meningiomas.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, John J; Tidwell, Amy S; Faissler, Dominik; Keating, John

    2005-01-01

    The records of four dogs with cervical spinal cord meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed. Signalment, history, laboratory findings, neurological examination, and histopathological findings were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 1.0-T superconducting magnet and T2-weighted (W) and noncontrast and postcontrast T1-W spin echo pulse sequences. Meningiomas were located at the level of the second, third, and fifth cervical vertebrae and the C2-3 intervertebral space. All meningiomas appeared as focal masses that were hyperintense to the spinal cord on T2-W images and iso- to hypointense on the T1-W images. They could be identified as intradural and extramedullary in origin based on a broad-based dural margin seen on at least one of the imaging planes and a gradual expansion of the subarachnoid space cranial and caudal to the mass, best noted on the transverse and dorsal plane images. On dorsal plane T2-W images in three dogs, expansion of the subarachnoid space adjacent to the mass appeared similar to the myelographic "golf tee" sign. All meningiomas exhibited moderate, well-defined contrast enhancement with dural tails seen in three of the four dogs. One dog had extension into the intervertebral foramen along the nerve and ipsilateral atrophy of the muscles of the neck. By differentiating the meningiomas from intramedullary tumors and by clearly depicting the extent of the masses, MRI provided valuable information about treatment options and prognosis. PMID:16250392

  14. Tracheal injury added to cervical bone destruction due to the impact of hitting the water surface: four immersed adult bodies.

    PubMed

    Zuka, Masahiko; Ohshima, Tohru

    2013-05-10

    In the forensic examinations of cases of falling, two properties of the water surface, namely its nature as a hard, flat object and as a soft and ungraspable substance must be appreciated. Namely, at the moment of impact, the water surface exerts a greater resistance against relatively broad areas like the head, face and trunk than against the extremities that have a small area. Therefore, total resistance against the whole body would promote flexure. We experienced 72 autopsy cases of immersed bodies during a 4-year period. The cause of death for 64 of these with or without cervical vertebra fracture was drowning. In these cases, the various heights of the falls could often be estimated at the scene. A characteristic pattern of cervical injury with involvement of hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage in addition to cervical vertebra fracture plus rare involvement of the trachea was identified. When a fall from a relatively low height is broken by the water surface, to a certain degree physical findings that differ from those seen in falls to the ground from extreme heights are left mediated by different underlying mechanisms. PMID:23465544

  15. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-10

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-02

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  17. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PDF [PDF-839KB] High-quality PDF for professional printing [PDF-2.7MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” ... PDF [PDF-839KB] High-quality PDF for professional printing [PDF-2.7MB] Language: English Español (Spanish) File ...

  18. Changes in Bone Mineral Density in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Okonogi, Noriyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: syoshi@gunma-u.ac.jp; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohno, Tatsuya; Oike, Takahiro; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Sato, Hiro; Nakano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) after pelvic radiation therapy in patients with uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Of 52 cervical cancer patients who received pelvic RT in our university hospital between 2009 and 2011, 46 patients without recurrence and who were followed up for more than 12 months were included in the study. The BMD of the irradiated region and nonirradiated regions, serum estradiol, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b, and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 were measured before, at 3 months after, and at 12 months after RT. The patient cohort was divided into 2 groups according to estradiol level before RT, and the groups were defined as postmenopausal (<40 pg/mL) and premenopausal (?40 pg/mL). Results: The mean BMDs within the irradiation field (lumbar vertebra 5) in the postmenopausal and the premenopausal groups were 0.825 and 0.910 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and 0.746 and 0.841 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT, respectively. Significant decreases were observed in both groups (P<.05 and P<.01, respectively). In addition, in the premenopausal group the mean BMDs of the nonirradiated regions at thoracic vertebrae 9-12 and lumbar vertebrae 2-4 were 0.753 and 0.958 g/cm{sup 2} before RT and were significantly decreased to 0.706 and 0.921 g/cm{sup 2} 12 months after RT (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). Estradiol significantly decreased 3 months after RT, whereas tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b and N-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of collagen 1 continued to increase over time in the premenopausal group. Conclusions: A decrease in BMD in the irradiated region after RT was observed within 1 year, regardless of menopausal status. Furthermore, in premenopausal patients, pelvic RT caused a decrease in systemic BMD.

  19. Grade 4 spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra associated with dural ectasia in neurofibromatosis.

    PubMed

    Modi, H N; Srinivasalu, S; Suh, S W; Yang, J H

    2009-08-01

    Spondylolisthesis associated with neurofibromatosis is rare, and only 12 cases have been reported so far. However, only one report of grade 4 spondylolisthesis with neurofibromatosis has been reported in the literature. A 15-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis was admitted for back pain and neurological claudication. Radiograph showed grade 4 spondylolisthesis of the L5 vertebra with scalloping of the L4-L5 vertebrae. L4-L5 laminectomy, reduction, L3-S1 posterior instrumentation and fusion were performed. The reduction of the spondylisthesis was done entirely from the posterior approach using pedicle screws. Radiography at four months showed a broken S1 screw with a loss of reduction. The patient was re-operated on, to provide additional stability with pelvic fixation. He was pain-free with a good fusion at the two-year follow-up. Adequate posterior stabilisation with fusion gives good results in grade 4 spondylolisthesis associated with neurofibromatosis and dural ectasia. PMID:19710961

  20. A rare case of breast carcinoma metastasis to mandible and vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, George; Singh, Surender Pal; Sreela, L. S.

    2014-01-01

    Oral cavity metastases are considered rare and represent approximately 1% of all oral malignancies. Due to their rarity and atypical clinical and radiographic appearance, metastatic lesions are considered a diagnostic challenge. This article presents a rare case of breast carcinoma with metastasis to mandible and vertebrae. A case is presented of a 40-year-old female patient with a history of breast carcinoma which was surgically treated approximately 2 years back. The diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma was confirmed by radiographic examination, bone scan and histopathologic findings. She was referred to radiotherapy department since it was not amenable to surgery due to metastasis in vertebrae. A high index of clinical suspicion of metastatic cancer is necessary when evaluating patients who complaint of jaw pain and swelling with a history of non-head and neck carcinoma. PMID:25937731

  1. Automatic localization and identification of vertebrae in arbitrary field-of-view CT scans.

    PubMed

    Glocker, Ben; Feulner, J; Criminisi, Antonio; Haynor, D R; Konukoglu, E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for automatic localization and identification of vertebrae in arbitrary field-of-view CT scans. No assumptions are made about which section of the spine is visible or to which extent. Thus, our approach is more general than previous work while being computationally efficient. Our algorithm is based on regression forests and probabilistic graphical models. The discriminative, regression part aims at roughly detecting the visible part of the spine. Accurate localization and identification of individual vertebrae is achieved through a generative model capturing spinal shape and appearance. The system is evaluated quantitatively on 200 CT scans, the largest dataset reported for this purpose. We obtain an overall median localization error of less than 6mm, with an identification rate of 81%. PMID:23286179

  2. Cervical ectopic pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare type of ectopic pregnancy and it represents <1% of all ectopic pregnancies. Early diagnosis and medical management with systemic or local administration of methotrexate is the treatment of choice. If the pregnancy is disturbed, it may lead to massive hemorrhage, which may require hysterectomy to save the patient. We report three cases of cervical pregnancy managed successfully with different approaches of management. Our first case, 28 years old G3P2L2 with previous two lower segment cesarean sections, presented with bleeding per vaginum following 6 weeks of amenorrhea. Clinical examination followed by transvaginal ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy was done in view of intractable bleeding to save the patient. The second case, a 26-year-old second gravida with previous normal vaginal delivery presented with pain abdomen and single episode of spotting per vaginum following 7 weeks of amenorrhea. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed empty endometrial cavity, closed internal os with gestational sac containing live fetus of 7 weeks gestational age in cervical canal and she was treated with intra-amniotic potassium chloride followed by systemic methotrexate. Follow up with serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin level revealed successful outcome. Our third case, a 27-year-old primigravida with history of infertility treatment admitted with complaints of bleeding per vaginum for 1 day following 8 weeks amenorrhea. She was diagnosed as cervical pregnancy by clinical examination, confirmed by transvaginal ultrasonography and subsequently managed by dilation and curettage with intracervical Foleys’ ballon tamponade. PMID:25810679

  3. HETEROGENEITY OF BONE MINERAL DENSITY AND FATIGUE FAILURE OF HUMAN VERTEBRAE

    PubMed Central

    Yeni, Yener N.; Poisson, Laila M.; Flynn, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in using the heterogeneity of tissue properties in a bone for predicting its fracture risk. Heterogeneity of volum etric bone mineral density (BMD) as measured from quantitative computed tomography (QCT) is of particular interest as these measurements are clinically feasible. Previous examinations of the relationship between the BMD heterogeneity and the mechanical behavior of human vertebrae considered quasistatic strength only and were with limited number of samples. McCubbrey et al. studied the value of regional BMDs for predicting vertebral fatigue life, determined from short-cycle tests at force levels scaled with the estimated strength of the vertebra, but the focus of that work was in best predictor subsets without a specific focus on the heterogeneity of BMD or the positive vs negative direction of the relationships. The previous analysis also did not take into account the censored nature of the fatigue life data. As such, whether BMD heterogeneity is positively or negatively associated with fatigue life and whether this is independent from the average or minimum BMD are not clear. In the present work, we revisite d the McCubbrey data for a preliminary examination of the relationship between BMD heterogeneity and fatigue life using survival analysis. The analysis suggests that BMD heterogeneity measured as the intra-vertebral standard deviation of BMDs in a vertebra is negatively associated with short cycle (high-amplitude) fatigue life independent from the average BMD. The results motivate further studies on the role of BMD heterogeneity in fatigue failure and clinical fracture risk of human vertebrae. PMID:23538003

  4. Use of Isotopic Analysis of Vertebrae in Reconstructing Ontogenetic Feeding Ecology in White Sharks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Estrada; Aaron N. Rice; Lisa J. Natanson; Gregory B. Skomal

    2006-01-01

    We conducted stable ${}^{13}\\\\text{C}$ and ${}^{15}\\\\text{N}$ analysis on white shark vertebrae and demonstrated that incremental analysis of isotopes along the radius of a vertebral centrum produces a chronological record of dietary information, allowing for reconstruction of an individual's trophic history. Isotopic data showed significant enrichments in ${}^{15}\\\\text{N}$ with increasing sampling distance from the centrum center, indicating a correlation between body

  5. Role of cervical soft tissue lesion in cervical spondylosis and tuina intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Fang; Jun-tao Yan; Shu-yun Jiang; Wu-quan Sun; Yu-chao Liu

    2008-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is markedly characterized by degenerative changes. The studies in recent years on the role of cervical soft tissue lesion in cervical spondylosis indicated that cervical soft tissue lesion runs through the whole process of cervical spondylosis and is dominantly responsible for varieties of clinical symptoms. Cervical osseous lesion can be regarded as a result of soft tissue lesion

  6. Sensory Neuron Development in Mouse Coccygeal Vertebrae and Its Relationship to Tail Biopsies for Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jerald; Hendricks, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    A common method of genotyping mice is via tissue obtained from tail biopsies. However, there is no available information on the temporal development of sensory neurons in the tail and how their presence or absence might affect the age for performing tail biopsies. The goals of this study were to determine if afferent sensory neurons, and in particular nociceptive neurons, are present in the coccygeal vertebrae at or near the time of birth and if not, when they first can be visualized on or in those vertebrae. Using toluidine blue neuronal staining, transmission electron microscopy, and calcitonin-related gene peptide immunostaining, we found proximal to distal maturation of coccygeal nerve growth in the C57BL/6J mouse. Single nerve bundles were first seen on postpartum day (PPD) 0. On PPD 3 presumptive nociceptive sensory nerve fibers were seen entering the vertebral perichondrium. Neural development continued through the last time point (PPD 7) but at no time were neural fibers seen entering the body of the vertebrae. The effect of age on the development of pain perception in the neonatal mouse is discussed. PMID:24505409

  7. Level set based vertebra segmentation for the evaluation of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sovira; Yao, Jianhua; Ward, Michael M.; Yao, Lawrence; Summers, Ronald M.

    2006-03-01

    Ankylosing Spondylitis is a disease of the vertebra where abnormal bone structures (syndesmophytes) grow at intervertebral disk spaces. Because this growth is so slow as to be undetectable on plain radiographs taken over years, it is necessary to resort to computerized techniques to complement qualitative human judgment with precise quantitative measures on 3-D CT images. Very fine segmentation of the vertebral body is required to capture the small structures caused by the pathology. We propose a segmentation algorithm based on a cascade of three level set stages and requiring no training or prior knowledge. First, the noise inside the vertebral body that often blocks the proper evolution of level set surfaces is attenuated by a sigmoid function whose parameters are determined automatically. The 1st level set (geodesic active contour) is designed to roughly segment the interior of the vertebra despite often highly inhomogeneous and even discontinuous boundaries. The result is used as an initial contour for the 2nd level set (Laplacian level set) that closely captures the inner boundary of the cortical bone. The last level set (reversed Laplacian level set) segments the outer boundary of the cortical bone and also corrects small flaws of the previous stage. We carried out extensive tests on 30 vertebrae (5 from each of 6 patients). Two medical experts scored the results at intervertebral disk spaces focusing on end plates and syndesmophytes. Only two minor segmentation errors at vertebral end plates were reported and two syndesmophytes were considered slightly under-segmented.

  8. ‘Monster… -omics’: on segmentation, re-segmentation, and vertebrae formation in amphibians and other vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The axial skeleton is one of the defining evolutionary landmarks of vertebrates. How this structure develops and how it has evolved in the different vertebrate lineages is, however, a matter of debate. Vertebrae and vertebral structures are derived from the embryonic somites, although the mechanisms of development are different between lineages. Discussion Using the anecdotal description of a teratological newt (Triturus dobrogicus) with an unusual malformation in its axial skeleton, we review, compare, and discuss the development of vertebral structures and, in particular, the development of centra from somitic cellular domains in different vertebrate groups. Vertebrae development through re-segmentation of the somitic sclerotomal cells is considered the general mechanism among vertebrates, which has been generalized from studies in amniotic model organisms. The prevalence of this mechanism among anamniotes is, however, controversial. We propose alternative developmental mechanisms for vertebrae formation that should be experimentally tested. Summary Research in model organisms, especially amniotes, is laying the foundations for a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of development of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, foundations that should expand the extent of future comparative studies. Although immersed in the ‘-omics’ era, we emphasize the need for an integrative and organismal approach in evolutionary developmental biology for a better understanding of the causal role of development in the evolution of morphological diversity in nature. PMID:23577917

  9. Morphometrics of the skeleton of Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Part I. The vertebrae, with comparisons to other species.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H

    1980-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of vertebral structure in caecilians (Amphibia: Gymnophiona) is presented. Ontogenetic variation in Dermophis mexicanus is analyzed through the 100+ vertebrae composing the column. Vertebral structure in adult D. mexicanus is compared with that in Ichthyophis glutinosus and Typhlonectes compressicauda. Centra of the atlas, second, tenth, 20th, and 50th vertebrae grow at allometrically different rates in D. mexicanus, though the 20th and 50th are not significantly different. Growth appears significantly slower in several dimensions of anterior and posterior vertebrae relative to midtrunk vertebrae in all three species. Mensural patterns throughout the entire column are similar in the terrestrail burrowers D. mexicanus and I. glutinosus; patterns in the aquatic T. compressicauda differ substantially from those of the burrowing species and are strongly influenced by allometry. Of the 112 D. mexicanus examined, 13.4% had vertebral anomalies, usually fusions. PMID:7452726

  10. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Li; Deng-lu Yan; Zai-Heng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous\\u000a discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results\\u000a of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN\\u000a in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of

  11. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 ...Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5250 - Cervical cap.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cervical cap. 884.5250 Section 884.5250 ...Gynecological Therapeutic Devices § 884.5250 Cervical cap. (a) Identification. A cervical cap is a flexible cuplike receptacle...

  14. Cervical cystic hygroma.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Chauhan, Dinesh Singh

    2012-09-01

    Cystic hygroma or cystic lymphangioma is a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system that manifests itself as a soft, benign, and painless mass. It is widely accepted that they arise from the remnants of embryonic lymphatic tissue which retains the potential for proliferation. They grow in the fashion of sprouting and are capable of transgressing anatomical boundaries. They can occur almost at any anatomical site. However, 75-80% cystic hygromas are located in the head and neck region. In the neck, they are typically located within the posterior cervical triangle. The majority of cases (80-90%) are diagnosed under the age of two. We present a case of cervical cystic hygroma in a 6 year old male child which was surgically treated. PMID:23997487

  15. Cervical plate fracture: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Veli, Citisli; Muhammet, Ibrahimoglu; Serkan, Civlan; Murat, Kocaoglu

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic and degenerative diseases cervical fusion with anterior cervical plate are commonly used. The increase in the use of cervical plate segment level is also increased risk of developing complications. This case report shows that the increase in the use of cervical plate segment level and also the complications in cervical spinal instrumentation, short-segment cervical plate rare case reported to be broken.

  16. Cervical split: A pseudofracture

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.P.; Vine, H.S.; Sacks, B.A.; Ellison, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    A horizontal lucent line projecting over a cervical vertebral body on lateral radiographs and simulating a fracture is described. This pseudofracture line results from the lucency between contiguous proliferative osteophytes at the uncinate process/vertebral articulation. Associated disc space narrowing was seen in all of our eleven cases. The origin of this pseudofracture line, cases illustrating this phenomenon, and additional projections helpful for clarification are presented.

  17. Cervical Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne S. Tsao; Lawrence M. Roth; Alan Sandler; Jean A. Hurteau

    2001-01-01

    Background.Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare and potentially aggressive malignancies.Case. A 24-year-old woman in her eighth week of pregnancy presented with a cervical mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated poorly differentiated carcinosarcoma with neuroendocrine features. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the diagnosis of PNET. Treatment included alternating courses of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine (CAV) and ifosfamide, etoposide (IE). A radical hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian transposition

  18. Cervical Myelopathy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, N.; Todd, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical spine is common in rheumatoid arthritis. Clinical presentation can be variable, and symptoms may be due to neck pain or compressive myeloradiculopathy. We discuss the pathology, grading systems, clinical presentation, indications for surgery and surgical management of cervical myelopathy related to rheumatoid arthritis in this paper. We describe our surgical technique and results. We recommend early consultation for surgical management when involvement of the cervical spine is suspected in rheumatoid arthritis. Even patients with advanced cervical myelopathy should be discussed for surgical treatment, since in our experience improvement in function after surgery is common. PMID:22203899

  19. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Epoetin Alfa in Treating Patients With Cervical Cancer and Anemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Anemia; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Drug Toxicity; Radiation Toxicity; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  20. Bone Density in Patients with Cervical Cancer or Endometrial Cancer in comparison with Healthy Control; According to the stages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yubin; Kim, Ari; Kim, Heung Yeol; Eo, Wan Kyu; Lee, Eun Sil; Chun, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and femur in postmenopausal women with cervical cancer and endometrial cancer without bone metastasis in comparison with that in healthy control postmenopausal women, and to assess the loss of BMD according to the cancer stage. Materials and methods: We analyzed the BMD of the lumbar spine and femur using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 218 patients with cervical cancer, 85 patients with endometrial cancer, and 259 healthy controls. The serum levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), osteocalcin (OSC), and total alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and urine deoxypyridinoline(DPL) were measured in all participants. Results: Age, body mass index, parity, and time since menopause were not significantly different between the three groups. Serum Ca level was higher in the cervical cancer group (p = 0.000), however, urine DPL was lower in endometrial cancer group (p = 0.000). The T-scores of basal BMD at the second and fourth lumbar vertebra (L2, L4) were significantly lower in patients with cervical cancer (p = 0.038, 0.000, respectively) compared to those in the healthy control groups. Additionally, the incidence of osteoporosis and osteopenia basal status of bone mass was significantly higher in patients with cervical cancer compared to that in controls (p = 0.016). No differences in basal BMD of the lumbar spine and femur were observed between patients with cervical cancer according to their stages. Conclusion: Our results suggest that postmenopausal women with cervical cancer have a lower BMD and are at increased risk of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine before receiving anticancer treatment compared with postmenopausal women with endometrial cancer. PMID:26185529

  1. Cervical vertebral column morphology in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea assessed using lateral cephalograms and cone beam CT. A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sonnesen, L; Jensen, KE; Petersson, AR; Petri, N; Berg, S; Svanholt, P

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have described morphological deviations in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients on two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalograms, and the reliability of 2D radiographs has been discussed. The objective is to describe the morphology of the cervical vertebral column on cone beam CT (CBCT) in adult patients with OSA and to compare 2D lateral cephalograms with three-dimensional (3D) CBCT images. Methods: For all 57 OSA patients, the cervical vertebral column morphology was evaluated on lateral cephalograms and CBCT images and compared according to fusion anomalies and posterior arch deficiency. Results: The CBCT assessment showed that 21.1% had fusion anomalies of the cervical column, i.e. fusion between two cervical vertebrae (10.5%), block fusions (8.8%) or occipitalization (1.8%). Posterior arch deficiency occurred in 14% as partial cleft of C1 and in 3.5% in combination with block fusions. The agreement between the occurrence of morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column between lateral cephalograms and CBCT images showed good agreement (??=?0.64). Conclusions: Prevalence and pattern in the cervical column morphology have now been confirmed on CBCT. The occurrence of morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column showed good agreement between lateral cephalograms and CBCT images. This indicates that 2D lateral cephalograms (already available after indication in connection with, e.g. treatment planning) are sufficient for identifying morphological deviations in the cervical vertebral column. For a more accurate diagnosis and location of the deviations, CBCT is required. New 3D methods will suggest a need for new detailed characterization and division of deviations in cervical vertebral column morphology. PMID:23503808

  2. Fractures of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça; Teixeira, William Jacobsen; Narasaki, Douglas Kenji; Oliveira, Reginaldo Perilo; de Barros Filho, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the literature on cervical spine fractures. METHODS: The literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of lower and upper cervical fractures and dislocations was reviewed. RESULTS: Fractures of the cervical spine may be present in polytraumatized patients and should be suspected in patients complaining of neck pain. These fractures are more common in men approximately 30 years of age and are most often caused by automobile accidents. The cervical spine is divided into the upper cervical spine (occiput-C2) and the lower cervical spine (C3-C7), according to anatomical differences. Fractures in the upper cervical spine include fractures of the occipital condyle and the atlas, atlanto-axial dislocations, fractures of the odontoid process, and hangman's fractures in the C2 segment. These fractures are characterized based on specific classifications. In the lower cervical spine, fractures follow the same pattern as in other segments of the spine; currently, the most widely used classification is the SLIC (Subaxial Injury Classification), which predicts the prognosis of an injury based on morphology, the integrity of the disc-ligamentous complex, and the patient's neurological status. It is important to correctly classify the fracture to ensure appropriate treatment. Nerve or spinal cord injuries, pseudarthrosis or malunion, and postoperative infection are the main complications of cervical spine fractures. CONCLUSIONS: Fractures of the cervical spine are potentially serious and devastating if not properly treated. Achieving the correct diagnosis and classification of a lesion is the first step toward identifying the most appropriate treatment, which can be either surgical or conservative. PMID:24270959

  3. A fast, accurate, and reliable reconstruction method of the lumbar spine vertebrae using positional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Craig J.; Cobb, Loren; Davidson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo measurement of lumbar spine configuration is useful for constructing quantitative biomechanical models. Positional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accommodates a larger range of movement in most joints than conventional MRI and does not require a supine position. However, this is achieved at the expense of image resolution and contrast. As a result, quantitative research using positional MRI have required long reconstruction times and are sensitive to incorrectly identifying the vertebral boundary due to low contrast between bone and surrounding tissue in the images. We present a semi-automated method used to obtain digitized reconstructions of lumbar vertebrae in any posture of interest. This method combines a high-resolution reference scan with a low-resolution postural scan to provide a detailed and accurate representation of the vertebrae in the posture of interest. Compared to a criterion standard, translational reconstruction error ranged from 0.7 mm to 1.6 mm and rotational reconstruction error ranged from 0.3 degrees to 2.6 degrees. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated high interrater reliability for measurements within the imaging plane (ICC = 0.97?0.99). Computational efficiency indicates that this method may be used to compile data sets large enough to account for population variance, and potentially expand the use of positional MRI as a quantitative biomechanics research tool. PMID:24370942

  4. Jack-of-all-trades master of all? Snake vertebrae have a generalist inner organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houssaye, Alexandra; Boistel, Renaud; Böhme, Wolfgang; Herrel, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Snakes are a very speciose group of squamates that adapted to various habitats and ecological niches. Their ecological diversity is of particular interest and functional demands associated with their various styles of locomotion are expected to result in anatomical specializations. In order to explore the potential adaptation of snakes to their environment we here analyze variation in vertebral structure at the microanatomical level in species with different locomotor adaptations. Vertebrae, being a major element of the snake body, are expected to display adaptations to the physical constraints associated with the different locomotor modes and environments. Our results revealed a rather homogenous vertebral microanatomy in contrast to what has been observed for other squamates and amniotes more generally. We here suggest that the near-absence of microanatomical specializations in snake vertebrae might be correlated to their rather homogeneous overall morphology and reduced range of morphological diversity, as compared to lizards. Thus, snakes appear to retain a generalist inner morphology that allows them to move efficiently in different environments. Only a few ecologically highly specialized taxa appear to display some microanatomical specializations that remain to be studied in greater detail.

  5. Upper Cervical Spine Trauma.

    PubMed

    Bransford, Richard J; Alton, Timothy B; Patel, Amit R; Bellabarba, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Injuries to the upper cervical spine are potentially lethal; thus, full characterization of the injuries requires an accurate history and physical examination, and management requires an in-depth understanding of the radiographic projection of the craniocervical complex. Occipital condyle fractures may represent major ligament avulsions and may be highly unstable, requiring surgery. Craniocervical dissociation results from disruption of the primary osseoligamentous stabilizers between the occiput and C2. Dynamic fluoroscopy can differentiate the subtypes of craniocervical dissociation and help guide treatment. Management of atlas fractures is dictated by transverse alar ligament integrity. Atlantoaxial dislocations are rotated, translated, or distracted and are treated with a rigid cervical orthosis or fusion. Treatment of odontoid fractures is controversial and dictated by fracture characteristics, patient comorbidities, and radiographic findings. Hangman's fractures of the axis are rarely treated surgically, but atypical patterns and displaced fractures may cause neurologic injury and should be reduced and fused. Management of injuries to the craniocervical junction remains challenging, but good outcomes can be achieved with a comprehensive plan that consists of accurate and timely diagnosis and stabilization of the craniocervical junction. PMID:25344597

  6. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty and percutaneous cervical discectomy treatments of the contained cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denglu YanJian; Jian Li; Haodong Zhu; Zhi Zhang; Lijun Duan

    2010-01-01

    Background  There were no studies in literature to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous nucleoplasty (PCN) and percutaneous cervical\\u000a discectomy (PCD) in contained cervical disc herniation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective of patients with symptomatic contained cervical disc herniated were operated on with PCN and PCD from June\\u000a 2003 to July 2005. Two-hundred and four patients initially fulfilled the study criteria, and 28 patients

  7. Cervical Cancer HPV Vaccine Use

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  8. Life history reconstruction of modern and fossil sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) by oxygen isotopic analysis of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth: Implication for paleoenvironmental reconstructions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Zazzo; G. R. Smith; W. P. Patterson; E. Dufour

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the use of oxygen isotope values of biogenic apatite for tracking freshwater to marine migration in modern and fossil Pacific sockeye salmon. Oxygen isotope analyses of otoliths, vertebrae, and teeth of three anadromous modern sockeye salmon from Alaska establish a basis for the interpretation of fossil vertebrae and tooth apatite from Pleistocene sockeye salmon of the Skokomish River

  9. Posterolateral approach for anterior resection and posterior stabilization of the upper cervical spine: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, R. A.; Weinstein, J. N.; Menezes, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    Surgical approaches to atlanto-axial lesions are generally accomplished by either anterior (transoral) or posterior approaches as dictated by the location of the lesion. In certain patients, these approaches are combined, either in a single or staged procedure. Mechanical stabilization is much more readily accomplished posteriorly, as this allows easy incorporation of the occiput. While the transoral approach allows excellent exposure of the bodies of C1 and C2, it entails substantial surgical trauma. We describe the case of a woman with destruction of the anterior portions of the C1 and C2 vertebrae by metastatic breast cancer addressed by simultaneous anterior tumor debulking and posterior instrumentation through a posterolateral approach to the upper cervical spine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:9129289

  10. Laparoscopic Placement of Cervical Cerclage

    PubMed Central

    Tusheva, Olga A; Cohen, Sarah L; McElrath, Thomas F; Einarsson, Jon I

    2012-01-01

    Cervical shortening is believed to be a marker for generalized intrauterine inflammation and has a strong association with spontaneous preterm birth. A variety of therapies, including vaginal and intramuscular progesterone, pessary, and cerclage, have been demonstrated to be effective in specific clinical circumstances. Cervical cerclage can be placed via transvaginal, open transabdominal, or laparoscopic transabdominal approach, preferably before pregnancy. A laparoscopic approach may be superior to the transabdominal approach in terms of surgical outcomes, cost, and postoperative morbidity. PMID:23483629

  11. [Imaging diagnosis of cervical spondylosis].

    PubMed

    Song, Z Q

    1989-04-01

    Myodil-myelographic manifestations of 60 cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy were analyzed. For better understanding the biomechanical disturbances of cervical spondylosis, CT scans of 26 cases of this disease were also investigated. Myelography and/or CT were considered necessary if surgical procedure was to be undertaken with anterior approach. Myodil myelography or CT could fulfill the diagnostic requirements for surgery if Non-ionic water-soluble contrast media or other new techniques were not available. PMID:2758936

  12. Repair of a mandibular defect with a free vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer in a dog.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L S; Hou, S M

    1994-01-01

    Bilateral mandibular defects in a male mongrel dog were repaired. On the left side, a free vascularized coccygeal bone graft that included the median caudal artery and caudal vein was used to correct the defect. On the right side, the defect was bridged with a bone plate and screws. For further immobilization, the muzzle was temporarily taped for 3 weeks and a pharyngostomy tube was used for nutritional support. The dog was able to eat dry commercial food satisfactorily within 2 months of surgery despite mild malocclusion. Radiographs taken 2 months and 18 months postoperatively showed bony union with graft hypertrophy in the left mandible, whereas the right mandibular defect showed protracted nonunion. The results indicate that vascularized coccygeal vertebra transfer provides an alternative for the management of canine mandibular defects. PMID:8091631

  13. Trichophyton mentagrophytes granulomas. Unique systemic dissemination to lymph nodes, testes, vertebrae, and brain.

    PubMed

    Hironaga, M; Okazaki, N; Saito, K; Watanabe, S

    1983-06-01

    A man had Trichophyton mentagrophytes infection that ultimately involved the lymph nodes, testes, vertebrae, and CNS. It was associated with anergy and defective lymphocyte transformation to T mentagrophytes antigen. The patient was also anergic to repeated delayed skin testing with PPD and dinitrochlorobenzene. His lymphocyte responsiveness, as demonstrated by lymphocyte transformation to phytohemagglutinin and PPD, was substantially decreased. However, the results of an in vitro leukocyte migration inhibition assay showed that his lymphocytes were responsive to T mentagrophytes antigen as well as to PPD. The patient's serum IgE level was increased, but serum transferrin levels were persistently abnormal. Therapeutic attempts, including the systemic administration of griseofulvin, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, and transfer factor failed, and the patient died five years after systemic disease onset. PMID:6859887

  14. Use of isotopic analysis of vertebrae in reconstructing ontogenetic feeding ecology in white sharks.

    PubMed

    Estrada, James A; Rice, Aaron N; Natanson, Lisa J; Skomal, Gregory B

    2006-04-01

    We conducted stable 13C and 15N analysis on white shark vertebrae and demonstrated that incremental analysis of isotopes along the radius of a vertebral centrum produces a chronological record of dietary information, allowing for reconstruction of an individual's trophic history. Isotopic data showed significant enrichments in 15N with increasing sampling distance from the centrum center, indicating a correlation between body size and trophic level. Additionally, isotopic values verified two distinct ontogenetic trophic shifts in the white shark: one following parturition, marking a dietary switch from yolk to fish; and one at a total length of >341 cm, representing a known diet shift from fish to marine mammals. Retrospective trophic-level reconstruction using vertebral tissue will have broad applications in future studies on the ecology of threatened, endangered, or extinct species to determine life-long feeding patterns, which would be impossible through other methods. PMID:16676526

  15. Congenital 'butterfly vertebra' associated with low back pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Rachael M; Jh, Abbott

    2015-05-01

    The butterfly vertebral defect is a rare congenital anomaly of the spine, which is generally considered benign. In this report we present the case of an active young man who presented with recurrent low back pain (LBP), and was found to have a butterfly vertebral defect at the symptomatic L4 lumbar spinal level. We describe the genesis of the butterfly vertebral defect, in the context of normal embryological development of the human vertebra and intervertebral disk. We report the clinical examination findings and therapeutic interventions undertaken prior to the radiographic discovery of the vertebral defect, and discuss the impact that the presence of a butterfly vertebral defect presented to therapeutic decision-making. PMID:26109830

  16. Cervical spine motion in the sagittal plane (I) range of motion of actually performed movements, an X-ray cinematographic study.

    PubMed

    Van Mameren, H; Drukker, J; Sanches, H; Beursgens, J

    1990-01-01

    A fast method has been developed to determine the position of the outlines of bony structures on X-ray photographs of the cervical spine movements in the sagittal plane (105 mm spot film camera; 4 frames per second; about 10 seconds per complete anteflexion-retroflexion or vice versa). This method corrects for incongruity of the vertebral contours on consecutive frames due to motion in another than the sagittal plane. It also automatically corrects erroneously marked points. This method has been used to determine segmental range of motion (SROM) and total range of motion of the head with respect to the seventh cervical vertebra (TROM). It is shown that SROM may be larger when frames of intermediate instead of extreme positions of the film are considered. In ten test persons without cervical complaints the interindividual variability of SROM turned out to be comparable to the ones found with older methods. Intraindividual variability of SROM and TROM was determined by registration at three different measuring sessions (0, 2 and 10 weeks). This intraindividual variability is high, especially in the cranial and caudal parts of the cervical spine. It is concluded that SROM and TROM are unsuitable to be used as a parameter of cervical spine mobility. PMID:2390411

  17. Posterior spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic thoracolumbar/lumbar scoliosis: clinical outcomes and predictive radiological factors for extension of fusion distal to caudal end vertebra.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S B; Tsirikos, A I; Subramanian, A S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical, radiological, and Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire data were reviewed pre-operatively and two years post-operatively for patients with thoracolumbar/lumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral convex segmental pedicle screw technique. A total of 72 patients were included (67 female, 5 male; mean age at surgery 16.7 years (13 to 23)) and divided into groups: group 1 included 53 patients who underwent fusion between the vertebrae at the limit of the curve (proximal and distal end vertebrae); group 2 included 19 patients who underwent extension of the fusion distally beyond the caudal end vertebra. A mean scoliosis correction of 80% (45% to 100%) was achieved. The mean post-operative lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation and trunk shift were less than in previous studies. A total of five pre-operative radiological parameters differed significantly between the groups and correlated with the extension of the fusion distally: the size of the thoracolumbar/lumbar curve, the lowest instrumented vertebra angle, apical vertebra translation, the Cobb angle on lumbar convex bending and the size of the compensatory thoracic curve. Regression analysis allowed an equation incorporating these parameters to be developed which had a positive predictive value of 81% in determining whether the lowest instrumented vertebra should be at the caudal end vertebra or one or two levels more distal. There were no differences in the Scoliosis Research Society-22 outcome scores between the two groups (p = 0.17). In conclusion, thoracolumbar/lumbar curves in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis may be effectively treated by posterior spinal fusion using a unilateral segmental pedicle screw technique. Five radiological parameters correlate with the need for distal extension of the fusion, and an equation incorporating these parameters reliably informs selection of the lowest instrumented vertebra. PMID:25086125

  18. The effect of lateral eccentricity on failure loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions of the cervical spine in axial loading.

    PubMed

    Van Toen, C; Melnyk, A D; Street, J; Oxland, T R; Cripton, P A

    2014-03-21

    Current neck injury criteria do not include limits for lateral bending combined with axial compression and this has been observed as a clinically relevant mechanism, particularly for rollover motor vehicle crashes. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of lateral eccentricity (the perpendicular distance from the axial force to the centre of the spine) on peak loads, kinematics, and spinal canal occlusions of subaxial cervical spine specimens tested in dynamic axial compression (0.5 m/s). Twelve 3-vertebra human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in two groups: low and high eccentricity with initial eccentricities of 1 and 150% of the lateral diameter of the vertebral body. Six-axis loads inferior to the specimen, kinematics of the superior-most vertebra, and spinal canal occlusions were measured. High speed video was collected and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to define the time of injury. The effects of eccentricity on peak loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions were evaluated using unpaired Student t-tests. The high eccentricity group had lower peak axial forces (1544 ± 629 vs. 4296 ± 1693 N), inferior displacements (0.2 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 2.0 mm), and canal occlusions (27 ± 5 vs. 53 ± 15%) and higher peak ipsilateral bending moments (53 ± 17 vs. 3 ± 18 Nm), ipsilateral bending rotations (22 ± 3 vs. 1 ± 2°), and ipsilateral displacements (4.5 ± 1.4 vs. -1.0 ± 1.3 mm, p<0.05 for all comparisons). These results provide new insights to develop prevention, recognition, and treatment strategies for compressive cervical spine injuries with lateral eccentricities. PMID:24411098

  19. Analysis of digitized cervical images to detect cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, Daron G.

    2004-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. If diagnosed in the premalignant stage, cure is invariably assured. Although the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancer where implemented, the test is only moderately sensitive, highly subjective and skilled-labor intensive. Newer optical screening tests (cervicography, direct visual inspection and speculoscopy), including fluorescent and reflective spectroscopy, are fraught with certain weaknesses. Yet, the integration of optical probes for the detection and discrimination of cervical neoplasia with automated image analysis methods may provide an effective screening tool for early detection of cervical cancer, particularly in resource poor nations. Investigative studies are needed to validate the potential for automated classification and recognition algorithms. By applying image analysis techniques for registration, segmentation, pattern recognition, and classification, cervical neoplasia may be reliably discriminated from normal epithelium. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the National Library of Medicine (NLM), has embarked on a program to begin this and other similar investigative studies.

  20. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer ...

  1. Cervical Cancer Prevention and Screening: Financial Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with lower incomes and those without insurance. Federal law Coverage of cervical cancer screening tests is mandated ... says. They also are not covered by state laws, including those about cervical cancer screening. Women who ...

  2. Effect of Head-Neck Position on Cervical Facet Stretch of Post Mortem Human Subjects during Low Speed Rear End Impacts.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srini; Prasad, Priya; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; Tashman, Scott; Begeman, Paul C; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of head-neck position on cervical facet stretch during low speed rear end impact. Twelve tests were conducted on four Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in a generic bucket seat environment. Three head positions, namely Normal (neutral), Zero Clearance between the head and head restraint, and Body Forward positions were tested. A high-speed x-ray system was used to record the motion of cervical vertebrae during these tests. Results demonstrate that: a) The maximum mean facet stretch at head restraint contact occurs at MS4 and MS5 for the Body Forward condition, b) The lower neck flexion moment, prior to head contact, shows a non-linear relationship with facet stretch, and c) "Differential rebound" during rear end impact increases facet stretch. PMID:17230273

  3. Cervical Spinal Epidural Hematoma Following Cervical Posterior Laminoforaminotomy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old man who had lateral cervical disc herniation underwent cervical posterior laminoforaminotomy at C5-6 and C6-7 level right side. During the operation, there was no serious surgical bleeding event. After operation, he complained persistent right shoulder pain and neck pain. Repeated magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed diffuse cervical epidural hematoma (EDH) extending from C5 to T1 level right side and spinal cord compression at C5-6-7 level. He underwent exploration. There was active bleeding at muscular layer. Muscular active bleeding was controlled and intramuscular hematoma was removed. The patient's symptom was reduced after second operation. Symptomatic postoperative spinal EDH requiring reoperation is rare. Meticulous bleeding control is important before wound closure. In addition, if patient presents persistent or aggravated pain after operation, rapid evaluation using MRI and second look operation is needed as soon as possible. PMID:23560180

  4. Cervical esophageal hemangioma combined with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jeong Won; Lee, Yong Jik; Lee, Seong Rok; Park, Chang-Ryul; Jung, Jong-Pil

    2011-08-01

    Hemangiomas that arise in cervical esophagus are extremely rare, representing 3.3% of all benign esophageal tumors. Although endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and potassium titanyl phosphate/yttrium aluminum garnet (KTP/YAG) laser therapy have been used with success for small tumors, the safety and efficacy in the case of large tumors remains uncertain. We report the successful resection of cervical esophageal hemangioma through a cervical esophagotomy in a patient with thyroid cancer who needed a cervical collar incision. PMID:22263178

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Screening methods used to find cervical changes that may lead to cervical cancer include the Pap test and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Such screening tests may find cancers early, when they are most treatable. Women who have never been screened or who have not been screened in the past 5 years face a greater risk of developing invasive cervical cancer.

  6. In vivo kinematics of the cervical spine. Part I: Development of a roentgen stereophotogrammetric technique using metallic markers and assessment of its accuracy.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Harris, K G; Nassif, J; Goel, V K; Clark, C R

    1993-12-01

    A technique for simultaneous roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RS) was developed, and its accuracy was assessed. In vitro models fabricated from dried cadaveric C4 and C5 vertebrae were used to simulate the motion behavior of the cervical spine. Metallic markers made of Vitallium beads (diameter < 0.3 mm) were implanted into the posterior and anterior surfaces of each vertebra at surgically accessible locations to simulate the bead placement for both posterior and anterior surgical approaches to the cervical spine. A series of roentgen stereo pairs were obtained to systematically assess the accuracy (validity) of displacement measurements in anteroposterior (AP) translation, axial rotation, and flexion/extension. In addition, the effects of soft tissue density on the accuracy of the system were investigated by obtaining a series of roentgen stereo pairs with the experimental model immersed in a water bath. The coordinates of the metallic markers on the radiographs were then digitized by two raters who were not informed of the actual motion (i.e., blind study). The results indicated a high accuracy throughout the study. Overall root mean square errors were 0.07 mm for AP translation, 0.08 degrees for axial rotation, and 0.14 degrees for flexion/extension. The corresponding accuracy estimates (R2 values by linear regression analysis) were very high (0.992, 0.998, and 0.995) when the measurement results were compared with the actual displacements. The water bath did not affect measurement accuracy, indicating that soft tissue density should have little effect on the accuracy of the technique for in vivo applications. This system appears to be an accurate and reliable method for assessment of simulated in vivo cervical spine motion, regardless of the rater. The technique has been further used in in vivo assessment of cervical spine kinematics in one patient to confirm the efficacy of the developed technique. PMID:8130401

  7. Cement interdigitation and bone-cement interface after augmenting fractured vertebrae: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Kratz, Marita; Baroud, Gamal; Becker, Stephan; Ruchholtz, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Background The treatment of painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with transpedicular cement augmentation has grown significantly over the last 20 years. There is still uncertainty about long-term and midterm effects of polymethyl methacrylate in trabecular bone. Preservation of the trabecular structures, as well as interdigitation of the cement with the surrounding bone, therefore has been gaining increasing attention. Interdigitation of cement is likely relevant for biological healing and the biomechanical augmentation process. In this study a cutting and grinding technique was used to evaluate the interdigitation for 4 augmentation techniques. Methods By use of a standardized protocol, wedge fractures were created in vertebrae taken from a fresh-frozen spine. Thereafter the vertebrae were assigned to 1 of 4 similar groups with regard to the vertebral size and force required to produce the fracture. The 4 groups were randomized to the following augmentation techniques: balloon kyphoplasty, radiofrequency (RF) kyphoplasty, shield kyphoplasty, and vertebral stenting. Histologic analysis was designed to examine the bone structure and interdigitation after the augmentation. Results For the void-creating procedures, the distance between bone and cement was 341.4 ± 173.7 µm and 413.6 ± 167.6 µm for vertebral stenting and balloon kyphoplasty, respectively. Specifically, the trabecular bone was condensed around the cement, forming a shield of condensed bone. The procedures without a balloon resulted in shorter distances of 151.2 ± 111.4 µm and 228.1 ± 183.6 µm for RF and shield kyphoplasty, respectively. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P < .0001). The percentage of interdigitation was higher for the procedures that did not use a balloon: 16.7% ± 9.7% for balloon kyphoplasty, 20.5% ± 12.9% for vertebral stenting, 66.45% ± 12.35% for RF kyphoplasty, and 48.61% ± 20.56% for shield kyphoplasty. The difference among the groups was highly significant (P < .00001). Conclusions Cavity-creating procedures reduce the cement interdigitation significantly and may accordingly reduce the effectiveness of the augmentation procedures. PMID:25694880

  8. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

  9. Morphometric analysis of the cervical facets and the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of Goel inter-facet spacer distraction technique

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Quantitative anatomy of the facets of the sub-axial cervical spine was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to determine the feasibility of insertion of Goel inter-facetal articular spacers in the sub-axial cervical spine. Only few studies detailing the morphometry of the facets are available in the literature. Materials and Methods: Ten cervical vertebrae from C3 to C7 with a total of 20 facets were evaluated by the author. The anatomic parameters studied were the height, width, thickness, shape, orientation, and inclination of each of the superior and inferior facets. The alterations in a number of intervertebral segmental distances were measured before and after spacer insertion. The distance of the inferior facet from the foramen tranversarium, spinal canal, and neural foramina was measured to assess safety of spacer insertion with respect to the vertebral artery and neural structures. Results: The height, width and thickness of the superior facets from C3 to C7 ranged from 6 to 12 mm, 8 to 12 mm, and 2.5 to 6 mm, respectively. The inferior facets had an average height of 10.5 mm, average width of 11.2 mm and average thickness of 3.5 mm. The inclination of the superior facets with respect to the transverse plane ranged from 22° to 45° and that of the inferior facets ranged from 29° to 53°. The distance of the anterior margin of the inferior facet from the posterior border of the foramen transversium ranged from 5 to 7 mm. This distance was maximum at C3 level, then decreased at C4 and remained constant from C5 to C7. Conclusion: This anatomic evaluation aided in understanding the morphology of the cervical facets and the suitability of the cervical facetal articular cavity for insertion of spacers. PMID:25013341

  10. Biomarkers of Cervical Dysplasia and Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sonya J.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Although cervical cytology screening has decreased the incidence of cervical cancer in industrialized countries, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to represent a major burden on the health care system. Some of the problems include the potential for either under- or overtreatment of women due to decreased specificity of screening tests as well as significant interobserver variability in the diagnosis of cervical dysplastic lesions. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of these women. PMID:22131995

  11. Cervical spinal cord injuries in patients with cervical spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Regenbogen, V S; Rogers, L F; Atlas, S W; Kim, K S

    1986-02-01

    Eighty-eight patients over age 40 with traumatic cervical spinal cord injuries were clinically and radiographically evaluated, and comparison was made with 35 spinal cord injury patients under age 36. While most older patients sustained obvious bony and/or ligamentous damage commensurate with their neurologic findings, 25 (28%) of the 88 patients had no demonstrable bony abnormalities and 17 (20%) of the 88 patients had only minimal evidence of bony injury. Of particular interest are the patients with severe cord injuries, yet no bony abnormalities, who seem to form a distinct subgroup of the cervical spinal cord injury patient on the basis of radiographic and clinical features. Of these 25 patients, 24 (96%) had severe cervical spondylosis. Fourteen (56%) of the 25 patients were injured in falls, five (36%) of these 14 being of a seemingly trivial nature. Of the 42 patients with minimal or no demonstrable bony abnormalities, 33 (79%) were evaluated with plain tomography and no occult fractures or other significant pathology was demonstrated. Pantopaque myelography in 27 (64%) of the 42 cases revealed no extruded disk or other surgical lesion in any patient. In large measure, these injuries can be attributed to cervical spondylosis, which narrows the canal and makes the cord more susceptible to compression by the bulging ligamenta flava during hyperextension. PMID:3484576

  12. Morphometric analysis of lateral masses of axis vertebrae in north indians.

    PubMed

    Lalit, Monika; Piplani, Sanjay; Kullar, J S; Mahajan, Anupama

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. The lateral masses of axis have good cancellous bone quality beneath the articular surface of facets that make this area a good site for the insertion of an internal fixation device. Methods. 60 dry axis vertebrae were obtained for anatomic evaluation focused on pedicle, superior and inferior articular facets, and foramen transversarium. Based upon linear and angular parameters the mean, range, and standard deviation were calculated. Results. The mean length, width, and height of the pedicle were 21.61 ± 2.37?mm, 8.82 ± 2.43?mm, and 5.63 ± 2.06?mm. The mean pedicle superior angle and median angle were 23.3 and 32.2 degrees. The mean superior articular facet length, width, and external and internal height were 16.34 ± 1.56?mm, 14.35 ± 1.75?mm, 8.98 ± 1.36?mm, and 4.23 ± 0.81?mm. Depth of vertebral artery was 4.72 ± 0.83?mm. Mean inferior articular facet length and width were 11.13 ± 1.43?mm and 7.89 ± 1.30?mm. The mean foramen transversarium length and width were 5.11 ± 0.91?mm and 5.06 ± 1.23?mm. Conclusions. The study may provide information for the surgeons to determine the safe site of entry and trajectory for the screw implantation and also to avoid injuries to vital structures while operating around axis. PMID:25215237

  13. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Yan, Deng-lu; Zhang, Zai-Heng

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors' clinic and treated by PCN. The patients' gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 +/- 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3-4, 30 cases at C4-5, 40 cases at C5-6, and 35 cases at C6-7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) > or =11 degrees or horizontal displacement (HD) > or =3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery. PMID:18830638

  14. Direct visualization of regions with lowered bone mineral density in dual-energy CT images of vertebrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesarg, Stefan; Erdt, Marius; Kafchitsas, Konstantinos; Khan, M. Fawad

    2011-03-01

    Dual-energy CT allows for a better material differentiation than conventional CT. For the purpose of osteoporosis diagnosis, a detection of regions with lowered bone mineral density (BMD) is of high clinical interest. Based on an existing biophysical model of the trabecular bone in vertebrae a new method for directly highlighting those low density regions in the image data has been developed. For this, we combine image data acquired at 80 kV and 140 kV with information about the BMD range in different vertebrae and derive a method for computing a color enhanced image which clearly indicates low density regions. An evaluation of our method which compares it with a quantitative method for BMD assessment shows a very good correspondence between both methods. The strength of our method lies in its simplicity and speed.

  15. Segmentation and feature extraction of cervical spine x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    1999-05-01

    As part of an R&D project in mixed text/image database design, the National Library of Medicine has archived a collection of 17,000 digitized x-ray images of the cervical and lumbar spine which were collected as part of the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). To make this image data available and usable to a wide audience, we are investigating techniques for indexing the image content by automated or semi-automated means. Indexing of the images by features of interest to researchers in spine disease and structure requires effective segmentation of the vertebral anatomy. This paper describes work in progress toward this segmentation of the cervical spine images into anatomical components of interest, including anatomical landmarks for vertebral location, and segmentation and identification of individual vertebrae. Our work includes developing a reliable method for automatically fixing an anatomy-based coordinate system in the images, and work to adaptively threshold the images, using methods previously applied by researchers in cardioangiography. We describe the motivation for our work and present our current results in both areas.

  16. Determination of 3D location and rotation of lumbar vertebrae in CT images by symmetry-based auto-registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrtovec, Tomaž; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo

    2007-03-01

    Quantitative measurement of vertebral rotation is important in surgical planning, analysis of surgical results, and monitoring of the progression of spinal deformities. However, many established and newly developed techniques for measuring axial vertebral rotation do not exploit three-dimensional (3D) information, which may result in virtual axial rotation because of the sagittal and coronal rotation of vertebrae. We propose a novel automatic approach to the measurement of the location and rotation of vertebrae in 3D without prior volume reformation, identification of appropriate cross-sections or aid by statistical models. The vertebra under investigation is encompassed by a mask in the form of an elliptical cylinder in 3D, defined by its center of rotation and the rotation angles. We exploit the natural symmetry of the vertebral body, vertebral column and vertebral canal by dividing the vertebral mask by its mid-axial, mid-sagittal and mid-coronal plane, so that the obtained volume pairs contain symmetrical parts of the observed anatomy. Mirror volume pairs are then simultaneously registered to each other by robust rigid auto-registration, using the weighted sum of absolute differences between the intensities of the corresponding volume pairs as the similarity measure. The method was evaluated on 50 lumbar vertebrae from normal and scoliotic computed tomography (CT) spinal scans, showing relatively large capture ranges and distinctive maxima at the correct locations and rotation angles. The proposed method may aid the measurement of the dimensions of vertebral pedicles, foraminae and canal, and may be a valuable tool for clinical evaluation of the spinal deformities in 3D.

  17. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  18. Relationship between findings of mandibular cortical bone in inferior border and bone mineral densities of lumbar vertebrae in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Munetaka; Takada, Shoko Tamaki; Kurosu, Yasunari; Inagaki, Koji; Mitani, Akio; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2014-01-01

    It is important to assess the general bone condition in dental implant treatment. The relationships between the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of lumbar vertebrae and mandibular cortical bone condition in the inferior border using multi-slice computed tomography (CT) were assessed in postmenopausal women. If a strong correlation between them is obtained, the mandibular cortical bone condition may be useful to evaluate the general bone condition. Twenty-two postmenopausal women were enrolled in this investigation. The maximum CT value and width of the mandibular cortical bone (MCW-MSCT) were measured, and the mandibular cortical bone index (MCI-MSCT) was classified using multi-slice CT. BMDs of lumbar vertebrae were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and then the percentage of the young adult mean (YAM) was analyzed. The correlations were investigated between the mandibular cortical bone condition and values of lumbar vertebrae. Weak correlations were observed between MCW-MSCT and the percentage of YAM. Also, significant differences in the percentage of YAM were noted between types of MCI-MSCT. The mandibular cortical bone index (MCI-MSCT) in the inferior border using multi-slice CT may be applicable to evaluate the influence of the general bone condition. PMID:25797458

  19. Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cervical cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. The arterial supply of the cervical and thoracic spinal muscles and overlying skin: Anatomical study with implications for surgical wound complications.

    PubMed

    Yue, Brian Yin Ting; le Roux, Cara Michelle; Corlett, Russell; De La Harpe, David; Richardson, Martin; Ashton, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative spinal wound dehiscence is a significant complication following the posterior midline approach. It is postulated that this approach disrupts the vasculature supplying the paraspinal muscles and overlying skin. Although the spinal vasculature has been investigated previously, the smaller arterioles have not been described in the context of the posterior midline approach. Eight cadaveric neck and posterior torso specimens were dissected after injection with a radio-opaque lead oxide mixture and subsequent radiographs taken were analyzed. The deep cervical, vertebral, superficial cervical, and occipital arteries consistently supplied the cervical paraspinal muscles. The latter two arteries also vascularized the overlying skin. The deep cervical arteries were found to be located lateral to the C3 to C6 vertebrae, vulnerable to damage with the posterior approach. In the thoracic region, the superior and posterior intercostal arteries consistently supplied the spinal muscles. In all specimens, two small anastomotic vessels posterior to the laminae were found connecting the intercostal artery perforators. Both the arterial perforators and their anastomotic channels were situated in the surgical field and susceptible to damage with the posterior approach. It is likely that the disruption in spinal vasculature contributes to the multifactorial problem of wound dehiscence with the posterior midline approach. PMID:22887027

  1. Mixed reality simulation of rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Until quite recently spinal disorder problems in the U.S. have been operated by fusing cervical vertebrae instead of replacement of the cervical disc with an artificial disc. Cervical disc replacement is a recently approved procedure in the U.S. It is one of the most challenging surgical procedures in the medical field due to the deficiencies in available diagnostic tools and insufficient number of surgical practices For physicians and surgical instrument developers, it is critical to understand how to successfully deploy the new artificial disc replacement systems. Without proper understanding and practice of the deployment procedure, it is possible to injure the vertebral body. Mixed reality (MR) and virtual reality (VR) surgical simulators are becoming an indispensable part of physicians’ training, since they offer a risk free training environment. In this study, MR simulation framework and intricacies involved in the development of a MR simulator for the rasping procedure in artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR) surgery are investigated. The major components that make up the MR surgical simulator with motion tracking system are addressed. Findings A mixed reality surgical simulator that targets rasping procedure in the artificial cervical disc replacement surgery with a VICON motion tracking system was developed. There were several challenges in the development of MR surgical simulator. First, the assembly of different hardware components for surgical simulation development that involves knowledge and application of interdisciplinary fields such as signal processing, computer vision and graphics, along with the design and placements of sensors etc . Second challenge was the creation of a physically correct model of the rasping procedure in order to attain critical forces. This challenge was handled with finite element modeling. The third challenge was minimization of error in mapping movements of an actor in real model to a virtual model in a process called registration. This issue was overcome by a two-way (virtual object to real domain and real domain to virtual object) semi-automatic registration method. Conclusions The applicability of the VICON MR setting for the ACDR surgical simulator is demonstrated. The main stream problems encountered in MR surgical simulator development are addressed. First, an effective environment for MR surgical development is constructed. Second, the strain and the stress intensities and critical forces are simulated under the various rasp instrument loadings with impacts that are applied on intervertebral surfaces of the anterior vertebrae throughout the rasping procedure. Third, two approaches are introduced to solve the registration problem in MR setting. Results show that our system creates an effective environment for surgical simulation development and solves tedious and time-consuming registration problems caused by misalignments. Further, the MR ACDR surgery simulator was tested by 5 different physicians who found that the MR simulator is effective enough to teach the anatomical details of cervical discs and to grasp the basics of the ACDR surgery and rasping procedure PMID:20946594

  2. A New Material Mapping Procedure for Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based, Continuum Finite Element Analyses of the Vertebra

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U.; Morgan, Elise F.

    2012-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the estimation of material properties and errors in the assignment of these properties into finite element models limit the reliability, accuracy, and precision of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element analyses of the vertebra. In this work, a new mesh-independent, material mapping procedure was developed to improve the quality of predictions of vertebral mechanical behavior from QCT-based finite element models. In this procedure, an intermediate step, called the material block model, was introduced to determine the distribution of material properties based on bone mineral density, and these properties were then mapped onto the finite element mesh. A sensitivity study was first conducted on a calibration phantom to understand the influence of the size of the material blocks on the computed bone mineral density. It was observed that varying the material block size produced only marginal changes in the predictions of mineral density. Finite element (FE) analyses were then conducted on a square column-shaped region of the vertebra and also on the entire vertebra in order to study the effect of material block size on the FE-derived outcomes. The predicted values of stiffness for the column and the vertebra decreased with decreasing block size. When these results were compared to those of a mesh convergence analysis, it was found that the influence of element size on vertebral stiffness was less than that of the material block size. This mapping procedure allows the material properties in a finite element study to be determined based on the block size required for an accurate representation of the material field, while the size of the finite elements can be selected independently and based on the required numerical accuracy of the finite element solution. The mesh-independent, material mapping procedure developed in this study could be particularly helpful in improving the accuracy of finite element analyses of vertebroplasty and spine metastases, as these analyses typically require mesh refinement at the interfaces between distinct materials. Moreover, the mapping procedure is not specific to the vertebra and could thus be applied to many other anatomic sites. PMID:21823740

  3. Early Trabecular Development in Human Vertebrae: Overproduction, Constructive Regression, and Refinement.

    PubMed

    Acquaah, Frank; Robson Brown, Katharine A; Ahmed, Farah; Jeffery, Nathan; Abel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Early bone development may have a significant impact upon bone health in adulthood. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass are important determinants of adult bone strength. However, several studies have shown that BMD and bone mass decrease after birth. If early development is important for strength, why does this reduction occur? To investigate this, more data characterizing gestational, infant, and childhood bone development are needed in order to compare with adults. The aim of this study is to document early vertebral trabecular bone development, a key fragility fracture site, and infer whether this period is important for adult bone mass and structure. A series of 120 vertebrae aged between 6?months gestation and 2.5?years were visualized using microcomputed tomography. Spherical volumes of interest were defined, thresholded, and measured using 3D bone analysis software (BoneJ, Quant3D). The findings showed that gestation was characterized by increasing bone volume fraction whilst infancy was defined by significant bone loss (?2/3rds) and the appearance of a highly anisotropic trabecular structure with a predominantly inferior-superior direction. Childhood development progressed via selective thickening of some trabeculae and the loss of others; maintaining bone volume whilst creating a more anisotropic structure. Overall, the pattern of vertebral development is one of gestational overproduction followed by infant "sculpting" of bone tissue during the first year of life (perhaps in order to regulate mineral homeostasis or to adapt to loading environment) and then subsequent refinement during early childhood. Comparison of early bone developmental data in this study with adult bone volume values taken from the literature shows that the loss in bone mass that occurs during the first year of life is never fully recovered. Early development could therefore be important for developing bone strength, but through structural changes in trabecular microarchitecture rather than bone mass. PMID:26106365

  4. Early Trabecular Development in Human Vertebrae: Overproduction, Constructive Regression, and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Acquaah, Frank; Robson Brown, Katharine A.; Ahmed, Farah; Jeffery, Nathan; Abel, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Early bone development may have a significant impact upon bone health in adulthood. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mass are important determinants of adult bone strength. However, several studies have shown that BMD and bone mass decrease after birth. If early development is important for strength, why does this reduction occur? To investigate this, more data characterizing gestational, infant, and childhood bone development are needed in order to compare with adults. The aim of this study is to document early vertebral trabecular bone development, a key fragility fracture site, and infer whether this period is important for adult bone mass and structure. A series of 120 vertebrae aged between 6?months gestation and 2.5?years were visualized using microcomputed tomography. Spherical volumes of interest were defined, thresholded, and measured using 3D bone analysis software (BoneJ, Quant3D). The findings showed that gestation was characterized by increasing bone volume fraction whilst infancy was defined by significant bone loss (?2/3rds) and the appearance of a highly anisotropic trabecular structure with a predominantly inferior–superior direction. Childhood development progressed via selective thickening of some trabeculae and the loss of others; maintaining bone volume whilst creating a more anisotropic structure. Overall, the pattern of vertebral development is one of gestational overproduction followed by infant “sculpting” of bone tissue during the first year of life (perhaps in order to regulate mineral homeostasis or to adapt to loading environment) and then subsequent refinement during early childhood. Comparison of early bone developmental data in this study with adult bone volume values taken from the literature shows that the loss in bone mass that occurs during the first year of life is never fully recovered. Early development could therefore be important for developing bone strength, but through structural changes in trabecular microarchitecture rather than bone mass.

  5. Spinal Deformity in Aged Zebrafish Is Accompanied by Degenerative Changes to Their Vertebrae that Resemble Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Anthony J.; Reynolds, Scott; Nowell, Mari A.; Meakin, Lee B.; Habicher, Judith; Ledin, Johan; Bashford, Andrew; Caterson, Bruce; Hammond, Chrissy L.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related degenerative changes within the vertebral column are a significant cause of morbidity with considerable socio-economic impact worldwide. An improved understanding of these changes through the development of experimental models may lead to improvements in existing clinical treatment options. The zebrafish is a well-established model for the study of skeletogenesis with significant potential in gerontological research. With advancing age, zebrafish frequently develop gross deformities of their vertebral column, previously ascribed to reduced trunk muscle tone. In this study, we assess degenerative changes specifically within the bone and cartilage of the vertebral column of zebrafish at 1, 2 and 3-years of age. We show increased frequency and severity of spinal deformities/curvatures with age. Underlying the most severe phenotypes are partial or complete vertebral dislocations and focal thickening of the vertebral bone at the joint margins. MicroCT examination demonstrates small defects, fractures and morphological evidence suggestive of bone erosion and remodeling (i.e. osteophytes) within the vertebrae during aging, but no significant change in bone density. Light and electron microscopic examination reveal striking age-related changes in cell morphology, suggestive of chondroptosis, and tissue remodelling of the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. Glycosaminoglycan analysis of the vertebral column by HPLC demonstrates a consistent, age-related increase in the yield of total chondroitin sulfate disaccharide, but no change in sulfation pattern, supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunohistochemistry strongly identifies all three chondroitin/dermatan sulphate isoforms (C-0-S, C-4-S/DS and C-6-S) within the vertebral cartilage, particularly within the pericellular micro-environment. In contrast, keratan sulfate immunolocalises specifically with the notochordal tissue of the intervertebral disc, and its labelling diminishes with age. In summary, these observations raise the prospect that zebrafish, in addition to modelling skeletal development, may have utility in modelling age-related degenerative changes that affect the skeleton during senescence. PMID:24086633

  6. Ultrasound-indicated cervical cerclage: Outcome depends on preoperative cervical length and presence of visible membranes at time of cerclage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie M. Groom; Andrew H. Shennan; Phillip R. Bennett

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess cases of ultrasound-indicated cervical cerclage and to relate preoperative cervical length, operative findings, postoperative cervical length, and pregnancy outcome to establish the appropriate criteria to offer cervical cerclage. Study Design: A prospective observational study comprised 380 women at high risk of preterm labor who underwent serial transvaginal ultrasonographic assessment of cervical

  7. Cervical compensatory alignment changes following correction of adult thoracic deformity: a multicenter experience in 57 patients with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Oh, Taemin; Scheer, Justin K; Eastlack, Robert; Smith, Justin S; Lafage, Virginie; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Klineberg, Eric; Passias, Peter G; Deviren, Vedat; Hostin, Richard; Gupta, Munish; Bess, Shay; Schwab, Frank; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Alignment changes in the cervical spine that occur following surgical correction for thoracic deformity remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate such changes in a cohort of adults with thoracic deformity treated surgically. METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of consecutive patients with thoracic deformity. Inclusion criteria for this study were as follows: corrective osteotomy for thoracic deformity, upper-most instrumented vertebra (UIV) between T-1 and T-4, lower-most instrumented vertebra (LIV) at or above L-5 (LIV ? L-5) or at the ilium (LIV-ilium), and a minimum radiographic follow-up of 2 years. Sagittal radiographic parameters were assessed preoperatively as well as at 3 months and 2 years postoperatively, including the C-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), C2-7 cervical lordosis (CL), C2-7 SVA, T-1 slope (T1S), T1S minus CL (T1S-CL), T2-12 thoracic kyphosis (TK), apical TK, lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), PI-LL, pelvic tilt (PT), and sacral slope (SS). RESULTS Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 49.1 ± 14.6 years met the study inclusion criteria. The preoperative prevalence of increased CL (CL > 15°) was 48.9%. Both 3-month and 2-year apical TK improved from baseline (p < 0.05, statistically significant). At the 2-year follow-up, only the C2-7 SVA increased significantly from baseline (p = 0.01), whereas LL decreased from baseline (p < 0.01). The prevalence of increased CL was 35.3% at 3 months and 47.8% at 2 years, which did not represent a significant change. Postoperative cervical alignment changes were not significantly different from preoperative values regardless of the LIV (LIV ? L-5 or LIV-ilium, p > 0.05 for both). In a subset of patients with a maximum TK ? 60° (35 patients) and 3-column osteotomy (38 patients), no significant postoperative cervical changes were seen. CONCLUSION Increased CL is common in adult spinal deformity patients with thoracic deformities and, unlike after lumbar corrective surgery, does not appear to normalize after thoracic corrective surgery. Cervical sagittal malalignment (C2-7 SVA) also increases postoperatively. Surgeons should be aware that spontaneous cervical alignment normalization might not occur following thoracic deformity correction. PMID:25793468

  8. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884...Surgical Devices § 884.4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two...

  9. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884...Surgical Devices § 884.4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two...

  10. Cervical varix with placenta previa totalis.

    PubMed

    Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Shimizu, Dai; Hosoya, Naoko; Hirano, Hideto; Ishiyama, Koichi; Tanaka, Toshinobu

    2007-08-01

    A cervical varix during pregnancy is a very rare complication. It can lead to hemorrhage and may result in significant morbidity. Furthermore, appropriate management has not yet been established. We present a case of a cervical varix with placenta previa totalis. A 30-year-old woman with placenta previa totalis also had a cervical varix without bleeding. At 32 weeks' gestation, massive hemorrhage from the cervical varix occurred. A vaginal pack controlled the bleeding, and a cesarean section was subsequently carried out because of uncontrollable uterine contractions. A 1655 g female infant was delivered; the estimated blood loss was 1814 mL. The cervical varix decreased dramatically in size. In conclusion, presented herein is a rare case of a cervical varix, which had a successful outcome. PMID:17688624

  11. Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Walboomers; A M de Roda Husman; P J Snijders; H V Stel; E K Risse; T J Helmerhorst; F J Voorhorst; C J Meijer

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of

  12. Induction of Aromatase Expression in Cervical Carcinomas: Effects of Endogenous Estrogen on Cervical Cancer Cell Proliferation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hareesh B. Nair; Roopa Luthra; Nameer Kirma; Ya-Guang Liu; Lisa Flowers; Dean Evans; Rajeshwar Rao Tekmal

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have implicated estrogenic exposure as well as human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and some studies have suggested that estrogen and HPV may play synergistic roles in cervical tumorigenesis. In this study, we report a novel finding that f35% of cervical carcinomas tested (n = 19) express aromatase, the enzyme responsible for converting androgen to estrogen,

  13. Cervical competence as a continuum: A study of ultrasonographic cervical length and obstetric performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay D. Iams; Francee F. Johnson; Jiri Sonck; Larry Sachs; Cathy Gebauer; Philip Samuels

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the hypothesis that cervical competence is a continuum that is related to cervical length and is reflected by pregnancy history.STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was performed of cervical length measured by transvaginal ultrasonography in women with prior preterm delivery at ? 26 weeks, 27 to 32 weeks, and 33 to 35 weeks compared with

  14. OXYTOCIN-INDUCED CERVICAL DILATION AND CERVICAL MANIPULATION IN SHEEP: EFFECTS ON LAPAROSCOPIC ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Difficulty of cervical penetration during transcervical artificial insemination (TAI), limits its use in sheep. Trauma of cervical manipulation (CM) may explain low fertility after TAI. We investigated effects of cervical dilation using exogenous oxytocin (OT) to facilitate TAI and its effect on rep...

  15. Human papillomavirus, cervical cancer and women's knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azadeh Stark; Lucie Gregoire; Rebecca Pilarski; Allison Zarbo; Arthur Gaba; Wayne D. Lancaster

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Methods: We implemented a retrospective case-series study to discern HPV knowledge accuracy among women diagnosed with and treated for cervical cancer. Cases (n=1174), identified from the Pathology database, were diagnosed and treated for cervical cancer at the same institution. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires and by reviewing

  16. Cervical spine injury in maxillofacial trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Lalani; K. M. Bonanthaya

    1997-01-01

    Objective—To find out the incidence of associated facial injuries and injuries to the cervical spine. Design—Retrospective study. Setting—Teaching hospital, India. Subjects-536 patients treated for maxillofacial injuries between January 1992 and November 1993. Interventions—Review of hospital case notes and radiographs. Main outcome measures—Coexisting facial and cervical spine injuries, morbidity and mortality. Results—16 patients (3%) had sustained both facial and cervical spine

  17. Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Gausepohl, Jeniffer S.; Wagner, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

  18. Survival from cervical necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Gausepohl, Jeniffer S; Wagner, Jonathan G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

  19. Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Hirsch, Pierre PL; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Bryant, Andrew; Dickinson, Heather O; Keep, Sarah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the most common pre-malignant lesion. Atypical squamous changes occur in the transformation zone of the cervix with mild, moderate or severe changes described by their depth (CIN 1, 2 or 3). Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia is treated by local ablation or lower morbidity excision techniques. Choice of treatment depends on the grade and extent of the disease. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of alternative surgical treatments for CIN. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE and EMBASE (up to April 2009). We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of alternative surgical treatments in women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently abstracted data and assessed risks of bias. Risk ratios that compared residual disease after the follow-up examination and adverse events in women who received one of either laser ablation, laser conisation, large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ), knife conisation or cryotherapy were pooled in random-effects model meta-analyses. Main results Twenty-nine trials were included. Seven surgical techniques were tested in various comparisons. No significant differences in treatment failures were demonstrated in terms of persistent disease after treatment. Large loop excision of the transformation zone appeared to provide the most reliable specimens for histology with the least morbidity. Morbidity was lower than with laser conisation, although the trials did not provide data for every outcome measure. There were not enough data to assess the effect on morbidity when compared with laser ablation. Authors’ conclusions The evidence suggests that there is no obvious superior surgical technique for treating cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in terms of treatment failures or operative morbidity. PMID:20556751

  20. Human papilloma virus and cervical preinvasive disease

    PubMed Central

    Bari, M; Iancu, G; Popa, F

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer lesions represent a major threat to the health of the women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 99.7% of cervical cancer cases, the infectious etiology giving the possibility of preventing cervical cancer by vaccination. The most aggressive HPV types are 16 and 18, which cause about 70% of cases of invasive cancer. The vaccination is recommended to the girls aged 11–12. The diagnosis and the treatment of cervical preinvasive disease allow the doctor to prevent the development of the invasive disease. PMID:20108750

  1. Interdisciplinary treatment of cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Allen, Edward P; Winter, Robert R

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue grafting is an integral part of treatment of cervical lesions due to the common lack of adequate attached gingiva and root exposure associated with these lesions. Complete root coverage is a predictable outcome for Miller Class I and II recession defects, and partial root coverage can be achieved in Miller Class III defects. In the esthetic zone, it is desirable to cover as much of the root as possible, and all sites require an adequate zone of attached gingiva, especially adjacent to a restoration. Restorations are required for cervical lesions with excessive depth and significant involvement of the enamel, but they should be avoided where the lesion is shallow and the enamel involvement is minimal. Of course, some sites will require both soft-tissue grafting and placement of a restoration. An interdisciplinary approach to treating cervical lesions will create the most biologically appropriate, stable, and esthetic outcome. Establishing the appropriate tooth form first in treatment planning and sequencing will determine the gingival level and extent of periodontal procedures necessary to achieve the desired outcome. PMID:22439257

  2. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study seeks to develop sensitive, specific, and inexpensive approaches to cervical cancer screening as alternatives to the traditional Pap test and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  3. Midline trough corpectomies for the evacuation of an extensive ventral cervical and upper thoracic spinal epidural abscess.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vinay R

    2010-08-01

    The author reports on a 59-year-old woman with a history of a chronic, nonhealing skin ulcer who presented with sepsis, neck pain, and rapidly progressive quadriparesis. Precontrast and postcontrast MR imaging studies revealed a multifocal ventral cervical and upper thoracic spinal epidural abscess. Compression of the spinal cord from the abscess was greatest behind the disc space of C2-3 and C7-T1. Because of the patient's tenuous medical status, the author elected to apply a technique that would allow expeditious decompression without necessitating concomitant fusion and instrumentation. Multilevel, contiguous trough corpectomies were performed for evacuation of the compressive lesions. A high-speed matchstick bur was used to create a 5- to 7-mm midline trough in the vertebrae and intervening disc spaces from C-2 to T-3. Rapid and successful decompression of the entire ventral cervical and upper thoracic epidural space was achieved using this technique. Understanding that the surgical treatment of discitis or osteomyelitis can often result in a kyphotic deformity or frank instability, the patient was immobilized in a cervical collar following surgery and underwent vigilant monitoring with serial plain radiographs, CT scans, and MR images. These neuroimaging studies confirmed complete resolution of the abscess and the slow development of a mild, stable kyphotic deformity. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient was ambulating and had returned to work. A trough corpectomy is a viable surgical approach that allows for rapid decompression of ventral cervical and upper thoracic epidural abscesses while obviating the need for same-setting fusion and fixation. PMID:20672959

  4. Comparative study of the density of L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae in menopausal women aged over 50 years with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Tavakoli, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Index used for osteoporosis detection was BMD measured in L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae. We compared the density of the vertebrae to select the one with maximum change in the density for decreasing the cost and the time. Methods and Materials: Ninety seven osteoporotic post-menopausal women with a mean age of 61.78 ± 8.48 (50 - 86) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.75 ± 2.66 (kg/m2) (18 - 30) without any known diseases and on any medication affecting bone mineral density (BMD) were examined at osteoporosis section of a teaching hospital. The vertebral bodies (L2 - L4) of participants were measured by using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry system (DEXA). To investigate if the BMD measurement of a single vertebra could replace the total L2 - L4 measurement, the mean BMDs and the correlations of the L2 - L4 were compared. Results: Among the 97 studied women, the mean BMI was 24.75 ± 2.66. The mean BMD of L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae were 0.7199, 0.7258, and 0.7402, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean BMD of L2 and L3 vertebrae (P > 0.05), suggesting a strong relationship between L2 and L3. The mean BMD in the L4 vertebra was significantly higher than the other two vertebrae (P < 0.05), Statistical analysis showed that the BMD in all three L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae were associated with BMI (r > 0 and P < 0.05), but there was no significant relationship between BMD and age in the three L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae (r ? 0 and P > 0.05). Conclusion: Since the mean BMDs of L2 and L3 were not significantly different, and due to a very high correlation between L2 and L3, we recommend the measurement of L2 rather than L2 - L4 in order to save patient scanning time, cost, and the patient X-ray exposure. PMID:26097857

  5. Combination of icotinib, surgery, and internal-radiotherapy of a patient with lung cancer severely metastasized to the vertebrae bones with EGFR mutation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Li-Li; Qin, Hai-Feng; Gao, Hong-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old Chinese female was referred to us regarding EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and metastasis to left scapula and vertebrae bones which caused pathological fracture at T8 and T10 thoracic vertebrae. An aggressive combined therapy with icotinib, vertebrae operation, and radioactive particle implantation and immunotherapy was proposed to prevent paraplegia, relieve pain, and control the overall and local tumor lesions. No postoperative symptoms were seen after surgery, and the pain was significantly relieved. Icotinib merited a 31-month partial response with grade 1 diarrhea as its drug-related adverse event. High dose of icotinib was administered after pelvis lesion progression for 3 months with good tolerance. Combination therapy of icotinib, surgery, and internal radiation for metastases of the vertebrae bones from non-small cell lung cancer seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor, vertebrae operation can be an encouraging option for patients with EFGR positive mutation and good prognosis indicator.

  6. Evaluation of pediatric cervical spine injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Baker; Howard Kadish; Jeff E Schunk

    1999-01-01

    To compare historical features, clinical examination findings, and radiographic results among pediatric patients with cervical spine injury (CSI), a retrospective review of patients who were diagnosed with CSI was undertaken. Two main groups were identified: radiographically evident cervical spine injury (RESCI), and spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA). Demographic, historical, clinical, and radiographic information was obtained from patients' charts

  7. Cervical Cancer: Screening and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan; Somanathan Thara; Pulikottil Okkuru Esmy; Partha Basu

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of mortality and premature death among women in their most productive years in low- and medium-resourced countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, despite the fact that it is an eminently preventable cancer. While cytology screening programmes have resulted in a substantial reduction of cervical cancer mortality in developed countries, they have been shown

  8. Congenital Disorders of the Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Hensinger

    \\u000a Radiological interpretation of the infant’s spine may be difficult and a clear understanding of its appearance at different\\u000a ages is essential if deformity and malalignment are to be recognized. Normal development of the cervical spine is discussed\\u000a in the section on cervical trauma.

  9. Cervical Spine MRI in Abused Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This study attempted to use cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect cord injury in 12 dead children with head injury from child abuse. Eighty percent of children autopsied had small cervical spine hemorrhages; MRI did not identify them and did not identify cord injury in any child studied, indicating that MRI scans are probably…

  10. Cervical spine injuries from motor vehicle accidents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Yoganandan; D. J. Maiman; F. A. Pintar

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the study was to delineate the critical regions of the human cervical spine and determine the mechanisms of injury in motor vehicle accidents (MVA). The clinical data were gathered from patient records. Results indicated that while neck injuries in MVA are complex and can occur at any level of the cervical spine, the craniocervical junction (among fatalities)

  11. Spinal cord infarction with cervical angina.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Yoshiharu; Johkura, Ken; Kudo, Yosuke; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2013-01-15

    Cervical angina is defined as chest pain resembling true cardiac angina but originating from disorders of the cervical spine. Cervical angina is caused by cervical spondylosis in most cases. A 66-year-old man presented with bilateral arm palsy after chest pain resembling angina pectoris. Neurological examination revealed motor and sensory disturbances of the C7 to T1 level, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a hyperintense spinal cord lesion on T2-weighted imaging. Spinal cord infarction was diagnosed. Severe sinus bradycardia was identified on admission, and improved over the course of 5 weeks. Sympathetic afferent fibers from the heart and coronary arteries generally have their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia of the C8 to T9 spinal segments. Electrical stimulation of cardiopulmonary afferent fibers excites spinothalamic tract cells in the T1 to T6 segments of the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury can result in the loss of supraspinal control of the sympathetic system and can cause bradycardia, as commonly seen in patients with severe lesions of the cervical or high-thoracic (T6 or above) spinal cord. Bradycardia in the present case suggested impairment of the sympathetic system at the cervical and thoracic levels. These findings indicated that cervical angina in this case was mediated through the sympathetic nervous system. This represents only the second report of cervical angina caused by spinal cord infarction. PMID:23199591

  12. HPV and the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Mahoney

    Summary Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has many significant clinical outcomes, including the development of cervical cancer. The consequences of HPV infec- tion are costly in terms of both direct and indirect costs. A significant advance in the prevention of cervical cancer and other adverse outcomes from HPV has occurred with the introduction of a vaccine to prevent infection with the

  13. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Roden; T.-C. Wu

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with 'high risk' genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer

  14. Postnatal progression of bone disease in the cervical spines of mucopolysaccharidosis I dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chiaro, Joseph A; Baron, Matthew D; del Alcazar, Chelsea; O’Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Elliott, Dawn M; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient ?-L-iduronidase activity leading to accumulation of poorly degraded dermatan and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS I is associated with significant cervical spine disease, including vertebral dysplasia, odontoid hypoplasia, and accelerated disc degeneration, leading to spinal cord compression and kypho-scoliosis. The objective of this study was to establish the nature and rate of progression of cervical vertebral bone disease in MPS I using a canine model. Methods C2 vertebrae were obtained post-mortem from normal and MPS I dogs at 3, 6 and 12 months-of-age. Morphometric parameters and mineral density for the vertebral trabecular bone and odontoid process were determined using micro-computed tomography. Vertebrae were then processed for paraffin histology, and cartilage area in both the vertebral epiphyses and odontoid process were quantified. Results Vertebral bodies of MPS I dogs had lower trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) than normals at all ages. For MPS I dogs, BV/TV, Tb.Th and BMD plateaued after 6 months-of-age. The odontoid process appeared morphologically abnormal for MPS I dogs at 6 and 12 months-of-age, although BV/TV and TMD were not significantly different from normals. MPS I dogs had significantly more cartilage in the vertebral epiphyses at both 3 and 6 months-of-age. At 12 months-of-age, epiphyseal growth plates in normal dogs were absent, but in MPS I dogs they persisted. Conclusions In this study we report reduced trabecular bone content and mineralization, and delayed cartilage to bone conversion in MPS I dogs from 3 months-of-age, which may increase vertebral fracture risk and contribute to progressive deformity. The abnormalities of the odontoid process we describe likely contribute to increased incidence of atlanto-axial subluxation observed clinically. Therapeutic strategies that enhance bone formation may decrease incidence of spine disease in MPS I patients. PMID:23563357

  15. Reoperations Following Cervical Disc Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Lee, Dong-Ho; Caridi, John Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement (CDR) has emerged as an alternative surgical option to cervical arthrodesis. With increasing numbers of patients and longer follow-ups, complications related to the device and/or aging spine are growing, leaving us with a new challenge in the management and surgical revision of CDR. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature regarding reoperations following CDR and to discuss about the approaches and solutions for the current and future potential complications associated with CDR. The published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.0%; range, 0%-3.1%), revision (mean, 0.2%; range, 0%-0.5%), and removal (mean, 1.2%; range, 0%-1.9%) following CDR are low and comparable to the published rates of reoperation (mean, 1.7%; range; 0%-3.4%), revision (mean, 1.5%; range, 0%-4.7%), and removal (mean, 2.0%; range, 0%-3.4%) following cervical arthrodesis. The surgical interventions following CDR range from the repositioning to explantation followed by fusion or the reimplantation to posterior foraminotomy or fusion. Strict patient selection, careful preoperative radiographic review and surgical planning, as well as surgical technique may reduce adverse events and the need for future intervention. Minimal literature and no guidelines exist for the approaches and techniques in revision and for the removal of implants following CDR. Adherence to strict indications and precise surgical technique may reduce the number of reoperations, revisions, and removals following CDR. Long-term follow-up studies are needed, assessing the implant survivorship and its effect on the revision and removal rates.

  16. Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Truumees, E; Herkowitz, H N

    2000-01-01

    Appropriate management of degenerative cervical spine conditions requires careful elucidation of the presenting clinical syndrome. Because of the pervasiveness of degenerative changes in asymptomatic patients, a clear correlation of symptoms, physical signs, and imaging findings is required before any specific diagnosis can be made. At this time, surgery is not recommended for prophylactic decompression in asymptomatic patients or in those patients with neck pain in the absence of extremity symptoms. In most patients with radiculopathy or mild myelopathy, a trial of nonsurgical management is recommended. Ultimately, patients with neurologic complaints and in whom nonsurgical measures have failed, as well as those with more pronounced myelopathy, should be offered surgical intervention. Selection of the safest, yet sufficient, approach requires a clear understanding of the benefits and expected outcomes. The outlook for patients with both cervical radiculopathy and early myelopathy is good. Radicular symptoms usually improve, but gait and hand changes may not. LF is preferred in younger patients with posterolateral or lateral soft disk herniations, or focal foraminal osteophyte impingement and predominance of upper extremity symptoms. More central 1- or 2-level pathology should be treated with ACDF. Anterior cervical corpectomy should be entertained in patients with nondisk level encroachment and in those with 3 contiguous levels of pathology. This approach is also required in cases of kyphosis and instability. Laminoplasty is indicated in patients with 4 or more levels of stenosis, particularly in those with global conditions such as continuous OPLL or congenital stenosis. In these patients, kyphosis or severe deformity may be addressed with a circumferential approach. PMID:10829188

  17. Pathology Case Study: Cervical Lymphadenopathy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Contis, Lydia C.

    This is a hematopathology case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 17-year-old female has cervical lymphadenopathy. Visitors are given both the microscopic and gross descriptions, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using laboratory results to diagnose. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in hematopathology.

  18. Plate fixation adds stability to two-level anterior fusion in the cervical spine: a randomized study using radiostereometry.

    PubMed

    Zoëga, B; Kärrholm, J; Lind, B

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated whether addition of a cervical spine locking plate (CSLP) in two-level disc fusions improved the postoperative stability and reduced the time to healing. Radiostereometric analysis was used to obtain precise recordings of the three-dimensional motion between the fused vertebrae. Eighteen consecutive patients were operated on with excision of two adjacent cervical discs and anterior horseshoe grafting with autologous bone (Smith Robinson technique). Nine patients were randomized to stabilization with autologous bone grafting and CSLP plate fixation and nine patients to grafting without fixation. Clinical symptoms in terms of pain in the neck and the arm were analysed preoperatively and after 1 year using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The patients operated without a plate displayed increased rotations around the transverse axis, corresponding to the development of a kyphosis [mean value no plate/plate 14.4 degrees/0.8 degrees (repeated measure ANOVA: P < 0.01)]. The mean compression was 3.2 mm larger in patients operated without a plate (repeated measure ANOVA: P < 0.01). Patients operated without a plate had more arm pain at the 1-year follow up (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). The VAS score for neck pain did not differ significantly between the two groups. Plate fixation could not be demonstrated to increase the healing rate, promote more rapid fusion or influence the frequency of graft complications. PMID:9765038

  19. Resection of an upper cervical aneurysmal bone cyst and spinal reconstruction using a midline mandibular osteotomy in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Michael M; Hanft, Simon J; Greenberg, Sophie A; Rahmati, Rahmatullah; Carrao, Vincent; Eisig, Sidney; Anderson, Richard C E

    2014-06-01

    The authors report on the surgical management of an extensive lesion of the upper cervical spine that required an uncommon transmandibular approach to facilitate exposure, resection, and stabilization in a pediatric patient. A 6-year-old boy with a large aneurysmal bone cyst of the C-2 vertebra presented with progressive weakness and right-sided neck pain. The lesion extended laterally into the soft tissue of the neck, inferiorly to C-4, and posteriorly around the spinal cord. A transmandibular osteotomy was performed to provide adequate exposure for complete resection of the mass and anterior C1-3 instrumentation and fusion. Subsequently, the patient underwent occiput to C-4 posterior instrumentation and fusion. The patient tolerated the operation well and had regained all function at 3 and 11 months' follow-up. No neurological complications or problems of speech, swallowing, or respiration occurred. Even in pediatric patients, the transmandibular approach for the treatment of upper cervical spine lesions is an effective method of maximizing exposure for complex lesions requiring resection and stabilization. PMID:24702619

  20. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kandalgaonkar, Shilpa D; Gharat, Leena A; Tupsakhare, Suyog D; Gabhane, Mahesh H

    2013-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption is a relatively uncommon form of external root resorption exhibiting no external signs. The resorptive condition is often detected by routine radiographic examination. The clinical features vary from a small defect at the gingival margin to a pink coronal discoloration of the tooth crown resulting in ultimate cavitation of the overlying enamel which is painless unless pulpal or periodontal infection supervenes. Radiographic features of lesions vary from well-delineated to irregularly bordered mottled radiolucencies, and these can be confused with dental caries. A characteristic radiopaque line generally separates the image of the lesion from that of the root canal, because the pulp remains protected by a thin layer of predentin until late in the process. Histopathologically, the lesions contain fibrovascular tissue with resorbing clastic cells adjacent to the dentin surface. More advanced lesions display fibro-osseous characteristics with deposition of ectopic bonelike calcifications both within the resorbing tissue and directly on the dentin surface. How to cite this article: Kandalgaonkar SD, Gharat LA, Tupsakhare SD, Gabhane MH. Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Review. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):124-30 . PMID:24453457

  1. Positron Emission Tomography Using Fluoromisonidazole F 18 and Fludeoxyglucose F 18 to Find Oxygen in Tumor Cells of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Newly Diagnosed Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-10

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

  2. Vertebral artery injuries in cervical spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Gregory D.; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vertebral artery injuries during cervical spine surgery are rare, but potentially fatal. When performing cervical spine surgery, it is imperative that the surgeon has a systematic approach for avoiding, and if necessary, dealing with a vertebral artery injury. Methods: This is a review paper. Results: Upper posterior cervical spine surgeries put the vertebral artery at the highest risk, as opposed to anterior subaxial cervical spine procedures, which put the artery at the least risk. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomy of the vertebral artery is mandatory prior to performing cervical spine surgery, and since the vertebral artery can have a variable course, especially in the upper cervical spine, the surgeon must minimize the possibility of an arterial injury by preoperatively assessing the artery with a computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intraoperatively, the surgeon must be aware of when the vertebral artery is most at risk, and take precautions to avoid an injury. In the event of an arterial injury, the surgeon must have a plan of action to (1) Achieve control of the hemorrhage. (2) Prevent acute central nervous system ischemia. (3) Prevent postoperative complications such as embolism and pseudoaneurysm Conclusion: Prior to performing cervical spine surgery, one must understand the four A's of vertebral artery injuries: Anatomy, Assessment, Avoidance, and Action. PMID:24340233

  3. Modified transcorporeal anterior cervical microforaminotomy for cervical radiculopathy: a technical note and early results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gun Choi; Sang-Ho Lee; Arun Bhanot; Yu Sik Chae; Byungjoo Jung; Seungcheol Lee

    2007-01-01

    A prospective analysis of the first twenty patients operated for cervical radiculopathy by a new modification of transcorporeal\\u000a anterior cervical foraminotomy technique. To evaluate early results of a functional disc surgery in which decompression for\\u000a the cervical radiculopathy is done by drilling a hole in the upper vertebral body and most of the disc tissue is preserved.\\u000a Earlier approaches to

  4. Occipito-Cervical Fusion with the Cervical Cotrel-Dubousset Rod System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; W. Burkert

    1998-01-01

    Summary  ?Diseases and conditions which cause instability of the cranio-cervical junction and the adjacent upper cervical spine are\\u000a relatively common and potentially life-threatening. Direct internal occipito-cervical fusion (OCF) is a modern means of surgical\\u000a treatment in such cases, and has some advantages over simple immobilization of the affected segments. The present study was\\u000a designed to evaluate surgical handling, results, and complications

  5. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Integration in Cervical Carcinoma In Situ and in Invasive Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo Arias-Pulido; Cheri L. Peyton; Nancy E. Joste; Hernan Vargas; Cosette M. Wheeler

    2006-01-01

    Integration of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) into the host DNA has been proposed as a potential marker of cervical neoplastic progression. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to examine the physical status of HPV-16 in 126 cervical carcinoma in situ and 92 invasive cervical cancers. Based on criteria applied to results from this qRT-PCR assay,

  6. New Technologies for Cervical Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alaina J.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2013-01-01

    New technologies for cervical cancer screening seek to provide an accurate, efficient, and cost-effective way of identifying women at risk for cervical cancer. Current screening uses HPV DNA testing combined with cytology and requires multiple visits at a great cost to the patient and the society. New methods for screening include HPV diagnostics (detection of either the presence of HPV or integration of the virus into the host cell), proliferation, and detection of epigenetic changes, either in the host or virus. These methods show promise in changing the way that current cervical cancer screening is undertaken in both low and high-resource settings. PMID:22119058

  7. Characterization of the Human Cervical Mucous Proteome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gitika Panicker; Yiming Ye; Dongxia Wang; Elizabeth R. Unger

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. Discovery of biomarkers for the early detection of cervical\\u000a cancer would improve current screening practices and reduce the burden of disease.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  In this study, we report characterization of the human cervical mucous proteome as the first step towards protein biomarker\\u000a discovery.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The protein composition was characterized using one- and

  8. Quantification of Pediatric Cervical Growth: Anatomical Changes in the Sub-Axial Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jae; Hong, Jae Taek; Kim, Jong Tae

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to provide normal values of the pediatric sub-axial cervical spinal canal and vertebral body growth pattern using computed tomographic scans, a total of 318 patients less than 10 years old were included. Methods The growth of the vertebral body and canal space was investigated using four different age groups. The Torg ratio (TR) was calculated and all patients were classified into a low TR group and a high TR group according to a cutoff value of 1.0. To account for spinal curvature, the C3-7 angle was measured. Results Very little axial expansion and growth in height were observed (2.9 mm and 3.4 mm, respectively), and the spinal canal increments (1.8 mm) were much smaller than the dimensions of the vertebral body. The mean TR values were 1.03±0.14 at the C3 vertebral level, 1.02±0.13 at C4, 1.05±0.13 at C5, 1.04±0.13 at C6, and 1.02±0.12 at C7 in all patients. The mean sub-axial angle (C3-7) was 7.9±10.6° (range: -17-47°). Conclusion The upper sub-axial spinal canal continuously increased in size compared to the lower sub-axial spine after 8 years of age. Considerable decrements in the TR was found after late childhood compared to younger ages. Generally, there were no significant differences between boys and girls in vertical length of the cervical vertebrae. However, the axial dimension of the vertebral body and the spinal canal space varied according to gender. PMID:25810858

  9. Dorsal laminectomy for treatment of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Barker, W H J; Witte, T H; Driver, C J; Jull, P; Whitehead, C E; Volk, H A

    2015-05-15

    Case Description-An 11-year-old male breeding alpaca was evaluated for a 2-day history of lowered head carriage and lethargy. Clinical Findings-On initial examination, the alpaca had signs of lethargy and lowered carriage of the head and neck, but no specific neurologic deficits. Medical management improved the clinical signs, but 8 months later, the alpaca developed acute, progressive general proprioceptive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs and was referred for further evaluation and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT identified disruption of the normal osseous architecture of C7 and T1. Medical management was attempted, but because of a lack of improvement, the patient underwent surgery 14 months after initial examination. Treatment and Outcome-A dorsal laminectomy of C7 and T1 via a dorsal midline approach was performed, and the spinous processes of both vertebrae were removed prior to removal of the overlying lamina. Free dorsal expansion of the spinal cord was ensured by resection of the ligamentum flavum. Six months after surgery, the alpaca had returned to successful breeding with 7 hembra bred in the first year after surgery, producing 6 crias, and 4 crias in the second year. The patient was eventually euthanized 28 months after surgery because of neurologic deterioration but was still ambulatory at that time. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-A good outcome with adequate alleviation of clinical signs and breeding soundness for > 2 years following dorsal laminectomy was achieved in this camelid patient. The surgical approach was similar to that in other species and was associated with mild postoperative morbidity. Veterinarians treating camelids should be aware of the initial clinical signs and treatment options for cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy. In acute cases, the signs of reduced cervical mobility and pain on manipulation should prompt investigation including appropriate diagnostic imaging. Timely surgical intervention should be considered in patients that respond poorly to medical treatment to avoid irreversible spinal cord injury and optimize outcome. PMID:25932939

  10. Chablat D. et Wenger P., "Design of a Spherical Wrist with Parallel Architecture: Application to Vertebrae of an Eel Robot", Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Rob. and Automation, Barcelone, 23-26 Avril 2005.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to Vertebrae of an Eel Robot", Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Rob. and Automation, Barcelone, 23-26 Avril 2005. Design of a Spherical Wrist with Parallel Architecture: Application to Vertebrae of an Eel Robot Damien Chablat project, which aims to design and to build an eel robot for inspection of immersed piping. The kinematic

  11. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-05-28

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-25

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Vaginal Adenocarcinoma; Vaginal Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Vaginal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  13. Unilateral posterior vertebral column resection for severe thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity caused by old compressive vertebrae fracture: a technical improvement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Di; Sun, Ya-Peng; Ma, Lei; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Severe thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity caused by old compressive vertebrae fracture remains a big challenge for spine surgeons. When symptoms related to significant deformities cannot be adequately managed conservatively, posterior vertebral column resection (PVCR) is required, but with long operating time and severe blood loss. We develop a UPVCR technique, which is done through a unilateral approach instead of a bilateral approach, vertebral body resection advancing to cross the midline in an abrasive way from an extreme oblique orientation enable the resection of most contralateral vertebral body. In the present study, the effects of UPVCR for severe thoracolumbar kyphotic deformity were investigated. We did find that satisfactory correction of sagittal deformity, functional improvement and pain relief can be achieved by UPVCR, and it has the advantage of shortening surgery time, reducing blood loss and incidence of nerve root impingement over PVCR.

  14. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy With or Without Carboplatin and Paclitaxel in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-17

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Radiation Toxicity; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  15. Indications and techniques for anterior cervical plating.

    PubMed

    Rhee, John M; Park, Jong-Beom; Yang, Jun-Young; Riew, Daniel K

    2005-12-01

    Anterior cervical plating is commonly performed to stabilize anterior cervical fusions. Modern plating options include dynamic plates, with screws that can either toggle within fixed holes or translate within slotted holes. Regardless of the plating system used, paramount to success and avoidance of complications with plated anterior cervical fusions are meticulous plating techniques, exacting graft carpentry, and understanding the biomechanical limitations of plating in certain situations, such as multilevel corpectomies reconstructed with a single-strut graft. In order to prevent graft-related complications associated with long-strut grafts, additional posterior fixation and fusion, or alternative corpectomy constructs, such as multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, corpectomy-discectomy, and corpectomy-corpectomy, should be considered instead if the pattern of stenosis allows. PMID:16565534

  16. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    MedlinePLUS

    ... freeze abnormal cervical tissue, which then sloughs off. • Laser therapy—A focused beam of light is used ... tissue is removed from the cervix. Cryotherapy: A freezing technique used to destroy diseased tissue; also known ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Rates

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content Search International Cancer Screening Network Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute Home | About ICSN | Collaborative Projects | Meetings | Cancer Sites | Publications | Contact Us Cervical Cancer: Mortality Rates | Organization

  18. Effect of joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF on a patient with CLBP and a lumbar transitional vertebra: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Si-Eun; Wang, Joong-San

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization using Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on a patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a lumbar transitional vertebra. [Methods] The intervention methods were joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques. The program consisted of 40-min sessions 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The spinal motion (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae), pain, and thickness of the multifidus were measured. [Results] The angle of spinal curvature increased, and the range of motions (ROMs) flexion and extension increased in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The pain score as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased. The thickness of the multifidus (L4) increased on the left and right sides. [Conclusion] These results suggest that joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques had a positive effect on the spinal motion, pain, and thickness of the multifidus of a patient with chronic low back pain and a lumbar transitional vertebra.

  19. Effect of joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF on a patient with CLBP and a lumbar transitional vertebra: a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Si-Eun; Wang, Joong-San

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this case study was to identify the effects of joint mobilization using Kaltenborn-Evjenth orthopedic manual therapy (KEOMT) and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques on a patient with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and a lumbar transitional vertebra. [Methods] The intervention methods were joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques. The program consisted of 40-min sessions 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The spinal motion (thoracic and lumbar vertebrae), pain, and thickness of the multifidus were measured. [Results] The angle of spinal curvature increased, and the range of motions (ROMs) flexion and extension increased in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The pain score as measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) score decreased. The thickness of the multifidus (L4) increased on the left and right sides. [Conclusion] These results suggest that joint mobilization using KEOMT and PNF techniques had a positive effect on the spinal motion, pain, and thickness of the multifidus of a patient with chronic low back pain and a lumbar transitional vertebra. PMID:26157278

  20. Development of Consensus Educational Materials on HPV & Cervical Cancer for Europe

    Cancer.gov

    1 Development of Development of Consensus Educational Materials Consensus Educational Materials on HPV & Cervical Cancer for Europe on HPV & Cervical Cancer for Europe Philip Davies Philip Davies European Cervical Cancer Association European Cervical

  1. Trampoline Injuries of the Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter G. Brown; Mark Lee

    2000-01-01

    Trampolines were responsible for over 6,500 pediatric cervical spine injuries in 1998. This represents a five-fold increase in just 10 years. While most have been minor, paraplegia, quadriplegia and death are all reported. We present 2 cases of trampoline-related cervical spine injury and review the relevant literature. Additionally, we examine the efforts made to reduce the incidence of trampoline injuries,

  2. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cervix coated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), a process known as VIA. Image depicts cervical cancer microvessel density which increases lethality of the cancer.

  3. A Biomechanical Comparison of Intralaminar C7 Screw Constructs with and without Offset Connector Used for C6-7 Cervical Spine Immobilization : A Finite Element Study

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Muhammad; Natarajan, Raghu N.; An, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The offset connector can allow medial and lateral variability and facilitate intralaminar screw incorporation into the construct. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without offset connector using a three dimensional finite element model of a C6-7 cervical spine segment. Methods Finite element models representing C7 intralaminar screw constructs with and without the offset connector were developed. Range of motion (ROM) and maximum von Mises stresses in the vertebra for the two techniques were compared under pure moments in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. Results ROM for intralaminar screw construct with offset connector was less than the construct without the offset connector in the three principal directions. The maximum von Misses stress was observed in the C7 vertebra around the pedicle in both constructs. Maximum von Mises stress in the construct without offset connector was found to be 12-30% higher than the corresponding stresses in the construct with offset connector in the three principal directions. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the intralaminar screw fixation with offset connector is better than the construct without offset connector in terms of biomechanical stability. Construct with the offset connector reduces the ROM of C6-7 segment more significantly compared to the construct without the offset connector and causes lower stresses around the C7 pedicle-vertebral body complex. PMID:24003366

  4. Selective posterior decompression of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Sugawara, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori; Morimoto, Daijiro; Mishina, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shiro; Yoshida, Daizo; Teramoto, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Posterior decompression of the cervical spine is an accepted treatment for patients with cervical canal disease, but some patients experience postoperative axial pain and C5 or C6 palsy that affect their quality of life. Here we describe selective posterior decompression using a spinous process-splitting approach to prevent these complications performed in 17 patients with myelopathy treated at median 2.4 levels by selective posterior decompression via the transspinous approach. Clinical symptoms, axial pain, and C5 or C6 palsy were compared before and after treatment. The range of motion of the cervical spine and shift of the cervical cord were studied at the C5 level. All patients experienced symptom improvement and none suffered deterioration or required reoperation. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score improved from 10.9 to 14.4 points and none of the patients reported C5 or C6 palsy or axial pain at the last follow-up visit. There was no statistically significant change in pre- and postoperative cervical alignment and range of motion. The posterior shift of the spinal cord at the C5 level was 1.7 mm. None of our 17 patients experienced significant postoperative axial pain after selective posterior decompression via the transspinous approach. Minimal spinal cord shift at the C5 level may have contributed to the reduced incidence of postoperative C5 or C6 palsy in our series. Selective posterior decompression is less invasive and effective in some patients with cervical canal disease. PMID:21358151

  5. Automated image analysis of uterine cervical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Gu, Jia; Ferris, Daron; Poirson, Allen

    2007-03-01

    Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality of women in developing countries. If detected early and treated adequately, cervical cancer can be virtually prevented. Cervical precursor lesions and invasive cancer exhibit certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician with a Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) system. In colposcopy, epithelium that turns white after application of acetic acid is called acetowhite epithelium. Acetowhite epithelium is one of the major diagnostic features observed in detecting cancer and pre-cancerous regions. Automatic extraction of acetowhite regions from cervical images has been a challenging task due to specular reflection, various illumination conditions, and most importantly, large intra-patient variation. This paper presents a multi-step acetowhite region detection system to analyze the acetowhite lesions in cervical images automatically. First, the system calibrates the color of the cervical images to be independent of screening devices. Second, the anatomy of the uterine cervix is analyzed in terms of cervix region, external os region, columnar region, and squamous region. Third, the squamous region is further analyzed and subregions based on three levels of acetowhite are identified. The extracted acetowhite regions are accompanied by color scores to indicate the different levels of acetowhite. The system has been evaluated by 40 human subjects' data and demonstrates high correlation with experts' annotations.

  6. Cervical radiculopathy: epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Woods, Barrett I; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2015-06-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a relatively common neurological disorder resulting from nerve root dysfunction, which is often due to mechanical compression; however, inflammatory cytokines released from damaged intervertebral disks can also result in symptoms. Cervical radiculopathy can often be diagnosed with a thorough history and physical examination, but an magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic myelogram should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Because of the ubiquity of degenerative changes found on these imaging modalities, the patient's symptoms must correlate with pathology for a successful diagnosis. In the absence of myelopathy or significant muscle weakness all patients should be treated conservatively for at least 6 weeks. Conservative treatments consist of immobilization, anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy, cervical traction, and epidural steroid injections. Cervical radiculopathy typically is self-limiting with 75%-90% of patients achieving symptomatic improvement with nonoperative care. For patients who are persistently symptomatic despite conservative treatment, or those who have a significant functional deficit surgical treatment is appropriate. Surgical options include anterior cervical decompression and fusion, cervical disk arthroplasty, and posterior foraminotomy. Patient selection is critical to optimize outcome. PMID:25985461

  7. Persistent human papillomavirus infection and cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, Alex; Franco, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    The development of cervical cancer is preceded by precursor lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia). Evidence-based epidemiological and molecular data suggest that persistent infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that carry ahigh oncogenic risk are the intermediate endpoints, leading to both intraepithelial and invasive cervical neoplasia. Integration of highly oncogenic HPVs into host-cell chromosomes is followed by binding of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins to tumour-suppressor genes p53 and RB, respectively. This process results in impaired tumour-suppressor-gene function, involving DNA repair, decreased apoptosis, and eventual cell immortalisation. Mutations causing chromosomal alterations, loss of heterozygosity, and proto-oncogene and telomerase activation in immunopermissive individuals have important roles in virus-induced cervical carcinogenesis. The so-called non-European variants of HPV 16 and 18 may increase the degradation potential of p53. HPV 16 is polymorphic and, although the evidence is controversial, the Arg/Arg genotype of p53 could have greater susceptibility to HPV-E6 degradation than the other genotypes. The coincident interplay between the non-European genomic variants of HPV 16/18 and p53 Arg/Arg may explain, at least in part, the persistence of HPV infection and tumour progression in women with cervical neoplasia. Further epidemiological and molecular research is needed, to gain insight into HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis. The evidence highlights the need to develop appropriate prophylactic HPV vaccines and diagnostic and screening tests. PMID:11905599

  8. Conservative Treatment in Early Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Mousavi, Azamsadat; Gilani, Mitra Modares; Barooti, Esmat; Miratashi-Yazdi, Ashrafosadat; Dehghani, Atefe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review: The aim of this study was to describe fertility preservation methods to improve quality of life of early stages of cervical cancer. Recent finding: Although definite treatment of early stages of cervical cancer including stages IA,IB1 and IIA non-bulky is radial hysterectomy, this method is used in perimenopousal period in which fertility preservation is not important. Whenever fertility preservation is so important, some methods like radical trachelectomy and laparoscopic lymphadenectomy are used to rule out lymphatic metastases. Summary: If any visible lesion on cervix is found, pelvic MRI is helpful and during operation, trachelectomy samples are sent for frozen section and margin study. Radical trachelectomy is done vaginal or abdominal. Overall relapse rate of cervical cancer in radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy is the same. Complications of radical trachelectomy include chronic vaginal discharge, abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, inflammation and ulcer due to cercelage, amenorrhea, cervical stenosis and pregnancy complications following trachelectomy including 2nd trimester abortion and premature labor following cervical prematurity.The best and preferred method of labor is cesarean section. Neoadjuant chemotherapy followed by radical trachelectomy in large cervical lesions is a suitable treatment. Ultraconservative operations like large cold knife conization, simple trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy and sentinel lymph node mapping are suitable for very small lesions. PMID:24170987

  9. The Future of Vaccines for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Warner K.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, making prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines an important focus for cervical cancer prevention. The increasing accessibility of these vaccines worldwide has the potential to greatly decrease the incidence and burden of disease in the future. However, current prophylactic vaccines offer no therapeutic benefit for persons already infected with human papillomavirus types targeted by vaccines or persons with precancerous lesions or cervical cancer. The protection offered by current vaccines is primarily against human papillomavirus types used to derive the vaccine, although partial cross-protection for related virus types has been observed. Herein, we describe findings from preclinical and clinical studies that employ vaccine strategies that have the potential to shape the future of vaccines against cervical cancer. Modalities include prophylactic strategies to target more oncogenic virus types by using the minor capsid antigen L2 and/or by increasing the number of types used to derive virus-like particle vaccines. Therapeutic strategies include the development of vaccines against human papillomavirus early proteins (targets for cellular immunity) for the resolution of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer. Future applications of existing VLP-based vaccines are also discussed. PMID:18482559

  10. I. Cervical dysplasia = abnormal tissue growth n Cervical cancer develops in the

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    in flat, scaly surface cells that line the cervix (called squamous cell carcinomas). Approximately 10-15% of cases develop in glandular surface cells (called adenocarcinomas). Types of Cervical Cancer: Squamous Cell Carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Small Cell Carcinoma #12;11/12/12 2 B. Incidence & Prevelance n Cervical

  11. Epidemiology and costs of cervical cancer screening and cervical dysplasia in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Ricciardi, Alessandro; Cohet, Catherine; Palazzo, Fabio; Furnari, Giacomo; Valle, Sabrina; Largeron, Nathalie; Federici, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background We estimated the number of women undergoing cervical cancer screening annually in Italy, the rates of cervical abnormalities detected, and the costs of screening and management of abnormalities. Methods The annual number of screened women was estimated from National Health Interview data. Data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening were used to estimate the number of positive, negative and unsatisfactory Pap smears. The incidence of CIN (cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia) was estimated from the Emilia Romagna Cancer Registry. Patterns of follow-up and treatment costs were estimated using a typical disease management approach based on national guidelines and data from the Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening. Treatment unit costs were obtained from Italian National Health Service and Hospital Information System of the Lazio Region. Results An estimated 6.4 million women aged 25–69 years undergo screening annually in Italy (1.2 million and 5.2 million through organized and opportunistic screening programs, respectively). Approximately 2.4% of tests have positive findings. There are approximately 21,000 cases of CIN1 and 7,000–17,000 cases of CIN2/3. Estimated costs to the healthcare service amount to €158.5 million for screening and €22.9 million for the management of cervical abnormalities. Conclusion Although some cervical abnormalities might have been underestimated, the total annual cost of cervical cancer prevention in Italy is approximately €181.5 million, of which 87% is attributable to screening. PMID:19243586

  12. Increased Fusion Rates With Cervical Plating for Two Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey C. Wang; Paul W. McDonough; Kevin K. Endow; Rick B. Delamarter

    Study Design. A retrospective review of all patients surgically treated with a two-level anterior cervical disc- ectomy and fusion with and without anterior plate fixa- tion by a single surgeon. Objectives. To compare the clinical and radiographic success of two-level discectomy and the effect of anterior cervical plate fixation. Summary of Background Data. Prior studies of multi- segment fusions have

  13. Palliative Occipito-Cervical Stabilization in Patients with Malignant Tumors of the Occipito-Cervical Junction and the Upper Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zimmermann; R. Wolff; A. Raabe; D. Stolke; V. Seifert

    2002-01-01

    Summary.\\u000a Summary.  \\u000a ?\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background:   Occipital-cervical stability may be impaired in patients with primary malignant or metastatic tumors of the cranio-cervical\\u000a junction and the upper cervical spine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occipital-cervical fixation with prebended\\u000a titanium-loops and sublaminar wiring in order to achieve a rigid and safe stabilisation of the occipito-cervical region in\\u000a this group of patients.

  14. Cervical wedge resection for treatment of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions in six mares.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Carolyn E; Brinsko, Steven P; Varner, Dickson D

    2015-06-15

    Case Description-6 mares with pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions were examined. Clinical Findings-Reasons for hospital admission included infertility (5 mares) and acute colic (1 mare). In the 6 mares, palpation per rectum of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention, and transrectal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of echogenic fluid accumulation within the uterus. Cervical palpation during vaginal speculum examination indicated transluminal cervical adhesions. Three mares had severe distortion of the cervix as a result of diverticula and fibrosis. All 6 mares had a diagnosis of pyometra secondary to transluminal cervical adhesions. Treatment and Outcome-Initially, the cervical adhesions were manually broken down to establish a patent cervical lumen to accommodate a uterine lavage catheter. A sample of the uterine content was obtained for bacteriologic culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the uterus was lavaged with 0.05% povidone-iodine solution to remove the mucopurulent exudate. Once the uterus was evacuated, cervical surgery was performed in standing mares following sedation and caudal epidural anesthesia. A full-thickness wedge-shaped defect was made in the dorsolateral aspect of the cervix that created a permanent opening to the uterus. Postoperative care included applying topical medication to the cervix to reduce the recurrence of adhesion formation. All 6 mares had patent cervices and resolution of pyometra following surgery. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Cervical wedge resection enabled treatment of pyometra in mares with transluminal cervical adhesions, without the need for ovariohysterectomy. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015;246:1354-1357). PMID:26043134

  15. How protective is cervical cancer screening against cervical cancer mortality in developing countries? The Colombian case

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is one of the top causes of cancer morbidity and mortality in Colombia despite the existence of a national preventive program. Screening coverage with cervical cytology does not explain the lack of success of the program in reducing incidence and mortality rates by cervical cancer. To address this problem an ecological analysis, at department level, was carried out in Colombia to assess the relationship between cervical screening characteristics and cervical cancer mortality rates. Methods Mortality rates by cervical cancer were estimated at the department level for the period 2000-2005. Levels of mortality rates were compared to cervical screening coverage and other characteristics of the program. A Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of different dimensions of program performance on mortality by cervical cancer. Results Screening coverage ranged from 28.7% to 65.6% by department but increases on this variable were not related to decreases in mortality rates. A significant reduction in mortality was found in departments where a higher proportion of women looked for medical advice when abnormal findings were reported in Pap smears. Geographic areas where a higher proportion of women lack health insurance had higher rates of mortality by cervical cancer. Conclusions These results suggest that coverage is not adequate to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer if women with abnormal results are not provided with adequate follow up and treatment. The role of different dimensions of health care such as insurance coverage, quality of care, and barriers for accessing health care needs to be evaluated and addressed in future studies. PMID:20846446

  16. Changes in Cervical Sagittal Alignment after Single-Level Posterior Percutaneous Endoscopic Cervical Diskectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chi Heon; Shin, Kyung-Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Park, Sung Bae; Kim, Jung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Case series. Objective?Posterior percutaneous endoscopic cervical diskectomy (PECD) can preserve the disk in patients with a foraminal disk herniation. However, progressive angulation at the operated segment is a concern, especially for patients with cervical lordosis?cervical lordosis after posterior PECD was analyzed. Methods?Medical records were reviewed of 32 consecutive patients (22 men, 10 women; mean age, 49?±?12 years) who had single-level foraminal soft disk herniation. The operation levels were as follows: C4–5 in 1 patient, C5–6 in 12, C6–7 in 18, and C7–T1 in 1. All patients were discharged the day after the operation, and neck motion was encouraged. All patients were followed for 30?±?7 months (range, 24 to 46 months), and 21/32 patients (66%) had radiographs taken at 25?±?11 months (range, 12 to 45 months). Radiologic parameters were assessed, including cervical curvature (C2–7), segmental Cobb's angle (SA), and anterior and posterior disk height (AH and PH, respectively) at the operative level. Results?At the last follow-up, 29/32 patients (91%) had no or minimal pain, and 3/32 patients had occasional pain. SA, AH, and PH were not significantly changed. Cervical lordosis?cervical lordosis?cervical curvature changed from ?2.5?±?8.0 to ?11.3?±?9.3 degrees (p?=?0.01). For patients with cervical lordosis???10 degrees, cervical curvature changed from ?17.5?±?5.8 to ?19.9?±?5.7 degrees (p?=?0.24). Conclusions?Cervical curvature does not worsen after posterior PECD. PMID:25648214

  17. Anesthetic Implications of Chronic Disease of the Cervical Spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL D. POPITZ

    1998-01-01

    nderstanding the anatomy of the cervical spine and its anatomical relationships to the airway has daily importance to the anesthesiologist. Particularly important considerations include the con- tribution of chronic abnormalities of the cervical spine to the \\

  18. Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)

    Cancer.gov

    A study to comprehensively assess biomarkers of risk for progressive cervical neoplasia, and thus develop a new set of biomarkers that can distinguish those at highest risk of cervical cancer from those with benign infection

  19. Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  20. What Are the Key Statistics about Cervical Cancer?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... factors for cervical cancer? What are the key statistics about cervical cancer? The American Cancer Society's estimates ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

  1. Comparison of Expansive Pedicle Screw and Polymethylmethacrylate-Augmented Pedicle Screw in Osteoporotic Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae: Biomechanical and Interfacial Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Xie, Qing-yun; Wang, Cai-ru; Liu, Jin-biao; Liao, Dong-fa; Jiang, Kai; Lei, Wei; Pan, Xian-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background It was reported that expansive pedicle screw (EPS) and polymethylmethacrylate-augmented pedicle screw (PMMA-PS) could be used to increase screw stability in osteoporosis. However, there are no studies comparing the two kinds of screws in vivo. Thus, we aimed to compare biomechanical and interfacial performances of EPS and PMMA-PS in osteoporotic sheep spine. Methodology/Principal Findings After successful induction of osteoporotic sheep, lumbar vertebrae in each sheep were randomly divided into three groups. The conventional pedicle screw (CPS) was inserted directly into vertebrae in CPS group; PMMA was injected prior to insertion of CPS in PMMA-PS group; and the EPS was inserted in EPS group. Sheep were killed and biomechanical tests, micro-CT analysis and histological observation were performed at both 6 and 12 weeks post-operation. At 6-week and 12-week, screw stabilities in EPS and PMMA-PS groups were significantly higher than that in CPS group, but there were no significant differences between EPS and PMMA-PS groups at two study periods. The screw stability in EPS group at 12-week was significantly higher than that at 6-week. The bone trabeculae around the expanding anterior part of EPS were more and denser than that in CPS group at 6-week and 12-week. PMMA was found without any degradation and absorption forming non-biological “screw-PMMA-bone” interface in PMMA-PS group, however, more and more bone trabeculae surrounded anterior part of EPS improving local bone quality and formed biological “screw-bone” interface. Conclusions/Significance EPS can markedly enhance screw stability with a similar effect to the traditional method of screw augmentation with PMMA in initial surgery in osteoporosis. EPS can form better biological interface between screw and bone than PMMA-PS. In addition, EPS have no risk of thermal injury, leakage and compression caused by PMMA. We propose EPS has a great application potential in augmentation of screw stability in osteoporosis in clinic. PMID:24086381

  2. Placement of pedicle screws using three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation in lumbar vertebrae with axial rotation

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    Despite potential advantages of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation, there still remain a lot of controversies about the indications of this technology, especially whether it is worthy of being used in placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spine. However, according to the inconsistent conclusions reported in the literature and our experiences, the traditional method relying on anatomical landmarks and fluoroscopic views to guide lumbar pedicle screw insertion is unable to meet the requirement of precise screw placement. Based on our observation, screw malposition seems to occur concomitant with vertebral axial rotation which is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation can provide the most valuable axial images in real-time, so it may be useful for placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spine. This study was intended to evaluate the effect of axial rotation of lumbar vertebrae on the accuracy of pedicle screw placement using the traditional method, as well as assess the value of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation in improving the accuracy. Sixteen lumbar simulation models at different degrees of axial rotation (0°, 5°, 10°, and 20°), with every four assigned the same degree, were equally divided into two groups (traditional method group and three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation group). Random placement of pedicle screws was carried out, followed by CT scan postoperatively. Then the outer pedicle cortex contours were depicted from reconstructed sectional pedicle images using Photoshop. The accuracy of pedicle screw placement was evaluated by determining the interrelationship between screw trajectory and pedicle cortex (quality), and measuring the shortest distance from pedicle screw axis to outer cortex of the pedicle (quantity). Eighty pedicle screws were implanted, respectively, in each group. In traditional method group, statistical difference existed in the accuracy of pedicle screw placement at different axial rotational degrees (P < 0.05). With degrees increasing, the accuracy declined. The accuracy of three-dimensional fluoroscopy-based navigation group was higher than traditional method group in vertebrae with axial rotation (P < 0.01). In qualitative evaluation, the accuracy of the two methods had statistical difference when the degree was 20°, and in quantitative evaluation, statistical difference existed in 5°, 10°, and 20° of vertebral axial rotation. PMID:20821028

  3. Raman spectroscopic characterization on cervical neoplasm in biopsy direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hsiao Hsin; Tsai, Yan Sheng; Wang, Tao Yuan; Chu, Shou Chia; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2007-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy was applied to distinguish the spectroscopic information between normal cervical tissues (14) and cervical neoplasia (17), including low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (6) and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (11). Standard pathological sections of these cervical tissues were measured from superficial to stroma layers. We have normalized significant Raman peaks, 1250 and 1579-1656 cm -1 by taking a ratio over a stationary Raman at 1004 cm -1, and successfully discriminated between normal and neoplasm cervical tissues.

  4. The cervical cap as a barrier contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Cagen, R

    1986-05-01

    This report covers the 1st 4 years (beginning in 1984) of a Food and Drug Administration-approved study of use of the cervical cap as a contraceptive device. The cap used in this study is the Prentif Cavity-Rim Cervical Cap. 620 women were issued cervical caps. They ranged in age from 16 to 43 years. 97.7% had attained a high school diploma and 57.3% had at least an undergraduate college education. Each woman was instructed carefully on proper placement and use of the cervical cap. Terminal problems appear most frequently during the 1st 9 months of cap usage. Terminal problems most frequently mentioned include 1) unplanned pregnancy, 2) partner discomfort, 3) dislodgement and 4) lack of confidence. Out of 620 women, there were 92 unplanned pregnancies during the 4-year period. At least 45 of 86 pregnancies were associated with user failure (6 of the 92 were not sure whether their pregnancies occurred before or after being fitted for the cap.). 4 of the 620 developed an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. This figure is within the expected range of women in any sample who would develop an abnormal Papanicolaou smear. Odor was the most frequently mentioned problem (2.9%). 80.53% of the participants continued to use the cervical cap after 1 year. Comfort and convenience were 2 positive reasons mentioned for continuing use of the cap. Motivation is the most important factor associated with the success of the cap. PMID:3757513

  5. Biomechanical analysis of the anterior cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P C; Fernandes, P R; Folgado, J O; Levy Melancia, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a biomechanical analysis of the cervical C5-C6 functional spine unit before and after the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this work is to study the influence of the medical procedure and its instrumentation on range of motion and stress distribution. First, a three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine is obtained from computed tomography images using a pipeline of image processing, geometric modelling and mesh generation software. Then, a finite element study of parameters' influence on motion and a stress analysis at physiological and different post-operative scenarios were made for the basic movements of the cervical spine. It was confirmed that the results were very sensitive to intervertebral disc properties. The insertion of an anterior cervical plate influenced the stress distribution at the vertebral level as well as in the bone graft. Additionally, stress values in the graft decreased when it is used together with a cage. PMID:21806410

  6. South Africa project provides cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, L

    1997-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the five leading causes of death among women aged 45-59 years in the developing world, and the most common type of cancer among South African women, accounting for about 25% of all cancer-related mortality. The Philani Cervical Cancer Prevention Project, located in Site C of Khayelitsha, a settlement outside of Cape Town, is now screening women to prevent development of the disease. The Philani Project is a demonstration study for a larger cervical cancer prevention project. AVSC International is providing technical and management assistance as one of the project's five collaborators. Working out of a mobile clinic parked next to an outpatient treatment center, the project is comparing the use of Pap smears and four other screening approaches in a low-resource situation in order to develop protocols for similar programs. Now in its second year, the Philani project has enrolled 1600 previously unscreened women over age 35 years. Follow-up and treatment are provided. 80% of women identified with a problem through screening and in need of colposcopy return for follow-up and treatment. However, the number of women who return voluntarily for follow-up is continuously increasing due to the staff's attention to providing community education about cervical screening. About 9% of clients were found to have abnormalities of the cervix with the potential to progress to a malignancy, and 8 cases of outright cervical cancer have been detected. Community outreach, innovative programs, and coordinated efforts are discussed. PMID:12293924

  7. Progesterone Signaling Inhibits Cervical Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young A; Son, Jieun; Mehta, Fabiola F.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is the main cause of cervical cancer, yet other nonviral cofactors are also required for the disease. The uterine cervix is a hormone-responsive tissue, and female hormones have been implicated in cervical carcinogenesis. A transgenic mouse model expressing human papillomavirus oncogenes E6 and/or E7 has proven useful to study a mechanism of hormone actions in the context of this common malignancy. Estrogen and estrogen receptor ? are required for the development of cervical cancer in this mouse model. Estrogen receptor ? is known to up-regulate expression of the progesterone receptor, which, on activation by its ligands, either promotes or inhibits carcinogenesis, depending on the tissue context. Here, we report that progesterone receptor inhibits cervical and vaginal epithelial cell proliferation in a ligand-dependent manner. We also report that synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate promotes regression of cancers and precancerous lesions in the female lower reproductive tracts (ie, cervix and vagina) in the human papillomavirus transgenic mouse model. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that supports the hypothesis that progesterone signaling is inhibitory for cervical carcinogenesis in vivo. PMID:24012679

  8. Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Cervical Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Freeman, Samuel S.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Imaz-Rosshandler, Ivan; Pugh, Trevor J.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Ambrogio, Lauren; Cibulskis, Kristian; Bertelsen, Bjørn; Romero-Cordoba, Sandra; Treviño, Victor; Vazquez-Santillan, Karla; Guadarrama, Alberto Salido; Wright, Alexi A.; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Duke, Fujiko; Kaplan, Bethany; Wang, Rui; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Walline, Heather M.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Stewart, Chip; Carter, Scott L.; McKenna, Aaron; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Espinosa-Castilla, Magali; Woie, Kathrine; Bjorge, Line; Wik, Elisabeth; Halle, Mari K.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Gabiño, Nayeli Belem; Gómez-Macías, Gabriela Sofia; Valdez-Chapa, Lezmes D.; Garza-Rodríguez, María Lourdes; Maytorena, German; Vazquez, Jorge; Rodea, Carlos; Cravioto, Adrian; Cortes, Maria L.; Greulich, Heidi; Crum, Christopher P.; Neuberg, Donna S.; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Escareno, Claudia Rangel; Akslen, Lars A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Vintermyr, Olav K.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge; Getz, Gad; Salvesen, Helga B.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is responsible for 10–15% of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide1,2. The etiological role of infection with high-risk human papilloma viruses (HPV) in cervical carcinomas is well established3. Previous studies have implicated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, STK11 and KRAS4–7 as well as several copy number alterations in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinomas8,9. Here, we report whole exome sequencing analysis of 115 cervical carcinoma-normal paired samples, transcriptome sequencing of 79 cases and whole genome sequencing of 14 tumor-normal pairs. Novel somatic mutations in 79 primary squamous cell carcinomas include recurrent E322K substitutions in the MAPK1 gene (8%), inactivating mutations in the HLA-B gene (9%), and mutations in EP300 (16%), FBXW7 (15%), NFE2L2 (4%) TP53 (5%) and ERBB2 (6%). We also observed somatic ELF3 (13%) and CBFB (8%) mutations in 24 adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas had higher frequencies of somatic mutations in the Tp*C dinucleotide context than adenocarcinomas. Gene expression levels at HPV integration sites were significantly higher in tumors with HPV integration compared with expression of the same genes in tumors without viral integration at the same site. These data demonstrate several recurrent genomic alterations in cervical carcinomas that suggest novel strategies to combat this disease. PMID:24390348

  9. Emerging Biological Treatments for Uterine Cervical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vici, Patrizia; Mariani, Luciano; Pizzuti, Laura; Sergi, Domenico; Di Lauro, Luigi; Vizza, Enrico; Tomao, Federica; Tomao, Silverio; Mancini, Emanuela; Vincenzoni, Cristina; Barba, Maddalena; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Venuti, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and the development of new diagnosis, prognostic, and treatment strategies is a major interest for public health. Cisplatin, in combination with external beam irradiation for locally advanced disease, or as monotherapy for recurrent/metastatic disease, has been the cornerstone of treatment for more than two decades. Other investigated cytotoxic therapies include paclitaxel, ifosfamide and topotecan, as single agents or in combination, revealing unsatisfactory results. In recent years, much effort has been made towards evaluating new drugs and developing innovative therapies to treat cervical cancer. Among the most investigated molecular targets are epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways, both playing a critical role in cervical cancer development. Studies with bevacizumab or VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase have given encouraging results in terms of clinical efficacy, without adding significant toxicity. A great number of other molecular agents targeting critical pathways in cervical malignant transformation are being evaluated in preclinical and clinical trials, reporting preliminary promising data. In the current review, we discuss novel therapeutic strategies which are being investigated for the treatment of advanced cervical cancer. PMID:24494026

  10. Human Papillomavirus type distribution in invasive cervical cancer in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Odida; Silvia de Sanjosé; Wim Quint; Xavier F Bosch; Joellen Klaustermeier; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a study aiming to describe Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in invasive cervical carcinoma in Uganda. METHODS: 191 archival cervical carcinoma samples diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, Makerere University in Kampala between 1968 and 1992 were analysed using a sensitive PCR-Reverse Hybridization Line Probe Assay. RESULTS: Out of the 186 cases of confirmed invasive cervical cancer

  11. Computed tomography in cervical disc disease when myelography is unsatisfactory.

    PubMed

    Fon, G T; Sage, M R

    1984-01-01

    Water-soluble contrast media have replaced myodil for cervical myelography. In the presence of significant degenerative disease, the normal cervical lordotic curve may be decreased, straightened or even reversed, making it impossible to 'pool' sufficient contrast medium in this region. In such cases, third generation computed tomography is invaluable in confirming or excluding the presence of cervical disc protrusion. PMID:6690181

  12. An Historical Look at a Contemporary Question: The Cervical Cap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmet, Judy A.; Reagan, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    The history of the use of cervical caps as a birth control method is recounted in the areas of (1) revival of the cervical cap; (2) repopularization of the cervical cap; (3) empirical research; (4) nonbehavioral factors; (5) behavioral problems; and (6) health problems. (CB)

  13. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Risk for cervical cancer may depend on human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype, viral load in cervical tissue, and the persistence of infection. The risk of cervical cancer due to HPV infection may be modified by an individual's genetics, specifically, a group of alleles that code for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA).

  14. Analysis of the cervical spine alignment following laminoplasty and laminectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunji Matsunaga; Takashi Sakou; Kenji Nakanisi

    1999-01-01

    Very little detailed biomechanical examination of the alignment of the cervical spine following laminoplasty has been reported. We performed a comparative study regarding the buckling-type alignment that follows laminoplasty and laminectomy to know the mechanical changes in the alignment of the cervical spine. Lateral images of plain roentgenograms of the cervical spine were put into a computer and examined using

  15. Influence of laminectomy on the course of cervical myelopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gorter

    1976-01-01

    Summary The pathogenesis of cervical myelopathy resulting from cervical spondylarthrosis seems to be the result of intermittent compression of the cervical cord and its feeding arteries. In the literature proof is given that both factors play an important role. By laminectomy or ventral fusion a regression of the neurological disability can be obtained. In our series of 75 patients there

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: frequent complications by cervical spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahito Yamada; Yutaka Furukawa; Mie Hirohata

    2003-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is associated with myelopathy and radiculopathy, which sometimes mimic clinical manifestations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects upper and lower motor neurons. Cervical spondylosis may coexist with ALS because both diseases preferentially affect individuals of middle or old age. We investigated 63 patients with ALS to clarify the complications of cervical spondylosis and

  17. Evaluation of cervical conization as a definitive treatment for microinvasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noriko Takeda; Takahiro Suzuki; Miwa Suzuki; Motoki Matsuura; Ryoichi Tanaka; Miho Fujii; Eiki Ito; Tsuyoshi Saito

    Purpose  The aim of the study was to evaluate disease persistence after conization of CIN3 and microinvasive cervical carcinoma.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Medical records from a total of 231 patients were reviewed. The prevalence of CIN3 and cervical carcinoma diagnosed by means\\u000a of conization were analyzed. All conizations were performed under lumbar anesthesia using a laser technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Of the 231 patients, 25 had margin

  18. Anterolisthesis and retrolisthesis of the cervical spine in cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohiro Kawasaki; Toshikazu Tani; Takahiro Ushida; Kenji Ishida

    2007-01-01

    Background  Degenerative spondylolisthesis of the cervical spine has received insufficient attention in contrast to that of the lumbar\\u000a spine. The authors analyzed the functional significance of anterior and posterior degenerative spondylolisthesis (anterolisthesis\\u000a and retrolisthesis) of the cervical spine to elucidate its role in the development of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM)\\u000a in the elderly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 79 patients aged 65 or

  19. Cervical Meningomyelitis After Lumbar Epidural Steroid Injection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Sung; Kim, Ji Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Epidural steroid injections (ESI) are a common treatment for back pain management. ESI-related complications have increased with the growing number of procedures. We report a case of cervical meningomyelitis followed by multiple lumbar ESI. A 60-year-old male with diabetes mellitus presented to our hospital with severe neck pain. He had a history of multiple lumbar injections from a local pain clinic. After admission, high fever and elevated inflammatory values were detected. L-spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed hematoma in the S1 epidural space. Antibiotic treatment began under the diagnosis of a lumbar epidural abscess. Despite the treatment, he started to complain of weakness in both lower extremities. Three days later, the weakness progressed to both upper extremities. C-spine MRI revealed cervical leptomeningeal enhancement in the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. Removal of the epidural abscess was performed, but there was no neurological improvement.

  20. Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Idiopathic cervical dystonia is characterized by involuntary spasms, tremors or jerks. It is not restricted to a disturbance in the basal ganglia system because non-conventional voxel-based MRI morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have detected numerous regional changes in the brains of patients. In this study scans of 24 patients with cervical dystonia and 24 age-and sex-matched controls were analysed using VBM, DTI and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using a voxel-based approach and a region-of-interest analysis. Results were correlated with UDRS, TWSTRS and disease duration. Results We found structural alterations in the basal ganglia; thalamus; motor cortex; premotor cortex; frontal, temporal and parietal cortices; visual system; cerebellum and brainstem of the patients with dystonia. Conclusions Cervical dystonia is a multisystem disease involving several networks such as the motor, sensory and visual systems. PMID:24131497

  1. Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, J. G.; Butler, J. S.; Dolan, A. M.; O'Byrne, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy and radiculopathy are common disorders which can lead to significant clinical morbidity. Conservative management, such as physical therapy, cervical immobilisation, or anti-inflammatory medications, is the preferred and often only required intervention. Surgical intervention is reserved for those patients who have intractable pain or progressive neurological symptoms. The goals of surgical treatment are decompression of the spinal cord and nerve roots and deformity prevention by maintaining or supplementing spinal stability and alleviating pain. Numerous surgical techniques exist to alleviate symptoms, which are achieved through anterior, posterior, or circumferential approaches. Under most circumstances, one approach will produce optimal results. It is important that the surgical plan is tailored to address each individual's unique clinical circumstance. The objective of this paper is to analyse the major surgical treatment options for cervical myelopathy and radiculopathy focusing on outcomes and complications. PMID:22046575

  2. Descriptive Epidemiology of Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Defazio, Giovanni; Jankovic, Joseph; Giel, Jennifer L.; Papapetropoulos, Spyridon

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical dystonia (CD), the most common form of adult-onset focal dystonia, has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with variable clinical features, leading to difficulties and delays in diagnosis. Owing to the lack of reviews specifically focusing on the frequency of primary CD in the general population, we performed a systematic literature search to examine its prevalence/incidence and analyze methodological differences among studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search to examine the prevalence data of primary focal CD. Sixteen articles met our methodological criteria. Because the reported prevalence estimates were found to vary widely across studies, we analyzed methodological differences and other factors to determine whether true differences exist in prevalence rates among geographic areas (and by gender and age distributions), as well as to facilitate recommendations for future studies. Results Prevalence estimates ranged from 20–4,100?cases/million. Generally, studies that relied on service-based and record-linkage system data likely underestimated the prevalence of CD, whereas population-based studies suffered from over-ascertainment. The more methodologically robust studies yielded a range of estimates of 28–183?cases/million. Despite the varying prevalence estimates, an approximate 2:1 female:male ratio was consistent among many studies. Three studies estimated incidence, ranging from 8–12 cases/million person-years. Discussion Although several studies have attempted to estimate the prevalence and incidence of CD, there is a need for additional well-designed epidemiological studies on primary CD that include large populations; use defined CD diagnostic criteria; and stratify for factors such as age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:24255801

  3. Pathogenesis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether either of two mechanical theories predicts the topographic pattern of neuropathology in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The compression theory states that the spinal cord is compressed between a spondylotic bar anteriorly and the ligamenta flava posteriorly. The dentate tension theory states that the spinal cord is pulled laterally by the dentate ligaments, which are tensed by an anterior spondylotic bar. METHODS: The spinal cord cross section, at the level of a spondylotic bar, is modelled as a circular disc subject to forces applied at its circumference. These forces differ for the two theories. From the pattern of forces at the circumference the distribution of shear stresses in the interior of the disc-that is, over the transverse section of the spinal cord-is calculated. With the assumption that highly stressed areas are most subject to damage, the stress pattern predicted by each theory can be compared to the topographic neuropathology of CSM. RESULTS: The predicted stress pattern of the dentate tension theory corresponds to the reported neuropathology, whereas the predicted stress pattern of the compression theory does not. CONCLUSIONS: The results strongly favour the theory that CSM is caused by tensile stresses transmitted to the spinal cord from the dura via the dentate ligaments. A spondylotic bar can increase dentate tension by displacing the spinal cord dorsally, while the dural attachments of the dentate, anchored by the dural root sleeves and dural ligaments, are displaced less. The spondylotic bar may also increase dentate tension by interfering locally with dural stretch during neck flexion, the resultant increase in dural stress being transmitted to the spinal cord via the dentate ligaments. Flexion of the neck increases dural tension and should be avoided in the conservative treatment of CSM. Both anterior and posterior extradural surgical operations can diminish dentate tension, which may explain their usefulness in CSM. The generality of these results must be tempered by the simplifying assumptions required for the mathematical model. Images PMID:9120444

  4. Cervical intramedullary schwannoma mimicking a glioma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ankush; Nair, Bijesh Ravindran; Chacko, Geeta; Mani, Sunithi; Joseph, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a cervical intramedullary schwannoma (IS), which resembled a glioma on radiology. Somatic and root pain, the most common presenting complaints of IS, were lacking in our patient, and the characteristic magnetic resonance finding of an enhancing thickened nerve root in IS, was absent in our case. Preoperative diagnosis of a cervical IS is not always possible. Complete tumor resection is the ideal treatment for IS. Intraoperative frozen section can be a useful for decision making though the tumor-cord plane will ultimately decide if the tumor can be radically excised. PMID:25767576

  5. AAC11 Overexpression Induces Invasion and Protects Cervical Cancer Cells from Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Woo Kim; Hyun Suk Cho; Jeong Hyun Kim; Soo Young Hur; Tae Eung Kim; Joon Mo Lee; In-Kyung Kim; Sung Eun Namkoong

    2000-01-01

    To identify the genes involved in cervical carcinogenesis, we applied the mRNA differential display (DD) method to analyze normal cervical tissue, cervical cancer, metastatic lymph node, and cervical cancer cell line. We cloned a 491-bp cDNA fragment, CC231, which was present in metastatic tissue and cervical cancer cell line, but absent in normal cervical and cervical cancer tissues. The 491

  6. Four lateral mass screw fixation techniques in lower cervical spine following laminectomy: a finite element analysis study of stress distribution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) techniques have been widely used for reconstructing and stabilizing the cervical spine; however, complications may result depending on the choice of surgeon. There are only a few reports related to LSF applications, even though fracture fixation has become a severe complication. This study establishes the three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine, and compares the stress distribution of the four LSF techniques (Magerl, Roy-Camille, Anderson, and An), following laminectomy -- to explore the risks of rupture after fixation. Method CT scans were performed on a healthy adult female volunteer, and Digital imaging and communication in medicine (Dicom) data was obtained. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio 12.0, Solidworks 2012, HyperMesh 10.1 and Abaqus 6.12 software programs were used to establish the intact model of the lower cervical spines (C3-C7), a postoperative model after laminectomy, and a reconstructive model after applying the LSF techniques. A compressive preload of 74 N combined with a pure moment of 1.8 Nm was applied to the intact and reconstructive model, simulating normal flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. The stress distribution of the four LSF techniques was compared by analyzing the maximum von Mises stress. Result The three-dimensional finite element model of the intact C3-C7 vertebrae was successfully established. This model consists of 503,911 elements and 93,390 nodes. During flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation modes, the intact model’s angular intersegmental range of motion was in good agreement with the results reported from the literature. The postoperative model after the three-segment laminectomy and the reconstructive model after applying the four LSF techniques were established based on the validated intact model. The stress distribution for the Magerl and Roy-Camille groups were more dispersive, and the maximum von Mises stress levels were lower than the other two groups in various conditions. Conclusion The LSF techniques of Magerl and Roy-Camille are safer methods for stabilizing the lower cervical spine. Therefore, these methods potentially have a lower risk of fixation fracture. PMID:25106498

  7. Anterior transpedicular screw fixation of cervical spine: Is it safe? Morphological feasibility, technical properties, and accuracy of manual insertion.

    PubMed

    Koktekir, Ender; Toktas, Zafer Orkun; Seker, Askin; Akakin, Akin; Konya, Deniz; Kilic, Turker

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Due to lack of construct stability of the current anterior cervical approaches, supplemental posterior cervical approaches are frequently employed. The use of an anterior-only approach with anterior transpedicular screws (ATPSs) has been proposed as a means of providing 3-column fixation. This study was designed to investigate the feasibility of anterior transpedicular screw (ATPS) fixation of cervical spine, to obtain the morphological measurements for technical prerequisites, and to evaluate the accuracy of the ATPS using fluoroscopy. METHODS The study included both radiological and anatomical investigations. The radiological investigations were based on data from cervical spine CT scans performed in 65 patients. Technical prerequisites of ATPS were calculated using OsiriX for Mac OS. In the anatomical part of the study, 30 pedicles (C3-7) from 6 formalin-preserved cadavers were manually instrumented. Measurements obtained included pedicle width (PW), pedicle height (PH), pedicle transverse angle (PTA), distance of the entry point from the midline (DEPM), and distance of the entry point from the superior endplate (DEPSEP). The authors also analyzed screw position in the manually instrumented vertebrae. RESULTS The mean PW and PH values showed a tendency to increase from C-3 to C-7 in both males and females. The means were significantly larger for both PW and PH in males than in females at all levels (p = 0.001). The overall mean PTA value was significantly lower at C-7 (p < 0.0001). The mean value for the distance of entry point from the midline (DEPM) represented a point at the contralateral side of the pedicle for every level except C-7. The mean DEPSEP values showed significant differences between all levels (p < 0.0001). Seven of the 30 screws were identified as breaching the pedicle (23.3%); these screw malplacements were seen at C-3 (3 screws), C-4 (2 screws), and C-5 (2 screws). CONCLUSIONS The morphological measurements of this study demonstrated that ATPS fixation is feasible in selected cases. They indicate that ATPS insertion using a fluoroscopy-assisted pedicle axis view is safe at the C-6 and C-7 levels, but the results at the other levels did not prove the safety of this technique. PMID:25815805

  8. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study explores the cervical cancer-related knowledge and behaviors of mothers and the potential of the mother-daughter relationship using daughter-initiated cervical cancer prevention in South Africa. The relationship has implications for effecting intergenerational prevention behavior for cervical cancer. This study will contribute formative data towards a better understanding of the potential of daughters to serve as advocates to promote cervical cancer screening with their mothers in order to develop effective and innovative methods to promote screening for cervical cancer.

  9. The effects of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Wontae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cervical posture manipulation, based on passive motion analysis (MBPMA) and general mobilization, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture (FHP), and cervical ROM in university students with problems in cervical posture and range of motion (ROM). [Subjects] The Subjects were 40 university students in their 20s who displayed problems in cervical posture and ROM; they were divided into an MBPMA group (n=20) and a mobilization group (n=20). [Methods] Each group underwent MBPMA or mobilization three times a week for four weeks. The effects of MBPMA and mobilization on cervical lordosis, FHP, and cervical ROM were analyzed by radiography. [Results] MBPMA was effective in increasing the cervical lordosis, cervical extension ROM (CER), and ranges of flexion and extension motion (RFEM) and in decreasing FHP. Mobilization was effective in increasing CER and decreasing FHP. [Conclusion] MBPMA can be utilized as an effective method for decreasing FHP and improving cervical lordosis and cervical ROM.

  10. Colposcopy and High Resolution Anoscopy in Screening For Anal Dysplasia in Patients With Cervical, Vaginal, or Vulvar Dysplasia or Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-06-08

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2; Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3; Recurrent Cervical Cancer; Recurrent Vaginal Cancer; Recurrent Vulvar Cancer; Stage 0 Cervical Cancer; Stage 0 Vaginal Cancer; Stage 0 Vulvar Cancer; Stage I Vaginal Cancer; Stage I Vulvar Cancer; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage III Vulvar Cancer; Stage IV Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  11. Cervical collar or physiotherapy versus wait and see policy for recent onset cervical radiculopathy: randomised trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Kuijper; Jos Th J Tans; Anita Beelen; Frans Nollet; Marianne de Visser

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with collar or physiotherapy compared with a wait and see policy in recent onset cervical radiculopathy.Design Randomised controlled trial.Setting Neurology outpatient clinics in three Dutch hospitals.Participants 205 patients with symptoms and signs of cervical radiculopathy of less than one month’s durationInterventions Treatment with a semi-hard collar and taking rest for three to six

  12. Update on ASCCP consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical screening tests and cervical histology.

    PubMed

    Apgar, Barbara S; Kittendorf, Anne L; Bettcher, Catherine M; Wong, Jean; Kaufman, Amanda J

    2009-07-15

    New data have emerged since publication of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology's 2001 consensus guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology. The 2006 guidelines include recommendations for special populations (i.e., adolescents and pregnant women). Human papillomavirus testing is now included for management of atypical glandular cytology, for follow-up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in combination with cytologic screening in women 30 years and older. The preferred management of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in adult women is reflex human papillomavirus DNA testing. Colposcopy is recommended for adult women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, atypical glandular cells, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, and atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 can be managed conservatively in adult women, but treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grades 2 and 3 is recommended. Immediate treatment is an option for adult women but not for adolescents with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Conservative management of adolescents with any cytologic or histologic diagnosis except specified cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ is recommended. Colposcopy is preferred for pregnant women with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, but evaluation of the former may be deferred until no earlier than six weeks postpartum. Treatment during pregnancy is unacceptable unless invasive carcinoma is identified. PMID:19621855

  13. Anterior plating of unstable cervical spine fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D C Mann; B W Braner; J S Keene; A B Levin; David Mann

    1990-01-01

    Medical records and radiographs of 16 patients who had anterior decompression, bone grafting, and plating of grade III and IV (Allen 1982) unstable cervical spine injuries were reviewed. Surgery was performed within 15 days of injury, reductions were achieved and maintained at follow-up, and fusion occurred in all cases. Neurologic function stabilised or improved in all cases. However, 3 patients

  14. Angiogenesis, Thrombospondin1 and Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Ping Wu; Cheng-Yang Chou

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Angiogenesis, the growth of new vessels from existing vasculature, plays an essential role in tumor development. The process involves interaction among cancer cells, endothelial cells, and components of the extracellular matrix, and is regulated by the balance of angiogenesis activators and angiogenesis inhibitors. This review profiles some fundamental concepts of angiogenesis, the importance of angiogenesis in cervical neoplasm, and

  15. Excessive daytime sleepiness in cervical dystonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn Marie Trotti; Christine D. Esper; Paul J. Feustel; Donald L. Bliwise; Stewart A. Factor

    2009-01-01

    Few investigations have examined sleep in cervical dystonia (CD) patients. We assessed 43 consecutive CD patients, 19 patients with other focal movement disorders, and 49 healthy, age- and gender-matched controls for the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, ESS). All patients were receiving botulinum toxin. We found that a higher percentage of CD patients

  16. [Castelman disease. Apropos of 2 cervical localizations].

    PubMed

    el Messaoudi, A; el Edghiri, H; Lazrak, A; Jazouli, N; Kzadri, M

    1993-01-01

    The authors report two cases of neck localisations of Castelman's disease. A cervical mass and an inflammatory syndrome are the main clinical and biological symptoms. The diagnosis of the disease is based on histology. Surgery provides a complete recovery. PMID:8191062

  17. Sonographic Evaluation of an Embryonic Cervical Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassie J. Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy, and early diagnosis and treatment are important when managing this type of emergency. Although rare, if implantation occurs in the endocervical canal, it can pose a serious risk to the patient's future fertility. When an endocervical pregnancy is suspected, transabdominal and endocavity sonography should be performed.

  18. Director's Message 2 Cervical Cancer 4

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Director's Message 2 Cervical Cancer 4 Laser Eyelid Surgery 5 LASER B E C K M A N L A S E R I N on pg. 8) Rafiki, an iguana, has recovered fully from laser surgery. (Please see Veterinary Update on pg

  19. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  20. Neck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    , such a sport injury or motor vehicle accident. More common and less dramatic causes include reaching or pulling trauma to head occurred or headache is severe. This side effect will resolve in time. Most injuriesNeck Pain (Cervical Strain) COMMON CAUSES: Neck pain may be triggered by a specific event

  1. Cervical spine response in frontal crash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Panzer; Jason B. Fice; Duane S. Cronin

    2011-01-01

    Predicting neck response and injury resulting from motor vehicle accidents is essential to improving occupant protection. A detailed human cervical spine finite element model has been developed, with material properties and geometry determined a priori of any validation, for the evaluation of global kinematics and tissue-level response. Model validation was based on flexion\\/extension response at the segment level, tension response

  2. HPV - a vaccine against cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Desmond; H. Petousis-Harris; N. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Most cervical cancer is caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV). Protection against the major cancer-causing serotypes of this virus by vaccination is now a reality for New Zealand women. Internationally two manufacturers have candidate HPV vaccines: the bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmith Kline) and the tetravalent Gardasil (CSL and Merck & Co). This article focuses on Gardasil, as this vaccine is now available

  3. Remote microscope control for cervical cancer telediagnostic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Parra; J. Puentes; A. Herrera

    2003-01-01

    Despite the improvements to conveniently exchange digital cytological images and patient data forms, which facilitate and accelerate cervical cancer telediagnostic, some of the diagnosed cases require the expert cytologist to remotely acquire images of the slide being examined by a less experienced technician. This paper presents an interactive remote microscope control that permits to distantly be in command of the

  4. Cortical and cervical stimulation after hemispheric infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Berardelli; M Inghilleri; M Manfredi; A Zamponi; V Cecconi; G Dolce

    1987-01-01

    Cortical and cervical stimulation has been performed in 20 patients with hemiparesis or hemiplegia due to hemispheric infarction and in 20 control subjects. The motor action potentials (MAPs) were recorded from biceps and thenar muscles. MAPs evoked by stimulation of the undamaged hemisphere were normal in 18 out of 20 patients and in two there was a slight increase of

  5. Evaluating societal preferences for human papillomavirus vaccine and cervical smear test screening programme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridgette Oteng; Fawziah Marra; Larry D Lynd; Gina Ogilvie; David Patrick; Carlo A Marra

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundCervical cancer and genital warts are diseases associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cervical smear testing is used as a cervical cancer screening tool in most countries worldwide. The newly introduced vaccines that prevent HPV infections are the quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), which prevents genital warts and cervical cancer, and the bivalent vaccine (Cervarix), which prevents cervical cancer only. Public preferences

  6. The association of uterine cervical microbiota with an increased risk for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, H Y; Kim, B-S; Seo, S-S; Kong, J-S; Lee, J-K; Park, S-Y; Hong, K-M; Kim, H-K; Kim, M K

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested potential roles of the microbiome in cervicovaginal diseases. However, there has been no report on the cervical microbiome in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We aimed to identify the cervical microbiota of Korean women and assess the association between the cervical microbiota and CIN, and to determine the combined effect of the microbiota and human papillomavirus (HPV) on the risk of CIN. The cervical microbiota of 70 women with CIN and 50 control women was analysed using pyrosequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene. The associations between specific microbial patterns or abundance of specific microbiota and CIN risk were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, and the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) and the synergy index (S) were calculated. The phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Fusobacteria and TM7 were predominant in the microbiota and four distinct community types were observed in all women. A high score of the pattern characterized by predominance of Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Lactobacillus iners with a minority of Lactobacillus crispatus had a higher CIN risk (OR 5.80, 95% CI 1.73?19.4) and abundance of A. vaginae had a higher CIN risk (OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.61?27.2). The synergistic effect of a high score of this microbial pattern and oncogenic HPV was observed (OR 34.1, 95% CI 4.95?284.5; RERI/S, 15.9/1.93). A predominance of A. vaginae, G. vaginalis and L. iners with a concomitant paucity of L. crispatus in the cervical microbiota was associated with CIN risk, suggesting that bacterial dysbiosis and its combination with oncogenic HPV may be a risk factor for cervical neoplasia. PMID:25752224

  7. Torsion and Bending in the Neck and Tail of Sauropod Dinosaurs and the Function of Cervical Ribs: Insights from Functional Morphology and Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Preuschoft, Holger; Klein, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The long necks of sauropods have been subject to many studies regarding their posture and flexibility. Length of the neck varies among groups. Here, we investigate neck posture and morphology in several clades from a mechanical viewpoint. Emphasis is put on comparing sauropod necks and tails with structures in living archosaurs and mammals. Differences in the use made of necks and tails lead to clear-cut differences in the mechanical loads occurring in the same models. Ways of sustaining loads are identified by theoretical considerations. If the observed skeletal structures are suited to resist the estimated loading in a particular posture, this concordance is taken as an argument that this posture or movement was of importance during the life of the individual. Apart from the often-discussed bending in side view, we analyze the often overlooked torsion. Because torsional stresses in a homogenous element concentrate near the periphery, a cylindrical cross section gives greatest strength, and the direction of forces is oblique. In a vertebrate neck, during e.g. shaking the head and twisting the neck, oblique muscles, like the mm. scaleni, if activated unilaterally initiate movement, counterbalance the torsional moments and keep the joints between neck vertebrae in equilibrium. If activated bilaterally, these muscles keep the neck balanced in an energy-saving upright posture. The tendons of the mm. scaleni may have ossified as cervical ribs The long cervical ribs in brachiosaurids and mamenchisaurids seem to have limited flexibility, whereas the shorter cervical ribs in Diplodocidae allowed free movement. The tails of sauropods do not show pronounced adaptation to torsion, and seem to have been carried more or less in a horizontal, extended posture. In this respect, sauropod tails resemble the necks of herbivorous cursorial mammals. These analyses provide an improved understanding of neck use that will be extended to other sauropods in subsequent studies. PMID:24205268

  8. Cervical radiculopathy: Pain, muscle weakness and sensory loss in patients with cervical radiculopathy treated with surgery, physiotherapy or cervical collar A prospective, controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. G. Persson; U. Moritz; L. Brandt; C.-A. Carlsson

    1997-01-01

    This prospective, randomised study compares the efficacy of surgery, physiotherapy and cervical collar with respect to pain, motor weakness and sensory loss in 81 patients with long-lasting cervical radiculopathy corresponding to a nerve root that was significantly compressed by spondylotic encroachment, with or without an additional bulging disk, as verified by MRI or CT-myelography. Pain intensity was registered on a

  9. 77 FR 66469 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...aforementioned committee: Name: Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes...

  10. 75 FR 7282 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Task Force guidelines for breast and cervical cancer screening; Impact of...

  11. 76 FR 30723 - Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control Advisory Committee (BCCEDCAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...Disease Control and Prevention Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection and Control...detection and control of breast and cervical cancer. The committee makes recommendations...Reform and its impact for breast and cervical cancer screening; updates on...

  12. 78 FR 36306 - Proposed Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Information Collection (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...a claimant's diagnosis of a cervical spine condition. DATES: Written comments and...Control No. 2900--NEW (Neck (Cervical Spine) Conditions Disability Benefits...

  13. Human papillomavirus prevalence in paired urine and cervical samples in women invited for cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Burroni, Elena; Bonanni, Paolo; Sani, Cristina; Lastrucci, Vieri; Carozzi, Francesca; Iossa, Anna; Andersson, Karin Louise; Brandigi, Livia; Di Pierro, Carmelina; Confortini, Massimo; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Indiani, Laura; Sala, Antonino; Tanini, Tommaso; Bechini, Angela; Azzari, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    With the introduction of Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young girls in 2007, it is important to monitor HPV infections and epidemiological changes in this target population. The present study has evaluated the detection of human papillomavirus DNA in paired cervical and urine samples to understand if HPV testing in urine could be used as non-invasive method to monitor HPV status in young women. The study enrolled 216 twenty five-year-old women, resident in Florence and invited for the first time to the cervical cancer Screening Program within a project evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination. HPV genotyping was performed on 216 paired urine and cervical samples. The overall concordance between cervix and urine samples, investigated by HPV genotyping (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra), was: 85.6% (184/215), 84.6% (182/215), 80% (172/215) when the same HPV, at least the same HR HPV and all HR HPV, respectively, were detected. HPV type specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples was observed in 85.8% (175/204) of women with normal cytology and in seven out of nine women with abnormal cytology. Urine seems to be a suitable and reliable biological material for HPV DNA detection as evidenced by the high concordance with HPV detected in cervical samples. These results suggest that urine could be a good noninvasive tool to monitor HPV infection in vaccinated women. PMID:25418873

  14. Genomic aberrations in cervical adenocarcinomas in Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tony K H; Van Hummelen, Paul; Chan, Paul K S; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yim, So Fan; Yu, Mei Y; Ducar, Matthew D; Thorner, Aaron R; MacConaill, Laura E; Doran, Graeme; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Wong, Raymond R Y; Wang, Vivian W; Freeman, Samuel S; Lau, Tat San; Kwong, Joseph; Chan, Loucia K Y; Fromer, Menachem; May, Taymaa; Worley, Michael J; Esselen, Katharine M; Elias, Kevin M; Lawrence, Michael; Getz, Gad; Smith, David I; Crum, Christopher P; Meyerson, Matthew; Berkowitz, Ross S; Wong, Yick Fu

    2015-08-15

    Although the rates of cervical squamous cell carcinoma have been declining, the rates of cervical adenocarcinoma are increasing in some countries. Outcomes for advanced cervical adenocarcinoma remain poor. Precision mapping of genetic alterations in cervical adenocarcinoma may enable better selection of therapies and deliver improved outcomes when combined with new sequencing diagnostics. We present whole-exome sequencing results from 15 cervical adenocarcinomas and paired normal samples from Hong Kong Chinese women. These data revealed a heterogeneous mutation spectrum and identified several frequently altered genes including FAT1, ARID1A, ERBB2 and PIK3CA. Exome sequencing identified human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences in 13 tumors in which the HPV genome might have integrated into and hence disrupted the functions of certain exons, raising the possibility that HPV integration can alter pathways other than p53 and pRb. Together, these provisionary data suggest the potential for individualized therapies for cervical adenocarcinoma based on genomic information. PMID:25626421

  15. Ewe breed differences in fertility after cervical AI with frozen–thawed semen and associated differences in sperm penetration and physicochemical properties of cervical mucus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorraine Richardson; J. P. Hanrahan; Lydia O’Hara; Anne Donovan; Sean Fair; Michael O'Sullivan; Stephen D. Carrington; Pat Lonergan; A. C. O. Evans

    The objective of this study was to examine sperm penetration through cervical mucus and associated physicochemical properties of cervical mucus from Belclare and Suffolk ewes – two breeds with divergent pregnancy rate following cervical AI using frozen–thawed semen. In Experiment 1, sperm penetration through cervical mucus was assessed in 15 Belclare and 15 Suffolk ewes at 30, 48 and 57h

  16. Flexion-extension cervical spine radiography in pediatric blunt trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Woods; William J. Brady; Gary Pollock; Narendra Kini; Jeffrey S. Young

    1998-01-01

    Ligamentous cervical injury may not be apparent when viewed with static cervical spine radiography (CSR). Dynamic (flexion-extension)\\u000a views of the cervical spine may aid in the identification of such injury. A retrospective descriptive study was carried out\\u000a between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 1994, in an academic emergency department averaging 60,000 patient visits (of which 20%\\u000a are pediatric) per

  17. Placental-type alkaline phosphatase in cervical neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PJ McLaughlin; PH Warne; GE Hutchinson; PM Johnson; DF Tucker

    1987-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies reactive with placental-type alkaline phosphatase have formed the basis of methods for detection of this oncodevelopmental antigen in patients with pre-invasive and invasive cervical neoplasia, with or without evidence of papilloma virus infection. Disease-related elevations of placental-type alkaline phosphatase were not observed in patients' sera. Solubilised cervical smears or biopsy material, and cervical mucus swabs, often contained substantial

  18. Cervical stump cancer: a study of 14 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cléber S. Silva; Cristina O. Cardoso; Renato A. Menegaz; Sheila J. Adad; Luís F. R. Angotti; Eddie F. C. Murta

    2004-01-01

    Case report.  This is a report on 14 patients with cervical stump cancer, aged 30 to 68 years old (median = 53 years), seen in a public\\u000a university hospital. Over a 15-year period, 363 cases of cervical cancer were treated, of which fourteen (3.85%) were in the\\u000a cervical stump. The time interval between subtotal hysterectomy and the diagnosis of the neoplasm varied from

  19. Cervical muscle area measurements in acute whiplash patients and controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika J Ulbrich; Suzanne E Anderson; Andre Busato; Susanne Abderhalden; Chris Boesch; Heinz Zimmermann; Paul Heini; Juerg Hodler; Matthias Sturzenegger

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the cervical muscles in symptomatic acute whiplash patients versus healthy controls. We hypothesized, that symptomatic whiplash patients have smaller cervical muscle CSAs than matched controls and that smaller cervical muscle CSAs in women might explain that women more frequently are symptomatic after whiplash injury than men.\\u000aMaterials and Methods: Prospective

  20. Appropriate use of cervical cancer vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zimet, Gregory D; Shew, Marcia L; Kahn, Jessica A

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary, though not sufficient, cause of cervical cancer. Two vaccines have been developed that prevent two HPV types associated with 70% of cervical cancers. One of the vaccines (a quadrivalent vaccine) also prevents two HPV types associated with 90% of genital warts. Both HPV vaccines have shown very good efficacy and safety. This review summarizes the guidelines for use of the quadrivalent vaccine published by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, presents data on vaccine efficacy and safety, and gives an overview of the findings of cost-effectiveness studies. In addition, we summarize the research on the attitudes of parents and health care providers toward HPV vaccine and critically evaluate controversial and challenging issues surrounding HPV vaccination, including concerns about sexual disinhibition and potential obstacles to vaccine distribution and uptake. PMID:18186704

  1. Horner's Syndrome after Superficial Cervical Plexus Block.

    PubMed

    Flores, Stefan; Riguzzi, Christine; Herring, Andrew A; Nagdev, Arun

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks are becoming more essential for the management of acute pain in the emergency department (ED). With increased block frequency comes unexpected complications that require prompt recognition and treatment. The superficial cervical plexus block (SCPB) has been recently described as a method for ED management of clavicle fracture pain. Horner's syndrome (HS) is a rare and self-limiting complication of regional anesthesia in neck region such as brachial and cervical plexus blocks. Herein we describe the first reported case of a HS after an ultrasound-guided SCPB performed in the ED and discuss the complex anatomy of the neck that contributes to the occurrence of this complication. PMID:25987922

  2. The role of trachelectomy in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Halaska, MJ; Robova, H; Pluta, M; Rob, L

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. Because it often affects women of childbearing age (19–45 years), fertility-sparing surgery is an important issue. The article reviews current viable fertility-sparing options with a special focus on trachelectomy, including vaginal radical trachelectomy, abdominal radical trachelectomy and simple trachelectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is also discussed. Finally, the decision to proceed with fertility-sparing treatment should be a patient-driven process. PMID:25729419

  3. Cervical cancer prevention: immunization and screening 2015.

    PubMed

    Thaxton, Lauren; Waxman, Alan G

    2015-05-01

    Both primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer are now available. Immunizations against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 have the potential to prevent 70% of cancers of the cervix plus a large percentage of other lower anogenital tract cancers. Screening guidelines were recently changed to recommend cotesting with cytology plus an HPV test. The addition of HPV testing increases the sensitivity and negative predictive value of screening over the Papanicolaou (Pap) test alone. PMID:25841595

  4. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the cervical esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Ishoo; Nicolas Y. Busaba

    2002-01-01

    This study describes the clinical presentation and management of ectopic gastric mucosa (EGM) in the cervical esophagus. This is a case report of a 53-year-old male who presented with left-sided odynophagia of 3 months' duration. Office examination, including flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy, was unremarkable. Direct larynogoscopy and rigid esophagoscopy revealed a 2 × 1-cm fleshy, red, and raised lesion in the

  5. Innovations in Cervical and Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.; Emons, G.

    2013-01-01

    The S2k guideline “Diagnostics and Therapy for Cervical Cancer” published in 2008 is currently being revised to the S3 level. Current developments in epidemiology, surgical therapy, radiochemotherapy and drug therapy will be presented. The S2k guideline “Diagnostics and Therapy for Endometrial Cancer” will also be up-dated this year. The revised recommendations on early diagnosis and diagnostics, therapy for precursors, surgical therapy, adjuvant therapy and therapy for recurrences and metastases will be presented. PMID:24771941

  6. Pediatric cervical spine injuries: a comprehensive review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Mortazavi; Pankaj A. Gore; Steve Chang; R. Shane Tubbs; Nicholas Theodore

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Cervical spine injuries can be life-altering issues in the pediatric population. The aim of the present paper was to review\\u000a this literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Conclusions  A comprehensive knowledge of the special anatomy and biomechanics of the spine of children is essential in diagnosis and treating\\u000a issues related to spine injuries.

  7. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile PMID:19301766

  8. Disturbances of dynamic balance in phasic cervical dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Muller, J; Ebersbach, G; Wissel, J; Brenneis, C; Badry, L; Poewe, W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To quantitatively assess control of balance under static and dynamic conditions in patients with tonic and phasic cervical dystonia.?METHODS—Ten patients with purely tonic cervical dystonia with fixed postural deviation and 20 patients with cervical dystonia with phasic head movements were investigated at least 3 months after botulinum toxin injections. Seventeen age matched volunteers served as controls. Static posturography was performed on a force platform; dynamic equilibrium was studied on a stabilometer, which requires the subject to continuously adapt upright posture to an unstable tilting surface. Measurements of maximum amplitude and linear displacement of the pivot were taken with open and closed eyes.?RESULTS—Sway path values in static posturography were not significantly different between patients with cervical dystonia and controls. On dynamic posturography, patients with phasic cervical dystonia showed significantly higher platform measures (maximum amplitude and linear displacement of the pivot) with eyes open and closed By contrast, none of the dynamic platform measures differed significantly between patients with tonic cervical dystonia and controls.?CONCLUSIONS—Normal measures of dynamic equilibrium in tonic cervical dystonia argue against a primary abnormality of balance control in cervical dystonia. Impaired dynamic equilibrium in phasic cervical dystonia is likely to reflect a disruption of vestibular input due to repetitive, involuntary head oscillations.?? PMID:10567505

  9. Cervical mucus: from biochemical structure to clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Curlin, Marija; Bursac, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    Structure of human cervical mucus plays a pivotal role in female fertility and protection of reproductive health. Investigation of biochemical and biophysical structure of cervical mucus remains a challenge due to complex structural proteins, high content of oligosaccharides and cyclic variability of its structure. We present the current knowledge on chemical and biophysical features of cervical mucus and regulation of its secretion, relevant clinical observations and underexplored elements. The latter relates to biochemical background of physical properties and antimicrobial activity of cervical mucus, and regulation of its production. PMID:23277065

  10. Update knowledge on cervical cancer incidence and prevalence in Asia.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Naheed; Ahmad, Saeed; Fatima, Urooj; Akram, Muhammad; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide, with over 500,000 new cases diagnosed annually and 50% mortality rate in Asia. In the United States, approximately 10,370 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed annually, and estimated 3,710 deaths occur from the disease, making it the sixth most common cause of malignancy among American women. This study aims to provide awareness about cervical cancer as well as an updated knowledge about the prevalence and incidence of cervical cancer in Asia. PMID:25987011

  11. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  12. Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition. PMID:25780714

  13. Gankyrin Is Frequently Overexpressed in Cervical High Grade Disease and Is Associated with Cervical Carcinogenesis and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wenyan; Dong, Yu; Yang, Yongbin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Feng, Youji; Ma, Ding; Zhang, Zhenbo; Wu, Sufang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies have showed that Gankyrin expression is correlated with a malignant phenotype in endometrial carcinoma. Here, we investigated the possible role of Gankyrin in cervical disease. The increasing protein level of Gankyrin was observed in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and carcinoma compared with benign cervical tissues and low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In para-carcinoma tissues, it was found interestingly that there was no lymph node metastasis when nuclei Gankyrin was positively expressed, but lymph node metastasis rate was 30% (6/20) when nuclei Gankyrin was negatively expressed. In vitro, the transfection of Gankyrin resulted in markedly up-regulating of Vimentin, ?-catenin and Twist2, as well as down-regulating of E-cadherin in cervical carcinoma cells. Our results suggested that Gankyrin may be functional in cervical carcinogenesis and metastasis. PMID:24751719

  14. Sperm penetration into cervical mucus in vitro. III. Effect of freezing on estrous bovine cervical mucus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.I.; Gaddum-Rosse, P.; Blandau, R.J.

    1981-08-01

    The influence of the storages period on estrous bovine cervical mucus after it was stored in the freezing compartment of the laboratory refrigerator was evaluated by an in vitro sperm penetration test with human spermatozoa, laser light-scattering, and a spinnbarkeit test. Data obtained from the sperm penetration test were analyzed by a mathematical model that correlates the sperm motility with the sperm transport rate and the penetrability of the mucus. The tests showed that estrous bovine cervical mucus can be stored for up to 4 weeks at -12 degrees C without a change in its physical properties. The results of this study strengthen the suggestion that bovine mucus could be employed as a substitute for human cervical mucus.

  15. Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Lydecker, Alison D.; Ireland, Lynda

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate cervical cancer screening practices and barriers to screening in a sample of lesbians. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were collected from 225 self-identified lesbians who completed an online questionnaire. Results Of the respondents, 71% reported receiving a Pap screening test in the past 24 months (routine screeners), and 29% reported receiving a Pap screening test >24 months ago or never (nonroutine screeners). Routine screeners were more likely to be older (p?cervical cancer. Conclusions Many lesbians do not screen for cervical cancer at recommended rates. Nonroutine screeners perceive fewer benefits, more barriers, and more discrimination and are less knowledgeable about screening guidelines than routine screeners. PMID:20095905

  16. HPV infection and cervical disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathan R; Ding, Zongqun; Rose, Barbara R

    2011-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant problem worldwide particularly in underdeveloped countries. The disease and its financial impact are significant. Infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and its precursors. HPV also causes precancer and cancer elsewhere in the lower genital tract in women and men, as well as cancers of the aerodigestive tract. Whilst non-sexual transmission has been reported, the usual method of transmission is by sexual intercourse with the virus deposited on the basement membrane of the cervical epithelium. It is then taken up by the basal cells, and viral amplification occurs with the maturation of the squamous epithelium. During this process, it remains hidden from the host immune system, thus not mounting an immune response in many instances. About half of the women infected with HPV do not develop clinically detected serum antibody levels and are thus at risk of re-infection with the same HPV type. HPV vaccination produces sustained levels of serum-neutralising antibodies and has been shown to be effective in reducing disease caused by the vaccine-associated HPV types. Vaccination is considered well tolerated and safe with syncope and venous thromboembolism reported more frequently that would be expected. Vaccination will not protect against pre-existing HPV infection and hence may not provide complete protection in all women, and as the duration of protection is not known, for the time being routine Pap testing screening according to the Australian guidelines should continue. PMID:21466509

  17. Cervical cancer screening among vulnerable women

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmeyer, Mei-ling; Lofters, Aisha; Rashid, Meb

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To see if refugee women at a community health centre (CHC) in Toronto, Ont, are appropriately screened for cervical cancer and if there are any demographic characteristics that affect whether they are screened. Design Chart review. Setting A CHC in downtown Toronto. Participants A total of 357 eligible refugee women attending the CHC. Main outcome measures Papanicolaou test received or documented reason for no Pap test. Results Ninety-two percent of women in the study sample were either appropriately screened for cervical cancer or had been approached for screening. Eighty percent of women were appropriately screened. Demographic variables including pregnancy, being uninsured, not speaking English, recent migration to Canada, and being a visible minority did not affect receipt of a Pap test after migration in multivariate analyses. Not speaking English was associated with a delay to receiving a first Pap test after migration. Conclusion The clients at our centre are demographically similar to women who are typically overlooked for Pap tests in the greater Toronto area. Despite belonging to a high-risk population, refugee women in this multidisciplinary CHC were screened for cervical cancer at a higher rate than the local population. PMID:22972744

  18. The cervical cap: past and current experience.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, B; Scharfman, B

    1980-01-01

    In the past several years, a new trend has emerged where women in increasingly growing numbers are becoming hesitant to accept the risks associated with hormonal and invasive methods of birth control. It is as part of this trend that a revival of sorts is occurring with the cervical cap, a form of birth control with roots which precede recorded history and which, in its modern form, was widely advocated in late 19th and early 20th century Europe. Based on the principle of occlusion, the cervical cap appears effective and risk-free, both vital concerns to women of all centuries. Women's health activists and organizations have been in the forefront of this revival. Two of the first organizations to take an active interest in making the cap available were the New Hampshire Feminist Health Center in Concord, New Hampshire, and the Emma Goldman Women's Health Clinic in Iowa City, Iowa. The National Women's Health Network, a national organization based in Washington, D.C., has also been an active advocate on the cervical cap's behalf. PMID:7018094

  19. Functional Analysis of Bladder Cancer-Related Protein Gene: A Putative Cervical Cancer Tumor Suppressor Gene in Cervical Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zehua Zuo; Min Zhao; Juan Liu; Guifang Gao; Xinxing Wu

    2006-01-01

    Our previous study has suggested thatthe bladder cancer-associated protein gene (BLCAP) was among the differentially expressed genes in cervical cancer. We confirm here that BLCAP is expressed in all noncancerous cervical tissues (10\\/10), but it is greatly lost in primary cervical cancer tissue (31\\/39). In order to further investigate the functional roles of BLCAP, we stably transfected BLCAP cDNA into

  20. Anterior cervical multilevel decompression and fusion using fibular strut as revision surgery for failed cervical laminoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shingo Komura; Kei Miyamoto; Hideo Hosoe; Kazunari Fushimi; Chizuo Iwai; Hirofumi Nishimoto; Katsuji Shimizu

    Study design  Retrospective analyses of six cases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To describe six patients with previous failed laminoplasty who were subsequently managed by anterior cervical decompression\\u000a and fusion (ACDF) using fibular strut as revision surgeries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Summary of background data  While several complications and unsatisfactory results of cervical laminoplasty have been reported, there is no general consensus\\u000a on how to best surgically treat these pathological conditions.

  1. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women. PMID:24685531

  2. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    PubMed

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible in combination with cytology. Various models and approaches are in the testing phase and appear promising. HPV testing is on the other hand well accepted and recommended as a triage test to select women with equivocal smear results (Pap group III, ASCUS) if a biopsy is required or can be followed up and also for follow-up of patients after cone biopsy. However, vaccination of young girls against oncogenic HPV types which has now become widespread still leaves many questions open for the future because the observation period is too short. There is justified hope that this will become a valuable tool in cervical cancer control and may lead to a substantial reduction in the burden of cervical cancer in the future. However, as the current vaccines on the market do not cover all oncogenic virus types and the effects of vaccination will only be observed after many years, the necessity of a cytological screening will remain unrestricted. Therefore, cervical cytology will remain as the trusted, simple to use, economic and proven, like no other method for early cancer detection, efficient procedure even in the foreseeable future. If carried out with the highest quality demands it will play a central role in the early detection of cervical cancer. PMID:19756616

  3. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 PET Scan, CT Scan, and Ferumoxtran-10 MRI Scan Before Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Finding Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer or High-Risk Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-31

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Papillary Serous Carcinoma; Stage I Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage II Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage III Endometrial Carcinoma; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  4. The causal relation between human papillomavirus and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, F X; Lorincz, A; Muñoz, N; Meijer, C J L M; Shah, K V

    2002-01-01

    The causal role of human papillomavirus infections in cervical cancer has been documented beyond reasonable doubt. The association is present in virtually all cervical cancer cases worldwide. It is the right time for medical societies and public health regulators to consider this evidence and to define its preventive and clinical implications. A comprehensive review of key studies and results is presented. PMID:11919208

  5. A review of californium-252 neutron brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yosh Maruyama; John R. van Nagell; Justine Yoneda; Elvis S. Donaldson; Holly H. Gallion; Deborah Powell; Richard J. Kryscio

    1991-01-01

    Since 1976 a clinical trial has been conducted to test the feasibility, the potential, and to develop methods for using the neutron-emitting radioactive isotope, californium-252 (Cf-252), for the treatment of cervical cancer. A total of 218 patients were treated in the initial study period from 1976 until 1983. The trials initially treated advanced cervical cancer patients using different doses and

  6. Cervical cancer screening programmes and policies in 18 European countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Anttila; G Ronco; G Clifford; F Bray; M Hakama; M Arbyn; E Weiderpass

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted by the Epidemiology Working Group of the European Cervical Cancer Screening Network, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, IARC, between August and December 2003 in 35 centres in 20 European countries with reliable cervical cancer incidence and\\/or mortality data in databanks held at IARC and WHO. The questionnaire was completed by 28 centres

  7. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the bladder with intravesical cervical invasion.

    PubMed

    Marchalik, Daniel; Krishnan, Jayashree; Verghese, Mohan; Venkatesan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with a complicated urological and gynecological history with uterine didelphys with bilaterally inserting intravesical cervical oses presented with cyclical haematuria. Work up revealed a mass in the ectopic cervical os and adjacent bladder wall. Subsequent resection confirmed a clear cell adenocarcinoma of urological origin with invasion into neighbouring os. PMID:26109625

  8. THE STRAIGHT CERVICAL SPINE: DOES IT INDICATE MUSCLE SPASM?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. HELLIWELL; P. F. EVANS; V. WRIGHT

    1994-01-01

    The loss of cervical lordosis in radiographs of patients presenting with neck pain is sometimes ascribed to muscle spasm. We performed a cross-sectional study of the prevalence of 'straight' cervical spines in three populations: 83 patients presenting to an accident department with acute neck pain, 83 referred to a radiology department with chronic neck problems, and 80 radiographs from a

  9. A possible cervical cause of low back pain: pelvic distortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett M. Carr; Ronald J. Tyszkowski

    2000-01-01

    Objective: to discuss the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic distortion related to cervical spine dysfunction in a patient with low back pain, as well as presenting a theoretical etiology.Clinical features: pelvic distortion is a disorder in which the ilia become counter-rotated on the sacrum. Our clinical experience suggests that it can arise from dysfunction in the cervical spine. It can

  10. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The progression of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to cervical neoplasia is likely influenced by the immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induce secretion of cytokines and activation of T cells that may play an important role in cervical immunity to HPV infection.

  11. Treatment of cervical necrotizing fasciitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. P. JOHNS LANGFORD; RICHARD E. MOON; BRYANT W. STOLP; RICHARD L. SCHER

    1995-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has significantly improved the management of necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities and trunk. Its role in cervical necrotizing fasciitis has not been fully evaluated. Historically, necrotizing fasciitis has been associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. This report discusses our experience with cervical necrotizing fasciitis in six patients treated from 1986 to 1993 who received hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

  12. Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats

    E-print Network

    Schramm, Lawrence P.

    Chronic cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats JOHN W. OSBORN, ROBERT F cervical spinal cord injury and autonomic hyperreflexia in rats. Am. J. Physiol. 258(Regulatory Integra spinal cord injury are proneto acute, marked,hypertensive episodes,i.e., autonomic hyperreflexia

  13. Surgical management of cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies: indications and outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip B. Storm; Dean Chou; Rafael J. Tamargo

    2002-01-01

    Cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies are common, but most are transient and rarely require anything more than symptomatic treatment. Although persistent radiculopathies can be caused by serious medical condi- tions, such as demyelinating diseases, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) defi- ciency, syphilis, herpes, and others, the subject of this article is limited to cervical and lumbosacral radiculopathies caused by compression, most com- monly

  14. Human Papillomavirus 45 Genetic Variation and Cervical Cancer Risk Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Alyce A.; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Boon, Debby; Gheit, Tarik; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45) is a member of the HPV18-related alpha-7 species and accounts for approximately 5% of all cervical cancer cases worldwide. This study evaluated the genetic diversity of HPV45 and the association of HPV45 variants with the risk of cervical cancer by sequencing the entire E6 and E7 open reading frames of 300 HPV45-positive cervical samples from 36 countries. A total of 43 HPV45 sequence variants were identified that formed 5 phylogenetic sublineages, A1, A2, A3, B1, and B2, the distribution of which varied by geographical region. Among 192 cases of cervical cancer and 101 controls, the B2 sublineage was significantly overrepresented in cervical cancer, both overall and in Africa and Europe separately. We show that the sequence analysis of E6 and E7 allows the classification of HPV45 variants and that the risk of cervical cancer may differ by HPV45 variant sublineage. IMPORTANCE This work describes the largest study to date of human papillomavirus 45 (HPV45)-positive cervical samples and provides a comprehensive reference for phylogenetic classification for use in epidemiological studies of the carcinogenicity of HPV45 genetic variants, particularly as our findings suggest that the B2 sublineage of HPV45 is associated with a higher risk of cervical cancer. PMID:24501412

  15. Longitudinal length of the spinal cord after cervical laminoplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Yokoyama; Kazumasa Ueyama; Akihiro Okada; Takashi Tomita

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: In cases of cervical myelopathy, the relationship between surgical outcome after laminoplasty and the sagittal alignment is controversial. In our cases with OPLL of unexpected poor surgical outcome, we often found a straight, tense spinal cord on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI). So we tried to measure a longitudinal length of the cervical spinal cord (LSC) as

  16. Late Sequelae of Whiplash Injury with Dissection of Cervical Arteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vital Hauser; Peter Zangger; Yaroslav Winter; Wolfgang Oertel; Jürg Kesselring

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The objective of our study was to estimate the incidence of posttraumatic dissections of cervical arteries in patients with whiplash injury acquired in a car accident. Methods and Patients: We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records of 500 patients with whiplash injury acquired in car accidents between 1996 and 2005 and searched for dissections of cervical arteries occurring

  17. Addressing the myths of cervical spine injury management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E Ivy; Stephen M Cohn

    1997-01-01

    Every year in the United States about 5,000 people sustain a cervical spinal cord injury. Vastly greater numbers present to hospitals after motor vehicle crashes and falls with potential cervical spine injuries (CSI) for evaluation. This group of patients requires very careful management while undergoing evaluation for potential CSI to minimize the potential for spinal cord injury. It is, therefore,

  18. Genital warts and cervical neoplasia: An epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Franceschi; R Doll; J Gallwey; C La Vecchia; R Peto; A I Spriggs

    1983-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) are likely to be associated with all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). To help discover which (if any) of the recognised STDs might actually cause these conditions, a key question is whether one particular such association is much stronger than the others. The present study is therefore only of women newly attending an STD

  19. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SH Mortazavi; M Raoufi; M Nadji; P Kowsarian; A Nowroozi

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of

  20. Electrical stimulation of the motor tracts in cervical spondylosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Abbruzzese; D DallAgata; M Morena; S Simonetti; L Spadavecchia; P Severi; G C Andrioli; E Favale

    1988-01-01

    Motor action potentials evoked by percutaneous electrical stimulation of the scalp and of the cervical (or lumbar) vertebral region were recorded from the biceps, thenar and tibialis anterior muscles in 30 patients with cervical spondylosis. Twelve normal controls were matched for age and height. Abnormalities of central motor conduction (absence or increased central delay of cortical responses) for at least

  1. Gastric myoelectrical activity in patients with cervical spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Liang Lu; Pam Montgomery; Xiaoping Zou; William C Orr; J D Z Chen; F. A. C. G

    1998-01-01

    Objective:Dyspeptic symptoms are common in patients with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). The supraspinal control of sympathetic innervation to the stomach is interrupted in these patients. Gastric emptying has been reported to be delayed in some patients with cervical SCI. Gastric myoelectrical activity is known to regulate gastric motility and is correlated with gastric emptying. The change in gastric myoelectrical

  2. A panel of regulated proteins in serum from patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Boichenko, Alexander P; Govorukhina, Natalia; Klip, Harry G; van der Zee, A G J; Güzel, Co?kun; Luider, Theo M; Bischoff, Rainer

    2014-11-01

    We developed a discovery-validation mass-spectrometry-based pipeline to identify a set of proteins that are regulated in serum of patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and squamous cell cervical cancer using iTRAQ, label-free shotgun, and targeted mass-spectrometric quantification. In the discovery stage we used a "pooling" strategy for the comparative analysis of immunodepleted serum and revealed 15 up- and 26 down-regulated proteins in patients with early- (CES) and late-stage (CLS) cervical cancer. The analysis of nondepleted serum samples from patients with CIN, CES, an CLS and healthy controls showed significant changes in abundance of alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-antitrypsin, serotransferrin, haptoglobin, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, and vitamin D-binding protein. We validated our findings using a fast UHPLC/MRM method in an independent set of serum samples from patients with cervical cancer or CIN and healthy controls as well as serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer (more than 400 samples in total). The panel of six proteins showed 67% sensitivity and 88% specificity for discrimination of patients with CIN from healthy controls, a stage of the disease where current protein-based biomarkers, for example, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), fail to show any discrimination. Additionally, combining the six-protein panel with SCCA improves the discrimination of patients with CES and CLS from healthy controls. PMID:25232869

  3. Potential of Cervical Electrosurgical Excision Procedure for Diagnosis and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Herzog; Sybilann Williams; Lisa M. Adler; Janet S. Rader; Richard T. Kubiniec; H. Marvin Camel; David G. Mutch

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential, treatment efficacy, specimen adequacy, and acute complication rate associated with electrosurgical excision procedure (EEP) of the cervix for the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Analysis was performed retrospectively on 153 consecutive patients who underwent EEP under colposcopic guidance. Patients with negative endocervical curettage (ECC), adequate colposcopy, and biopsy-proven

  4. Cervical Headache: An Investigation of Natural Head Posture and Upper Cervical Flexor Muscle Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean H Watson; Patricia H Trott

    1993-01-01

    In this study, 60 female subjects, aged between 25 and 40 years, were divided into two equal groups on the basis of absence or presence of headache. A passive accessory intervertebral mobility (PAIVM) examination was performed to confirm an upper cervical articular cause of the subjects' headache and a questionnaire was used to establish a profile of the headache population.

  5. Biomechanics of the cervical spine Part 2. Cervical spine soft tissue responses and biomechanical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan Yoganandan; Srirangam Kumaresan; Frank A Pintar

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The responses and contributions of the soft tissue structures of the human neck are described with a focus on mathematical modeling. Spinal ligaments, intervertebral discs, zygapophysial joints, and uncovertebral joints of the cervical spine are included. Finite element modeling approaches have been emphasized. Representative data relevant to the development and execution of the model are discussed. A brief description

  6. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zafarani, F; Ahmadi, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-08-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  7. Return to play after cervical spine injury in sports.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Robert C; Li, Yan Michael; Abdulhamid, Mohamed; Chin, Lawrence S

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) resulting from sports now represent 8.9% of the total causes of SCI. Regardless of cause, there are bound to be return-to-play decisions to be made for athletes. Since catastrophic cervical spine injuries are among the most devastating injuries in all of sports, returning from a cervical spine injury is one of the most difficult decisions in sports medicine. Axial loading is the primary mechanism for catastrophic cervical spine injuries. Axial loading occurs as a result of intentional or unintentional head-down contact and spearing. Most would agree that the athlete returning to a contact or collision sport after a cervical spine injury must be asymptomatic, have full strength, and have full active range of motion; however, each situation is unique. The following review discusses the pathophysiology of these conditions and suggests guidelines for return to contact sports after traumatic cervical SCI. PMID:23314078

  8. Cervical Spine Involvement: A Rare Manifestation of Reiter's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Khodakaram; Ghalaenovi, Hossein; Babashahi, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Jafari, Mohammad; Jalalian, Mehrdad; Fattahi, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Spine involvement is less common in Reiter's syndrome than in other seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Also, cervical spine involvement rarely occurs in Reiter's syndrome and other spondyloarthropathies. This paper reports a rare case of Reiter's syndrome in which there was cervical spine involvement that presented clinically as an atlanto-axial rotatory subluxation. Reiter's Syndrome (RS) is one of the most common types of seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SSAs) that presents clinically with a triad of symptoms, i.e., conjunctivitis, urethritis, and arthritis. This case highlighted the importance of radiographs of the lateral cervical spine and dynamic cervical imaging for all patients who have Reiter's syndrome with cervical spine symptoms to ensure that this dangerous abnormality is not overlooked. PMID:25360183

  9. Cervical elongation following sacrospinous hysteropexy: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hyakutake, Momoe Tina; Cundiff, Geoffrey William; Geoffrion, Roxana

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, pelvic floor surgeons have increasingly repaired pelvic organ prolapse around an intact uterus. Uterine conservation and hysteropexy have been driven by patient preference, less risk of mesh erosion, shorter operative time, and decreased blood loss and postoperative pain. We present a case series of patients with cervical elongation after vaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy using polypropylene mesh arms, a novel technique developed by the senior author. We defined cervical elongation as greater than or equal to a two-fold increase in cervical length compared with preoperative measurements. Of the 8 patients who underwent this procedure, 5 (62.5 %) had cervical elongation during the first year postoperatively. In the most severe case, the cervix extended to 4 cm beyond the hymenal ring. Most of the patients were mildly symptomatic and chose expectant management. The cases are reviewed in detail. A brief literature review on cervical elongation is presented. PMID:24297063

  10. Health Beliefs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wanzhen; Fang, Carolyn Y.; Tan, Yin; Feng, Ziding; Ge, Shaokui; Nguyen, Joseph An

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Vietnamese American women represent one of the ethnic subgroups at great risk for cervical cancer in the United States. The underutilization of cervical cancer screening and the vulnerability of Vietnamese American women to cervical cancer may be compounded by their health beliefs. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the associations between factors of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese American women. Methods Vietnamese American women (n=1,450) were enrolled into the randomized controlled trial (RCT) study who were recruited from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Participants completed baseline assessments of demographic and acculturation variables, health care access factors, and constructs of the HBM, as well as health behaviors in either English or Vietnamese. Results The rate of those who had ever undergone cervical cancer screening was 53% (769/1450) among the participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, the significant associated factors from HBM included: believing themselves at risk and more likely than average women to get cervical cancer; believing that cervical cancer changes life; believing a Pap test is important for staying healthy, not understanding what is done during a Pap test, being scared to know having cervical cancer; taking a Pap test is embarrassing; not being available by doctors at convenient times; having too much time for a test; believing no need for a Pap test when feeling well; and being confident in getting a test. Conclusion Understanding how health beliefs may be associated with cervical cancer screening among underserved Vietnamese American women is essential for identifying the subgroup of women who are most at risk for cervical cancer and would benefit from intervention programs to increase screening rates. PMID:23428284

  11. Shanxi Province Cervical Cancer Screening Study: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Trial of Multiple Techniques to Detect Cervical Neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Belinson; Y. L. Qiao; R. Pretorius; W. H. Zhang; P. Elson; L. Li; Q. J. Pan; C. Fischer; A. Lorincz; D. Zahniser

    2001-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to design a cervical cancer screening algorithm for the developing world that is highly sensitive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II, III, and cancer and highly specific for CIN II and III, making it possible to ablate the transformation zone without histologic confirmation.Methods. In rural Shanxi Province, China, we examined 1997 women ages

  12. Elective cervical cerclage versus serial ultrasound surveillance of cervical length in a population at high risk for preterm delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie M. Groom; Phillip R. Bennett; Monali Golara; Angeli Thalon; Andrew H. Shennan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare pregnancy outcome for women at risk of preterm delivery undergoing elective cervical cerclage in the first trimester or serial transvaginal assessment of cervical length with cerclage only if indicated (control cases). Design: A matched case control study. Setting: Prematurity clinic at two London teaching hospitals. Population: Women at high risk for preterm delivery. Methods: Cases of elective

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Engelter, Stefan T; Traenka, Christopher; Von Hessling, Alexander; Lyrer, Philippe A

    2015-05-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is a major cause of stroke in the young. A mural hematoma is detected in most CAD patients. The intramural blood accumulation should not be considered a reason to withhold intravenous thrombolysis in patients with CAD-related stroke. Because intravenous-thrombolyzed CAD patients might not recover as well as other stroke patients, acute endovascular treatment is an alternative. Regarding the choice of antithrombotic agents, this article discusses the findings of 4 meta-analyses across observational data, the current status of 3 randomized controlled trials, and arguments and counterarguments favoring anticoagulants over antiplatelets. Furthermore, the role of stenting and surgery is addressed. PMID:25907914

  14. Cervical myelocystocele: prenatal diagnosis and therapeutical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Klein; Marie-Alice Coulomb; Jessica Ternier; Gabriel Lena

    2009-01-01

    Background  Cervical myelocystocele (CMC) is a very rare congenital malformation and belongs to the spectrum of skin-covered (occult)\\u000a dysraphisms. Only 15 cases have been so far reported throughout the literature. We report the first case of CMC whose diagnosis\\u000a was established prenatally by ultrasound imaging (US) followed by fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MR).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case History  A 35-year-old woman was referred for further

  15. Cervical Spine Surgery: An Historical Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Denaro; Alberto Di Martino

    2011-01-01

    Background  Continued innovation in surgery requires a knowledge and understanding of historical advances with a recognition of successes\\u000a and failures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  To identify these successes and failures, we selectively reviewed historical literature on cervical spine surgery with respect\\u000a to the development of (1) surgical approaches, (2) management of degenerative disc disease, and (3) methods to treat segmental\\u000a instability.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a nonsystematic

  16. Building up a computerized follow-up register and information system for cervical cytology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Terpos; M. Efstratiadou; H. Symiakaki; A. Tsiveleka; P. Mentzelopoulou; A. Linos; I. Mantas

    1995-01-01

    It is well known that cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection are closely related to cervical cancer. The cervical cytology examination (pap-test), followed by a colposcopic examination and a biopsy are the common tools for the early detection and the establishment of diagnosis of the cervical precancerous lesions. The monitoring and surveillance of those precancerous lesions

  17. Prediction of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in cytologically normal women by human papillomavirus testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Carozzi; G Ronco; M Confortini; D Noferini; C Maddau; S Ciatto; N Segnan

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been suggested for primary screening of cervical cancer. Prediction of future high-grade cervical lesions is crucial for effectiveness and cost. We performed a case control study in a retrospective cohort of women with at least two cervical smears, all but the last one being negative, from the organized cervical screening programme in Florence, Italy. We

  18. Subsidence of stand-alone cervical cages in anterior interbody fusion: warning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Gercek; Vincent Arlet; Josee Delisle; Dante Marchesi

    2003-01-01

    Anterior cervical decompression and fusion with anterior plating of the cervical spine is a well-accepted treatment for cervical radiculopathy. Recently, to minimise the extent of surgery, anterior interbody fusion with cages has become more common. While there are numerous reports on the primary stabilising effects of the different cervical cages, little is known about the subsidence behaviour of such cages

  19. An Unusual Cervical Tumor as Presentation of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    De Greve, Tom; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Van Hoof, Achiel; Coenegrachts, Kenneth; Van Trappen, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Rare cervical cancers are responsible for a minority of cases encountered by a clinician. However, behavioral patterns, management, and prognosis of certain rare cervical cancers differ from either squamous carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Here we present a case of a locally advanced cervical tumor as a presentation of an extranodal cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with a review of the current literature. PMID:24782935

  20. 75 FR 54345 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BRYAN CERVICAL DISC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ...Purposes of Patent Extension; BRYAN CERVICAL DISC SYSTEM AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...the regulatory review period for BRYAN CERVICAL DISC SYSTEM and is publishing this notice...for marketing the medical device BRYAN CERVICAL DISC SYSTEM. BRYAN CERVICAL DISC...

  1. Correlates of IL10 and IL12 Concentrations in Cervical Secretions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patti E. Gravitt; Allan Hildesheim; Rolando Herrero; Mark Schiffman; Mark E. Sherman; M. Concepcion Bratti; Ana C. Rodriguez; Lidia A. Morera; Fernando Cardenas; Frederick P. Bowman; Keerti V. Shah; Peggy A. Crowley-Nowick

    2003-01-01

    Interindividual variations in host immune responses to HPV infection are thought to be important determinants of viral persistence and progression to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer. However, few studies have measured local immune markers at the site of infection (e.g., the cervical mucosa). We sought to determine biologic correlates of IL-10 and IL-12 concentrations in cervical secretions. Cervical secretions were

  2. The relationship of cervical joint position error to balance and eye movement disturbances in persistent whiplash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Treleaven; Gwendolen Jull; Nancy LowChoy

    2006-01-01

    Cervical joint position error (JPE) has been used as a measure of cervical afferent input to detect disturbances in sensori-motor control as a possible contributor to a neck pain syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cervical JPE, balance and eye movement control. It was of particular interest whether assessment of cervical JPE alone was sufficient to signal

  3. Comparison of the Symmetry of Right and Left Lateral Cervical Flexion and Rotation and the Cervical FRR in Young Computer Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the symmetry of right and left lateral cervical flexion and rotation, and the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) in young computer workers in Korea. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty computer workers (14 males and 6 females) participated in this study. We measured their right and left lateral cervical flexion, rotation, and FRR. [Results] Right and left lateral flexion and right and left rotation showed no significant differences between the sides. The left cervical FRR was significantly lower than the right cervical FRR. [Conclusion] The cervical FRR, expressed as a numerical value, is a more sensitive marker for measuring neuromuscular changes associated with mild asymmetry than CROM. PMID:24926152

  4. Histopathological outcomes of women with abnormal cervical cytology: a review of literature in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cytology remains the principal screening method to detect pre-invasive and invasive cervical lesions. Management of abnormal cervical cytology depends on the risk of encountering a significant cervical lesion or high-grade cervical disease. These risks may vary in different areas across the country. Thus, determining the rate of significant cervical lesion associated with each type of abnormal cervical cytology in each area is of critical importance for designing area-specific management approach. This review was conducted to evaluate the rate of high-grade cervical disease among Thai women with abnormal cervical cytology. A relatively high incidence of underlying significant lesions including invasive disease was demonstrated even in those having only minimal smear abnormality. This baseline information is crucial and must be taken into consideration in management of women with abnormal cytological screening to achieve the goals of comprehensive cervical cancer control in Thailand. PMID:25169475

  5. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury. PMID:25290103

  6. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  7. Micromechanics of Minor Cervical Spine Injuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederer, Peter F.; Schmitt, Kai-Uwe; Muser, Markus H.; Walz, Felix H.

    Minor soft tissue injuries of the cervical spine are of increasing significance in public health. They may in particular be associated with long-term impairment. Such injuries are observed primarily in rear-end automobile collisions at low impact speeds and are attributed to a “whiplash”-type event. The question with respect to injury mechanisms of the cervical spine in cases of impacts of a low severity have raised controversial views in the past. Among proposed injury mechanisms, interactions between fluid and solid structures have been postulated: Viscous shear stresses or pressure gradients which arise in the deforming anatomical structures may have an adverse influence, e. g., on cellular membranes. In this communication, mathematical modeling approaches are presented which allow for a quantification of fluid/solid interactions under typical loading conditions of interest here. It is found, that the shear stresses caused by fluids and acting on accelerated surfaces of fluid-filled bodies depend largely on the size of the fluid space under consideration. Accelerations exhibit a stronger influence than their duration. It cannot be excluded that critical levels are reached even in a low speed impact scenario.

  8. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cervical spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an unpredictable and rare complication of spinal surgery. We report five cases of RCH following cervical spinal surgery, and summarize another seven similar cases from the literature. Dural opening with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia seems to be an important factor contributing to RCH following cervical spinal surgery. As other authors have proposed, surgical positioning may be another factor contributing to RCH. RCH is thought to be hemorrhagic venous infarction, resulting from the stretching occlusion of the superior cerebellar vein by the cerebellar sag effect. Either intraoperative CSF loss or a postoperative CSF leak from drainage may cause cerebellar sag, further resulting in RCH. RCH is usually self-limiting, and most patients with RCH have an optimal outcome after conservative treatment. Severe cases that involved surgical intervention because of evidence of brainstem compression or hydrocephalus also had acceptable outcomes, compared to spontaneous CH. It has been suggested that one way to prevent RCH is to avoid extensive perioperative loss of CSF, by paying attention to surgical positioning during spinal surgery. We also underline the importance of early diagnosis and CSF expansion in the early treatment of RCH. PMID:23746536

  9. Cervical Mucus Properties Stratify Risk for Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Aditya; Friedlander, Ronn S.; Lieleg, Oliver; Doyle, Patrick S.; McKinley, Gareth; House, Michael; Ribbeck, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Background Ascending infection from the colonized vagina to the normally sterile intrauterine cavity is a well-documented cause of preterm birth. The primary physical barrier to microbial ascension is the cervical canal, which is filled with a dense and protective mucus plug. Despite its central role in separating the vaginal from the intrauterine tract, the barrier properties of cervical mucus have not been studied in preterm birth. Methods and Findings To study the protective function of the cervical mucus in preterm birth we performed a pilot case-control study to measure the viscoelasticity and permeability properties of mucus obtained from pregnant women at high-risk and low-risk for preterm birth. Using extensional and shear rheology we found that cervical mucus from women at high-risk for preterm birth was more extensible and forms significantly weaker gels compared to cervical mucus from women at low-risk of preterm birth. Moreover, permeability measurements using fluorescent microbeads show that high-risk mucus was more permeable compared with low-risk mucus. Conclusions Our findings suggest that critical biophysical barrier properties of cervical mucus in women at high-risk for preterm birth are compromised compared to women with healthy pregnancy. We hypothesize that impaired barrier properties of cervical mucus could contribute to increased rates of intrauterine infection seen in women with preterm birth. We furthermore suggest that a robust association of spinnbarkeit and preterm birth could be an effectively exploited biomarker for preterm birth prediction. PMID:23936335

  10. Tetraploidy and chromosomal instability are early events during cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Olaharski, Andrew J; Sotelo, Rita; Solorza-Luna, Gilberto; Gonsebatt, Maria E; Guzman, Patricia; Mohar, Alejandro; Eastmond, David A

    2006-02-01

    Chromosomal instability as manifested by increases in aneuploidy and structural chromosome aberrations is believed to play a critical role in the intermediate to late stages in the development of cervical malignancies. The current study was designed to determine the role of tetraploidy in the formation of aneuploidy and ascertain the occurrence of these alterations during the earlier stages of cervical carcinogenesis. Cervical cell samples, with diagnoses ranging from Normal to high-grade lesions, (HSIL) were obtained from 143 women and were evaluated for chromosomal alterations using dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cervical cells from a subset of the group were also evaluated for chromosomal instability in the form of micronuclei. The frequencies of cells exhibiting either tetrasomy or aneusomy for Chromosomes 3 and 17 increased significantly with disease progression and displayed distinctive patterns where aneusomy was rarely present in the absence of tetrasomy. The frequencies of micronuclei that formed through either chromosomal loss or breakage increased significantly in both the low-grade and high-grade diagnostic categories and were highly correlated with both the number of tetrasomic and aneusomic cervical cells. In addition, a unique chromosomal alteration involving a significant non-random loss of Chromosome 17 specific to near-tetraploid aneusomic cells (trisomy 17 and tetrasomy 3) was observed. We conclude that tetraploidy and chromosomal instability are related events occurring during the early stages of cervical carcinogenesis that predispose cervical cells to the formation of aneuploidy frequently involving the loss of Chromosome 17. PMID:16123119

  11. Advancing Cervical Cancer Prevention in India: Implementation Science Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Emily; Porterfield, Deborah; Varghese, Beena

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in India, accounting for 17% of all cancer deaths among women aged 30 to 69 years. At current incidence rates, the annual burden of new cases in India is projected to increase to 225,000 by 2025, but there are few large-scale, organized cervical cancer prevention programs in the country. We conducted a review of the cervical cancer prevention research literature and programmatic experiences in India to summarize the current state of knowledge and practices and recommend research priorities to address the gap in services. We found that research and programs in India have demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of cervical cancer prevention efforts and that screening strategies requiring minimal additional human resources and laboratory infrastructure can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, additional evidence generated through implementation science research is needed to ensure that cervical cancer prevention efforts have the desired impact and are cost-effective. Specifically, implementation science research is needed to understand individual- and community-level barriers to screening and diagnostic and treatment services; to improve health care worker performance; to strengthen links among screening, diagnosis, and treatment; and to determine optimal program design, outcomes, and costs. With a quarter of the global burden of cervical cancer in India, there is no better time than now to translate research findings to practice. Implementation science can help ensure that investments in cervical cancer prevention and control result in the greatest impact. PMID:24217555

  12. Posterior Cervical Inclinatory Foraminotomy for Spondylotic Radiculopathy Preliminary

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae-Chil; Choi, Soon-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Posterior cervical foraminotomy is an attractive therapeutic option in selected cases of cervical radiculopathy that maintains cervical range of motion and minimize adjacent-segment degeneration. The focus of this procedure is to preserve as much of the facet as possible with decompression. Posterior cervical inclinatory foraminotomy (PCIF) is a new technique developed to offer excellent results by inclinatory decompression with minimal facet resection. The highlight of our PCIF technique is the use of inclinatory drilling out for preserving more of facet joint. The operative indications are radiculopathy from cervical foraminal stenosis (single or multilevel) with persistent or recurrent root symptoms. The PCIFs were performed between April 2007 and December 2009 on 26 male and 8 female patients with a total of 55 spinal levels. Complete and partial improvement in radiculopathic pain were seen in 26 patients (76%), and 8 patients (24%), respectively, with preserving more of facet joint. We believe that PCIF allows for preserving more of the facet joint and capsule when decompressing cervical foraminal stenosis due to spondylosis. We suggest that our PCIF technique can be an effective alternative surgical approach in the management of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. PMID:21716632

  13. A continuous fiber distribution material model for human cervical tissue.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kristin M; Hendon, Christine P; Gan, Yu; Yao, Wang; Yoshida, Kyoko; Fernandez, Michael; Vink, Joy; Wapner, Ronald J

    2015-06-25

    The uterine cervix during pregnancy is the vital mechanical barrier which resists compressive and tensile loads generated from a growing fetus. Premature cervical remodeling and softening is hypothesized to result in the shortening of the cervix, which is known to increase a woman?s risk of preterm birth. To understand the role of cervical material properties in preventing preterm birth, we derive a cervical material model based on previous mechanical, biochemical and histological experiments conducted on nonpregnant and pregnant human hysterectomy cervical tissue samples. In this study we present a three-dimensional fiber composite model that captures the equilibrium material behavior of the tissue in tension and compression. Cervical tissue is modeled as a fibrous composite material, where a single family of preferentially aligned and continuously distributed collagen fibers are embedded in a compressible neo-Hookean ground substance. The total stress in the collagen solid network is calculated by integrating the fiber stresses. The shape of the fiber distribution is described by an ellipsoid where semi-principal axis lengths are fit to optical coherence tomography measurements. The composite material model is fit to averaged mechanical testing data from uni-axial compression and tension experiments, and averaged material parameters are reported for nonpregnant and term pregnant human cervical tissue. The model is then evaluated by investigating the stress and strain state of a uniform thick-walled cylinder under a compressive stress with collagen fibers preferentially aligned in the circumferential direction. This material modeling framework for the equilibrium behavior of human cervical tissue serves as a basis to determine the role of preferentially-aligned cervical collagen fibers in preventing cervical deformation during pregnancy. PMID:25817474

  14. Cervical spine injury in dismounted improvised explosive device trauma

    PubMed Central

    Taddeo, Joseph; Devine, Maj Melissa; McAlister, LCol Vivian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The injury pattern from improvised explosive device (IED) trauma is different if the target is in a vehicle (mounted) or on foot (dismounted). Combat and civilian first response protocols require the placement of a cervical collar on all victims of a blast injury. Methods We searched the Joint Theatre Trauma Registry (JTTR) and the Role 3 Hospital, Kandahar Airfield (KAF) database from Mar. 1, 2008, to May 31, 2011. We collected data on cervical fracture; head injury; traumatic amputation; initial blood pressure, pulse, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score and base excess; and patient demographic information. Results The concordance rate between JTTR and KAF databases was 98%. Of the 15 693 admissions in JTTR, 326 patients with dismounted IED injuries were located. The rate of cervical collar prehospital placement was 7.6%. Cervical fractures were found in 19 (5.8%) dismounted IED victims, but only 4 (1.2%) were considered radiographically unstable. None of these 19 patients had prehospital placement of a collar. Patients with cervical spine fractures were more severely injured than those without (ISS 18.2 v. 13.4; GCS 10.1 v. 12.5). Patients with head injuries had significantly higher risk of cervical spine injury than those with no head injury recorded (13.6% v. 3.9%). No differences in frequency of cervical spine injury were found between patients who had associated traumatic amputations and those who did not (5.4% v. 6.0%). Conclusion Dismounted IED is a mechanism of injury associated with a low risk for cervical spine trauma. A selective protocol for cervical collar placement on victims of dismounted IED blasts is possible and may be more amenable to combat situations. PMID:26100769

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of the effects of combined bisphosphonate and photodynamic therapy on bone strain in metastatic vertebrae using image registration.

    PubMed

    Hojjat, Seyed-Parsa; Won, Emily; Hardisty, Michael R; Akens, Margarete K; Wise-Milestone, Lisa M; Whyne, Cari M

    2011-11-01

    Skeletal metastases most frequently affect the vertebral column and may lead to severe consequences including fracture. Clinical management of skeletal metastases often utilizes a multimodal treatment approach, including bisphosphonates (BPs). Previous work has demonstrated the synergistic potential of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in combination with BP in treating osteolytic disease through structural, histologic, and destructive mechanical testing analyses. Recent work has developed and validated image-based methods that may be used to non-destructively determine mechanical stability in whole bones, and enable their use for additional (i.e. histologic) analysis. In this work we use an intensity-based 3D image registration technique to compare the strain patterns throughout untreated control and BP + PDT treated rnu/rnu rat spinal motion segments with osteolytic metastases. It was hypothesized that the combination treatment will reduce average and maximum strain values and restore the pattern of strain to that of healthy vertebrae. Mean, median, and 90th percentile strains in the control group were significantly higher than the treatment group. High strain areas in both groups were observed around the endplates; in the control group, large areas of high strains were also observed around the lesions and adjacent to the dorsal wall. Absence of high strains adjacent to the dorsal wall (similar to healthy vertebrae) may correspond to a reduced risk of burst fracture following BP + PDT therapy. This study demonstrates the application of non-destructive image analysis to quantify the positive mechanical effects of combined BP + PDT treatment in the metastatic spine. PMID:21818534

  16. Cervical Epidural Abscess Mimicking as Stroke - Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Velpula, Jagan Mohana Reddy; Gakhar, Harinder; Sigamoney, Kohilavani; Bommireddy, Rajendra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a common provisional diagnosis in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with unilateral neurological deficit. Cervical epidural abscess (CEA) may also present clinically with a unilateral neurological deficit. Objects: To highlight the inherent problems with diagnosing cervical epidural abscess and possible consequences of delay in diagnosis. Case Report: We would like to highlight two cases provisionally diagnosed as stroke. Both cases turned out to be cervical epidural abscesses. The delay in diagnosis and treatment led to suboptimal outcome in both cases. Summary: Cases with suspected stroke who deteriorate while under treatment or whose diagnosis is doubtful should have MRI whole spine in order to avoid potential complications. PMID:24551026

  17. Primary strategies for HPV infection and cervical cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Harper, Diane M; Demars, Leslie R

    2014-06-01

    Counseling messages for tobacco cessation, condom use, circumcision, and selective choice in the number of sexual partners can help reduce the risk of cervical cancer. Other sexual behavioral and reproductive risk factors for cervical cancer are a younger age at first intercourse and at first full-term pregnancy as well as increasing duration of combined hormonal oral contraceptive use. Micronutrients and supplements can reduce the risk of human papillomavirus infection, persistence, progression, and regression. Some human papillomavirus infections can be prevented by vaccination. Cervical cancer is best prevented by screening. PMID:24686336

  18. Innovative methods of cervical assessment and potential for novel treatment.

    PubMed

    Feltovich, Helen; House, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A multitude of pathophysiologic pathways culminate in the final common denominator of cervical softening, shortening, and dilation that lead to preterm birth. At present, a variety of emerging technology aims to objectively quantify critical cervical parameters such as microstructural organization and softening of the cervix. If the nature and timing of cervical changes can be precisely identified, it should be possible to identify the causative upstream molecular processes and resultant biomechanical events associated with each unique pathway. This would promote molecular studies, ultimately leading to novel approaches to preterm birth prediction, novel treatments, and prevention. PMID:25084285

  19. Impact of HPV immunization on the detection of cervical disease.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ami J; Cruickshank, Margaret E

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. The development of HPV vaccines has been a major advance in the prevention of these diseases. Recent studies have shown promising early effects of HPV immunization programs on cervical abnormalities and genital warts, with evidence of herd immunity against genital warts also emerging in Australia. Further studies are required to not only continue monitoring the effect of the HPV immunization on the incidence of these diseases, but also to establish the effect the immunization will have on cervical screening programs and the performance of colposcopy. PMID:24606579

  20. A survey of management strategies for noncarious cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Estafan, Ashraf; Bartlett, David; Goldstein, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Both causation and management of noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) (abfractions, wedge-shaped defects, stress-induced cervical lesions, and cervical erosion) remain debatable. A survey of clinicians' perceptions was therefore conducted at a recent professional meeting to determine optimal approaches to NCCL management. Examples of lesions differing in depth (1, 2, and 3 mm) were presented as being either sensitive or nonsensitive, and participants recorded their responses to the presented individual scenarios. This report provides information regarding correlations between increases in lesion depth, lesion sensitivity, and professionals' willingness to restore them. It was also noted that decisions to ensure mechanical retention positively influenced estimates for restoration longevity. PMID:24392484

  1. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, LE; Durand, AM; Ekeroma, A; Souares, Y; Hoy, D; Baravilala, W; Garland, SM; Kjaer, SK; Roth, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccination programmes in the region. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among ministry of health officials from 21 Pacific Island countries and territories (n=21). Results Cervical cancer prevention was rated as highly important, but implementation of prevention programs were insufficient, with only two of 21 countries and territories having achieved coverage of cervical cancer screening above 40%. Ten of 21 countries and territories had included HPV vaccination in their immunization schedule, but only two countries reported coverage of HPV vaccination above 60% among the targeted population. Key barriers to the introduction and continuation of HPV vaccination were reported to be: (i) Lack of sustainable financing for HPV vaccine programs; (ii) Lack of visible government endorsement; (iii) Critical public perception of the value and safety of the HPV vaccine; and (iv) Lack of clear guidelines and policies for HPV vaccination. Conclusion Current practices to prevent cervical cancer in the Pacific Region do not match the high burden of disease from cervical cancer. A regional approach, including reducing vaccine prices by bulk purchase of vaccine, technical support for implementation of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific. PMID:25921158

  2. The Fullendoscopic Anterior Cervical Fusion: A New Horizon for Selective Percutaneous Endoscopic Cervical Decompression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hellinger

    \\u000a As a bridge between open and percutaneous therapy, endoscopy of the cervical spine started to be used at the beginning of\\u000a the 1990s, following good experiences on the lumbar spine. The principle of microsurgery is combined with the minimally invasive\\u000a principles by bringing the optical level to the forefront of pathology. Access morbidity has been significantly reduced by\\u000a the percutaneous

  3. Anterior cervical fusion using porous hydroxyapatite ceramics for cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Futoshi Suetsuna; Toru Yokoyama; Eiji Kenuka; Seiko Harata

    2001-01-01

    Background context: The Smith-Robinson Method (SR), which employs autogenous bone, is the current standard for anterior cervical fusion (AF) surgery. However, autogenous bone has graft-related complications and morbidity, and harvesting it increases trauma and risk to the patient. The use of hydroxyapatite ceramic (HAP) inserts may provide a superior alternative.Purpose: To determine the efficacy of using HAP in AF.Study design\\/setting:

  4. JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY (MOL DEV EVOL) 285:1926 (1999) 1999 WILEY-LISS, INC.

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Ron

    1999-01-01

    - vical vertebrae, while ducks have 16 (Woolfenden, 61), and swifts 13 (Starck, 79). Giraffes and drom occur infrequently: cervical ribs. A cervical rib is on the seventh cer- vical vertebra, is a partially

  5. Photodynamic therapy of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Natalia M.; Lombardi, Welington; Leite, Marieli F. M.; Trujillo, Jose R.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a technique that has been used for the treatment of tumors, especially in Gynecology. The photodynamic reaction is based on the production of reactive oxygen species after the activation of a photosensitizer. Advantages of the PDT in comparison to the surgical resection are: ambulatory treatment and tissue recovery highly satisfactory, through a non-invasive procedure. The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades I and II presents potential indications for PDT. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the PDT for the diagnostics and treatment of CIN I and II. The equipment and the photosensitizer are produced in Brazil with a representative low cost. It is possible to visualize the fluorescence of the cervix and to treat the lesions, without side effects. The proposed clinical protocol shows great potential to become a public health technique.

  6. Primary cervical hydatid cyst: a rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hydatid disease, a parasitic infection is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. It has serious impact on health and economy especially in countries where it is endemic. It occurs frequently in liver and lung. The disease is chronic and cyst can localize in different organs. A hydatid cyst occurrence in the head and neck is extremely rare. To know the distribution of disease can help in its control and prevention. We report a case of primary cervical hydatid cyst in 20 year old female. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose hydatid cyst in rare locations like this. Hydatid cyst should be considered in differential diagnosis of benign swellings of head and neck region, so that it can be managed during surgery to prevent acute anaphylaxis. Virtual slides The virtual slides’ for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/4915595218376646 PMID:23157817

  7. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-05

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  8. Perceived Risk of Cervical Cancer in Appalachian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Tatum, Cathy; Paskett, Electra D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine perceptions of cervical cancer risk in elevated-risk Appalachians. Methods Appalachian women (n=571) completed interviews examining self-regulation model factors relevant to perceived risk of cervical cancer. Results Women with good/very good knowledge of cervical cancer, greater worry, and history of sexually transmitted infection had higher odds of rating their perceived risk as somewhat/much higher than did other women. Former smokers, compared to never smokers, had lower risk perceptions. Conclusions Self-regulation model factors are important to understanding perceptions of cervical cancer risk in underserved women. The relationship of smoking and worry to perceived risk may be a target for intervention. PMID:23026042

  9. ICSN Biennial Meeting - Copenhagen 2008 - Abstracts - Cervical Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    ICSN Biennial Meeting 2008 Helsingør, Denmark Attendance Rate (2003-2005) of the Hungarian Organized, Nation-Wide Cervical Cancer Screening Program Authors: I Boncz, A Sebestyén Affiliation: Department of Health Economics, Policy & Management, University

  10. Image-Guided Radiotherapy and -Brachytherapy for Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Suresh; Nguyen, Nam Phong; Vock, Jacqueline; Kerr, Christine; Godinez, Juan; Bose, Satya; Jang, Siyoung; Chi, Alexander; Almeida, Fabio; Woods, William; Desai, Anand; David, Rick; Karlsson, Ulf Lennart; Altdorfer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiotherapy for cervical cancer relies on clinical examination, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional intracavitary brachytherapy. Excellent local control and survival have been obtained for small early stage cervical cancer with definitive radiotherapy. For bulky and locally advanced disease, the addition of chemotherapy has improved the prognosis but toxicity remains significant. New imaging technology such as positron-emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging has improved tumor delineation for radiotherapy planning. Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) may decrease treatment toxicity of whole pelvic radiation because of its potential for bone marrow, bowel, and bladder sparring. Tumor shrinkage during whole pelvic IGRT may optimize image-guided brachytherapy (IGBT), allowing for better local control and reduced toxicity for patients with cervical cancer. IGRT and IGBT should be integrated in future prospective studies for cervical cancer. PMID:25853092

  11. Factors Affecting Hispanic Women's Participation in Screening for Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moore de Peralta, Arelis; Holaday, Bonnie; McDonell, James R

    2015-06-01

    Hispanic women's cervical cancer rates are disproportionately high. The Health Belief Model (HBM) was used as a theoretical framework to explore beliefs, attitudes, socio-economic, and cultural factors influencing Hispanic women's decisions about cervical cancer screening. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Hispanic women 18-65 years old (n = 205) in the Upstate of South Carolina. Generalized Linear Modeling was used. Across all models, perceived threats (susceptibility and severity), self-efficacy, and the interaction of benefits and barriers were significant predictors. Significant covariates included age, marital status, income, regular medical care, and familism. A modified HBM was a useful model for examining cervical cancer screening in this sample of Hispanic women. The inclusion of external, or social factors increased the strength of the HBM as an explanatory model. The HBM can be used as a framework to design culturally appropriate cervical cancer screening interventions. PMID:24578156

  12. Acute cervical cord injuries in patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J W; Kendall, B E; Kocen, R S; Milligan, N M

    1982-01-01

    Seven cases with acute cervical cord lesions associated with a fit and fall, were found in approximately 500 patients with epilepsy over a period of 7 years. In all patients the epilepsy was refractory to drug therapy and six suffered tonic fits which resulted in falls and frequent head injuries. Notable radiological changes were found in the cervical spine; there was ankylosis in five, hyperostosis in four and the minimum sagittal diameter of the bony canal was less than 11mm in three cases. The findings indicate that repetitive trauma may be a factor in producing bony changes in the cervical spine which put the patient at risk of cervical cord injury, especially when the spinal canal is developmentally narrow. Images PMID:7143009

  13. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives HPV and Cervical Cancer HPV

  14. Mechanical and biochemical properties of human cervical tissue

    E-print Network

    Myers, Kristin M

    2005-01-01

    The mechanical integrity of cervical tissue is crucial for maintaining a healthy gestation. Altered tissue biochemistry can cause drastic changes in the mechanical properties of the cervix and contribute to premature ...

  15. Tumoral calcinosis involving the cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Osamu; Nakamura, Kimihiko; Nashimoto, Takeo; Shibuya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of calcified masses in the juxta-articular regions of the extremities. Involvement of the cervical spine is very rare. In this report, the characteristics of TC of the cervical spine, including the clinical presentation, radiographic features, and surgical management are discussed. Case Description: A 90-year-old healthy female suffering from numbness of the upper extremities for 3 months presented with a 2-week history of progressive weakness of the lower extremities. A neurological examination revealed mild weakness and sensory impairment of the bilateral upper and lower extremities. Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated amorphous calcified masses posterior to the spinous process that extended into the interlaminar spaces of C3/4 and C4/5. The masses involved the posterior elements of C3-C4. Interestingly, CT scans performed 4 years earlier showed subtle calcification of a yellow ligament at C3/4 and C4/5. However, neither calcified masses nor bone erosion were observed. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the mass showed hypointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images. The lesion was compressing the spinal cord and was resected surgically. The pathological findings were consistent with those of TC. The natural history of TC is not understood. However, this case suggests that calcified masses may progress within several years and that the bone around the mass may be involved. Postoperatively, residual masses may disappear spontaneously, while new bone is formed in the erosive lamina and facet. Conclusion: The treatment of choice for TC, if the lesion causes progressive symptoms, is surgical resection.

  16. Occipito-cervical fusion using posterior titanium plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. H. Lieberman; J. K. Webb

    1998-01-01

    Occipito-cervical fusion may be indicated for instability of the occipito-cervical junction or atlanto-axial spine secondary\\u000a to a wide spectrum of pathology. Many techniques exist to stabilize the spine until fusion is achieved. Recent reports of\\u000a plate fixation have been favorable. In this study we set out to determine the effectiveness and advantages of titanium plate\\u000a fixation when used to stabilize

  17. Different cervical cancer screening approaches in a Chinese multicentre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Li; J-F Shi; S Franceschi; W-H Zhang; M Dai; B Liu; Y-Z Zhang; L-K Li; R-F Wu; H De Vuyst; M Plummer; Y-L Qiao; G Clifford

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate alternative cervical cancer screening methods, digital colposcopy and collection of cervical exfoliated cells for liquid-based cytology (LBC) and hybrid capture 2 (HC2) testing were performed among 2562 women aged 15–59 years in three study sites in the People's Republic of China (rural Shanxi province, Shenyang city in Liaoning province and Shenzhen city in Guangdong province). Visual inspection with

  18. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nica, DA; Copaciu, R

    2013-01-01

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  19. Cervical arthroplasty using ProDisc-C case report.

    PubMed

    Nica, D A; Copaciu, R

    2013-03-15

    Cervical disc replacement is an emerging motion-preserving technology in the surgical treatment of the cervical degenerative disc disorders used as an alternative to the classic interbody fusion. We present a case report of a patient diagnosed with C6-7 right disc herniation who underwent anterior discectomy and received a total disc replacement using ProDisc C artificial disc prosthesis. PMID:23599830

  20. Early cervical adenocarcinoma: selection criteria for radical surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Schorge; Kenneth R. Lee; Sandra J. Lee; Cynthia E. Flynn; Annekathryn Goodman; Ellen E. Sheets

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To identify selection criteria for radical surgery in early cervical adenocarcinoma based on pretreatment clinical stage and correlation with high-risk surgical-pathologic factors.Methods: One hundred seventy-five women with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) clinical stage IB1 (n = 132) and IB2-IIA (n = 43) cervical adenocarcinoma were treated primarily at our institutions from 1982 to 1996. Histopathologic sections

  1. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

  2. Cervical fixation in the pediatric patient: our experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Crostelli; Massimo Mariani; Osvaldo Mazza; Elio Ascani

    2009-01-01

    The surgical management of cervical instability in children is a challenging issue. Although the indications for internal\\u000a fixation are similar to those for adults, accurate pre-surgery study and sharp surgical techniques are necessary because of\\u000a the size of such patients’ anatomy, their peculiar tissue biology and the wide spectrum of diseases requiring cervical fusion.\\u000a Our case study is made up

  3. Cystic spinal dysraphism of the cervical and upper thoracic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Francisco Salomão; Sérgio Cavalheiro; René D. Leibinger; Antonio R. Bellas; Elide Vanazzi; Luiz A. M. de Souza; Andréa G. Nardi

    2006-01-01

    Background  Cystic dysraphic lesions of the cervical and upper thoracic region are rare and only a few series have been published about the topic. These malformations can be divided into categories that include both myelocystoceles and the so-called cervical meningoceles or myelomeningoceles.Methods  A retrospective study of 18 patients was conducted.Results  In 17 patients a squamous or a cicatricial epithelium of variable thickness covered

  4. Anterior discectomy without interbody fusion for cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pointillart; A. Cernier; J. M. Vital; J. Senegas

    1995-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1990, 68 patients with cervical radiculopathy due to soft disc herniation were treated by anterior cervical discectomy without interbody fusion. Eleven patients were unavailable for follow-up examination. The mean follow-up was 23 months (range 12–54 months). Both clinical and radiographic follow-ups were done, and 92% of the patients was found to have excellent or good clinical results.

  5. Effect of rigid cervical collar on tracheal intubation using Airtraq®

    PubMed Central

    Durga, Padmaja; Yendrapati, Chiranjeevi; Kaniti, Geeta; Padhy, Narmada; Anne, Kiran Kumar; Ramachandran, Gopinath

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Cervical spine immobilisation with rigid cervical collar imposes difficulty in intubation. Removal of the anterior part of the collar may jeopardize the safety of the cervical spine. The effect of restricted mouth opening and cervical spine immobilisation that result from the application of rigid cervical collar on intubation using Airtraq® was evaluated. Methods: Seventy healthy adults with normal airways included in the study were intubated Using Airtraq® with (group C) and without rigid cervical collar (group NC). The ease of insertion of Airtraq® into the oral cavity, intubation time, intubation difficulty score (IDS) were compared using Wilcoxon sign ranked test and McNemar test, using SPSS version 13. Results: Intubation using Airtraq® was successful in the presence of the cervical collar in 96% which was comparable to group without collar (P = 0.24). The restriction of mouth opening resulted in mild difficulty in insertion of Airtraq®. The median Likert scale for insertion was - 1 in the group C and + 1 in group NC (P < 0.001). The intubation time was longer in group C (30 ± 14.3 s vs. 26.9 ± 14.8 s) compared to group NC. The need for adjusting manoeuvres was 18.5% in group C versus 6.2% in group NC (P = 0.003) and bougie was required in 12 (18.5%) and 4 (6.2%) patients in group C and NC, respectively, to facilitate intubation (P = 0.02). The modified IDS score was higher in group C but there was no difference in the number of patients with IDS < 2. Conclusion: Tracheal intubation using Airtraq® in the presence of rigid cervical collar has equivalent success rate, acceptable difficulty in insertion and mild increase in IDS. PMID:25197109

  6. Theophylline for Bradycardia Secondary to Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farid SadakaSoophia; Soophia Khan Naydenov; John J. Ponzillo

    2010-01-01

    Background  Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease process that can occur as a consequence of motor vehicle collisions, falls,\\u000a or other traumatic injuries. Persistent bradycardia was found to be universally present in all high cervical SCI patients.\\u000a Limited data exists to suggest the most effective therapy for the bradycardia associated with high cervical SCI. Treatment\\u000a includes atropine, epinephrine, dopamine,

  7. Conservative treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for cervical spondylotic amyotrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Tofuku; H Koga; K Yone; S Komiya

    2011-01-01

    Study design:Small case series of patients with cervical spondylotic amyotrophy (CSA) managed by conservative treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy.Objective:To study the effects of conservative treatment with HBO therapy of CSA patients.Setting:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Imakiire General Hospital, Kagoshima, Japan.Methods:This study included 10 patients with CSA who underwent rehabilitation, including cervical traction and muscle exercise, for some period of time

  8. Primary Radiotherapy of StageIIA\\/B–IIIB Cervical Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Árpád Mayer; Csaba Nemeskéri; Csaba Petneházi; Gábor Borgulya; Szilvia Varga; Attila Naszály

    2004-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive literature on cervical cancer demonstrates, even today, the need for optimization of the timing of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in the treatment of stage IIA\\/B–IIIB cervical carcinoma. Patients and Methods: 210 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were treated in the Municipal Center of Oncoradiology between January 1991 and December 1996 (FIGO IIA: n =

  9. Minimally Invasive Therapy of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia for Fertility Preservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darko Milinovic; Drzislav Kalafatic; Damir Babic; Lidija Beketic Oreskovic; Helena Lovric Grsic; Slavko Oreskovic

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extension of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade III (CIN III) into endocervical\\u000a canal and depth of endocervical crypts involvement by CIN with the regard to patients’ age and parity. Correlation between\\u000a the area of CIN involvement and the extension into endocervical canal was estimated. A total of 218 cervical cone specimens\\u000a with

  10. The association between Chlamydia cervicitis, chorioamnionitis and neonatal complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. G. Donders; P. Moerman; G. H. De Wet; P. Hooft; P. Goubau

    1991-01-01

    Summary  In a prospective study on genital infections, the influence of Chlamydial cervicitis on pregnancy outcome was evaluated. In\\u000a eleven women with Chlamydial cervicitis perinatal outcome was recorded, the placenta was examined and the newborns were screened\\u000a for Chlamydial conjunctivitis. They were compared with 13 women who were negative for Chlamydia and were delivered immediately\\u000a after a Chlamydia positive woman. Compared

  11. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant factor in the development of most cervical and vulvar cancers, large population-based studies have implied an inherited predisposition to these cancers. Cell-mediated immune mechanisms, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type 1 and 2 cytokines, determine an individual's response to HPV infection. Investigators propose to analyze associations of HLA class I and II alleles with the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers.

  12. HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lozza, Virginia; Pieralli, Annalisa; Corioni, Serena; Longinotti, Manuela; Bianchi, Claudia; Moncini, Daniela; Fallani, Maria Grazia

    2014-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially HPV 16, is associated with the development of both cervical and oral cancer. We show the case of a woman affected by HPV-related cervical disease and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). A 41-year-old woman arrived at our Colposcopy Center following an abnormal Pap smear result (ASC-H) and a diagnosis of moderate cervical dysplasia obtained by a cervical biopsy. She underwent a colposcopy that showed a cervical abnormal transformation zone grade 2. A laser conization was performed in November 2010. Histology reported a moderate/severe dysplasia. The cone resection margins were free. Follow-up colposcopy and cytology were negative. The HPV testing showed an infection by HPV 16. In October 2012, the patient presented to the Head-Neck ER after episodes of hemoptysis; a lesion was found in the left tonsillar lodge. A biopsy was performed with a result of squamous cell carcinoma with low-grade differentiation. The HPV testing detected a high-risk HPV and the immunohistochemical analysis was positive for p16. She was treated by chemotherapy and brachytherapy. She was followed at the head-neck center with monthly visits with oral visual inspection that showed complete absence of mucosal abnormalities. HPV-related OPSCC and cervical precancerous/cancerous lesions have significant similarities in terms of pathogenesis. They are both caused largely by HPV 16, as in the present case. In conclusion, because of this association found in literature and in our case, we think that women with HPV cervical lesions should have regular surveillance for oropharyngeal cancer, whereas women with OPSCC should be encouraged to have diligent cervical screening. PMID:24584479

  13. Stage IA 1 cervical adenocarcinoma: definition and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Schorge; Kenneth R. Lee; Cynthia E. Flynn; Annekathryn Goodman; Ellen E. Sheets

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To propose a definition for stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma, based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system, and to determine if patients meeting criteria might be candidates for conservative surgery.Methods: Two hundred women were diagnosed with early-stage cervical adenocarcinoma from 1982 to 1996. Histopathologic sections were reviewed by a gynecologic pathologist. Medical records were reviewed,

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of cervical carcinomas, number 35, May 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2002-01-01

    Invasive cervical carcinoma, once the most common reporductive-tract cancer in the United States, has recently fallen to the rank of third most common. Globally, cervical cancer is a major health problem, with a yearly incidence of 371,000 cases and an annual death rate of 190,000 (1). The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) recently revised its staging criteria. In

  15. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Conducted in India, this study is evaluating the effectiveness of a well-planned health education breast and cervical cancer program in regions where there are limited resources. By using trained primary health workers to conduct low-cost screening methods, such as a clinical breast examination or visual inspection of the cervix painted with 4% acetic acid, the study hopes to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and mortality.

  16. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the association between serum biomarkers of oxidant load and cervical carcinogenesis among women from the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study. The Ludgwig-McGill Cohort Study is a large prospective study which collected multiple measurements of relevant risk factors (e.g., smoking, presence of cervical inflammatory cells, dietary and circulatory concentrations of antioxidant nutrients) and endpoints (e.g., type-specific HPV persistence, viral load, and development of SIL).

  17. Injectable silk foams for the treatment of cervical insufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Eric P.

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality, resulting in over 4,000 deaths each year. A significant risk factor for preterm birth is cervical insufficiency, the weakening and subsequent deformation of cervical tissue. Cervical insufficiency is both detectable and treatable but current treatments are lacking. The most common approach requires multiple invasive procedures. This work investigates the injection of silk foams, a minimally-invasive method for supporting cervical tissue. Silk offers many advantages for use as a biomaterial including strength, versatility, and biocompatibility. Injectable silk foams will minimize patient discomfort while also providing more targeted and personalized treatment. A battery of mechanical testing was undertaken to determine silk foam response under physiologically relevant loading and environmental conditions. Mechanical testing was paired with analysis of foam morphology and structure that illustrated the effects of injection on pore geometry and size. Biological response to silk foams was evaluated using an in vitro degradation study and subcutaneous in vivo implantation in a mouse model. Results showed that foams exceeded the mechanical requirements for stiffening cervical tissue, although the current injection process limits foam size. Injection was shown to cause measurable but localized foam deformation. This work indicates that silk foams are a feasible treatment option for cervical insufficiency but challenges remain with foam delivery.

  18. In vivo and in vitro hyperspectral imaging of cervical neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chaojian; Zheng, Wenli; Bu, Yanggao; Chang, Shufang; Tong, Qingping; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2014-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a prevalent disease in many developing countries. Colposcopy is the most common approach for screening cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). However, its clinical efficacy heavily relies on the examiner's experience. Spectroscopy is a potentially effective method for noninvasive diagnosis of cervical neoplasia. In this paper, we introduce a hyperspectral imaging technique for noninvasive detection and quantitative analysis of cervical neoplasia. A hyperspectral camera is used to collect the reflectance images of the entire cervix under xenon lamp illumination, followed by standard colposcopy examination and cervical tissue biopsy at both normal and abnormal sites in different quadrants. The collected reflectance data are calibrated and the hyperspectral signals are extracted. Further spectral analysis and image processing works are carried out to classify tissue into different types based on the spectral characteristics at different stages of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The hyperspectral camera is also coupled with a lab microscope to acquire the hyperspectral transmittance images of the pathological slides. The in vivo and the in vitro imaging results are compared with clinical findings to assess the accuracy and efficacy of the method.

  19. Delayed Surgical Intervention in Central Cord Syndrome with Cervical Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Lee, Hwan-Mo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Suh, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Seung Jin; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Review of the literature. Objective?It is generally accepted that surgical treatment is necessary for central cord syndrome (CCS) with an underlying cervical stenosis. However, the surgical timing for decompression is controversial in spondylotic cervical CCS. The purpose of this study is to review the results of early and delayed surgery in patients with spondylotic cervical CCS. Methods?MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles on CCS. There were 1,653 articles from 1940 to 2012 regarding CCS, 5 of which dealt with the timing of surgery for spondylotic cervical CCS. Results?All five reports regarding the surgical timing of spondylotic cervical CCS were retrospective. Motor improvement, functional independence measures, and walking ability showed similar improvement in early and late surgery groups in the studies with follow-up longer than 1 year. However, greater improvement was seen in the early surgery group in the studies with follow-up shorter than 1 year. The complication rates did not show a difference between the early and late surgery groups. However, there are controversies regarding the length of intensive care unit stay or hospital stay for the two groups. Conclusions?There was no difference in motor improvement, functional independence, walking ability, and complication rates between early and late surgery for spondylotic cervical CCS. PMID:25649889

  20. Requirement for Stromal Estrogen Receptor Alpha in Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Hyuk; Shin, Myeong Kyun; Korach, Kenneth S.; Lambert, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    The major etiological factor for cervical cancer is the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), which encodes E6 and E7 oncogenes. However, HPV is not sufficient and estrogen has been proposed as an etiological cofactor for the disease. Its requirement has been demonstrated in mouse models for HPV-associated cervical cancer (e.g., K14E7 transgenic mice). Although germline knockout of estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) renders mice resistant to cervical cancer, the cell type-specific requirement for ER? is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that temporal deletion of stromal ER? induced complete regression of cervical dysplasia in K14E7 mice. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that stromal ER? is necessary for HPV-induced cervical carcinogenesis and implicate paracrine mechanisms involving ER? signaling in the development of estrogen-dependent cervical cancers. This is the first evidence to support the importance of stromal ER? in estrogen-dependent neoplastic disease of the female reproductive tract. PMID:23065599