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Sample records for cesium strontium actinides

  1. STRATEGIC DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR CESIUM, STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. ...

  2. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham Clearfield; Akhilesh Tripathi; Dmitri Medvedev; Jose Delgado; Steve Kerlegon

    2004-10-06

    The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

  3. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Maginn

    2009-11-09

    The primary objective of the Notre Dame component of the project was computational in nature. The goal was to provide a design tool for the synthesis of optimized sorbents for the removal of cesium, strontium and actinides from nuclear waste solutions. Molecular modeling enables us to observe and better understand the molecular level interactions that govern the selectivity of specific radionuclides in a particular sorbent. The research focused on the development and validation of a suitable and transferable model for all the cations and ion exchangers of interest, nd then subsequent simulations which determined the siting and mobility of water and cations. Speciic accomplishments include: (1) improving existing intermolecular force fields to accurately model the sorbents of interest; (2) utilizing energy-minimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for structural prediction of CST and niobium-substituted CST materials; (3) determining Na+/water positions in polyoxoniobate materials using molecular dynamics simulations; and (4) developing Hybrid Monte Carlo methods for improved structural prediction.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOTYPE TITANATE ION EXCHANGE LOADED MEMBRANES FOR STRONTIUM, CESIUM AND ACTINIDE DECONTAMINATION FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L; Keisha Martin, K; David Hobbs, D

    2008-05-30

    We have successfully incorporated high surface area particles of titanate ion exchange materials (monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate) with acceptable particle size distribution into porous and inert support membrane fibrils consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon{reg_sign}), polyethylene and cellulose materials. The resulting membrane sheets, under laboratory conditions, were used to evaluate the removal of surrogate radioactive materials for cesium-137 and strontium-90 from high caustic nuclear waste simulants. These membrane supports met the nominal requirement for nonchemical interaction with the embedded ion exchange materials and were porous enough to allow sufficient liquid flow. Some of this 47-mm size stamped out prototype titanium impregnated ion exchange membrane discs was found to remove more than 96% of dissolved cesium-133 and strontium-88 from a caustic nuclear waste salt simulants. Since in traditional ion exchange based column technology monosodium titanate (MST) is known to have great affinity for the sorbing of other actinides like plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, we expect that the MST-based membranes developed here, although not directly evaluated for uptake of these three actinides because of costs associated with working with actinides which do not have 'true' experimental surrogates, would also show significant affinity for these actinides in aqueous media. It was also observed that crystalline silicotitanate impregnated polytetrafluoroethylene or polyethylene membranes became less selective and sorbed both cesium and strontium from the caustic aqueous salt simulants.

  5. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, Abraham

    2005-07-01

    It has been determined that poorly crystalline CST and SNT prepared at low temperature (100-150 deg. C) exhibit much faster kinetics in uptake of Sr2+. 2. In-situ X-ray studies has shown that SNT is a precursor phase to the formation of CST. 3. It is possible to form mixtures of CST and SNT in a single reactant mix by control of temperature and time of reaction. 4. It has been found that addition of a small amount of Cs+ to the reactant mix for the preparation of Nb-CST allows formation of the crystals in one day rather than ten days at 200 deg. C. 5. These discoveries suggest that a proper mix of sorbents (SNT, CST, Nb-CST) can be made easily at low cost that would remove all the HLW at the Savannah River site with a single in-tank procedure. Research Objective The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

  6. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Clearfield, Abraham

    2005-07-01

    It has been determined that poorly crystalline CST and SNT prepared at low temperature (100-150 C) exhibit much faster kinetics in uptake of Sr2+. In-situ X-ray studies has shown that SNT is a precursor phase to the formation of CST. It is possible to form mixtures of CST and SNT in a single reactant mix by control of temperature and time of reaction. It has been found that addition of a small amount of Cs+ to the reactant mix for the preparation of Nb-CST allows formation of the crystals in one day rather than ten days at 200 C. These discoveries suggest that a proper mix of sorbents (SNT, CST, Nb-CST) can be made easily at low cost that would remove all the HLW at the Savannah River site with a single in-tank procedure. The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

  7. Extraction processes and solvents for recovery of cesium, strontium, rare earth elements, technetium and actinides from liquid radioactive waste

    DOEpatents

    Zaitsev, Boris N.; Esimantovskiy, Vyacheslav M.; Lazarev, Leonard N.; Dzekun, Evgeniy G.; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.; Herbst, Ronald S.; Law, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Cesium and strontium are extracted from aqueous acidic radioactive waste containing rare earth elements, technetium and actinides, by contacting the waste with a composition of a complex organoboron compound and polyethylene glycol in an organofluorine diluent mixture. In a preferred embodiment the complex organoboron compound is chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, the polyethylene glycol has the formula RC.sub.6 H.sub.4 (OCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.n OH, and the organofluorine diluent is a mixture of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of diethylene glycol with at least one of bis-tetrafluoropropyl ether of ethylene glycol and bis-tetrafluoropropyl formal. The rare earths, technetium and the actinides (especially uranium, plutonium and americium), are extracted from the aqueous phase using a phosphine oxide in a hydrocarbon diluent, and reextracted from the resulting organic phase into an aqueous phase by using a suitable strip reagent.

  8. COMBINED EXTRACTION OF CESIUM, STRONTIUM, AND ACTINIDES FROM ALKALINE MEDIA: AN EXTENSION OF THE CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION (CSSX) PROCESS TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This fundamental research on combined cesium, strontium, and actinide separation from alkaline media by solvent extraction addresses the EM need for more efficient processes for the combined separation of these elements. The goal of this research is to obtain fundamental informat...

  9. Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides: Activities at the University of Notre Dame

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Maginn

    2005-01-31

    The basic science goal in this project identifies structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The task will apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of new sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations. The project involves a collaboration among four organizations, with each focused on a different aspect of the problem. This document is the final report on the three years of activities conducted at the University of Notre Dame, where the research focus was on the use of molecular modeling to understand ion exchange selectivity in titanosilicates and polyoxoniobate materials.

  10. The release of actinides, cesium, strontium, technetium, and iodine from spent fuel under unsaturated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, P.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Wolf, S.F.

    1995-12-31

    Drip tests to measure radionuclide release from spent nuclear fuel are being performed at 90{degrees}C at a drip rate of 0.75 mL/3.5 days; the test conditions are designed to simulate the behavior of spent fuel under the unsaturated and oxidizing conditions expected in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. This paper presents measurements of the actinide, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 129}I contents in the leachates after 581 days of testing at 90{degrees}C. These values provide an estimate of the source term for the long-lived radionuclide release under these test conditions. Comparisons are made between our results and those of other researchers.

  11. Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

    2004-03-01

    Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

  12. Demonstration of the UNEX Process for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium, Strontium, and the Actinides from Actual INEEL Sodium-Bearing Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Jack Douglas; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Todd, Terry Allen; Romanovskiy, V.; Smirnov, I.; Babain, V.; Zaitsev, B.; Esimantovskiy, V.

    1999-11-01

    A universal solvent extraction (UNEX) process for the simultaneous separation of cesium, strontium, and the actinides from actual radioactive acidic tank waste was demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The waste solution used in the countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was obtained from tank WM-185. The UNEX process uses a tertiary solvent containing 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, 0.5% polyethylene glycol-400 (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-dibutylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph2Bu2CMPO) in a diluent consisting of phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13). The countercurrent flowsheet demonstration was performed in a shielded cell facility using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors. Removal efficiencies of 99.4%, 99.995%, and 99.96% were obtained for 137Cs, 90Sr, and total alpha, respectively. This is sufficient to reduce the activities of 137Cs, 90Sr, and actinides in the WM-185 waste to below NRC Class A LLW requirements. Flooding and/or precipitate formation were not observed during testing. Significant amounts of the Zr (87%), Ba (>99%), Pb (98.8%), Fe (8%), Ca (10%), Mo (32%), and K (28%) were also removed from the feed with the universal solvent extraction flowsheet. 99Tc, Al, Hg, and Na were essentially inextractable (<1% extracted).

  13. Cesium and strontium ion specific exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with AlliedSignal, Inc. (Des Plaines, Illinois) to develop inorganic ion exchangers that are selective for strontium and cesium from alkaline high-level waste and groundwater streams.

  14. Crystalline silicotitanates for cesium/strontium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Miller, J.; Sherman, J.

    1996-10-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed that exhibits very high selectivity for cesium and strontium in the highly alkaline radioactive wastes at the Hanford Site and other DOE sites. Tests have also shown that CSTs have high selectivity for cesium in acidic and neutral solutions. The ESP is supporting an effort at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A & M University to further develop and characterize the important chemical and physical properties that will determine the applicability of CST to radioactive waste treatment at Hanford and other DOE facilities.

  15. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  16. Combined Extraction of Cesium, Strontium, and Actinides from Alkaline Media: An Extension of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Raymond

    2004-11-03

    The wastes present at DOE long-term storage sites are usually highly alkaline, and because of this, much of the actinides in these wastes are in the sludge phase. Enough actinide materials still remain in the supernatant liquid that they require separation followed by long-term storage in a geological repository. The removal of these metals from the liquid waste stream would permit their disposal as low-level waste and dramatically reduce the volume of high-level wastes.

  17. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-03-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100{prime} (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually.

  18. Cesium and strontium in Black Sea macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Nonova, Tzvetana; Tosheva, Zornitza

    2014-03-01

    The trace level of metals and particularly radioactive ones should be monitored to evaluate the transfer along the trophic chain, assess the risk for biota and can be used for global changes assessment. Plants respond rapidly to all changes in the ecosystem conditions and are widely used as indicators and predictors for changes in hydrology and geology. In this work we represent our successful development and applications of a methodology for monitoring of stable and radioactive strontium and cesium in marine biota (Black Sea algae's). In case of radioactive release they are of high interest. We use ED-XRF, gamma spectrometers and LSC instrumentation and only 0.25 g sample. Obtained results are compared with those of other authors in same regions. The novelty is the connection between the radioactive isotopes and their stable elements in algae in time and space scale. All our samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. PMID:24368267

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 distribution in Baltic Sea waters

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Gedeonov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1988-09-01

    The strontium-90 and cesium-137 concentrations determined in 1983 in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland and in the Soviet Baltic rivers are furnished. The cesium-137 content has been found to be directly proportional to the salinity of the water. Significant influx of technogenic radioactive contaminants from the North to the Baltic Sea was noted in 1983.

  20. Membrane-based separation technologies for cesium, strontium, and technetium

    SciTech Connect

    Kafka, T.

    1996-10-01

    This work is one of two parallel projects that are part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. In this subtask, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, working in cooperation with IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah.

  1. The diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-08-01

    A novel multi-layer diffusion couple was used to isolate the diffusion of strontium, europium and cesium in SiC without introducing radiation damage to SiC and at concentrations below the solubility limit for the fission products in SiC. Diffusion occurred by both bulk and grain boundary pathways for all three fission products between 900∘ C and 1 ,300∘ C. Cesium was the fastest diffuser below 1 ,100∘ C and the slowest above this temperature. Strontium and europium diffusion tracked very closely as a function of temperature for both bulk and grain boundary diffusion. Migration energies ranged from 1.0 eV to 5.7 eV for bulk diffusion and between 2.2 eV and 4.7 eV for grain boundary diffusion. These constitute the first measurements of diffusion of cesium, europium, and strontium in silicon carbide, and the magnitude of the cesium diffusion coefficient supports the premise that high quality TRISO fuel should have minimal cesium release.

  2. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  3. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  4. Detection of the actinides and cesium from environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, Mathew Spencer

    Detection of the actinides and cesium in the environment is important for a variety of applications ranging from environmental remediation to safeguards and nuclear forensics. The utilization of multiple different elemental concentrations and isotopic ratios together can significantly improve the ability to attribute contamination to a unique source term and/or generation process; however, the utilization of multiple elemental "signatures" together from environmental samples requires knowledge of the impact of chemical fractionation for various elements under a variety of environmental conditions (including predominantly aqueous versus arid conditions). The research reported in this dissertation focuses on three major areas: 1. Improving the understanding of actinide-mineral interactions at ultra-low concentrations. Chapter 2 reports a batch sorption and modeling study of Np(V) sorption to the mineral goethite from attomolar to micromolar concentrations. 2. Improving the detection capabilities for Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of ultra-trace cesium from environmental samples. Chapter 4 reports a new method which significantly improves the chemical yields, purification, sample processing time, and ultimately, the detection limits for TIMS analyses of femtogram quantities of cesium from a variety of environmental sample matrices. 3. Demonstrating how actinide and cesium concentrations and isotopic ratios from environmental samples can be utilized together to determine a wealth of information including environmental transport mechanisms (e.g. aqueous versus arid transport) and information on the processes which generated the original material. Chapters1, 3 and 5 demonstrate these principles using Pu, Am, Np, and Cs concentrations and isotopic ratios from contaminated soils taken near the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (a low level radioactive waste disposal site in southeastern Idaho).

  5. SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE SOLIDS AFFINITY FOR CESIUM AND ACTINIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T; Bill Wilmarth, B; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-31

    Washed sodium-aluminosilicate (NAS) solids at initial concentrations of 3.55 and 5.4 g/L sorb or uptake virtually no cesium over 288 hours, nor do any NAS solids generated during that time. These concentrations of solids are believed to conservatively bound current and near-term operations. Hence, the NAS solids should not have affected measurements of the cesium during the mass transfer tests and there is minimal risk of accumulating cesium during routine operations (and hence posing a gamma radiation exposure risk in maintenance). With respect to actinide uptake, it appears that NAS solids sorb minimal quantities of uranium - up to 58 mg U per kg NAS solid. The behavior with plutonium is less well understood. Additional study may be needed for radioactive operations relative to plutonium or other fissile component sorption or trapping by the solids. We recommend this testing be incorporated in the planned tests using samples from Tank 25F and Tank 49H to extend the duration to bound expected inventory time for solution.

  6. Effects of mineralogy on sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1990-04-01

    The sorption properties of tuff formations at the proposed site for the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been extensively studied. Sorption and desorption measurements were made of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite and Calico Hills Tuff. The object was to see whether there was a correlation between sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff and the sorption of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite based on the content of clinoptilolite in the Calico Hills Tuff. 13 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Cesium and strontium sorption behavior in amended agricultural soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Khalid; Hofmann, Diana; Burauel, Peter; Vereecken, Harry; Berns, Anne E.

    2014-05-01

    Biogas digestates and biochar are emerging soil amendments. Biochar is a byproduct of pyrolysis process which is thermal decomposition of biomass to produce syngas and bio-oil. The use of biochar for soil amendment is being promoted for higher crop yields and carbon sequestration. Currently, the numbers of biogas plants in Germany are increasing to meet the new energy scenarios. The sustainability of biogas industry requires proper disposal options for digestate. Biogas digestates being rich in nutrients are beneficial to enhance agricultural productions. Contrary to the agronomical benefits of these organic amendments, their use can influence the mobility and bioavailability of soil contaminants due to nutrients competition and high organic matter content. So far, the impact of such amendments on highly problematic contaminants like radionuclides is not truly accounted for. In the present study, sorption-desorption behavior of cesium and strontium was investigated in three soils of different origin and texture. Two agricultural soils, a loamy sand and a silty soil, were amended with biochar and digestate in separate experiments, with field application rates of 25 Mg/ha and 34 Mg/ha, respectively. For comparison a third soil, a forest soil, was incubated without any amendment. The amendments were mixed into the top 20 cm of the field soils, resulting in final concentrations of 8-9 g biochar/Kg soil and 11-12 g digestate/Kg soil. The soils were incubated for about six months at room temperature. Sorption-desorption experiments were performed with CsCl and SrCl2 after pre-equilibrating the soils with CaCl2 solutions. The amendments with field application rates did not have a significant effect on the relevant soil parameters responsible for the sorption behavior of the two radionuclides. Comparatively, the soil type lead to distinctive differences in sorption-desorption dynamics of the two radionuclides. Cesium showed a higher affinity for silty soil followed by

  8. Trade study for the disposition of cesium and strontium capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This trade study analyzes alternatives for the eventual disposal of cesium and strontium capsules currently stored at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility as by-product. However, for purposes of this study, it is assumed that at some time in the future, the capsules will be declared high-level waste and therefore will require disposal at an offsite geologic repository. The study considered numerous alternatives and selected three for detailed analysis: (1) overpack and storage at high-level waste canister storage building, (2) overpack at the high-level waste vitrification facility followed by storage at a high-level waste canister storage building, and (3) blend capsule contents with other high-level waste feed streams and vitrify at the high-level waste vitrification facility.

  9. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS SEPARATION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson

    2005-02-01

    Two new solvent extraction technologies have been recently developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel, following dissolution in nitric acid. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. This new strip reagent reduces product volume by a factor of 20, over the baseline process. Countercurrent flowsheet tests on simulated spent nuclear fuel feed streams have been performed with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4',4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance.

  10. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue

  11. Comparison of organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.

    1996-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP task to develop high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for cesium, strontium, and technetium from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff are investigating novel ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation (groundwater, high-level waste (HLW), and low-level waste (LLW)). Waste components targeted for remediation include cesium, strontium, and technetium.

  12. Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2001-02-13

    This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

  13. Effects of mineralogy on the sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Land, J.F.

    1990-10-01

    Sorption and desorption measurements were made of strontium and cesium onto clinoptilolite and Calico Hills Tuff. The object was to see whether there was a correlation between sorption of strontium and cesium onto Calico Hills Tuff and the clinoptilolite based on the content of clinoptilolite in the Calico Hills Tuff. If sorption onto Calico Hills Tuff is solely due to the presence of clinoptilolite, then the ratios of the sorption ratios on tuff to those on clinoptilolite at similar conditions should be the weight fraction of the clinoptilolite in the tuff. The experimental evidence showed that the ratios were generally near 0.5 for both cesium and strontium sorption and that ion-exchange processes were operative for the clinoptilolite and the tuff. However, the ratios differed to a small extent for different conditions, and there were indications that other sorption processes were also involved. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    A. Clearfield; A. I. Bortun; L. A. Bortun; E. A. Bhlume; P. Sylvester; G. M. Graziano

    2000-09-01

    During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger.

  15. Concentration Ratios for Cesium and Strontium in Produce Near Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    S. Salazar, M.McNaughton, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    The ratios of the concentrations of radionuclides in produce (fruits, vegetables, and grains) to the concentrations in the soil have been measured for cesium and strontium at locations near Los Alamos. The Soil, Foodstuffs, and Biota Team of the Meteorology and Air Quality Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) obtained the data at locations within a radius of 50 miles of LANL. The concentration ratios are in good agreement with previous measurements: 0.01 to 0.06 for cesium-137 and 0.1 to 0.5 for strontium-90 (wet-weight basis).

  16. HIGH TEMPERATURE SORPTION OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM ON DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of cesium and strontium on kaolinite powders was investigated as a means to minimize the emissions of these metals during certain high-temperature processes currently being developed to isolate and dispose of radiological and mixed wastes. In this work, nonradioactive aq...

  17. Physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on diffusivity of cesium and strontium.

    PubMed

    Jang, J G; Park, S M; Lee, H K

    2016-11-15

    The present study investigates the physical barrier effect of geopolymeric waste form on leaching behavior of cesium and strontium. Fly ash-based geopolymers and slag-blended geopolymers were used as solidification agents. The leaching behavior of cesium and strontium from geopolymers was evaluated in accordance with ANSI/ANS-16.1. The diffusivity of cesium and strontium in a fly ash-based geopolymer was lower than that in Portland cement by a factor of 10(3) and 10(4), respectively, showing significantly improved immobilization performance. The leaching resistance of fly ash-based geopolymer was relatively constant regardless of the type of fly ash. The diffusivity of water-soluble cesium and strontium ions were highly correlated with the critical pore diameter of the binder. The critical pore diameter of the fly ash-based geopolymer was remarkably smaller than those of Portland cement and slag-blended geopolymer; consequently, its ability physically to retard the diffusion of nuclides (physical barrier effect) was superior. PMID:27434737

  18. Equilibrium sorption of cobalt, cesium, and strontium on Bandelier Tuff: analysis of alternative mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23/sup 0/C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes /sup 60/Co, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 85/Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing.

  20. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.; Mason, Caroline F. V.; Rais, Jiri

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  1. Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

    1997-09-09

    Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

  2. Strontium and Actinide Separations from High Level Nuclear Waste Solutions using Monosodium Titanate - Actual Waste Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.; Barnes, M.J.; Hobbs,D.T.; Walker, D.D.; Fondeur, F.F.; Norato, M.A.; Pulmano, R.L.; Fink, S.D.

    2005-11-01

    Pretreatment processes at the Savannah River Site will separate {sup 90}Sr, alpha-emitting and radionuclides (i.e., actinides) and {sup 137}Cs prior to disposal of the high-level nuclear waste. Separation of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides occurs by ion exchange/adsorption using an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). Previously reported testing with simulants indicates that the MST exhibits high selectivity for strontium and actinides in high ionic strength and strongly alkaline salt solutions. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from actual waste solutions. These tests evaluated the effects of ionic strength, mixing, elevated alpha activities, and multiple contacts of the waste with MST. Tests also provided confirmation that MST performs well at much larger laboratory scales (300-700 times larger) and exhibits little affinity for desorption of strontium and plutonium during washing.

  3. Radiation enhanced diffusion of cesium, strontium, and europium in silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwaraknath, S. S.; Was, G. S.

    2016-06-01

    The radiation enhanced diffusion (RED) of three key fission products in SiC: cesium, europium, and strontium was investigated following ion irradiation at a damage rate of 4.6 × 10-4 dpa s-1 at temperatures between 900° C and 1100° C. The radiation enhancement of diffusion was as large as 107 at 900° C, and dropped to a value of 1 by 1300° C for all but cesium grain boundary diffusion. Strontium and cesium exhibited several orders of magnitude enhancement for both mechanisms. Europium enhancement was greatest at 900° C, but dropped to the thermal rates at 1100° C for both mechanisms. The trends in the RED mechanism correlated well with the point defect concentrations suggesting that both carbon and silicon vacancy concentrations are important for fission product diffusion. These constitute the first radiation-enhanced diffusion measurements of strontium, cesium and europium in SiC.

  4. Sorption of cesium and strontium on Savannah River soils impregnated with colloidal silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hakem, N.; Al Mahamid, I.; Apps, J.; Moridis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Colloidal silica (CS) is being considered as an injectable low viscosity fluid for creation of impermeable barrier containment of low level radioactive waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina. The sorption behavior of cesium and strontium on Savannah River Site Soils impregnated with Colloidal Silica was studied using a batch experimental method. The samples were prepared by addition of CS and an aqueous solution of CaCl{sub 2} to the soil materials. Sorption studies were conducted after the gelation of the CS samples had occurred. The variation of the sorption ratio, R, as a function of cesium or strontium concentration was examined. The Freundlich isotherm was used to fit the data and very good results were obtained.

  5. Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, Martha A.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  6. Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1982-05-05

    A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

  7. Cesium and strontium tolerant Arthrobacter sp. strain KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit.

    PubMed

    Swer, Pynskhem Bok; Joshi, Santa Ram; Acharya, Celin

    2016-12-01

    Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 isolated from a pristine uranium ore deposit at Domiasiat located in North-East India exhibited noteworthy tolerance for cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr). The strain displayed a high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 400 mM for CsCl and for SrCl2. Flow cytometric analysis employing membrane integrity indicators like propidium iodide (PI) and thiazole orange (TO) indicated a greater sensitivity of Arthrobacter cells to cesium than to strontium. On being challenged with 75 mM of Cs, the cells sequestered 9612 mg Cs g(-1) dry weight of cells in 12 h. On being challenged with 75 mM of Sr, the cells sequestered 9989 mg Sr g(-1) dry weight of cells in 18 h. Heat killed cells exhibited limited Cs and Sr binding as compared to live cells highlighting the importance of cell viability for optimal binding. The association of the metals with Arthrobacter sp. KMSZP6 was further substantiated by Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. This organism tolerated up to 1 kGy (60)Co-gamma rays without loss of survival. The present report highlights the superior tolerance and binding capacity of the KMSZP6 strain for cesium and strontium over other earlier reported strains and reveals its potential for bioremediation of nuclear waste. PMID:27620733

  8. Sintered bentonite ceramics for the immobilization of cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Luis Humberto

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is a Department of Energy (DOE) program, that has been investigating technologies to improve fuel cycle sustainability and proliferation resistance. One of the program's goals is to reduce the amount of radioactive waste requiring repository disposal. Cesium and strontium are two primary heat sources during the first 300 years of spent nuclear fuel's decay, specifically isotopes Cs-137 and Sr-90. Removal of these isotopes from spent nuclear fuel will reduce the activity of the bulk spent fuel, reducing the heat given off by the waste. Once the cesium and strontium are separated from the bulk of the spent nuclear fuel, the isotopes must be immobilized. This study is focused on a method to immobilize a cesium- and strontium-bearing radioactive liquid waste stream. While there are various schemes to remove these isotopes from spent fuel, this study has focused on a nitric acid based liquid waste. The waste liquid was mixed with the bentonite, dried then sintered. To be effective sintering temperatures from 1100 to 1200°C were required, and waste concentrations must be at least 25 wt%. The product is a leach resistant ceramic solid with the waste elements embedded within alumino-silicates and a silicon rich phase. The cesium is primarily incorporated into pollucite and the strontium into a monoclinic feldspar. The simulated waste was prepared from nitrate salts of stable ions. These ions were limited to cesium, strontium, barium and rubidium. Barium and rubidium will be co-extracted during separation due to similar chemical properties to cesium and strontium. The waste liquid was added to the bentonite clay incrementally with drying steps between each addition. The dry powder was pressed and then sintered at various temperatures. The maximum loading tested is 32 wt. percent waste, which refers to 13.9 wt. percent cesium, 12.2 wt. percent barium, 4.1 wt. percent strontium, and 2.0 wt. percent rubidium. Lower loadings of waste

  9. REVIEW OF ACTINIDE AND STRONTIUM LOADING DATA FOR MST AND MMST

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.; Hobbs, D.; Fink, S.

    2010-10-20

    SRNL reviewed the relevant data from MST and mMST fissile loading studies to determine if further studies were required. With respect to MST, SRNL found that the published results adequately bound the expected conditions that Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process will operate under. The lack of strontium data does not represent an issue as strontium is not relevant to criticality. There is no threat to criticality safety from the lack of strontium loading data. However, SRNL proposes a single test with MST to ensure that future SCIX operations are conservatively bounded and strontium maximum loading is understood. With respect to attempts to maximally load mMST, SRNL's knowledge on actinide and strontium loading is limited to uranium behavior. mMST has a very weak affinity for uranium, and even extended contact time at high uranium concentration shows minimal loading onto mMST. This leaves questions about the ability to load plutonium, neptunium and strontium. SRNL proposes to perform two tests with mMST to ensure that questions on plutonium, neptunium, and strontium sorption are answered, as well as ensuring that future mMST operations are conservatively bounded.

  10. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  11. Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

  12. Dynamic modeling of the cesium, strontium, and ruthenium transfer to grass and vegetables

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, P.; Real, J.; Maubert, H.; Roussel-Debet, S. . Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire)

    1999-05-01

    From 1988 to 1993, the Nuclear Safety and Protection Institute (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire -- IPSN) conducted experimental programs focused on transfers to vegetation following accidental localized deposits of radioactive aerosols. In relation to vegetable crops (fruit, leaves, and root vegetables) and meadow grass these experiments have enabled a determination of the factors involved in the transfer of cesium, strontium, and ruthenium at successive harvests, or cuttings, in respect of various time lags after contamination. The dynamic modeling given by these results allows an evaluation of changes in the mass activity of vegetables and grass during the months following deposit. It constitutes part of the ASTRAL post-accident radioecology model.

  13. Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

    1981-08-01

    A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

  14. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  15. Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehnder, H. J.; Kopp, P.; Eikenberg, J.; Feller, U.; Oertli, J. J.

    1995-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples were analyzed throughout the growing season and also during the following vegetation period. Only traces of the applied radiostrontium were taken up by the leaves. This element was essentially not redistributed within the plants. In contrast, radiocesium was easily taken up through the leaf surface, transported to other plant parts and to some extent released from the roots into the soil. Cesium reaching the soil may interact with clay particles causing a very reduced availability for plants. Therefore the soil may act as a long-term sink for radiocesium. On the other hand, grape berries represent transient sinks. The cesium levels in the berries decreased again in a late phase of maturation, but the mechanisms causing this loss are not yet identified. During the second vegetation period, only a very minor proportion of the radiocesium taken up previously by the plants was present in the above ground parts.

  16. Removal efficiency of water purifier and adsorbent for iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kudo, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    The severe incident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station has caused radioactive contamination of environment including drinking water. Radioactive iodine, cesium, strontium, barium and zirconium are hazardous fission products because of the high yield and/or relatively long half-life. In the present study, 4 pot-type water purifiers and several adsorbents were examined for the removal effects on these elements from drinking water. Iodide, iodate, cesium and barium were removed by all water purifiers with efficiencies about 85%, 40%, 75-90% and higher than 85%, respectively. These efficiencies lasted for 200 l, which is near the recommended limits for use of filter cartridges, without decay. Strontium was removed with initial efficiencies from 70% to 100%, but the efficiencies were slightly decreased by use. Zirconium was removed by two models, but hardly removed by the other models. Synthetic zeolite A4 efficiently removed cesium, strontium and barium, but had no effect on iodine and zirconium. Natural zeolite, mordenite, removed cesium with an efficiency as high as zeolite A4, but the removal efficiencies for strontium and barium were far less than those of zeolite A4. Activated carbon had little removal effects on these elements. In case of radioactive contamination of tap water, water purifiers may be available for convenient decontamination of drinking water in the home. PMID:22129747

  17. Feasibility study for the processing of Hanford Site cesium and strontium isotopic sources in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Watrous, R.A.; Nelson, J.L.; Perez, J.M.; Peters, R.D.; Peterson, M.E.

    1991-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement for the disposal of defense-related wastes at the Hanford Site (Final Environmental Impact Statement: Disposal of Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes [HDW-EIS] [DOE 1987]) states that the preferred alternative for disposal of cesium and strontium wastes at the Hanford Site will be to package and ship these wastes to the commercial high-level waste repository. The Record of Decision for this EIS states that before shipment to a geologic repository, these wastes will be packaged in accordance with repository waste acceptance criteria. However, the high cost per canister for repository disposal and uncertainty about the acceptability of overpacked capsules by the repository suggest that additional alternative means of disposal be considered. Vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) has been identified as a possible alternative to overpacking. Subsequently, Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (Westinghouse Hanford) Projects Technical Support Office undertook a feasibility study to determine if any significant technical issues preclude the vitrification of the cesium and strontium salts. Based on the information presented in this report, it is considered technically feasible to blend the cesium chloride and strontium fluoride salts with neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) and/or complexant concentrate (CC) waste feedstreams, or to blend the salts with fresh frit and process the waste through the HWVP.

  18. Extractant compositions for co-extracting cesium and strontium, a method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed, and calixarene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Peterman,Dean R.; Meikrantz,David H.; Law,Jack D.; Riddle,Catherine L.; Todd,Terry A.; Greenhalgh,Mitchell R.; Tillotson,Richard D.; Bartsch,Richard A.; Moyer,Bruce A.; Delmau,Laetitia H.; Bonnesen,Peter V.

    2012-04-17

    A mixed extractant solvent that includes at least one dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound, 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclohexano)-18-crown-6, at least one modifier, and, optionally, a diluent. The dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compound is 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(octyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(decyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(dodecyloxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(2-ethylhexyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(3,7-dimethyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, 1,3-alternate-25,27-di(4-butyloctyl-1-oxy)calix[4]arenebenzocrown-6, or combinations thereof. The modifier is a primary alcohol. A method of separating cesium and strontium from an aqueous feed is also disclosed, as are dialkyloxycalix[4]arenebenzocrown-6 compounds and an alcohol modifier.

  19. Strontium and Actinides Removal from Savannah River Site Actual Waste Samples by Freshly Precipitated Manganese Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    2003-10-30

    The authors investigated the performance of freshly precipitated manganese oxide and monosodium titanate (MST) for the removal of strontium (Sr) and actinides from actual high-level waste. Manganese oxide precipitation occurs upon addition of a reductant such as formate (HCO2-) or peroxide (H2O2) to a waste solution containing permanganate (MnO4-). Tests described in this document address the capability of manganese oxide treatment to remove Rs, Pu, and Np from actual high-level waste containing elevated concentrations of Pu. Additionally, tests investigate MST (using two unique batches) performance with the same waste for direct comparison to the manganese oxide performance.

  20. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  1. Selective removal of cesium and strontium using porous frameworks from high level nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Briana; Banerjee, Debasis; Nie, Zimin; Shin, Yongsoon; Ma, Shengqian; Thallapally, Praveen K

    2016-05-01

    Efficient and cost-effective removal of radioactive (137)Cs and (90)Sr found in spent fuel is an important step for safe, long-term storage of nuclear waste. Solid-state materials such as resins and titanosilicate zeolites have been assessed for the removal of Cs and Sr from aqueous solutions, but there is room for improvement in terms of capacity and selectivity. Herein, we report the Cs(+) and Sr(2+) exchange potential of an ultra stable MOF, namely, MIL-101-SO3H, as a function of different contact times, concentrations, pH levels, and in the presence of competing ions. Our preliminary results suggest that MOFs with suitable ion exchange groups can be promising alternate materials for cesium and strontium removal. PMID:27055254

  2. Foliar uptake of cesium, iodine and strontium and their transfer to the edible parts of beans, potatoes and radishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestling, O.; Kopp, P.; Burkart, W.

    Considerable fractions of radionuclide solutions deposited on the surface of the leaves may be transferred to the edible parts of plants. In radishes we observed a transfer of more than 40% of the applied cesium radioisotope within a few days. A rather similar uptake was found for beans and potatoes when harvested a month after application of radioactivity. As much as 60% of the applied cesium-isotope remained in (or on) the potato leaves even 8 days after application. The major part could however be washed off the leaves a few hours after application. When radishes were showered with water within 7 h after the application of activity the uptake was greatly reduced. No competitive effect of potassium chloride for the foliar uptake of cesium was found. A 10 -2 M colloidal suspension of Prussian Blue, a chelating agent for monovalent alkali metals such as potassium, cesium, or other monovalent cations, applied as droplets to the leaves one day prior to application of active cesium was found to strongly inhibit the transfer of cesium to the radish. The transfer of iodine and strontium to the edible parts was found to be negligible (or slower) as compared to cesium. In most cases no detectable amounts of these two nuclides were transfered to the edible parts of the radish after 2-5 weeks.

  3. Silicon control of strontium and cesium partitioning in hydroxide-weathered sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb R.; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-15

    Sorption of cesium and strontium during weathering of uncontaminated sediments from the Hanford Site was studied under geochemical conditions chosen to model that of high level radioactive waste leachate at Hanford. Based on prior studies of a range of model clay mineral systems, we postulated that Cs and Sr uptake in the sediments would reflect concurrent and competitive adsorption and co-precipitation effects. Batch experiments were conducted from 0 to 374 d at 298 K to measure long-term kinetics of Cs and Sr uptake to and release from three representative Hanford Site sediments; Ringold silt (RS), Hanford fine sand (HF), and Hanford coarse sand (HC). Sorbent affinity for Cs decreased in the order RS >HF > HC. Similar trends were observed for Sr at early times, but all sediments showed similar Sr sorption capacities after several months reaction time. Strontium uptake by all sediments exceeded that of Cs at nearly all reaction times. After 374 d, the total amount of Cs and Sr sorbed in all systems ranged from 15-37% and 80-93% of the initial concentrations, respectively. Although time-dependent trends for Cs uptake were not clearly evident, the fraction of nonexchangeable Cs increased slightly over time despite fluctuations. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, suggesting that coprecipitation in neoformed phases may be a significant sequestration mechanism for Sr in sediments of the Hanford vadose zone. SEM-EDS showed formation of Cs and Sr containing secondary solid phases after 183 d. Synchrotron μ-XRF, μ-XRD identified these phases as cancrinite and sodalite. Results indicate that while both Sr and Cs are incorporated into neo-formed precipitates, Sr uptake and lability is more sensitively dependent on mineral transformation reactions in the sediments, whereas Cs uptake is strongly influenced by adsorption, probably associated with high-affiinity and edge sites of native micaceous minerals.

  4. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release from

  5. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  6. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-08-22

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts andmore » fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  7. Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

    2005-04-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

  8. Silicon control of strontium and cesium partitioning in hydroxide-weathered sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, Paula; Serne, R. Jeff; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-01

    Cation partitioning and speciation in an aqueous soil suspension may depend on the coupling of reaction time, sorbate amount and mineral weathering reactions. These factors were varied in sediment suspension experiments to identify geochemical processes that affect migration of Sr 2+ and Cs + introduced to the subsurface by caustic high level radioactive waste (HLRW). Three glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sediments from the Hanford Site (WA, USA) were subjected to hyperalkaline (pH > 13), Na-Al-NO 3-OH solution conditions within a gradient field of (i) sorptive concentration (10 -5-10 -3 m) and (ii) reaction time (0-365 d). Strontium uptake ( qSr) exceeded that of cesium at nearly all reaction times. Sorbent affinity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ increased with clay plus silt content at early times, but a prolonged slow uptake process was observed over the course of sediment weathering that erased the texture effect for Sr 2+; all sediments showed similar mass normalized uptake after several months of reaction time. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, with accumulation and aging of neoformed aluminosilicates. Formation of Cs + and Sr 2+-containing cancrinite and sodalite was observed after 183 d by SEM and synchrotron μ-XRF and μ-XRD. EXAFS data for qSr ≈ 40 mmol kg -1 showed incorporation of Sr 2+ into both feldspathoid and SrCO 3(s) coordination environments after one year. Adsorption was predominant at early times and low sorbate amount, whereas precipitation, controlled largely by sediment Si release, became increasingly important at longer times and higher sorbate amount. Kinetics of contaminant desorption at pH 8 from one year-weathered sediments showed significant dependence on background cation (Ca 2+ versus K +) composition. Results of this study indicate that co-precipitation and ion exchange in neoformed aluminosilicates may be an important mechanism controlling Sr 2+ and Cs + mobility in siliceous sediments impacted by

  9. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  10. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE ADSORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-10-01

    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  11. Role of Desorption Kinetics and Porous Medium Heterogeneity in Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cesium and Strontium: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, T. M.; Ryan, J. N.

    2008-12-01

    to adapt current models for colloid-facilitated transport in saturated porous media to colloid transport in unsaturated media. Colloid and colloid-facilitated transport experiments are being conducted on two soil systems: (1) constructed porous media with quartz sand containing an artificial macropore and (2) natural undisturbed cores from two DOE sites (Rocky Flats, CO and Oak Ridge, TN). Cesium and strontium isotopes are being used to examine the role of sorption kinetics and to quantify the influence of exchange between preferential flow paths and the soil matrix on the fate of colloid-bound contaminants.

  12. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-03

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  13. Use of PVC plasticized membranes for uptake of radioactive cesium and strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Rais, J.; Mason, C.V.; Abney, K.D.

    1997-03-01

    A new type of sorbent for the selective uptake of elements based on the use of PVC plasticized membranes, commonly used in electrochemistry as ion selective (ISE) membranes, is described. It is theoretically derived that the material acting as a selective ion sensor of ISE must be also effective as a sorbent. In experimental verification of the hypothesis, the cobalt dicarbollide and sodium tetraphenylborate with the addition of a synergist of the polyethyleneglycol type were dissolved in several solvents mixed with a tetrahydrofurane solution of 5% PVC and evaporated to produce a membrane used for the sorption experiments. It was found that PVC, besides functioning as a solid support, does not influence significantly the behavior of the prepared materials; however, the kinetics are slower than for the analogous solvent extraction techniques. Practical applications of such membranes for the isolation of radioactive cesium and strontium from acidic and alkaline solutions with a high of Na{sup +} ions content are shown, with emphasis on nontoxic solvents as substitutes for the toxic nitrobenzene. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Water-Mediated Differential Binding of Strontium and Cesium Cations in Fulvic Acid.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Biswajit; Sundararajan, Mahesh; Bandyopadhyay, Tusar

    2015-08-27

    The migration of potentially harmful radionuclides, such as cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr), in soil is governed by the chemical and biological reactivity of soil components. Soil organic matter (SOM) that can be modeled through fulvic acid (FA) is known to alter the mobility of radionuclide cations, Cs(+) and Sr(2+). Shedding light on the possible interaction mechanisms at the atomic level of these two ions with FA is thus vital to explain their transport behavior and for the design of new ligands for the efficient extraction of radionuclides. Here we have performed molecular dynamics, metadynamics simulations, and density-functional-theory-based calculations to understand the binding mechanism of Sr(2+) and Cs(+) cations with FA. Our studies predict that interaction of Cs(+) to FA is very weak as compared with Sr(2+). While the water-FA interaction is largely responsible for the weak binding of Cs(+) to FA, leading to the outer sphere complexation of the ion with FA, the interaction between Sr(2+) and FA is stronger and thus can surpass the existing secondary nonbonding interaction between coordinated waters and FA, leading to inner sphere complexation of the ion with FA. We also find that entropy plays a dominant role for Cs(+) binding to FA, whereas Sr(2+) binding is an enthalpy-driven process. Our predicted results are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data on complexation of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) with SOM. PMID:25794241

  15. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of strontium are reviewed. Consumption for the year is estimated to have been about 35 kt for strontium contained in celestite, strontium carbonate, and strontium nitrate. Exports of strontium totaled only about 1.1 kt for the year. U.S. strontium imports and consumption increased about 30 percent in 1994 due to increased domestic production of color television picture tube glass. The average customs value of celestite coming into the U.S. was about $75/t, strontium carbonate was valued at $661/t, and strontium nitrate was valued at about $1,069/t.

  16. Decontamination of cesium, strontium, and cobalt from aqueous solutions by bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.A.; Khan, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    Sorption studies of cesium, strontium, and cobalt (Cs, Sr, and Co) on bentonite under various experimental conditions, such as contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration, and temperature, have been performed. The sorption data for all these metals have been interpreted in terms of Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations. Thermodynamics parameters, such as heat of sorption {Delta}H{degrees}, free energy change {Delta}G{degrees}, and entropy change {Delta}S{degrees}, for the sorption of these metals on bentonite have been calculated. The value of {Delta}H{degrees} shows that the sorption of Cs was exothermic, while the sorption of Sr and Co on bentonite were endothermic in nature. The value of {Delta}G{degrees} for their sorption was negative, showing the spontaneity of the process. The maximum loading capacity of Cs, Sr, and Co were 75.5, 22, and 27.5 meq, respectively, for 100 g of bentonite. The mean free energy E of Cs, Sr, and Co sorption on bentonite was 14.5, 9, and 7.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The value of E indicates that ion exchange may be the predominant mode of sorption for these radionuclides. The desorption studies with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} and groundwater at low-metal loading on bentonite showed that about 95% of Cs, 85-90% of Sr, and 97% of Co were irreversibly sorbed. Bentonite could be effectively used for the decontamination of wastewater effluent containing low concentrations of radioactive nuclides of Cs, Sr, and Co. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Crystalline silicotitanates--new ion exchanger for selective removal of cesium and strontium from radwastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dosch, R.G.; Klavetter, E.A.; Stephens, H.P.; Brown, N.E.; Anthony, R.G.

    1996-08-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchange material called crystalline silicotitanates (CST) has been developed for radioactive waste treatment in a collaborative effort between Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A&M University. The Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development program provided the initial funding for this effort and this report summarizes the rapid progress that was achieved. A wide range of compositions were synthesized, evaluated for cesium (Cs) removal efficiency, and a composition called TAM-5 was developed that exhibits high selectivity and affinity for Cs and strontium (Sr). Tests show it can remove parts per million concentrations of Cs{sup +} from highly alkaline, high-sodium, simulated radioactive waste solutions modeled after those at Hanford, Oak Ridge, and Savannah River. In experiments with solutions that simulate highly alkaline Hanford defense wastes, the crystalline silicotitanates exhibit distribution coefficients for Cs{sup +} of greater than 2,000 ml/g, and distribution coefficients greater than 10,000 ml/g for solutions adjusted to a pH between 1 and 10. In addition, the CSTs were found to exhibit distribution coefficients for Sr{sup +} greater than 100,000 ml/g and for plutonium of 2,000 ml/g from simulated Hanford waste. The CST crystal structure was determined and positions of individual atoms identified using x-ray and neutron diffraction. The structural information has permitted identification of the ion exchange sites and provided insights into the strong effect of pH on Cs ion exchange. Information on the synthesis, composition, and structure of CST is considered proprietary and is not discussed in this report.

  18. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  19. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used. PMID:10676473

  20. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Part of the Annual Commodities Review 1995. In 1995, U.S. strontium imports and consumption increased nearly 30 percent due to increased domestic production of color television picture tube glass. However, strontium compound exports fell during 1995. Strontium is also used in the production of permanent ceramic ferrite magnets. Strontium nitrate, strontium chromate, and strontium chloride are also commonly used materials. Although the development of an affordable flatscreen display could eliminate the need for strontium in television production, this technology is not expected to be perfected in the immediate future.

  1. Application of sorption technique for decontamination of liquid radwaste and natural water from cesium and strontium radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Milyutin, V.V.; Gelis, V.M.; Penzin, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the results obtained in field tests of decontaminating radioactive natural and industrial solutions of different chemical and radionuclide composition from cesium and strontium radionuclides are reported. Decontamination of industrial reservoir water at the Production Association Mayak (Chelyabinsk Region, Russia) was performed using CMP synthetic zeolite. Efficient decontamination of the feed water is achieved after preliminary precipitation of hardness salts in the form of carbonates. Decontamination of water from the pool for spent fuel element storage from {sup 137}Cs was conducted using NGA ferricyanide sorbent. Decontamination factors with respect to {sup 137}Cs of 400 have been reached, the installation throughput being 100,000 by (bed volumes). Decontamination of liquid radwaste at Murmansk Shipping Co was conducted with CFB, CMP synthetic zeolites and NGA ferricyanide sorbent as well. Decontamination of D and D solutions and wastes of the special laundry resulted in decontamination factors within the range of 20--400, 10--100, and 10--30 with respect to {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and total {beta}-activity, respectively. Installation throughput of 3,000--5,000 bv for zeolites and 8,000--10,000 bv for ferrocyanide sorbents has been reached. Results obtained prove the high efficiency of sorption technique for decontaminating solutions from cesium and strontium radionuclides.

  2. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-02-11

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.

  3. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Rebecca L.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Abney, Kent D.; Kinkead, Scott A.

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

  4. Advances in Development of the Fission Product Extraction Process for the Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    JAck D. Law

    2007-09-01

    The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) Process is being developed as part of the United States Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative for the simultaneous separation of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Separation of the Cs and Sr will reduce the short-term heat load in a geological repository, and when combined with the separation of americium (Am) and curium (Cm), could increase the capacity of the geological repository by a factor of approximately 100. The FPEX process is based on two highly specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. Results of flowsheet testing of the FPEX process with a simulated feed solution in 3.3-cm centrifugal contactors are detailed. Removal efficiencies, distribution coefficient data, coextraction of metals, and process hydrodynamic performance are discussed along with recommendations for future flowsheet testing with actual spent nuclear fuel.

  5. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATEPHASE II INTERIM REPORT FOR EXTERNAL RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Mary Thompson, M

    2006-08-31

    This document provides an interim summary report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST materials. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger laboratory scale, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and characterization of the modified MST. Key findings and conclusions include the following: (1) Samples of the modified MST prepared by Method 2 and Method 3 exhibited the best combination of strontium and actinide removal. (2) We selected Method 3 to scale up and test performance with actual waste solution. (3) We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using the Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. (4) Performance tests indicated successful scale-up to the 25-gram scale with excellent performance and reproducibility among each of the three batches. For example, the plutonium decontamination factors (6-hour contact time) for the modified MST samples averaged 13 times higher than that of the baseline MST sample at half the sorbent concentration (0.2 g L{sup -1} for modified MST versus 0.4 g L{sup -1} for baseline MST). (5) Performance tests with actual waste supernate demonstrated that the modified MST exhibited better strontium and plutonium removal performance than that of the baseline MST. For example, the decontamination factors for the modified MST measured 2.6 times higher for strontium and between 5.2 to 11 times higher for plutonium compared to the baseline MST sample. The modified MST did not exhibit improved neptunium removal performance over that of the baseline MST. (6) Two strikes of the modified MST provided increased removal of strontium and actinides from actual waste compared to a single strike. The improved performance

  6. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Mexico is the leading producer of celestite, the most common strontium ore. Chemical Products is the only major US maker of strontium compounds. It produces all of its strontium carbonate from imported Mexican celestite. Mexico is also a large producer of strontium carbonate, as are China, Germany, Japan and the Republic of Korea. There has been no celestite production in the United States since 1959.

  7. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  8. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    China, Mexico, Spain and Turkey are the world's leading producers of celestite (strontium sulphate). These countries accounted for 98% of the total world production in 2005. For the same period, US apparent consumption of strontium decreased to 12.3 kt. Imports were 21.2 kt, of which 84% came from Mexico. Imports of celestite and strontium carbonate decreased 71% and 24% respectively.

  9. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Production figures are not published for stronium carbonate because there is only one company producing strontium carbonate domestically. Strontium carbonate is produced in the U.S. from imported celestite. Consumption can be estimated from trade data published by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Consumption is estimated at approximately 24.5 kt of strontium. The largest end-use of strontium carbonate is in the production of faceplate glass for color television picturetubes. Other applications and markets for strontium are discussed.

  10. Effects of experimental parameters on the sorption of cesium, strontium, and uranium from saline groundwaters onto shales: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report concerns an extension of the first series of experiments on the sorption properties of shales and their clay mineral components reported earlier. Studies on the sorption of cesium and strontium were carried out on samples of Chattanooga (Upper Dowelltown), Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales that had been heated to 120/degree/C in a 0.1-mol/L NaCl solution for periods up to several months and on samples of the same shales which had been heated to 250/degree/C in air for six months, to simulate limiting scenarios in a HLW repository. To investigate the kinetics of the sorption process in shale/groundwater systems, strontium sorption experiments were done on unheated Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales in a diluted, saline groundwater and in 0.03-mol/L NaHCO/sub 3/, for periods of 0.25 to 28 days. Cesium sorption kinetics tests were performed on the same shales in a concentrated brine for the same time periods. The effect of the water/rock (W/R) ratio on sorption for the same combinations of unheated shales, nuclides, and groundwaters used in the kinetics experiments was investigated for a range of W/R ratios of 3 to 20 mL/g. Because of the complexity of the shale/groundwater interaction, a series of tests was conducted on the effects of contact time and W/R ratio on the pH of a 0.03-mol/L NaHCO/sub 3/ simulated groundwater in contact with shales. 8 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Development of Cesium and Strontium Separation and Immobilization Technologies in Support of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; R. Scott Herbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Terry A. Todd; Julie L. Tripp

    2006-02-01

    As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD/PEG) process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide for the extraction of Cs and polyethylene glycol for the synergistic extraction of Sr in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99%. The Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) for the extraction of Sr and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) for the extraction of Cs. Laboratory test results of the FPEX process, using simulated feed solution spiked with radiotracers, indicate good Cs and Sr extraction and stripping performance. A preliminary solvent extraction flowsheet for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel with the FPEX process has been developed, and testing of the flowsheet with simulated spent nuclear fuel solutions is planned in the near future. Steam reforming is currently being developed for stabilization of the Cs/Sr product stream because it can produce a solid waste form while retaining the Cs and Sr in the solid, destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous solutions, and convert the Cs and Sr into leach resistant aluminosilicate minerals. A bench-scale steam reforming pilot plant has been operated with several potential feed compositions and steam reformed product has been generated and analyzed.

  12. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) decreased to 16.7 kt (18,400 st) from 17.3 kt (19,100 st) in 2011. Gross weight of imports was 34.3 kt (37,800 st), 86 percent of which originated in Mexico.

  13. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) decreased by 11 percent to 10.4 kt (11,460 st) from 11.8 kt (13,000 st) in 2009. Gross weight of imports totaled 20.9 kt (23,000 st), of which 65 percent originated from Mexico.

  14. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) increased markedly to 18.4 kt (20,300 st) from 10.4 kt (11,500 st) in 2010. Gross weight of imports was 34.4 kt (38,000 st), of which 76 percent originated from Mexico.

  15. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, U.S. apparent consumption of strontium (contained in celestite and manufactured strontium compounds) increased to 16 kt (17,600 st) from 10.6 kt (11,700 st) in 2008, an increase of 52 percent. This increase was attributed primarily to an increase in imported celestite. Gross weight of imports totaled 25.3 kt (27,900 st), of which 91 percent came from Mexico. Imports in 2009 were 18 percent more than in 2008. Exports of strontium compounds in 2009 decreased 15 percent to 9.3 kt (10,250 st) from 10.9 kt (12,000 st) in 2008. In 2009, the U.S. Customs value of imported strontium carbonate was 65 cents/kg (29 cents/lb); for strontium nitrate, the unit value was $ 1/kg (45 cents/lb). The unit value of imported celestite, all of which was from Mexico, was about $47/t ($43/st).

  16. Computational study of organo-cesium complexes and the possibility of lanthanide/actinide ions substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabanal-León, Walter A.; Martinez-Ariza, Guillermo; Roberts, Sue A.; Hulme, Christopher; Arratia-Pérez, Ramiro

    2015-11-01

    Relativistic DFT calculations suggest that two organo-cesium complexes studied herein afford large HOMO-LUMO gaps of around 2.4 eV with the PBE xc-functional, which accounts for their stability. Energy decomposition studies suggest these two complexes are largely ionic with about 20% covalency. However, when the Cs+ ions are substituted by the isoelectronic La3+ and Th4+, their predicted ionicity decreases significantly. The significant increase in covalence indicates that employing Ugi reaction cascades that afford tetramic acid-based organo-cesium complexes may be extended to La3+ and Th4+ organometallics.

  17. [Technical support in the testing of microoganisms for their ability to accumulate strontium and cesium from aqueous solutions]. Final reports, Task order No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-15

    This report describes the binding of cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solution in a variety of microorganisms. Data is provided on the absorption by Ashbya gossyppi, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Candida sp. Ml13, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Scenedesmus obliqus, Streptococcus mutans, Anabaena flosaquae, Escherichia coli, Streptomyces viridochromogenes, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus megaterium, Micrococcus luteus, Zoogloea ramigera, Coelastrum proboscideum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Paecilomyces marquandi, and Caulobacter fusiformis.

  18. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Part of a special section reviewing the market performance of industrial minerals in 1992. Imports of celestite (strontium ore) reached nearly 45 kt, which represents an increase of 35 percent over 1991. Mexico supplied almost all of the celestite. Nearly 70 percent of the strontium consumed in the U.S. is used in television picture tube faceplate glass to block X-ray emissions.

  19. Performance evaluation of 24 ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated N-Reactor storage basin water

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the evaluation of 24 organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removing cesium and strontium from actual and simulated waters from the 100 Area 105 N-Reactor fuel storage basin. The data described in this report can be applied for developing and evaluating ion exchange pre-treatment process flowsheets. Cesium and strontium batch distribution ratios (K{sub d}`s), decontamination factors (DF), and material loadings (mmol g{sup -1}) are compared as a function of ion exchange material and initial cesium concentration. The actual and simulated N-Basin waters contain relatively low levels of aluminum, barium, calcium, potassium, and magnesium (ranging from 8.33E-04 to 6.40E-05 M), with slightly higher levels of boron (6.63E-03 M) and sodium (1.62E-03 M). The {sup 137}Cs level is 1.74E-06 Ci L-{sup 1} which corresponds to approximately 4.87E-10 M Cs. The initial Na/Cs ratio was 3.33E+06. The concentration of total strontium is 4.45E-06 M, while the {sup 90}Sr radioactive component was measured to be 6.13E-06 Ci L{sup -1}. Simulant tests were conducted by contacting 0.067 g or each ion exchange material with approximately 100 mL of either the actual or simulated N-Basin water. The simulants contained variable initial cesium concentrations ranging from 1.00E-04 to 2.57E- 10 M Cs while all other components were held constant. For all materials, the average cesium K{sub d} was independent of cesium concentration below approximately 1.0E-06 M. Above this level, the average cesium K{sub d} values decreased significantly. Cesium K{sub d} values exceeding 1.0E+07 mL g{sup -1} were measured in the simulated N-Basin water. However, when measured in the actual N-Basin water the values were several orders of magnitude lower, with a maximum of 1.24E+05 mL g{sup -1} observed.

  20. Risk-Based Information to Support the Evaluation of Management Options for Cesium and Strontium Capsules at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Peterson, J.; Picel, M.; Douglas Hildebrand, R.

    2008-07-01

    Evaluations are under way to support U.S. Department of Energy decisions on how to manage cesium and strontium capsules currently in storage at the Hanford site. Health-based exposure limits for drinking water, oral toxicity data, and environmental fate information were combined in an initial evaluation to frame performance targets for managing chemicals and radionuclides that could leach from the capsules and migrate to groundwater over time. More than 50 relevant benchmarks were identified for 15 of the 17 contaminants in the study set. Of those multiple benchmarks, EPA limits for drinking water served as the main basis for the leachate performance targets. For the remaining two contaminants, stable cesium and zirconium, preliminary indicators were derived from a limited review of toxicity data. Thus, preliminary candidate concentrations were identified for the full study set to support the ongoing evaluation of capsule management options. In summary: In an earlier scoping study, three radionuclides and eight chemicals were identified as contaminants of interest for leachate from cesium and strontium capsules stored at the Hanford site. To frame management options for these capsules, it is assumed that contaminants will leach to groundwater and serve as a drinking water source in the long-term future. Before developing performance targets for the initial set of contaminants, a combined fate and toxicity evaluation was conducted to determine if any others should be added to account for decay or fate products and chemical toxicity. From this review, the list was expanded to produce a final study set of 17 contaminants. Established exposure limits and toxicity data were then reviewed and integrated to develop candidate health-based concentrations to frame performance targets for assessing options for long-term capsule management. This review of more than a dozen different benchmarks and toxicity sources translated to hundreds of individual data checks to support the

  1. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-05-26

    This report describes experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions using monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST)-laden filter cartridges. Four types of ion exchange cartridge media (CST and MST designed by both 3M and POROX{reg_sign}) were evaluated. In these proof-of-principle tests effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 was observed. However, the experiments were not performed long enough to determine the saturation levels or breakthrough curve for each filter cartridge. POREX{reg_sign} MST cartridges, which by design were based on co-sintering of the active titanates with polyethylene particles, seem to perform as well as the 3M-designed MST cartridges (impregnated filter membrane design) in the uptake of strontium. At low salt simulant conditions (0.29 M Na{sup +}), the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with the 3M-design MST cartridge measured 26, representing the removal of 96% of the Sr-85. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with the POREX{reg_sign} design MST cartridge measured 40 or 98% removal of the Sr-85. Strontium removal with the 3M-design MST and CST cartridges placed in series filter arrangement produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 or 97.6% removal compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 or 99.7% removal of the strontium with the POREX{reg_sign} MST and CST cartridge design placed in series. At high salt simulant conditions (5.6 M Na{sup +}), strontium removal with 3M-designed MST cartridge only and with 3M-designed MST and CST cartridges operated in a series configuration were identical. The instantaneous decontamination factor and the strontium removal efficiency, under the above configuration, averaged 8.6 and 88%, respectively. There were no POREX{reg_sign} cartridge experiments using the higher ionic strength simulant solution. At low salt simulant conditions, the uptake of Cs-137 with

  2. Strontium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Mexico and Spain are the leading producers of celestite, the most common strontium ore. Those countries produced nearly 80 percent of the estimated 360 kt (397,000 st) of celestite produced worldwide during 2002. China and Turkey are other significant celestite producers.

  3. Strontium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Strontium ; CASRN 7440 - 24 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  4. SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092

    SciTech Connect

    Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2011-11-10

    Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

  5. Linking cesium and strontium uptake to kaolinite weathering in simulated tank waste leachate.

    PubMed

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Karthikeyan, K G; Crosson, Garry; Mueller, Karl T

    2003-05-15

    Weathering behavior of kaolinite was studied in batch systems under geochemical conditions characteristic of tank waste released to the vadose zone at the Hanford Site, WA (0.05 M Al(T), 2 M Na+, 1 M N03-, pH approximately 14, Cs+ and Sr2+ present as co-contaminants). Time series experiments were conducted from 0 to 369 d, with initial Cs+ and Sr2+ concentrations ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Dissolution of kaolinite increased soluble Si and Al to maximum levels at 7 d (Cs and Sr concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-4) M) or 33 d (Cs and Sr concentrations of 10(-3) M). Subsequent precipitation of Si and Al was coupled to the formation of oxalate-extractable solids that incorporated Cs and Sr. Strontium sorption was nearly complete within 24 h for initial Sr concentrations (Sr0) < or = 10(-4) whereas Cs uptake increased over the full year of the experiment for all initial Cs concentrations. Spectroscopic analyses revealed neoformed solids including the zeolite Na-Al silicate (Al-chabazite), and feldspathoids sodium aluminum nitrate silicate (NO3-sodalite), and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (NO3-cancrinite), which can incorporate Cs. Single-pulse 27Al solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopyyielded first-order rate constants (k)for mineral transformation that decreased from 3.5 x 10(-3) to 2 x 10(-3) d(-1) as Cs and Sr concentrations were increased from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Discrete strontium silicate solids were also observed. The incongruent dissolution of kaolinite promoted the sequestration of contaminants into increasingly recalcitrant solid phases over the 1-yr time period. PMID:12785526

  6. Cesium and Strontium Uptake to Clay Minerals and Their Weathering Products in a Caustic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sunkyung; Amistadi, Mary Kay; Seraphin, Supapan; Chorover, Jon

    2004-03-28

    Weathering behavior and contaminant (Sr and Cs) uptake by specimen clays (illite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and kaolinite) and their secondary solid phase products were studied in batch systems under geochemical conditions characteristic of leaking tank waste at the Hanford Site in WA (0.05 M AlT, 2 M Na+, 1 M NO3 -, pH {approx}14, Cs+ and Sr2+ present as co-contaminants). Time series experiments were conducted from 0 to 369 days, with initial Cs+ and Sr2+ concentrations ranging from 10-5 to 10-3 M. Cesium sorption after 369 d reaction was the greatest in the order of vermiculite, illite, montmorillonite and kaolinite at 10-3 M Cs/Sr. In the case of Sr, vermiculite showed highest Sr sorption and was followed by kaolinite, montmorillonite and illite at highest loading Cs/Sr after 369 d. Secondary phase products were feldspathoid sodium aluminum nitrate silicate, sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate, Na-Al chabazite and zeolite X in weathered clays. Discrete Sr single phases were found in kaolinite and illite systems after 369 d at 10-3 M Cs/Sr.

  7. Evaluation of Cuprimine® and Syprine® for Decorporation of Radioisotopes of Cesium, Cobalt, Iridium, and Strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Curry, Terry L.; Luders, Teresa; Peterson, James M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Levinson, Barry

    2011-08-01

    Cuprimine and Syprine are therapeutics approved by FDA to treat copper overload in Wilson Disease (a genetic defect in copper transport) by chelation and accelerated excretion of internally deposited copper. These oral therapeutics are based on respective active ingredients D-penicillamine (DPA) and N,N'-bis (2-aminoethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine dihydrochloride (Trien). Cuprimine is considered the primary treatment, although physicians increasingly are turning to Syprine as first-line therapy. Both drugs exhibit oral systemic activity and low toxicity; their biological effects and safety are established. The literature reports that these agents exhibit high affinity for a range of transition and f-metals and metalloids in vitro. Our previous in vivo studies using a rodent animal model established the decorporation potential of Cuprimine and Syprine for cobalt-60 and polonium-210 (Levitskaia et al 2010a). Currently we are expanding these studies to evaluate in vivo decorporation efficacy of these drugs for several additional radionuclides. In this paper, we discuss results of this investigation using gamma-emitting radionuclides including cesium-137 (137Cs), cobalt-60 (60Co), iridium-192 (192Ir), and strontium-85 (85Sr). Short-term 48 hr pilot studies were undertaken to evaluate DPA and Trien for their in vivo decorporation potency using male Wistar-Han rats. In these studies, radionuclide solution was administered to animals by IV injection, followed by a single IV dose of either DPA or Trien. Control animals received the radionuclide alone. Results show highly effective decorporation of 60Co by DPA. DPA and Trien were modestly effective in decorporation 137Cs and 85Sr, respectively. Based on these promising findings, further studies to evaluate the dose-response pharmacokinetic profiles for decorporation are warranted.

  8. Evaluation of the adsorptive behavior of cesium and strontium on hydroxyapatite and zeolite for decontamination of radioactive substances.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Aoki, H

    2016-08-12

    Removal of radioactive substances, such as cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr), has become an emerging issue after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. To assess the possibility that hydroxyapatite (HA) and zeolites can be used for removal of radioactive substances, the adsorption capacities of Cs and Sr on the HA and a zeolite were investigated. The influence of Fe ions on Cs and Sr adsorption on the HA and the zeolite was also evaluated, because Fe ions are the most effective inhibitor of Cs adsorption on the zeolite.In the Cs adsorption process on the HA and the zeolite, the zeolite showed a higher adsorption ratio than the HA, and the maximum sorption capacity of the zeolite was calculated as 196 mg/g, whereas the HA showed a higher Sr adsorption ratio than the zeolite. The maximum sorption capacity of Sr on the HA was 123 mg/g. Under coexistence with Fe, Cs adsorption on the zeolite decreased with increasing Fe concentration, reaching 2.0 ± 0.8% at 0.1 M Fe concentration. In contrast, Cs adsorption on the zeolite was improved by adding the HA. In the case of coexistence of the HA, the Cs adsorption on the mixture of the HA and the zeolite was 52.4% ± 3.6 % at 0.1 M Fe concentration, although Cs adsorption on the HA alone was quite low. In the Fe adsorption processes of the HA and the zeolite, the HA exhibited a maximum sorption capacity of 256 mg/g, which was much higher than that of the zeolite (111 mg/g). The high affinity of Fe on the HA contributes to the improvement of the deteriorated Cs adsorption on the zeolite due to Fe ions. PMID:27567777

  9. Comparison or organic and inorganic ion exchange materials for removal of cesium and strontium from Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    This work is part of an ESP-CP task to develop and evaluate high-capacity, selective, solid extractants for the uptake of cesium, strontium, and technetium (Cs, Sr, and Tc) from nuclear wastes. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff, in collaboration with researchers from industry, academia, and national laboratories are investigating these and other novel and commercial ion exchangers for use in nuclear waste remediation of groundwater, HLW, and LLW. Since FY 1995, experimental work at PNNL has focused on small-scale batch distribution (K{sub d}) testing of numerous solid sorbents with actual and simulated Hanford wastes, chemical and radiolytic stability of various organic ion exchanger resins, bench-scale column ion exchange testing in actual and simulated Complexant Concentrate (CC) and Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW), and Tc and Sr removal from groundwater and LLW. In addition, PNNL has continued to support various site demonstrations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Savannah River Site, West Valley Nuclear Services, Hanford N-Springs, and Hanford N-Basin using technologies developed by their industrial partners. This summary will focus on batch distribution results from the actual waste tests. The data collected in these development and testing tasks provide a rational basis for the selection and direct comparison of various ion exchange materials in simulated and actual HLW, LLW, and groundwater. In addition, prediction of large-scale column loading performance for the materials tested is possible using smaller volumes of actual waste solution. The method maximizes information while minimizing experimental expense, time, and laboratory and process wastes.

  10. Cesium-134 and strontium-85 in strawberry plants following wet aerial deposition.

    PubMed

    Carini, F; Brambilla, M; Mitchell, N; Ould-Dada, Z

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of the processes that control the behavior of radionuclides in crops can support policymakers to take actions to protect the environment and safeguard human health. Data concerning the behavior of radionuclides in fruits are limited. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) plants were contaminated on the aboveground part by sprinkling an aqueous solution of 134Cs and 85Sr at three growing stages: predormancy, anthesis, and beginning of ripening. Intercepted activity was more affected by the posture and physical orientation of leaves rather than by leaf area or biomass. Fruit interception ranges from 0.2 to 1.2% of the sprinkled activity. Translocation coefficients from leaf to fruit are on the order of 10(-4) for 134Cs and 10(-5) for 85Sr. Translocation reaches its highest intensity between anthesis and ripening. If deposition occurs when plants are bearing fruits, the fruit activity will be affected by the activity initially deposited on the fruit surfaces. This is important for 85Sr as it is not translocated in the phloem. The loss of the dead leaves at the resumption of growth causes high plant decontamination, but a fraction of both radionuclides remains in the storage organs, roots, and shoots, which is retranslocated to fruits in the following spring. The values of the environmental half-time, t(w), after deposition at predormancy are 114 d for 134Cs and 109 d for 85Sr. Cesium-134 tends to be allocated to fruits, while 85Sr remains in leaves and crowns. Translocation of radionuclides to roots results in soil contamination. PMID:14674549

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE - AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Missimer, D.

    2010-12-21

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. An inorganic sorbent, monosodium titanate (MST), is currently used to remove {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides, while a caustic-side solvent extraction process is used for removing {sup 134,137}Cs. A new peroxotitanate material, modified MST, or mMST, has recently been developed and has shown increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST. This paper describes recent results focused on further characterization of this material.

  12. Content of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a number of regions of the Baltic Sea in 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarev, L.N.; Flegontov, V.M.; Gedenov, L.I.; Ivanova, L.M.; Orlova, T.B.; Stepanov, A.V.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present the data gathered from the samples of water and bed deposits taken at various sites in the Baltic Sea, the Gulf of Riga, and the Gulf of Finland. By means of the radiochemical method using ferrocyanide-carbonate concentration, they determine strotium-90 and cesium-137 content. The authors conclude by noting an increase in the cesium-137 content in the deep waters of the Baltic Sea and in bed deposits, and by cautioning that this development commands close attention.

  13. Two-Phase Calorimetry. II. Studies on the Thermodynamics of Cesium and Strontium Extraction by Mixtures of H+CCD- and PEG-400 in FS-13

    SciTech Connect

    Zalupski, Peter R.; Herbst, R. S.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Martin, L. R.; Peterman, D. R.; Nash, Ken L

    2010-01-01

    Thermochemical characterization of the partitioning of cesium and strontium from nitric acid solutions into mixtures of the acid form of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (H+CCD-) and polyethylene glycol (PEG-400) in FS-13 diluent has been completed using isothermal titration microcalorimetry and radiotracer distribution methods. The phase transfer reaction for Cs+ is a straightforward (H+ for Cs+) cation exchange reaction. In contrast, the extraction of Sr2+ does not proceed in the absence of the co-solvent molecule PEG-400. This molecule is believed to facilitate the dehydration of the Sr2+ aquo cation to overcome its resistance to partitioning. The phase transfer reactions for both Cs+ and Sr2+ are enthalpy driven (exothermic), but partially compensated by an unfavorable entropy. The results of the calorimetry studies suggest that the PEG-400 functions as a stoichiometric phase transfer reagent rather than acting simply as a phase transfer catalyst or phase modifier. The calorimetry results also demonstrate that the extraction of Sr2+ is complex, including evidence for both the partitioning of Sr(NO3)+ and endothermic ion pairing interactions in the organic phase that contribute to the net enthalpic effect. The thermodynamics of the liquid-liquid distribution equilibria are discussed mainly considering the basic features of the ion solvation thermochemistry.

  14. Transport of strontium and cesium in simulated hanford tank waste leachate through quartz sand under saturated and unsaturated flow.

    PubMed

    Rod, Kenton A; Um, Wooyong; Flury, Markus

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the effects of water saturation and secondary precipitate formation on Sr and Cs transport through quartz sand columns under saturated and unsaturated flow. Column experiments were conducted at effective water saturation ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 under steady-state flow using either 0.1 M NaNO(3) or simulated tank waste leachate (STWL; 1 M NaNO(3) and 1 M NaOH) mimicking Hanford (Washington, USA) tank waste. In 0.1 M NaNO(3) columns, Sr transported like a conservative tracer, whereas Cs was retarded relative to Sr. The transport of Sr and Cs in the 0.1 M NaNO(3) columns under all water saturations could be described with the equilibrium convection-dispersion equation (CDE). In STWL columns, Sr mobility was significantly reduced compared to the 0.1 M NaNO(3) column, because Sr was incorporated into or sorbed to neo-formed secondary precipitates. Strontium sequestration by precipitates was confirmed by additional batch and electron micrograph analyses. In contrast(,) the transport of Cs was less affected by the STWL; retardation of Cs in STWL columns was similar to that found in 0.1 M NaNO(3) columns. Analysis of STWL column data revealed that both Sr and Cs breakthrough curves showed nonideal behavior that suggest nonequilibrium conditions, although nonlinear geochemical behavior cannot be ruled out. PMID:20886862

  15. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SORPTION BY MST AND MMST UNDER CONDITIONS REVELANT TO THE SMALL COLUMN ION-EXCHANGE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Poirier, M.

    2011-05-06

    A series of tests were performed to examine the kinetics of Sr and actinide removal by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) under mixing conditions similar to what will be provided in the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Program. Similar removal kinetics were seen for two different mixing energies, indicating that under these conditions bulk solution transport is not the rate limiting step for Sr and actinide removal. Sr removal was found to be rapid for both MST and mMST, reaching steady-state conditions within six hours. In contrast, at least six weeks is necessary to reach steady-state conditions for Pu with MST. For mMST, steady-state conditions for Pu were achieved within two weeks. The actual contact time required for the SCIX process will depend on starting sorbate concentrations as well as the requirements for the decontaminated salt solution. During testing leaks occurred in both the MST and mMST tests and evidence of potential desorption was observed. The desorption likely occurred as a result of the change in solids to liquid phase ratio that occurred due to the loss of solution. Based on these results, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended additional testing to further study the effect of changing phase ratios on desorption. This testing is currently in progress and results will be documented in a separate report.

  16. The uptake and storage of radio-cesium and radio-strontium by spring wheat - a modeling study based on a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärdenäs, A.; Berglund, L.; Bengtsson, S. B.; Rosén, K.

    2013-12-01

    The overall aim of this study is to model, quantify and analyze the dynamics of uptake (foliar and root) and storage of wet-deposited radionuclides by a growing crop. The dynamic trace element cycling model Tracey (Gärdenäs et al. 2009) for terrestrial ecosystems was used after extension with descriptions for contamination by wet-deposition, interception, and fixation as well as adaptation for agricultural systems. Radionuclides fluxes were assumed to be proportional to corresponding water or carbon fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, simulated dynamically with the CoupModel (Jansson 2012). Experimental data of the Ultuna deposition experiment of radio-cesium (Cs-134) and radio-strontium (Sr-85) on spring wheat (Bengtsson et al. 2012, 2013) were used to calibrate and validate the extended Tracey model; Cs-134 and Sr-85 were deposited with a rain simulator at six different growth stages, ranging from tillering to fully ripeness. The simulated intercepted amount shortly after each of the six deposition occasions and the simulated stored amount of radionuclides in grains and total above-ground plant at harvest were compared with the measured data of growing season 2010 and 2011 using as criteria for acceptance 95% confidence interval. The sensitivity for different environmental, crop and radionuclide properties such as the soil absorption capacity, the degree of translocation from leaves to grain and the valence of radionuclides were assessed by means of a sensitivity analyses and expressed as Spearman rank correlation coefficients. The importance of root versus foliar uptake for storage in grains for the different deposition occasions was analyzed. The preliminary results showed that the measured amounts of Cs-134 and Sr-85 could be simulated with the extended Tracey model, though the posterior distribution differed from prior distribution. The absorption rate of stem governed the radionuclides storage in grains when deposition took place early in the

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED TITANATE-BASED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS UNDER STRONGLY ALKALINE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Peters, T.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-18

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes at SRS include the sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST) and caustic side solvent extraction of {sup 137}Cs. The MST and separated {sup 137}Cs is encapsulated along with the sludge fraction of high-level waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass waste form for eventual entombment at a federal repository. The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 240}Pu; {sup 237}Np; and uranium isotopes, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. This paper describes recent results evaluating the performance of an improved sodium titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST.

  18. PRODUCTION OF ACTINIDE METAL

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.

    1963-11-01

    A process of reducing actinide oxide to the metal with magnesium-zinc alloy in a flux of 5 mole% of magnesium fluoride and 95 mole% of magnesium chloride plus lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium, or barium chloride is presented. The flux contains at least 14 mole% of magnesium cation at 600-- 900 deg C in air. The formed magnesium-zinc-actinide alloy is separated from the magnesium-oxide-containing flux. (AEC)

  19. DIAMIDE DERIVATIVES OF DIPICOLINIC ACID AS ACTINIDE AND LANTHANIDE EXTRACTANTS IN A VARIATION OF THE UNEX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Peterman; R. S. Herbst; J. D. Law; R. D. Tillotson; T. G. Garn; T. A. Todd; V. N. Romanovskiy; V. A. Babain; M. Yu. Alyapyshev; I. V. Smirnov

    2007-09-01

    The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of cesium, strontium, and actinides from acidic solutions. This process utilizes an extractant consisting of 0.08 M chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (HCCD), 0.007-0.02 M polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), and 0.02 M diphenyl-N,N-di-n-butylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (Ph2CMPO) in the diluent trifluoromethylphenyl sulfone (CF3C6H5SO2, designated FS-13) and provides simultaneous extraction of Cs, Sr, actinides, and lanthanides from HNO3 solutions. The UNEX process is of limited utility for processing acidic solutions containing large quantities of lanthanides and/or actinides, such as dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions. These constraints are primarily attributed to the limited concentrations of CMPO (a maximum of ~0.02 M) in the organic phase and limited solubility of the CMPO-metal complexes. As a result, alternative actinide and lanthanide extractants are being investigated for use with HCCD as an improvement for waste processing and for applications where higher concentrations of the metals are present. Our preliminary results indicate that diamide derivatives of dipicolinic acid may function as efficient actinide and lanthanide extractants. The results to be presented indicate that, of the numerous diamides studied to date, the tetrabutyldiamide of dipicolinic acid, TBDPA, shows the most promise as an alternative actinide/lanthanide extractant in the UNEX process.

  20. Decontamination of actinides and fission products from stainless steel surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, C.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Chen, L.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Drockelman, D.; Kaminski, M.; Landsberger, S.; Stubbins, J.

    1996-04-01

    Seven in situ decontamination processes were evaluated as possible candidates to reduce radioactivity levels in nuclear facilities throughout the DOE complex. These processes were tested using stainless steel coupons (Type 304) contaminated with actinides (Pu and Am) or fission products (a mixture of Cs, Sr, and Gd). The seven processes were decontamination with nitric acid, nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid, fluoboric acid, silver(II) persulfate, hydrogen peroxide plus oxalic acid plus hydrofluoric acid, alkaline persulfate followed by citric acid plus oxalic acid, and electropolishing using nitric acid electrolyte. Of the seven processes, the nitric acid plus hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid solutions gave the best results; the decontamination factors for 3- to 6-h contacts at 80{degree}C were as high as 600 for plutonium, 5500 for americium, 700 for cesium, 15000 for strontium, and 1100 for gadolinium.

  1. Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-02-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

  2. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, Dianne K.

    1995-01-01

    A method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  3. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    DOEpatents

    Kester, D.K.

    1995-01-03

    A method is presented of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. After the sample is reduced, dissociated, and carried on a first precipitate of actinides, the first precipitate is removed to leave a supernate. Next, oxalic acid is added to the supernate to cause a second precipitate of strontium and calcium. Then, after separating the second precipitate, nitric acid is added to the second precipitate to cause a third precipitate of strontium. The calcium remains in solution and is discarded to leave essentially the precipitate of strontium.

  4. Separation of strontium from fecal matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kester, D.K.

    1994-12-31

    The present invention relates to a method of separating strontium, and, more particularly, to a method of separating strontium from a sample of biomass potentially contaminated with various radionuclides. Radioactive strontium is a radionuclide which represents a hazard to man because of its long half-life and, if ingested, its tendency to be retained in the human body. In the event that radionuclides such as strontium or various actinides are ingested, it is desirable to monitor the discharge or release of these radionuclides from the human body through analysis of fecal matter. In laboratories and other facilities where potential for radionuclide contamination exists, fecal analysis for strontium is routinely conducted for individuals who are terminating from their position or are suspected of having been contaminated with radionuclides. Methods for separating and analyzing radioactive actinides from a biomass sample are well known and have been extensively developed for the US Department of Energy. These methods, described in the Department`s internal procedure, USDOE, RESL/ID, A-16, 1981, as well as in US Patent 5,190,881, involve the use of an iron phosphate precipitation step to separate actinides from a solution, or supernate. However, there are no established procedures for the separation of strontium from a biomass sample wherein an iron phosphate precipitation step is involved.

  5. STRONTIUM PRECIPITATION

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, T.R.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for improving the precipitation of strontium from an aqueous phosphoric-acid-containing solution with nickel or cobalt ferrocyanide by simultaneously precipitating strontium or calcium phosphate. This is accomplished by adding to the ferrocyanide-containing solution calcium or strontium nitrate in a quantity to yield a concentration of from 0.004 to 0.03 and adjusting the pH of the solution to a value of above 8.

  6. Review Article: The Effects of Radiation Chemistry on Solvent Extraction 3: A Review of Actinide and Lanthanide Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce J. Mincher; Giuseppe Modolo; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2009-12-01

    The partitioning of the long-lived ?-emitters and the high-yield fission products from dissolved nuclear fuel is a key component of processes envisioned for the safe recycling of nuclear fuel and the disposition of high-level waste. These future processes will likely be based on aqueous solvent extraction technologies for light water reactor fuel and consist of four main components for the sequential separation of uranium, fission products, group trivalent actinides and lanthanides, and then trivalent actinides from lanthanides. Since the solvent systems will be in contact with highly radioactive solutions, they must be robust toward radiolytic degradation in an irradiated mixed organic, aqueous acidic environment. Therefore, an understanding of their radiation chemistry is important to the design of a practical system. In the first paper in this series we reviewed the radiation chemistry of irradiated aqueous nitric acid and the tributyl phosphate ligand for uranium extraction in the first step of these extractions. In the second, we reviewed the radiation chemistry of the ligands proposed for use in the extraction of cesium and strontium fission products. Here, we review the radiation chemistry of the ligands that might be used in the third step in the series of separations, for the group extraction of the lanthanides and actinides. This includes traditional organophosphorous reagents such as CMPO and HDEHP, as well as novel reagents such as the amides and diamides currently being investigated.

  7. Actinides-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Abstracts of 134 papers which were presented at the Actinides-1981 conference are presented. Approximately half of these papers deal with electronic structure of the actinides. Others deal with solid state chemistry, nuclear physic, thermodynamic properties, solution chemistry, and applied chemistry.

  8. Isotope ratio analysis of actinides, fission products, and geolocators by high-efficiency multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürger, S.; Riciputi, L. R.; Bostick, D. A.; Turgeon, S.; McBay, E. H.; Lavelle, M.

    2009-09-01

    A ThermoFisher "Triton" multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometer (MC-TIMS) was evaluated for trace and ultra-trace level isotope ratio analysis of actinides (uranium, plutonium, and americium), fission products and geolocators (strontium, cesium, and neodymium). Total efficiencies (atoms loaded to ions detected) of up to 0.5-2% for U, Pu, and Am, and 1-30% for Sr, Cs, and Nd can be reported employing resin bead load techniques onto flat ribbon Re filaments or resin beads loaded into a millimeter-sized cavity drilled into a Re rod. This results in detection limits of <0.1 fg (104 atoms to 105 atoms) for 239-242+244Pu, 233+236U, 241-243Am, 89,90Sr, and 134,135,137Cs, and <=1 pg for natural Nd isotopes (limited by the chemical processing blank) using a secondary electron multiplier (SEM) or multiple-ion counters (MICs). Relative standard deviations (RSD) as small as 0.1% and abundance sensitivities of 1 × 106 or better using a SEM are reported here. Precisions of RSD [approximate]0.01-0.001% using a multi-collector Faraday cup array can be achieved at sub-nanogram concentrations for strontium and neodymium and are suitable to gain crucial geolocation information. The analytical protocols reported herein are of particular value for nuclear forensic and nuclear safeguard applications.

  9. Multi-podant diglycolamides and room temperature ionic liquid impregnated resins: An excellent combination for extraction chromatography of actinides.

    PubMed

    Gujar, R B; Ansari, S A; Verboom, W; Mohapatra, P K

    2016-05-27

    Extraction chromatography resins, prepared by impregnating two multi-podant diglycolamide ligands, viz. diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arene (C4DGA) and tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) dissolved in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (RTIL: C4mimTf2N) on Chromosorb-W (an inert solid support), gave excellent results for the removal of trivalent actinides from acidic waste solutions. Distribution coefficient measurements on several metal ions showed selective sorption of Am(III) over hexavalent uranyl ions and other fission product elements such as strontium and cesium. The sorbed metal ions could be efficiently desorbed with a complexing solution containing guanidine carbonate and EDTA buffer. The sorption of Am(III) on both resins followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics with rate constants of 1.37×10(-6) and 6.88×10(-7)g/cpmmin for T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The metal sorption on both resins indicated the Langmuir monolayer chemisorption phenomenon with Eu(III) sorption capacities of 4.83±0.21 and 0.52±0.05mg per g of T-DGA and C4DGA resins, respectively. The results of column studies show that these resins are of interest for a possible application for the recovery of hazardous trivalent actinides from dilute aqueous solutions. PMID:27130582

  10. Strontium Batch Distribution Coefficients with Envelope C (AN-107) Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2001-03-16

    The pretreatment process for the Hanford River Protection Project is to treat Hanford underground storage tank waste and provide decontaminated salt solution and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium.

  11. Handbook of stable strontium

    SciTech Connect

    Skoryna, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: chemistry of strontium; biogeochemistry of strontium; uptake of stable strontium by plants and effects on plant growth; divalent cation-dependent deposits in paramecium; effects of strontium ion on the hydrolysis of ATP; stronium ions and membranes - screening versus binding at charged surfaces; mitochondrial granules in the liver of rats kept on stable strontium supplementation; divalent cations and regulation of cyclic nucleotides in nervous systems; strontium as the substitute for calcium in the excitation-contraction coupling of crayfish muscle fibers; hemodynamic effects of strontium in the dog; some mechanical characteristics of strontium-mediated contractions in heart muscle; effects of calcium, magnesium, and strontium on drug-receptor interactions; strontium and histamine secretion; and effects of strontium in human dental enamel.

  12. Actinide metal processing

    DOEpatents

    Sauer, Nancy N.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  13. Actinide metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  14. Actinide metal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1991-04-05

    This invention is comprised of a process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  15. Actinide sulfite tetrahydrate and actinide oxysulfite tetrahydrate

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, D.; Watt, G.

    1980-07-08

    A compound is prepared that comprises an actinide sulfite tetrahydrate selected from the group consisting of uranium (IV) sulfite tetrahydrate and plutonium (IV) sulfite tetrahydrate. A compound is also prepared that comprises an actinide oxysulfite tetrahydrate selected from the group consisting of uranium (IV) oxysulfite tetrahydrate and plutonium (IV) oxysulfite tetrahydrate

  16. Actinide-ion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Li, Shelly X; Jue, Jan-fong; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-01-13

    An apparatus for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of actinide-ion concentrations. A working electrolyte is positioned within the interior of a container. The working electrolyte is separated from a reference electrolyte by a separator. A working electrode is at least partially in contact with the working electrolyte. A reference electrode is at least partially in contact with the reference electrolyte. A voltmeter is electrically connected to the working electrode and the reference electrode. The working electrolyte comprises an actinide-ion of interest. The separator is ionically conductive to the actinide-ion of interest. The separator comprises an actinide, Zr, and Nb. Preferably, the actinide of the separator is Am or Np, more preferably Pu. In one embodiment, the actinide of the separator is the actinide of interest. In another embodiment, the separator further comprises P and O.

  17. Actinide extraction methods

    DOEpatents

    Peterman, Dean R [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  18. Sorption of cesium and strontium by zeolite single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.G.; Wood, V.M.; Morgenstein, M.E.

    1992-08-01

    The aspect ratios of crystals of platey clinoptilolite and fibrous mordenite observed in mineral assemblages coating fractures through tuffs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, influence the sorption properties of these two zeolites. The crystallographic dependencies of cation exchange reactions have been demonstrated in clinoptilolite by reacting CsCl with oriented single crystals mounted on (100), (010), (001) and (101) faces. Competing cation exchange reactions involving Cs{sup +}, Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+}, as well as Cs{sup +} in NaCl or NaHCO{sub 3} solutions, were performed on the oriented zeolite crystals. Reactions were carried out at 60{degrees}C for 1 to 8 weeks in a shaking water bath with dissolved metal chloride solutions ranging in concentrations from 1M to 10{sup {minus}4}M. Electron microprobe analyses were performed on the surfaces of the reacted zeolite crystals. In clinoptilolite, cation exchange is initially retarded on (010) faces which are nominal to the one direction (parallel to the b-axis) along which channels do not exist in the clinoptilolite structure. This orientation effect was particularly severe for Sr, concentrations of which on (010) faces remained 90% lower than values measured on other crystal faces even when reaction times exceeded 2 months. In competition with Sr and Ba, the uptake of Cs into clinoptilolite was lowered significantly (and vice versa for Ba and Sr), particularly in the presence of Ba. The addition of 1M NaCl did not significantly affect the relative concentrations of these competing cations in reacted zeolite crystals. In NaHCO{sub 3} solutions, however, the Cs uptake was lowered significantly. Although clinoptilolite has a very high selectivity for Cs{sup +} compared to other cations, competition with Sr{sup 2+} and Ba{sup 2+} reduces the concentration of Cs{sup +} exchanged into this zeolite. 31 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Cobalt dicarbollide containing polymer resins for cesium and strontium uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Steckle, W.P. Jr.; Duke, J.R. Jr.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1994-04-01

    Cobalt(III) dicarbollide [(C{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 11}){sub 2}Co]{sup {minus}} (CB{sub 2}) is being investigated for Cs and Sr extraction from nuclear waste. Because organic solvents should be avoided, bonding of CB{sub 2} to resins were investigated. CB{sub 2} was successfully covalently bonded to polystyrene and polybenzimidazole resins. Tetrahydrofuran was the most efficient solvent for grafting. Analysis is being performed, and separation coefficients are also being determined. 3 figs, 8 refs.

  20. Uptake of cesium and strontium ions by artificially altered phlogopite.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kenji; Kogure, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Yujiro; Nagai, Chiemi; Yamada, Hirohisa

    2014-05-20

    Potassium (K(+)) phlogopite was transformed to a vermiculite-like mineral through a topotactic reaction under acidic conditions (pH 2) followed by hydrothermal treatment with Na(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Al(3+) cations. The resulting Na(+)-, Mg(2+)-, Ca(2+)-, and Al(3+)-altered phlogopites (Phl) denoted as Na-Phl, Mg-Phl, Ca-Phl, and Al-Phl, respectively. Na-Phl, Mg-Phl, and Ca-Phl all exhibited the same high adsorption capacity as natural vermiculite and the absorption of Cs(+) and Sr(2+) ions on these materials followed the Langmuir model. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy showed that Cs(+) ions in the Mg-Phl layers were intercalated deep within the crystal structure, along specific interlayer regions. These adsorbed anhydrous Cs(+) ions were firmly fixed at the centers of hexagonal rings positioned simultaneously in the upper and lower tetrahedral silicate sheets, whereas Sr(2+) ions adsorb into the interlayer in the hydrous state. Al-Phl formed a hydroxyl-interlayered vermiculite and demonstrated significant selectivity for Cs(+) at very low concentrations of the isotope. Consequently, the artificially altered phlogopites prepared in this study showed controllable and versatile adsorption capabilities making them significantly more suitable than natural vermiculite for Cs and Sr decontamination. PMID:24738749

  1. Tolerance and accumulation of cesium and strontium in saprothophic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeprasert, P.; Yoneda, M.; Shimada, Y.; Matsui, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Soil contamination by nuclear accidents has led to a resurgence of interest in microbe-radionuclide interactions. Soil fungi accumulate radioactive elements from contaminated soil, and it has been hypothesized that this may alter the availability of radionuclides to plants and alter their movement in particular areas. This study intended to demonstrate how soil saprotrophic fungi accumulated Cs and Sr isotopes in both stable and radioactive solution forms. An experiment to determine the tolerance of fungal growth under extremely inhibitory concentrations of Cs and Sr stable isotopes was conducted. The results showed that fungal cells were more sensitive to Cs than to Sr. Accumulations of Cs and Sr were examined through sorption mechanisms using resting cells in the solutions under various conditions. The sorption capacity was indirectly determined by analysing the elements, which decreased in the solution. The equilibrium data were fitted with sorption isotherms to show the best fit with the Langmuir isotherm for both elements, assuming that the sorption sites form a surface monolayer. In addition, pH was examined to investigate its effect on the sorption capacity of Cs and Sr.

  2. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Choppin, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    This research studies the behavior of the actinide elements in aqueous solution. The high radioactivity of the transuranium actinides limits the concentrations which can be studied and, consequently, limits the experimental techniques. However, oxidation state analogs (trivalent lanthanides, tetravalent thorium, and hexavalent uranium) do not suffer from these limitations. Behavior of actinides in the environment are a major USDOE concern, whether in connection with long-term releases from a repository, releases from stored defense wastes or accidental releases in reprocessing, etc. Principal goal of our research was expand the thermodynamic data base on complexation of actinides by natural ligands (e.g., OH[sup [minus

  3. NPB Cesium Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, George M., III

    1992-01-01

    Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) weapons systems are planned to perform the ballistic missile defense functions of nuclear weapon/decoy discrimination and warhead kill at appropriate energy levels and ion currents. Negatively charged ions are produced in a specialized ion source and focused into a high quality particle beam. NPB linear accelerators accelerate and steer the negatively charged ions using electric and magnetic fields. After acceleration and steering the neutralizer system strips away extra electrons from ions to form the electrically neutral particle beam. The neutral beam then travels through space to the target unaffected by the Earth's magnetic fields. Continuing technological advances have greatly reduced the size and weight of NPB accelerator systems. Ion current production has been enhanced by over 100 percent with the intermittent addition of cesium at the NPB ion source device. This increase in current is essential to attain the most light weight, compact NPB platforms and minimize expensive launch costs. Addition of cesium into the ion source has been identified by the NPB community as the highest priority risk reduction space experiment necessary prior to planned NPB accelerator experiments and later weapons systems. The NPB Cesium Space Experiment is planned to successfully demonstrate controlled cesium introduction and vaporization into a simulated ion source chamber. Microgravity effects on the cesium deposition will be studied as will the effects of small amounts of cesium on high voltage accelerator components that might be susceptible to electrical insulator break downs. The experiment design will simulate as closely as possible the environment, physical and operational characteristics of the actual NPB ion source.

  4. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Envelope B Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-02-15

    The pretreatment process for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant is to provide decontaminated Low-Activity Waste and concentrated elute streams for vitrification into low- and high-activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, strontium, transuranics, cesium, and technetium.

  5. Methods of producing cesium-131

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

    2012-09-18

    Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

  6. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, Anthony C.; Navratil, James D.; Saba, Mark T.

    1987-07-28

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrenedivinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like.

  7. Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean

    The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.

  8. Method for preparing actinide nitrides

    DOEpatents

    Bryan, G.H.; Cleveland, J.M.; Heiple, C.R.

    1975-12-01

    Actinide nitrides, and particularly plutonium and uranium nitrides, are prepared by reacting an ammonia solution of an actinide compound with an ammonia solution of a reactant or reductant metal, to form finely divided actinide nitride precipitate which may then be appropriately separated from the solution. The actinide nitride precipitate is particularly suitable for forming nuclear fuels.

  9. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.Strontium-89 chloride is in a class of drugs known as radioisotopes. It delivers radiation to cancer sites and ultimately decreases bone pain. The length of treatment depends on the ...

  10. Intracellular imaging of cesium distribution in Arabidopsis using Cesium Green.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Mori, Taizo; Adams, Eri; Shin, Ryoung; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2014-06-11

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which was one of the most serious adverse effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake, was accompanied by the release of a large quantity of radioactive materials including (137)Cs to the environment. In a previous report, we developed and proposed a cesium (Cs) fluorescent probe, "Cesium Green", that enables the detection of cesium carbonate particles by spraying an alcoholic solution of the Cesium Green probe. In this paper, the sensing activity of this probe was investigated for its selectivity (by using an optode method) and for its application to detect micrometer-sizes Cs particles. Cesium Green was also assessed for its use in plant cellular imaging of Cs localization in Arabidopsis. Cesium Green enabled high-resolution Cs imaging of Cs-containing particles and of Cs contained in plants. PMID:24840061

  11. Recovery of strontium activity from a strontium-82/rubidium-82 generator

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, Wayne A.; Phillips, Dennis R.; Sosnowski, Kenneth M.

    1999-10-12

    Strontium-82 is recovered from spent strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators to provide a source of strontium-82 for additional strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators. The process involves stripping of the strontium-82 from used strontium-82/rubidium-82 generators followed by purification of the strontium-82 material to remove additional metal contaminants to desired levels.

  12. Recovery of cesium

    DOEpatents

    Izatt, Reed M.; Christensen, James J.; Hawkins, Richard T.

    1984-01-01

    A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

  13. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR ACTINIDES IN EMERGENCY AIR FILTER SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Noyes, G.; Culligan, B.

    2010-02-03

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in air filter results were reported in {approx}4 hours with excellent quality.

  14. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report contains research results on studies of inorganic and organic complexes of actinide and lanthanide elements. Special attention is given to complexes of humic acids and to spectroscopic studies.

  15. Actinide recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.; Saba, M.T.

    1985-06-13

    Process for the removal of plutonium polymer and ionic actinides from aqueous solutions by absorption onto a solid extractant loaded on a solid inert support such as polystyrene-divinylbenzene. The absorbed actinides can then be recovered by incineration, by stripping with organic solvents, or by acid digestion. Preferred solid extractants are trioctylphosphine oxide and octylphenyl-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide and the like. 2 tabs.

  16. Thermochemistry of the actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    The measurement of equilibria by Knudsen effusion techniques and the enthalpy of formation of the actinide atoms is briefly discussed. Thermochemical data on the sublimation of the actinide fluorides is used to calculate the enthalpies of formation and entropies of the gaseous species. Estimates are made for enthalpies and entropies of the tetrafluorides and trifluorides for those systems where data is not available. The pressure of important species in the tetrafluoride sublimation processes is calculated based on this thermochemical data.

  17. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOEpatents

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  18. Metals fact sheet--cesium

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Cesium, the most alkaline and electropositive metal, is used by several industries for a variety of applications, including chemical catalysis, biomedical, photoelectrical, and glass manufacturing. While the traditional market for cesium has remained small, potential growth areas exist in the chemical catalysis and the oil and gas industry.

  19. Ion exchange in the atomic energy industry with particular reference to actinide and fission product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, I.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed are some of the uses of ion exchange processes used by the nuclear industry for the period April, 1978 to April, 1983. The topics dealt with are: thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, cesium and actinide-lanthanide separations; the higher actinides - Cm, Bk, Cf, Es and Fm; fission products; ion exchange in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Consideration is given to safety in the use of ion exchangers and in safe methods of disposal of such materials. Full scale and pilot plant process descriptions are included as well as summaries of laboratory studies. 130 references.

  20. Strontium-89 Chloride

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have or have ever had bone marrow disease, blood disorders, or kidney disease.you should know that strontium-89 chloride may interfere with the normal menstrual cycle (period) in women and may stop sperm production in men. However, ...

  1. Surveillance of Strontium-90 in Foods after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    PubMed

    Nabeshi, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Uekusa, Yoshinori; Hachisuka, Akiko; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident, various radionuclides were released into the environment. In this study, we surveyed strontium-90 ((90)Sr) concentrations in several foodstuffs. Strontium-90 is thought to be the third most important residual radionuclide in food collected after the Fukushima Daiichi, NPP accident after following cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and cesium-134 ((134)Cs). Results of (90)Sr analyses indicated that (90)Sr was detect in 25 of the 40 radioactive cesium (r-Cs) positive samples collected in areas around the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, ranging in distance from 50 to 250 km. R-Cs positive samples were defined as containing both (134)Cs and (137)Cs which are considered to be indicators of the after-effects of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. We also detected (90)Sr in 8 of 13 r-Cs negative samples, in which (134)Cs was not detected. Strontium-90 concentrations in the r-Cs positive samples did not significantly exceed the (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs negative samples or the (90)Sr concentration ranges in comparable food groups found in previous surveys before the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Thus, (90)Sr concentrations in r-Cs positive samples were indistinguishable from the background (90)Sr concentrations arising from global fallout prior to the Fukushima accident, suggesting that no marked increase of (90)Sr concentrations has occurred in r-Cs positive samples as a result of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. PMID:26346857

  2. Cesium in hydrogen negative-ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Belchenko, Yu.I.; Davydenko, V.I.

    2006-03-15

    Experimental data on the dynamics of cesium particles in the pulsed magnetron and Penning surface-plasma ion sources are presented. Cesium escape from the source emission apertures and the cesium ion current to discharge electrodes was measured. The low value of cesium flux from the source was detected. An intense cesium ion current to the cathode (up to 0.8 A/cm{sup 2}) was measured. The high value of cesium ion current to surface-plasma source cathode confirms the cesium circulation near the cathode.

  3. Determination of Strontium-90 in urine by extraction without ashing

    SciTech Connect

    Scasnar, V.

    1984-03-01

    Urine is a complex matrix. Any analytical separation that attempts to isolate an almost insignificant mass of material from urine must be capable of overcoming the high variability of sample composition. The urine is usually ashed to destroy all organic constituents to reduce the complexity of the sample. This step is time- and labor-consuming. In the method proposed no ashing of urine sample is necessary. Accordingly, radiostrontium can be directly extracted from urine after cesium has been extracted, when a proper amount of PEG 300 is added. This paper demonstrates that PEG strongly increases the extraction of microamounts of strontium into nitrobenzene, when the univalent hydrophobic anion of dicarbolide-H/sup +/ was used. The magnitude of the synergistic effect > 10/sup 3/ creates good conditions for the extraction of strontium after previous extraction of cesium. Since both radionuclides are most significant components of fission mixture and the extraction of other fission and activated radionuclides using dicarbolide-H/sup +/ appears to be low, the conditions for a selective and quantitative separation of radiostrontium from contaminated urine were investigated in this work. Dicarbolide-H/sup +/ with high stability constant of its complex anion, fully dissociated and stable also in a high acidic media, together with PEG of mean relative molecular mass 300 was used for this purpose.

  4. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle. PMID:22995463

  5. Sorption of strontium on uranyl peroxide: implications for a high-level nuclear waste repository.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Rosa; Martínez-Lladó, Xavier; Rovira, Miquel; de Pablo, Joan; Casas, Ignasi; Giménez, Javier

    2010-09-15

    Strontium-90 is considered the most important radioactive isotope in the environment and one of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in groundwaters at nuclear facilities. The uranyl peroxide studtite (UO2O2 . 4H2O) has been observed to be formed in spent nuclear fuel leaching experiments and seems to have a relatively high sorption capacity for some radionuclides. In this work, the sorption of strontium onto studtite is studied as a function of time, strontium concentration in solution and pH. The main results obtained are (a) sorption is relatively fast although slower than for cesium; (b) strontium seems to be sorbed via a monolayer coverage of the studtite surface, (c) sorption has a strong dependence on ionic strength, is negligible at acidic pH, and increases at neutral to alkaline pH (almost 100% of the strontium in solution is sorbed above pH 10). These results point to uranium secondary solid phase formation on the spent nuclear fuel as an important mechanism for strontium retention in a high-level nuclear waste repository (HLNW). PMID:20638966

  6. Mineral resource of the month: cesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angulo, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    The article offers information on cesium, a golden alkali metal derived from the Latin word caesium which means bluish gray. It mentions that cesium is the first element discovered with the use of spectroscopy. It adds that the leading producer and supplier of cesium is Canada and there are 50,000 kilograms of cesium consumed of the world in a year. Moreover, it states that only 85% of the cesium formate can be retrieved and recycled.

  7. Cesium diffusion in graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.B. III; Davis, W. Jr.; Sutton, A.L. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Experiments on diffusion of /sup 137/Cs in five types of graphite were performed. The document provides a completion of the report that was started and includes a presentation of all of the diffusion data, previously unpublished. Except for data on mass transfer of /sup 137/Cs in the Hawker-Siddeley graphite, analyses of experimental results were initiated but not completed. The mass transfer process of cesium in HS-1-1 graphite at 600 to 1000/sup 0/C in a helium atmosphere is essentially pure diffusion wherein values of (E/epsilon) and ..delta..E of the equation D/epsilon = (D/epsilon)/sub 0/ exp (-..delta..E/RT) are about 4 x 10/sup -2/ cm/sup 2//s and 30 kcal/mole, respectively.

  8. Research in actinide chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Research continued to be focused broadly on the chemistry of the actinide cations in solution. While the direct concern is the actinide elements, their radioactivity limits the techniques which can be applied to their study. A major area of interest continues to be the thermodynamics of interaction of the f-elements with a broad spectrum of inorganic and organic ligands. Solvent extraction (for tracer levels), potentiometric and calorimetric titration and absorption spectrometry have been used to obtain stability constants and the associated enthalpy and entropy changes for complexation. A number of studies were performed to provide a better data base and a better understanding of the more significant species determining the behavior of actinides in natural waters (e.g., hydrolysis and silicate interaction). A second major area has been kinetics. NpO{sub 2}{sup 2+} reduction by hydroxy and carboxylic acids was studied to obtain an understanding of how such functional groups in humic substances may influence actinyl redox. The kinetics of dissociation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Ln{sup 3+} (La{sup 3+} = lanthanide element cations) from synthetic polyelectrolytes and humics provided significantly increased understanding of actinide complexation by these macromolecules. A third area of activity used laser induced fluorescence to study the hydration state of Eu(III) in a number of systems. Finally, several other studies, not in these major areas, were conducted. These included investigation of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} cation-cation complexes, the extraction of Am(III) by MX (M = Li, Na, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}; X = ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, BrO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) over a concentration range from 0.01 M to saturated and the thermodynamics of synergistic extraction of actinides by crown ethers and {beta}-diketonates. 23 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Device for Detecting Actinides, Method for Detecting Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Fred J.; Wilkins-Stevens, Priscilla

    1998-10-29

    A heavy metal detector is provided comprising a first molecule and a second molecule, whereby the first and second molecules interact in a predetermined manner; a first region on the first molecule adapted to interact with an actinide; and a second region on the second molecule adapted to interact with the actinide, whereby the interactions of the actinide with the regions effect the predetermined manner of interaction between the molecules.

  10. METHOD OF PREPARING RADIOACTIVE CESIUM SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, T.C.

    1963-12-17

    A method of preparing a cesium-containing radiation source with physical and chemical properties suitable for high-level use is presented. Finely divided silica is suspended in a solution containing cesium, normally the fission-product isotope cesium 137. Sodium tetraphenyl boron is then added to quantitatively precipitate the cesium. The cesium-containing precipitate is converted to borosilicate glass by heating to the melting point and cooling. Up to 60 weight percent cesium, with a resulting source activity of up to 21 curies per gram, is incorporated in the glass. (AEC)

  11. Novel Separation of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R

    2011-02-17

    The separation of actinides and other elements of interest for nuclear forensics and threat reduction is currently performed using decades-old chemistries and ion-exchange columns. We propose to determine the technical feasibility of a novel method for separating actinide ions in solution. This method is based upon isotachophoresis (ITP), which has been applied in the purification of pharmaceuticals and other biochemical applications. This technique has the potential to separate inorganic ions more effectively than existing methods, which is key to analyzing very small samples. We will perform a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of specific isotachophoretic approaches including predicting the physical and chemical properties, such as ion mobility, of inorganic ions under specific solvent conditions using a combination of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical methods. We expect to obtain a thorough understanding of the analytical systems parameters under which ITP is most effective for the separation of inorganic samples, including the influence of the double layer surrounding actinide ions, the Debye length for different ions and ion complexes, and Debye-Hueckel limits. Inorganic separations are key to nuclear forensics for countering terrorism and nuclear proliferation. If found to be feasible and potentially superior to currently used separation approaches, ITP could provide the conceptual basis for an improved means to separate samples of nuclear explosion debris for nuclear forensic analysis, in support of the Laboratory's missions in homeland and national security.

  12. Cesium capsule thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1989-12-01

    Double-walled stainless steel capsules, produced by the Hanford Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF), were designed to facilitate storage of radioactive cesium chloride (CsCl). The capsules were later determined to be a useful resource for irradiation facilities (IFs), and are currently being used at several commercial IFs. A capsule at one of these facilities recently failed, resulting in a release of the CsCl. A thermal analysis of a WESF capsule was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. In this analysis, parametric calculations demonstrates the impact that various parameters have on the temperature distribution within a capsule in a commercial irradiation facility. Specifically, the effect of varying the gas gap conductivity, the exterior heat sink temperatures, the exterior heat transfer distribution, the stainless steel emissivity, and the gamma heating rate were addressed. In addition, a calculation was performed to estimate the highest temperatures likely to have been encountered in one of these capsules. 8 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Environmental speciation of actinides.

    PubMed

    Maher, Kate; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2013-04-01

    Although minor in abundance in Earth's crust (U, 2-4 ppm; Th, 10-15 ppm) and in seawater (U, 0.003 ppm; Th, 0.0007 ppm), light actinides (Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are important environmental contaminants associated with anthropogenic activities such as the mining and milling of uranium ores, generation of nuclear energy, and storage of legacy waste resulting from the manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. In this review, we discuss the abundance, production, and environmental sources of naturally occurring and some man-made light actinides. As is the case with other environmental contaminants, the solubility, transport properties, bioavailability, and toxicity of actinides are dependent on their speciation (composition, oxidation state, molecular-level structure, and nature of the phase in which the contaminant element or molecule occurs). We review the aqueous speciation of U, Np, and Pu as a function of pH and Eh, their interaction with common inorganic and organic ligands in natural waters, and some of the common U-containing minerals. We also discuss the interaction of U, Np, Pu, and Am solution complexes with common Earth materials, including minerals, colloids, gels, natural organic matter (NOM), and microbial organisms, based on simplified model system studies. These surface interactions can inhibit (e.g., sorption to mineral surfaces, formation of insoluble biominerals) or enhance (e.g., colloid-facilitated transport) the dispersal of light actinides in the biosphere and in some cases (e.g., interaction with dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, NOM, or Mn- and Fe-containing minerals) can modify the oxidation states and, consequently, the behavior of redox-sensitive light actinides (U, Np, and Pu). Finally, we review the speciation of U and Pu, their chemical transformations, and cleanup histories at several U.S. Department of Energy field sites that have been used to mill U ores, produce fissile materials for reactors and weapons, and store

  14. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D

    2006-01-18

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing {approx}4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to {approx}2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain {approx}23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a {approx}70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank

  15. Interferometry with Strontium Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Jarom; Lambert, Enoch; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Durfee, Dallin

    2014-05-01

    We describe progress on a cold ion matter-wave interferometer. Cold Strontium atoms are extracted from an LVIS. The atoms will be photo-ionized with a two-photon transition to an auto-ionizing state in the continuum. The ions will be split and recombined using stimulated Raman transitions from a pair of diode lasers injection locked to two beams from a master laser which have been shifted up and down by half the hyperfine splitting. We are developing laser instrumentation for this project including a method to prevent mode-hopping by analyzing laser frequency noise, and an inexpensive, robust wavelength meter. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  16. Cesium clocks keep the world on time

    SciTech Connect

    Hellwig, H.

    1985-09-01

    The development of timekeeping systems based on the natural resonance of cesium atoms is reviewed. The design of a typical cesium clock using a frequency lock servo is described. Some common applications of cesium beam frequency and time reference systems are discussed, including Navstar GPS navigation referencing; military satellite communications; and measurements of relative gravitational effects. The possibility of increasing timekeeping accuracies using improved cesium clock designs is evaluated.

  17. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of [sup 137]Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of [sup 137]Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope [sup 137]Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  18. Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

  19. Method of removing cesium from steam

    DOEpatents

    Carson, Jr., Neill J.; Noland, Robert A.; Ruther, Westly E.

    1991-01-01

    Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

  20. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

    1988-04-25

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization

    DOEpatents

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Roy, Rustum

    1989-01-01

    Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

  2. Cesium control and diagnostics in surface plasma negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Chapovsky, Pavel; Dudnikov, Andrei

    2010-02-15

    For efficient and reliable negative ion generation it is very important to improve a cesium control and diagnostics. Laser beam attenuation and resonance fluorescence can be used for measurement of cesium distribution and cesium control. Resonant laser excitation and two-photon excitation can be used for improved cesium ionization and cesium trapping in the discharge chamber. Simple and inexpensive diode lasers can be used for cesium diagnostics and control. Cesium migration along the surface is an important mechanism of cesium escaping. It is important to develop a suppression of cesium migration and cesium accumulation on the extraction system.

  3. PROCESS OF PRODUCING ACTINIDE METALS

    DOEpatents

    Magel, T.T.

    1959-07-14

    The preparation of actinide metals in workable, coherent form is described. In general, the objects of the invention are achieved by heating a mixture of an oxide and a halide of an actinide metal such as uranium with an alkali metal on alkaline earth metal reducing agent in the presence of iodine.

  4. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-02-15

    Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 17 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

  5. Intermediate-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.D.

    2001-09-10

    Ion exchange tests have been completed at the Savannah River Technology Center for British Nuclear Fuels Limited, Inc. as part of the Hanford River Protection Project. Radioactive cesium and technetium (pertechnetate form only) were removed by ion exchange from a sample of Envelope C salt solution from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102 (sample volume: approximately 18 L at 4.8 M Na plus). The original sample was diluted and subjected to strontium/transuranics (Sr/TRU) precipitation and filtration processes before ion exchange processing was performed. Batch contact and column tests for the ion exchange removal of cesium and technetium were then completed on the Sr/TRU-decontaminated product. Previous ion exchange tests were conducted on a smaller portion (0.5 L) of the Tank 241-AN-102 supernate sample, which had been similarly pretreated, and the results were reported in a separate document.

  6. Cesium oxide-cesium solution as a source of cesium and oxygen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, B.; Rufeh, F.; Pigford, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    Examination of the feasibility of using the solution as a source of cesium and oxygen, with description of an experimental system designed for a systematic investigation. Preliminary data are presented. Thermionic performance of the converter was recorded before the injection of oxygen at emitter temperatures of 1600, 1700, 1800, and 1900 K. The power of this converter, which had a polycrystalline tungsten emitter and a polycrystalline molybdenum collector, is compared with other converters. Experimental results show that cesium oxide mole factors higher than 0.18 are needed to achieve oxygen effects. It appears not to be necessary to be concerned about avoiding oxygen impurities in the cesium reservoir, since mole fractions as high as 0.18 have failed to influence the performance.

  7. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  8. Rapid determination of strontium-90 by solid phase extraction using DGA Resin® for seawater monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tazoe, H.; Obata, H.; Yamagata, T.; Karube, Z.; Yamada, M.

    2015-12-01

    Strontium-90 concentrations in seawater exceeding the background level have been observed at the accidents of nuclear facilities, such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. However, analytical procedure for strontium-90 in seawater is still quite complicated and challenging. Here we show a simple and rapid analytical technique for the determination of strontium-90 in seawater samples without time-consuming separation of strontium from calcium. The separation with DGA Resin® is used to determine the abundance of strontium-90, which selectively collects yttrium-90, progeny of strontium-90. Naturally occurring radioactive nuclides (such as potassium, lead, bismuth, uranium, and thorium) and anthropogenic radionuclides (such as cesium, barium, lanthanum, and cerium) were separated from yttrium. Through a sample separation procedure, a high chemical yield of yttrium-90 was achieved at 93.9 % for seawater. The result of IAEA 443 certified seawater analysis was in good agreement with the certified value. At 20 hrs counting a lower detection limit of 1.5 mBq L-1 was obtained from 3 L of seawater. The proposed method can finish analyzing 8 samples per day, which is a reasonably fast throughput in actual seawater monitoring. Reproducibility was found to be 3.4 % according to 10 separate analyses of natural seawater samples from the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in September 2013.

  9. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, L.R.; Zwick, B.D.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Clark, D.L.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-11-24

    A compound is described of the formula MX[sub n]L[sub m] wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands. A compound of the formula MX[sub n] wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds are described including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant.

  10. Actinide halide complexes

    DOEpatents

    Avens, Larry R.; Zwick, Bill D.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Clark, David L.; Watkin, John G.

    1992-01-01

    A compound of the formula MX.sub.n L.sub.m wherein M is a metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, plutonium, neptunium or americium, X is a halide atom, n is an integer selected from the group of three or four, L is a coordinating ligand selected from the group consisting of aprotic Lewis bases having an oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, or phosphorus-donor, and m is an integer selected from the group of three or four for monodentate ligands or is the integer two for bidentate ligands, where the sum of n+m equals seven or eight for monodentate ligands or five or six for bidentate ligands, a compound of the formula MX.sub.n wherein M, X, and n are as previously defined, and a process of preparing such actinide metal compounds including admixing the actinide metal in an aprotic Lewis base as a coordinating solvent in the presence of a halogen-containing oxidant, are provided.

  11. Cesium Eluate Physical Property Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baich, M.A.

    2001-02-13

    Two bench-scale process simulations of the proposed cesium eluate evaporation process of concentrating eluate produced in the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant were conducted. The primary objective of these experiments was to determine the physical properties and the saturation concentration of the eluate evaporator bottoms while producing condensate approximately 0.50 molar HN03.

  12. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Goodall, C.A.

    1960-09-13

    A process is given for precipitating cesium on zinc ferricyanide (at least 0.0004 M) from aqueous solutions containing mineral acid in a concentration of from 0.2 N acidity to 0.61 N acid-deficiency and advantageously, but not necessarily, also aluminum nitrate in a concentration of from l to 2.5 M.

  13. Removal of cesium from a high-level calcined waste by high temperature volatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Del Debbio, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    Pyrochemical methods are being evaluated for the separation of actinides and fission products from inert material in high-level waste calcine. Separation processes have the potential of reducing waste disposal costs by reducing the volume of high-level waste requiring final disposal in a repository. Tests were conducted to evaluate high temperature volatilization for removing {sup 137}Cs from four types of calcines. The results for pilot plant calcines indicate greater than 99% cesium removal for alumina and fluorinel/sodium calcines heated at 1000{degree}C and 99% removal for zirconia calcine heated at 1100{degree}C. Tests with actual calcine generated at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) from a blend of aluminium, sodium and zirconium/fluorinel wastes resulted in 96% cesium removal at 1000{degree}C and greater than 99% removal at 1170{degree}C.

  14. A Cold Strontium Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Christopher J.; Lyon, Mary; Blaser, Kelvin; Harper, Stuart; Durfee, Dallin

    2010-03-01

    We present a cold ion source for strontium 87. The source is based off of a standard Low-Velocity-Intense-Source (LVIS) for strontium using permanent magnets in place of anti-Helmholtz coils. Atoms from the LVIS are then ionized in a two photon process as they pass a 20kV anode plate. The result is a mono-energetic beam of ions whose velocity is tunable. Applications for the ions include spectroscopy and ion interferometry.

  15. Managing Inventories of Heavy Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Wham, Robert M; Patton, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has stored a limited inventory of heavy actinides contained in irradiated targets, some partially processed, at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 'heavy actinides' of interest include plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes; specifically 242Pu and 244Pu, 243Am, and 244/246/248Cm. No alternate supplies of these heavy actinides and no other capabilities for producing them are currently available. Some of these heavy actinide materials are important for use as feedstock for producing heavy isotopes and elements needed for research and commercial application. The rare isotope 244Pu is valuable for research, environmental safeguards, and nuclear forensics. Because the production of these heavy actinides was made possible only by the enormous investment of time and money associated with defense production efforts, the remaining inventories of these rare nuclear materials are an important part of the legacy of the Nuclear Weapons Program. Significant unique heavy actinide inventories reside in irradiated Mark-18A and Mark-42 targets at SRS and ORNL, with no plans to separate and store the isotopes for future use. Although the costs of preserving these heavy actinide materials would be considerable, for all practical purposes they are irreplaceable. The effort required to reproduce these heavy actinides today would likely cost billions of dollars and encompass a series of irradiation and chemical separation cycles for at least 50 years; thus, reproduction is virtually impossible. DOE has a limited window of opportunity to recover and preserve these heavy actinides before they are disposed of as waste. A path forward is presented to recover and manage these irreplaceable National Asset materials for future use in research, nuclear forensics, and other potential applications.

  16. Evaluation of Alternate Materials and Methods for Strontium and Alpha Removal from Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    2000-11-07

    A literature survey indicated a number of alternate materials and methods for the removal of strontium and alpha-emitting radionuclides (actinides). We evaluated the use of alternate materials versus proposed flowsheets for salt processing at the Savannah River Site (SRS). From this evaluation we recommend the following materials for further testing to determine the rate and extent of removal. We do not recommend testing of liquid/liquid extraction and polymer filtration methods at this time.

  17. Actinide Burning in CANDU Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, B.; Dyck, G.R.

    2007-07-01

    Actinide burning in CANDU reactors has been studied as a method of reducing the actinide content of spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, and thereby decreasing the associated long term decay heat load. In this work simulations were performed of actinides mixed with natural uranium to form a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and also mixed with silicon carbide to form an inert matrix (IMF) fuel. Both of these fuels were taken to a higher burnup than has previously been studied. The total transuranic element destruction calculated was 40% for the MOX fuel and 71% for the IMF. (authors)

  18. Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2001-09-10

    This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

  19. Advanced separations at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.; McCabe, D.

    1996-10-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has many waste streams that are contaminated with radionuclides and/or hazardous materials that must be treated to remove the radioactivity (cesium, strontium, tritium, actinides) and hazardous components (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), cyanide, metal ions).

  20. Environmental research on actinide elements

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G.

    1987-08-01

    The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

  1. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... elution of rubidium-82, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium), kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  2. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.02 microcurie of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium-82 chloride); or more than 0.2 kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.2 microcurie of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  3. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... elution of rubidium-82, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium), kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  4. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.02 microcurie of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium-82 chloride); or more than 0.2 kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.2 microcurie of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  5. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... elution of rubidium-82, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium), kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  6. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... elution of rubidium-82, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium), kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  7. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.02 microcurie of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium-82 chloride); or more than 0.2 kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.2 microcurie of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  8. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.02 microcurie of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium-82 chloride); or more than 0.2 kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.2 microcurie of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  9. 10 CFR 35.204 - Permissible molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.02 microcurie of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium-82 chloride); or more than 0.2 kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 chloride injection (0.2 microcurie of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  10. 10 CFR 35.2204 - Records of molybdenum-99, strontium-82, and strontium-85 concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... elution of rubidium-82, the ratio of the measures expressed as kilobecquerel of strontium-82 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-82 per millicurie of rubidium), kilobecquerel of strontium-85 per megabecquerel of rubidium-82 (or microcuries of strontium-85 per millicurie of...

  11. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.; Blanco, Raymond E.; Bond, Walter D.; Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600.degree. C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000.degree. C. for a suitable duration.

  12. Cesium standard for satellite application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloch, M. B.; Meirs, M.; Pascaru, I.; Weinstein, B.

    1983-01-01

    A Cesium frequency standard that was developed for satellite applications is discussed. It weighs 23 lbs. and uses 23.5 watts of power, achieves a stability of 1 x ten to the minus 13th power/100,000 seconds, and is radiation hardened. To achieve the weight and reliability requirements, both thick and thin film hybrid circuits were utilized. A crystal oscillator is used to improve short-term stability and performance on a moving platform.

  13. Cesium recovery from aqueous solutions

    DOEpatents

    Goodhall, C. A.

    1960-09-13

    A process for recovering cesium from aqueous solutions is given in which precipitation on zinc ferricyanide is used. The precipitation is preferably carried out in solutions containing at least 0.0004M zinc ferricyanide, an acidity ranging from 0.2N mineral acid to 0.61N acid deficiency, and 1 to 2.5M aluminum nitrate. (D.L.C.)

  14. Unusual ligand coordination for cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.C.; Kavallieratos, K.; Sachleben, R.A.

    2000-04-03

    When complexed by tetrabenzo-24-crown-8, the cesium ion can accommodate unprecedented ligation. The structures of the complexes are presented. These structures are the first reported examples of linear {eta}{sup 2}-acetonitrile coordination to any metal ion and the first structures illustrating {eta}{sup 2}-acetonitrile and dichloromethane ligation to an alkali metal ion. Possible steric and electronic origins of these unusual metal-ligand interactions are discussed.

  15. The Use of Strontium-87/Strontium-86 Ratios to Measure Atmospheric Transport into Forested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graustein, William C.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios indicate the sources of strontium in samples of natural waters, vegetation, and soil material taken from watersheds in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico. More than 75 percent of the strontium in the vegetation is ultimately derived from atmospheric transport and less than 25 percent from the weathering of the underlying rock. Much of the airborne strontium enters the watersheds by impacting on coniferous foliage, but deciduous foliage apparently traps little, if any, strontium-bearing aerosol. The strontium and presumably other nutrients are continuously recycled in a nearly closed system consisting of upper soil horizons, forest litter, and the standing crop of vegetation.

  16. The use of strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios to measure atmospheric transport into forested watersheds.

    PubMed

    Graustein, W C; Armstrong, R L

    1983-01-21

    Strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios indicate the sources of strontium in samples of natural waters, vegetation, and soil material taken from watersheds in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico. More than 75 percent of the strontium in the vegetation is ultimately derived from atmospheric transport and less than 25 percent from the weathering of the underlying rock. Much of the airborne strontium enters the watersheds by impacting on coniferous foliage, but deciduous foliage apparently traps little, if any, strontium-bearing aerosol. The strontium and presumably other nutrients are continuously recycled in a nearly closed system consisting of upper soil horizons, forest litter, and the standing crop of vegetation. PMID:17798277

  17. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, Jane P.; Wallace, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio.

  18. Cesium-specific phenolic ion exchange resin

    DOEpatents

    Bibler, J.P.; Wallace, R.M.

    1995-08-15

    A phenolic, cesium-specific, cation exchange resin is prepared by neutralizing resorcinol with potassium hydroxide, condensing/polymerizing the resulting intermediate with formaldehyde, heat-curing the resulting polymer to effect cross-linking and grinding it to desired particle size for use. This resin will selectively and efficiently adsorb cesium ions in the presence of a high concentration of sodium ions with a low carbon to cesium ratio. 2 figs.

  19. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J.; Yi, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  20. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J. Sr.; Taylor, W.A.

    1992-12-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed. 1 fig.

  1. Process for strontium-82 separation

    DOEpatents

    Heaton, Richard C.; Jamriska, Sr., David J.; Taylor, Wayne A.

    1992-01-01

    A process for selective separation of strontium-82 and strontium-85 from proton irradiated molybdenum targets comprises dissolving the molybdenum target in a hydrogen peroxide solution to form a first solution containing ions selected from a group consisting of molybdenum, niobium, technetium, selenium, vanadium, arsenic, germanium, zirconium, rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, and yttrium; passing the solution through a first cationic resin whereby ions selected from a group consisting of zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, strontium, yttrium a portion of zirconium and a portion of rubidium are selectively absorbed by the first resin; contacting the first resin with an acid solution to strip and remove the absorbed ions from the first cationic exchange resin to form a second solution; evaporating the second solution for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the acid and water from the solution whereby a residue remains; dissolving the residue in a dilute acid to form a third solution; passing the third solution through a second cationic resin whereby the ions are absorbed by the second resin; contacting the second resin with a dilute sulfuric acid solution whereby the absorbed ions selected from the group consisting of rubidium, zinc, beryllium, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium and zirconium are selectively removed from the second resin; and contacting the second resin with a dilute acid solution whereby the absorbed strontium ions are selectively removed.

  2. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  3. Kinetics of actinide complexation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1997-09-01

    Though the literature records extensive compilations of the thermodynamics of actinide complexation reactions, the kinetics of complex formation and dissociation reactions of actinide ions in aqueous solutions have not been extensively investigated. In light of the central role played by such reactions in actinide process and environmental chemistry, this situation is somewhat surprising. The authors report herein a summary of what is known about actinide complexation kinetics. The systems include actinide ions in the four principal oxidation states (III, IV, V, and VI) and complex formation and dissociation rates with both simple and complex ligands. Most of the work reported was conducted in acidic media, but a few address reactions in neutral and alkaline solutions. Complex formation reactions tend in general to be rapid, accessible only to rapid-scan and equilibrium perturbation techniques. Complex dissociation reactions exhibit a wider range of rates and are generally more accessible using standard analytical methods. Literature results are described and correlated with the known properties of the individual ions.

  4. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-102

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low and high activity waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The cesium (Cs-137) and technetium (Tc-99) ion exchange removal is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as anionic pertechnetate ) from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Tech nology Center2 demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with an Envelope C sample from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107. Those experiments also included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  5. Small-Scale Ion Exchange Removal of Cesium and Technetium from Hanford Tank 241-AN-103

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, N.M.

    2000-07-27

    The pretreatment process for BNFL, Inc.'s Hanford River Protection Project is to provide decontaminated low activity waste and concentrated eluate streams for vitrification into low activity and high level waste glass, respectively. The pretreatment includes sludge washing, filtration, precipitation, and ion exchange processes to remove entrained solids, cesium, transuranics, technetium, and strontium. The ion exchange removal of cesium (Cs) and technetium (Tc) ions is accomplished by using SuperLig 644, and 639 resins from IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork, Utah. The resins were shown to selectively remove cesium and technetium (as pertechnetate), from alkaline salt solutions. The efficiency of ion exchange column loading and elution is a complex function involving feed compositions, equilibrium and kinetic behavior of ion exchange resins, diffusion, and the ionic strength and pH of the aqueous solution. A previous experimental program completed at the Savannah River Technology Center demonstrated the conceptualized flow sheet parameters with a similar Hanford tank sample (241-AW-101). Those experiments included determination of Cs and Tc batch distribution coefficients by SuperLig 644 and 639 resins and demonstration of small-scale column breakthrough and elution. The experimental findings were used in support of preliminary design bases and pretreatment flow sheet development by BNFL, Inc.

  6. Actinides and Life's Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uranium- and thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3rd by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  7. Actinides and Life's Origins.

    PubMed

    Adam, Zachary

    2007-12-01

    There are growing indications that life began in a radioactive beach environment. A geologic framework for the origin or support of life in a Hadean heavy mineral placer beach has been developed, based on the unique chemical properties of the lower-electronic actinides, which act as nuclear fissile and fertile fuels, radiolytic energy sources, oligomer catalysts, and coordinating ions (along with mineralogically associated lanthanides) for prototypical prebiotic homonuclear and dinuclear metalloenzymes. A four-factor nuclear reactor model was constructed to estimate how much uranium would have been required to initiate a sustainable fission reaction within a placer beach sand 4.3 billion years ago. It was calculated that about 1-8 weight percent of the sand would have to have been uraninite, depending on the weight percent, uranium enrichment, and quantity of neutron poisons present within the remaining placer minerals. Radiolysis experiments were conducted with various solvents with the use of uraniumand thorium-rich minerals (metatorbernite and monazite, respectively) as proxies for radioactive beach sand in contact with different carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen reactants. Radiation bombardment ranged in duration of exposure from 3 weeks to 6 months. Low levels of acetonitrile (estimated to be on the order of parts per billion in concentration) were conclusively identified in 2 setups and tentatively indicated in a 3(rd) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. These low levels have been interpreted within the context of a Hadean placer beach prebiotic framework to demonstrate the promise of investigating natural nuclear reactors as power production sites that might have assisted the origins of life on young rocky planets with a sufficiently differentiated crust/mantle structure. Future investigations are recommended to better quantify the complex relationships between energy release, radioactive grain size, fissionability, reactant phase, phosphorus

  8. CESIUM RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, R.A.

    1961-06-20

    Cesium may be precipitated from an aqueous solution whose acidity ranges between a pH of 1.5 and a molarity of 5 on cobaltous, zinc, cadmium, nickel, or ferrous cobalticyanide. This precipitation brings about a separation from most fission products. Ruthenium which coprecipitates to a great degree can be removed by dissolving in sulfuric acid and boiling the solution in the presence of periodic acid for volatilization; other coprecipitated fission products can then be precipitated from the sulfuric acid solution with a ferric hydroxide carrier.

  9. PIXE analyses of cesium in rice grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Keizo; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Terakawa, Atsuki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Ishizaki, Azusa; Fujishiro, Fumito; Arai, Hirotsugu; Osada, Naoyuki; Karahashi, Masahiro; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Yamauchi, Shosei; Kikuchi, Kosuke; Koshio, Shigeki; Watanabe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident released vast amounts of radioactive material into the environment. For instance, 134Cs and 137Cs have half-lives of about 2 and 30 years, respectively, and emit many harmful gamma rays. In 2012, rice with radioactivity >100 Bq/kg was occasionally reported in Fukushima prefecture. To determine where and how cesium accumulates in rice, we grew rice in soil containing stable cesium and investigated the distribution of cesium in rice using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study found that cesium is accumulated in bran and germ at high concentrations, and white rice contains 40% of the cesium found in brown rice.

  10. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  11. Sorption of strontium on bentonite

    SciTech Connect

    Ali Khan, S.; Riaz-ur-Rehman; Ali Khan, M.

    1995-12-31

    Sorption of Sr on bentonite was studied using the batch technique. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined as a function of contact time, pH, sorbent and sorbate concentration and temperature. The data were interpreted in terms of Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. Thermodynamic parameters for the sorption system were determined at three different temperatures. The positive value of the heat of sorption, {Delta}H{degree} = 30.62 kJ/mol at 295 K, shows that the sorption of strontium on bentonite is endothermic. The negative value of the free energy of sorption, {Delta}G{degree} = {minus}10.69 kJ/mol at 298 K, shows the spontaneity of the reaction. {Delta}G{degree} becomes more negative with increasing temperature, which shows that the sorption process is more favorable at higher temperatures. The mean free energy for sorption, E {approximately} 9 kJ/mol, suggests that ion exchange is the predominant mode of sorption in the Sr concentration range studies, i.e., 0.01--0.3 mol/dm{sup 3}. The presence of complementary cations depresses the sorption of strontium on bentonite in the order Ca{sup 2+}>Mg{sup 2+}>K{sup +}>Na{sup +}. Some organic complexing agents and natural ligands also affect the sorption of strontium. The desorption studies with ground water at low strontium loads on bentonite show that about 90% of Sr is irreversibly sorbed on the bentonite.

  12. Actinide cation-cation complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, N.J.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1994-12-01

    The +5 oxidation state of U, Np, Pu, and Am is a linear dioxo cation (AnO{sub 2}{sup +}) with a formal charge of +1. These cations form complexes with a variety of other cations, including actinide cations. Other oxidation states of actinides do not form these cation-cation complexes with any cation other than AnO{sub 2}{sup +}; therefore, cation-cation complexes indicate something unique about AnO{sub 2}{sup +} cations compared to actinide cations in general. The first cation-cation complex, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, was reported by Sullivan, Hindman, and Zielen in 1961. Of the four actinides that form AnO{sub 2}{sup +} species, the cation-cation complexes of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} have been studied most extensively while the other actinides have not. The only PuO{sub 2}{sup +} cation-cation complexes that have been studied are with Fe{sup 3+} and Cr{sup 3+} and neither one has had its equilibrium constant measured. Actinides have small molar absorptivities and cation-cation complexes have small equilibrium constants; therefore, to overcome these obstacles a sensitive technique is required. Spectroscopic techniques are used most often to study cation-cation complexes. Laser-Induced Photacoustic Spectroscopy equilibrium constants for the complexes NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, NpO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}Th{sup 4+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and PuO{sub 2}{sup +}{center_dot}Th{sup 4+} at an ionic strength of 6 M using LIPAS are 2.4 {plus_minus} 0.2, 1.8 {plus_minus} 0.9, 2.2 {plus_minus} 1.5, and {approx}0.8 M{sup {minus}1}.

  13. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  14. Strontium Substitution for Calcium in Lithogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Blaschko, Sarah D.; Chi, Thomas; Miller, Joe; Flechner, Lawrence; Fakra, Sirine; Kapahi, Pankaj; Kahn, Arnold; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Strontium has chemical similarity to calcium, which enables the replacement of calcium by strontium in biomineralization processes. Incorporating strontium into human bone and teeth has been studied extensively but little research has been performed of the incorporation of strontium into urinary calculi. We used synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption techniques to examine the presence of strontium in different types of human kidney stones. Materials and Methods Multiple unique human stone samples were obtained via consecutive percutaneous nephrolithotomies/ureteroscopies. A portion of each stone was sent for standard laboratory analysis and a portion was retained for x-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements. X-ray fluorescence and x-ray absorption measurements determined the presence, spatial distribution and speciation of strontium in each stone sample. Results Traditional kidney stone analyses identified calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, uric acid and cystine stones. X-ray fluorescence measurements identified strontium in all stone types except pure cystine. X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping of the samples revealed co-localization of calcium and strontium. X-ray absorption measurements of the calcium phosphate stone showed strontium predominately present as strontium apatite. Conclusions Advanced x-ray fluorescence imaging identified strontium in all calcium based stones, present as strontium apatite. This finding may be critical since apatite is thought to be the initial nidus for calcium stone formation. Strontium is not identified by standard laboratory stone analyses. Its substitution for calcium can be reliably identified in stones from multiple calcium based stone formers, which may offer opportunities to gain insight into early events in lithogenesis. PMID:23260568

  15. Separations of actinides, lanthanides and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ensor, Dale D.

    1995-01-01

    An organic extracting solution comprised of a bis(acylpyrazolone or a substituted bis(acylpyrazolone) and an extraction method useful for separating certain elements of the actinide series of the periodic table having a valence of four from one other, and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of hexavalent actinides, trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals and also useful for separating hexavalent actinides from one or more of the substances in a group consisting of trivalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides, trivalent iron, trivalent aluminum, divalent metals, and monovalent metals.

  16. Strontium: Part II. Chemistry, Biological Aspects and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, G. C.; Johnson, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews basic information on the Chemistry of strontium and its compounds. Explains biological aspects of strontium and its pharmaceutical applications. Highlights industrial application of strontium and its components. (ML)

  17. Sorption of strontium on clinoptilolite and heulandite

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyavskaya, N.B.

    1986-05-01

    The author investigates the sorption of strontium on the isostructural zeolites clinoptilolite and heulandite. In the Sr/Na/zeolite/H/sub 2/O system, clinoptilolite manifests selectivity for strontium, and heulandite for sodium. The role of the nature of the exchange ions is discussed. Modification of the clinoptilolite with acid, subsequently obtaining the Na, NH/sub 4/, or N/sub 2/H/sub 4/ form, increases the capacity for strontium by a factor of 2-4.

  18. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  19. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  20. Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

    2014-03-04

    A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

  1. Cesium Eluate Analytical Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.

    2003-06-12

    Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) is using IBC Company's SuperLigand ion exchange resins to separate Cs and Tc from low-activity waste (LAW) solutions (IBC-1996). Cesium is removed using the SuperLig(R) 644 resin. The resin is then eluted after each use cycle with 0.5M nitric acid solution. BNI is planning to evaporate the Cs eluate solution to reduce the storage volume and recover eluate for re-use. The primary issue associated with evaporation is end point, or salt matrix solubility. To preclude formation of solids during the storage of evaporator products, an additional criteria has been set that limits the concentration of the evaporator bottoms to 80 percent of saturation at 25 degrees C. As a result, an understanding of the effects of constituent species on the bulk solubility must be developed prior to effective evaporator operations.

  2. METHOD OF REMOVING STRONTIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, D.W.; McHenry, J.R.; Ames, L.L. Jr.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for removing trace amounts of Sr/sup 90/ from solutions. Phosphate ion is added to the solution and it is then brought into contact with a solid salt such as calcium carbonate which will react methathetically with the phosphate ion to form a salt such as calcium phosphate. During this reaction, strontium will be absorbed to a high degree within the newly formed lattice. (AEC)

  3. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L; de Jonge, Martin D; Williamson, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  4. Strontium mineralization of shark vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Raoult, Vincent; Peddemors, Victor M.; Zahra, David; Howell, Nicholas; Howard, Daryl L.; de Jonge, Martin D.; Williamson, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the age of sharks using vertebral banding is a vital component of management, but the causes of banding are not fully understood. Traditional shark ageing is based on fish otolith ageing methods where growth bands are assumed to result from varied seasonal calcification rates. Here we investigate these assumptions by mapping elemental distribution within the growth bands of vertebrae from six species of sharks representing four different taxonomic orders using scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy. Traditional visual growth bands, determined with light microscopy, were more closely correlated to strontium than calcium in all species tested. Elemental distributions suggest that vertebral strontium bands may be related to environmental variations in salinity. These results highlight the requirement for a better understanding of shark movements, and their influence on vertebral development, if confidence in age estimates is to be improved. Analysis of shark vertebrae using similar strontium-focused elemental techniques, once validated for a given species, may allow more successful estimations of age on individuals with few or no visible vertebral bands. PMID:27424768

  5. RECOVERY OF CESIUM FROM WASTE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Burgus, W.H.

    1959-06-30

    This patent covers the precipitation of fission products including cesium on nickel or ferric ferrocyanide and subsequent selective dissolution from the carrier with a solution of ammonia or mercurlc nitrate.

  6. Environmental Tests Of Cesium Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.; Tucker, Thomas K.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Diener, William A.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1992-01-01

    Report describes environmental tests of cesium-beam frequency standards of United States Naval Observatory. Purpose of tests to determine effects of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and pressure on frequencies.

  7. "Computational Modeling of Actinide Complexes"

    SciTech Connect

    Balasubramanian, K

    2007-03-07

    We will present our recent studies on computational actinide chemistry of complexes which are not only interesting from the standpoint of actinide coordination chemistry but also of relevance to environmental management of high-level nuclear wastes. We will be discussing our recent collaborative efforts with Professor Heino Nitsche of LBNL whose research group has been actively carrying out experimental studies on these species. Computations of actinide complexes are also quintessential to our understanding of the complexes found in geochemical, biochemical environments and actinide chemistry relevant to advanced nuclear systems. In particular we have been studying uranyl, plutonyl, and Cm(III) complexes are in aqueous solution. These studies are made with a variety of relativistic methods such as coupled cluster methods, DFT, and complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) followed by large-scale CI computations and relativistic CI (RCI) computations up to 60 million configurations. Our computational studies on actinide complexes were motivated by ongoing EXAFS studies of speciated complexes in geo and biochemical environments carried out by Prof Heino Nitsche's group at Berkeley, Dr. David Clark at Los Alamos and Dr. Gibson's work on small actinide molecules at ORNL. The hydrolysis reactions of urnayl, neputyl and plutonyl complexes have received considerable attention due to their geochemical and biochemical importance but the results of free energies in solution and the mechanism of deprotonation have been topic of considerable uncertainty. We have computed deprotonating and migration of one water molecule from the first solvation shell to the second shell in UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}, UO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+}NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}{sup +}, and PuO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}{sup 2+} complexes. Our computed Gibbs free energy(7.27 kcal/m) in solution for the first time agrees with the experiment (7.1 kcal

  8. Statistical properties of high performance cesium standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, D. B.

    1973-01-01

    The intermediate term frequency stability of a group of new high-performance cesium beam tubes at the U.S. Naval Observatory were analyzed from two viewpoints: (1) by comparison of the high-performance standards to the MEAN(USNO) time scale and (2) by intercomparisons among the standards themselves. For sampling times up to 5 days, the frequency stability of the high-performance units shows significant improvement over older commercial cesium beam standards.

  9. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  10. Actinide chemistry in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Takao, Koichiro; Bell, Thomas James; Ikeda, Yasuhisa

    2013-04-01

    This Forum Article provides an overview of the reported studies on the actinide chemistry in ionic liquids (ILs) with a particular focus on several fundamental chemical aspects: (i) complex formation, (ii) electrochemistry, and (iii) extraction behavior. The majority of investigations have been dedicated to uranium, especially for the 6+ oxidation state (UO2(2+)), because the chemistry of uranium in ordinary solvents has been well investigated and uranium is the most abundant element in the actual nuclear fuel cycles. Other actinides such as thorium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curiumm, although less studied, are also of importance in fully understanding the nuclear fuel engineering process and the safe geological disposal of radioactive wastes. PMID:22873132