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  1. Bacterial Pneumonia among HIV-Infected Patients: Decreased Risk After Tobacco Smoking Cessation. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Antoine; Mercié, Patrick; Alioum, Ahmadou; Bonnet, Fabrice; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Dupon, Michel; Neau, Didier; Dabis, François; Chêne, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacterial pneumonia is still a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients in the era of combination Antiretroviral Therapy. The benefit of tobacco withdrawal on the risk of bacterial pneumonia has not been quantified in such populations, exposed to other important risk factors such as HIV-related immunodeficiency. Our objective was to estimate the effect of tobacco smoking withdrawal on the risk of bacterial pneumonia among HIV-infected individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients of the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort with ≥ two visits during 2000–2007 and without bacterial pneumonia at the first visit were included. Former smokers were patients who stopped smoking since ≥ one year. We used Cox proportional hazards models adjusted on CD4+ lymphocytes (CD4), gender, age, HIV transmission category, antiretroviral therapy, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, statin treatment, viral load and previous AIDS diagnosis. 135 cases of bacterial pneumonia were reported in 3336 patients, yielding an incidence of 12 ‰ patient-years. The adjusted hazard of bacterial pneumonia was lower in former smokers (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.48; P = 0.02) and never smokers (HR: 0.50; P = 0.01) compared to current smokers. It was higher in patients with <200 CD4 cells/µL and in those with 200 to 349 CD4 cells/µL (HR: 2.98 and 1.98, respectively; both P<0.01), but not in those with 350 to 499 CD4 cells/µL (HR: 0.93; P = 0.79), compared to those with ≥500 CD4 cells/µL. The interaction between CD4 cell count and tobacco smoking status was not statistically significant. Conclusions/Significance Smoking cessation dramatically reduces the risk of bacterial pneumonia, whatever the level of immunodeficiency. Smoking cessation interventions should become a key element of the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. PMID:20126646

  2. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9-30.5] over the period 2000-2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1-13.8] in 2009-2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2-6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0-1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3-2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1-1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9-2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years. PMID:27050752

  3. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9–30.5] over the period 2000–2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1–13.8] in 2009–2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2–6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0–1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3–2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1–1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9–2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years. PMID:27050752

  4. Role of uncontrolled HIV RNA level and immunodeficiency in the occurrence of malignancy in HIV-infected patients during the combination antiretroviral therapy era: Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida (ANRS) CO3 Aquitaine Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bruyand, Mathias; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Lawson-Ayayi, Sylvie; Joly, Pierre; Sasco, Annie-Jeanne; Mercié, Patrick; Luc Pellegrin, Jean; Neau, Didier; Dabis, François; Morlat, Philippe; Chêne, Geneviève; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients are at higher risk of malignancies. Besides traditional determinants, a specific deleterious effect of HIV and immunodeficiency is speculated. We aimed at studying the association between immunological and virological characteristics of HIV-infected patients in care and the risk of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Methods Patients consecutively enrolled in the hospital based ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort were included if their follow-up was >3 months between 1998 and 2006. Multivariate modelling used an extended Cox proportional hazards models for time-dependent covariates and delayed entry. Results The 4,194 patients included developed 251 first malignancies during 22,389 person-years. A higher incidence of AIDS-defining malignancies (107 cases) was independently associated with: (i) both longer and current exposures to plasma HIV RNA >500 copies/ml: Hazard ratio [HR]=1.27 per year; p<0.001 and HR=3.30; p<0.001, respectively, and (ii) both longer and current exposure to CD4+ count<200/mm3: HR=1.36 per year; p<0.001 and HR=6.33; p<0.001, respectively. A higher incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies (144 cases) was independently associated with longer and current exposure to CD4+ count<500/mm3 (HR=1.13 per year; p=0.01 and HR=2.07; p<0.001, respectively), and male gender (HR=1.69; p=0.02) but not plasma HIV RNA (p=0.49 and p=0.10 for cumulative and current exposures). Conclusions Uncontrolled plasma HIV RNA was independently associated with a higher likelihood of developing AIDS-defining malignancies, while immunosuppression was associated with a higher risk of developing any types of malignancies. Antiretroviral treatment should aim at reaching and maintaining a CD4+ count >500/mm3 to prevent the occurrence of malignancy, this should be integrated to malignancy prevention policies. PMID:19705973

  5. 76 FR 61683 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 22, 2011, ANR Pipeline Company (ANR Pipeline), 717 Texas Street, Suite 2400, Houston, Texas 77002-2761... an offshore production platform in Mississippi Canyon Block 194 connecting with approximately...

  6. [Smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahide; Maekura, Ryoji

    2011-10-01

    Smoking has been determined as a cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in most patients. Smoking cessation should be stressed above everything else for COPD patients under all conditions. A smoking habit is determined not as a preference but as a dependency on tobacco; therefore, smoking cessation is difficult solely based on one's motivation. Smoking cessation therapy is employed with cessation aids. Now, we can use nicotine-containing gum, patches, and the nicotine-receptor partial agonist varenicline. First, nicotine from tobacco is replaced with a nicotin patch, or a nicotine-free condition is induced by varenicline. Subsequently, the drugs are gradually reduced. In Japan, smoking cessation therapy is covered by public health insurance as definite requirements. PMID:22073582

  7. Links between Anr and Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, John H.; Dolben, Emily F.; Smith, T. Jarrod; Bhuju, Sabin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the transcription factor Anr controls the cellular response to low oxygen or anoxia. Anr activity is high in oxygen-limited environments, including biofilms and populations associated with chronic infections, and Anr is necessary for persistence in a model of pulmonary infection. In this study, we characterized the Anr regulon in biofilm-grown cells at 1% oxygen in the laboratory strain PAO1 and in a quorum sensing (QS)-deficient clinical isolate, J215. As expected, transcripts related to denitrification, arginine fermentation, high-affinity cytochrome oxidases, and CupA fimbriae were lower in the Δanr derivatives. In addition, we observed that transcripts associated with quorum sensing regulation, iron acquisition and storage, type VI secretion, and the catabolism of aromatic compounds were also differentially expressed in the Δanr strains. Prior reports have shown that quorum sensing-defective mutants have higher levels of denitrification, and we found that multiple Anr-regulated processes, including denitrification, were strongly inversely proportional to quorum sensing in both transcriptional and protein-based assays. We also found that in LasR-defective strains but not their LasR-intact counterparts, Anr regulated the production of the 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines, which play roles in quorum sensing and interspecies interactions. These data show that Anr was required for the expression of important metabolic pathways in low-oxygen biofilms, and they reveal an expanded and compensatory role for Anr in the regulation of virulence-related genes in quorum sensing mutants, such as those commonly isolated from infections. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute ocular, soft tissue, and pulmonary infections, as well as chronic infections in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate virulence, but mutations in the gene encoding the master regulator of QS, lasR, are frequently

  8. 77 FR 11521 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... should be directed to Rene Staeb, Manager, Project Determinations & Regulatory Administration, ANR...-6215 or by email Rene_Staeb@transcanada.com . Pursuant to section 157.9 of the Commission's rules,...

  9. 76 FR 56191 - Notice of Application; ANR Pipeline Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ..., operate, and maintain its Marshfield Reduction Project (MRP), comprised of a new 6,300 horsepower... County, Wisconsin, north of Stevens Point, Wisconsin, the MRP will eliminate the need for certain... Wisconsin. ANR states that the MRP will increase the reliability and flexibility of service for...

  10. An integrated approach to demonstrating the ANR pathway of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Zhu, Yue; Liu, Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu

    2012-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomers or polymers of plant flavan-3-ols and are important to plant adaptation in extreme environmental conditions. The characterization of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) has demonstrated the different biogenesis of four stereo-configurations of flavan-3-ols. It is important to understand whether ANR and the ANR pathway widely occur in the plant kingdom. Here, we report an integrated approach to demonstrate the ANR pathway in plants. This includes different methods to extract native ANR from different tissues of eight angiosperm plants (Lotus corniculatus, Desmodium uncinatum, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Vitis vinifera, Vitis bellula, Parthenocissus heterophylla, and Cerasus serrulata) and one fern plant (Dryopteris pycnopteroides), a general enzymatic analysis approach to demonstrate the ANR activity, high-performance liquid chromatography-based fingerprinting to demonstrate (-)-epicatechin and other flavan-3-ol molecules, and phytochemical analysis of PAs. Results demonstrate that in addition to leaves of M. sativa, tissues of other eight plants contain an active ANR pathway. Particularly, the leaves, flowers and pods of D. uncinatum, which is a model plant to study LAR and the LAR pathways, are demonstrated to express an active ANR pathway. This finding suggests that the ANR pathway involves PA biosynthesis in D. uncinatum. In addition, a sequence BLAST analysis reveals that ANR homologs have been sequenced in plants from both gymnosperms and angiosperms. These data show that the ANR pathway to PA biosynthesis occurs in both seed and seedless vascular plants. PMID:22678031

  11. Anr and Its Activation by PlcH Activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Host Colonization and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Angelyca A.; Gross, Maegan J.; Daniels, Emily F.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Hammond, John H.; Vallet-Gely, Isabelle; Dove, Simon L.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) degrades phosphatidylcholine (PC), an abundant lipid in cell membranes and lung surfactant. A ΔplcHR mutant, known to be defective in virulence in animal models, was less able to colonize epithelial cell monolayers and was defective in biofilm formation on plastic when grown in lung surfactant. Microarray analyses found that strains defective in PlcH production had lower levels of Anr-regulated transcripts than the wild type. PC degradation stimulated the Anr regulon in an Anr-dependent manner under conditions where Anr activity was submaximal because of the presence of oxygen. Two PC catabolites, choline and glycine betaine (GB), were sufficient to stimulate Anr activity, and their catabolism was required for Anr activation. The addition of choline or GB to glucose-containing medium did not alter Anr protein levels, growth rates, or respiratory activity, and Anr activation could not be attributed to the osmoprotectant functions of GB. The Δanr mutant was defective in virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Several lines of evidence indicate that Anr is important for the colonization of biotic and abiotic surfaces in both P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PA14 and that increases in Anr activity resulted in enhanced biofilm formation. Our data suggest that PlcH activity promotes Anr activity in oxic environments and that Anr activity contributes to virulence, even in the acute infection phase, where low oxygen tensions are not expected. This finding highlights the relationships among in vivo bacterial metabolism, the activity of the oxygen-sensitive regulator Anr, and virulence. PMID:23667230

  12. Severe Morbidity According to Sex in the Era of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy: The ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bruyand, Mathias; Decoin, Madeleine; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mercié, Patrick; Neau, Didier; Cazanave, Charles; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Dabis, François; Morlat, Philippe; Chêne, Geneviève

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe trends and determinants of severe morbidity in HIV-infected women and men. Design A French prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients of both sexes and all transmission categories. Methods We used hospital admission data from January 2000 to December 2008. A severe morbid event (SME) was defined as a clinical event requiring hospitalization for ≥48 h, several events could be reported during hospitalization. Yearly incidence rates of SME were estimated and compared using Generalized Estimating Equations. Results Among 4,987 patients (27% women), followed for a median of 8.7 years, 1,473 (30%) were hospitalized (3,049 hospitalizations for 5,963 SME). The yearly incidence rate of hospitalization decreased in men, from 155 in 2000 to 80/1,000 person-years (PY) in 2008 and in women, from 125 to 71/1,000 PY, (p<0.001). This trend was observed for all SME except for hepatic events, stable in men (15 to 13/1,000 PY) and increasing in women (2.5 to 11.5), cardiovascular events increasing in men (6 to 10/1,000 PY) and in women (6 to 14) and non-AIDS non-hepatic malignancies increasing in men (4 to 7/1,000 PY) and stable in women (2.5). Intraveneous drug users, age >50 years, HIV RNA >10,000 copies, CD4 <500/mm3, AIDS stage, hepatitis C co-infection and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, high blood pressure, and tobacco use) were associated with SME. Conclusions HIV-infected individuals in care in France require less and less frequently hospitalization. Women are now presenting with severe hepatic and cardio-vascular events. Disparities in SME between men and women are primarily explained by different exposure patterns to risk factors. Women should be targeted to benefit cardiovascular prevention policies as well as men. PMID:25076050

  13. 78 FR 59927 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ..., Jefferson, and Des Moines County, Iowa (Iowa Fertilizer Project). ANR states that the Iowa Fertilizer Project will deliver 81,000 dekatherms per day to a new nitrogen fertilizer manufacturing plant. ANR estimates the cost of the Iowa Fertilizer Project to be approximately $15 million, all as more fully...

  14. Smoking cessation in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bittoun, Renee; Femia, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Managing smoking cessation during pregnancy is vital to the wellbeing of the fetus and the mother. Women who continue to smoke during pregnancy expose the fetus to thousands of chemicals which have been shown to cause deleterious short- and long-term effects. Although a large majority of women cease smoking early in the pregnancy, many of them relapse following delivery. Following a review of current research, an overview of the safety and efficacy of smoking cessation treatments for pregnant women will be considered. Limited research has been performed in this field; however, it can be concluded that low-dose intermittent nicotine replacement therapy is a safe treatment modality for women who smoke during pregnancy. At present there has been no research on other current smoking cessation treatments; however, we will suggest techniques to improve cessation rates and strategies to reduce relapse.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT ANR PIPELINE COMPANY PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of a gaseous-emissions monitoring system for large, natural-gas-fired internal combustion engines. The device tested is the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR ...

  16. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  17. Smoking cessation and COPD.

    PubMed

    Tønnesen, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The mainstay in smoking cessation is counselling in combination with varenicline, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion SR. Varenicline and combination of two NRTs is equally effective, while varenicline alone is more effective than either NRT or bupropion SR. NRT is extremely safe but cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with varenicline have been reported. These treatments have also been shown to be effective in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A model study is the Lung Health Study from the USA. Findings from this study of 5,587 patients with mild COPD showed that repeated smoking cessation for a period of 5 yrs resulted in a quit rate of 37%. After 14.5 yrs the quitters had a higher lung function and a higher survival rate. A study with a new nicotine formulation, a mouth spray, showed high relative efficacy. As 5-10% of quitters use long-term NRT, we report the results of a study where varenicline compared with placebo increased the quit rate in long-term users of NRT. Smoking cessation is the most effective intervention in stopping the progression of COPD, as well as increasing survival and reducing morbidity. This is why smoking cessation should be the top priority in the treatment of COPD. PMID:23457163

  18. The Density and Compressibility of BaCO3-SrCO3-CaCO3-K2CO3-Na2CO3-Li2CO3 Liquids: New Measurements and a Systematic Trend with Cation Field Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurt, S. M.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The volumetric properties of multi-component carbonate liquids are required to extend thermodynamic models that describe partial melting of the deep mantle (e.g. pMELTS; Ghiorso et al., 2003) to carbonate-bearing lithologies. Carbonate in the mantle is an important reservoir of carbon, which is released to the atmosphere as CO2 through volcanism, and thus contributes to the carbon cycle. Although MgCO3 is the most important carbonate component in the mantle, it is not possible to directly measure the 1-bar density and compressibility of MgCO3 liquid because, like other alkaline-earth carbonates, it decomposes at a temperature lower than its melting temperature. Despite this challenge, Liu and Lange (2003) and O'Leary et al. (2015) showed that the one bar molar volume, thermal expansion and compressibility of the CaCO3 liquid component could be obtained by measuring the density and sound speeds of stable liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system at one bar. In this study, this same strategy is employed on SrCO3- and BaCO3-bearing alkali carbonate liquids. The density and sound speed of seven liquids in the SrCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary and three liquids in the BaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary were measured from 739-1367K, with SrCO3 and BaCO3 concentrations ranging from 10-50 mol%. The density measurements were made using the double-bob Archimedean method and sound speeds were obtained with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. The molar volume and sound speed measurements were used to calculate the isothermal compressibility of each liquid, and the results show the volumetric properties mix ideally with composition. The partial molar volume and compressibility of the SrCO3 and BaCO3 components are compared to those obtained for the CaCO3 component as a function of cation field strength. The results reveal a systematic trend that allows the partial molar volume and compressibility of the MgCO3 liquid component to be estimated.

  19. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  20. Introduction of apple ANR genes into tobacco inhibits expression of both CHI and DFR genes in flowers, leading to loss of anthocyanin

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuepeng; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Soria-Guerra, Ruth Elena; Korban, Schuyler S.

    2012-01-01

    Three genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) in apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.), designated MdANR1, MdANR2a, and MdANR2b, have been cloned and characterized. MdANR1 shows 91% identity in coding DNA sequences with MdANR2a and MdANR2b, while MdANR2a and MdANR2b are allelic and share 99% nucleotide sequence identity in the coding region. MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are located on linkage groups 10 and 5, respectively. Expression levels of both MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes are generally higher in yellow-skinned cv. Golden Delicious than in red-skinned cv. Red Delicious. Transcript accumulation of MdANR1 and MdANR2 genes in fruits gradually decreased throughout fruit development. Ectopic expression of apple MdANR genes in tobacco positively and negatively regulates the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and anthocyanin, respectively, resulting in white, pale pink-coloured, and white/red variegated flowers. The accumulation of anthocyanin is significantly reduced in all tobacco transgenic flowers, while catechin and epicatechin contents in transgenic flowers are significantly higher than those in flowers of wild-type plants. The inhibition of anthocyanin synthesis in tobacco transgenic flowers overexpressing MdANR genes is probably attributed to down-regulation of CHALCONE ISOMERASE (CHI) and DIHYDROFLAVONOL-4-REDUCTASE (DFR) genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway. Interestingly, several transgenic lines show no detectable transcripts of the gene encoding leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) in flowers, but accumulate higher levels of catechin in flowers of transgenic plants than those of wild-type plants. This finding suggests that the ANR gene may be capable of generating catechin via an alternative route, although this mechanism is yet to be further elucidated. PMID:22238451

  1. Methods of smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, J L

    1992-03-01

    Smoking-cessation treatment consists of three phases: preparation, intervention, and maintenance. Preparation aims to increase the smoker's motivation to quit and to build confidence that he or she can be successful. Intervention can take any number of forms (or a combination of them) to help smokers to achieve abstinence. Maintenance, including support, coping strategies, and substitute behaviors, is necessary for permanent abstinence. Although most smokers who successfully quit do so on their own, many use cessation programs at some point during their smoking history. Moreover, many people act on the advice of a health professional in deciding to quit. Some are also aided by a smoking-cessation kit from a public or voluntary agency, a book, a tape, or an over-the-counter product. Still others receive help from mass-media campaigns, such as the Great American Smokeout, or community programs. Counseling, voluntary and commercial clinics, nicotine replacement strategies, hypnosis, acupuncture, and behavioral programs are other methods used by smokers to break the habit. Programs that include multiple treatments are more successful than single interventions. The most cost-effective strategy for smoking cessation for most smokers is self-care, which includes quitting on one's own and might also include acting on the advice of a health profession or using an aid such as a quit-smoking guide. Heavier, more addicted smokers are more likely to seek out formal programs after several attempts to quit. Many people can quit smoking, but staying off cigarettes requires maintenance, support, and additional techniques, such as relapse prevention. Physicians, dentists, and other health professionals can provide important assistance to their patients who smoke. Quit rates can be improved if clinicians provide more help (e.g., counseling, support) than just simple advice and warnings. Clinicians also play an important role in providing nicotine replacement products such as nicotine

  2. Anr, the anaerobic global regulator, modulates the redox state and oxidative stress resistance in Pseudomonas extremaustralis.

    PubMed

    Tribelli, Paula M; Nikel, Pablo I; Oppezzo, Oscar J; López, Nancy I

    2013-02-01

    The role of Anr in oxidative stress resistance was investigated in Pseudomonas extremaustralis, a polyhydroxybutyrate-producing Antarctic bacterium. The absence of Anr caused increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide under low oxygen tension. This phenomenon was associated with a decrease in the redox ratio, higher oxygen consumption and higher reactive oxygen species production. Physiological responses of the mutant to the oxidized state included an increase in NADP(H) content, catalase activity and exopolysaccharide production. The wild-type strain showed a sharp decrease in the reduced thiol pool when exposed to hydrogen peroxide, not observed in the mutant strain. In silico analysis of the genome sequence of P. extremaustralis revealed putative Anr binding sites upstream from genes related to oxidative stress. Genes encoding several chaperones and cold shock proteins, a glutathione synthase, a sulfate transporter and a thiol peroxidase were identified as potential targets for Anr regulation. Our results suggest a novel role for Anr in oxidative stress resistance and in redox balance maintenance under conditions of restricted oxygen supply. PMID:23223440

  3. Smoking control and cessation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, I A

    Over the last 30 years the prevalence of cigarette smoking in adults in the UK has fallen to around 30%. Smoking will still kill 100,000 people each year well into the next century. Smoking in children is related to whether their parents smoke. Moves to reduce smoking in adults will therefore reduce smoking in children. The Government should be urged to raise taxes on cigarettes and ban advertising. Smoking should be banned from all health care premises. Hospitals should be encouraged to appoint smoking cessation counsellors to work with both staff and patients. PMID:8348004

  4. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. PMID:25678779

  5. 75 FR 62533 - ANR Pipeline Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and ANR's... staff may, pursuant to section 157.205 of the Commission's Regulations under the NGA (18 CFR 157.205... request shall be treated as an application for authorization pursuant to section 7 of the NGA....

  6. 78 FR 14531 - ANR Storage Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... 157.205 and 157.214 of the Commission's regulations under the Natural Gas Act (NGA). ANR Storage seeks... the NGA (18 CFR 157.205) a protest to the request. If no protest is filed within the time allowed... section 7 of the NGA. The Commission strongly encourages electronic filings of comments, protests,...

  7. Lopinavir/Ritonavir versus Lamivudine peri-exposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV-1 transmission by breastfeeding: the PROMISE-PEP trial Protocol ANRS 12174

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Postnatal transmission of HIV-1 through breast milk remains an unsolved challenge in many resource-poor settings where replacement feeding is not a safe alternative. WHO now recommends breastfeeding of infants born to HIV-infected mothers until 12 months of age, with either maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) or peri-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in infants using nevirapine. As PEP, lamivudine showed a similar efficacy and safety as nevirapine, but with an expected lower rate of resistant HIV strains emerging in infants who fail PEP, and lower restrictions for future HIV treatment. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is an attractive PEP candidate with presumably higher efficacy against HIV than nevirapine or lamivudine, and a higher genetic barrier to resistance selection. It showed an acceptable safety profile for the treatment of very young HIV-infected infants. The ANRS 12174 study aims to compare the risk of HIV-1 transmission during and safety of prolonged infant PEP with LPV/r (40/10 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg and 80/20 mg twice daily if >4 kg) versus Lamivudine (7,5 mg twice daily if 2-4 kg, 25 mg twice daily if 4-8 kg and 50 mg twice daily if >8 kg) from day 7 until one week after cessation of BF (maximum 50 weeks of prophylaxis) to prevent postnatal HIV-1 acquisition between 7 days and 50 weeks of age. Methods The ANRS 12174 study is a multinational, randomised controlled clinical trial conducted on 1,500 mother-infant pairs in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. We will recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) until 26th week of life and cessation of breastfeeding at a maximum of 49 weeks in both trial arms. HIV-uninfected infants at day 7 (± 2 days) born to HIV-1 infected mothers not eligible for HAART who choose to breastfeed their infants. The primary endpoint is the acquisition of HIV-1 (as assessed by HIV-1 DNA PCR) between day 7 and 50 weeks of age. Secondary endpoints are safety (including resistance, adverse events and

  8. Melting Relations of Multicomponent Carbonate System MgCO3 - FeCO3- CaCO3- Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Litvin, Yuriy; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Zakharchenko, Egor

    2014-05-01

    Considerable attention is focused on high-pressure high-temperature experimental study of melting phase relations of carbonates which were involved into a 'super-deep' diamond genesis. High-pressure stability of carbonate melts and their role in 'ultra-deep' diamonds genesis are most essential. Experimental study of melting relations of multicomponent carbonate system was carried out using multi-anvil press at the pressures 12 - 23 GPa and temperatures 800 to 1650 oC. Chemical compositions of starting carbonate system used for melting experiment were prepared by mixing: FeCO3 - 26,00; MgCO3- 26,00; CaCO3 - 25,00; Na2CO3 - 23,00 wt %. A region of partial melting for the system is experimentally determined. The partial melting field is arranged between low-temperature boundary of eutectics melting (solidus line) of the multicomponent carbonate and the boundary of complete melting (liquidus line) at higher temperature. From experimental observations, a Mg-Fe carbonate solid solution is the liquidus phase. At temperature lowering, the assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + L (liquid) is formed. Then, the invariant eutectic assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2+ L (liquid) which is determining for subsolidus assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2 is formed. Next to liquidus line is one-phase field of completely miscible multicomponent carbonate melt. On the whole, the results demonstrate phase relations of solid carbonates and multicomponent carbonate liquid in the immediate vicinity to the low-temperature melting boundary. The early melting of the multicomponent carbonate system is compatible with the lower mantle geothermal conditions because the primary melting temperatures are noticeably below than the geothermal values. It is significant that multicomponent carbonate melts are stable and completely miscible under conditions as partial so complete melting. Thus, high-pressure high-temperature experimental data demonstrate

  9. GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) VERIFICATION GUIDELINE SERIES: ANR Pipeline Company PARAMETRIC EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEM (PEMS) VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the Parametric Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) manufactured by ANR Pipeline Company, a subsidiary of Coastal Corporation, now El Paso Corporation. The PEMS predicts carbon doixide (CO2...

  10. Factors associated with smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    França, Samires Avelino de Souza; Neves, Ana Ligian Feitosa das; de Souza, Tatiane Andressa Santos; Martins, Nandara Celana Negreiros; Carneiro, Saul Rassy; Sarges, Edilene do Socorro Nascimento Falcão; de Souza, Maria de Fátima Amine Houat

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with smoking abstinence among patients who were treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation. METHODS This cross-sectional study examined the medical records of 532 patients treated in a reference unit for smoking cessation in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil, between January 2010 and June 2012. Sociodemographic variables and those related to smoking history and treatment were analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 50 years; 57.0% of the patients were women. The mean tobacco load was 30 packs/year, and the mean smoking duration was approximately 32 years. Most patients remained in treatment for four months. The rate of smoking abstinence was 75.0%. Regression analysis indicated that maintenance therapy, absence of relapse triggers, and lower chemical dependence were significantly associated with smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS The smoking abstinence rate observed was 75.0%. The cessation process was associated with several aspects, including the degree of chemical dependence, symptoms of withdrawal, and period of patient follow-up in a multidisciplinary treatment program. Studies of this nature contribute to the collection of consistent epidemiological data and are essential for the implementation of effective smoking prevention and cessation strategies. PMID:25741649

  11. Role of Traditional Risk Factors and Antiretroviral Drugs in the Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease, ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, France, 2004–2012

    PubMed Central

    Morlat, Philippe; Vivot, Alexandre; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Asselineau, Julien; Déti, Edouard; Gerard, Yann; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Neau, Didier; Bonnet, Fabrice; Chêne, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of antiretroviral drugs (ART), HIV-related and traditional risk factors on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-infected patients. Design Prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-infected patients from 2004 to 2012. Methods CKD was defined using MDRD equation as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/mn/1.73 m2 at 2 consecutive measurements ≥3 months apart. Poisson regression models were used to study determinants of CKD either measured at baseline or updated. ART exposure was classified as ever or never. We additionally tested the role of tenofovir (TDF), whether or not prescribed concomitantly with a Protease Inhibitor (PI), taking into account the cumulative exposure to the drug. Results 4,350 patients (74% men) with baseline eGFR>60 ml/mn/1.73 m2 were followed for a median of 5.8 years. At the end of follow-up, 96% had received ART, one third of them (35%) jointly received TDF and a PI. Average incidence rate of CKD was 0.95% person-years of follow-up. Incidence of CKD was higher among women (IRR = 2.2), older patients (>60 y vs <45 y: IRR = 2.5 and 45–60 y: IRR = 1.7), those with diabetes (IRR = 1.9), high blood pressure (IRR = 1.5), hyperlipidemia (IRR = 1.5), AIDS stage (IRR = 1.4), low baseline eGFR (IRR = 15.8 for 6090 and IRR = 7.1 for 70500/mm3 (IRR = 2.5), and exposure to TDF (IRR = 2.0). Exposure to TDF was even strongly associated with CKD when co-administered with PIs (IRR = 3.1 vs 1.3 when not, p<0,001). A higher risk of CKD was found when tenofovir exposure was >12 months [IRR = 3.0 with joint PIs vs 1.3 without (p<0.001)]. A vast majority of those developing CKD (76.6%) had a baseline eGFR between 60 and 80 ml/mn/1.73 m2. Conclusion In patients with eGFR between 60 and 80 mL/min/1.73 m2, a thorough control of CKD risk factors is warranted. The use of TDF, especially when co-administered with PIs, should be mentioned as a relative contraindication in presence of at least one of these risk factors. PMID:23776637

  12. Preventing Relapse Following Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Kirouac, Megan; Marlatt, G. Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Long-term smoking cessation can drastically reduce people’s risk for developing smoking-related disease. The research literature points to a need for clearer operationalization and differentiation between smoking cessation and relapse prevention interventions and outcomes. That said, extensive meta-analyses and research studies have indicated that there are various efficacious smoking interventions that can both support smoking cessation and relapse prevention efforts. Specifically, behavioral treatments, relapse prevention psychotherapy, pharmacologic interventions, motivational enhancement, smoking reduction to quit, brief advice, alternative intervention modes (telephone, Internet, computer), self-help, and tailored treatments can help prepare smokers for longer-term abstinence. Although these methods vary on reach, they are relatively efficacious, particularly in combined formats. PMID:26550097

  13. Smoking cessation treatment for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Julie P; Timpe, Erin M; Lubsch, Lisa

    2010-10-01

    Cigarette smoking in the adolescent population remains a public health concern. A significant portion of the adolescent population currently uses tobacco. Nicotine is particularly addicting in adolescents, and quitting is difficult. The goals for adolescent cigarette smoking efforts must include both primary prevention and smoking cessation. Bupropion and nicotine replacement therapies-including nicotine patches, gum, and nasal spray-have been studied to a limited extent in the adolescent population. Varenicline has not been evaluated as a treatment modality in adolescents. Long-term quit rates in the pharmacotherapy trials have not been optimal; however, decreases in cigarettes smoked per day have been observed. Several evidencebased guidelines include recommendations for smoking cessation in adolescents that include counseling and pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy may be instituted for some adolescents in addition to counseling and behavioral interventions. Therapy should be individualized, based on smoking patterns, patient preferences, and concomitant disease states. Smoking cessation support for parents should be instituted as well. The pharmacist can play a large role in helping the adolescent quit smoking. Further studies evaluating pharmacotherapy options for smoking cessation in adolescents are necessary. If pharmacotherapy is used, it should be individualized and combined with psychosocial and behavioral interventions. PMID:22477813

  14. Cessation of growth in crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcón Rodríguez, C.; Aguilera Morales, S.; Falcón Rodríguez, F.

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model that explains the cessation of growth of protein crystals as a consequence of the increment of bond weakness between adjacent protein molecules is presented. It is assumed that the main factor increasing the bond weakness is the concentration of precipitating salts generally used in protein crystal growth practice.

  15. Understanding Smoking Cessation in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Tresza D.; Greiner, K. Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Jeffries, Shawn K.; Mussulman, Laura M.; Casey, Genevieve N.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Rural communities are adversely impacted by increased rates of tobacco use. Rural residents may be exposed to unique communal norms and other factors that influence smoking cessation. Purpose: This study explored facilitating factors and barriers to cessation and the role of rural health care systems in the smoking-cessation process.…

  16. 30 CFR 843.11 - Cessation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cessation orders. 843.11 Section 843.11 Mineral... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT § 843.11 Cessation orders. (a)(1) An authorized representative of the Secretary shall immediately order a cessation of surface coal mining and...

  17. 30 CFR 843.11 - Cessation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cessation orders. 843.11 Section 843.11 Mineral... INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT § 843.11 Cessation orders. (a)(1) An authorized representative of the Secretary shall immediately order a cessation of surface coal mining and...

  18. CaCO3 and SrCO3 bioprecipitation by fungi isolated from calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianwei; Csetenyi, Laszlo; Paton, Graeme Iain; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    The urease-positive fungi Pestalotiopsis sp. and Myrothecium gramineum, isolated from calcareous soil, were examined for their properties of CaCO3 and SrCO3 biomineralization. After incubation in media amended with urea and CaCl2 and/or SrCl2 , calcite (CaCO3 ), strontianite (SrCO3 ), vaterite in different forms [CaCO3 , (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 ] and olekminskite [Sr(Sr,Ca)(CO3 )2 ] were precipitated, and fungal 'footprints' were observed on mineral surfaces. The amorphous precipitate mediated by Pestalotiopsis sp. grown with urea and equivalent concentrations of CaCl2 and SrCl2 was identified as hydrated Ca and Sr carbonates by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Liquid media experiments showed M. gramineum possessed the highest Sr(2+) removal ability, and ∼ 49% of supplied Sr(2+) was removed from solution when grown in media amended with urea and 50 mM SrCl2 . Furthermore, this organism could also precipitate 56% of the available Ca(2+) and 28% of the Sr(2+) in the form of CaCO3 , SrCO3 and (Cax Sr1-x )CO3 when incubated in urea-amended media and equivalent CaCl2 and SrCl2 concentrations. This is the first report of biomineralization of olekminskite and coprecipitation of Sr into vaterite mediated by fungi. These findings suggest that urease-positive fungi could play an important role in the environmental fate, bioremediation or biorecovery of Sr or other metals and radionuclides that form insoluble carbonates. PMID:26119362

  19. [Clinical and biological effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in the ANRS 1215 cohort].

    PubMed

    De Beaudrap, P; Diouf, A; Bousso Niang, K

    2014-10-01

    In 1998, the cohort ANRS 1215 was launched in Senegal with one of the first African antiretroviral treatment programs. Four hundred forty four HIV-infected adults started on ART were included between 1998 and 2004, and followed up to 2010. Mortality before 6 months was 15.6/100 person-year (PY) and associated to the initial disease severity. It decreased to 3.36/100 PY thereafter. The cumulative risks of virologic failure at 60 months and of drug resistance at 48 months were 25% and 16%, respectively. PMID:24619515

  20. [Smoking cessation and social deprivation].

    PubMed

    Merson, F; Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Fieulaine, N

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is a major of public health policy issue; one in two lifelong smokers will die from a disease related to tobacco use. In France, smoking is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths every year. The benefits linked to stopping smoking include reduced mortality and morbidity related to the use of tobacco. Recent data show an increase in the prevalence of smoking in the lowest socioeconomic population. Tobacco control needs a better understanding of the determinants of smoking in this population, which are also factors in the failure of cessation attempts. Based on international literature, this review specifies the educational and socioeconomic factors involved in tobacco smoking and in the result of an attempt to quit. Its aim is to propose ways to improve the management of smoking cessation in a socially deprived population. PMID:25496789

  1. [Smoking cessation using nicotine gum].

    PubMed

    Schioldborg, P

    1990-04-10

    Smoking cessation in matched groups with (n = 54) versus without (n = 63) nicotine gum took place in order to test the gum with regard to abstinence rate and experienced value. In all, 71% quit smoking, 23% reduced consumption to half, while in 6% there was no change. The frequency was approximately even in the two groups. One month later, 79% of the quitters in the nicotine gum group still remained abstinent, compared with 54% in the control group (p less than 0.05). Six months later these frequencies were reduced to 34% and 20% respectively. Side effects were reported among one third of the users (aching of the jaw, sore throat), while two thirds found the gum useful. These persons found it hard to be without the gum, and that it reduced the craving for tobacco. In other words, it renders smoking cessation more certain. PMID:2333643

  2. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed. PMID:18552073

  3. Pharmacogenetics of smoking cessation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Gustavo L; Dobler, Cristina J; Bizarro, Lisiane; Bau, Claiton H D

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine dependence is a major health problem, with a large amount of smoking-related premature deaths and disabilities. The dependence mechanism of nicotine is especially complex and is under strong genetic influence. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that genetic polymorphisms influencing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nicotine may have great potential for aiding smoking treatment. There are more than 30 association studies and one genome-wide association study (GWAS) between genetic polymorphisms and smoking cessation following nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and/or bupropion therapy. However, only a few candidate genes or regions were analyzed more than twice and even these genes require additional investigations in different therapeutic schemes. There are a growing number of new pharmacologic options that have not been pharmacogenetically assessed according to published literature. In addition, molecular genetics studies are needed to assess the functional mechanisms of some putative association results. Taken together, the preliminary findings are promising but raise the need for new studies with adequate sample sizes and adjustment for several potential confounding factors frequently neglected, such as comorbidity and sociodemographic factors. The current state of the art in the field encourages an optimist view that personalized treatment approaches may become possible. However, the current scientific evidence still does not support the use of pharmacogenetic tests in routine smoking cessation therapy. PMID:19475569

  4. Stabilization of Superoxide and CO3- Radicals through Crystalliation of CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Kazuhide; Ikeya, Motoji

    1993-08-01

    Unstable superoxide radicals (ga{=}2.010, gb{=}2.064, gc{=}2.049, and gd{=}2.006) and CO3- hole centers (gx{=}2.017, gy{=}2.011, and gz{=}2.002) were stabilized in CaCO3 when the inorganic material was crystallized from radical solution. The radicals surrounded by the lattice give strong electron spin resonance (ESR) signals at room temperature. The signal intensities of superoxide and CO3- radicals generated in H2O2 solution and doped in CaCO3 are much stronger than those obtained by adsorption. The color of radical-doped CaCO3 is different from that of the radical-adsorbed one. On heating the samples, the spectrum and the color of the radical-doped CaCO3 powder changed. The effects of impurities on the spectrum of radical-doped inorganic materials are studied. Some doping experiments have been conducted using other inorganic materials.

  5. TRICARE: smoking cessation program. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-02-27

    This final rule implements Section 713 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2009. Section 713 states the Secretary shall establish a smoking cessation program under the TRICARE program. The smoking cessation program under TRICARE shall, at a minimum, include the following: The availability, at no cost to the beneficiary, of pharmaceuticals used for smoking cessation, with the limitation on the availability of such pharmaceuticals to the mail-order pharmacy program under the TRICARE program; smoking cessation counseling; access to a toll-free quit line 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; access to print and Internet web-based tobacco cessation material. Per the statute, Medicare-eligible beneficiaries are excluded from the TRICARE smoking cessation program. PMID:23476993

  6. Stabilization of superoxide and CO(-)3 radicals through crystallization of CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Kazuhide; Ikeya, Motoji

    1993-08-01

    Unstable superoxide radicals (g(sub a) = 2.010, g(sub b) = 2.064, g(sub c) = 2.049, and g(sub d) = 2.066) and CO(-)3 hole centers (g(sub x) = 2.017, g(sub y) = 2.011, and g(sub z) = 2.002) were stabilized in CaCO3 when the inorganic material was crystallized from radical solution. The radicals surrounded by the lattice give strong electron spin resonance (ESR) signals at room temperature. The signal intensities of superoxide and CO(-)3 radicals generated in H2O2 solution and doped in CaCO are much stronger than those obtained by adsorption. The color of radical-doped CaCO3 is different from that of the radical-adsorbed one. On heating the samples, the spectrum and the color of the radical-doped CaCO3 powder changed. The effects of impurities on the spectrum of radical-doped inorganic materials are studied. Some doping experiments have been conducted using other inorganic materials.

  7. In the Clinic. Smoking Cessation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish S; Steinberg, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of smoking cessation, focusing on health consequences of smoking, prevention of smoking-related disease, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:26926702

  8. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  9. μ +-SR studies of the weak ferromagnets CoCO 3 and NiCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, T.; Blundell, S. J.; Pratt, F. L.; Kurmoo, M.

    2003-02-01

    We present the results of zero-field μ +-SR measurements on CoCO 3 and NiCO 3. Both compounds are rhombohedral antiferromagnets which exhibit a spontaneous weak magnetisation below 22.2 and 17.2 K, respectively. This arises due to an anisotropic superexchange (Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya) interaction. We have studied the temperature dependence of the internal field in the ordered state and the magnetic fluctuations in the paramagnetic state. We describe the possible muon-site obtained from dipolar-field calculations.

  10. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Jawad, Mohammed; Jawad, Sena; Ward, Kenneth D; Eissenberg, Thomas; Asfar, Taghrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL, using variant terms and spellings (‘waterpipe’ or ‘narghile’ or ‘arghile’ or ‘shisha’ or ‘goza’ or ‘narkeela’ or ‘hookah’ or ‘hubble bubble’). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. Selection criteria We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or

  11. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  12. 30 CFR 843.11 - Cessation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cessation orders. 843.11 Section 843.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT § 843.11 Cessation orders. (a)(1) An authorized representative of the...

  13. 30 CFR 843.11 - Cessation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cessation orders. 843.11 Section 843.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES FEDERAL ENFORCEMENT § 843.11 Cessation orders. (a)(1) An authorized representative of the...

  14. NCI launches smoking cessation support for teens

    Cancer.gov

    A new effort to help teens quit smoking will use one of today’s teen’s most constant companions—the mobile phone. Developed by smoking cessation experts, SmokefreeTXT is a free text message cessation service that provides 24/7 encouragement, advice, and

  15. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  16. The system MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa: Phase relations and significance for the genesis of ultradeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, A. V.; Solopova, N. A.; Dubrovinsky, L. S.; Litvin, Yu. A.

    2015-09-01

    Physical-chemical experimental studies at 12-23 GPa of phase relationships within four-members carbonate system MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 and its marginal system MgCO3-FeCO3-Na2CO3 were carried out. The systems are quite representative for a set of carbonate phases from inclusions in diamonds within transitional zone and lower mantle. PT-phase diagrams of multicomponent carbonate systems are suggested. PT parameters of boundaries of their eutectic melting (solidus), complete melting (liquids) are established. These boundaries define area of partial melting. Carbonate melts are stable, completely mixable, and effective solvents of elemental carbon thus defining the possibility of ultra-deep diamonds generation.

  17. Tobacco Cessation Interventions for Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Hemsing, Natalie; Greaves, Lorraine; Poole, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Despite high rates of smoking among some subgroups of women, there is a lack of tailored interventions to address smoking cessation among women. We identify components of a women-centered approach to tobacco cessation by analyzing 3 bodies of literature: sex and gender influences in tobacco use and addiction; evidence-based tobacco cessation guidelines; and best practices in delivery of women-centered care. Programming for underserved women should be tailored, build confidence and increase motivation, integrate social justice issues and address inequities, and be holistic and comprehensive. Addressing the complexity of women’s smoking and tailoring appropriately could help address smoking among subpopulations of women. PMID:27226783

  18. Therapy for Specific Problems: Youth Tobacco Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Susan J.; Mermelstein, Robin J.; Sporer, Amy K.

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States. The majority of children smoke their first cigarette in early adolescence, and many older teens have well-established dependence on nicotine. Efforts to promote and support smoking cessation among these youth smokers are critical. The available experimental studies of youth cessation interventions find that behavioral interventions increase the chances of youth smokers achieving successful cessation. Currently there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments with youth smokers. Many innovative studies have been compromised by challenges in recruiting sufficient numbers of youth, obtaining approval for waivers of parental consent, and high attrition in longitudinal studies. Key areas for future work include bridging the fields of adolescent development and treatment design, matching treatments to developmental trajectories of smoking behavior, better understanding treatment processes and treatment moderators, and building demand for evidence-based cessation treatments. PMID:19035825

  19. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Tønnesen, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated part of future lung cancer screening trials. PMID:27195275

  20. A smoking cessation pilot program.

    PubMed

    Serxner, S; Adams, V G; Hundahl, L S; Lau, S; Adessa, C J; Hopkins, D

    1993-10-01

    National health-care costs are continuing to climb and employers in Hawaii and across the nation are forced to increase their share of the burden. To limit these costs, worksite health promotion programs are increasing in number and in scope. Smoking control programs in particular now rank as the most prevalent type of worksite program; as the disability, absenteeism, and early death on the part of smokers have been well-documented as contributing to the cost of health care. Our research describes a year-long, pilot smoking-cessation program implemented at Hawaiian Telephone Company. Our program used a combination of behavioral-modification, social support and incentives technique to assist people to stop smoking or to maintain their nonsmoking behavior. The 12 volunteer participants provided a multiethnic, long-term, heavy smoker employee sample. Survey results at 1 year demonstrated that 4 of them quit smoking (quit rate = 50%), 2 reduced their tobacco intake, 2 dropped out of the program and continued to smoke. The 4 who had entered the program for maintenance purposes remained smoke-free. Cost-benefit analysis yielded conservative estimates indicating that the program had paid for itself and saved an additional $350 a year per participant who remained a nonsmoker. PMID:8270417

  1. Chronic illness and smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Schlundt, David; Larson, Celia; Wang, Hong; Brown, Anne; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is among the leading causes of premature mortality and preventable death in the United States. Although smoking contributes to the probability of developing chronic illness, little is known about the relationship between quitting smoking and the presence of chronic illness. The present study investigated the association between diagnoses of one or more chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, or high cholesterol) and smoking status (former or current smoker). Methods The data analyzed were a subset of questions from a 155-item telephone-administered community survey that assessed smoking status, demographic characteristics, and presence of chronic disease. The study sample consisted of 3,802 randomly selected participants. Results Participants with diabetes were more likely to report being former smokers, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, whereas having hypertension or high cholesterol was not associated significantly with smoking status. The likelihood of being a former smoker did not increase as number of diagnosed chronic diseases increased. Participants who were women, older (aged 65+), or single were significantly less likely to be former smokers. Participants with at least a college degree, those with incomes of US$50,000+, and those who were underweight or obese were more likely to be former smokers. Discussion These findings were inconsistent with research that has suggested that having a chronic illness or experiencing a serious medical event increases the odds of smoking cessation. Supporting prior research, we found that being male, having a higher income, and being obese were associated with greater likelihood of being a former smoker. PMID:19516050

  2. HIV preventive vaccine research at the ANRS: the lipopeptide vaccine approach.

    PubMed

    Gahery, Hanne; Choppin, Jeannine; Bourgault, Isabelle; Fischer, Elizabeth; Maillère, Bernard; Guillet, Jean-Gèrard

    2005-01-01

    The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/AIDS epidemic is of unprecedented gravity and is spreading rapidly, notably in the most disadvantaged regions of the world. The search for a preventive vaccine is thus an absolute priority. For over 10 years the ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA) has been committed to an original programme combining basic science and clinical research. The HIV preventive vaccine research programme includes upstream research for the definition of immunogens, animal models, and clinical research to evaluate candidate vaccines. In 2004, most researchers believed that it should be possible to obtain partial vaccine protection through the induction of a strong and multiepitopic cellular response. Since 1992, 15 phase I and II clinical trials have been established with the aim of evaluating the safety of candidate vaccines and their capacity to induce cellular immune responses. The candidate vaccines tested were recombinant canarypox viruses (ALVAC) containing sequences coding for certain viral proteins, utilised alone or combined with other immunogens (whole or truncated envelope proteins). An original strategy, based on the use of lipopeptides, is also under development. These vaccines comprise synthetic fragments of HIV proteins associated with lipids that facilitate the induction of a cellular immune response. These approaches have within a short time allowed the assessment of a prime-boost strategy combining a viral vector and lipopeptides. PMID:16128266

  3. Drug use in prisons: strategies for harm reduction (ANRS-PRIDE Program).

    PubMed

    Michel, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    The existence of risky practices related to drug use inside prisons is a reality everywhere and is a major issue for the community as a whole. The level of implementation of harm reduction (HR) measures recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is very often poor and reveals inadequate concern about public health issues in the prison environment, without any respect for the principle of equivalence for prevention and health assistance with the general community. In 2009, the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) developed a comprehensive research program focusing on the prevention of infectious risks in prison settings. Different steps were defined and scheduled, and included i) an inventory of harm reduction (HR) measures, ii) a qualitative survey on the reality of risky practices, iii) an assessment of the social acceptability of HR measures, and iv) an intervention trial exploring the feasibility of upgrading existing HR strategies. A progressive implementation of this program has shown it is feasible, but in France, it requires tenacity, simple long-term objectives, support from a scientific authority, pedagogical interventions for all involved, as well as constant discussion with the authorities. The implementation of this program in other countries is equally simple to manage. PMID:27383342

  4. Characterizing Internet Searchers of Smoking Cessation Information

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amanda L

    2006-01-01

    Background The Internet is a viable channel to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatment that has the potential to make a large population impact on reducing smoking prevalence. There is high demand for smoking cessation information and support on the Internet. Approximately 7% (10.2 million) of adult American Internet users have searched for information on quitting smoking. Little is known about these individuals, their smoking status, what type of cessation services they are seeking on the Internet, or how frequently these searches for cessation information are conducted. Objective The primary goal of this study was to characterize individuals who search for smoking cessation information on the Internet to determine appropriate triage and treatment strategies. The secondary goal was to estimate the incidence of searches for cessation information using publicly available search engine data. Methods We recruited individuals who clicked on a link to a leading smoking cessation website (QuitNet) from within the results of a search engine query. Individuals were “intercepted” before seeing the QuitNet home page and were invited to participate in the study. Those accepting the invitation were routed to an online survey about demographics, smoking characteristics, preferences for specific cessation services, and Internet search patterns. To determine the generalizability of our sample, national datasets on search engine usage patterns, market share, and keyword rankings were examined. These datasets were then used to estimate the number of queries for smoking cessation information each year. Results During the 10-day study period, 2265 individuals were recruited and 29% (N = 655) responded. Of these, 59% were female and overall tended to be younger than the previously characterized general Internet population. Most (76%) respondents were current smokers; 17% had quit within the last 7 days, and 7% had quit more than 7 days ago. Slightly more than half of

  5. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention - A Review.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Sabiha Shaheen; Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A's and 5 R's approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  6. Smoking cessation in Asians: focus on varenicline

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dan; Chu, Shuilian; Wang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is a modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and many other diseases. Given the large population size and high prevalence of smoking in Asia, successful smoking cessation could potentially prevent the large number of premature deaths in Asians. However, most dependent smokers cannot successfully quit smoking due to nicotine addiction, and they need professional help and smoking cessation therapies. Varenicline is a highly selective partial agonist for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4β2 subtype, which is believed to be responsible for mediating the reinforcing properties of nicotine. This article is a narrative review, which summarizes the smoking cessation efficacy, side effects, and cost utilities of varenicline in Asians. From this review, we conclude that varenicline is an effective medication that could assist smoking cessation in the Asian populations. The adverse events of varenicline are tolerable, and the most common events were nausea and abnormal dreams. Both the efficacy and tolerance of varenicline in Asians are similar to that in Western populations. Considering the cost utilities, varenicline should be recommended for use in smoking cessation and be covered by medical insurance in most Asian countries. PMID:25926724

  7. Correlates of Cessation Success among Romanian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tobacco smoking and its consequences are a serious public health problem in Romania. Evidence-based data on factors associated with successful smoking cessation are crucial to optimize tobacco control. The aim of the study was to determine the sociodemographic and other factors associated with smoking cessation success among adults. Materials and Methods. Data was from a sample of 4,517 individuals derived from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). GATS is a cross-sectional, nationally representative household survey implemented in Romania in 2011. Data was analyzed with logistic regression. Results. Among females, the quit rate was 26.3% compared with 33.1% in males (P < 0.02). We found disparities in cessation success among the analyzed groups of respondents. Being economically active, being aged 40 and above, and having an awareness of smoking health consequences were associated with long-term quitting smoking among men, while initiating smoking at a later age increased the odds of quitting smoking among women. However, cohabitation with nonsmokers was the strongest predictor of successful cessation among both genders. Conclusion. Programs increasing quit rates and encourage cessation among groups less likely to quit, adopting voluntary smoke-free homes, and increasing the awareness of smoking and tobacco pollution risks are needed. PMID:24995319

  8. Strategies to promote smoking cessation among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Johanne; Chadi, Nicholas

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, youth have been exposed to a broader spectrum of tobacco products including smokeless tobacco, hookah (water pipe) and e-cigarettes. Despite active local, provincial/territorial and national prevention strategies and legislated controls, thousands of teenagers develop an addiction to tobacco products each year. Current and available smoking cessation interventions for youth have the potential to help teens stop smoking and, as a result, greatly reduce Canada's health burden in the future. Paediatricians and health care professionals can play a key role in helping teens make informed decisions related to tobacco consumption and cessation. This practice point presents the evidence and rationales for smoking cessation interventions which have been studied in youth specifically, such as individual counselling, psychological support, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Interventions for which limited or conflicting data exist are also discussed. PMID:27429574

  9. Mucocutaneous complications of smoking cessation therapies.

    PubMed

    Ladizinski, Barry; Lee, Kachiu Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread knowledge of the morbidity and mortality associated with smoking, this addictive practice continues to be quite prevalent throughout the United States, as about one-fifth of the population smokes cigarettes. Because of the financial burden, and the significant psychosocial and health implications of smoking, many individuals are now attempting to quit, and often using some type of pharmacotherapy for assistance. Given that dermatologists will likely encounter patients using smoking cessation aids, it is important to be aware of their potential mucocutaneous adverse effects. We present a brief review of the dermatologic complications associated with smoking cessation therapies. Hopefully, this article will also remind dermatologists to encourage smoking cessation at every visit. PMID:22704708

  10. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Hydrogenation of CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 Equilibrium to CpCr(CO)3H

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, Jack R.; Spataru, Tudor; Camaioni, Donald M.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Li, Gang; Choi, Jongwook; Franz, James A.

    2014-05-26

    The kinetics of the hydrogenation of 2 CpCr(CO)3•/[CpCr(CO)3]2 to CpCr(CO)3H has been investigated. The reaction is second-order in Cr and first-order in H2, with a rate constant of 45 M 2s 1 at 25 °C in benzene. DFT calculations rule out an H2 complex as an intermediate, and suggest (a) end-on approach of H2 to one Cr of [CpCr(CO)3]2 as the Cr-Cr bond undergoes heterolytic cleavage, (b) heterolytic cleavage of the coordinated H2 between O and Cr, and (c) isomerization of the resulting O-protonated CpCr(CO)2(COH) to CpCr(CO)3H. The work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences; Battelle operates PNNL for DOE.

  11. Smoking cessation among Norwegian adolescents and young adults: preferred cessation methods.

    PubMed

    Wiium, Nora; Overland, Simon; Aarø, Leif E

    2011-04-01

    Despite generally declining smoking rates, particularly among young people, a large number of people remain smokers and many young people still pick up smoking. Helping smokers quit therefore remains a high priority for the public health sector. In the present study we examined adolescents and young adults' preferences regarding cessation methods and if these differed between genders and depended on smoking frequency. The data came from a nationally representative survey in Norway among 16-20 year olds. Only regular (weekly and daily) smokers were included in the statistical analyses (n = 509, 51% females). The findings suggest that the majority of both male (83.6%) and female (78.4%) smokers would prefer to quit smoking without help. More males than females reported that they would consider using snus as a cessation aid, while females more often reported willingness to attend cessation classes or use brochures and diaries as cessation aids. Both males and females had similar preferences albeit low, regarding the use of health services, nicotine gum or patches and internet and sms-services to quit smoking. Daily smokers would more often than weekly smokers prefer to attend cessation classes, seek help from health services, use nicotine gum or patches or use brochures and diaries. In contrast, weekly smokers preferred to use snus as a cessation aid more often than daily smokers. Identifying and making appropriate cessation methods attractive may lead to successful quitting and consequently public health gains. PMID:21054423

  12. Melting relations of multicomponent carbonate MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 system at 12-26 GPa: application to deeper mantle diamond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Litvin, Yuriy

    2015-11-01

    Carbonatic components of parental melts of the deeper mantle diamonds are inferred from their primary inclusions of (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)-carbonate minerals trapped at PT conditions of the Earth's transition zone and lower mantle. PT phase diagrams of MgCO3-FeCO3-CaCO3-Na2CO3 system and its ternary MgCO3-FeCO3-Na2CO3 boundary join were studied at pressures between 12 and 24 GPa and high temperatures. Experimental data point to eutectic solidus phase relations and indicate liquidus boundaries for completely miscible (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)- and (Mg, Fe, Ca)-carbonate melts. PT fields for partial carbonate melts associated with (Mg, Fe)-, (Ca, Fe, Na)-, and (Na2Ca, Na2Fe)-carbonate solid solution phases are determined. Effective nucleation and mass crystallization of deeper mantle diamonds are realized in multicomponent (Mg, Fe, Ca, Na)-carbonatite-carbon melts at 18 and 26 GPa. The multicomponent carbonate systems were melted at temperatures that are lower than the geothermal ones. This gives an evidence for generation of diamond-parental carbonatite melts and formation of diamonds at the PT conditions of transition zone and lower mantle.

  13. The ABC transporter AnrAB contributes to the innate resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to nisin, bacitracin, and various beta-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Collins, Barry; Curtis, Nicola; Cotter, Paul D; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul

    2010-10-01

    A mariner transposon bank was used to identify loci that contribute to the innate resistance of Listeria monocytogenes to the lantibiotic nisin. In addition to highlighting the importance of a number of loci previously associated with nisin resistance (mprF, virRS, and telA), a nisin-sensitive phenotype was associated with the disruption of anrB (lmo2115), a gene encoding the permease component of an ABC transporter. The contribution of anrB to nisin resistance was confirmed by the creation of nonpolar deletion mutants. The loss of this putative multidrug resistance transporter also greatly enhanced sensitivity to bacitracin, gallidermin, and a selection of β-lactam antibiotics. A comparison of the relative antimicrobial sensitivities of a number of mutants established the ΔanrB strain as being one of the most bacitracin-sensitive L. monocytogenes strains identified to date. PMID:20643901

  14. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Susan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated intrinsic-extrinsic model of motivation for smoking cessation using two samples (Ns=1,217 and 151) of smokers. Analysis on Reasons for Quitting scale supported intrinsic-extrinsic motivation distinction, defining four-factor model with two intrinsic and two extrinsic dimensions. Found that smokers with higher levels of intrinsic relative…

  15. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  16. Program Strategies for Adolescent Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, Deborah J.; Wider, Lottchen Crane; Hardin, Sally B.; Horrocks, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    School nurses who work with adolescents are in an ideal position to promote smoking cessation. This opportunity is important because research suggests teens who smoke are likely to become habitual smokers. This study characterizes adolescents' patterns and levels of smoking, describes adolescents' perceptions toward smoking, and delineates quit…

  17. Smoking Cessation in Chronically Ill Medical Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirota, Alan D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Followed eight male smokers with chronic pulmonary or cardiac disease through a smoking cessation program of gradual nicotine withdrawal, self-management, and relapse prevention. At one year, half remained abstinent, while relapsers smoked substantially less than before treatment. Reductions in carbon monoxide and thiocyanate levels were…

  18. Smokers’ Treatment Expectancies Predict Smoking Cessation Success

    PubMed Central

    Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Roos, Corey R.; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Smokers’ treatment expectancies may influence their choice of a particular medication as well as their medication experience. Aims This study examined the role of smokers’ treatment expectancies to their smoking cessation outcomes in a completed, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of naltrexone for smoking cessation, controlling for perceptions of treatment assignment. Methods Treatment seeking cigarette smokers (N = 315) were randomized to receive either naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in combination with nicotine patch and behavioral counseling. Expectancies for naltrexone as a smoking cessation aid were assessed at baseline and 4 weeks after the quit date. Results More positive baseline medication expectancies predicted higher quit rates at one month in the naltrexone (OR =1.45, p =.04) group but were associated with lower quit rates in the placebo group (OR =.66, p =.03). Maintaining and/or increasing positive medication expectancies in the first month of treatment was associated with better pill adherence during this interval in the naltrexone group (ps <.05). Positive baseline medication expectancies were also associated with the perception of having received naltrexone over placebo among all participants. Conclusions Positive medication expectancies in smokers may contribute to better treatment response. Assessing treatment expectancies and attempting to maintain or improve them may be important for the delivery, evaluation, and targeting of smoking cessation treatments.

  19. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as specified in, “Cigarette Required Warnings” (incorporated by reference at § 1141.12). (b) In meeting the smoking cessation needs of an individual caller, the smoking cessation assistance resource required to be referenced...

  20. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... warning shall include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as... smoking cessation needs of an individual caller, the smoking cessation assistance resource required to be... harms to health associated with cigarette smoking and the health benefits of quitting smoking;...

  1. 21 CFR 1141.16 - Disclosures regarding cessation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... include a reference to a smoking cessation assistance resource in accordance with, and as specified in, “Cigarette Required Warnings” (incorporated by reference at § 1141.12). (b) In meeting the smoking cessation needs of an individual caller, the smoking cessation assistance resource required to be referenced...

  2. Factors Associated with Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Elizabeth; Blatt, Kaitlin; Chen, Aimin; Van Hook, James; DeFranco, Emily A

    2016-05-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of various patient characteristics on early smoking cessation to better identify target populations for focused counseling and interventions. Study Design This study was a population-based retrospective cohort study of 1,003,532 Ohio live births more than 7 years (2006-2012). Women who quit smoking in the first trimester were compared with those who smoked throughout pregnancy. Logistic regression estimated the strength of association between patient factors and smoking cessation. Results The factors most strongly associated with early smoking cessation were non-white race and Hispanic ethnicity, at least some college education, early prenatal care, marriage, and breastfeeding. Numerous factors commonly associated with adverse perinatal outcomes were found to have a negative association with smoking cessation: low educational attainment, limited or late prenatal care, prior preterm birth, age < 20 years, age ≥ 35 years, and indicators of low SES. In addition, the heaviest smokers (≥ 20 cigarette/day) were least likely to quit (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.35; 95% confidence interval 0.34, 0.36). Conclusion Early prenatal care and initiation of breastfeeding before discharge from the hospital are associated with increased RR of quitting early in pregnancy by 52 and 99%, respectively. Public health initiatives and interventions should focus on the importance of early access to prenatal care and education regarding smoking cessation for these particularly vulnerable groups of women who are at inherently high risk of pregnancy complications. PMID:26692202

  3. Smoking Cessation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2015-08-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective strategy for slowing down the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and reducing mortality in the approximately 50% of patients with diagnosed COPD who continue to smoke. While behavioral interventions (including simple advice) have modest efficacy in improving smoking quit rates, the combination of counseling and pharmacotherapy is more effective than either alone. When combined with even brief counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion SR, and varenicline have all been shown to be effective in promoting smoking cessation and sustained abstinence in smokers with COPD to a degree comparable to that observed in the general smoking population. However, the recidivism rate is high after initial quitting so that at the end of 1 year, approximately 80% or more of patients are still smoking. Thus, new approaches to smoking cessation are needed. One approach is to combine different pharmacotherapies, for example, nicotine patch plus rapidly acting NRT (e.g., gum or nasal spray) and/or bupropion or even varenicline plus either NRT or bupropion, in a stepwise approach over a varying duration depending on the severity of nicotine dependence and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during the quit attempt, as proposed in the American College of Chest Physicians Tobacco Dependence Took Kit. Electronic (e)-cigarettes, which deliver vaporized nicotine without most of the noxious components in the smoke from burning tobacco cigarettes, also has potential efficacy as a smoking cessation aid, but their efficacy and safety as either substitutes for regular cigarettes or smoking cessation aids require additional study. This task is complicated because e-cigarettes are currently unregulated and hundreds of different brands are currently available. PMID:26238637

  4. Editorial: Smoking Cessation for Crohn's Disease: Clearing the Haze.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2016-03-01

    The TABACROHN Study Group conducted a multicenter prospective cohort study, demonstrating that smoking cessation improved the prognosis of Crohn's disease. Patients who continued to smoke were 50% more likely to relapse compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation reduced the risk of flaring, regardless of exposure to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents. Despite the evidence that smoking cessation is beneficial, many patients do not quit smoking after their diagnosis of Crohn's disease. Lack of awareness, physical addiction, and social context of smoking inhibit smoking cessation. In spite of this, comprehensive smoking cessation programs have been shown to be effective and reduce costs. PMID:27018116

  5. Interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients

    PubMed Central

    Rigotti, Nancy A; Clair, Carole; Munafò, Marcus R; Stead, Lindsay F

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking contributes to reasons for hospitalisation, and the period of hospitalisation may be a good time to provide help with quitting. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of interventions for smoking cessation that are initiated for hospitalised patients. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group register which includes papers identified from CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO in December 2011 for studies of interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients, using terms including (hospital and patient*) or hospitali* or inpatient* or admission* or admitted. Selection criteria Randomized and quasi-randomized trials of behavioural, pharmacological or multicomponent interventions to help patients stop smoking, conducted with hospitalised patients who were current smokers or recent quitters (defined as having quit more than one month before hospital admission). The intervention had to start in the hospital but could continue after hospital discharge. We excluded studies of patients admitted to facilities that primarily treat psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, studies that did not report abstinence rates and studies with follow-up of less than six months. Both acute care hospitals and rehabilitation hospitals were included in this update, with separate analyses done for each type of hospital. Data collection and analysis Two authors extracted data independently for each paper, with disagreements resolved by consensus. Main results Fifty trials met the inclusion criteria. Intensive counselling interventions that began during the hospital stay and continued with supportive contacts for at least one month after discharge increased smoking cessation rates after discharge (risk ratio (RR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27 to 1.48; 25 trials). A specific benefit for post-discharge contact compared with usual care was found in a subset of trials in which all participants received a counselling intervention in

  6. Rice-like hollow nano-CaCO3 synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulkeryildiz, Eda; Kilic, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Ekrem

    2016-09-01

    We have shown that Ca(OH)2 solution is a natural stabilizer for CaCO3 particles. We designed a CO2 bubbling crystallization reactor to produce nano-CaCO3 particles in homogenous size distribution without aggregation. In the experimental set-up, the crystallization region was separated from the stabilization region. The produced nanoparticles were removed from the crystallization region into the stabilization region before aggregation or crystal growth. It was shown that rice-like hollow nano-CaCO3 particles in about 250 nm in size were produced with almost monodispersed size distribution. The particles started to dissolve through their edges as CO2 bubbles were injected, which opened-up the pores inside the particles. At the late stages of crystallization, the open pores were closed as a result of dissolution-recrystallization of the newly synthesized CaCO3 particles. These particles were stable in Ca(OH)2 solution and no aggregation was detected. The present methodology can be used in drug encapsulation into inorganic CaCO3 particles for cancer treatment with some modifications.

  7. Pediatricians' Confidence and Behaviors in Smoking Cessation Promotion and Knowledge of the Smoking Cessation Trust

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Katharine; Kisely, Steve; Gastanaduy, Mariella; Urrego, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke exposure increases morbidity and mortality in children. Thirty-one percent of caregivers who accompany their children to the Ochsner Health Center for Children smoke, and none uses the services of the Smoking Cessation Trust (SCT), a free smoking cessation program for eligible Louisiana residents who began smoking before 1988. The objective of this study was 2-fold: first, to assess and compare pediatricians' confidence and behaviors in regard to smoking cessation promotion with caregivers, and second, to determine pediatricians' knowledge and comfort level with the SCT. Methods: Pediatricians were given a questionnaire to assess 12 parameters regarding their confidence and practice when screening, counseling, and referring caregivers to smoking cessation programs. Results: Thirty-six questionnaires were administered, of which 27 were completed (75%). Only 7.41% of respondents had formal training in smoking cessation, 18.52% had never heard of the SCT, and 92.59% do not refer to the SCT. All the pediatrician respondents stated that they were confident in their ability to screen for secondhand smoke exposure, 62.96% were confident in providing counseling, and 44.44% were confident in offering referrals. Most pediatricians very often or always screened for secondhand smoke exposure (77.78%); however, only 25.93% counseled smoking caregivers to quit, and only 11.11% provided a smoking cessation referral. Pediatricians stated that they were confident to screen, counsel, and refer caregivers; however, they were significantly less likely to report actually screening for secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05), counseling (P<0.05), and referring caregivers (P<0.05). Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase the rate by which pediatricians provide smoking cessation, counseling, and referrals to the SCT through education and training. PMID:27303221

  8. Alternative solution model for the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 - I. A ternary Bragg-Williams ordering model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSwiggen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The minerals of the ternary carbonate system CaCO3 - MgCO3 - FeCO3 represent a complex series of solid solutions and ordering states. An understanding of those complexities requires a solution model that can both duplicate the subsolidus phase relationships and generate correct values for the activities. Such a solution model must account for the changes in the total energy of the system resulting from a change in the ordering state of the individual constituents. Various ordering models have been applied to binary carbonate systems, but no attempts have previously been made to model the ordering in the ternary system. This study derives a new set of equations that allow for the equilibrium degree of order to be calculated for a system involving three cations mixing on two sites, as in the case of the ternary carbonates. The method is based on the Bragg-Williams approach. From the degree of order, the mole fractions of the three cations in each of the two sites can be determined. Once the site occupancies have been established, a Margules-type mixing model can be used to determine the free energy of mixing in the solid solution and therefore the activities of the various components. ?? 1993 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Simplicity sells: Making smoking cessation easier.

    PubMed

    Bonniot Saucedo, Catherine; Schroeder, Steven A

    2010-03-01

    Toll-free telephone quitlines are successful alternatives to direct clinician contact. In 2004, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services created a national quitline number, 1-800-QUIT-NOW. This enabled states without quitlines to establish them, giving free access to cessation services to every smoker in the U.S. It also created a new mechanism for national quitline marketing, employing simplified and streamlined approaches. PMID:20176313

  10. Tobacco cessation education for advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Diane; Zucker, Steven B; Stone, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The predicted shortfall of primary care physicians and the millions of newly insured beginning in 2014 call for an increase in the number of advanced practice nurses (APRNs). Advanced practice nurses can significantly improve their clients' quality of life and increase their life expectancy through tobacco cessation education. The purpose of this study was to educate APRN students on smoking information and techniques to assist clients with quitting smoking in the primary care setting. PMID:24867074

  11. Reasons for not using smoking cessation aids

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Beatrice; Brose, Leonie; Schumann, Anja; Ulbricht, Sabina; Meyer, Christian; Völzke, Henry; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Background Few smokers use effective smoking cessation aids (SCA) when trying to stop smoking. Little is known why available SCA are used insufficiently. We therefore investigated the reasons for not using SCA and examined related demographic, smoking behaviour, and motivational variables. Methods Data were collected in two population-based studies testing smoking cessation interventions in north-eastern Germany. A total of 636 current smokers who had never used SCA and had attempted to quit or reduce smoking within the last 12 months were given a questionnaire to assess reasons for non-use. The questionnaire comprised two subscales: "Social and environmental barriers" and "SCA unnecessary." Results The most endorsed reasons for non-use of SCA were the belief to be able to quit on one's own (55.2%), the belief that help is not necessary (40.1%), and the belief that smoking does not constitute a big problem in one's life (36.5%). One quarter of all smokers reported that smoking cessation aids are not helpful in quitting and that the aids cost too much. Smokers intending to quit agreed stronger to both subscales and smokers with lower education agreed stronger to the subscale "Social and environmental barriers". Conclusion Main reasons for non-use of SCA are being overly self-confident and the perception that SCA are not helpful. Future interventions to increase the use of SCA should address these reasons in all smokers. PMID:18430206

  12. Self-administered treatment for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Curry, Susan J; Ludman, Evette J; McClure, Jennifer

    2003-03-01

    Self-administered treatment for smoking cessation has the potential to reach a broad spectrum of the population of smokers. This article focuses on self-administration of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for smoking cessation. Evidence for the effectiveness of written manuals to self-administer behavioral treatment is mixed. There is no evidence that self-help manuals alone are effective. However, they do increase quit rates when combined with personalized adjuncts such as written feedback and outreach telephone counseling. Efficacy trials of first-line pharmacotherapies (nicotine gum, nicotine patch, and bupropion) result in doubling of cessation rates compared to placebo. It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacotherapies when self-administered under real-world conditions. The general consensus is that they improve quit rates, although poor compliance and early discontinuation reduce their effectiveness. Areas for further research include randomized trials of the use of new technologies (e.g., hand-held computers and the Internet) to disseminate self-administered treatments as well as improved surveillance of the use of self-administered treatment in population-based health surveys. PMID:12579547

  13. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation. PMID:26318743

  14. The decarbonation and heat capacity of ZnCO3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haselton, H.T.; Goldsmith, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The decarbonation curve for ZnCO3 has been determined in the pressure range 3-20 kbar by using a combination of cold-seal vessels and piston-cylinder apparatus with NaCl assemblies. Heat capacities for both synthetic and natural ZnCO3 samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry at temperatures ranging from 340 to 497 K. The results of these experiments indicate that the enthalpy of formation for smithsonite, ??Hf(1,298.15), is approximately -817. kJ/mol. which is about 4 kJ more negative than most tabulated values. ?? 1987.

  15. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    PubMed

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation. PMID:27580193

  16. Formation of carrageenan-CaCO3 bioactive membranes.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lucas F B; Maniglia, Bianca C; Pereira, Lourivaldo S; Tapia-Blácido, Delia R; Ramos, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    The high biocompatibility and resorbability of polymeric membranes have encouraged their use to manufacture medical devices. Here, we report on the preparation of membranes consisting of carrageenan, a naturally occurring sulfated polysaccharide that forms helical structures in the presence of calcium ions. We incorporated CaCO3 particles into the membranes to enhance their bioactivity and mechanical properties. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction data confirmed CaCO3 incorporation into the polymeric matrix. We tested the bioactivity of the samples by immersing them in a solution that mimics the ionic composition and pH of the human body fluid. The hybrid membranes generated hydroxyapatite, as attested by X-ray diffraction data. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopies aided investigation of membrane topography before and after CaCO3 deposition. The wettability and surface free energy, evaluated by contact angle measures, increased in the presence of CaCO3 particles. These parameters are important for membrane implantation in the body. Moreover, membrane stiffness was up to 110% higher in the presence of the inorganic particles, as revealed by Young's modulus. PMID:26478280

  17. Design and Syntheses of Three Novel Carbonate Halides: Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I, KBa2 (CO3 )2 F, and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lili; Yang, Yun; Dong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Bingbing; Wang, Ying; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2016-02-24

    Three new carbonate halides, Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I, KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F have been synthesized with hydrothermal and solid-state methods. Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I is the first product in the lead carbonate iodides family; KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F are the first two centrosymmetric compounds found in the alkaline-alkaline earth carbonate fluorides family. Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group C2/m, and exhibits a two- dimensional layered structure which is formed by [Cs4 Pb4 (CO3 )6 I2 ]∞ double-layers consisting of [Pb2 (CO3 )3 I]∞ single-layers bridged by the Cs atoms. KBa2 (CO3 )2 F and RbBa2 (CO3 )2 F, which are isostructural, crystallize in a trigonal crystal system with a centric space group of R3‾ featuring a honeycomb-like framework. First principle calculations indicate that Cs3 Pb2 (CO3 )3 I has a moderate birefringence and explain the difference between the band gaps of the title compounds from electron structures. The effects of cations and halogens on the structures and properties of the title compounds are also discussed. PMID:26822173

  18. Automated Tobacco Assessment and Cessation Support for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Graham W.; Marshall, James R.; Cummings, K. Michael; Zevon, Michael A.; Reed, Robert; Hysert, Pat; Mahoney, Martin C.; Hyland, Andrew J.; Nwogu, Chukwumere; Demmy, Todd; Dexter, Elisabeth; Kelly, Maureen; O’Connor, Richard J.; Houstin, Teresa; Jenkins, Dana; Germain, Pamela; Singh, Anurag K.; Epstein, Jennifer; Dobson Amato, Katharine A.; Reid, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco assessment and cessation support are not routinely included in cancer care. An automated tobacco assessment and cessation program was developed to increase the delivery of tobacco cessation support for cancer patients. METHODS A structured tobacco assessment was incorporated into the electronic health record at Roswell Park Cancer Institute to identify tobacco use in cancer patients at diagnosis and during follow-up. All patients who reported tobacco use within the past 30 days were automatically referred to a dedicated cessation program that provided cessation counseling. Data were analyzed for referral accuracy and interest in cessation support. RESULTS Between October 2010 and December 2012, 11,868 patients were screened for tobacco use, and 2765 were identified as tobacco users and were referred to the cessation service. In referred patients, 1381 of those patients received only a mailed invitation to contact the cessation service, and 1384 received a mailing as well as telephone contact attempts from the cessation service. In the 1126 (81.4%) patients contacted by telephone, 51 (4.5%) reported no tobacco use within the past 30 days, 35 (3.1%) were medically unable to participate, and 30 (2.7%) declined participation. Of the 1381 patients who received only a mailed invitation, 16 (1.2%) contacted the cessation program for assistance. Three questions at initial consult and follow-up generated over 98% of referrals. Tobacco assessment frequency every 4 weeks delayed referral in <1% of patients. CONCLUSIONS An automated electronic health record-based tobacco assessment and cessation referral program can identify substantial numbers of smokers who are receptive to enrollment in a cessation support service. PMID:24496870

  19. The compressibility of CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 liquids: application to natrocarbonatite and CO2-bearing nephelinite liquids from Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Mary Catherine; Lange, Rebecca A.; Ai, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    To constrain the compressibility of natrocarbonate liquids, sound-speed measurements were made on 11 liquids in the CaCO3-Li2CO3-Na2CO3-K2CO3 quaternary system from 808 to 1323 K at 1 bar with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer. CaCO3 concentrations range from 15 to 50 mol% in four of the experimental liquids. The sound-speed data for all liquids were converted to isothermal compressibility ( β T ), which were fit to an ideal mixing model with respect to composition; the average residual is 1.2 %. Fitted values (±1 σ) of the partial molar compressibility (10-2 GPa-1) at 1100 K were derived for CaCO3 (5.36 ± 0.13), Li2CO3 (8.09 ± 0.06), Na2CO3 (10.62 ± 0.07), and K2CO3 (14.09 ± 0.06); these values translate to bulk modulus values of 18.7, 12.4, 9.4, and 7.1 GPa, respectively, reflecting the relatively large compressibility of carbonate liquids. The data are additionally used to estimate the partial molar volume and compressibility of the CO2 component dissolved as carbonate in nephelinite liquids; the density of this dissolved component at 1423 K and 1 GPa ranges from 1.62, 1.71 to 1.83 g/cm3 when it is complexed with K+, Na+, and Ca2+, respectively, and is estimated to be ~2.05 and 2.14 g/cm3 when complexed with Fe2+ and Mg2+, respectively. The results from this study can be applied to natrocarbonate liquids, such as those erupted from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano in Africa, and indicate a melt density of ~2.19 g/cm3 at 1150 °C and 1 GPa, which is ~18 % less dense than the average melt density (~2.67 g/cm3) calculated for associated Mg-poor nephelinite liquids at the same conditions and volatile-free. However, the dissolution of 10.1 wt% H2O and 8.7 wt% CO2 in the average nephelinite melt (based on volatile contents reported in the literature for these magmas) reduces its density to ~2.14 g/cm3 at 1150 °C and 1 GPa, eliminating the buoyancy contrast with the natrocarbonate melt. In turn, it is highly likely that the natrocarbonatite melts contained

  20. Interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Judith; Chamberlain, Catherine; Dowswell, Therese; Oliver, Sandy; Oakley, Laura; Watson, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking in pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with complications in pregnancy, low birthweight, preterm birth and has serious long-term health implications for women and babies. Smoking in pregnancy is decreasing in high-income countries and increasing in low- to middle-income countries and is strongly associated with poverty, low educational attainment, poor social support and psychological illness. Objectives To assess the effects of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy on smoking behaviour and perinatal health outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group’s Trials Register (June 2008), EMBASE, PsycLIT, and CINAHL (all from January 2003 to June 2008). We contacted trial authors to locate additional unpublished data. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials where smoking cessation during pregnancy was a primary aim of the intervention. Data collection and analysis Trials were identified and data extracted by one person and checked by a second. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess the effect of risk of trial bias, intensity of the intervention and main intervention strategy used. Main results Seventy-two trials are included. Fifty-six randomised controlled trials (over 20,000 pregnant women) and nine cluster-randomised trials (over 5000 pregnant women) provided data on smoking cessation outcomes. There was a significant reduction in smoking in late pregnancy following interventions (risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 0.96), an absolute difference of six in 100 women who stopped smoking during pregnancy. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the combined data (I2 > 60%). In the trials with the lowest risk of bias, the interventions had less effect (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99), and lower heterogeneity (I2 = 36%). Eight trials of smoking relapse prevention

  1. Perceptions of Smoking Cessation Programs in Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Tina M.; Howell, Britteny M.; Haney, Alicia; Davis, Rian E.; Fields, Nell; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify perspectives on smoking cessation programs in Appalachian Kentucky, a region with particularly high smoking rates and poor health outcomes. Methods Insufficient existing research led us to conduct 12 focus groups (smokers and nonsmokers) and 23 key informant interviews. Results Several findings previously not described in this high-risk population include (1) transition from pro-tobacco culture toward advocacy for tobacco cessation approaches, (2) region-specific challenges to program access, and (3) strong and diverse social influences on cessation. Conclusions To capitalize on changes from resistance to support for smoking cessation, leaders should incorporate culturally appropriate programs and characteristics identified here. PMID:22370438

  2. Public policy to maximize tobacco cessation.

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daniel E; Boonn, Ann V

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco use kills more than 400,000 Americans every year. For smokers, quitting is the biggest step they can take to improve their health, but it is a difficult step. Fortunately, policy-based interventions can both encourage smokers to quit and help them succeed. Evidence shows that tobacco tax increases encourage smokers to quit-recent state and federal increases have created dramatic surges in calls to quitlines. Similarly, smokefree workplace laws not only protect workers and patrons from secondhand smoke but also encourage smokers to quit, help them succeed, and create a social environment less conducive to smoking. The impact of policy changes can be amplified by promoting quitting around the date they are implemented. Outreach to health practitioners can alert them to encourage their patients to quit. Earned and paid media can also be used to motivate smokers to quit when policy changes are put into effect. Although these policies and efforts regarding them can generate great demand for evidence-based cessation services such as counseling and medication, it is important to make these resources available for those wanting to quit. Public and private health insurance plans should provide coverage for cessation services, and states should invest tobacco tax and/or tobacco settlement dollars in smoking-cessation programs as recommended by the CDC. Finally, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has given the U.S. Food and Drug Administration new authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing, and to prevent tobacco companies from deceptively marketing new products that discourage smokers from quitting and keep them addicted. PMID:20176304

  3. Synthesis and photocatalytic property of multilayered Co3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong En; Ren, Li Zheng; Hao, Xiao Yun; Pan, Bin Bin; Wang, Ming Yan; Ma, Juan Juan; Li, Feng; Li, Shu An; Tong, Zhi Wei

    2015-11-01

    Co3O4 multilayered structures were successfully synthesized by a facile poly (ethylene glycol 20000) (PEG-20000) assisted hydrothermal technique in combination with calcination method. The final Co3O4 multilayered structures inherited perfectly the morphology of the preliminarily hydrothermal products. Experimental results obtained from the different growth stages demonstrate that the as-prepared precursor exhibit an interesting time-dependent evolution of building blocks, from urchin to multilayer. The possible formation mechanism for the hierarchical structures with various architectures is presented on account of the self-assembled growth induced by Ostwald ripening. Because of the unique structured composed of slices, the photocatalytic activity of the products was examined by measuring the photodecolourisation of methyl violet solution with ultraviolet radiation. The result shows that our products have a good photocatalytic activity.

  4. Observation of superficial antiferromagnetism in Co3O4 polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Dreifus, Driele; Chaves Pereira, Ernesto; Aparecido de Oliveira, Adilson Jesus

    2015-11-01

    We report on a systematic study about the magnetic properties of Co3O4 polycrystals with large size distribution (100-1200 nm) and the crystallite size of 68(4) nm on average. An antiferromagnetic transition at T N = 32 K, extensively reported in the literature for Co3O4, was observed. Furthermore, another transition at T t = 14 K, which is suppressed for H ≥ 35 kOe, was also identified. An increase in the magnetic susceptibility, as well as irreversibility between zero field cooled and field cooled data below T t were observed. The non-detection of a coercive field below T t, and the fact that T t and T N are independent from the driven frequencies in ac magnetic measurements as a function of temperature, confirm that both peaks are associated to antiferromagnetic transitions.

  5. The SUCCESS Project: The Effect of Program Format and Incentives on Participation and Cessation in Worksite Smoking Cessation Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hennrikus, Deborah J.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Lando, Harry A.; Murray, David M.; Brelje, Kerrin; Davidann, Beth; Baxter, Judith S.; Thai, Dzung; Vessey, John; Liu, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the effect of program format and incentives on participation and cessation in worksite smoking cessation programs. Methods. Twenty-four worksites were randomized to 6 conditions that differed in cessation program format and the use of incentives. Programs were offered for 18 months in each worksite. A total of 2402 cigarette smokers identified at baseline were surveyed 12 and 24 months later to assess participation in programs and cessation. Results. A total of 407 (16.9%) of the smoker cohort registered for programs; on the 12- and 24-month surveys, 15.4% and 19.4% of the cohort, respectively, reported that they had not smoked in the previous 7 days. Registration for programs in incentive sites was almost double that of no-incentive sites (22.4% vs 11.9%), but increased registration did not translate into significantly greater cessation rates. Program type did not affect registration or cessation rates. Conclusions. Although incentives increase rates of registration in worksite smoking cessation programs, they do not appear to increase cessation rates. Phone counseling seems to be at least as effective as group programs for promoting smoking cessation in worksites. PMID:11818305

  6. [Current therapeutic strategies in smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Borgne, Anne; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Berlin, Ivan

    2004-11-15

    Smoking is a behaviour maintained and enhanced by a dependence mainly induced by nicotine. Despite awareness and knowledge of the associated health risks many smokers find it considerably difficult to quit. The untoward effects of nicotine withdrawal such as apparition of depressive mood, or weight gain, etc. justify the numerous unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking. Treatments with demonstrated efficacy are available and international evidence-based recommendations for cessation interventions have been established. These are: brief advice, assessing the smoking status of each patient and encouraging cessation; nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) [transdermal patch, gum, sublingual tablet or inhalator to be used at sufficiently individualised doses combining, if necessary, two or more NRT products]; bupropion, a more recent treatment: psychotropic drug, a noradrenaline and dopamine re-uptake inhibitor more recently approved for marketing; behavioural and cognitive therapies on their own or combined with pharmacotherapy. Measuring nicotine dependence using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence may help to define the therapeutic strategy. It is obvious that therapies can only work for smokers who are motivated to stop smoking. Before reaching the decision to quit, the smoker goes through a process in the course of which the role of health professionals' advice is paramount. PMID:15655912

  7. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  8. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  9. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  10. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  11. 47 CFR 25.207 - Cessation of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cessation of emissions. 25.207 Section 25.207 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.207 Cessation of emissions. Space stations shall be made capable of ceasing...

  12. Behavioral Treatment Approaches to Prevent Weight Gain Following Smoking Cessation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstead, Olga A.

    Personality and physiological, cognitive, and environmental factors have all been suggested as critical variables in smoking cessation and relapse. Weight gain and the fear of weight gain after smoking cessation may also prevent many smokers from quitting. A sample of 45 adult smokers participated in a study in which three levels of preventive…

  13. Smoking Assessment and Cessation Skills in the Inpatient Medicine Clerkship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Alan L.; Kleinhenz, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of 61 inpatient medical writeups by 23 third year medicine clerks found smoking history notations in 74 percent but quantification of exposure much less commonly. None detailed patient addiction or willingness to quit, or included smoking cessation in the patient plan. Students' smoking assessment and cessation skills are seen as poorly…

  14. 30 CFR 816.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cessation of operations: Temporary. 816.131 Section 816.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.131 Cessation...

  15. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410..., TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.432 Cessation of disability. (a) Where it has been determined that a miner is totally disabled under §...

  16. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  17. The Struggle to Quit: Barriers and Incentives to Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffatt, Jenny; Whip, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Decades of research into smoking cessation have created a plethora of knowledge yet quit rates continue to be low and relapse rates high. In order to better understand this complex behaviour, this paper examines incentives and barriers to smoking cessation for a high risk group. Methods: The successful and unsuccessful quitting…

  18. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  19. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  20. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section 3107.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation...

  1. 43 CFR 3107.2-2 - Cessation of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cessation of production. 3107.2-2 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-2 Cessation of production. A lease which is in its extended term because...

  2. Efficacy of Incorporating Experiencing Exercises into a Smoking Cessation Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Celia A.; Manaster, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Examines the impact of experiential exercises, combined with a traditional smoking cessation intervention, on quit rates and social learning theory variables known to impact smoking cessation. Measures of self-efficacy and locus of control did not significantly differ between the experimental and control conditions. Quit rates did not differ…

  3. 36 CFR 228.111 - Temporary cessation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary cessation of operations. 228.111 Section 228.111 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Oil and Gas Resources Administration of Operations § 228.111 Temporary cessation...

  4. 20 CFR 410.432 - Cessation of disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cessation of disability. 410.432 Section 410..., TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Total Disability or Death Due to Pneumoconiosis § 410.432 Cessation of disability. (a) Where it has been determined that a miner is totally disabled under §...

  5. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  6. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2015-09-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  7. Factors associated to breastfeeding cessation before 6 months.

    PubMed

    Roig, Antoni Oliver; Martínez, Miguel Richart; García, Julio Cabrero; Hoyos, Santiago Pérez; Navidad, Ginesa Laguna; Alvarez, Juan Carlos Flores; Pujalte, María Del Mar Calatayud; De León González, Ricardo García

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to identify the determinants of full breastfeeding (FBF) and any breastfeeding (ABF) cessation before 6 months, through a six-month follow-up of 248 mothers going a postpartum visit. Data were collected by personal interview during the first month and telephone interviews at four and six months postpartum. Coxs proportional hazards model was used. Not having previous ABF experience, previous ABF duration cessation of ABF and FBF. Lower educational level was associated with cessation of ABF and the use of pacifiers or occasional breast-milk substitutes with cessation of FBF. Attending childbirth education was a protective factor against early FBF or ABF cessation. Activities supporting breastfeeding should be intensified for mothers with poorer access to information and with negative or without ABF previous experience. The use of pacifiers and not-medically indicated breast milk substitutes should be controlled. PMID:20721426

  8. SO 2 adsorption capacity of K 2CO 3-impregnated activated carbon as a function of K 2CO 3 content loaded by soaking and incipient wetness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, H.; Zelenietz, C.; Dahn, T. R.; Westreich, P.; Stevens, D. A.; Dahn, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    The SO 2 adsorption capacity of K 2CO 3-impregnated activated carbons, prepared by soaking carbon in large volumes of K 2CO 3 in solution of various concentrations, varies linearly with respect to the loading of K 2CO 3 on the carbon up to about 12% K 2CO 3 by weight. Above 12%, the capacity for SO 2 levels out and then decreases. This suggests that at high loadings the K 2CO 3 either aggregates and/or blocks pores of the activated carbon. In contrast, the adsorption capacity of carbons prepared by repeatedly (maximum of three times total) loading K 2CO 3 via incipient wetness is much larger than that of the soaked samples, up to 70% more, when the loading of K 2CO 3 is greater than 12%. Static and dynamic adsorption, DSC, SEM, EDX and incipient wetness studies of the samples show that the impregnant aggregates but does not block carbon pores.

  9. Update on medicines for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Summary Persistent cigarette smokers usually have a nicotine addiction. This addiction has a chronic relapsing and sometimes remitting course and may persist lifelong. Remission can be facilitated by the use of medication as part of a comprehensive management strategy tailored to the individual patient. Nicotine replacement therapy is a first-line drug treatment. It is available in many formulations. Varenicline is also a first-line drug treatment. It should be started before the patient stops smoking. Bupropion is a second-line therapy. It may be associated with an increased risk of seizures and drug interactions. While there is some evidence that electronic cigarettes might facilitate smoking cessation, quit rates are not yet comparable with those of the drugs approved on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. PMID:26648633

  10. Community perceptions of repeat HIV-testing: experiences of the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention trial in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Zuma, Thembelihle; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Gillespie, Natasha; Grant, Merridy; Iwuji, Collins; Larmarange, Joseph; McGrath, Nuala; Lert, France; Imrie, John

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial, we investigated perceptions of regular and repeat HIV-testing in rural KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa), an area of very high HIV prevalence and incidence. We conducted two qualitative studies, before (2010) and during the early implementation stages of the trial (2013-2014), to appreciate the evolution in community perceptions of repeat HIV-testing over this period of rapid changes in HIV-testing and treatment approaches. Repeated focus group discussions were organized with young adults, older adults and mixed groups. Repeat and regular HIV-testing was overall well perceived before, and well received during, trial implementation. Yet community members were not able to articulate reasons why people might want to test regularly or repeatedly, apart from individual sexual risk-taking. Repeat home-based HIV-testing was considered as feasible and convenient, and described as more acceptable than clinic-based HIV-testing, mostly because of privacy and confidentiality. However, socially regulated discourses around appropriate sexual behaviour and perceptions of stigma and prejudice regarding HIV and sexual risk-taking were consistently reported. This study suggests several avenues to improve HIV-testing acceptability, including implementing diverse and personalised approaches to HIV-testing and care, and providing opportunities for antiretroviral therapy initiation and care at home. PMID:27421048

  11. Tl(2)CO(3) at 3.56 GPa.

    PubMed

    Grzechnik, A; Friese, K

    2008-08-01

    The crystal structure of thallium carbonate, Tl(2)CO(3) (C2/m, Z = 4), is stable at least up to 3.56 GPa, as demonstrated by hydrostatic single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. Our results contradict earlier observations from the literature, which found a structural phase transition for this compound at about 2 GPa. Under atmospheric conditions, all atoms except for one O atom reside on the mirror plane in the high-pressure structure. The compression mainly affects the part of the structure where the nonbonded electron lone pairs on the Tl(+) cations are located. PMID:18682630

  12. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions. PMID:26066949

  13. Varenicline: a novel pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Berlin, Ivan; Hering, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Varenicline is an orally administered small molecule with partial agonist activity at the alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Varenicline was approved by both the US FDA and the European Medicines Agency of the EU in 2006 as an aid to smoking cessation. Subsequently, varenicline has been approved in over 80 other countries. Varenicline is almost entirely absorbed following oral administration, and absorption is unaffected by food, smoking or the time of day. Varenicline undergoes only minimal metabolism and approximately 90% of the drug is excreted in the urine unchanged. Varenicline has a mean elimination half-life after repeated administration of approximately 24 hours in smokers. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve is increased in patients with moderate or severe renal failure. No clinically relevant varenicline-drug interactions have been identified. In two identical, randomized, double-blind, phase III clinical trials in healthy, motivated-to-quit, mainly Caucasian smokers aged 18-75 years in the US, 12 weeks of treatment with varenicline 1 mg twice daily was associated with significantly higher abstinence rates over weeks 9-12 than sustained-release bupropion 150 mg twice daily or placebo. In a separate phase III trial, an additional 12 weeks of treatment in smokers achieving abstinence in the first 12 weeks was associated with greater abstinence through to week 52 than placebo treatment. Varenicline treatment was also associated with significantly higher rates of abstinence than placebo treatment in randomized, double-blind, clinical trials in smokers in China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. In a randomized, open-label, multi-national, phase III trial, varenicline treatment was associated with a significantly higher rate of abstinence than transdermal nicotine-replacement therapy. In these trials, varenicline treatment was associated with lower urge to smoke and satisfaction from smoking in relapsers than placebo or

  14. Electronic, optical and bonding properties of MgCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Dlugogorski, B. Z.; Kennedy, E. M.; Belova, I. V.; Murch, Graeme E.

    2010-05-01

    The electronic, optical and bonding properties of MgCO 3 (magnesite, rhombohedral calcite-type structure) are calculated using a first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) method considering the exchange-correlation function within the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The indirect band gap of magnesite is estimated to be 5.0 eV, which is underestimated by ˜1.0 eV. The fundamental absorption edge, which indicates the exact optical transitions from occupied valence bands to the unoccupied conduction band, is estimated by calculating the photon energy dependent imaginary part of the dielectric function using scissors approximations (rigid shift of unoccupied bands). The optical properties show consistent results with the experimental calcite-type structure and also show a considerable optical anisotropy of the magnesite structure. The density of states and Mulliken population analyses reveal the bonding nature between the atoms.

  15. CD4 Dynamics over a 15 Year-Period among HIV Controllers Enrolled in the ANRS French Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Boufassa, Faroudy; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Lechenadec, Jérome; Zucman, David; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Venet, Alain; Rouzioux, Christine; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few large published studies of HIV controllers with long-term undetectable viral load (VL). We describe the characteristics and outcomes of 81 French HIV controllers. Methods and Results HIV controllers were defined as asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naïve persons infected ≥10 years previously, with HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL in >90% of plasma samples. All available CD4 and VL values were collected at enrolment. Mixed-effect linear models were used to analyze CD4 cell count slopes since diagnosis. HIV controllers represented 0.31% of all patients managed in French hospitals. Patients infected through intravenous drug use were overrepresented (31%) and homosexual men were underrepresented (26% of men) relative to the ANRS SEROCO cohort of subjects diagnosed during the same period. HIV controllers whose VL values were always below the detection limit of the assays were compared with those who had rare “blips” (<50% of VL values above the detection limit) or frequent blips (>50% of VL values above the detection limit). Estimated CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis were similar in the three groups. CD4 cell counts remained stable after HIV diagnosis in the “no blip” group, while they fell significantly in the two other groups (−0.26√CD4 and −0.28√CD4/mm3/year in the rare and frequent blip groups, respectively). No clinical, immunological or virological progression was observed in the no blip group, while 3 immunological and/or virological events and 4 cancers were observed in the blip subgroups. Conclusions Viral blips in HIV controllers are associated with a significant decline in CD4 T cells and may be associated with an increased risk of pathological events, possibly owing to chronic inflammation/immune activation. PMID:21533035

  16. Electrochemical properties of Co 3O 4, Ni-Co 3O 4 mixture and Ni-Co 3O 4 composite as anode materials for Li ion secondary batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yong-Mook; Kim, Ki-Tae; Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Paul S.; Lee, Jai-Young; Liu, H. K.; Dou, S. X.

    By varying the synthetic temperature and time, Co 3O 4 with highly optimized electrochemical properties was obtained from the solid state reaction of CoCO 3. As a result, Co 3O 4 showed a high capacity around 700 mAh/g and stable capacity retention during cycling (93.4% of initial capacity was retained after 100 cycles). However, its initial irreversible capacity reached about 30% of capacity. Several phenomenological examinations in our previous results told us that the main causes of low initial coulombic efficiency, that is, large initial irreversible capacity, were solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film formation on surface and incomplete decomposition of Li 2O during the first discharge process. SEI film formation cannot be restrained without the development of a special electrolyte, and there has been little research on the proper electrolyte composition, whereas in our research, Ni had the catalytic activity to facilitate Li 2O decomposition. Thus, in order to improve the low initial coulombic efficiency of Co 3O 4 (69%), Ni was added to Co 3O 4 using two methods like physical mixing and mechanical milling. When adding the same amount of Ni, the mechanical milling showed the improvement in initial coulombic efficiency, 79%, but physical mixing had no effect. Finally, when the charge-discharge mechanism of Co 3O 4 was considered and the morphologies of Ni-Co 3O 4 mixture obtained by physical mixing and Ni-Co 3O 4 composite prepared by mechanical milling were compared, it was revealed that the initial coulombic efficiency of Ni-Co 3O 4 composite depends on the contact area between the Ni and the Co 3O 4.

  17. Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says

    MedlinePlus

    ... Complementary Health Approaches for Smoking Cessation: What the Science Says Share: January 2014 Mindfulness Meditation Mindfulness meditation ... products and practices in the context of rigorous science, training complementary health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  18. Depressive Symptoms, Drinking Problems, and Smoking Cessation in Older Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2009-01-01

    This study modeled the predictive association between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation in a sample of 442 late-middle-aged smokers; assessments occurred at four time-points across a 10-year period. In addition, the study examined the role of baseline drinking problems in moderating the relationship between depressive symptoms and smoking cessation. Findings supported hypotheses. More depressive symptoms prospectively predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. In addition, the presence of baseline drinking problems strengthened the relationship between depressive symptoms and a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying depression and cigarette smoking among older adults is applicable to secondary prevention and treatment and suggests additional public health benefits from treating depression in older persons. PMID:19372009

  19. OLD FIELD SUCCESSIONAL DYNAMICS FOLLOWING CESSATION OF CHRONIC DISTURBANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In grasslands dominated by warm-season grasses, community composition and successional patterns can be altered by disturbance and exotic species invasions. Our objective was to describe vegetation dynamics following cessation of a chronic disturbance (heavy grazing by cattle) in...

  20. Oral health risks of tobacco use and effects of cessation.

    PubMed

    Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Dietrich, Thomas; Bornstein, Michael M; Casals Peidró, Elías; Preshaw, Philip M; Walter, Clemens; Wennström, Jan L; Bergström, Jan

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiologic evidence for the effects of tobacco use and tobacco use cessation on a variety of oral diseases and conditions. Exposures considered include cigarette and bidi smoking, pipe and cigar smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. Oral diseases and disorders considered include oral cancer and precancer, periodontal disease, caries and tooth loss, gingival recession and other benign mucosal disorders as well as implant failure. Particular attention is given to the impact of tobacco use cessation on oral health outcomes. We conclude that robust epidemiologic evidence exists for adverse oral health effects of tobacco smoking and other types of tobacco use. In addition, there is compelling evidence to support significant benefits of tobacco use cessation with regard to various oral health outcomes. Substantial oral health benefits can be expected from abstention and successful smoking cessation in a variety of populations across all ages. PMID:20361572

  1. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Alessandri, Guido; Milioni, Michela; Enea, Domenico; Ceccanti, Mauro; Nencini, Paolo; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS), defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i) relapse after quitting smoking and (ii) the desire to smoke again. All participants (481) had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010). They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3 ± 10.08, 52% female) and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0 ± 9.63; 63.5% female). The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy), gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking. PMID:24967403

  2. Initial uptake of the Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lindsay; Burden, Andrea M.; Liu, Yan Yun; Tadrous, Mina; Pojskic, Nedzad; Dolovich, Lisa; Calzavara, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smoking is a significant public health concern. The Ontario Pharmacy Smoking Cessation Program was launched in September 2011 to leverage community pharmacists and expand access to smoking cessation services for public drug plan beneficiaries. Methods: We examined health care utilization data in Ontario to describe public drug plan beneficiaries receiving, and pharmacies providing, smoking cessation services between September 2011 and September 2013. Patient characteristics were summarized, stratified by drug plan group: seniors (age ≥65 years) or social assistance. Trends over time were examined by plotting the number of services, unique patients and unique pharmacies by month. We then examined use of follow-up services and prescription smoking cessation medications. Results: We identified 7767 residents receiving pharmacy smoking cessation services: 28% seniors (mean age = 69.9, SD = 4.8; 53% male) and 72% social assistance (mean age = 44.4 years, SD = 11.8; 48% male). Cumulative patient enrollment increased over time with an average of 311 (SD = 61) new patients per month, and one-third (n = 1253) of pharmacies participated by the end of September 2013. Regions with the highest number of patients were Erie St. Clair (n = 1328) and Hamilton Niagara Haldimand Brant (n = 1312). Sixteen percent of all patients received another pharmacy service (e.g., MedsCheck) on the same day as smoking cessation program enrollment. Among patients with follow-up data, 56% received follow-up smoking cessation services (60% seniors, 55% social assistance) and 74% received a prescription smoking cessation medication. One-year quit status was reported for 12%, with a 29% success rate. Conclusions: Program enrollment has increased steadily since its launch, yet only a third of pharmacies participated and 56% of patients received follow-up services. PMID:26759563

  3. Use of Smoking Cessation Interventions by Physicians in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Schoj, Veronica; Mejia, Raul; Alderete, Mariela; Kaplan, Celia P.; Peña, Lorena; Gregorich, Steven E.; Alderete, Ethel; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physician-implemented interventions for smoking cessation are effective but infrequently used. We evaluated smoking cessation practices among physicians in Argentina. Methods A self-administered survey of physicians from six clinical systems asked about smoking cessation counselling practices, barriers to tobacco use counselling and perceived quality of training received in smoking cessation practices. Results Of 254 physicians, 52.3% were women, 11.8% were current smokers and 52% never smoked. Perceived quality of training in tobacco cessation counselling was rated as very good or good by 41.8% and as poor/very poor by 58.2%. Most physicians (90%) reported asking and recording smoking status, 89% advised patients to quit smoking but only 37% asked them to set a quit date and 44% prescribed medications. Multivariate analyses showed that Physicians’ perceived quality of their training in smoking cessation methods was associated with greater use of evidence-based cessation interventions. (OR = 6.5; 95% CI = 2.2–19.1); motivating patients to quit (OR: 7.9 CI 3.44–18.5), assisting patients to quit (OR = 9.9; 95% CI = 4.0–24.2) prescribing medications (OR = 9.6; 95% CI = 3.5–26.7), and setting up follow-up (OR = 13.0; 95% CI = 4.4–38.5). Conclusions Perceived quality of training in smoking cessation was associated with using evidence-based interventions and among physicians from Argentina. Medical training programs should enhance the quality of this curriculum.

  4. Applying the performance partnership model to smoking cessation: lessons learned by the smoking cessation leadership center.

    PubMed

    Revell, Connie C; Meriwether, Margaret B

    2011-11-01

    A wide array of partners can be convened around a single measurable outcome, such as driving down smoking prevalence, through the use of an innovative approach called the performance partnership model. This approach has certain key characteristics that make it different from ordinary coalition building, such as following four steps leading to a baseline, a target, an action plan, and an impact measurement plan. It also employs great speed and focus to keep partners engaged, and it has led to demonstrable progress on smoking cessation nationwide. PMID:22068575

  5. The system Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 at 6 GPa and 900-1250°C and its relation to the partial melting of carbonated mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Sharygin, Igor S.; Egonin, Ilya A.; Mironov, Aleksandr M.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Ohtani, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    In order to constrain the Na2CO3-CaCO3-MgCO3 T-X diagram at 6 GPa in addition to the binary and pseudo-binary systems we conducted experiments along the Na2CO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 join. At 900-1000°C, melting does not occur and isothermal sections are presented by one-, two- and three-phase regions containing Ca-bearing magnesite, aragonite, Na2CO3 (Na2) and Na2(Ca1-0.9Mg0-0.1)3-4(CO3)4-5 (Na2Ca3-4), Na4(Ca1-0.6Mg0-0.4)(CO3)3 (Na4Ca), Na2(Ca0-0.08Mg1-0.92)(CO3)2 (Na2Mg) phases with intermediate compositions. The minimum melting point locates between 1000°C and 1100°C. This point would resemble that of three eutectics: Mgs-Na2Ca3-Na2Mg, Na2Mg-Na2Ca3-Na4Ca or Na2Mg-Na4Ca-Na2, in the compositional interval of [45Na2CO3.55(Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3]-[60Na2CO3.40Ca0.6Mg0.4CO3]. The liquidus projection has seven primary solidification phase regions for Mgs, Dol, Arg, Na2Ca3, Na4Ca, Na2 and Na2Mg. The results suggest that extraction of Na and Ca from silicate to carbonate components has to decrease minimum melting temperature of carbonated mantle rocks to 1000-1100°C at 6 GPa and yields Na-rich dolomitic melt with a Na# (Na2O/(Na2O + CaO + MgO)) ≥ 28 mol%.

  6. Smoking Cessation: An Integral Part of Lung Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Dubey, Sarita; Prochaska, Jodi J.

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the US. About 50% of lung cancer patients are current smokers at the time of diagnosis and up to 83% continue to smoke after diagnosis. A recent study suggests that people who continue to smoke after a diagnosis of early-stage lung cancer almost double their risk of dying. Despite a growing body of evidence that continued smoking by patients after a lung cancer diagnosis is linked with less effective treatment and a poorer prognosis, the belief prevails that treating tobacco dependence is useless. With improved cancer treatments and survival rates, smoking cessation among lung cancer patients has become increasingly important. There is a pressing need to clarify the role of smoking cessation in the care of lung cancer patients. Objective This paper will report on the benefits of smoking cessation for lung cancer patients and the elements of smoking cessation treatment, with consideration of tailoring to the needs of lung cancer patients. Results Given the significant benefits of smoking cessation and that tobacco dependence remains a challenge for many lung cancer patients, cancer care providers need to offer full support and intensive treatment with a smoking cessation program that is tailored to lung cancer patients’ specific needs. Conclusion A tobacco dependence treatment plan for lung cancer patients is provided. PMID:20699622

  7. Accuracy of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    TONG, VAN T.; ALTHABE, FERNANDO; ALEMÁN, ALICIA; JOHNSON, CAROLYN C.; DIETZ, PATRICIA M.; BERRUETA, MABEL; MORELLO, PAOLA; COLOMAR, MERCEDES; BUEKENS, PIERRE; SOSNOFF, CONNIE S.; FARR, SHERRY L.; MAZZONI, AGUSTINA; CIGANDA, ALVARO; BECÚ, ANA; GONZALEZ, MARIA G. BITTAR; LLAMBI, LAURA; GIBBONS, LUZ; SMITH, RUBEN A.; BELIZÁN, JOSÉ M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of bias of self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy is reported in high-income countries but not elsewhere. We sought to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy using biochemical verification and to compare characteristics of women with and without biochemically confirmed cessation in Argentina and Uruguay. In a cross-sectional study from October 2011 to May 2012, women who attended one of 21 prenatal clinics and delivered at selected hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina and Montevideo, Uruguay, were surveyed about their smoking cessation during pregnancy. We tested saliva collected from women <12 h after delivery for cotinine to evaluate self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy. Overall, 10.0% (44/441) of women who self-reported smoking cessation during pregnancy had biochemical evidence of continued smoking. Women who reported quitting later in pregnancy had a higher percentage of nondisclosure (17.2%) than women who reported quitting when learning of their pregnancy (6.4%). PMID:25350478

  8. A Rural Appalachian Faith-Placed Smoking Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Bundy, Henry E.; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A.; Studts, Christina R.; Shelton, Brent J.; Fields, Nell

    2014-01-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants’ positive evaluation of the program; the program’s ability to leverage social connections; the program’s convenience orientation; and the program’s financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation program offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms. PMID:24691565

  9. Craving and nicotine withdrawal in a Spanish smoking cessation sample.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Fernández del Río, Elena; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2014-01-01

    Craving and nicotine withdrawal syndrome (NWS) are components of the tobacco use disorder in DSM-5. They both appear after smoking cessation or an abrupt reduction in tobacco use, and they are associated with both short and long-term smoking-cessation outcomes. The aim of the present study was to examine the association of craving and withdrawal with smoking cessation at the end of the treatment and relapse at 3 months follow-up in a Spanish sample of smokers. The sample comprised 342 smokers (37.7% men; 62.3% women) receiving a cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The assessments of craving and withdrawal were conducted using the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Abstainers at the end of the treatment, compared to non abstainers, showed significantly lower post-treatment withdrawal, and post-treatment craving. Furthermore, they had lower scores in pre-treatment nicotine dependence. Among abstainers, craving decreased significantly from pre-cessation levels, while in those participants who did not quit smoking it remained on the same levels. High nicotine dependence was a predictor of smoking at the end of the treatment, whereas high nicotine withdrawal predicted relapse at 3 months. Findings support the robust role of craving and NWS in smoking cessation and relapse, although they differ in their specific patterns of change over time. PMID:25314038

  10. Carbon monoxide bonding with BeO and BeCO3 : surprisingly high CO stretching frequency of OCBeCO3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mohua; Zhang, Qingnan; Zhou, Mingfei; Andrada, Diego M; Frenking, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    The complexes OCBeCO3 and COBeCO3 have been isolated in a low-temperature neon matrix. The more stable isomer OCBeCO3 has a very high CO stretching mode of 2263 cm(-1) , which is blue-shifted by 122 cm(-1) with respect to free CO and 79 cm(-1) higher than in OCBeO. Bonding analysis of the complexes shows that OCBeO has a stronger OCBeY bond than OCBeCO3 because it encounters stronger π backdonation. The isomers COBeCO3 and COBeO exhibit red-shifted CO stretching modes with respect to free CO. The inverse change of CO stretching frequency in OCBeY and COBeY is explained with the reversed polarization of the σ and π bonds in CO. PMID:25369759

  11. Impact of a Statewide Internet-Based Tobacco Cessation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schillo, Barbara A; Evered, Sharrilyn; Luxenberg, Michael G; Kavanaugh, Annette; Cobb, Nathan; An, Lawrence C

    2007-01-01

    Background An increasing number of people have access to the Internet, and more people are seeking tobacco cessation resources online every year. Despite the proliferation of various online interventions and their evident acceptance and reach, little research has addressed their impact in the real world. Typically, low response rates to Internet-based follow-up surveys generate unrepresentative samples and large confidence intervals when reporting results. Objectives The aim of this study was to achieve a high response rate on follow-up evaluation in order to better determine the impact of an Internet-based tobacco cessation intervention provided to tobacco users in Minnesota, United States. Methods Participants included 607 men and women aged 18 and over residing in Minnesota who self-reported current tobacco use when registering for an Internet-based tobacco cessation program between February 2 and April 13, 2004. Participants were given access to an interactive website with features including social support, expert systems, proactive email, chat sessions, and online counselors. Mixed-mode follow-up (online survey with telephone survey for online nonrespondents) occurred 6 months after registration. Results Of the study participants, 77.6% (471/607) responded to the 6-month follow-up survey (39.4% online and 38.2% by telephone). Among respondents, 17.0% (80/471, 95% CI = 13.6%-20.4%) reported that they had not smoked in the past 7 days (observed rate). Assuming all nonrespondents were still smoking (missing=smoking rate), the quit rate was 13.2% (80/607, 95% CI = 10.5%-15.9%). Conclusions This mixed-mode follow-up survey of an online smoking cessation program achieved a high response rate and provides a more accurate estimate of long-term cessation rates than has been previously reported. Quit rates for the Internet-based tobacco cessation program were higher than those expected for unassisted quit attempts and are comparable to other evidence-based behavioral

  12. Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Herquelot, Eléonore; Guéguen, Alice; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To measure the impact of diabetes on work cessation, i.e., on the risks of work disability, early retirement, and death while in the labor force. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from the GAZEL prospective cohort of 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company “EDF-GDF.” We identified 506 employees with diabetes and randomly selected 2,530 nondiabetic employed control subjects matched for major sociodemographic and occupational characteristics. Using a multistate Cox model, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the risks of transition from employment to disability, retirement, and death over time between participants with versus without diabetes. RESULTS Employment rate decreased more rapidly in participants with diabetes (51.9 and 10.1% at 55 and 60 years, respectively) compared with nondiabetic participants (66.5 and 13.4%, respectively). Participants with diabetes had significantly increased risks of transition from employment to disability (HR 1.7 [95% CI 1.0–2.9]), retirement (HR 1.6 [1.5–1.8]), and death (HR 7.3 [3.6–14.6]) compared with participants without diabetes. Between 35 and 60 years, each participant with diabetes lost an estimated mean time of 1.1 year in the workforce (95% CI 0.99–1.14) compared with a nondiabetic participant. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide evidence for a profound negative impact of diabetes on workforce participation in France. Social and economic consequences are major for patients, employers, and society—a burden that is likely to increase as diabetes becomes more and more common in the working-aged population. PMID:21562323

  13. Role of acentric displacements on the crystal structure and second-harmonic generating properties of RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F.

    PubMed

    Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Rondinelli, James M

    2014-06-16

    Two lead fluorocarbonates, RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, were synthesized and characterized. The materials were synthesized through solvothermal and conventional solid-state techniques. RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures consisting of corner-shared PbO6F2 polyhedra. For RbPbCO3F, infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. RbPbCO3F is a new noncentrosymmetric material and crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar space group P6m2 (crystal class 6m2). Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F using 1064 nm radiation revealed an SHG efficiency of approximately 250 and 300 × α-SiO2, respectively. Charge constants d33 of approximately 72 and 94 pm/V were obtained for RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, respectively, through converse piezoelectric measurements. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the nonlinear optical response originates from the distorted PbO6F2 polyhedra, because of the even-odd parity mixing of the O 2p states with the nearly spherically symmetric 6s electrons of Pb(2+). The degree of inversion symmetry breaking is quantified using a mode-polarization vector analysis and is correlated with cation size mismatch, from which it is possible to deduce the acentric properties of 3D alkali-metal fluorocarbonates. PMID:24867361

  14. Role of Acentric Displacements on the Crystal Structure and Second-Harmonic Generating Properties of RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two lead fluorocarbonates, RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, were synthesized and characterized. The materials were synthesized through solvothermal and conventional solid-state techniques. RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and exhibit three-dimensional (3D) crystal structures consisting of corner-shared PbO6F2 polyhedra. For RbPbCO3F, infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed. RbPbCO3F is a new noncentrosymmetric material and crystallizes in the achiral and nonpolar space group P6̅m2 (crystal class 6̅m2). Powder second-harmonic generation (SHG) measurements on RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F using 1064 nm radiation revealed an SHG efficiency of approximately 250 and 300 × α-SiO2, respectively. Charge constants d33 of approximately 72 and 94 pm/V were obtained for RbPbCO3F and CsPbCO3F, respectively, through converse piezoelectric measurements. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the nonlinear optical response originates from the distorted PbO6F2 polyhedra, because of the even–odd parity mixing of the O 2p states with the nearly spherically symmetric 6s electrons of Pb2+. The degree of inversion symmetry breaking is quantified using a mode-polarization vector analysis and is correlated with cation size mismatch, from which it is possible to deduce the acentric properties of 3D alkali-metal fluorocarbonates. PMID:24867361

  15. Characterization of ceramics materials mixed with Co3O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, A. F.; Landínez Téllez, D. A.; Roa-Rojas, J.; Fajardo, F.

    2014-04-01

    We have performed the preparation, structural, electrical and mechanical characterizations of ceramic materials composed of kaolinite Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4 and alumina (Al2O3) mixed with different concentrations of cobalt oxide (Co3O4). Ceramic samples were prepared from a base concentration of alumina 30% and kaolinite 70%, mixed with various concentrations of cobalt oxide in steps of 4% up to a value of 20%. The samples were sintered by the standard solid-state reaction method at a temperature of 1350 °C. In all samples with cobalt was found the presence of mullite. It was determined that alumina and cristobalite decreased when the cobalt concentration was increased due to the formation of the cobalt spinel. In order to determine the crystal structure of the samples, crystallographic analysis from X-ray diffraction experiments and also the semi-quantitative phase analysis were performed. Results were compared with theoretical parameters through the PowderCell 2.4 software. By increasing the concentration of cobalt oxide was found a significant increase in the resistance of materials to friction wear and a small decrease on the mean value of the dielectric constant. Through flexion measurements is observed the increases of the elasticity modulus by about 45% for the sample with 4% of cobalt oxide when compared with the samples without cobalt.

  16. Nonjudging Facet of Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation in Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C.; Stewart, Diana W.; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L.; Vidrine, Jennifer I.; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, non-judgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age=39, 77.9% ≤ high school education) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 post-quit (biochemically-confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficients regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting with Awareness, Nonjudging, Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks post-quit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness. PMID:25961148

  17. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  18. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial

    PubMed Central

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno; for the ANRS IPERGAY Study Group

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40–98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate–emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants’ adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0–M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1–max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9–35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2–18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8–29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2–68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3–79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3–75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4–max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency

  19. Uptake of PrEP and condom and sexual risk behavior among MSM during the ANRS IPERGAY trial.

    PubMed

    Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the

  20. Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate Lightning Cessation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately determining the threat posed by lightning is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of lightning within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating lightning cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving lightning safety. Few organizations actively forecast lightning onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued lightning and can greatly extend the window of a potential lightning strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total lightning activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing lightning. Previous lightning cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground lightning only. A more recent, statistical study involved total lightning (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer lightning cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually lightning cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total lightning to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing

  1. Enhancement of the visible light activity and stability of Ag2CO3 by formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Changlin; Wei, Longfu; Zhou, Wanqin; Chen, Jianchai; Fan, Qizhe; Liu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    An insurmountable problem for silver-based semiconductor photocatalysts is their poor stability. Here, at room temperature, AgI with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%) were coupled into Ag2CO3, producing a series of novel AgI/Ag2CO3 composite photocatalysts. The effects of AgI addition on the Ag2CO3 catalyst for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation have been investigated. Some physicochemical technologies like N2 physical adsorption/desorption, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS) were applied to characterize these products. Results show that the photocatalytic degradation activity of AgI/Ag2CO3 photocatalyst is much higher than that of pure AgI and Ag2CO3. With the optimal content of AgI (20 wt%), the AgI/Ag2CO3 exhibits the highest photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Its first order reaction rate constant (0.54 h-1) is 20 times of that of AgI (0.026 h-1) and 3.6 times of that of Ag2CO3 (0.15 h-1). The characterizations and theory calculation show that AgI and Ag2CO3 have suitably matched band gap structures. The formation of AgI/Ag2CO3 heterojunction with intimate interface could effectively increase the separation efficiency of the e-/h+ pairs and promote the production of •OH and O2•- radicals, which brings about the fast degradation rate of the dye and an increase in photocatalytic stability.

  2. Influence of Co2+ in CaCO3 polymorphism.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, Jorge; Fernández-González, Angeles; Jiménez, Amalia

    2014-05-01

    Cobalt is a trace element in the Earth crust but also a toxic metal. Furthermore, Co2+can accumulate in some specific areas due to both natural and anthropogenic factors and hence soils and groundwater can be contaminated. Numerous studies have demonstrated that toxic elements can be removed from aqueous solution by its incorporation in mineral structures. In particular, the uptake of divalent metallic cations in the crystal structure of calcium carbonates has been postulated as a valuable solution to resolve and / or reduce some environmental problems. Here, we have investigated the cobalt uptake during calcium carbonate precipitation at ambient conditions. It is well known that certain anions such as sulphate, chromate and selenite favour the precipitation of vaterite while other cations as Sr2+ or Mg2+, avoid the calcite crystallization favouring the aragonite precipitation. Similar scenery can be depicted for Co2+ behaviour since the precipitation of both aragonite and a low crystallinity phase from aqueous solution have been described. However, the evolution of the polymorphic transformations after the precipitation of the phases remains unknown. In the present work we have precipitated calcium carbonate at room temperature in the presence of a certain amount of Co2+. Then, the precipitated solid has been aged in the remaining aqueous solution for two months. The experiment was carried out by mixing two different aqueous solutions: a) 50 mL of CoCl2 (0.02M) and CaCl2(0.05M) and b) 50 mL of Na2CO3 (0.05M). The aging process was monitored after 5 minutes, 1, 5, 24, and 48 hours and 4, 7, 30 and 60 days by analysing both the aqueous solution and the aged solids. The evolution of the different crystalline phases in the solid was followed by X-ray Powder Diffraction, their morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and their chemical composition was analysed by Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. Furthermore, the aqueous solution has also been

  3. Social Norms, Collective Efficacy, and Smoking Cessation in Urban Neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Jennifer; Galea, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the separate and combined relations of neighborhood-level social norms and collective efficacy with individuals’ cigarette smoking cessation. Methods. We modeled the hazard of quitting over a 5-year period among 863 smokers who participated in the 2005 New York Social Environment Study. Results. In adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, prohibitive neighborhood smoking norms were significantly associated with higher rates of smoking cessation (second quartile hazard ratio [HR] = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.59, 2.32; third quartile HR = 2.37; 95% CI = 1.17, 4.78; fourth quartile HR = 1.80; 95% CI = 0.85, 3.81). We did not find a significant association between neighborhood collective efficacy and cessation or significant evidence of a joint relation of collective efficacy and smoking norms with cessation. Conclusions. Neighborhood social norms may be more relevant than is collective efficacy to smoking cessation. The normative environment may shape health behavior and should be considered as part of public health intervention efforts. PMID:22390449

  4. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A’s and 5 R’s approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  5. A Workshop on Smoking Cessation for Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Bittoun, Renee; Saini, Bandana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students. Assessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8±9.1 and 86.4±12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9±8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8±9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation. PMID:24249860

  6. Increased NR2A:NR2B ratio compresses long-term depression range and constrains long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenzhong; Feng, Ruiben; Jacobs, Stephanie; Duan, Yanhong; Wang, Huimin; Cao, Xiaohua; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    The NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio of the NMDA receptors is widely known to increase in the brain from postnatal development to sexual maturity and to aging, yet its impact on memory function remains speculative. We have generated forebrain-specific NR2A overexpression transgenic mice and show that these mice had normal basic behaviors and short-term memory, but exhibited broad long-term memory deficits as revealed by several behavioral paradigms. Surprisingly, increased NR2A expression did not affect 1-Hz-induced long-term depression (LTD) or 100 Hz-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, but selectively abolished LTD responses in the 3-5 Hz frequency range. Our results demonstrate that the increased NR2A:NR2B ratio is a critical genetic factor in constraining long-term memory in the adult brain. We postulate that LTD-like process underlies post-learning information sculpting, a novel and essential consolidation step in transforming new information into long-term memory. PMID:23301157

  7. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  8. Hydrocalcite (CaCO3 * H2O) and Nesquehonite (MgCO3 * 3H2O) in Carbonate Scales.

    PubMed

    Marschner, H

    1969-09-12

    Hydrocalcite (CaCO(3) * H(2)O) with exactly one molecule of hydrate water is the main component of carbonate scales deposited from cold water in contact with air. When the magnesium content of the water is high, the hydrocalcite occurs together with MgCO(3) * 3H(2)O (nesquehonite). From the conditions under which hydrocalcite is transformed into calcite and aragonite, it appears that in some cases aragonite in nature may be formed by way of an intermediary of CaCO(3) * H(2)O. PMID:17779803

  9. A Pilot Test of Self-Affirmations to Promote Smoking Cessation in a National Smoking Cessation Text Messaging Program

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M.P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Augustson, Erik; Patrick, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Although effective smoking cessation treatments, including mHealth interventions, have been empirically validated and are widely available, smoking relapse is likely. Self-affirmation, a process through which individuals focus on their strengths and behaviors, has been shown to reduce negative effects of self-threats and to promote engagement in healthier behavior. Objective To assess the feasibility of incorporating self-affirmations into an existing text messaging-based smoking cessation program (Smokefree TXT) and to determine whether self-affirmation led to greater engagement and higher cessation rates than the standard intervention. Methods Data were collected from smokers (n=1261) who subscribed to a free smoking cessation program and met eligibility criteria. The intervention lasted 42 days. The original design was a 2 (Baseline affirmation: 5-item questionnaire present vs absent) × 2 (Integrated affirmation: texts present vs absent) factorial design. Only 17 eligible users completed all baseline affirmation questions and these conditions did not influence any outcomes, so we collapsed across baseline affirmation conditions in analysis. In the integrated affirmation conditions, affirmations replaced approximately 20% of texts delivering motivational content. Results In all, 687 users remained enrolled throughout the 42-day intervention and 81 reported smoking status at day 42. Among initiators (n=1261), self-affirmation did not significantly improve (1) intervention completion, (2) days enrolled, (3) 1-week smoking status, or (4) 6-week smoking status (all Ps>.10); and among the 687 completers, there were no significant effects of affirmation on cessation (Ps>.25). However, among the 81 responders, those who received affirmations were more likely to report cessation at 6 weeks (97.5%; 39 of 40) than those not given affirmations (78.1%; 32 of 41; χ2(1)=7.08, P=.008). Conclusion This proof-of-concept study provides preliminary evidence that self

  10. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghorai, Koel; Akter, Shahriar; Khatun, Fatema; Ray, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape. PMID:25563359

  11. Lay Health Influencers: How They Tailor Brief Tobacco Cessation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Wind, Steven; Carruth, Lauren; Muramoto, Myra

    2014-01-01

    Interventions tailored to individual smoker characteristics have increasingly received attention in the tobacco control literature. The majority of tailored interventions are generated by computers and administered with printed materials or Web-based programs. The purpose of this study was to examine the tailoring activities of community lay health influencers who were trained to perform face-to-face brief tobacco cessation interventions. Eighty participants of a large-scale, randomized controlled trial completed a 6-week qualitative follow-up interview. A majority of participants (86%) reported that they made adjustments in their intervention behaviors based on individual smoker characteristics, their relationship with the smoker, and/or setting. Situational contexts (i.e., location and timing) primarily played a role after targeted smokers were selected. The findings suggest that lay health influencers benefit from a training curriculum that emphasizes a motivational, person-centered approach to brief cessation interventions. Recommendations for future tobacco cessation intervention trainings are presented. PMID:21986244

  12. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  13. Catalytic properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles for rechargeable Li/air batteries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Three types of Co3O4 nanoparticles are synthesized and characterized as a catalyst for the air electrode of a Li/air battery. The shape and size of the nanoparticles are observed using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The formation of the Co3O4 phase is confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical property of the air electrodes containing Co3O4 nanoparticles is significantly associated with the shape and size of the nanoparticles. It appears that the capacity of electrodes containing villiform-type Co3O4 nanoparticles is superior to that of electrodes containing cube- and flower-type Co3O4 nanoparticles. This is probably due to the sufficient pore spaces of the villiform-type Co3O4 nanoparticles. PMID:22222054

  14. High-temperature heat capacity of Co3O4 spinel: thermally induced spin unpairing transition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mocala, K.; Navrotsky, A.; Sherman, David M.

    1992-01-01

    A strong anomaly was found in the heat capacity of Co3O4 between 1000 K and the decomposition temperature. This anomaly is not related to the decomposition of Co3O4 to CoO. The measured entropy of transition, ??S=46??4 J mol-1 K-1 of Co3O4, supports the interpretation that this anomaly reflects a spin unpairing transition in octahedrally coordinated Co3+ cations. Experimental values of heat capacity, heat content and entropy of Co3O4 in the high temperature region are provided. The enthalpy of the spin unpairing transition is 53??4 kJ mol-1 of Co3O4. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Characteristics of Thick Film CO2 Sensors Based on Nasicon Using Li2CO3-CaCO3 Auxiliary Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han Ji; Shim, Han Byel; Choi, Jung Woon; Yoo, Kwang Soo; Kim, Shin Do

    2006-06-01

    Potentiometric devices were fabricated using a NASICON (Na1+xZr2SixP3-xO12) thick film and auxiliary layers. The powder of a precursor of NASICON with high purity was synthesized using the sol-gel method. Using the NASICON paste, an electrolyte was prepared on the alumina substrate through screen printing and then sintered at 1,000°C for 4 hours. In the present study, a series of Li2CO3-CaCO3 system was deposited on the Pt sensing electrode. Within a wide range of CO2 volume ratio concentration from 1,000 ppm to 10,000 ppm, the output of the sensor showed good electromotive force (EMF) response that was very close to the theoretical value. The device to which Li2CO3-CaCO3 (1:2) was attached showed good sensing properties at low temperatures.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Activation by Scandium Atoms and Scandium Monoxide Molecules: Formation and Spectroscopic Characterization of ScCO3 and OCScCO3 in Solid Neon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingnan; Qu, Hui; Chen, Mohua; Zhou, Mingfei

    2016-01-28

    The reactions of carbon dioxide with scandium monoxide molecules and scandium atoms are investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy in solid neon. The species formed are identified by the effects of isotopic substitution on their infrared spectra as well as density functional calculations. The results show that the ground state ScO molecule reacts with carbon dioxide to form the carbonate complex ScCO3 spontaneously on annealing. The ground state Sc atom reacts with two carbon dioxide molecules to give the carbonate carbonyl complex OCScCO3 via the previously reported OScCO insertion intermediate on annealing. The observation of these spontaneous reactions is consistent with theoretical predictions that both the Sc + 2CO2 → OCScCO3 and ScO + CO2 → ScCO3 reactions are thermodynamically exothermic and are kinetically facile, requiring little or no activation energy. PMID:26738558

  17. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  18. In Situ Investigations into CaCO3 Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Michael Harold

    predictions of classical nucleation theory to this system. Low resolution microscopy techniques are further used to provide indirect evidence for the formation pathways of calcite on SAMs exhibiting different surface chemistries. The development of a platform for liquid phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) utilizing a sealed liquid cell is described, and its utility in making novel observations of materials formation processes is demonstrated. Liquid phase TEM is further employed, using an open cell system which allows for mixing reagents, to directly observe formation pathways in the CaCO3 system.

  19. Photochemistry of fac-[Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl]**

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shunsuke; Matubara, Yasuo; Koike, Kazuhide; Falkenström, Magnus; Katayama, Tetsuro; Ishibashi, Yukihide; Miyasaka, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Seiji; Chosrowjan, Haik; Mataga, Noboru; Fukazawa, Naoto; Koshihara, Shinya; Onda, Ken; Ishitani, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    The photochemistry of fac-[Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl] (1 a; bpy=2,2′-bipyridine) initiated by irradiation using <330 nm light has been investigated. Isomerization proceeded in THF to give the corresponding mer-isomer 1 b. However, in the presence of a small amount of MeCN, the main product was the CO-ligand-substituted complex (OC-6-24)-[Re(bpy)(CO)2Cl(MeCN)] (2 c; bpy=2,2′-bipyridine). In MeCN, two isomers, 2 c and its (OC-6-34) form (2 a), were produced. Only 2 c thermally isomerized to produce the (OC-6-44) form 2 b. A detailed investigation led to the conclusion that both 1 b and 2 c are produced by a dissociative mechanism, whereas 2 a forms by an associative mechanism. A comparison of the ultrafast transient UV-visible absorption, emission, and IR spectra of 1 a acquired by excitation using higher-energy light (e.g., 270 nm) and lower-energy light (e.g., 400 nm) gave detailed information about the excited states, intermediates, and kinetics of the photochemical reactions and photophysical processes of 1 a. Irradiation of 1 a using the higher-energy light resulted in the generation of the higher singlet excited state with τ≤25 fs, from which intersystem crossing proceeded to give the higher triplet state (3HES(1)). In THF, 3HES(1) was competitively converted to both the triplet ligand field (3LF) and metal-to-ligand charge transfer (3mLCT) with lifetimes of 200 fs, in which the former is a reactive state that converts to [Re(bpy)(CO)2Cl(thf)]+ (1 c) within 10 ps by means of a dissociative mechanism. Re-coordination of CO to 1 c gives both 1 a and 1 b. In MeCN, irradiation of 1 a by using high-energy light gives the coordinatively unsaturated complex, which rapidly converted to 2 c. A seven-coordinate complex is also produced within several hundred femtoseconds, which is converted to 2 a within several hundred picoseconds. PMID:23081708

  20. Heat capacities and entropies of rhodochrosite (MnCO3) and siderite (FeCO3) between 5 and 600 K.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.; Haselton, H.T., Jr.; Hemingway, B.S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat capacities of rhodochrosite, (Mn0.994Fe0.005Mg0.001)CO3, and siderite, 171(Fe0.956Mn0.042Mg0.002)CO3, were measured between 5 and 550 K by combined cryogenic-adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry. These new data were used to reanalyse the thermodynamic properties of these phases.-J.A.Z.

  1. K2Pb3(CO3)3F2 and KCdCO3F: Novel Fluoride Carbonates with Layered and 3D Framework Structures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Hu, Chun-Li; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2015-11-01

    Two new mixed metal fluoride carbonates, KCdCO3F and K2Pb3(CO3)3F2, have been synthesized by solvothermal and solid-state techniques. KCdCO3F crystallizes in the acentric nonpolar space group P6̅m2, and its structure features a three-dimensional anionic framework in which the CdCO3 layers are further interconnected by bridging F(-) anions with the negative charge balanced by K(+) cations. K2Pb3(CO3)3F2 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P63/mmc, and its structure exhibits a layered anionic skeleton featuring corner-shared PbO6F and PbO6F2 polyhedra. UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy studies show that the short-wavelength absorption edges of KCdCO3F and K2Pb3(CO3)3F2 are 227 and 287 nm, respectively. The second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement reveals that KCdCO3F is a phase-matchable material for generation of doubled-frequency light at both 532 and 266 nm, with a large SHG response of approximately 5.2 times that of KH2PO4 (KDP) at 532 nm and a moderate SHG response of approximately 0.75 times that of β-BaB2O4 (BBO) at 266 nm. Therefore, it is a promising UV material for fourth harmonic generation on a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. PMID:26488674

  2. Nucleation kinetics of nesquehonite (MgCO 3·3H 2O) in the MgCl 2-Na 2CO 3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wenting; Li, Zhibao

    2010-04-01

    The nucleation of nesquehonite (MgCO 3·3H 2O) in MgCl 2-Na 2CO 3 system with and without the addition of NaCl was studied within a supersaturation range of 1.06-1.48 at 288.15-308.15 K. The supersaturation ( S) of MgCO 3·3H 2O was exactly calculated by aqueous (H + ion) model through OLI platform. The conductivity method was applied in this experiment to determine the induction period of MgCO 3·3H 2O. The effects of temperature, supersaturation, and presence of additive (NaCl) on the induction period of MgCO 3·3H 2O were studied experimentally. As expected from theory, it was found that the induction period decreases when either temperature or supersaturation increases. The induction period was prolonged by adding NaCl in solutions at a constant supersaturation. From the dependence of the induction period on temperature and supersaturation, it was possible to distinguish between the homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation mechanisms. At last, the activation energy ( Eact) for MgCO 3·3H 2O crystallization and the interfacial tension between MgCO 3·3H 2O and aqueous solutions of homogeneous ( γS,hom) and heterogeneous ( γS,het) nucleation were calculated from measurements of the induction period for the MgCO 3·3H 2O nucleation with and without the addition of NaCl.

  3. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries. PMID:22222030

  4. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries. PMID:22222030

  5. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy of rhombohedral CoCO3 crystals at T = 0 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shikov, V. V.; Rudenko, V. V.; Tugarinov, V. I.; Vorotynov, A. M.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2014-03-01

    A method for calculating the contribution of exchange interaction to uniaxial anisotropy with the use of g' factors has been worked out using CoCO3 crystals as an example. The calculated contribution of dipole-dipole interactions to the anisotropy of CoCO3 is 0.93 cm-1. The sum of the contributions to the anisotropy constant of CoCO3 with the inclusion of the dipole-dipole interactions is 36.1 cm-1.

  6. Carbon nanotube/Co3O4 composite for air electrode of lithium-air battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Taek Han; Park, Yong Joon

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube [CNT]/Co3O4 composite is introduced as a catalyst for the air electrode of lithium-air [Li/air] batteries. Co3O4 nanoparticles are successfully attached to the sidewall of the CNT by a hydrothermal method. A high discharge capacity and a low overvoltage indicate that the CNT/Co3O4 composite is a very promising catalyst for the air electrode of Li/air batteries.

  7. Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, David; Kheshgi, Haroon; Maier-Reimer, Ernst

    1998-06-01

    A detailed model of the ocean circulation and carbon cycle was coupled to a mechanistic model of CaCO3 diagenesis in deep sea sediments to simulate the millennium-scale response of the oceans to future fossil fuel CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and deep sea. Simulations of deep sea injection of CO2 show that CaCO3 dissolution is sensitive to passage of high-CO2 waters through the Atlantic Ocean, but CaCO3 dissolution has a negligible impact on atmospheric pCO2 or the atmospheric stabilization CO2 emission in the coming centuries. The ultimate fate of the fossil fuel CO2 will be to react with CaCO3 on the seafloor and on land. An initial CaCO3 dissolution spike reverses the net sedimentation rate in the ocean until it is attenuated by an enhanced vertical gradient of alkalinity after about 1000 years. The magnitude of the initial spike is sensitive to assumptions about the kinetics for CaCO3 dissolution, but subsequent behavior appears to be less model dependent. Neutralization by seafloor CaCO3 occurs on a timescale of 5-6 kyr, and is limited to at most 60-70% of the fossil fuel release, even if the fossil fuel release is smaller than the seafloor erodible inventory of CaCO3. Additional neutralization by terrestrial CaCO3 restores a balance between CaCO3 weathering and seafloor accumulation on a timescale of 8.5 kyr, while the deficit of seafloor CaCO3 (the lysocline) is replenished with an e-folding timescale of approximately 18 kyr. The final equilibrium with CaCO3 leaves 7-8% of the fossil fuel CO2 remaining in the atmosphere, to be neutralized by the silicate rock cycle on a time frame of hundreds of thousands of years.

  8. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Andrea B.; Regis, Shawn M.; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer screening may provide a “teachable moment” for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Methods Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012® high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. Results A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715–1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143–0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477–0.877). Conclusions Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates

  9. Update of Adolescent Smoking Cessation Interventions: 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Patricia; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of adolescent tobacco dependence is an imperative public health goal. Adolescent-focused smoking cessation interventions have shown modest results at most, indicating the need for the development of innovative and effective interventions for this vulnerable population. This review aims to provide an update of smoking cessation interventions for youth by reviewing the literature published between 2009 and November 2014 evaluating psychosocial and pharmacological interventions. Based on this examination, future directions for research in advancing the development of adolescent-focused tobacco treatments are provided. PMID:26295017

  10. High-pressure phase transitions and compressibilities of aragonite-structure carbonates: SrCO3 and BaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meili; Liu, Qiong; Nie, Shufang; Li, Baosheng; Wu, Ye; Gao, Jing; Wei, Xiaozhuo; Wu, Xiang

    2015-06-01

    The aragonite-structure carbonates—strontianite (SrCO3) and witherite (BaCO3)—were investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with diamond anvil cells up to 30 and 15 GPa at room temperature, respectively. Phase transitions in SrCO3 ( Pmcn to P21212) and BaCO3 ( Pmcn to Pmmn) were observed at 22.2-26.9 and 9.8-11.2 GPa, respectively. Both strontianite and witherite display anisotropic linear compression under pressure, with the c-axis 2-3 times more compressible than the a-axis and b-axis. The obtained second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state parameters for strontianite and witherite are V 0 = 258.4(3) Å3, K 0 = 62(1) GPa; and V 0 = 304.8(3) Å3, K 0 = 48(1) GPa, respectively. Based on the current results for strontianite and witherite and previous data for aragonite (CaCO3) and cerussite (PbCO3), the bulk moduli of the aragonite-structure carbonates exhibit a linear correlation with ambient molar volume [ K T0 (GPa) = 138 (5) - 2.0 (3) × V 0], with V 0 in cm3/mol, and the aragonite-structure to post-aragonite-structure phase transition pressures increase with decreasing ionic radius of the cations.

  11. Reducibility of Co 3+ in perovskite-type LaCoO 3 and promotion of copper on the reduction of Co 3+ in perovskite-type oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lin; Bassir, Mahbod; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2005-04-01

    The reducibility of Co 3+ in LaCoO 3 and the promotion of copper on the reduction of Co 3+ in perovskite-type oxides have been studied by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Quantitative TPR and TPO analyses propose that the reduction of Co 3+ in LaCoO 3 to Co 0 belongs to a one-step process and that every TPR peak represents the reduction of every Co 3+ species to Co 0 in the crystallite structure. Accordingly, the produced Co 0 is assumed to be atomically located in the perovskite lattice provided the perovskite structure is retained after reduction. Quantitative TPR analyses also indicates that copper located in LaCo 0.85Cu 0.15O 3 promotes regularly the reduction of various Co 3+ species whereas copper doped on LaCoO 3 does irregularly. The action of the latter leads to more efficient reduction of Co 3+ to atomically dispersed Co 0 over a useful temperature range for catalytic purposes. TPR, XRD and IR studies show that the perovskite structure of LaCo 0.85Cu 0.15O 3 is somewhat less stable than that of LaCoO 3 and that the perovskite structural stability of LaCoO 3 is not weakened by the doping of copper.

  12. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations. PMID:26682370

  13. School-based promotion of cessation support: reach of proactive mailings and acceptability of treatment in smoking parents recruited into cessation support through primary schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several forms of cessation support have been shown effective in increasing the chance of successful smoking cessation, but cessation support is still underutilized among smokers. Proactive outreach to target audiences may increase use of cessation support. Methods The present study evaluated the efficiency of using study invitation letters distributed through primary schools in recruiting smoking parents into cessation support (quitline support or a self-help brochure). Use and evaluation of cessation support among smoking parents were examined. Results Findings indicate that recruitment of smokers into cessation support remains challenging. Once recruited, cessation support was well received by smoking parents. Of smokers allocated to quitline support, 88% accepted at least one counselling call. The average number of calls taken was high (5.7 out of 7 calls). Of smokers allocated to receive self-help material, 84% read at least some parts of the brochure. Of the intention-to-treat population, 81% and 69% were satisfied with quitline support or self-help material, respectively. Smoking parents were significantly more positive about quitline support compared to self-help material (p<.001). Conclusions Cessation support is well-received and well-used among smoking parents recruited through primary schools. Future studies need to examine factors that influence the response to offers of cessation support in samples of nonvolunteer smokers. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register NTR2707 PMID:23617569

  14. Subsolidus and melting phase relations in the system CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 at 35 kbar: from experiments to predictions based on a thermodynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzolin, E.; Schmidt, M. W.; Poli, S.

    2009-12-01

    At convergent margins volatile components, most notably CO2 and H2O, stored in oceanic sediments and MORB are recycled into the mantle. Mafic protoliths become enriched in CO2 and H2O, stored in carbonates and hydrous phases, by hydrothermal alteration. As carbonates are more refractory than hydrous phases, CO2 is more likely to survive in the oceanic lithosphere beyond sub-arc depths [1,2]. Despite the main role of carbonates on cycling crustal and atmospheric CO2 into the mantle, experimental data within the system CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 are scarce. To bridge this gap, piston-cylinder experiments have been performed at 35 kbar, 900-1100 °C to determine subsolidus relations, and up to 1300 °C to constrain melting relations. Pure synthetic calcite, natural magnesite and synthetic siderite have been mixed in different proportions in double Pt-C capsules, to avoid major siderite oxidation. Subsolidus experiments reveal the presence of two miscibility gaps at 900 °C: the solvus dolomite-calcite, which closes at XMgCO3 ~ 0.7, and the solvus dolomite-magnesite, which ranges to the Fe-side of the ternary. Increasing the temperature, the two miscibility gaps became narrower until complete solid solutions between CaCO3-Ca0.5Mg0.5CO3 at 1100 °C, and between CaCO3-FeCO3 at 1000 °C, are observed. The system is characterized by strong compositional asymmetry, thermodynamically described with a van Laar macroscopic formalism [3], and by R-3<=>R-3c phase transitions due to cation disordering, treated by redefining the compositional space with an independent set of end-members that describe both composition and states of ordering. The result is a solid solution model able to reproduce both the phase relations experimentally observed at 35 kbar and those experimentally determined and naturally observed at lower pressure [4-5]. Our model can be reliable extended to pressures of the breakdown of dolomite, e.g. 5-6 GPa, 600-1000 °C. Melting experiments carried out at 1250 °C along

  15. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  16. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  17. Extended Treatment with Bupropion SR for Cigarette Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killen, Joel D.; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Murphy, Greer M.; Hayward, Chris; Arredondo, Christina; Cromp, DeAnn; Celio, Maria; Abe, Laurie; Wang, Yun; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2006-01-01

    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14…

  18. Psychosocial Factors and Enrollment in a Televised Smoking Cessation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kviz, Frederick J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Interviews with random samples of 641 registrants for a smoking cessation program on Chicago television news and 2,398 smokers who regularly viewed the news determined that registration was associated with (1) recognition of the need to change behavior; (2) high expectation for quitting; (3) concern about the burden of lung cancer on significant…

  19. Predicting Default from Smoking Cessation Treatment Following Enrolment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenger, Alison; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine which factors predict default from subsequent treatment sessions after initial enrolment and attendance at a large, English smoking cessation service. Design: Cross-sectional survey using data obtained at smokers' initial enrolment attendance to compare the characteristics of those who subsequently default with those who do…

  20. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview.

    PubMed

    Penberthy, J Kim; Penberthy, J Morgan; Harris, Marcus R; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Martinez, Caridad Ponce; Osika, Apule O; Slepian, Zoe A; Forsyth, Justin C; Starr, J Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E; Hook, Joshua N

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1-4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  1. Corporal Punishment Cessation: Social Contexts and Parents' Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Phillip W.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the cessation of corporal punishment by parents who start out spanking their children and then make a concerted effort to stop. Draws on semi-structured interviews with 22 parents and identifies five contexts in which those efforts arose: experiential, ideological, regulatory, relational, and biographical. Data suggests cultural…

  2. Ten Years down the Road: Predictors of Driving Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Bart, Edward; O'Connor, Melissa L.; Cissell, Gayla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Recent prospective studies have found that cognition is a more salient predictor of driving cessation than physical performance or demographic factors among community-dwelling older adults. However, these studies have been limited to 5 years of follow-up. The current study used data from the Maryland Older Drivers Project to examine…

  3. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Penberthy, J. Kim; Penberthy, J. Morgan; Harris, Marcus R.; Nanda, Sonali; Ahn, Jennifer; Ponce Martinez, Caridad; Osika, Apule O.; Slepian, Zoe A.; Forsyth, Justin C.; Starr, J. Andrew; Farrell, Jennifer E.; Hook, Joshua N.

    2016-01-01

    Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers,1–4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed. PMID:27081311

  4. Styles of Physician Advice about Smoking Cessation in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmell, Leigh; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether young adult cigarette smokers who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages of change for smoking cessation would differ in their evaluations of vignettes depicting 2 types of physician advice. Participants: Fifty-seven young adult cigarette smokers who were undergraduate students (49.1% female, mean age =…

  5. 46 CFR 68.37 - Cessation of qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup § 68.37 Cessation of qualifications. (a) If the vessel is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill... change. The not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative shall report the change in writing to...

  6. 46 CFR 68.37 - Cessation of qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup § 68.37 Cessation of qualifications. (a) If the vessel is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill... change. The not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative shall report the change in writing to...

  7. 46 CFR 68.37 - Cessation of qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS: EXCEPTIONS TO COASTWISE QUALIFICATION Documentation of Certain Vessels for Oil Spill Cleanup § 68.37 Cessation of qualifications. (a) If the vessel is owned by a not-for-profit oil spill... change. The not-for-profit oil spill response cooperative shall report the change in writing to...

  8. Development of a High School Smokeless Tobacco Cessation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the evaluation of various components of a self-help smokeless tobacco cessation manual that used relapse prevention, social contracting, and peer education to help high school seniors. Results suggest that use of the manual effectively helped reduce smokeless tobacco use. Recommendations for persons using the manual are included. (SM)

  9. Coping Strategies Used by Adolescents during Smoking Cessation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jannone, Laura; O'Connell, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by teens as they attempted to quit smoking. The teens were attending a school-based cessation program titled "Quit 2 Win" that was offered in four high schools. This study examined situations in which teens were tempted to smoke. The study compares coping strategies teens reported in…

  10. A Model Curriculum for Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…

  11. Novel high-pressure structures of MgCO3, CaCO3 and CO2 and their role in Earth's lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganov, Artem R.; Ono, Shigeaki; Ma, Yanming; Glass, Colin W.; Garcia, Alberto

    2008-08-01

    Most of the oxidized carbon in the Earth's lower mantle is believed to be stored in the high-pressure forms of MgCO3 and/or CaCO3 or possibly even CO2. Recently, through ab initio evolutionary simulations and high-pressure experiments, a complete picture of phase transformations of CaCO3 at mantle pressures was obtained. Here, using the same approach, we investigate the high-pressure structures of MgCO3. Two new structure types were predicted to be stable in the relevant pressure range: one at 82-138 GPa and the other above 138 GPa. Both phases contain rings of corner-sharing CO4-tetrahedra. These predictions were largely confirmed by the experiments presented here. A number of structurally very different, but energetically competitive metastable polymorphs were found and reveal complex high-pressure chemistry of MgCO3, in contrast to CaCO3. For CO2, from 19 GPa to at least 150 GPa, we find β-cristobalite structure to be stable. Differences between high-pressure tetrahedral carbonates and low-pressure silicates are discussed in terms of rigidity of the T-O-T angles (flexible when T = Si and stiff when T = C). We show that through most of the P-T conditions of the mantle, MgCO3 is the major host of oxidized carbon in the Earth. We discuss the possibility of CO2 release at the very bottom of the mantle, which could enhance partial melting of rocks and explain the geodynamical differences between the Earth and Venus.

  12. Faculty Development in Tobacco Cessation: Training Health Professionals and Promoting Tobacco Control in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Myra L.; Lando, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Issues Cessation programs are essential components of comprehensive tobacco control. Health care providers, especially physicians, have major responsibility for role modeling and promoting cessation. For successful, sustainable cessation training programs, countries need health care professionals with knowledge and skills to deliver and teach tobacco cessation. Approach Review literature relevant to faculty development in tobacco cessation and discuss its strategic potential in tobacco control. Key findings Faculty development is essential for sustainable tobacco cessation training programs, and a potentially powerful strategy to shift professional and societal norms toward cessation and support of comprehensive tobacco control in countries with normative tobacco use and underdeveloped tobacco control programs. Implications Medical faculty are in a key position to influence tobacco cessation and control programs because of their roles as educators and researchers, receptivity to innovation and, influence on competencies and standards for medical education and practice. Faculty development programs must consider the number and type of faculty, and tobacco cessation curricula needed. Faculty development fosters the ability to institutionalize cessation education for students and community practitioners. Academic faculty are often leaders in their professional disciplines, influential in establishing clinical practice standards, and technical experts for government and other key health organizations. Conclusion Training health care professional faculty to become knowledgeable and committed to tobacco cessation opens opportunities to promote cessation and shift professional and societal norms away from tobacco use. PMID:19737208

  13. Do Smoking Cessation Websites Meet the Needs of Smokers with Severe Mental Illnesses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunette, Mary F.; Ferron, Joelle C.; Devitt, Timothy; Geiger, Pamela; Martin, Wendy M.; Pratt, Sarah; Santos, Meghan; McHugo, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    Many people learn about smoking cessation through information on the Internet. Whether people with severe mental illnesses, who have very high rates of smoking, are able to use currently available websites about smoking cessation is unknown. The study reported here assessed whether four smoking cessation websites met usability guidelines and…

  14. 20 CFR 404.1597a - Continued benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... medical cessation determination. 404.1597a Section 404.1597a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1597a Continued benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation...). If you appeal a medical cessation under both title II and title XVI (a concurrent case), the title...

  15. Thermodynamics of dissolution of lead oxide in NaOH-Na2CO3 melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbin, N. M.; Barbina, T. M.

    2016-08-01

    The solubility of lead oxide in NaOH + (20%)Na2CO3 and NaOH + (40%)Na2CO3 melts was studied by the isothermal saturation method. The model mechanisms of dissolution were considered. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated.

  16. [Synthesis and characterization of CO-3(2-) doping nano-hydroxyapatite].

    PubMed

    Liao, Jian-Guo; Li, Yan-Qun; Duan, Xing-Ze; Liu, Qiong

    2014-11-01

    CO3(2-) doping is an effective method to increase the biological activity of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA). In the present study, calcium nitrate and trisodium phosphate were chosen as raw materials, with a certain amount of Na2CO3 as a source of CO-3(2-) ions, to synthesize nano-carbonate hydroxyapatite (n-CHA) slurry by solution precipitation method. The structure and micro-morphology of n-CHA were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). The results revealed that the synthetic n-HA crystals are acicular in nanometer scale and have a crystal size of 20-30 nm in diameter and 60-80 nm in length, which are similar to natural bone apatite. And the crystallinity of n-CHA crystals decreases to the increment of CO3(2-). Samples with more CO3(2) have composition and structure more similar to the bone apatite. The value of lattice parameters a decreases, value of c increases, and c/a value increases with the increase in the amount of CO3(2-), in accordance with crystal cell parameters change rule of type B replacement. In the AB mixed type (substitution OH- and PO4(3-)) CHA, IR characteristic peak of CO3(2-) out-of-plane bending vibration appears at 872 cm(-1), meanwhile, the asymmetry flexible vibration band is split into band at 1 454 cm(-1) and band at 1 420 cm(-1), while weak CO3(2)-peak appears at 1 540 cm(-1). CO3(2-) Raman peak of symmetric stretching vibration appears at 1 122 cm(-1). CO3(2-) B-type (substitution PO4(3-)) peak appeared at 1 071 cm(-1). Through the calculation of integral area ratio of PO4(3-)/ CO3(2-), OH-/CO3(2-), and PO4(3-)/OH-, low quantity CO3(2-) is B-type and high quantity CO3(2-) is A-type (substitution OH-). The results show that the synthesized apatite crystals are AB hybrid substitued nano-carbonate hydroxyapatite, however B-type replacement is the main substitute mode. Due to similarity inthe shape, size, crystal structure

  17. Dendrite-like Co3O4 nanostructure and its applications in sensors, supercapacitors and catalysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Huan; Gao, Feng; Chen, Qun; Liu, Rongmei; Lu, Qingyi

    2012-05-21

    Dendrite-like Co(3)O(4) nanostructure, made up of many nanorods with diameters of 15-20 nm and lengths of 2-3 μm, has been successfully prepared by calcining the corresponding nanostructured Co-8-hydroxyquinoline coordination precursor in air. The Co(3)O(4) nanostructure was evaluated as an electrochemical sensor for H(2)O(2) detection and the results reveal that it has good linear dependence and high sensitivity to H(2)O(2) concentration changes. As an electrode material of a supercapacitor, it was found that the nanostructured Co(3)O(4) electrode exhibits high specific capacitance and long cycle life. The Co(3)O(4) nanostructure also has good catalytic properties and is steadily active for CO oxidation, giving 100% CO conversion at low temperatures. The multifunctional Co(3)O(4) nanostructure would be a promising functional nanomaterial applied in multi industrialized fields. PMID:22453646

  18. Controlled precipitation of nesquehonite (MgCO 3·3H 2O) by the reaction of MgCl 2 with (NH 4) 2CO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Li, Zhibao; Demopoulos, George P.

    2008-03-01

    In this study, homogeneous (unseeded) precipitation of nesquehonite (MgCO 3·3H 2O) by the reaction of MgCl 2 with (NH 4) 2CO 3 in supersaturated solutions was investigated. Factors that influence the precipitation of MgCO 3·3H 2O, such as reaction temperature, initial concentration, stirring speed, titration speed, equilibration time, have been studied. SEM images and particle size distribution show that the temperature, initial concentration and titration speed have significant effect on nesquehonite's crystal morphology and particle size. In addition, stirring speed and equilibration time also have some influence on its properties. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) results show that the obtained crystals compositions are greatly affected by the reaction temperature. With the morphological transformation, their corresponding composition also change from MgCO 3· xH 2O to Mg 5(CO 3) 4(OH) 2·4H 2O in the interval of 288-333 K. With the optimization of operating conditions, the crystals can grow up to a length of about 40 μm and a width of 5 μm, indicating good filtration properties. High-purity nesquehonite obtained in this study was calcined to produce highly pure MgO at 1073 K as shown by XRD results.

  19. Porous Co3O4 nanowires derived from long Co(CO3)0.5(OH).0.11H2O nanowires with improved supercapacitive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bao; Zhu, Ting; Wu, Hao Bin; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen (David)

    2012-03-01

    Porous Co3O4 nanowires with large aspect ratio have been obtained by annealing long Co(CO3)0.5(OH).0.11H2O precursor nanowires synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The results show that the amount of the additive (urea) has an important impact on the morphology of the as-synthesized cobalt-carbonate-hydroxide intermediate, where the uniformity and the overall structure can be controlled by changing the urea concentration. After the heat treatment, the as-obtained phase-pure Co3O4 nanowires with a well retained structure are applied as the electrode material for supercapacitors, and the sample exhibits excellent performance with a high specific capacitance of 240 F g-1 after 2000 charge/discharge cycles, corresponding to a retention of 98% of the initial capacitance.

  20. In situ biosynthesis of bacterial nanocellulose-CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposite: One-step process.

    PubMed

    Mohammadkazemi, Faranak; Faria, Marisa; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a simple and green route to the synthesis of the bacterial nanocellulose-calcium carbonate (BNC/CaCO3) hybrid bionanocomposites using one-step in situ biosynthesis was studied. The CaCO3 was incorporated in the bacterial nanocellulose structure during the cellulose biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter xylinus PTCC 1734 bacteria. Hestrin-Schramm (HS) and Zhou (Z) culture media were used to the hybrid bionanocomposites production and the effect of ethanol addition was investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, inverse gas chromatography and thermogravimetric analysis were used to characterize the samples. The experimental results demonstrated that the ethanol and culture medium play an important role in the BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites production, structure and properties. The BNC/CaCO3 biosynthesized in Z culture medium revealed higher O/C ratio and amphoteric surface character, which justify the highest CaCO3 content incorporation. The CaCO3 was incorporated into the cellulosic matrix decreasing the bacterial nanocellulose crystallinity. This work reveals the high potential of in situ biosynthesis of BNC/CaCO3 hybrid bionanocomposites and opens a new way to the high value-added applications of bacterial nanocellulose. PMID:27157766

  1. Cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites: microwave ionic liquid synthesis, characterization, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Guo; Dong, Yan-Yan; Fu, Lian-Hua; Li, Shu-Ming; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-02-15

    The purposes of this article are to synthesize the biomass-based hybrid nanocomposites using green method in green solvent and evaluate its biological activity. In this paper, microwave-assisted ionic liquid method is applied to the preparation of cellulose/CaCO(3) hybrid nanocomposites in the alkali extraction cellulose using CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) as starting reactants. The ionic liquid acts as the excellent solvent for absorbing microwave and the dissolution of cellulose, and the synthesis of cellulose/CaCO(3) nanocomposites. The influences of reaction parameters such as the cellulose concentration and the types of solvent on the products were investigated. The increasing cellulose concentration favored the growth of CaCO(3). The morphologies of CaCO(3) changed from polyhedral to cube to particle with increasing cellulose concentration. Moreover, the solvents had an effect on the shape and dispersion of CaCO(3). Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the cellulose/CaCO(3) nanocomposites had good biocompatibility and could be a candidate for the biomedical applications. PMID:23399205

  2. Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Co3O4 nanoparticles prepared by conventional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Karthikeyen, B.; Ragupathi, C.; Sundaram, R.

    2016-07-01

    Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) is one of the favorable nanoparticles (NPs) that possesses many remarkable properties so that it can be used in medicine, chemistry, environment, energy, information, industry, and so on. In this study, the crystalline Co3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by an efficient conventional method technique from an using different fuels. In the present paper, pure phase and well-dispersed Co3O4 were synthesized via the starch and aqueous ammonia solution in the stoichiometric fuel compositions. The structure and morphology of by way of organized Co3O4 nanoparticles were characterized by the structural analysis, electron microscopy studies, and optical properties studies. Magnetic properties exposed that the Co3O4 nanoparticles had ferromagnetic performance at room temperature with saturation magnetization of 71.09 emu/g. The results revealed that the changing the precursor led to great effects on the crystal size, emission peaks, and the reaction time of preparing the Co3O4 NPs. The significant feature of this manuscript is that the effects of different precursors on the structural magnetic and optical properties of Co3O4 NPs were investigated for the first time. The average particle size of samples (A and B) 23.6 and 22.2 nm, respectively.

  3. Enhanced biohydrogen production from sugarcane bagasse by Clostridium thermocellum supplemented with CaCO3.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qing-Qing; Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 was used to degrade sugarcane bagasse (SCB) directly for hydrogen production, which was significantly enhanced by supplementing medium with CaCO3. The effect of CaCO3 concentration on the hydrogen production was investigated. The hydrogen production was significantly enhanced with the CaCO3 concentration increased from 10mM to 20mM. However, with the CaCO3 concentration further increased from 20mM to 100mM, the hydrogen production didn't increase further. Under the optimal CaCO3 concentration of 20mM, the hydrogen production reached 97.83±5.19mmol/L from 2% sodium hydroxide-pretreated SCB, a 116.72% increase over the control (45.14±1.03mmol/L), and the yield of hydrogen production reached 4.89mmol H2/g SCBadded. Additionally, CaCO3 promoted the biodegradation of SCB and the growth of C. thermocellum. The stimulatory effects of CaCO3 on biohydrogen production are mainly attributed to the buffering capacity of carbonate. The study provides a novel strategy to enhance biohydrogen production from lignocellulose. PMID:26356113

  4. Electrical transport and thermochromic properties of polyaniline/chitosan/Co3O4 ternary nano composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    V, Mini; Kamath, Archana; S, Raghu; Chapi, Sharanappa; H, Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    A new Polyaniline/ chitosan/ Co3O4 (CPAESCO) ternary nanocomposite is prepared by in situ oxidation polymerization of aniline in the presence of (NH4)2S2O8, chitosan and Co3O4. The Structural, Thermal, Optical and Electrical features of Polyaniline (PANI), Polyaniline/ chitosan (CPANI) and CPAESCO were analyzed using FT-IR, TGA, UV-vis analysis and Impedance spectroscopy by varying temperature. The results show that the introduction of the Co3O4 nanoparticles into CPANI matrix enhanced its properties. Mott's parameters show 3D -VRH Type conduction in it.

  5. Magnetic Response of Hydrothermally Prepared Self-Assembled Co3O4 Nano-platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar, M. A.; Nam, S. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Ahmad, I.; Cho, B. K.; Kim, W. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present communication, we report a strong ferrimagnetic behavior of self-assembled Co3O4 nano-platelets, which most likely originates from the intrinsic spin structure of the unique Co3O4 structure. The microsphere-like structures are composed of nano-platelets that are entangled together to form the organized network. These anomalous ferrimagnetic properties can be rationalized by supposing that one of the Co3+ and one of the Co2+ ions are switched between the octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The powder sample was also characterized by x-ray diffraction and superconducting quantum interface device magnetometry.

  6. Smoking-Cessation Counseling Practices of College/University Health-Care Providers--A Theory-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Kathleen A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The author's purpose in this study was to examine the relation between smoking cessation counseling self-efficacy, knowledge of smoking cessation counseling, motivation to counsel smokers, and barriers to performing smoking cessation counseling, relative to the smoking cessation counseling stage of change. Participants and Methods:…

  7. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  8. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    PubMed

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students. PMID:15495883

  9. Intranasal midazolam for seizure cessation in the community setting

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2016-01-01

    Question There are times when parents arrive to my clinic after their child has had a seizure and a second seizure takes place in the clinic. While waiting for transport to the hospital, are there ways to stop the seizures without the need to obtain intravenous access in the clinic? Answer Intravenous diazepam has been a first-line therapy to stop seizures in children for many years. Other routes of drug administration such as intramuscular, rectal, and buccal are available but have several limitations. More evidence suggests that the intranasal route to administer drugs is quick and effective in children, and the use of midazolam has been continuing to show promise in seizure cessation. With its good safety profile, intranasal midazolam can be used in the clinic and prehospital setting for seizure cessation in children. PMID:27412207

  10. Comparison of Four Recruiting Strategies in a Smoking Cessation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Meenan, Richard; Severson, Herb; Halperin, Abigail; Edwards, Erika; Magnusson, Brooke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare 4 on-line and off-line recruiting methods. Methods Young adult smokers (n=3353) were recruited to a trial comparing smoking cessation services with an on-line health risk assessment (HRA), on-line ads, off-line materials, and quit line screening. Results On-line ads (n=1426; $41.35) and off-line materials recruited the most smokers (n=1341; $56.23) for the lowest cost. Quit line screening was more expensive (n=189; $133.61), but enrollees used cessation services the most (34%-82%). On-line HRA was least successful and most costly (n=397; $630.85) but had the highest follow-up (45%-55%). Conclusions On-line ads and off-line materials were most effective and cost-effective methods. PMID:22584086

  11. Cardiovascular adverse events associated with smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Thakar, Saurabh; Lavie, Carl J; Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Sochor, Ondrej; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Lichstein, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable deaths in the USA, accounting for one in every five deaths every year, and cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of those deaths. Hence, there is increasing awareness to quit smoking among the public and counseling plays an important role in smoking cessation. There are different pharmacological methods to help quit smoking that includes nicotine replacement products available over the counter, including patch, gum, and lozenges, to prescription medications, such as bupropion and varenicline. There have been reports of both nonserious and serious adverse CV events associated with the use of these different pharmacological methods, especially varenicline, which has been gaining media attention recently. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the various pharmacotherapies used in smoking cessation and analyzed the evidence behind these CV events reported with these therapeutic agents. PMID:25410148

  12. Smoking cessation: the role of the foot and ankle surgeon.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Bevilacqua, Nicholas J

    2010-02-01

    Tobacco cigarette smoking causes many negative effects on the body, and it is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. These negative effects are a concern for the foot and ankle surgeon, as smoking can increase the risk of diabetes and peripheral artery disease and delay healing of surgical incisions and ulcerations of the lower extremities. Tobacco cigarette smoking can also increase the risk of avascular necrosis and delayed union and nonunions of fractures and osteotomies. Smoking cessation is an important component in the overall treatment of conditions affecting the foot and ankle. Smoking cessation can be a difficult goal to achieve, but proper education and support can help patients reach this goal. PMID:20400436

  13. Improvement in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia after smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Tsutomu; Kadota, Naoki; Hino, Hiroyuki; Naruse, Keishi; Ohtsuki, Yuji; Ogushi, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking has been recognized as a risk factor for the development of several interstitial lung diseases, the relationship between smoking and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) has not yet been fully elucidated. We here present a case of fibrotic NSIP with mild emphysema in an elderly male with normal pulmonary function, whose symptoms, serum KL-6 level, and high-resolution computed tomography findings of interstitial changes markedly improved without medication following the cessation of smoking. Our case suggests that smoking may be an etiological factor in some patients with NSIP and that early smoking cessation before a clinically detectable decline in pulmonary function may be critical for smokers with idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26029566

  14. First-principles calculations of structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties of magnesite MgCO 3 and calcite CaCO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brik, M. G.

    2011-02-01

    Detailed ab initio calculations of the structural, electronic, optical and elastic properties of two crystals - magnesite (MgCO 3) and calcite (CaCO 3) - are reported in the present paper. Both compounds are important natural minerals, playing an important role in the carbon dioxide cycling. The optimized crystal structures, band gaps, density of states diagrams, elastic constants, optical absorption spectra and refractive indexes dependence on the wavelength all have been calculated and compared, when available, with literature data. Both crystals are indirect band compounds, with calculated band gaps of 5.08 eV for MgCO 3 and 5.023 eV for CaCO 3. Both values are underestimated by approximately 1.0 eV with respect to the experimental data. Although both crystals have the same structure, substitution of Mg by Ca ions leads to certain differences, which manifest themselves in noticeable change in the electronic bands profiles and widths, shape of the calculated absorption spectra, and values of the elastic constants. Response of both crystals to the applied hydrostatic pressure was analyzed in the pressure range of phase stability, variations of the lattice parameters and characteristic interionic distances were considered. The obtained dependencies of lattice constants and calculated band gap on pressure can be used for prediction of properties of these two hosts at elevated pressures that occur in the Earth's mantle.

  15. Are electronic nicotine delivery systems an effective smoking cessation tool?

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Christine; West, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have estimated that 21% of all deaths over the past decade are due to smoking, making it the leading cause of premature death in Canada. To date, many steps have been taken to eradicate the global epidemic of tobacco smoking. Most recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have become a popular smoking cessation tool. ENDS do not burn or use tobacco leaves, but instead vapourize a solution the user then inhales. The main constituents of the solution, in addition to nicotine when nicotine is present, are propylene glycol, with or without glycerol and flavouring agents. Currently, ENDS are not regulated, and have become a controversial topic. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether ENDS are an effective smoking cessation tool. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in February 2015 using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science Core Collection. Randomized controlled trials were the only publications included in the search. A secondary search was conducted by reviewing the references of relevant publications. RESULTS: After conducting the primary and secondary search, 109 publications were identified. After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria through abstract and full-text review, four publications were included in the present literature review. A low risk of bias was established for each included study using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias evaluation framework. DISCUSSION: The primary outcome measured in all studies was self-reported abstinence or reduction from smoking. In three of the four studies, self-reported abstinence or reduction from smoking was verified by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide. In the remaining study, the primary outcome measured was self-reported desire to smoke and measured desire to smoke. All four studies showed promise that ENDS are an effective smoking cessation tool. CONCLUSIONS: While all publications included in the present review revealed that ENDS are

  16. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women. PMID:20091107

  17. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight

  18. Simulating smokers' acceptance of modifications in a cessation program.

    PubMed Central

    Spoth, R

    1992-01-01

    Recent research has underscored the importance of assessing barriers to smokers' acceptance of cessation programs. This paper illustrates the use of computer simulations to gauge smokers' response to program modifications which may produce barriers to participation. It also highlights methodological issues encountered in conducting this work. Computer simulations were based on conjoint analysis, a consumer research method which enables measurement of smokers' relative preference for various modifications of cessation programs. Results from two studies are presented in this paper. The primary study used a randomly selected sample of 218 adult smokers who participated in a computer-assisted phone interview. Initially, the study assessed smokers' relative utility rating of 30 features of cessation programs. Utility data were used in computer-simulated comparisons of a low-cost, self-help oriented program under development and five other existing programs. A baseline version of the program under development and two modifications (for example, use of a support group with a higher level of cost) were simulated. Both the baseline version and modifications received a favorable response vis-à-vis comparison programs. Modifications requiring higher program costs were, however, associated with moderately reduced levels of favorable consumer response. The second study used a sample of 70 smokers who responded to an expanded set of smoking cessation program features focusing on program packaging. This secondary study incorporate in-person, computer-assisted interviews at a shopping mall, with smokers viewing an artist's mock-up of various program options on display. A similar pattern of responses to simulated program modifications emerged, with monetary cost apparently playing a key role. The significance of conjoint-based computer simulation as a tool in program development or dissemination, salient methodological issues, and implications for further research are discussed

  19. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  20. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19) in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA)]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA)]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh)]) via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA) (χ2(3) = 8.068, p < 0.045), d(PfpA) (χ2(3) = 8.477, p < 0.037), and d(Gh) (χ2(3) = 37.599, p < 0.001) lesions were seen, indicating levels of each decreased significantly after CO-confirmed smoking cessation. The d(TgpA) and d(PfpA) lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh) lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA), 64% of baseline for d(PfpA), vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh)). Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis. PMID:21569419

  1. [Ethical concerns around donors after cessation of active treatment].

    PubMed

    Dorez, Didier

    2016-09-01

    The cessation of treatment in intensive care leads to death through circulatory arrest. In these circumstances there is an opportunity to remove organs, if that was the wish of the patient. This raises legitimate ethical questions. A French national protocol defines the conditions of this donation and ensures a harmonisation of practices as well as an overall improvement in end-of-life support in intensive care. These donors represent an opportunity to increase the number of organs available for transplant. PMID:27596498

  2. [Hypomania/mania induced by cessation of antidepressant drugs].

    PubMed

    Kora, Kaan; Kaplan, Pelin

    2008-01-01

    Although rarely reported, the induction of hypomanic/manic episodes due to sudden or gradual cessation of antidepressant drugs is a phenomenon observed in clinical settings. Herein we present 2 patients that had manic episodes induced by gradual cessation of antidepressant drugs. Common features of both cases were as follows: patients were female; a major depressive episode was the reason for starting treatment; familial loading for unipolar depressive disorder; venlafaxine was administered for treatment of the episode; mood elevation symptoms while gradually decreasing the medication dose; absence of physical symptoms related to withdrawal; antipsychotic and mood stabilizing drugs were required for the treatment of the episode. In both cases 1) a hypomanic/manic episode induced by the use of antidepressants, 2) agitated depression, 3) physical withdrawal syndrome, and 4) spontaneous episodes in the natural course of the illness were the 4 different states that were taken into consideration for differential diagnosis. Hypomanic/manic episodes induced by cessation of antidepressant drugs are thought to shed light on the etiology of bipolar disorder, which this report discusses with reference to the case reports. PMID:18791886

  3. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Kristin V.; Brinn, Malcolm P.; Robertson, Thomas A.; To-A-Nan, Rachada; Esterman, Adrian J.; Peters, Matthew; Smith, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and poses a significant threat across developing countries where tobacco use prevalence is increasing. Nicotine dependence is a chronic disease often requiring multiple attempts to quit; repeated interventions with pharmacotherapeutic aids have become more popular as part of cessation therapies. First-line medications of known efficacy in the general population include varenicline tartrate, bupropion hydrochloride, nicotine replacement therapy products, or a combination thereof. However, less is known about the use of these products in marginalized groups such as the indigenous, those with mental illnesses, youth, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Despite the efficacy and safety of these first line pharmacotherapies, many smokers continue to relapse and alternative pharmacotherapies and cessation options are required. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the existing and developing pharmacotherapeutic and other options for smoking cessation, to identify gaps in current clinical practice, and to provide recommendations for future evaluations and research. PMID:23772176

  4. Attitudes Toward Smoking Cessation Among Sheltered Homeless Parents.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Holly C; Stevenson, Terrell N; Bruce, Janine S; Greenberg, Brian; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking among homeless adults is approximately 70 %. Cessation programs designed for family shelters should be a high priority given the dangers cigarette smoke poses to children. However, the unique nature of smoking in the family shelter setting remains unstudied. We aimed to assess attitudes toward smoking cessation, and unique barriers and motivators among homeless parents living in family shelters in Northern California. Six focus groups and one interview were conducted (N = 33, ages 23-54). The focus groups and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and a representative team performed qualitative theme analysis. Eight males and 25 females participated. The following major themes emerged: (1) Most participants intended to quit eventually, citing concern for their children as their primary motivation. (2) Significant barriers to quitting included the ubiquity of cigarette smoking, its central role in social interactions in the family shelter setting, and its importance as a coping mechanism. (3) Participants expressed interest in quitting "cold turkey" and in e-cigarettes, but were skeptical of the patch and pharmacotherapy. (4) Feelings were mixed regarding whether individual, group or family counseling would be most effective. Homeless parents may be uniquely motivated to quit because of their children, but still face significant shelter-based social and environmental barriers to quitting. Successful cessation programs in family shelters must be designed with the unique motivations and barriers of this population in mind. PMID:25980523

  5. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    PubMed

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest. PMID:25879476

  6. Community outreach: providing a comprehensive approach to smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Clark, June; Hegedus, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The LEEP Program at the SRHS has completed its first year. Executing the strategic action plans could not have been accomplished without the collaboration of multiple agencies-the ACS, ALA, DHEC, SADAC, and the SRHS. Activities surrounding education, awareness, and the development of support programs during this year have moved us closer to achieving our goal-to develop and implement a systematic educational program including a collaborative community-wide smoking cessation initiative. We had many successes during the first year of the LEEP program. However, future opportunities remain. Offering Freshstart facilitator class twice a year will provide trained facilitators for the every-other-month Freshstart classes at the Gibbs Regional Cancer Center and community smoking cessation classes as needed. Moreover, smokers in the community can attend a smoking cessation support group that began in January 2002. The support group reinforces the safety net of services developed within the first year. Collaboration with other community organizations ensure that continued efforts are made to improve the health and quality-of-life for upstate South Carolina residents. "According to results from the 1994 National Health Interview Supplement (NHIS-2000), 70% of smokers indicated a strong desire to quit" (Westmaas, 2000). It is the role and responsibility of health care institutions to provide the safety net of services to enable patients and the community at large to be successful in their efforts to kick the cigarette habit. PMID:12382696

  7. Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?

    PubMed

    Odum, Lauren E; O'Dell, Katie A; Schepers, Jacqueline S

    2012-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes have gained popularity among patients as a smoking cessation aid despite not being approved or supported for this purpose by the United States Food and Drug Administration due to concerns with poor manufacturing practices and the presence of known carcinogens in the limited products that they tested. A few studies have evaluated the effects of electronic cigarettes on plasma nicotine levels and heart rate but found negligible effects. Safety data are mainly limited to surveys in which patients report only minor side effects, such as mouth and throat irritation, headache, vertigo, and nausea. The efficacy of electronic cigarettes has been evaluated in studies in which patients report great success with being able to cut back or stop tobacco cigarette consumption. However, many of these studies introduce bias due to recruiting on e-cigarette Web sites and having tobacco cigarette use self-reported by the participant rather than objectively tested. A few studies have formally evaluated nicotine craving when using electronic cigarettes with mixed results. Although patients support the use of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation, more formal studies on safety and efficacy should be completed in order to determine whether these products have a role in smoking cessation. PMID:22797832

  8. Selegiline Transdermal System (STS) as an Aid for Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Gorgon, Liza; Jones, Karen; McSherry, Frances; Glover, Elbert D.; Anthenelli, Robert M.; Jackson, Thomas; Williams, Jill; Murtaugh, Cristin; Montoya, Ivan; Yu, Elmer; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the efficacy and safety of selegiline transdermal system (STS) and brief repeated behavioral intervention (BRBI) for smoking cessation in heavy smokers. We hypothesized that the quit rate of subjects who received STS and BRBI would be significantly greater than that of those who received placebo patch and BRBI. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study in which 246 men and women were randomized to receive either STS (n = 121) or placebo patch (n =125) for 9 weeks. Recruitment targeted heavy smokers, defined as individuals with self-reported use of ≥15 cigarettes/day in the 30 days prior to enrollment, who had smoked cigarettes for the past 5 years, and had an expired CO level ≥9 ppm during screening. Results: Although STS was well tolerated, the overall results indicated that STS with BRBI was not more effective than placebo plus BRBI for smoking cessation (p = .58). Conclusions: The results are discussed in relation to interventions for heavy smokers. Although 2 trials using oral selegiline both showed trends toward improved abstinence, these results indicate that STS with BRBI was not an effective aid for smoking cessation at the end of treatment (10 weeks), 14, or 26 weeks. PMID:21846661

  9. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation: pharmacological principles and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Luquiens, Amandine; Berlin, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strategies for assisting smoking cessation include behavioural counselling to enhance motivation and to support attempts to quit and pharmacological intervention to reduce nicotine reinforcement and withdrawal from nicotine. Three drugs are currently used as first line pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Compared with placebo, the drug effect varies from 2.27 (95% CI 2.02, 2.55) for varenicline, 1.69 (95% CI 1.53, 1.85) for bupropion and 1.60 (95% CI 1.53, 1.68) for any form of nicotine replacement therapy. Despite some controversy regarding the safety of bupropion and varenicline, regulatory agencies consider these drugs as having a favourable benefit/risk profile. However, given the high rate of psychiatric comorbidity in dependent smokers, practitioners should closely monitor patients for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Second-line pharmacotherapies include nortriptyline and clonidine. This review also offers an overview of pipeline developments and issues related to smoking cessation in special populations such as persons with psychiatric comorbidity and pregnant and adolescent smokers. PMID:23488726

  10. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Jennifer L; Bonevski, Billie; McDonald, Christine F; Abramson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large. PMID:27445499