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Sample records for cftr iodide efflux

  1. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β3 adrenoceptors linked to Gs protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel. PMID:21943397

  2. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to A561E-CFTR, a cystic fibrosis mutant with a similar mechanism of dysfunction as F508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiting; Liu, Jia; Loizidou, Avgi; Bugeja, Luc A; Warner, Ross; Hawley, Bethan R; Cai, Zhiwei; Toye, Ashley M; Sheppard, David N; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel causes the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of transformational drug therapies for CF, we investigated the channel function and action of CFTR potentiators on A561E, a CF mutation found frequently in Portugal. Like the most common CF mutation F508del, A561E causes a temperature-sensitive folding defect that prevents CFTR delivery to the cell membrane and is associated with severe disease. Experimental Approach Using baby hamster kidney cells expressing recombinant CFTR, we investigated CFTR expression by cell surface biotinylation, and function and pharmacology with the iodide efflux and patch-clamp techniques. Key Results Low temperature incubation delivered a small proportion of A561E-CFTR protein to the cell surface. Like F508del-CFTR, low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR exhibited a severe gating defect characterized by brief channel openings separated by prolonged channel closures. A561E-CFTR also exhibited thermoinstability, losing function more quickly than F508del-CFTR in cell-free membrane patches and intact cells. Using the iodide efflux assay, CFTR potentiators, including genistein and the clinically approved small-molecule ivacaftor, partially restored function to A561E-CFTR. Interestingly, ivacaftor restored wild-type levels of channel activity (as measured by open probability) to single A561E- and F508del-CFTR Cl− channels. However, it accentuated the thermoinstability of both mutants in cell-free membrane patches. Conclusions and Implications Like F508del-CFTR, A561E-CFTR perturbs protein processing, thermostability and channel gating. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR. Transformational drug therapy for A561E-CFTR is likely to require CFTR correctors, CFTR potentiators and special attention to thermostability. PMID:24902474

  3. Cftr

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuehong; Smith, Stephen S.; Sun, Fang; Dawson, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Some studies of CFTR imply that channel activation can be explained by an increase in open probability (Po), whereas others suggest that activation involves an increase in the number of CFTR channels (N) in the plasma membrane. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we tested for changes in N associated with activation of CFTR in Xenopus oocytes using a cysteine-substituted construct (R334C CFTR) that can be modified by externally applied, impermeant thiol reagents like [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET+). Covalent modification of R334C CFTR with MTSET+ doubled the conductance and changed the I-V relation from inward rectifying to linear and was completely reversed by 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). Thus, labeled and unlabeled channels could be differentiated by noting the percent decrease in conductance brought about by exposure to 2-ME. When oocytes were briefly (20 s) exposed to MTSET+ before CFTR activation, the subsequently activated conductance was characteristic of labeled R334C CFTR, indicating that the entire pool of CFTR channels activated by cAMP was accessible to MTSET+. The addition of unlabeled, newly synthesized channels to the plasma membrane could be monitored on-line during the time when the rate of addition was most rapid after cRNA injection. The addition of new channels could be detected as early as 5 h after cRNA injection, occurred with a half time of ∼24–48 h, and was disrupted by exposing oocytes to Brefeldin A, whereas activation of R334C CFTR by cAMP occurred with a half time of tens of minutes, and did not appear to involve the addition of new channels to the plasma membrane. These findings demonstrate that in Xenopus oocytes, the major mechanism of CFTR activation by cAMP is by means of an increase in the open probability of CFTR channels. PMID:11585853

  4. Cftr

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen S.; Liu, Xuehong; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Sun, Fang; Kriewall, Thomas E.; McCarty, Nael A.; Dawson, David C.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the experiments described here was to explore the possible role of fixed charges in determining the conduction properties of CFTR. We focused on transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) which contains four basic residues (R334, K335, R347, and R352) that would be predicted, on the basis of their positions in the primary structure, to span TM6 from near the extracellular (R334, K335) to near the intracellular (R347, R352) end. Cysteines substituted at positions 334 and 335 were readily accessible to thiol reagents, whereas those at positions 347 and 352 were either not accessible or lacked significant functional consequences when modified. The charge at positions 334 and 335 was an important determinant of CFTR channel function. Charge changes at position 334—brought about by covalent modification of engineered cysteine residues, pH titration of cysteine and histidine residues, and amino acid substitution—produced similar effects on macroscopic conductance and the shape of the I-V plot. The effect of charge changes at position 334 on conduction properties could be described by electrodiffusion or rate-theory models in which the charge on this residue lies in an external vestibule of the pore where it functions to increase the concentration of Cl adjacent to the rate-limiting portion of the conduction path. Covalent modification of R334C CFTR increased single-channel conductance determined in detached patches, but did not alter open probability. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that in wild-type CFTR, R334 occupies a position where its charge can influence the distribution of anions near the mouth of the pore. PMID:11585852

  5. HEK‐293 cells expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): a model for studying regulation of Cl− transport

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Jada C.; Ao, Mei; Sarathy, Jayashree; George, Alvin; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Nelson, Deborah J.; Rao, Mrinalini C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line (HEK‐293) readily lends itself to genetic manipulation and is a common tool for biologists to overexpress proteins of interest and study their function and molecular regulation. Although these cells have some limitations, such as an inability to form resistive monolayers necessary for studying transepithelial ion transport, they are nevertheless valuable in studying individual epithelial ion transporters. We report the use of HEK‐293 cells to study the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel. While HEK‐293 cells endogenously express mRNA for the Cl− channels, ClC‐2 and TMEM16A, they neither express CFTR mRNA nor protein. Therefore, we stably transfected HEK‐293 cells with EGFP‐CFTR (HEK‐CFTR) and demonstrated CFTR function by measuring forskolin‐stimulated iodide efflux. This efflux was inhibited by CFTRinh172, and the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, but not by Ca2+ chelation. In contrast to intestinal epithelia, forskolin stimulation does not increase surface CFTR expression and does not require intact microtubules in HEK‐CFTR. To investigate the role of an endogenous GαS‐coupled receptor, we examined the bile acid receptor, TGR5. Although HEK‐CFTR cells express TGR5, the potent TGR5 agonist lithocholic acid (LCA; 5–500 μmol/L) did not activate CFTR. Furthermore, forskolin, but not LCA, increased [cAMP]i in HEK‐CFTR suggesting that endogenous TGR5 may not be functionally linked to GαS. However, LCA did increase [Ca2+]i and interestingly, abolished forskolin‐stimulated iodide efflux. Thus, we propose that the stable HEK‐CFTR cell line is a useful model to study the multiple signaling pathways that regulate CFTR. PMID:25263207

  6. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Activity

    PubMed Central

    Semenkov, Illya; Molinski, Steven; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Bui, Hai H.; Bear, Christine E.; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L) attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P’s inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds), transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737) phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019) and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA) attenuate S1P-stimluated (i) AMPK phosphorylation, (ii) CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii) CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508), the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure). S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking. PMID:26079370

  7. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Activity.

    PubMed

    Malik, Firhan A; Meissner, Anja; Semenkov, Illya; Molinski, Steven; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Bui, Hai H; Bear, Christine E; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L) attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P's inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds), transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737) phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019) and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA) attenuate S1P-stimluated (i) AMPK phosphorylation, (ii) CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii) CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508), the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure). S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking. PMID:26079370

  8. Disruption of cytokeratin-8 interaction with F508del-CFTR corrects its functional defect

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Julien; Faure, Grazyna; Saussereau, Emilie; Trudel, Stéphanie; Rabeh, Wael M.; Bitam, Sara; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Fritsch, Janine; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Davezac, Noëlie; Brouillard, Franck; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Herrmann, Harald; Ollero, Mario; Edelman, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported an increased expression of cytokeratins 8/18 (K8/K18) in cells expressing the F508del mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This is associated with increased colocalization of CFTR and K18 in the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum, although this is reversed by treating cells with curcumin, resulting in the rescue of F508del-CFTR. In the present work, we hypothesized that (i) the K8/K18 network may interact physically with CFTR, and that (ii) this interaction may modify CFTR function. CFTR was immunoprecipitated from HeLa cells transfected with either wild-type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR. Precipitates were subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis and differential spots identified by mass spectrometry. K8 and K18 were found significantly increased in F508del-CFTR precipitates. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrate that K8, but not K18, binds directly and preferentially to the F508del over the WT human NBD1 (nucleotide-binding domain-1). In vivo K8 interaction with F508del-CFTR was confirmed by proximity ligation assay in HeLa cells and in primary cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells. Ablation of K8 expression by siRNA in F508del-expressing HeLa cells led to the recovery of CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. Moreover, F508del-expressing mice topically treated with K8-siRNA showed restored nasal potential difference, equivalent to that of WT mice. These results show that disruption of F508del-CFTR and K8 interaction leads to the correction of the F508del-CFTR processing defect, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic target in CF. PMID:22038833

  9. A Soluble Sulfogalactosyl Ceramide Mimic Promotes ΔF508 CFTR Escape from Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Mylvaganum, Murugesapillai; McPherson, Anne; Fewell, Sheara W.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Lingwood, Clifford A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY AdaSGC binds Hsc70s to inhibit ATPase activity. Using single-turnover assays, adaSGC, a soluble SGC mimic, preferentially inhibited Hsp40-activated Hsc70 ATP hydrolysis (Ki ~ 10 μM) to reduce C-terminal Hsc70-peptide binding and, potentially, chaperone function. ERAD of misfolded ΔF508 CFTR requires Hsc70-Hsp40 chaperones. In transfected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, adaSGC increased ΔF508CFTR ERAD escape, and after low-temperature glycerol rescue, maturation, and iodide efflux. Inhibition of SGC biosynthesis reduced ΔF508CFTR but not wtCFTR expression, whereas depletion of other glycosphingolipids had no affect. WtCFTR transfected BHK cells showed increased SGC synthesis compared with ΔF508CFTR/mock-transfected cells. Partial rescue of ΔF508CFTR by low-temperature glycerol increased SGC synthesis. AdaSGC also increased cellular endogenous SGC levels. SGC in the lung, liver, and kidney was severely depleted in ΔF508CFTR compared with wtCFTR mice, suggesting a role for CFTR in SGC biosynthesis. PMID:19389632

  10. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites in NBD1 and the R domain control CFTR channel activation by PKA.

    PubMed

    Chappe, V; Hinkson, D A; Zhu, T; Chang, X-B; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    2003-04-01

    Activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel by protein kinase A (PKA) is enhanced by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the mechanism of modulation is not known and it remains uncertain whether PKC acts directly on CFTR or through phosphorylation of an ancillary protein. Using excised patches that had been pre-treated with phosphatases, we found that PKC exposure results in much larger PKA-activated currents and shifts the PKA concentration dependence. To examine if these effects are mediated by direct PKC phosphorylation of CFTR, a mutant was constructed in which serines or threonines at nine PKC consensus sequences on CFTR were replaced by alanines (i.e. the '9CA' mutant T582A/T604A/S641A/T682A/S686A/S707A/S790A/T791A/S809A). In excised patches, 9CA channels had greatly reduced responses to PKA (i.e. 5-10 % that of wild-type), which were not enhanced by PKC pre-treatment, although the mutant channels were still functional according to iodide efflux assays. Stimulation of iodide efflux by chlorophenylthio-cAMP (cpt-cAMP) was delayed in cells expressing 9CA channels, and a similar delay was observed when cells expressing wild-type CFTR were treated with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine. This suggests that weak activation by PKA in excised patches and slow stimulation of iodide efflux from intact cells are specifically due to the loss of PKC phosphorylation. Finally, PKC caused a slight activation of wild-type channels when added to excised patches after phosphatase pre-treatment but had no effect on the mutant. We conclude that direct phosphorylation of CFTR at one or more of the nine sites mutated in 9CA is required for both the partial activation by PKC and for its modulation of CFTR responses to PKA. PMID:12588899

  11. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites in NBD1 and the R domain control CFTR channel activation by PKA

    PubMed Central

    Chappe, V; Hinkson, D A; Zhu, T; Chang, X-B; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel by protein kinase A (PKA) is enhanced by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the mechanism of modulation is not known and it remains uncertain whether PKC acts directly on CFTR or through phosphorylation of an ancillary protein. Using excised patches that had been pre-treated with phosphatases, we found that PKC exposure results in much larger PKA-activated currents and shifts the PKA concentration dependence. To examine if these effects are mediated by direct PKC phosphorylation of CFTR, a mutant was constructed in which serines or threonines at nine PKC consensus sequences on CFTR were replaced by alanines (i.e. the ‘9CA’ mutant T582A/T604A/S641A/T682A/S686A/S707A/S790A/T791A/S809A). In excised patches, 9CA channels had greatly reduced responses to PKA (i.e. 5–10 % that of wild-type), which were not enhanced by PKC pre-treatment, although the mutant channels were still functional according to iodide efflux assays. Stimulation of iodide efflux by chlorophenylthio-cAMP (cpt-cAMP) was delayed in cells expressing 9CA channels, and a similar delay was observed when cells expressing wild-type CFTR were treated with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine. This suggests that weak activation by PKA in excised patches and slow stimulation of iodide efflux from intact cells are specifically due to the loss of PKC phosphorylation. Finally, PKC caused a slight activation of wild-type channels when added to excised patches after phosphatase pre-treatment but had no effect on the mutant. We conclude that direct phosphorylation of CFTR at one or more of the nine sites mutated in 9CA is required for both the partial activation by PKC and for its modulation of CFTR responses to PKA. PMID:12588899

  12. Revertant mutants modify, but do not rescue, the gating defect of the cystic fibrosis mutant G551D-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhe; Pissarra, Luísa S; Farinha, Carlos M; Liu, Jia; Cai, Zhiwei; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Amaral, Margarida D; Sheppard, David N

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by dysfunction of the epithelial anion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). One strategy to restore function to CF mutants is to suppress defects in CFTR processing and function using revertant mutations. Here, we investigate the effects of the revertant mutations G550E and 4RK (the simultaneous disruption of four arginine-framed tripeptides (AFTs): R29K, R516K, R555K and R766K) on the CF mutant G551D, which impairs severely channel gating without altering protein processing and which affects a residue in the same α-helix as G550 and R555. Both G550E and 4RK augmented strongly CFTR-mediated iodide efflux from BHK cells expressing G551D-CFTR. To learn how revertant mutations influence G551D-CFTR function, we studied protein processing and single-channel behaviour. Neither G550E nor 4RK altered the expression and maturation of G551D-CFTR protein. By contrast, both revertants had marked effects on G551D-CFTR channel gating, increasing strongly opening frequency, while 4RK also diminished noticeably the duration of channel openings. Because G551D-CFTR channel gating is ATP independent, we investigated whether revertant mutations restore ATP dependence to G551D-CFTR. Like wild-type CFTR, the activity of 4RK-G551D-CFTR varied with ATP concentration, suggesting that 4RK confers some ATP dependence on the G551D-CFTR channel. Thus, the revertant mutations G550E and 4RK alter the gating pattern and ATP dependence of G551D-CFTR without restoring single-channel activity to wild-type levels. Based on their impact on the CF mutants F508del and G551D, we conclude that G550E and 4RK have direct effects on CFTR structure, but that their action on CFTR processing and channel function is CF mutation specific. PMID:24591578

  13. CFTR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Synder, David; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Anderson, Marc O.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel whose major function is to facilitate epithelial fluid secretion. Loss-of-function mutations in CFTR cause the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR is required for transepithelial fluid transport in certain secretory diarrheas, such as cholera, and for cyst expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. High-throughput screening has yielded CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone, glycine hydrazide and quinoxalinedione chemical classes. The glycine hydrazides target the extracellular CFTR pore, whereas the thiazolidinones and quinoxalinediones act at the cytoplasmic surface. These inhibitors have been widely used in cystic fibrosis research to study CFTR function at the cell and organ levels. The most potent CFTR inhibitor has IC50 of approximately 4 nM. Studies in animal models support the development of CFTR inhibitors for antisecretory therapy of enterotoxin-mediated diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23331030

  14. Increased efficacy of VX-809 in different cellular systems results from an early stabilization effect of F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Carlos M; Sousa, Marisa; Canato, Sara; Schmidt, André; Uliyakina, Inna; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common recessive autosomal disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, F508del, leads to CFTR impaired plasma membrane trafficking. Therapies modulating CFTR basic defect are emerging, such as VX-809, a corrector of F508del-CFTR traffic which just succeeded in a Phase III clinical trial. We recently showed that VX-809 is additive to two other correctors (VRT-325 and compound 4a). Here, we aimed to determine whether the differential rescuing by these compounds results from cell-specific factors or rather from distinct effects at the early biogenesis and/or processing. The rescuing efficiencies of the above three correctors were first compared in different cellular models (primary respiratory cells, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial and baby hamster kidney [BHK] cell lines) by functional approaches: micro-Ussing chamber and iodide efflux. Next, biochemical methods (metabolic labeling, pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation) were used to determine their impact on CFTR biogenesis / processing. Functional analyses revealed that VX-809 has the greatest rescuing efficacy and that the relative efficiencies of the three compounds are essentially maintained in all three cellular models tested. Nevertheless, biochemical data show that VX-809 significantly stabilizes F508del-CFTR immature form, an effect that is not observed for C3 nor C4. VX-809 and C3 also significantly increase accumulation of immature CFTR. Our data suggest that VX-809 increases the stability of F508del-CFTR immature form at an early phase of its biogenesis, thus explaining its increased efficacy when inducing its rescue. PMID:26171232

  15. Increased efficacy of VX-809 in different cellular systems results from an early stabilization effect of F508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M; Sousa, Marisa; Canato, Sara; Schmidt, André; Uliyakina, Inna; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common recessive autosomal disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, F508del, leads to CFTR impaired plasma membrane trafficking. Therapies modulating CFTR basic defect are emerging, such as VX-809, a corrector of F508del-CFTR traffic which just succeeded in a Phase III clinical trial. We recently showed that VX-809 is additive to two other correctors (VRT-325 and compound 4a). Here, we aimed to determine whether the differential rescuing by these compounds results from cell-specific factors or rather from distinct effects at the early biogenesis and/or processing. The rescuing efficiencies of the above three correctors were first compared in different cellular models (primary respiratory cells, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial and baby hamster kidney [BHK] cell lines) by functional approaches: micro-Ussing chamber and iodide efflux. Next, biochemical methods (metabolic labeling, pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation) were used to determine their impact on CFTR biogenesis / processing. Functional analyses revealed that VX-809 has the greatest rescuing efficacy and that the relative efficiencies of the three compounds are essentially maintained in all three cellular models tested. Nevertheless, biochemical data show that VX-809 significantly stabilizes F508del-CFTR immature form, an effect that is not observed for C3 nor C4. VX-809 and C3 also significantly increase accumulation of immature CFTR. Our data suggest that VX-809 increases the stability of F508del-CFTR immature form at an early phase of its biogenesis, thus explaining its increased efficacy when inducing its rescue. PMID:26171232

  16. Inhibition by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of P2-purinergic receptor-mediated iodide efflux and phosphoinositide turnover in FRTL-5 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okajima, F.; Sho, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-08-01

    Exposure of FRTL-5 thyroid cells to ATP (1 microM to 1 mM) resulted in the stimulation of I- efflux in association with the induction of inositol trisphosphate production and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Nonhydrolyzable ATP derivatives, ADP and GTP, were also as effective in magnitude as ATP, whereas neither AMP nor adenosine exerted significant effect on I- efflux, suggesting a P2-purinergic receptor-mediated activation of I- efflux. Treatment of the cells with the islet-activating protein (IAP) pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylated a 41,000 mol wt membrane protein, effectively suppressed the phosphoinositide response to ATP in addition to ATP-dependent I- efflux at agonist concentrations below 10 microM. In contrast, the I- efflux stimulated by TSH, A23187, or phorbol myristate acetate was insusceptible to IAP. The IAP substrate, probably GTP-binding protein, is hence proposed to mediate the activation of P2-purinergic receptor-linked phospholipase-C in FRTL-5 cells. However, the responses to ATP, its nonhydrolyzable derivatives, or ADP at the higher agonist concentrations, especially above 100 microM, were only partially inhibited by IAP, even though the IAP substrate was totally ADP ribosylated by the toxin. The responses to GTP in the whole concentration range tested were not influenced by IAP treatment. Thus, signals arising from the P2-receptor might be transduced to phospholipase-C by two different pathways, i.e. IAP-sensitive and insensitive ones, and result in the stimulation of I- efflux.

  17. Genistein potentiates wild-type and delta F508-CFTR channel activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, T C; Wang, F; Yang, I C; Reenstra, W W

    1997-09-01

    Effects of genistein on wild-type (wt) and delta F508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were studied in NIH/3T3 cells stably transfected with wt or mutant CFTR cDNA. As measured by I- efflux, half-maximal concentration of agonist (K1/2) for forskolin-dependent activation was greater for delta F508-CFTR than wt-CFTR. Genistein decreased the K1/2 for both forms of the channel and increased the maximal activity of delta F508-CFTR by 3.7-fold. In cell-attached patches, 10 microM forskolin induced minimal delta F508-CFTR activity with characteristic prolonged closed times (estimated time constant, > 30 s). Genistein increased the forskolin-induced macroscopic currents of wt-CFTR and delta F508-CFTR by 3- and 19-fold, respectively. Variance analysis suggested that in the presence of forskolin and genistein the open probabilities (Po) of wt- and delta F508-CFTR were identical. In single-channel studies, at maximal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation, genistein increased the Po of wt-CFTR by prolonging the open time, but, at submaximal cAMP stimulation, the Po was increased by prolonging the open time and shortening the closed time. In excised patches with CFTR channels preactivated in the cell-attached mode, genistein increased ATP-dependent wt- and delta F508-CFTR current about twofold by prolonging the open time. Our results thus suggest that phosphorylation-dependent activation of delta F508-CFTR is defective and that genistein corrects this defect at least in part by binding to the CFTR protein. PMID:9316420

  18. CFTR-independent ATP release from epithelial cells triggered by mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Grygorczyk, R; Hanrahan, J W

    1997-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated ATP efflux has been proposed as an autocrine mechanism for regulating chloride secretion through other types of chloride channels. Although we found in previous studies that wild-type CFTR channels bathed with high-ATP solutions do not conduct ATP at rates that can be measured with the patch-clamp technique, those experiments would not have detected very small or electroneutral ATP fluxes through CFTR or ATP efflux through other pathways that might be regulated by CFTR. To examine these possibilities, we have now used a sensitive luciferase luminometric assay to measure ATP efflux from epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation did not raise external ATP concentration above the background noise in any of the cell lines tested [T84, Calu-3, 9HTEo- and sigma CFTE29o- (colonic and airway human epithelial cells, respectively), NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, and Chinese hamster ovary cells], and variations in ATP release were not correlated with CFTR expression. The rate of ATP release was unaffected by cAMP but was exquisitely sensitive to mechanical perturbations in both CFTR expressing and nonexpressing cells. Mechanically induced, CFTR-independent ATP release may be a physiologically relevant mechanism of epithelial regulation, which has not previously been fully appreciated. PMID:9124508

  19. Enteric oxalate secretion is not directly mediated by the human CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of the oxalate anion by intestinal epithelia is a functionally significant component of oxalate homeostasis and hence a relevant factor in the etiology and management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. To test the hypothesis that human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) can directly mediate the efflux of the oxalate anion, we compared cAMP-stimulated 36Cl−, 14C-oxalate, and 35SO42− efflux from Xenopus oocytes expressing hCFTR with water-injected control oocytes. hCFTR-expressing oocytes exhibited a large, reversible cAMP-dependent increase in whole cell conductance measured using a two-electrode voltage clamp and a 13-fold increase in rate of cAMP-stimulated 36Cl− efflux. In contrast, the rate constants of oxalate and sulfate efflux were low and unaffected by cAMP in either control or hCFTR-expressing oocytes. We conclude that the human CFTR gene product does not directly mediate oxalate efflux in secretory epithelia and hence is not directly involved in oxalate homeostasis in humans. PMID:18563405

  20. CFTR Gating I

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, Silvia G.; Ai, Tomohiko; Cho, Jeong Han; Wang, Xiaohui; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-01-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is activated by phosphorylation of serine residues in the regulatory (R) domain and then gated by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). Studies of the ATP-dependent gating process in excised inside-out patches are very often hampered by channel rundown partly caused by membrane-associated phosphatases. Since the severed ΔR-CFTR, whose R domain is completely removed, can bypass the phosphorylation-dependent regulation, this mutant channel might be a useful tool to explore the gating mechanisms of CFTR. To this end, we investigated the regulation and gating of the ΔR-CFTR expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the cell-attached mode, basal ΔR-CFTR currents were always obtained in the absence of cAMP agonists. Application of cAMP agonists or PMA, a PKC activator, failed to affect the activity, indicating that the activity of ΔR-CFTR channels is indeed phosphorylation independent. Consistent with this conclusion, in excised inside-out patches, application of the catalytic subunit of PKA did not affect ATP-induced currents. Similarities of ATP-dependent gating between wild type and ΔR-CFTR make this phosphorylation-independent mutant a useful system to explore more extensively the gating mechanisms of CFTR. Using the ΔR-CFTR construct, we studied the inhibitory effect of ADP on CFTR gating. The Ki for ADP increases as the [ATP] is increased, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. Single channel kinetic analysis reveals a new closed state in the presence of ADP, consistent with a kinetic mechanism by which ADP binds at the same site as ATP for channel opening. Moreover, we found that the open time of the channel is shortened by as much as 54% in the presence of ADP. This unexpected result suggests another ADP binding site that modulates channel closing. PMID:15767295

  1. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  2. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. ... only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and public officials tell you that you ...

  3. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. You ...

  4. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. PMID:26209275

  5. Methyl iodide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl iodide ; CASRN 74 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  6. Methyl Iodide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane, CH3I) was reported as a potential alternative to the stratospheric ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) in the mid-1990s (Sims et al., 1995; Ohr et al., 1996). It has since received significant research attention to determine its environmental fate and tran...

  7. Glutathione permeability of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P; Hanrahan, J W

    1998-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) forms an ion channel that is permeable both to Cl- and to larger organic anions. Here we show, using macroscopic current recording from excised membrane patches, that the anionic antioxidant tripeptide glutathione is permeant in the CFTR channel. This permeability may account for the high concentrations of glutathione that have been measured in the surface fluid that coats airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, loss of this pathway for glutathione transport may contribute to the reduced levels of glutathione observed in airway surface fluid of cystic fibrosis patients, which has been suggested to contribute to the oxidative stress observed in the lung in cystic fibrosis. We suggest that release of glutathione into airway surface fluid may be a novel function of CFTR. PMID:9688865

  8. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hélène; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Luo, Yishan; Wiseman, Paul W; Hanrahan, John W; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Sauvé, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    In epithelia, Cl- channels play a prominent role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Of particular importance is the cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) with mutations of the CFTR encoding gene causing cystic fibrosis. The bulk transepithelial transport of Cl- ions and electrolytes needs however to be coupled to an increase in K+ conductance in order to recycle K+ and maintain an electrical driving force for anion exit across the apical membrane. In several epithelia, this K+ efflux is ensured by K+ channels, including KCa3.1, which is expressed at both the apical and basolateral membranes. We show here for the first time that CFTR and KCa3.1 can physically interact. We first performed a two-hybrid screen to identify which KCa3.1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3.1 calmodulin binding domain (residues L345-A400) interact with the NBD2 segment (G1237-Y1420) and C- region of CFTR (residues T1387-L1480), respectively. An association of CFTR and F508del-CFTR with KCa3.1 was further confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrating the formation of immunoprecipitable CFTR/KCa3.1 complexes in CFBE cells. Co-expression of KCa3.1 and CFTR in HEK cells did not impact CFTR expression at the cell surface, and KCa3.1 trafficking appeared independent of CFTR stimulation. Finally, evidence is presented through cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements that KCa3.1 and CFTR colocalize at the plasma membrane and that KCa3.1 channels tend to aggregate consequent to an enhanced interaction with CFTR channels at the plasma membrane following an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Altogether, these results suggest 1) that the physical interaction KCa3.1/CFTR can occur early during the biogenesis of both proteins and 2) that KCa3.1 and CFTR form a dynamic complex, the formation of which depends on

  9. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Luo, Yishan; Wiseman, Paul W.; Hanrahan, John W.; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Sauvé, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    In epithelia, Cl- channels play a prominent role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Of particular importance is the cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) with mutations of the CFTR encoding gene causing cystic fibrosis. The bulk transepithelial transport of Cl- ions and electrolytes needs however to be coupled to an increase in K+ conductance in order to recycle K+ and maintain an electrical driving force for anion exit across the apical membrane. In several epithelia, this K+ efflux is ensured by K+ channels, including KCa3.1, which is expressed at both the apical and basolateral membranes. We show here for the first time that CFTR and KCa3.1 can physically interact. We first performed a two-hybrid screen to identify which KCa3.1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3.1 calmodulin binding domain (residues L345-A400) interact with the NBD2 segment (G1237-Y1420) and C- region of CFTR (residues T1387-L1480), respectively. An association of CFTR and F508del-CFTR with KCa3.1 was further confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrating the formation of immunoprecipitable CFTR/KCa3.1 complexes in CFBE cells. Co-expression of KCa3.1 and CFTR in HEK cells did not impact CFTR expression at the cell surface, and KCa3.1 trafficking appeared independent of CFTR stimulation. Finally, evidence is presented through cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements that KCa3.1 and CFTR colocalize at the plasma membrane and that KCa3.1 channels tend to aggregate consequent to an enhanced interaction with CFTR channels at the plasma membrane following an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Altogether, these results suggest 1) that the physical interaction KCa3.1/CFTR can occur early during the biogenesis of both proteins and 2) that KCa3.1 and CFTR form a dynamic complex, the formation of which depends on

  10. The effect of ambroxol on chloride transport, CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Hussain, Rashida; Strid, Hilja; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2013-11-01

    Ambroxol, a mucokinetic anti-inflammatory drug, has been used for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). The respiratory epithelium is covered by the airway surface liquid (ASL), the thickness and composition of which is determined by Cl(-) efflux via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na(+) influx via the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). In cells expressing wt-CFTR, ambroxol increased the Cl(-) conductance, but not the bicarbonate conductance of the CFTR channels. We investigated whether treatment with ambroxol enhances chloride transport and/or CFTR and ENaC expression in CF airway epithelial cells (CFBE) cells. CFBE cells were treated with 100 µM ambroxol for 2, 4 or 8 h. mRNA expression for CFTR and ENaC subunits was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); protein expression was measured by Western blot. The effect of ambroxol on Cl(-) transport was measured by Cl(-) efflux measurements with a fluorescent chloride probe. Ambroxol significantly stimulated Cl(-) efflux from CFBE cells (a sixfold increase after 8 h treatment), and enhanced the expression of the mRNA of CFTR and α-ENaC, and of the CFTR protein. No significant difference was observed in β-ENaC after exposure to ambroxol, whereas mRNA expression of γ-ENaC was reduced. No significant effects of ambroxol on the ENaC subunits were observed by Western blot. Ambroxol did not significantly affect the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Upregulation of CFTR and enhanced Cl(-) efflux after ambroxol treatment should promote transepithelial ion and water transport, which may improve hydration of the mucus, and therefore be beneficial to CF-patients. PMID:23765701

  11. CFTR Gating II

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, Silvia G.; Cho, Jeong Han; Wang, Xiaohui; Zou, Xiaoqin; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that ADP inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) opening by competing with ATP for a binding site presumably in the COOH-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD2). We also found that the open time of the channel is shortened in the presence of ADP. To further study this effect of ADP on the open state, we have used two CFTR mutants (D1370N and E1371S); both have longer open times because of impaired ATP hydrolysis at NBD2. Single-channel kinetic analysis of ΔR/D1370N-CFTR shows unequivocally that the open time of this mutant channel is decreased by ADP. ΔR/E1371S-CFTR channels can be locked open by millimolar ATP with a time constant of ∼100 s, estimated from current relaxation upon nucleotide removal. ADP induces a shorter locked-open state, suggesting that binding of ADP at a second site decreases the locked-open time. To test the functional consequence of the occupancy of this second nucleotide binding site, we changed the [ATP] and performed similar relaxation analysis for E1371S-CFTR channels. Two locked-open time constants can be discerned and the relative distribution of each component is altered by changing [ATP] so that increasing [ATP] shifts the relative distribution to the longer locked-open state. Single-channel kinetic analysis for ΔR/E1371S-CFTR confirms an [ATP]-dependent shift of the distribution of two locked-open time constants. These results support the idea that occupancy of a second ATP binding site stabilizes the locked-open state. This binding site likely resides in the NH2-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) because introducing the K464A mutation, which decreases ATP binding affinity at NBD1, into E1371S-CFTR shortens the relaxation time constant. These results suggest that the binding energy of nucleotide at NBD1 contributes to the overall energetics of the open channel conformation. PMID:15767296

  12. Novel regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel gating by external chloride.

    PubMed

    Wright, Angela M; Gong, Xiandi; Verdon, Burns; Linsdell, Paul; Mehta, Anil; Riordan, John R; Argent, Barry E; Gray, Mike A

    2004-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is vital for Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) transport in many epithelia. As the HCO(3)(-) concentration in epithelial secretions varies and can reach as high as 140 mm, the lumen-facing domains of CFTR are exposed to large reciprocal variations in Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) levels. We have investigated whether changes in the extracellular anionic environment affects the activity of CFTR using the patch clamp technique. In fast whole cell current recordings, the replacement of 100 mm external Cl(-) ((Cl(o)(-))) with HCO(3)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), or aspartate(-) inhibited inward CFTR current (Cl(-) efflux) by approximately 50% in a reversible manner. Lowering Cl(o)(-) alone by iso-osmotic replacement with mannitol also reduced Cl(-) efflux to a similar extent. The maximal inhibition of CFTR current was approximately 70%. Raising cytosolic calcium shifted the Cl(-) dose-inhibition curve to the left but did not alter the maximal current inhibition observed. In contrast, a reduction in the internal [Cl(-)] neither inhibited CFTR nor altered the block caused by reduced Cl(o)(-). Single channel recordings from outside-out patches showed that lowering Cl(o)(-) markedly reduced channel open probability with little effect on unitary conductance. Together, these results indicate that alterations in Cl(o)(-) alone and not the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) ratio regulate the gating of CFTR. Physiologically, our data have implications for current models of epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion and for the control of pH at epithelial cell surfaces. PMID:15286085

  13. Molecular pharmacology of the CFTR Cl- channel.

    PubMed

    Hwang, T C; Sheppard, D N

    1999-11-01

    Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is associated with a wide spectrum of disease. In the search for modulators of CFTR, pharmacological agents that interact directly with the CFTR Cl- channel have been identified. Some agents stimulate CFTR by interacting with the nucleotide-binding domains that control channel gating, whereas others inhibit CFTR by binding within the channel pore and preventing Cl- permeation. Knowledge of the molecular pharmacology of CFTR might lead to new treatments for diseases caused by the dysfunction of CFTR. PMID:10542444

  14. Activation of CFTR by genistein in human airway epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte; Servetnyk, Zhanna; Roomans, Godfried M

    2003-08-29

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel expressed in epithelial cells. The effects of genistein and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) on CFTR were studied in three human airway epithelial cell lines expressing wild-type or DeltaF508 CFTR: Calu-3, CFSMEo-, and CFBE41o- cells. The cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide (MQAE) and chloride efflux was studied. Forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) induced chloride efflux in Calu-3 cells but not in CF lines. Genistein (2.5-50 microM) alone was able to induce chloride efflux in all cell lines. Genistein did not enhance the effect of forskolin and IBMX. PBA had little or no effect on genistein-induced chloride efflux. The effect of genistein seen at low concentrations makes genistein interesting for possible pharmacological treatment of CF, since it is known that similar concentrations can be obtained in plasma by a soy-rich diet. PMID:12914781

  15. Oridonin: a small molecule inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isolated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jian; Zhang, Yaofang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xue; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride channel regulating the transepithelial transport of electrolyte and water. In the recent years, CFTR chloride channel becomes the new molecular target of treating secretory diarrhea. The objective of this study is to find out a novel CFTR inhibitor from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and study on its pharmacological activity. About 34,000 factions of TCM extracts were screened by high throughput screening (HTS) in this research. We found that Rabdosia rubescens show a potent inhibition on CFTR. Under the bio-active analysis guidance, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid - oridonin (PubChem CID: 34378) was isolated from R. rubescens. A series of intensive studies showed that oridonin remarkably reduced iodide influx in wt-CFTR and ΔF508-CFTR FRT epithelial cells in a dose-dependent and irreversible way. Oridonin sharply blocked FSK-stimulated short-circuit current in both rats and mice intestine in vitro. In mouse closed-loop model, oridonin reduced cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion significantly over 6hours in vivo. Thus we concluded that oridonin is a new inhibitor of CFTR Cl(-) channel. It will be a good leading compound for developing the new drug of cholera toxin-induced secretory diarrhea. PMID:25447156

  16. Correction of F508del CFTR in airway epithelium using nanoparticles delivering triplex-forming PNAs

    PubMed Central

    McNeer, Nicole Ali; Anandalingam, Kavitha; Fields, Rachel J.; Caputo, Christina; Kopic, Sascha; Gupta, Anisha; Quijano, Elias; Polikoff, Lee; Kong, Yong; Bahal, Raman; Geibel, John P; Glazer, Peter M.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Egan, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder most commonly caused by the F508del mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It is not readily amenable to gene therapy because of its systemic nature and challenges including in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression. Here, we use triplex-forming PNA molecules and donor DNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles to correct F508del. We confirm modification with sequencing and a functional chloride efflux assay. In vitro correction of chloride efflux occurs in up to 25% of human cells. Deep sequencing reveals negligible off-target effects in partially homologous sites. Intranasal application of nanoparticles in CF mice produces changes in nasal epithelium potential differences consistent with corrected CFTR, with gene correction also detected in lung tissue. This work represents facile genome engineering in vivo with oligonucleotides using a nanoparticle system to achieve clinically relevant levels of gene editing without off-target effects. PMID:25914116

  17. Ouabain Regulates CFTR-Mediated Anion Secretion and Na,K-ATPase Transport in ADPKD Cells.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Kyle; Venugopal, Jessica; Sánchez, Gladis; Magenheimer, Brenda S; Reif, Gail A; Wallace, Darren P; Calvet, James P; Blanco, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    Cyst enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) requires the transepithelial secretion of fluid into the cyst lumen. We previously showed that physiological amounts of ouabain enhance cAMP-dependent fluid secretion and cyst growth of human ADPKD cyst epithelial cells in culture and formation of cyst-like dilations in metanephric kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which ouabain promotes cAMP-dependent fluid secretion and cystogenesis. Ouabain (3 nM) enhanced cAMP-induced cyst-like dilations in embryonic kidneys from Pkd1 (m1Bei) mice, but had no effect on metanephroi from Pkd1 (m1Bei) mice that lack expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Similarly, ouabain stimulation of cAMP-induced fluid secretion and in vitro cyst growth of ADPKD cells were abrogated by CFTR inhibition, showing that CFTR is required for ouabain effects on ADPKD fluid secretion. Moreover, ouabain directly enhanced the cAMP-dependent Cl(-) efflux mediated by CFTR in ADPKD monolayers. Ouabain increased the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane and up-regulated the expression of the CFTR activator PDZK1. Finally, ouabain decreased plasma membrane expression and activity of the Na,K-ATPase in ADPKD cells. Altogether, these results show that ouabain enhances net fluid secretion and cyst formation by activating apical anion secretion via CFTR and decreasing basolateral Na(+) transport via Na,K-ATPase. These results provide new information on the mechanisms by which ouabain affects ADPKD cells and further highlight the importance of ouabain as a non-genomic stimulator of cystogenesis in ADPKD. PMID:26289599

  18. Phosphate stimulates CFTR Cl- channels.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M R; Travis, S M; Winter, M C; Sheppard, D N; Welsh, M J

    1994-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels appear to be regulated by hydrolysis of ATP and are inhibited by a product of hydrolysis, ADP. We assessed the effect of the other product of hydrolysis, inorganic phosphate (P(i)), on CFTR Cl- channel activity using the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Millimolar concentrations of P(i) caused a dose-dependent stimulation of CFTR Cl- channel activity. Single-channel analysis demonstrated that the increase in macroscopic current was due to an increase in single-channel open-state probability (po) and not single-channel conductance. Kinetic modeling of the effect of P(i) using a linear three-state model indicated that the effect on po was predominantly the result of an increase in the rate at which the channel passed from the long closed state to the bursting state. P(i) also potentiated activity of channels studied in the presence of 10 mM ATP and stimulated Cl- currents in CFTR mutants lacking much of the R domain. Binding studies with a photoactivatable ATP analog indicated that Pi decreased the amount of bound nucleotide. These results suggest that P(i) increased CFTR Cl- channel activity by stimulating a rate-limiting step in channel opening that may occur by an interaction of P(i) at one or both nucleotide-binding domains. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:7532021

  19. Regulation of CFTR channel gating.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, D C; Hwang, T C; Baukrowitz, T; Nagel, G; Horie, M; Nairn, A C

    1994-01-01

    Findings outlined here support a complex model for the regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl channel gating that incorporates incremental protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of CFTR at multiple sites which, in turn, differentially control the activity of CFTR's two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The NBDs are functionally distinct: only one can respond to the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PNP, and then only after ATP has acted at the other. Moreover, the nature of the responses to AMP-PNP, and to the inorganic phosphate analogue orthovanadate, argues that ATP hydrolysis normally occurs at both NBDs, at one to initiate channel opening and at the other to initiate closing. PMID:7752525

  20. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    1992-04-01

    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  1. Dual activation of CFTR and CLCN2 by lubiprostone in murine nasal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Schiffhauer, Eric S; Vij, Neeraj; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Doug; Lee, Seakwoo; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple sodium and chloride channels on the apical surface of nasal epithelial cells contribute to periciliary fluid homeostasis, a function that is disrupted in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Among these channels is the chloride channel CLCN2, which has been studied as a potential alternative chloride efflux pathway in the absence of CFTR. The object of the present study was to use the nasal potential difference test (NPD) to quantify CLCN2 function in an epithelial-directed TetOn CLCN2 transgenic mouse model (TGN-K18rtTA-hCLCN2) by using the putative CLCN2 pharmacological agonist lubiprostone and peptide inhibitor GaTx2. Lubiprostone significantly increased chloride transport in the CLCN2-overexpressing mice following activation of the transgene by doxycycline. This response to lubiprostone was significantly inhibited by GaTx2 after CLCN2 activation in TGN-CLCN2 mice. Cftr(-/-) and Clc2(-/-) mice showed hyperpolarization indicative of chloride efflux in response to lubiprostone, which was fully inhibited by GaTx2 and CFTR inhibitor 172 + GlyH-101, respectively. Our study reveals lubiprostone as a pharmacological activator of both CFTR and CLCN2. Overexpression and activation of CLCN2 leads to improved mouse NPD readings, suggesting it is available as an alternative pathway for epithelial chloride secretion in murine airways. The utilization of CLCN2 as an alternative chloride efflux channel could provide clinical benefit to patients with CF, especially if the pharmacological activator is administered as an aerosol. PMID:23316067

  2. Imaging CFTR in its native environment.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Hermann

    2008-04-01

    Application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) on isolated plasma membranes is a valuable method to study membrane proteins down to single-molecule level in their native environment. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter superfamily, is known to play a crucial role in maintaining the salt and water balance on the epithelium and to influence processes such as cell volume regulation. A mutation in the gene encoding for CFTR results in cystic fibrosis (CF), a very common lethal genetic disease. Identification of CFTR within the cell membrane at the single-molecule level makes it feasible to visualize the distribution and organization of CFTR proteins within the cell membrane of healthy individuals and CF patients. We were able to show that human red blood cells have a CFTR distribution comparable to that of epithelial cells and that the number of CFTR in cells derived from CF patients is strongly reduced. Studies on CFTR-expressing oocytes disclose CFTR dynamics upon CFTR activation. We observed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate induces an insertion of CFTR in the plasma membrane and the formation of heteromeric CFTR-containing structures with yet unknown stoichiometry. The structure of CFTR was identified by high-resolution scans of immunogold-labeled CFTR, revealing that CFTR forms a tail-to-tail dimer with a central pore. In conclusion, these studies show that AFM experiments on isolated plasma membranes allow not only quantification and localization of membrane proteins but also provide insight in their dynamics at a single-molecule level. PMID:18057957

  3. CFTR activity and mitochondrial function☆

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Angel Gabriel; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a frequent and lethal autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). Before the discovery of the CFTR gene, several hypotheses attempted to explain the etiology of this disease, including the possible role of a chloride channel, diverse alterations in mitochondrial functions, the overexpression of the lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase and a deficiency in the cytosolic enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Because of the diverse mitochondrial changes found, some authors proposed that the affected gene should codify for a mitochondrial protein. Later, the CFTR cloning and the demonstration of its chloride channel activity turned the mitochondrial, lysosomal and cytosolic hypotheses obsolete. However, in recent years, using new approaches, several investigators reported similar or new alterations of mitochondrial functions in Cystic Fibrosis, thus rediscovering a possible role of mitochondria in this disease. Here, we review these CFTR-driven mitochondrial defects, including differential gene expression, alterations in oxidative phosphorylation, calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, apoptosis and innate immune response, which might explain some characteristics of the complex CF phenotype and reveals potential new targets for therapy. PMID:24024153

  4. Localizing a gate in CFTR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolong; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-02-24

    Experimental and computational studies have painted a picture of the chloride permeation pathway in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a short narrow tunnel flanked by wider inner and outer vestibules. Although these studies also identified a number of transmembrane segments (TMs) as pore-lining, the exact location of CFTR's gate(s) remains unknown. Here, using a channel-permeant probe, [Au(CN)2](-), we provide evidence that CFTR bears a gate that coincides with the predicted narrow section of the pore defined as residues 338-341 in TM6. Specifically, cysteines introduced cytoplasmic to the narrow region (i.e., positions 344 in TM6 and 1148 in TM12) can be modified by intracellular [Au(CN)2](-) in both open and closed states, corroborating the conclusion that the internal vestibule does not harbor a gate. However, cysteines engineered to positions external to the presumed narrow region (e.g., 334, 335, and 337 in TM6) are all nonreactive toward cytoplasmic [Au(CN)2](-) in the absence of ATP, whereas they can be better accessed by extracellular [Au(CN)2](-) when the open probability is markedly reduced by introducing a second mutation, G1349D. As [Au(CN)2](-) and chloride ions share the same permeation pathway, these results imply a gate is situated between amino acid residues 337 and 344 along TM6, encompassing the very segment that may also serve as the selectivity filter for CFTR. The unique position of a gate in the middle of the ion translocation pathway diverges from those seen in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and thus distinguishes CFTR from other members of the ABC transporter family. PMID:25675504

  5. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  6. Localizing a gate in CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaolong; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies have painted a picture of the chloride permeation pathway in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a short narrow tunnel flanked by wider inner and outer vestibules. Although these studies also identified a number of transmembrane segments (TMs) as pore-lining, the exact location of CFTR’s gate(s) remains unknown. Here, using a channel-permeant probe, [Au(CN)2]−, we provide evidence that CFTR bears a gate that coincides with the predicted narrow section of the pore defined as residues 338–341 in TM6. Specifically, cysteines introduced cytoplasmic to the narrow region (i.e., positions 344 in TM6 and 1148 in TM12) can be modified by intracellular [Au(CN)2]− in both open and closed states, corroborating the conclusion that the internal vestibule does not harbor a gate. However, cysteines engineered to positions external to the presumed narrow region (e.g., 334, 335, and 337 in TM6) are all nonreactive toward cytoplasmic [Au(CN)2]− in the absence of ATP, whereas they can be better accessed by extracellular [Au(CN)2]− when the open probability is markedly reduced by introducing a second mutation, G1349D. As [Au(CN)2]− and chloride ions share the same permeation pathway, these results imply a gate is situated between amino acid residues 337 and 344 along TM6, encompassing the very segment that may also serve as the selectivity filter for CFTR. The unique position of a gate in the middle of the ion translocation pathway diverges from those seen in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and thus distinguishes CFTR from other members of the ABC transporter family. PMID:25675504

  7. Chimeric constructs endow the human CFTR Cl− channel with the gating behavior of murine CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Ward, Toby S.; Cai, Zhiwei; Dawson, Elizabeth S.; Doherty, Ann; Carina Da Paula, Ana; Davidson, Heather; Porteous, David J.; Wainwright, Brandon J.; Amaral, Margarida D.; Sheppard, David N.; Boyd, A. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl− channel gated by ATP-driven nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) dimerization. Here we exploit species differences between human and murine CFTR to investigate CFTR channel gating. Using homologous recombination, we constructed human-murine CFTR (hmCFTR) chimeras with sequences from NBD1, NBD2, or the regulatory domain (RD) of human CFTR replaced by the equivalent regions of murine CFTR. The gating behavior of hmRD and human CFTR were indistinguishable, whereas hmNBD1 and hmNBD2 had subtle effects on channel gating, prolonging both burst duration and interburst interval. By contrast, hmNBD1+2, containing both NBDs of murine CFTR, reproduced the gating behavior of the subconductance state of murine CFTR, which has dramatically prolonged channel openings. The CFTR potentiator pyrophosphate (PPi) enhanced human, hmRD, and hmNBD1 CFTR Cl− currents, but not those of hmNBD2, hmNBD1+2, and murine CFTR. By analyzing the rate-equilibrium free-energy relationships of chimeric channels, we obtained snapshots of the conformation of the NBDs during ATP-driven dimerization. Our data demonstrate that the conformation of NBD1 changes before that of NBD2 during channel opening. This finding suggests that NBD dimerization does not proceed by a symmetric tweezer-like motion, but instead in an asymmetric fashion led by NBD1. We conclude that the NBDs of murine CFTR determine the unique gating behavior of its subconductance state, whereas NBD2 controls channel potentiation by PPi. PMID:17913891

  8. Mercury iodide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadoret, R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Mercury Iodide Crystal Growth (MICG) experiment is the growth of near-perfect single crystals of mercury Iodide (HgI2) in a microgravity environment which will decrease the convection effects on crystal growth. Evaporation and condensation are the only transformations involved in this experiment. To accomplish these objectives, a two-zone furnace will be used in which two sensors collect the temperature data (one in each zone).

  9. Bacterial multidrug efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Jared A; Su, Chih-Chia; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by bacteria are a leading cause of death worldwide. Although antibiotics remain a key clinical therapy, their effectiveness has been severely compromised by the development of drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Multidrug efflux transporters--a common and powerful resistance mechanism--are capable of extruding a number of structurally unrelated antimicrobials from the bacterial cell, including antibiotics and toxic heavy metal ions, facilitating their survival in noxious environments. Transporters of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily typically assemble as tripartite efflux complexes spanning the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope. In Escherichia coli, the CusCFBA complex, which mediates resistance to copper(I) and silver(I) ions, is the only known RND transporter specific to heavy metals. Here, we describe the current knowledge of individual pump components of the Cus system, a paradigm for efflux machinery, and speculate on how RND pumps assemble to fight diverse antimicrobials. PMID:24702006

  10. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis. PMID:11001491

  11. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Valentina; Vergani, Paola; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. CFTR controls the flow of anions through the apical membrane of epithelia. Dysfunctional CFTR causes the common lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Transitions between open and closed states of CFTR are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis on the cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, which are coupled with the transmembrane (TM) domains forming the pathway for anion permeation. Lack of structural data hampers a global understanding of CFTR and thus the development of “rational” approaches directly targeting defective CFTR. In this work, we explored possible conformational states of the CFTR gating cycle by means of homology modeling. As templates, we used structures of homologous ABC transporters, namely TM(287–288), ABC-B10, McjD, and Sav1866. In the light of published experimental results, structural analysis of the transmembrane cavity suggests that the TM(287–288)-based CFTR model could correspond to a commonly occupied closed state, whereas the McjD-based model could represent an open state. The models capture the important role played by Phe-337 as a filter/gating residue and provide structural information on the conformational transition from closed to open channel. PMID:26229102

  12. [Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis with CFTR Modulators].

    PubMed

    Tümmler, B

    2016-05-01

    Personalized medicine promises that medical decisions, practices and products are tailored to the individual patient. Cystic fibrosis, an inherited disorder of chloride and bicarbonate transport in exocrine glands, is the first successful example of customized drug development for mutation-specific therapy. There are two classes of CFTR modulators: potentiators that increase the activity of CFTR at the cell surface, and correctors that either promote the read-through of nonsense mutations or facilitate the translation, folding, maturation and trafficking of mutant CFTR to the cell surface. The potentiator ivacaftor and the corrector lumacaftor are approved in Germany for the treatment of people with cystic fibrosis who carry a gating mutation such as p.Gly551Asp or who are homozygous for the most common mutation p.Phe508del, respectively. This report provides an overview of the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, the population genetics of CFTR mutations in Germany and the bioassays to assess CFTR function in humans together with the major achievements of preclinical research and clinical trials to bring CFTR modulators to the clinic. Some practical information on the use of ivacaftor and lumacaftor in daily practice and an update on pitfalls, challenges and novel strategies of bench-to-bedside development of CFTR modulators are also provided. PMID:26894479

  13. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2010-03-01

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients. PMID:19947928

  14. Compartmentalized Accumulation of cAMP near Complexes of Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Contributes to Drug-induced Diarrhea*

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Ren, Aixia; Arora, Kavisha; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Woodrooffe, Koryse; Schuetz, John D.; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; de Jonge, Hugo R.; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M.; Buddington, Randal K.; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either substrates or inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), such as the anti-colon cancer drug irinotecan and an anti-retroviral used to treat HIV infection, 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT). These drugs activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluid secretion by inhibiting MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux. Binding of drugs to MRP4 augments the formation of MRP4-CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes that is mediated via scaffolding protein PDZK1. Importantly, HIV patients on AZT treatment demonstrate augmented MRP4-CFTR complex formation in the colon, which defines a novel paradigm of drug-induced diarrhea. PMID:25762723

  15. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2015-03-31

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca(2+) mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca(2+) mobilization. Ca(2+) mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  16. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca2+ mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca2+ mobilization. Ca2+ mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  17. CFTR function and prospects for therapy.

    PubMed

    Riordan, John R

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) epithelial anion channel cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The multidomain integral membrane glycoprotein, a member of the adenine nucleotide-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, conserved in metazoan salt-transporting tissues, is required to control ion and fluid homeostasis on epithelial surfaces. This review considers different therapeutic strategies that have arisen from knowledge of CFTR structure and function as well as its biosynthetic processing, intracellular trafficking, and turnover. PMID:18304008

  18. Functional architecture of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of membrane transport proteins. CFTR is unique among ABC proteins in that it functions not as an active transporter but as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. As an ion channel, the function of the CFTR transmembrane channel pore that mediates Cl(-) movement has been studied in great detail. On the other hand, only low resolution structural data is available on the transmembrane parts of the protein. The structure of the channel pore has, however, been modeled on the known structure of active transporter ABC proteins. Currently, significant barriers exist to building a unified view of CFTR pore structure and function. Reconciling functional data on the channel with indirect structural data based on other proteins with very different transport functions and substrates has proven problematic. This review summarizes current structural and functional models of the CFTR Cl(-) channel pore, including a comprehensive review of previous electrophysiological investigations of channel structure and function. In addition, functional data on the three-dimensional arrangement of pore-lining helices, as well as contemporary hypotheses concerning conformational changes in the pore that occur during channel opening and closing, are discussed. Important similarities and differences between different models of the pore highlight current gaps in our knowledge of CFTR structure and function. In order to fill these gaps, structural and functional models of the membrane-spanning pore need to become better integrated. PMID:24341413

  19. Direct action of genistein on CFTR.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, F; Wood, P G; Riordan, J R; Nagel, G

    1997-08-01

    Human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels were expressed in oocytes from Xenopus laevis after injection of CFTR cRNA and studied with the two-electrode voltage-clamp and the giant patch techniques. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein alone activated a small chloride current in whole oocytes expressing CFTR and substantially increased the chloride current obtained upon stimulation with forskolin and isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX). In giant excised patches, genistein was unable to open protein-kinase-A-phosphorylated CFTR channels in the absence of ATP, but increased the ATP-induced CFTR channel currents by a factor of 3.8 +/- 1.7. This genistein-mediated potentiation in excised patches is independent of protein phosphatase activity, as it is readily reversible, even after complete inhibition of protein kinase A activity. Involvement of protein tyrosine kinases also seems unlikely, because this effect of genistein is not antagonized by high concentrations of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor ortho-vanadate. We, therefore, propose a direct interaction of genistein with CFTR, probably at a nucleotide binding site, which leads to a higher open probability. PMID:9211816

  20. Regulatory insertion removal restores maturation, stability and function of ΔF508 CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Kota, Pradeep; Aleksandrov, Luba A.; He, Lihua; Jensen, Tim; Cui, Liying; Gentzsch, Martina; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Riordan, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) epithelial anion channel is a large multi-domain membrane protein which matures inefficiently during biosynthesis. Its assembly is further perturbed by the deletion of F508 from the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) responsible for most cystic fibrosis. The mutant polypeptide is recognized by cellular quality control systems and is proteolyzed. CFTR NBD1 contains a 32 residue segment termed the regulatory insertion (RI) not present in other ABC transporters. We report here that RI deletion enabled ΔF508 CFTR to mature and traffic to the cell surface where it mediated regulated anion efflux and exhibited robust single chloride channel activity. Long term pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature ΔRI/ΔF508 had a T1/2 of ~14h in cells, similar to the wild-type. RI deletion restored ATP occlusion by NBD1 of ΔF508 CFTR and had a strong thermo-stabilizing influence on the channel with gating up to at least 40°C. None of these effects of RI removal were achieved by deletion of only portions of RI. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations of NBD1 indicated that RI might indirectly influence the interaction of NBD1 with the rest of the protein by attenuating the coupling of the F508 containing loop with the F1-like ATP-binding core subdomain so that RI removal overcame the perturbations caused by F508 deletion. Restriction of RI to a particular conformational state may ameliorate the impact of the disease-causing mutation. PMID:20561529

  1. Regulatory insertion removal restores maturation, stability and function of DeltaF508 CFTR.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Kota, Pradeep; Aleksandrov, Luba A; He, Lihua; Jensen, Tim; Cui, Liying; Gentzsch, Martina; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Riordan, John R

    2010-08-13

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) epithelial anion channel is a large multidomain membrane protein that matures inefficiently during biosynthesis. Its assembly is further perturbed by the deletion of F508 from the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) responsible for most cystic fibrosis. The mutant polypeptide is recognized by cellular quality control systems and is proteolyzed. CFTR NBD1 contains a 32-residue segment termed the regulatory insertion (RI) not present in other ATP-binding cassette transporters. We report here that RI deletion enabled F508 CFTR to mature and traffic to the cell surface where it mediated regulated anion efflux and exhibited robust single chloride channel activity. Long-term pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature DeltaRI/DeltaF508 had a T(1/2) of approximately 14 h in cells, similar to the wild type. RI deletion restored ATP occlusion by NBD1 of DeltaF508 CFTR and had a strong thermostabilizing influence on the channel with gating up to at least 40 degrees C. None of these effects of RI removal were achieved by deletion of only portions of RI. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations of NBD1 indicated that RI might indirectly influence the interaction of NBD1 with the rest of the protein by attenuating the coupling of the F508-containing loop with the F1-like ATP-binding core subdomain so that RI removal overcame the perturbations caused by F508 deletion. Restriction of RI to a particular conformational state may ameliorate the impact of the disease-causing mutation. PMID:20561529

  2. Conserved Allosteric Hot Spots in the Transmembrane Domains of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channels and Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) Pumps*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C.; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5′-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. PMID:24876383

  3. Cesium iodide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a CsI composition with improved mechanical strength and outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance, for window use. The additive is a monovalent iodide, other than CsI, added in amounts sufficient to maximize fracture strength from 16 to 40 MPa, while maintaining at least 10% transparency in the 4 to 50 micrometer wavelength range. The preferred additive is AgI, although RbI or CuI can be used. 6 figs. (DLC)

  4. Modulation of CFTR gating by permeant ions.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Han-I; Yeh, Jiunn-Tyng; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is unique among ion channels in that after its phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), its ATP-dependent gating violates microscopic reversibility caused by the intimate involvement of ATP hydrolysis in controlling channel closure. Recent studies suggest a gating model featuring an energetic coupling between opening and closing of the gate in CFTR's transmembrane domains and association and dissociation of its two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We found that permeant ions such as nitrate can increase the open probability (Po) of wild-type (WT) CFTR by increasing the opening rate and decreasing the closing rate. Nearly identical effects were seen with a construct in which activity does not require phosphorylation of the regulatory domain, indicating that nitrate primarily affects ATP-dependent gating steps rather than PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the effects of nitrate on CFTR gating are remarkably similar to those of VX-770 (N-(2,4-Di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide), a potent CFTR potentiator used in clinics. These include effects on single-channel kinetics of WT CFTR, deceleration of the nonhydrolytic closing rate, and potentiation of the Po of the disease-associated mutant G551D. In addition, both VX-770 and nitrate increased the activity of a CFTR construct lacking NBD2 (ΔNBD2), indicating that these gating effects are independent of NBD dimerization. Nonetheless, whereas VX-770 is equally effective when applied from either side of the membrane, nitrate potentiates gating mainly from the cytoplasmic side, implicating a common mechanism for gating modulation mediated through two separate sites of action. PMID:25512598

  5. Modulation of CFTR chloride channels by calyculin A and genistein.

    PubMed

    Yang, I C; Cheng, T H; Wang, F; Price, E M; Hwang, T C

    1997-01-01

    Modulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel by calyculin A and genistein was studied in Hi-5 insect cells infected with baculovirus containing the wild-type CFTR cDNA. In cell-attached patches, CFTR channel activity was not observed until stimulated by forskolin in 90% of the cells, suggesting a low level of basal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate activity. Calyculin A, a specific inhibitor of phosphatases 1 and 2A, increased forskolin-induced CFTR activity by 17.2-fold. CFTR channel currents did not deactivate completely after forskolin was withdrawn in the continued presence of calyculin A. Genistein enhanced forskolin-induced CFTR activity by 44.9-fold but could neither activate the CFTR by itself nor prevent complete deactivation on removal of forskolin. Genistein together with calyculin A could adequately prevent deactivation of CFTR currents. Noise analysis of the macroscopic CFTR currents revealed significant differences in the mean current-variance-relationship and the corner frequency of the noise spectra between currents activated by forskolin plus genistein and those activated by forskolin plus calyculin A. Furthermore, genistein enhanced CFTR activity induced by saturating concentrations of forskolin and calyculin A. Our results suggest that genistein and calyculin A modulate the CFTR by different mechanisms and that genistein might inhibit calyculin A-insensitive dephosphorylation of the CFTR. PMID:9038820

  6. CFTR mutations in the Algerian population.

    PubMed

    Loumi, O; Ferec, C; Mercier, B; Creff, J; Fercot, B; Denine, R; Grangaud, J P

    2008-01-01

    The nature and frequency of the major CFTR mutations in the North African population remain unclear, although a small number of CFTR mutation detection studies have been done in Algeria and Tunisia, showing largely European mutations such as F508del, G542X and N1303K, albeit at different frequencies, which presumably emerged via population admixture with Caucasians. Some unique mutations were identified in these populations. This is the first study that includes a genetic and clinical evaluation of CF patients living in Algeria. In order to offer an effective diagnostic service and to make accurate risk estimates, we decided to identify the CFTR mutations in 81 Algerian patients. We carried out D-HPLC, chemical-clamp denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, multiplex amplification analysis of the CFTR gene and automated direct DNA sequencing. We identified 15 different mutations which account for 58.5% of the CF chromosomes. We used a quantitative PCR technique (quantitative multiplex PCR short fragment fluorescence analysis) to screen for deletion/duplication in the 27 exons of the gene. Taking advantage of the homogeneity of the sample, we report clinical features of homozygous CF patients. As CFTR mutations have been detected in males with infertility, 46 unrelated Algerian individuals with obstructive azoospermia were also investigated. PMID:17572159

  7. Permeation through the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    McCarty, N A

    2000-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein forms a Cl(-) channel found in the plasma membranes of many epithelial cells, including those of the kidney, gut and conducting airways. Mutation of the gene encoding CFTR is the primary defect in cystic fibrosis, a disease that affects approximately 30 000 individuals in the United States alone. Alteration of CFTR function also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of secretory diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease. The basic mechanisms of permeation in this channel are not well understood. It is not known which portions of the protein contribute to forming the pore or which amino acid residues in those domains are involved in the biophysical processes of ion permeation. In this review, I will discuss (i) the present understanding of ion transport processes in the wild-type CFTR channel, (ii) the experimental approaches currently being applied to investigate the pore, and (iii) a proposed structure that takes into account the present data on mechanisms of ion selectivity in the CFTR channel and on blockade of the pore by open-channel blockers. PMID:10851114

  8. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Mark F.; O'Ryan, Liam P.; Hughes, Guy; Zhao, Zhefeng; Aleksandrov, Luba A.; Riordan, John R.; Ford, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis affects about 1 in 2500 live births and involves loss of transmembrane chloride flux due to a lack of a membrane protein channel termed the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). We have studied CFTR structure by electron crystallography. The data were compared with existing structures of other ATP-binding cassette transporters. The protein was crystallized in the outward facing state and resembled the well characterized Sav1866 transporter. We identified regions in the CFTR map, not accounted for by Sav1866, which were potential locations for the regulatory region as well as the channel gate. In this analysis, we were aided by the fact that the unit cell was composed of two molecules not related by crystallographic symmetry. We also identified regions in the fitted Sav1866 model that were missing from the map, hence regions that were either disordered in CFTR or differently organized compared with Sav1866. Apart from the N and C termini, this indicated that in CFTR, the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane helix 5/11 and its associated loop could be partly disordered (or alternatively located). PMID:21931164

  9. Islet-intrinsic effects of CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Fiona N Manderson; McClenaghan, Neville H; Harper, Alan G S; Kelly, Catriona

    2016-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most significant extra-pulmonary comorbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and accelerates lung decline. In addition to the traditional view that CFRD is a consequence of fibrotic destruction of the pancreas as a whole, emerging evidence may implicate a role for cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in the regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet. Impaired first-phase insulin responses and glucose homeostasis have also been reported in CF patients. CFTR expression in both human and mouse beta cells has been confirmed, and recent studies have shown differences in endocrine pancreatic morphology from birth in CF. Recent experimental evidence suggests that functional CFTR channels are required for insulin exocytosis and the regulation of membrane potential in the pancreatic beta cell, which may account for the impairments in insulin secretion observed in many CF patients. These novel insights suggest that the pathogenesis of CFRD is more complicated than originally thought, with implications for diabetes treatment and screening in the CF population. This review summarises recent emerging evidence in support of a primary role for endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in the development of CFRD. Summary • CF is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene • The vast majority of morbidity and mortality in CF results from lung disease. However CFRD is the largest extra-pulmonary co-morbidity and rapidly accelerates lung decline • Recent experimental evidence shows that functional CFTR channels are required for normal patterns of first phase insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell • Current clinical recommendations suggest that insulin is more effective than oral glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of CFRD. However, the emergence of CFTR corrector and potentiator drugs may offer a personalised approach to treating diabetes in the CF population

  10. Modulation of CFTR gating by permeant ions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Han-I; Yeh, Jiunn-Tyng

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is unique among ion channels in that after its phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), its ATP-dependent gating violates microscopic reversibility caused by the intimate involvement of ATP hydrolysis in controlling channel closure. Recent studies suggest a gating model featuring an energetic coupling between opening and closing of the gate in CFTR’s transmembrane domains and association and dissociation of its two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We found that permeant ions such as nitrate can increase the open probability (Po) of wild-type (WT) CFTR by increasing the opening rate and decreasing the closing rate. Nearly identical effects were seen with a construct in which activity does not require phosphorylation of the regulatory domain, indicating that nitrate primarily affects ATP-dependent gating steps rather than PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the effects of nitrate on CFTR gating are remarkably similar to those of VX-770 (N-(2,4-Di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide), a potent CFTR potentiator used in clinics. These include effects on single-channel kinetics of WT CFTR, deceleration of the nonhydrolytic closing rate, and potentiation of the Po of the disease-associated mutant G551D. In addition, both VX-770 and nitrate increased the activity of a CFTR construct lacking NBD2 (ΔNBD2), indicating that these gating effects are independent of NBD dimerization. Nonetheless, whereas VX-770 is equally effective when applied from either side of the membrane, nitrate potentiates gating mainly from the cytoplasmic side, implicating a common mechanism for gating modulation mediated through two separate sites of action. PMID:25512598

  11. Assembly of functional CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Riordan, John R

    2005-01-01

    The assembly of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is of interest from the broad perspective of understanding how ion channels and ABC transporters are formed as well as dealing with the mis-assembly of CFTR in cystic fibrosis. CFTR is functionally distinct from other ABC transporters because it permits bidirectional permeation of anions rather than vectorial transport of solutes. This adaptation of the ABC transporter structure can be rationalized by considering CFTR as a hydrolyzable-ligand-gated channel with cytoplasmic ATP as ligand. Channel gating is initiated by ligand binding when the protein is also phosphorylated by protein kinase A and made reversible by ligand hydrolysis. The two nucleotide-binding sites play different roles in channel activation. CFTR self-associates, possibly as a function of its activation, but most evidence, including the low-resolution three-dimensional structure, indicates that the channel is monomeric. Domain assembly and interaction within the monomer is critical in maturation, stability, and function of the protein. Disease-associated mutations, including the most common, DeltaF508, interfere with domain folding and association, which occur both co- and post-translationally. Intermolecular interactions of mature CFTR have been detected primarily with the N- and C-terminal tails, and these interactions have some impact not only on channel function but also on localization and processing within the cell. The biosynthetic processing of the nascent polypeptide leading to channel assembly involves transient interactions with numerous chaperones and enzymes on both sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. PMID:15709975

  12. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  13. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  14. Involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the acidosis-induced efflux of ATP from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jie; Le, Gengyun; Ballard, Heather J

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of acidosis on the efflux of ATP from skeletal muscle. Infusion of lactic acid to the perfused hindlimb muscles of anaesthetised rats produced dose-dependent decreases in pH and increases in the interstitial ATP of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle: 10 mm lactic acid reduced the venous pH from 7.22 ± 0.04 to 6.97 ± 0.02 and increased interstitial ATP from 38 ± 8 to 67 ± 11 nm. The increase in interstitial ATP was well-correlated with the decrease in pH (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05). Blockade of cellular uptake of lactic acid using α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid abolished the lactic acid-induced ATP release, whilst infusion of sodium lactate failed to depress pH or increase interstitial ATP, suggesting that intracellular pH depression, rather than lactate, stimulated the ATP efflux. Incubation of cultured skeletal myoblasts with 10 mm lactic acid significantly increased the accumulation of ATP in the bathing medium from 0.46 ± 0.06 to 0.76 ± 0.08 μm, confirming the skeletal muscle cells as the source of the released ATP. Acidosis-induced ATP efflux from the perfused muscle was abolished by CFTRinh-172, a specific inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of both KATP channels and CFTR, but it was not affected by atractyloside, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP transporter. Silencing of the CFTR gene using an siRNA abolished the acidosis-induced increase in ATP release from cultured myoblasts. CFTR expression on skeletal muscle cells was confirmed using immunostaining in the intact muscle and Western blotting in the cultured cells. These data suggest that depression of the intracellular pH of skeletal muscle cells stimulates ATP efflux, and that CFTR plays an important role in the release mechanism. PMID:20819945

  15. Capturing the Direct Binding of CFTR Correctors to CFTR by Using Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrima; Zhang, Weiqiang; Moon, Chang Suk; Actis, Marcelo; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Arora, Kavisha; Woodroofe, Koryse; Clancy, John P; Lin, Songbai; Ziady, Assem G; Frizzell, Raymond; Fujii, Naoaki; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-09-21

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. F508del is the most prevalent mutation of the CFTR gene and encodes a protein defective in folding and processing. VX-809 has been reported to facilitate the folding and trafficking of F508del-CFTR and augment its channel function. The mechanism of action of VX-809 has been poorly understood. In this study, we sought to answer a fundamental question underlying the mechanism of VX-809: does it bind CFTR directly in order to exert its action? We synthesized two VX-809 derivatives, ALK-809 and SUL-809, that possess an alkyne group and retain the rescue capacity of VX-809. By using Cu(I) -catalyzed click chemistry, we provide evidence that the VX-809 derivatives bind CFTR directly in vitro and in cells. Our findings will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of action of CFTR correctors and the design of more potent therapeutics to combat CF. PMID:26227551

  16. CFTR protein repair therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gallego, Esther; Delgado-Pecellín, Isabel; Calero Acuña, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a single gene, autosomal recessive disorder, in which more than 1,900 mutations grouped into 6 classes have been described. It is an example a disease that could be well placed to benefit from personalised medicine. There are currently 2 very different approaches that aim to correct the basic defect: gene therapy, aimed at correcting the genetic alteration, and therapy aimed at correcting the defect in the CFTR protein. The latter is beginning to show promising results, with several molecules under development. Ataluren (PTC124) is a molecule designed to make the ribosomes become less sensitive to the premature stop codons responsible for class i mutations. Lumacaftor (VX-809) is a CFTR corrector directed at class ii mutations, among which Phe508del is the most frequent, with encouraging results. Ivacaftor (VX-770) is a potentiator, the only one marketed to date, which has shown good efficacy for the class iii mutation Gly551Asp in children over the age of 6 and adults. These drugs, or a combination of them, are currently undergoing various clinical trials for other less common genetic mutations. In the last 5 years, CFTR has been designated as a therapeutic target. Ivacaftor is the first drug to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, but only provides a response in a small number of patients. New drugs capable of restoring the CFTR protein damaged by the most common mutations are required. PMID:24095197

  17. CFTR: what's it like inside the pore?

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehong; Smith, Stephen S; Dawson, David C

    2003-11-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator (CFTR) functions as a cAMP-activated, anion-selective channel, but the structural basis for anion permeation is not well understood. Here we summarize recent studies aimed at understanding how anions move through the CFTR channel, and the nature of the environment anions experience inside the pore. From these studies it is apparent that anion permeability selectivity and anion binding selectivity of the pore are consistent with a model based on a "dielectric tunnel." The selectivity pattern for halides and pseudohalides can be predicted if it is assumed that permeant anions partition between bulk water and a polarizable space that is characterized by an effective dielectric constant of about 19. Covalent labeling of engineered cysteines and pH titration of engineered cysteines and histidines lead to the conclusion that the CFTR anion conduction path includes a positively charged outer vestibule. A residue in transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) (R334) appears to reside in the outer vestibule of the CFTR pore where it creates a positive electrostatic potential that enhances anion conduction. PMID:14598388

  18. Etching of mercuric iodide in cation iodide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.

    2006-07-01

    The surface properties of mercuric iodide after etching in various cation iodide solutions have been investigated in terms of dissolution rate, morphology, electrical properties and reaction with water vapour. No significant differences have been observed in the etching rates. However, dissolution of HgI 2 in NH 4I, NaI, KI or RbI leaves the surface more or less covered with a residual iodo mercurate compound whose electrical properties and stability with regard to humidity may noticeably influence the behaviour of mercuric iodide devices. The smallest effect has been observed for etching in NaI.

  19. Novel opportunities for CFTR-targeting drug development using organoids

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Johanna F; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR mutations lead to production of non-functional CFTR, reduced amounts of normal functioning CFTR or misfolded CFTR with defects in trafficking or function. For decades, CF treatment has been focused on the symptoms of CF, but pharmacotherapy using small molecules that target the basic defect of CF, the mutant CFTR protein, is now possible for a limited amount of subjects with CF. This raises the exciting possibility that the majority of people with CF may receive effective treatment targeting the different CFTR mutants in the future. We recently described a functional CFTR assay using rectal biopsies from subjects with CF that were cultured in vitro into self-organizing mini-guts or organoids. We here describe how this model may assist in the discovery of new CFTR-targeting drugs, the subjects that may benefit from these drugs, and the mechanisms underlying variability in CFTR genotype-phenotype relations. PMID:25003014

  20. Curcumin and genistein additively potentiate G551D-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying-Chun; Miki, Haruna; Nakamura, Yumi; Hanyuda, Akiko; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Abe, Yoichiro; Yasui, Masato; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Bompadre, Silvia G.; Sohma, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The G551D mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). G551D-CFTR is characterized by an extremely low open probability despite its normal trafficking to the plasma membrane. Numerous small molecules have been shown to increase the activity of G551D-CFTR presumably by binding to the CFTR protein. Methods We investigated the effect of curcumin, genistein and their combined application on G551D-CFTR activity using the patch clamp technique. Results Curcumin increased G551D-CFTR whole-cell and single-channel currents less than genistein did at their maximally effective concentrations. However, curcumin further increased the channel activity of G551D-CFTR that had been already maximally potentiated by genistein, up to ~50% of the WT-CFTR level. In addition, the combined application of genistein and curcumin over a lower concentration range synergistically rescued the gating defect of G551D-CFTR. Conclusions The additive effects between curcumin and genistein not only support the hypothesis that multiple mechanisms are involved in the action of CFTR potentiators, but also pose pharmaceutical implications in the development of drugs for CF pharmacotherapy. PMID:21441077

  1. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Anna E.; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  2. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Ali J; Karamyshev, Andrey L; Patrick, Anna E; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  3. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  4. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  5. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  6. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and....375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely added to a food as a source of...

  7. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  8. Excited State Electronic Properties of Sodium Iodide and Cesium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei

    2013-05-01

    We compute from first principles the dielectric function, loss function, lifetime and scattering rate of quasiparticles due to electronic losses, and secondary particle spectrum due to plasmon decay in two scintillating alkali halides, sodium iodide and cesium iodide. Particular emphasis is placed on quasiparticles within several multiples of the band gap from the band edges. A theory for the decay spectra of plasmons and other electronic excitations in crystals is presented. Applications to Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are discussed.

  9. A novel CFTR disease-associated mutation causes addition of an extra N-linked oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, M M; Aleksandrov, A A; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R

    2000-11-01

    We have examined the influence of a novel missense mutation in the fourth extracytoplasmic loop (EL4) of CFTR detected in a patient with cystic fibrosis. This substitution (T908N) creates a consensus sequence (N X S/T) for addition of an N-linked oligosaccharide chain near the C-terminal end of EL4. Oligosaccharyl transferase generally does not have access to this consensus sequence if it is closer than about twelve amino acids from the membrane. However, the T908N site is used, even though it is within four residues of the predicted membrane interface and the oligosaccharide chain added binds calnexin, a resident chaperone of the ER membrane. The chloride channel activity of this variant CFTR is abnormal as evidenced by a reduced rate of (36)Cl(-) efflux and a noisy single channel open state. This may reflect some displacement of the membrane spanning sequence C-terminal of EL4 since it contains residues influencing the ion pore. PMID:11443282

  10. Nanoparticles that deliver triplex-forming peptide nucleic acid molecules correct F508del CFTR in airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Nicole Ali; Anandalingam, Kavitha; Fields, Rachel J; Caputo, Christina; Kopic, Sascha; Gupta, Anisha; Quijano, Elias; Polikoff, Lee; Kong, Yong; Bahal, Raman; Geibel, John P; Glazer, Peter M; Saltzman, W Mark; Egan, Marie E

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder most commonly caused by the F508del mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It is not readily amenable to gene therapy because of its systemic nature and challenges including in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression. Here we use triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids and donor DNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles to correct F508del. We confirm modification with sequencing and a functional chloride efflux assay. In vitro correction of chloride efflux occurs in up to 25% of human cells. Deep-sequencing reveals negligible off-target effects in partially homologous sites. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticles in CF mice produces changes in the nasal epithelium potential difference assay, consistent with corrected CFTR function. Also, gene correction is detected in the nasal and lung tissue. This work represents facile genome engineering in vivo with oligonucleotides using a nanoparticle system to achieve clinically relevant levels of gene editing without off-target effects. PMID:25914116

  11. The CFTR Ion Channel: Gating, Regulation, and Anion Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel—almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle—a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. PMID:23284076

  12. The CFTR ion channel: gating, regulation, and anion permeation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Kirk, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel--almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle--a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. PMID:23284076

  13. CFTR is a monomer: biochemical and functional evidence.

    PubMed

    Chen, J-H; Chang, X-B; Aleksandrov, A A; Riordan, J R

    2002-07-01

    Although the CFTR protein alone is sufficient to generate a regulated chloride channel, it is unknown how many of the polypeptides form the channel. Using biochemical and functional assays, we demonstrate that the CFTR polypeptide is a monomer. CFTR sediments as a monomer in a linear, continuous sucrose gradient. Cells co-expressing different epitope-tagged CFTR provide no evidence of co-assembly in immunoprecipitation and nickel affinity binding experiments. Co-expressed wild-type and DF508 CFTR are without influence on each other in their ability to progress through the secretory pathway, suggesting they do not associate in the endoplasmic reticulum. No hybrid conducting single channels are seen in planar lipid bilayers with which membrane vesicles from cells co-expressing similar amounts of two different CFTR conduction species have been fused. PMID:12172647

  14. F508del CFTR with two altered RXR motifs escapes from ER quality control but its channel activity is thermally sensitive.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Tamás; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Cui, Liying; Gentzsch, Martina; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R

    2006-05-01

    Most cystic fibrosis (CF) patients carry the F508del mutation in the CFTR chloride channel protein resulting in its misassembly, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and proteasomal degradation. Therefore, characterization of the retention and attempts to rescue the mutant CFTR are a major focus of CF research. Earlier, we had shown that four arginine-framed tripeptide (AFT) signals in CFTR participate in the quality control. Now we have mutated these four AFTs in all possible combinations and found that simultaneous inactivation of two of them (R29K and R555K) is necessary and sufficient to overcome F508del CFTR retention. Immunofluorescence staining of BHK cells expressing this variant indicates that it matures and is routed to the plasma membrane. Acquisition of at least some wild-type structure was detected in the pattern of proteolytic digestion fragments. Functional activity at the cell surface was evident in chloride efflux assays. However, single channel activity of the rescued mutant measured in planar lipid bilayers diminished as temperature was increased from 30 to 37 degrees C. These findings support the idea that absence of Phe 508 causes not only a kinetic folding defect but also steady-state structural instability. Therefore effective molecular therapies developed to alleviate disease caused by F508del and probably other misprocessing mutants will require overcoming both their kinetic and steady-state impacts. PMID:16624253

  15. Interaction between CFTR and prestin (SLC26A5)

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kazuaki; Miller, Katharine K.; Anderson, Charles T.; Sengupta, Soma; Du, Guo-Guang; Aguiñaga, Salvador; Cheatham, MaryAnn; Dallos, Peter; Zheng, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel that is present in a variety of epithelial cell types, and usually expressed in the luminal membrane. In contrast, prestin (SLC26A5) is a voltage-dependent motor protein, which is present in the basolateral membrane of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), and plays an important role in the frequency selectivity and sensitivity of mammalian hearing. By using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we found that both mRNA and protein of CFTR are present in OHCs, and that CFTR localizes in both the apical and the lateral membranes. CFTR was not detected in the lateral membrane of inner hair cells (IHCs) or in that of OHCs derived from prestin-knockout mice, i.e., in instances where prestin is not expressed. These results suggest that prestin may interact physically with CFTR in the lateral membrane of OHCs. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed a prestin-CFTR interaction. Because chloride is important for prestin function and for the efferent-mediated inhibition of cochlear output, the prestin-directed localization of CFTR to the lateral membrane of OHCs has a potential physiological significance. Aside from its role as a chloride channel, CFTR is known as a regulator of multiple protein functions, including those of the solute carrier family 26 (SLC26). Because prestin is in the SLC26 family, several members of which interact with CFTR, we explored the potential modulatory relationship associated with a direct, physical interaction between prestin and CFTR. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that cAMP– activated CFTR is capable of enhancing voltage-dependent charge displacement, a signature of OHC motility, whereas prestin does not affect the chloride conductance of CFTR. PMID:20138822

  16. Divergent signaling via SUMO modification: potential for CFTR modulation.

    PubMed

    Ahner, Annette; Gong, Xiaoyan; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2016-02-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is generally responsible for the cAMP/PKA regulated anion conductance at the apical membranes of secretory epithelial cells. Mutations in CFTR underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), in which the most common variant, F508del, causes protein misfolding and its proteasome-mediated degradation. A new pathway that contributes to mutant CFTR degradation is mediated by the small heat shock protein, Hsp27, which cooperates with Ubc9, the E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, to selectively conjugate mutant CFTR with SUMO-2/3. This SUMO paralog can form polychains, which are recognized by the ubiquitin E3 enzyme, RNF4, leading to CFTR ubiquitylation and recognition by the proteasome. We found also that F508del CFTR could be modified by SUMO-1, a paralog that does not support SUMO polychain formation. The use of different SUMO paralogs to modify and target a single substrate for divergent purposes is not uncommon. In this short review we discuss the possibility that conjugation with SUMO-1 could protect mutant CFTR from disposal by RNF4 and similar ubiquitin ligases. We hypothesize that such a pathway could contribute to therapeutic efforts to stabilize immature mutant CFTR and thereby enhance the action of therapeutics that correct CFTR trafficking to the apical membranes. PMID:26582473

  17. CFTR gating I: Characterization of the ATP-dependent gating of a phosphorylation-independent CFTR channel (DeltaR-CFTR).

    PubMed

    Bompadre, Silvia G; Ai, Tomohiko; Cho, Jeong Han; Wang, Xiaohui; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-04-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is activated by phosphorylation of serine residues in the regulatory (R) domain and then gated by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). Studies of the ATP-dependent gating process in excised inside-out patches are very often hampered by channel rundown partly caused by membrane-associated phosphatases. Since the severed DeltaR-CFTR, whose R domain is completely removed, can bypass the phosphorylation-dependent regulation, this mutant channel might be a useful tool to explore the gating mechanisms of CFTR. To this end, we investigated the regulation and gating of the DeltaR-CFTR expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the cell-attached mode, basal DeltaR-CFTR currents were always obtained in the absence of cAMP agonists. Application of cAMP agonists or PMA, a PKC activator, failed to affect the activity, indicating that the activity of DeltaR-CFTR channels is indeed phosphorylation independent. Consistent with this conclusion, in excised inside-out patches, application of the catalytic subunit of PKA did not affect ATP-induced currents. Similarities of ATP-dependent gating between wild type and DeltaR-CFTR make this phosphorylation-independent mutant a useful system to explore more extensively the gating mechanisms of CFTR. Using the DeltaR-CFTR construct, we studied the inhibitory effect of ADP on CFTR gating. The Ki for ADP increases as the [ATP] is increased, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. Single channel kinetic analysis reveals a new closed state in the presence of ADP, consistent with a kinetic mechanism by which ADP binds at the same site as ATP for channel opening. Moreover, we found that the open time of the channel is shortened by as much as 54% in the presence of ADP. This unexpected result suggests another ADP binding site that modulates channel closing. PMID:15767295

  18. Curcumin Cross-links Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Polypeptides and Potentiates CFTR Channel Activity by Distinct Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Wang, Wei; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Schmidt, Boris; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CFTR chloride channel. Wild type and mutant CFTR channels can be activated by curcumin, a well tolerated dietary compound with some appeal as a prospective CF therapeutic. However, we show here that curcumin has the unexpected effect of cross-linking CFTR polypeptides into SDS-resistant oligomers. This effect occurred for CFTR channels in microsomes as well as in intact cells and at the same concentrations that are effective for promoting CFTR channel activity (5–50 μm). Both mature CFTR polypeptides at the cell surface and immature CFTR protein in the endoplasmic reticulum were cross-linked by curcumin, although the latter pool was more susceptible to this modification. Curcumin cross-linked two CF mutant channels (ΔF508 and G551D) as well as a variety of deletion constructs that lack the major cytoplasmic domains. In vitro cross-linking could be prevented by high concentrations of oxidant scavengers (i.e. reduced glutathione and sodium azide) indicating a possible oxidation reaction with the CFTR polypeptide. Importantly, cyclic derivatives of curcumin that lack the reactive β diketone moiety had no cross-linking activity. One of these cyclic derivatives stimulated the activities of wild type CFTR channels, Δ1198-CFTR channels, and G551D-CFTR channels in excised membrane patches. Like the parent compound, the cyclic derivative irreversibly activated CFTR channels in excised patches during prolonged exposure (>5 min). Our results raise a note of caution about secondary biochemical effects of reactive compounds like curcumin in the treatment of CF. Cyclic curcumin derivatives may have better therapeutic potential in this regard. PMID:19740743

  19. G551D-CFTR needs more bound actin than wild-type CFTR to maintain its presence in plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Trouvé, Pascal; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Teng, Ling; Benz, Nathalie; Taiya, Mehdi; Le Hir, Sophie; Férec, Claude

    2015-08-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. The missense mutation G551D (approx. 5% of cases) encodes a CFTR chloride channel with normal cell surface expression but with an altered chloride channel activity, leading to a severe phenotype. Our aim was to identify specific interacting proteins of G551D-CFTR which could explain the channel defect. Wild-type CFTR (Wt-CFTR) was co-immunoprecipitated from stably transfected HeLa cells and resolved by 2D gel electrophoresis. Among the detected spots, one was expressed at a high level. Mass Spectrometry revealed that it corresponded to actin which is known to be involved in the CFTR's channel function. To assess whether actin could be involved in the altered G551D-CFTR function, its basal expression was studied. Because actin expression was the same in wt- and in G551D-CFTR expressing cells, its interaction with both wt- and G551D-CFTR was studied by co-immunoprecipitation, and we found that a higher amount of actin was bound onto G551D-CFTR than onto Wt-CFTR. The role of actin upon wt- and G551D-CFTR function was further studied by patch-clamp experiments after cytochalasin D treatment of the cells. We found a decrease of the very weak currents in G551D-CFTR expressing cells. Because a higher amount of actin is bound onto G551D-CFTR than onto Wt-CFTR, it is likely to be not involved in the mutated CFTR's defect. Nevertheless, because actin is necessary to maintain the very weak global currents observed in G551D-CFTR expressing HeLa cells, we conclude that more actin is necessary to maintain G551D-CFTR in the plasma membrane than for Wt-CFTR. PMID:25712891

  20. Nonequilibrium Gating of CFTR on an Equilibrium Theme

    PubMed Central

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Malfunction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ABC protein superfamily that functions as an ATP-gated chloride channel, causes the lethal genetic disease, cystic fibrosis. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the gating mechanism of CFTR. Potential clinical relevance and implications to ABC transporter function are also discussed. PMID:23223629

  1. Molecular mechanisms controlling CFTR gene expression in the airway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaolin; Ott, Christopher J; Lewandowska, Marzena A; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The low levels of CFTR gene expression and paucity of CFTR protein in human airway epithelial cells are not easily reconciled with the pivotal role of the lung in cystic fibrosis pathology. Previous data suggested that the regulatory mechanisms controlling CFTR gene expression might be different in airway epithelium in comparison to intestinal epithelium where CFTR mRNA and protein is much more abundant. Here we examine chromatin structure and modification across the CFTR locus in primary human tracheal (HTE) and bronchial (NHBE) epithelial cells and airway cell lines including 16HBE14o- and Calu3. We identify regions of open chromatin that appear selective for primary airway epithelial cells and show that several of these are enriched for a histone modification (H3K4me1) that is characteristic of enhancers. Consistent with these observations, three of these sites encompass elements that have cooperative enhancer function in reporter gene assays in 16HBE14o- cells. Finally, we use chromosome conformation capture (3C) to examine the three-dimensional structure of nearly 800 kb of chromosome 7 encompassing CFTR and observe long-range interactions between the CFTR promoter and regions far outside the locus in cell types that express high levels of CFTR. PMID:21895967

  2. Nonequilibrium gating of CFTR on an equilibrium theme.

    PubMed

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Malfunction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ABC protein superfamily that functions as an ATP-gated chloride channel, causes the lethal genetic disease, cystic fibrosis. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the gating mechanism of CFTR. Potential clinical relevance and implications to ABC transporter function are also discussed. PMID:23223629

  3. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H Abou; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  4. On the structural organization of the intracellular domains of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Moran, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein forming an anion selective channel. Mutations in the gene encoding CFTR cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The intracellular side of CFTR constitutes about 80% of the total mass of the protein. This region includes domains involved in ATP-dependent gating and regulatory protein kinase-A phosphorylation sites. The high-resolution molecular structure of CFTR has not yet been solved. However, a range of lower resolution structural data, as well as functional biochemical and electrophysiological data, are now available. This information has enabled the proposition of a working model for the structural architecture of the intracellular domains of the CFTR protein. PMID:24513531

  5. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Georg; Szellas, Tanjef; Riordan, John R.; Friedrich, Thomas; Hartung, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride channels. Voltage– and patch–clamp measurements, however, showed neither stimulation nor inhibition of ENaC-mediated conductance by activated CFTR. We conclude that the observed modulation of 22Na+ uptake by activated CFTR is due to the effect of CFTR-mediated chloride conductance on the membrane potential. These findings argue against the notion of a specific influence of CFTR on ENaC and emphasize the chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:11266369

  6. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Nagel, G; Szellas, T; Riordan, J R; Friedrich, T; Hartung, K

    2001-03-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of (22)Na(+) through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride channels. Voltage- and patch-clamp measurements, however, showed neither stimulation nor inhibition of ENaC-mediated conductance by activated CFTR. We conclude that the observed modulation of (22)Na(+) uptake by activated CFTR is due to the effect of CFTR-mediated chloride conductance on the membrane potential. These findings argue against the notion of a specific influence of CFTR on ENaC and emphasize the chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:11266369

  7. Potentiators exert distinct effects on human, murine, and Xenopus CFTR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; Khazanov, Netaly; Stauffer, Brandon B; Infield, Daniel T; Imhoff, Barry R; Senderowitz, Hanoch; McCarty, Nael A

    2016-08-01

    VX-770 (Ivacaftor) has been approved for clinical usage in cystic fibrosis patients with several CFTR mutations. Yet the binding site(s) on CFTR for this compound and other small molecule potentiators are unknown. We hypothesize that insight into this question could be gained by comparing the effect of potentiators on CFTR channels from different origins, e.g., human, mouse, and Xenopus (frog). In the present study, we combined this comparative molecular pharmacology approach with that of computer-aided drug discovery to identify and characterize new potentiators of CFTR and to explore possible mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that 1) VX-770, NPPB, GlyH-101, P1, P2, and P3 all exhibited ortholog-specific behavior in that they potentiated hCFTR, mCFTR, and xCFTR with different efficacies; 2) P1, P2, and P3 potentiated hCFTR in excised macropatches in a manner dependent on the degree of PKA-mediated stimulation; 3) P1 and P2 did not have additive effects, suggesting that these compounds might share binding sites. Also 4) using a pharmacophore modeling approach, we identified three new potentiators (IOWH-032, OSSK-2, and OSSK-3) that have structures similar to GlyH-101 and that also exhibit ortholog-specific potentiation of CFTR. These could potentially serve as lead compounds for development of new drugs for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. The ortholog-specific behavior of these compounds suggest that a comparative pharmacology approach, using cross-ortholog chimeras, may be useful for identification of binding sites on human CFTR. PMID:27288484

  8. Regulation of CFTR chloride channel macroscopic conductance by extracellular bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Li, Man-Song; Holstead, Ryan G; Wang, Wuyang; Linsdell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The CFTR contributes to Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ transport across epithelial cell apical membranes. The extracellular face of CFTR is exposed to varying concentrations of Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ in epithelial tissues, and there is evidence that CFTR is sensitive to changes in extracellular anion concentrations. Here we present functional evidence that extracellular Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ regulate anion conduction in open CFTR channels. Using cell-attached and inside-out patch-clamp recordings from constitutively active mutant E1371Q-CFTR channels, we show that voltage-dependent inhibition of CFTR currents in intact cells is significantly stronger when the extracellular solution contains HCO₃⁻ than when it contains Cl⁻. This difference appears to reflect differences in the ability of extracellular HCO₃⁻ and Cl⁻ to interact with and repel intracellular blocking anions from the pore. Strong block by endogenous cytosolic anions leading to reduced CFTR channel currents in intact cells occurs at physiologically relevant HCO₃⁻ concentrations and membrane potentials and can result in up to ∼50% inhibition of current amplitude. We propose that channel block by cytosolic anions is a previously unrecognized, physiologically relevant mechanism of channel regulation that confers on CFTR channels sensitivity to different anions in the extracellular fluid. We further suggest that this anion sensitivity represents a feedback mechanism by which CFTR-dependent anion secretion could be regulated by the composition of the secretions themselves. Implications for the mechanism and regulation of CFTR-dependent secretion in epithelial tissues are discussed. PMID:20926782

  9. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  20. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  1. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed Central

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7522329

  2. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-09-13

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:7522329

  3. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  4. Function and regulation of TRPM7, as well as intracellular magnesium content, are altered in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Calvez, M L; Benz, N; Le Hir, S; Mignen, O; Buscaglia, P; Horgen, F D; Férec, C; Kerbiriou, M; Trouvé, P

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common fatal hereditary disorders, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The CFTR gene product is a multidomain adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) protein that functions as a chloride (Cl(-)) channel that is regulated by intracellular magnesium [Mg(2+)]i. The most common mutations in CFTR are a deletion of a phenylalanine residue at position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR, 70-80 % of CF phenotypes) and a Gly551Asp substitution (G551D-CFTR, 4-5 % of alleles), which lead to decreased or almost abolished Cl(-) channel function, respectively. Magnesium ions have to be finely regulated within cells for optimal expression and function of CFTR. Therefore, the melastatin-like transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), which is responsible for Mg(2+) entry, was studies and [Mg(2+)]i measured in cells stably expressing wildtype CFTR, and two mutant proteins (ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR). This study shows for the first time that [Mg(2+)]i is decreased in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR mutated proteins. It was also observed that the expression of the TRPM7 protein is increased; however, membrane localization was altered for both ΔF508del-CFTR and G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, both the function and regulation of the TRPM7 channel regarding Mg(2+) is decreased in the cells expressing the mutated CFTR. Ca(2+) influx via TRPM7 were also modified in cells expressing a mutated CFTR. Therefore, there appears to be a direct involvement of TRPM7 in CF physiopathology. Finally, we propose that the TRPM7 activator Naltriben is a new potentiator for G551D-CFTR as the function of this mutant increases upon activation of TRPM7 by Naltriben. PMID:26874684

  5. Rescuing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-processing mutants by transcomplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Jablonsky, Michael; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Muccio, Donald D.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    Most cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are caused by mutations that block the biosynthetic maturation of the CF gene product, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. CFTR-processing mutants fail to escape the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. Current efforts to induce the maturation of CFTR mutants target components of the biosynthetic pathway (e.g., chaperones) rather than CFTR per se. Such methods are inherently nonspecific. Here we show that the most common CF-causing mutant (ΔF508-CFTR) can form mature, functional chloride channels that reach the cell surface when coexpressed with several other CFTR-processing mutants or with amino fragments of the wild-type CFTR protein. This transcomplementation effect required a specific match between the region flanking the disease-causing mutation and the complementing fragment; e.g., amino fragments complemented ΔF508-CFTR but not H1085R (a carboxy-processing mutant), whereas a carboxy fragment complemented H1085R but not ΔF508-CFTR. Transcomplementing fragments did not affect CFTR interactions with Hsc70, a chaperone previously implicated in CFTR biosynthesis. Instead, they may promote CFTR maturation by blocking nonproductive interactions between domains within the same or neighboring CFTR polypeptides that prevent normal processing. These findings indicate that it may be possible to develop CF therapies (e.g., mini-cDNA constructs for gene therapy) that are tailored to specific disease-causing mutants of CFTR. PMID:15141088

  6. Electrodeposition of Epitaxial Lead Iodide and Conversion to Textured Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Hill, James C; Koza, Jakub A; Switzer, Jay A

    2015-12-01

    Applications for lead iodide, such as lasing, luminescence, radiation detection, and as a precursor for methylammonium lead iodide perovskite photovoltaic cells, require highly ordered crystalline thin films. Here, an electrochemical synthesis route is introduced that yields textured and epitaxial films of lead iodide at room temperature by reducing molecular iodine to iodide ions in the presence of lead ions. Lead iodide grows with a [0001] fiber texture on polycrystalline substrates such as fluorine-doped tin oxide. On single-crystal Au(100), Au(111), and Au(110) the out-of-plane orientation of lead iodide is also [0001], but the in-plane orientation is controlled by the single-crystal substrate. The epitaxial lead iodide on single-crystal gold is converted to textured methylammonium lead iodide perovskite with a preferred [110] orientation via methylammonium iodide vapor-assisted chemical transformation of the solid. PMID:26565593

  7. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  8. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L.; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease. PMID:26835446

  9. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. PMID:26057987

  10. Corrector VX-809 stabilizes the first transmembrane domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Bartlett, M Claire; Clarke, David M

    2013-09-01

    Processing mutations that inhibit folding and trafficking of CFTR are the main cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). A potential CF therapy would be to repair CFTR processing mutants. It has been demonstrated that processing mutants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), CFTR's sister protein, can be efficiently repaired by a drug-rescue mechanism. Many arginine suppressors that mimic drug-rescue have been identified in the P-gp transmembrane (TM) domains (TMDs) that rescue by forming hydrogen bonds with residues in adjacent helices to promote packing of the TM segments. To test if CFTR mutants could be repaired by a drug-rescue mechanism, we used truncation mutants to test if corrector VX-809 interacted with the TMDs. VX-809 was selected for study because it is specific for CFTR, it is the most effective corrector identified to date, but it has limited clinical benefit. Identification of the VX-809 target domain will help to develop correctors with improved clinical benefits. It was found that VX-809 rescued truncation mutants lacking the NBD2 and R domains. When the remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2) were expressed as separate polypeptides, VX-809 only increased the stability of TMD1. We then performed arginine mutagenesis on TM6 in TMD1. Although the results showed that TM6 had distinct lipid and aqueous faces, CFTR was different from P-gp as no arginine promoted maturation of CFTR processing mutants. The results suggest that TMD1 contains a VX-809 binding site, but its mechanism differed from P-gp drug-rescue. We also report that V510D acts as a universal suppressor to rescue CFTR processing mutants. PMID:23835419

  11. CHD6 regulates the topological arrangement of the CFTR locus

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Ana; Li, SiDe; Paul, Thankam; Zhang, Fan; Aguilo, Francesca; Vashisht, Ajay; Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Leleiko, Neal S.; Suchy, Frederick J.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Zhang, Weijia; Walsh, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The control of transcription is regulated through the well-coordinated spatial and temporal interactions between distal genomic regulatory elements required for specialized cell-type and developmental gene expression programs. With recent findings CFTR has served as a model to understand the principles that govern genome-wide and topological organization of distal intra-chromosomal contacts as it relates to transcriptional control. This is due to the extensive characterization of the DNase hypersensitivity sites, modification of chromatin, transcription factor binding sites and the arrangement of these sites in CFTR consistent with the restrictive expression in epithelial cell types. Here, we identified CHD6 from a screen among several chromatin-remodeling proteins as a putative epigenetic modulator of CFTR expression. Moreover, our findings of CTCF interactions with CHD6 are consistent with the role described previously for CTCF in CFTR regulation. Our results now reveal that the CHD6 protein lies within the infrastructure of multiple transcriptional complexes, such as the FACT, PBAF, PAF1C, Mediator, SMC/Cohesion and MLL complexes. This model underlies the fundamental role CHD6 facilitates by tethering cis-acting regulatory elements of CFTR in proximity to these multi-subunit transcriptional protein complexes. Finally, we indicate that CHD6 structurally coordinates a three-dimensional stricture between intragenic elements of CFTR bound by several cell-type specific transcription factors, such as CDX2, SOX18, HNF4α and HNF1α. Therefore, our results reveal new insights into the epigenetic regulation of CFTR expression, whereas the manipulation of CFTR gene topology could be considered for treating specific indications of cystic fibrosis and/or pancreatitis. PMID:25631877

  12. Iodide accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; McFiggans, Gordon B.; Palmer, Carl J.; Waite, Tim J.; Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Woitsch, Sonja; Weiller, Markus; Abela, Rafael; Grolimund, Daniel; Potin, Philippe; Butler, Alison; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Feiters, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Brown algae of the Laminariales (kelps) are the strongest accumulators of iodine among living organisms. They represent a major pump in the global biogeochemical cycle of iodine and, in particular, the major source of iodocarbons in the coastal atmosphere. Nevertheless, the chemical state and biological significance of accumulated iodine have remained unknown to this date. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide, which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to be described in a living system. Upon oxidative stress, iodide is effluxed. On the thallus surface and in the apoplast, iodide detoxifies both aqueous oxidants and ozone, the latter resulting in the release of high levels of molecular iodine and the consequent formation of hygroscopic iodine oxides leading to particles, which are precursors to cloud condensation nuclei. In a complementary set of experiments using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in human blood cells. PMID:18458346

  13. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NOXes and DUOXes, is also an iodide-specific transporter.

    PubMed

    Massart, C; Giusti, N; Beauwens, R; Dumont, J E; Miot, F; Sande, J Van

    2013-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXes) and dual oxidases (DUOXes) generate O2 (.-) and H2O2. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) inhibits the activity of these enzymes and is often used as a specific inhibitor. It is shown here that DPI, at concentrations similar to those which inhibit the generation of O2 derivatives, activated the efflux of radioiodide but not of its analog (99m)TcO4 (-) nor of the K(+) cation mimic (86)Rb(+) in thyroid cells, in the PCCl3 rat thyroid cell line and in COS cell lines expressing the iodide transporter NIS. Effects obtained with DPI, especially in thyroid cells, should therefore be interpreted with caution. PMID:24371722

  14. Cigarette smoke and CFTR: implications in the pathogenesis of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven M.; Raju, S. Vamsee; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder consisting of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. COPD patients suffer from chronic infections and display exaggerated inflammatory responses and a progressive decline in respiratory function. The respiratory symptoms of COPD are similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), although the molecular basis of the two disorders differs. CF is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a chloride and bicarbonate channel (CFTR), leading to CFTR dysfunction. The majority of COPD cases result from chronic oxidative insults such as cigarette smoke. Interestingly, environmental stresses including cigarette smoke, hypoxia, and chronic inflammation have also been implicated in reduced CFTR function, and this suggests a common mechanism that may contribute to both the CF and COPD. Therefore, improving CFTR function may offer an excellent opportunity for the development of a common treatment for CF and COPD. In this article, we review what is known about the CF respiratory phenotype and discuss how diminished CFTR expression-associated ion transport defects may contribute to some of the pathological changes seen in COPD. PMID:23934925

  15. Mechanism of lonidamine inhibition of the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiandi; Burbridge, Susan M; Lewis, Angie C; Wong, Patrick Y D; Linsdell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is blocked by a broad range of organic anionic compounds. Here we investigate the effects of the indazole compound lonidamine on CFTR channels expressed in mammalian cell lines using patch clamp recording. Application of lonidamine to the intracellular face of excised membrane patches caused a voltage-dependent block of CFTR currents, with an apparent Kd of 58 μM at −100 mV. Block by lonidamine was apparently independent of channel gating but weakly sensitive to the extracellular Cl− concentration. Intracellular lonidamine led to the introduction of brief interruptions in the single channel current at hyperpolarized voltages, leading to a reduction in channel mean open time. Lonidamine also introduced a new component of macroscopic current variance. Spectral analysis of this variance suggested a blocker on rate of 1.79 μM−1 s−1 and an off-rate of 143 s−1. Several point mutations within the sixth transmembrane region of CFTR (R334C, F337S, T338A and S341A) significantly weakened block of macroscopic CFTR current, suggesting that lonidamine enters deeply into the channel pore from its intracellular end. These results identify and characterize lonidamine as a novel CFTR open channel blocker and provide important information concerning its molecular mechanism of action. PMID:12411425

  16. Mechanism of lonidamine inhibition of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiandi; Burbridge, Susan M; Lewis, Angie C; Wong, Patrick Y D; Linsdell, Paul

    2002-11-01

    1. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is blocked by a broad range of organic anionic compounds. Here we investigate the effects of the indazole compound lonidamine on CFTR channels expressed in mammalian cell lines using patch clamp recording. 2. Application of lonidamine to the intracellular face of excised membrane patches caused a voltage-dependent block of CFTR currents, with an apparent K(d) of 58 micro M at -100 mV. 3. Block by lonidamine was apparently independent of channel gating but weakly sensitive to the extracellular Cl(-) concentration. 4. Intracellular lonidamine led to the introduction of brief interruptions in the single channel current at hyperpolarized voltages, leading to a reduction in channel mean open time. Lonidamine also introduced a new component of macroscopic current variance. Spectral analysis of this variance suggested a blocker on rate of 1.79 micro M(-1) s(-1) and an off-rate of 143 s(-1). 5. Several point mutations within the sixth transmembrane region of CFTR (R334C, F337S, T338A and S341A) significantly weakened block of macroscopic CFTR current, suggesting that lonidamine enters deeply into the channel pore from its intracellular end. 6. These results identify and characterize lonidamine as a novel CFTR open channel blocker and provide important information concerning its molecular mechanism of action. PMID:12411425

  17. Targeted therapies to improve CFTR function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brodlie, Malcolm; Haq, Iram J; Roberts, Katie; Elborn, J Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetically determined, life-limiting disorder in populations of European ancestry. The genetic basis of cystic fibrosis is well established to be mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that codes for an apical membrane chloride channel principally expressed by epithelial cells. Conventional approaches to cystic fibrosis care involve a heavy daily burden of supportive treatments to combat lung infection, help clear airway secretions and maintain nutritional status. In 2012, a new era of precision medicine in cystic fibrosis therapeutics began with the licensing of a small molecule, ivacaftor, which successfully targets the underlying defect and improves CFTR function in a subgroup of patients in a genotype-specific manner. Here, we review the three main targeted approaches that have been adopted to improve CFTR function: potentiators, which recover the function of CFTR at the apical surface of epithelial cells that is disrupted in class III and IV genetic mutations; correctors, which improve intracellular processing of CFTR, increasing surface expression, in class II mutations; and production correctors or read-through agents, which promote transcription of CFTR in class I mutations. The further development of such approaches offers great promise for future therapeutic strategies in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26403534

  18. Multi-ion pore behaviour in the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Tabcharani, J A; Rommens, J M; Hou, Y X; Chang, X B; Tsui, L C; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1993-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a non-rectifying, low-conductance channel regulated by ATP and phosphorylation, which mediates apical chloride conductance in secretory epithelia and malfunctions in cystic fibrosis (CF). Mutations at Lys 335 and Arg 347 in the sixth predicted transmembrane helix of CFTR alter its halide selectivity in whole-cell studies and its single channel conductance, but the physical basis of these alterations is unknown and permeation in CFTR is poorly understood. Here we present evidence that wild-type CFTR can contain more than one anion simultaneously. The conductance of CFTR passes through a minimum when channels are bathed in mixtures of two permeant anions. This anomalous mole fraction effect can be abolished by replacing Arg 347 with an aspartate and can be toggled on or off by varying the pH after the same residue is replaced with a histidine. Thus the CFTR channel should provide a convenient model in which to study multi-ion pore behaviour and conduction. The loss of multiple occupancy may explain how naturally occurring CF mutations at this site cause disease. PMID:7694154

  19. Proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems.

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, I T; Brown, M H; Skurray, R A

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family. The MFS consists of symporters, antiporters, and uniporters with either 12 or 14 transmembrane-spanning segments (TMS), and we show that within the MFS, three separate families include various multidrug/proton antiport proteins. The SMR family consists of proteins with four TMS, and the multidrug efflux proteins within this family are the smallest known secondary transporters. The RND family consists of 12-TMS transport proteins and includes a number of multidrug efflux proteins with particularly broad substrate specificity. In gram-negative bacteria, some multidrug efflux systems require two auxiliary constituents, which might enable drug transport to occur across both membranes of the cell envelope. These auxiliary constituents belong to the membrane fusion protein and the outer membrane factor families, respectively. This review examines in detail each of the characterized proton-linked multidrug efflux systems. The molecular basis of the broad substrate specificity of these transporters is discussed. The surprisingly wide distribution of multidrug efflux systems and their multiplicity in single organisms, with Escherichia coli, for instance, possessing at least nine proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems with overlapping specificities, is examined. We also

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE CFTR POTENTIATOR IVACAFTOR

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Leah R.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Gansemer, Nick D.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ivacaftor increases CFTR channel activity and improves pulmonary function for individuals bearing a G551D mutation. Because ivacaftor structurally resembles quinolone antibiotics, we tested the hypothesis that ivacaftor possesses antibacterial properties. Methods Bioluminescence, colony forming unit, and minimal inhibitory concentration assays were used to assess viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiple clinical microbial isolates. Results Ivacaftor induced a dose-dependent reduction in bioluminescence of S. aureus and decreased the number of colony forming units. We observed a similar but less robust effect in P. aeruginosa following outer membrane permeabilization. Ivacaftor inhibited the growth of respiratory isolates of S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and exhibited positive interactions with antibiotics against lab and respiratory strains of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Conclusion These data indicate that ivacaftor exhibits antibacterial properties and raise the intriguing possibility that ivacaftor might have an antibiotic effect in people with CF. PMID:24618508

  1. Characterizing responses to CFTR-modulating drugs using rectal organoids derived from subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Berkers, Gitte; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; de Jonge, Hugo R; Janssens, Hettie M; Bronsveld, Inez; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Houwen, Roderick H J; Vleggaar, Frank P; Escher, Johanna C; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Clevers, Hans; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-22

    Identifying subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) who may benefit from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-modulating drugs is time-consuming, costly, and especially challenging for individuals with rare uncharacterized CFTR mutations. We studied CFTR function and responses to two drugs-the prototypical CFTR potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor/KALYDECO) and the CFTR corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor)-in organoid cultures derived from the rectal epithelia of subjects with CF, who expressed a broad range of CFTR mutations. We observed that CFTR residual function and responses to drug therapy depended on both the CFTR mutation and the genetic background of the subjects. In vitro drug responses in rectal organoids positively correlated with published outcome data from clinical trials with VX-809 and VX-770, allowing us to predict from preclinical data the potential for CF patients carrying rare CFTR mutations to respond to drug therapy. We demonstrated proof of principle by selecting two subjects expressing an uncharacterized rare CFTR genotype (G1249R/F508del) who showed clinical responses to treatment with ivacaftor and one subject (F508del/R347P) who showed a limited response to drug therapy both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that in vitro measurements of CFTR function in patient-derived rectal organoids may be useful for identifying subjects who would benefit from CFTR-correcting treatment, independent of their CFTR mutation. PMID:27334259

  2. Protection of Cftr knockout mice from acute lung infection by a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing Cftr in airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, David R.; Sajjan, Umadevi; Chow, Yu-Hua; Martin, Bernard; Kent, Geraldine; Tanswell, A. Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Forstner, Janet F.; Hu, Jim

    2003-01-01

    We developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector for cystic fibrosis lung gene therapy. The vector expresses cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) using control elements from cytokeratin 18. The vector expressed properly localized CFTR in cultured cells and in the airway epithelia of mice. Cftr RNA and protein were present in whole lung and bronchioles, respectively, for 28 days after a vector dose. Acute inflammation was minimal to moderate. To test the therapeutic potential of the vector, we challenged mice with a clinical strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Cftr knockout mice (but not Cftr+/+ littermates) challenged with Bcc developed severe lung histopathology and had high lung bacteria counts. Cftr knockout mice receiving gene therapy 7 days before Bcc challenge had less severe histopathology, and the number of lung bacteria was reduced to the level seen in Cftr+/+ littermates. These data suggest that gene therapy could benefit cystic fibrosis patients by reducing susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. PMID:14673110

  3. Protection of Cftr knockout mice from acute lung infection by a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing Cftr in airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Koehler, David R; Sajjan, Umadevi; Chow, Yu-Hua; Martin, Bernard; Kent, Geraldine; Tanswell, A Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Forstner, Janet F; Hu, Jim

    2003-12-23

    We developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector for cystic fibrosis lung gene therapy. The vector expresses cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) using control elements from cytokeratin 18. The vector expressed properly localized CFTR in cultured cells and in the airway epithelia of mice. Cftr RNA and protein were present in whole lung and bronchioles, respectively, for 28 days after a vector dose. Acute inflammation was minimal to moderate. To test the therapeutic potential of the vector, we challenged mice with a clinical strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Cftr knockout mice (but not Cftr+/+ littermates) challenged with Bcc developed severe lung histopathology and had high lung bacteria counts. Cftr knockout mice receiving gene therapy 7 days before Bcc challenge had less severe histopathology, and the number of lung bacteria was reduced to the level seen in Cftr+/+ littermates. These data suggest that gene therapy could benefit cystic fibrosis patients by reducing susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. PMID:14673110

  4. Efflux-Mediated Antifungal Drug Resistance†

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Richard D.; Lamping, Erwin; Holmes, Ann R.; Niimi, Kyoko; Baret, Philippe V.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Tanabe, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Goffeau, Andre; Monk, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Fungi cause serious infections in the immunocompromised and debilitated, and the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased significantly over the last 3 decades. Slow diagnosis and the relatively few classes of antifungal drugs result in high attributable mortality for systemic fungal infections. Azole antifungals are commonly used for fungal infections, but azole resistance can be a problem for some patient groups. High-level, clinically significant azole resistance usually involves overexpression of plasma membrane efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily class of transporters. The heterologous expression of efflux pumps in model systems, such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enabled the functional analysis of efflux pumps from a variety of fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABC pleiotropic drug resistance family has provided a new view of the evolution of this important class of efflux pumps. There are several ways in which the clinical significance of efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance can be mitigated. Alternative antifungal drugs, such as the echinocandins, that are not efflux pump substrates provide one option. Potential therapeutic approaches that could overcome azole resistance include targeting efflux pump transcriptional regulators and fungal stress response pathways, blockade of energy supply, and direct inhibition of efflux pumps. PMID:19366916

  5. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  6. Reversible Silencing of CFTR Chloride Channels by Glutathionylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Oliva, Claudia; Li, Ge; Holmgren, Arne; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2005-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a phosphorylation- and ATP-dependent chloride channel that modulates salt and water transport across lung and gut epithelia. The relationship between CFTR and oxidized forms of glutathione is of potential interest because reactive glutathione species are produced in inflamed epithelia where they may be modulators or substrates of CFTR. Here we show that CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches is markedly inhibited by several oxidized forms of glutathione (i.e., GSSG, GSNO, and glutathione treated with diamide, a strong thiol oxidizer). Three lines of evidence indicate that the likely mechanism for this inhibitory effect is glutathionylation of a CFTR cysteine (i.e., formation of a mixed disulfide with glutathione): (a) channels could be protected from inhibition by pretreating the patch with NEM (a thiol alkylating agent) or by lowering the bath pH; (b) inhibited channels could be rescued by reducing agents (e.g., DTT) or by purified glutaredoxins (Grxs; thiol disulfide oxidoreductases) including a mutant Grx that specifically reduces mixed disulfides between glutathione and cysteines within proteins; and (c) reversible glutathionylation of CFTR polypeptides in microsomes could be detected biochemically under the same conditions. At the single channel level, the primary effect of reactive glutathione species was to markedly inhibit the opening rates of individual CFTR channels. CFTR channel inhibition was not obviously dependent on phosphorylation state but was markedly slowed when channels were first “locked open” by a poorly hydrolyzable ATP analogue (AMP-PNP). Consistent with the latter finding, we show that the major site of inhibition is cys-1344, a poorly conserved cysteine that lies proximal to the signature sequence in the second nucleotide binding domain (NBD2) of human CFTR. This region is predicted to participate in ATP-dependent channel opening and to be occluded in the

  7. Role of CFTR's intrinsic adenylate kinase activity in gating of the Cl(-) channel.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-)channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. CFTR features the modular design characteristic of ABC transporters, which includes two membrane-spanning domains forming the channel pore, and two ABC nucleotide-binding domains that interact with ATP and contain the enzymatic activity coupled to normal gating. Like other ABC transporters CFTR is an ATPase (ATP + H(2)O --> ADP + Pi). Recent work has shown that CFTR also possesses intrinsic adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP left arrow over right arrow ADP + ADP). This finding raises important questions: How does AMP influence CFTR gating? Why does ADP inhibit CFTR current? Which enzymatic activity gates CFTR in vivo? Are there implications for other ABC transporters? This minireview attempts to shed light on these questions by summarizing recent advances in our understanding of the role of the CFTR adenylate kinase activity for channel gating. PMID:17965924

  8. Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Londino, James D.; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F.; Noah, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl−) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H+) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o−) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H+, did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection. PMID:23457187

  9. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P; Karp, Philip H; Ernst, Sarah E; Moninger, Thomas O; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Taft, Peter J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Rector, Michael V; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A; McCray, Paul B; Welsh, Michael J; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (T2AECs) cultured at the air-liquid interface. CFTR was distributed exclusively to the apical surface of cultured T2AECs. Alveolar epithelia from CFTR(-/-) pigs failed to increase liquid absorption in response to agents that increase cAMP, whereas cAMP-stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(+/-) epithelia was similar to that in CFTR(+/+) epithelia. Expression of recombinant CFTR restored stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs but had no effect on CFTR(+/+) epithelia. In ex vivo studies of nonperfused lungs, stimulated liquid absorption was defective in CFTR(-/-) alveolar epithelia but similar between CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(+/-) epithelia. When epithelia were studied at the air-liquid interface, elevating cAMP levels increased subphase liquid height in CFTR(+/+) but not in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR is required for maximal liquid absorption under cAMP stimulation, but it is not the rate-limiting factor. Furthermore, our data define a role for CFTR in liquid secretion by T2AECs. These insights may help to develop new treatment strategies for pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, diseases in which lung liquid transport is disrupted. PMID:22637155

  10. Mutations at arginine 352 alter the pore architecture of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; O'Brien, Andrew R W; Song, Binlin; McCarty, Nael A

    2008-03-01

    Arginine 352 (R352) in the sixth transmembrane domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) previously was reported to form an anion/cation selectivity filter and to provide positive charge in the intracellular vestibule. However, mutations at this site have nonspecific effects, such as inducing susceptibility of endogenous cysteines to chemical modification. We hypothesized that R352 stabilizes channel structure and that charge-destroying mutations at this site disrupt pore architecture, with multiple consequences. We tested the effects of mutations at R352 on conductance, anion selectivity and block by the sulfonylurea drug glipizide, using recordings of wild-type and mutant channels. Charge-altering mutations at R352 destabilized the open state and altered both selectivity and block. In contrast, R352K-CFTR was similar to wild-type. Full conductance state amplitude was similar to that of wild-type CFTR in all mutants except R352E, suggesting that R352 does not itself form an anion coordination site. In an attempt to identify an acidic residue that may interact with R352, we found that permeation properties were similarly affected by charge-reversing mutations at D993. Wild-type-like properties were rescued in R352E/D993R-CFTR, suggesting that R352 and D993 in the wild-type channel may interact to stabilize pore architecture. Finally, R352A-CFTR was sensitive to modification by externally applied MTSEA+, while wild-type and R352E/D993R-CFTR were not. These data suggest that R352 plays an important structural role in CFTR, perhaps reflecting its involvement in forming a salt bridge with residue D993. PMID:18421494

  11. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  16. Ethidium Bromide MIC Screening for Enhanced Efflux Pump Gene Expression or Efflux Activity in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Diixa; Kosmidis, Christos; Seo, Susan M.; Kaatz, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial and biocide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The detection of strains capable of efflux is time-consuming and labor-intensive using currently available techniques. A simple and inexpensive method to identify such strains is needed. Ethidium bromide is a substrate for all but one of the characterized S. aureus multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pumps (NorC), leading us to examine the utility of simple broth microtiter MIC determinations using this compound in identifying efflux-proficient strains. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR identified the increased expression of one or more MDR efflux pump genes in 151/309 clinical strains (49%). Ethidium bromide MIC testing was insensitive (48%) but specific (92%) in identifying strains with gene overexpression, but it was highly sensitive (95%) and specific (99%) in identifying strains capable of ethidium efflux. The increased expression of norA with or without other genes was most commonly associated with efflux, and in the majority of cases that efflux was inhibited by reserpine. Ethidium bromide MIC testing is a simple and straightforward method to identify effluxing strains and can provide accurate predictions of efflux prevalence in large strain sets in a short period of time. PMID:20855743

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Potentiators Protect G551D but Not ΔF508 CFTR from Thermal Instability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation is associated with severe disease in ∼5% of cystic fibrosis patients worldwide. This amino acid substitution in NBD1 results in a CFTR chloride channel characterized by a severe gating defect that can be at least partially overcome in vitro by exposure to a CFTR potentiator. In contrast, the more common ΔF508 mutation is associated with a severe protein trafficking defect, as well as impaired channel function. Recent clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial effect of the CFTR potentiator, Ivacaftor (VX-770), on lung function of patients bearing at least one copy of G551D CFTR, but no comparable effect on ΔF508 homozygotes. This difference in efficacy was not surprising in view of the established difference in the molecular phenotypes of the two mutant channels. Recently, however, it was shown that the structural defect introduced by the deletion of F508 is associated with the thermal instability of ΔF508 CFTR channel function in vitro. This additional mutant phenotype raised the possibility that the differences in the behavior of ΔF508 and G551D CFTR, as well as the disparate efficacy of Ivacaftor, might be a reflection of the differing thermal stabilities of the two channels at 37 °C. We compared the thermal stability of G551D and ΔF508 CFTR in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of CTFR potentiators. G551D CFTR exhibited a thermal instability that was comparable to that of ΔF508 CFTR. G551D CFTR, however, was protected from thermal instability by CFTR potentiators, whereas ΔF508 CFTR was not. These results suggest that the efficacy of VX-770 in patients bearing the G551D mutation is due, at least in part, to the ability of the small molecule to protect the mutant channel from thermal instability at human body temperature. PMID:25148434

  18. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators protect G551D but not ΔF508 CFTR from thermal instability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehong; Dawson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation is associated with severe disease in ∼5% of cystic fibrosis patients worldwide. This amino acid substitution in NBD1 results in a CFTR chloride channel characterized by a severe gating defect that can be at least partially overcome in vitro by exposure to a CFTR potentiator. In contrast, the more common ΔF508 mutation is associated with a severe protein trafficking defect, as well as impaired channel function. Recent clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial effect of the CFTR potentiator, Ivacaftor (VX-770), on lung function of patients bearing at least one copy of G551D CFTR, but no comparable effect on ΔF508 homozygotes. This difference in efficacy was not surprising in view of the established difference in the molecular phenotypes of the two mutant channels. Recently, however, it was shown that the structural defect introduced by the deletion of F508 is associated with the thermal instability of ΔF508 CFTR channel function in vitro. This additional mutant phenotype raised the possibility that the differences in the behavior of ΔF508 and G551D CFTR, as well as the disparate efficacy of Ivacaftor, might be a reflection of the differing thermal stabilities of the two channels at 37 °C. We compared the thermal stability of G551D and ΔF508 CFTR in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of CTFR potentiators. G551D CFTR exhibited a thermal instability that was comparable to that of ΔF508 CFTR. G551D CFTR, however, was protected from thermal instability by CFTR potentiators, whereas ΔF508 CFTR was not. These results suggest that the efficacy of VX-770 in patients bearing the G551D mutation is due, at least in part, to the ability of the small molecule to protect the mutant channel from thermal instability at human body temperature. PMID:25148434

  19. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents. PMID:27241308

  20. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Daniela De; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; Gregorio, Fabiola De; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; Rosa, Giuseppe De; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in CftrF508del homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:25350163

  1. Neutron Detection with Mercuric Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.A.

    2003-06-17

    Mercuric iodide is a high-density, high-Z semiconducting material useful for gamma ray detection. This makes it convertible to a thermal neutron detector by covering it with a boron rich material and detecting the 478 keV gamma rays resulting from the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li* reaction. However, the 374 barn thermal capture cross section of {sup nat}Hg, makes the detector itself an attractive absorber, and this has been exploited previously. Since previous work indicates that there are no low-energy gamma rays emitted in coincidence with the 368 keV capture gamma from the dominant {sup 199}Hg(n, {gamma}){sup 200}Hg reaction, only the 368 keV capture gamma is seen with any efficiency a relatively thin (few mm) detector. In this paper we report preliminary measurements of neutrons via capture reactions in a bare mercuric iodide crystal and a crystal covered in {sup 10}B-loaded epoxy. The covered detector is an improvement over the bare detector because the presence of both the 478 and 368 keV gamma rays removes the ambiguity associated with the observation of only one of them. Pulse height spectra, obtained with and without lead and cadmium absorbers, showed the expected gamma rays and demonstrated that they were caused by neutrons.

  2. CFTR and Ca2+ Signaling in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Antigny, Fabrice; Norez, Caroline; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2011-01-01

    Among the diverse physiological functions exerted by calcium signaling in living cells, its role in the regulation of protein biogenesis and trafficking remains incompletely understood. In cystic fibrosis (CF) disease the most common CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation, F508del-CFTR generates a misprocessed protein that is abnormally retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment, rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and hence absent at the plasma membrane of CF epithelial cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that intracellular calcium signals consequent to activation of apical G-protein-coupled receptors by different agonists are increased in CF airway epithelia. Moreover, the regulation of various intracellular calcium storage compartments, such as ER is also abnormal in CF cells. Although the molecular mechanism at the origin of this increase remains puzzling in epithelial cells, the F508del-CFTR mutation is proposed to be the onset of abnormal Ca2+ influx linking the calcium signaling to CFTR pathobiology. This article reviews the relationships between CFTR and calcium signaling in the context of the genetic disease CF. PMID:22046162

  3. COMPOSITION OF MINERALIZING INCISOR ENAMEL IN CFTR-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, ALJJ; Lyaruu, DM; Guo, J; Bijvelds, MJC; Bervoets, TJM; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; Medina, JF; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; DenBesten, PK

    2014-01-01

    Formation of crystals in the enamel space releases protons that need to be buffered to sustain mineral accretion. We hypothesized that apical Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into forming enamel as critical step to secrete bicarbonates. We tested this by determining the calcium, chloride and fluoride levels of developing enamel of Cftr-null mice by quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Maturation stage Cftr–null enamel contained less chloride and calcium than wild-type enamel, was more acidic when stained with pH dyes ex vivo and formed no fluorescent modulation bands after in vivo injection of the mice with calcein. To further acidify the enamel we exposed Cftr-null mice to fluoride in drinking water to stimulate proton release during formation of hypermineralized lines. In enamel of Cftr-deficient mice fluoride further lowered enamel calcium without further reducing chloride levels. The data support the view that apical Cftr in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into developing enamel as part of the machinery to buffer protons released during mineral accretion. PMID:25557910

  4. Nasal Potential Difference in Cystic Fibrosis considering Severe CFTR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Sakano, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF) is a sweat chloride value above 60 mEq/L. However, this historical and important tool has limitations; other techniques should be studied, including the nasal potential difference (NPD) test. CFTR gene sequencing can identify CFTR mutations, but this method is time-consuming and too expensive to be used in all CF centers. The present study compared CF patients with two classes I-III CFTR mutations (10 patients) (G1), CF patients with classes IV-VI CFTR mutations (five patients) (G2), and 21 healthy subjects (G3). The CF patients and healthy subjects also underwent the NPD test. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, χ2, and Fisher's exact tests, α = 0.05. No differences were observed between the CF patients and healthy controls for the PDMax, Δamiloride, and Δchloride + free + amiloride markers from the NPD test. For the finger value, a difference between G2 and G3 was described. The Wilschanski index values were different between G1 and G3. In conclusion, our data showed that NPD is useful for CF diagnosis when classes I-III CFTR mutations are screened. However, if classes IV-VI are considered, the NPD test showed an overlap in values with healthy subjects. PMID:25667564

  5. Biochemistry of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Varela, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps. PMID:22605991

  6. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Than, B L N; Linnekamp, J F; Starr, T K; Largaespada, D A; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O'Sullivan, M G; Medema, J P; Fijneman, R J A; Meijer, G A; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, C A; Scott, P M; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, R T

    2016-08-11

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid-base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated Apc(Min) mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc(+/+) mice aged to ~1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc(+/+) Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  7. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Than, BLN; Linnekamp, JF; Starr, TK; Largaespada, DA; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O’Sullivan, MG; Medema, JP; Fijneman, RJA; Meijer, GA; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, CA; Scott, PM; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, RT

    2016-01-01

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid–base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated ApcMin mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc+/+ mice aged to ~ 1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc+/+ Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  8. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in the Genus Erwinia: Physiology and Regulation of Efflux Pump Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Thekkiniath, J; Ravirala, R; San Francisco, M

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens belonging to the genus Erwinia cause diseases in several economically important plants. Plants respond to bacterial infection with a powerful chemical arsenal and signaling molecules to rid themselves of the microbes. Although our understanding of how Erwinia initiate infections in plants has become clear, a comprehensive understanding of how these bacteria rid themselves of noxious antimicrobial agents during the infection is important. Multidrug efflux pumps are key factors in bacterial resistance toward antibiotics by reducing the level of antimicrobial compounds in the bacterial cell. Erwinia induce the expression of efflux pump genes in response to plant-derived antimicrobials. The capability of Erwinia to co-opt plant defense signaling molecules such as salicylic acid to trigger multidrug efflux pumps might have developed to ensure bacterial survival in susceptible host plants. In this review, we discuss the developments in Erwinia efflux pumps, focusing in particular on efflux pump function and the regulation of efflux pump gene expression. PMID:27571694

  9. Direct interaction of a CFTR potentiator and a CFTR corrector with phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Debora; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Svensson, Agneta; Moran, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors are new drugs that target the basic CFTR protein defect and are expected to benefit cystic fibrosis patients. To optimize the substances so far proposed for human use, and to minimise unwanted side effects, it is essential to investigate possible interactions between the drugs and cell components. We used small-angle X-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation to analyse the effects of two representative drugs, the potentiator VX-770 (Ivacaftor), approved for human use, and the corrector VX-809 (Lumacaftor), on a model phospholipid membrane. By reconstruction of the electron density profile of unilamellar vesicles treated with VX-770 or VX-809 we found that these drugs penetrate the phospholipid bilayer. VX-809 becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the bilayer whereas VX-770 accumulates predominantly in the internal leaflet, behaviour probably favoured by the asymmetry of the bilayer, because of vesicle curvature. Penetration of the bilayer by these drugs, probably as part of the mechanisms of permeation, causes destabilization of the membrane; this must be taken into account during future drug development. PMID:24771136

  10. Nucleoside triphosphate pentose ring impact on CFTR gating and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Aleksandrov, Luba; Riordan, John R

    2002-05-01

    Alterations in the pentose ring of ATP have a major impact on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. Both 2'- and 3'-deoxy-ATP (dATP) accelerate ion channel openings and stabilize open channel structure better than ATP. Purified wild-type CFTR hydrolyzes dATP. The apparent first-order rate constants for hydrolysis at low substrate concentration are the same for dATP and ATP. This suggests that product release and/or relaxation of the enzyme structure to the initial ligand free state is the rate-limiting step in the CFTR hydrolytic cycle. Circumvention of the normal requirement for protein kinase A phosphorylation of the R-domain for channel activation implies that the impact of the deoxyribonucleotide interaction with the nucleotide binding domains is transmitted to the channel-forming elements of the protein more readily than that of the ribonucleotide. PMID:11997043

  11. Multiple proteolytic systems, including the proteasome, contribute to CFTR processing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T J; Loo, M A; Pind, S; Williams, D B; Goldberg, A L; Riordan, J R

    1995-10-01

    The molecular components of the quality control system that rapidly degrades abnormal membrane and secretory proteins have not been identified. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an integral membrane protein to which this quality control is stringently applied; approximately 75% of the wild-type precursor and 100% of the delta F508 CFTR variant found in most CF patients are rapidly degraded before exiting from the ER. We now show that this ER degradation is sensitive to inhibitors of the cytosolic proteasome, including lactacystin and certain peptide aldehydes. One of the latter compounds, MG-132, also completely blocks the ATP-dependent conversion of the wild-type precursor to the native folded form that enables escape from degradation. Hence, CFTR and presumably other intrinsic membrane proteins are substrates for proteasomal degradation during their maturation within the ER. PMID:7553864

  12. Bioelectric characterization of epithelia from neonatal CFTR knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John T; Tyler, Scott R; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R; Engelhardt, John F

    2013-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin-stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)-inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin-inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  13. Bioelectric Characterization of Epithelia from Neonatal CFTR Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John T.; Tyler, Scott R.; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J.; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin–stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)–inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin–inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  14. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  15. Mutations at arginine 352 alter the pore architecture of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiying; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; O’Brien, Andrew R.W.; Song, Binlin; McCarty, Nael A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginine 352 (R352) in CFTR’s sixth transmembrane domain previously was reported to form an anion/cation selectivity filter and to provide positive charge in the intracellular vestibule. However, mutations at this site have non-specific effects, such as inducing susceptibility of endogenous cysteines to chemical modification. We hypothesized that R352 stabilizes channel structure and that charge-destroying mutations at this site disrupt pore architecture, with multiple consequences. We tested the effects of mutations at R352 on conductance, anion selectivity, and block by the sulphonylurea drug glipizide, using recordings of wildtype and mutant channels. Charge-altering mutations at R352 destabilized the open state, and altered both selectivity and block. In contrast, R352K-CFTR was similar to wildtype. Full conductance state amplitude was similar to that of wildtype CFTR in all mutants, except R352E, suggesting that R352 does not itself form an anion coordination site. In an attempt to identify an acidic residue that may interact with R352, we found that permeation properties were similarly affected by charge-reversing mutations at D993. Wildtype-like properties were rescued in R352E/D993R-CFTR, suggesting that R352 and D993 in the wildtype channel may interact to stabilize pore architecture. Finally, R352A-CFTR was sensitive to modification by externally-applied MTSEA+, while wild-type and R352E/D993R-CFTR were not. These data suggest that R352 plays an important structural role in CFTR, perhaps reflecting its involvement in forming a salt bridge with residue D993. PMID:18421494

  16. Probing an open CFTR pore with organic anion blockers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Shenghui; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2002-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts Cl- current. We explored the CFTR pore by studying voltage-dependent blockade of the channel by two organic anions: glibenclamide and isethionate. To simplify the kinetic analysis, a CFTR mutant, K1250A-CFTR, was used because this mutant channel, once opened, can remain open for minutes. Dose-response relationships of both blockers follow a simple Michaelis-Menten function with K(d) values that differ by three orders of magnitude. Glibenclamide blocks CFTR from the intracellular side of the membrane with slow kinetics. Both the on and off rates of glibenclamide block are voltage dependent. Removing external Cl- increases affinity of glibenclamide due to a decrease of the off rate and an increase of the on rate, suggesting the presence of a Cl- binding site external to the glibenclamide binding site. Isethionate blocks the channel from the cytoplasmic side with fast kinetics, but has no measurable effect when applied extracellularly. Increasing the internal Cl- concentration reduces isethionate block without affecting its voltage dependence, suggesting that Cl- and isethionate compete for a binding site in the pore. The voltage dependence and external Cl- concentration dependence of isethionate block are nearly identical to those of glibenclamide block, suggesting that these two blockers may bind to a common binding site, an idea further supported by kinetic studies of blocking with glibenclamide/isethionate mixtures. By comparing the physical and chemical natures of these two blockers, we propose that CFTR channel has an asymmetric pore with a wide internal entrance and a deeply embedded blocker binding site where local charges as well as hydrophobic components determine the affinity of the blockers. PMID:12407077

  17. Probing an Open CFTR Pore with Organic Anion Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Shenghui; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts Cl− current. We explored the CFTR pore by studying voltage-dependent blockade of the channel by two organic anions: glibenclamide and isethionate. To simplify the kinetic analysis, a CFTR mutant, K1250A-CFTR, was used because this mutant channel, once opened, can remain open for minutes. Dose–response relationships of both blockers follow a simple Michaelis-Menten function with Kd values that differ by three orders of magnitude. Glibenclamide blocks CFTR from the intracellular side of the membrane with slow kinetics. Both the on and off rates of glibenclamide block are voltage dependent. Removing external Cl− increases affinity of glibenclamide due to a decrease of the off rate and an increase of the on rate, suggesting the presence of a Cl− binding site external to the glibenclamide binding site. Isethionate blocks the channel from the cytoplasmic side with fast kinetics, but has no measurable effect when applied extracellularly. Increasing the internal Cl− concentration reduces isethionate block without affecting its voltage dependence, suggesting that Cl− and isethionate compete for a binding site in the pore. The voltage dependence and external Cl− concentration dependence of isethionate block are nearly identical to those of glibenclamide block, suggesting that these two blockers may bind to a common binding site, an idea further supported by kinetic studies of blocking with glibenclamide/isethionate mixtures. By comparing the physical and chemical natures of these two blockers, we propose that CFTR channel has an asymmetric pore with a wide internal entrance and a deeply embedded blocker binding site where local charges as well as hydrophobic components determine the affinity of the blockers. PMID:12407077

  18. Regulation of the CFTR chloride channel from humans and sharks.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, J W; Mathews, C J; Grygorczyk, R; Tabcharani, J A; Grzelczak, Z; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R

    1996-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in an ATP-dependent channel which mediates cAMP-stimulated chloride secretion by epithelia, particularly those of the pancreas, airways, and intestine. CFTR homologues have been found in all higher vertebrates examined to date and also in some lower vertebrates, although only the human, shark, and Xenopus genes have been heterologously expressed and shown to generate protein kinase A-activated Cl channels. Once phosphorylated, CFTR channels require hydrolyzable nucleotides to be active, but they can be locked in an open burst state when exposed to mixtures of ATP and its hydrolysis-resistant analogue AMP-PNP. This locking requires low-level phosphorylation at unidentified sites that are not among the ten "strong" (dibasic) PKA consensus sequences on CFTR. Mutagenesis of the dibasic PKA sites, which reduces in vitro phosphorylation by > 98%, reduces open probability (Po) by about 50% whilst having no effect on burst duration. Thus, incremental phosphorylation of these sites under normal conditions does not increase Po by slowing down ATP hydrolysis and stabilizing the open burst state, although locking does strictly require low-level phosphorylation at one or more cryptic sites. In addition to serving as a Cl channel, there is compelling evidence that CFTR inhibits the amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The mechanism of coupling is not known but most likely involves physical interactions between the channels, perhaps mediated by an intermediate protein that impinges on other transport proteins. CFTR does not function as a conductive channel for ATP; however, extracellular ATP does regulate epithelial channels through activation of P2U purinergic receptors and, after being hydrolyzed extracellularly, through activation of adenosine receptors which elevate cAMP. PMID:8759925

  19. Human-mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chimeras identify regions that partially rescue CFTR-ΔF508 processing and alter its gating defect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Rogers, Christopher; Vermeer, Daniel W; Zhang, Yuping; Welsh, Michael J

    2012-01-17

    The ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis. The mutation disrupts biosynthetic processing, reduces channel opening rate, and decreases protein lifetime. In contrast to human CFTR (hCFTR)-ΔF508, mouse CFTR-ΔF508 is partially processed to the cell surface, although it exhibits a functional defect similar to hCFTR-ΔF508. To explore ΔF508 abnormalities, we generated human-mouse chimeric channels. Substituting mouse nucleotide-binding domain-1 (mNBD1) into hCFTR partially rescued the ΔF508-induced maturation defect, and substituting mouse membrane-spanning domain-2 or its intracellular loops (ICLs) into hCFTR prevented further ΔF508-induced gating defects. The protective effect of the mouse ICLs was reverted by inserting mouse NBDs. Our results indicate that the ΔF508 mutation affects maturation and gating via distinct regions of the protein; maturation of CFTR-ΔF508 depends on NBD1, and the ΔF508-induced gating defect depends on the interaction between the membrane-spanning domain-2 ICLs and the NBDs. These appear to be distinct processes, because none of the chimeras repaired both defects. This distinction was exemplified by the I539T mutation, which improved CFTR-ΔF508 processing but worsened the gating defect. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that many different NBD1 modifications improve CFTR-ΔF508 maturation and that the effect of modifications can be additive. Thus, it might be possible to enhance processing by targeting several different regions of the domain or by targeting a network of CFTR-associated proteins. Because no one modification corrected both maturation and gating, perhaps more than a single agent will be required to correct all CFTR-ΔF508 defects. PMID:22210114

  20. Human–mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chimeras identify regions that partially rescue CFTR-ΔF508 processing and alter its gating defect

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Rogers, Christopher; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Zhang, Yuping; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis. The mutation disrupts biosynthetic processing, reduces channel opening rate, and decreases protein lifetime. In contrast to human CFTR (hCFTR)-ΔF508, mouse CFTR-ΔF508 is partially processed to the cell surface, although it exhibits a functional defect similar to hCFTR-ΔF508. To explore ΔF508 abnormalities, we generated human–mouse chimeric channels. Substituting mouse nucleotide-binding domain-1 (mNBD1) into hCFTR partially rescued the ΔF508-induced maturation defect, and substituting mouse membrane-spanning domain-2 or its intracellular loops (ICLs) into hCFTR prevented further ΔF508-induced gating defects. The protective effect of the mouse ICLs was reverted by inserting mouse NBDs. Our results indicate that the ΔF508 mutation affects maturation and gating via distinct regions of the protein; maturation of CFTR-ΔF508 depends on NBD1, and the ΔF508-induced gating defect depends on the interaction between the membrane-spanning domain-2 ICLs and the NBDs. These appear to be distinct processes, because none of the chimeras repaired both defects. This distinction was exemplified by the I539T mutation, which improved CFTR-ΔF508 processing but worsened the gating defect. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that many different NBD1 modifications improve CFTR-ΔF508 maturation and that the effect of modifications can be additive. Thus, it might be possible to enhance processing by targeting several different regions of the domain or by targeting a network of CFTR-associated proteins. Because no one modification corrected both maturation and gating, perhaps more than a single agent will be required to correct all CFTR-ΔF508 defects. PMID:22210114

  1. ∆F508 CFTR interactome remodelling promotes rescue of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E; Yates, John R

    2015-12-24

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (∆F508 CFTR) is the major cause of cystic fibrosis, one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases can partly rescue ∆F508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favourable change of ∆F508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as a mechanism of rescue; however, CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases are unknown. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of the CFTR and ∆F508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method, we identify 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discover a ∆F508 deletion-specific interactome, which is extensively remodelled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodelling identifies key novel interactors, whose loss promote ∆F508 CFTR channel function in primary cystic fibrosis epithelia or which are critical for CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodelling of ∆F508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis caused by deletion of F508. PMID:26618866

  2. CFTR: A New Horizon in the Pathomechanism and Treatment of Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Péter; Wilschanski, Michael; Muallem, Shmuel; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Uc, Aliye; Gray, Michael A; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Maléth, József

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis, and cyst formation. Importantly, recent studies demonstrated that pancreatitis causing insults, such as alcohol, smoking, or bile acids, strongly inhibit CFTR function. Furthermore, human studies showed reduced levels of CFTR expression and function in all forms of pancreatitis. These findings indicate that impairment of CFTR is critical in the development of pancreatitis; therefore, correcting CFTR function could be the first specific therapy in pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss new possibilities for the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:26856995

  3. Generation of cAMP-Activated Chloride Currents by Expression of CFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Matthew P.; Rich, Devra P.; Gregory, Richard J.; Smith, Alan E.; Welsh, Michael J.

    1991-02-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. In order to evaluate its function, CFTR was expressed in HeLa, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, and anion permeability was assessed with a fluorescence microscopic assay and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) increased anion permeability and chloride currents in cells expressing CFTR, but not in cells expressing a mutant CFTR (ΔF508) or in nontransfected cells. The simplest interpretation of these observations is that CFTR is itself a cAMP-activated chloride channel. The alternative interpretation, that CFTR directly or indirectly regulates chloride channels, requires that these cells have endogenous cryptic, chloride channels that are stimulated by cAMP only in the presence of CFTR.

  4. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Baklanov, A. V.; Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P.

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  5. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R; Hanrahan, John W

    2016-05-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  6. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809.

    PubMed

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D J; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H; Straley, Kimberly S; Decker, Caroline J; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R; Wine, Jeffrey J; Frizzell, Ray A; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A

    2011-11-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC(50), 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  7. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Decker, Caroline J.; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Frizzell, Ray A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC50, 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  8. Mechanosensitive activation of CFTR by increased cell volume and hydrostatic pressure but not shear stress.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Constanze; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that is essential for electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Preliminary evidence indicates that CFTR is a mechanosensitive channel. In lung epithelia, CFTR is exposed to different mechanical forces such as shear stress (Ss) and membrane distention. The present study questioned whether Ss and/or stretch influence CFTR activity (wild type, ∆F508, G551D). Human CFTR (hCFTR) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the response to the mechanical stimulus and forskolin/IBMX (FI) was measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments. Ss had no influence on hCFTR activity. Injection of an intracellular analogous solution to increase cell volume alone did not affect hCFTR activity. However, hCFTR activity was augmented by injection after pre-stimulation with FI. The response to injection was similar in channels carrying the common mutations ∆F508 and G551D compared to wild type hCFTR. Stretch-induced CFTR activation was further assessed in Ussing chamber measurements using Xenopus lung preparations. Under control conditions increased hydrostatic pressure (HP) decreased the measured ion current including activation of a Cl(-) secretion that was unmasked by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101. These data demonstrate activation of CFTR in vitro and in a native pulmonary epithelium in response to mechanical stress. Mechanosensitive regulation of CFTR is highly relevant for pulmonary physiology that relies on ion transport processes facilitated by pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID:26357939

  9. Regulatory domain phosphorylation to distinguish the mechanistic basis underlying acute CFTR modulators

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Louise C.; Ehrhardt, Annette; Mitchell, Lisa High; Fan, LiJuan; Ren, Aixia; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Li, Yao; Clancy, J. P.; Bolger, Graeme B.; Sorscher, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulator compounds intended to overcome disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) show significant promise in clinical testing for cystic fibrosis. However, the mechanism(s) of action underlying these compounds are not fully understood. Activation of CFTR ion transport requires PKA-regulated phosphorylation of the regulatory domain (R-D) and dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains. Using a newly developed assay, we evaluated nine compounds including both CFTR potentatiators and activators discovered via various high-throughput screening strategies to acutely augment CFTR activity. We found considerable differences in the effects on R-D phosphorylation. Some (including UCCF-152) stimulated robust phosphorylation, and others had little effect (e.g., VRT-532 and VX-770). We then compared CFTR activation by UCCF-152 and VRT-532 in Ussing chamber studies using two epithelial models, CFBE41o− and Fischer rat thyroid cells, expressing various CFTR forms. UCCF-152 activated wild-type-, G551D-, and rescued F508del-CFTR currents but did not potentiate cAMP-mediated CFTR activation. In contrast, VRT-532 moderately activated CFTR short-circuit current and strongly potentiated forskolin-mediated current. Combined with the result that UCCF-152, but not VRT-532 or VX-770, acts by increasing CFTR R-D phosphorylation, these findings indicate that potentiation of endogenous cAMP-mediated activation of mutant CFTR is not due to a pathway involving augmented R-D phosphorylation. This study presents an assay useful to distinguish preclinical compounds by a crucial mechanism underlying CFTR activation, delineates two types of compound able to acutely augment CFTR activity (e.g., activators and potentiators), and demonstrates that a number of different mechanisms can be successfully employed to activate mutant CFTR. PMID:21724857

  10. Iodide Protects Heart Tissue from Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Akiko; Morrison, Michael L.; Roth, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an elemental nutrient that is essential for mammals. Here we provide evidence for an acute therapeutic role for iodine in ischemia reperfusion injury. Infusion of the reduced form, iodide, but not the oxidized form iodate, reduces heart damage by as much as 75% when delivered intravenously following temporary loss of blood flow but prior to reperfusion of the heart in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. Normal thyroid function may be required because loss of thyroid activity abrogates the iodide benefit. Given the high degree of protection and the high degree of safety, iodide should be explored further as a therapy for reperfusion injury. PMID:25379708

  11. Mercuric iodide light detector and related method

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Barton, J.B.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Schnepple, W.F.

    1986-09-23

    Apparatus and method for detecting light involve applying a substantially uniform electrical potential difference between first and second spaced surfaces of a body of mercuric iodide, exposing the first surface to light and measuring an electrical current passed through the body in response to the light. The mercuric iodide may be substantially monocrystalline and the potential may be applied between a substantially transparent conductive layer at the first surface and a second conductive layer at the second surface. In a preferred embodiment, the detector is coupled to a scintillator for passage of light to the mercuric iodide in response to ionizing radiation incident on the scintillator. 7 figs.

  12. Mercuric iodide light detector and related method

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Barton, Jeff B.; Dabrowski, Andrzej J.; Schnepple, Wayne F.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting light involve applying a substantially uniform electrical potential difference between first and second spaced surfaces of a body of mercuric iodide, exposing the first surface to light and measuring an electrical current passed through the body in response to the light. The mercuric iodide may be substantially monocrystalline and the potential may be applied between a substantially transparent conductive layer at the first surface and a second conductive layer at the second surface. In a preferred embodiment, the detector is coupled to a scintillator for passage of light to the mercuric iodide in response to ionizing radiation incident on the scintillator.

  13. Lithium iodide cardiac pacemakers: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    A new long-life cardiac pacemaker pulse generator powered by a lithium iodide fuel cell was introduced in Canada in 1973. The compact, hermetically sealed unit is easily implanted and reliable, has excellent patient acceptance and has an anticipated battery life of almost 14 years. Among 105 patients who received a lithium iodide pacemaker, complications occurred in 18. The lithium iodide pacemaker represents a significant advance in pacemaker generator technology and is recommended for long-term cardiac pacing; the manufacturer guarantees the pulse generator for 6 years. Images FIG. 1 PMID:974965

  14. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide powder. 520.763b Section 520... iodide powder. (a) Chemical name. 3-Ethyl-2- -benzothiazoliumiodide. (b) Specifications. Dithiazanine iodide powder contains 200 milligrams of dithiazanine iodide per level standard tablespoon. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide powder. 520.763b Section 520... iodide powder. (a) Chemical name. 3-Ethyl-2- -benzothiazoliumiodide. (b) Specifications. Dithiazanine iodide powder contains 200 milligrams of dithiazanine iodide per level standard tablespoon. (c)...

  16. Efflux pump inhibitors: targeting mycobacterial efflux systems to enhance TB therapy.

    PubMed

    Pule, Caroline M; Sampson, Samantha L; Warren, Robin M; Black, Philippa A; van Helden, Paul D; Victor, Tommie C; Louw, Gail E

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance continues to plague TB control, with a global increase in the prevalence of MDR-TB. This acts as a gateway to XDR-TB and thus emphasizes the urgency for drug development and optimal treatment options. Bedaquiline is the first new anti-TB drug approved by the FDA in 40 years and has been shown to be an effective treatment option for MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Bedaquiline has also recently been included in clinical trials for new regimens with the aim of improving and shortening treatment periods. Alarmingly, efflux-mediated bedaquiline resistance, as well as efflux-mediated cross-resistance to clofazimine, has been identified in treatment failures. This mechanism of resistance results in efflux of a variety of anti-TB drugs from the bacterial cell, thereby decreasing the intracellular drug concentration. In doing so, the bacillus is able to render the antibiotic treatment ineffective. Recent studies have explored strategies to reverse the resistance phenotype conferred by efflux pump activation. It was observed that the addition of efflux pump inhibitors partially restored drug susceptibility in vitro and in vivo. This has significant clinical implications, especially in MDR-TB management where treatment options are extremely limited. This review aims to highlight the current efflux pump inhibitors effective against M. tuberculosis, the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on mycobacterial growth and the clinical promise of treatment with efflux pump inhibitors and standard anti-TB therapy. PMID:26472768

  17. Radiocarbon in Tree STEM CO2 Efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhr, J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Angert, A.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide efflux from tree stems can be a significant component of the stand-level carbon balance. Recent studies have demonstrated that tree stem CO2 efflux may reflect more than just in-situ respiration but also transport from other locations and it has been suggested that it may also include C originally respired in roots or even uptake of soil CO2. We report measurements of the radiocarbon signature of carbon emitted from a range of mature tree stems in tropical and temperate forest ecosystems. Comparison of the radiocarbon signature of respired CO2 with the observed rate of decline in atmsopheric 14C-CO2 provides a measure of the time elapsed between C fixation by the plant and its return to the atmosphere as stem CO2 efflux. In all investigated trees, we observed that stem CO2 efflux had higher radiocarbon signatures than the contemporary atmospheric 14C-CO2, and therefore was derived from C fixed one to several years earlier. In tropical forest trees, we found that the 14C signature of CO2 within the stem (~4-5 cm depth) had even higher radiocarbon signatures than the stem CO2 efflux. In one of the investigated tree species, the in-stem CO2 was derived from C sources fixed on average ~20 years previously. These results confirm observations of root-respired CO2 that also have shown contributions of C substrates older than recent photosynthetic products, and the presence of extracable C reserves in wood that reflect the presence of older C sources. Our results imply that stem CO2 efflux is not only derived from respiration of recent photosynthetic products but includes contributions from older, stored C pools. Ongoing investigations will enable us to compare CO2 efflux for trees subjected to experimental drought, and using different life strategies (deciduous versus evergreen oaks) to determine if the use of these older C stores varies with stress.

  18. Partial correction of the CFTR-dependent ABPA mouse model with recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer of truncated CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Torrez, Daniel; Braag, Sofia; Martino, Ashley; Clarke, Tracy; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a model of airway inflammation in a CFTR knockout mouse utilizing Aspergillus fumigatus crude protein extract (Af-cpe) to mimic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) 1, an unusual IgE-mediated hypersensitivity syndrome seen in up to 15% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and rarely elsewhere. We hypothesized that replacement of CFTR via targeted gene delivery to airway epithelium would correct aberrant epithelial cytokine signaling and ameliorate the ABPA phenotype in CFTR-deficient (CFTR 489X - /-, FABP-hCFTR + / +) mice. CFTR knockout mice underwent intra-tracheal (IT) delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5Delta-264CFTR) or rAAV5-GFP at 2.58 x 10(12) viral genomes/mouse. All mice were then sensitized with two serial injections (200 microg) of crude Af antigen via the intra-peritoneal (IP) route. Untreated mice were sensitized without virus exposure. Challenges were performed 2 weeks after final sensitization, using a 0.25% solution containing Aspergillus fumigatus crude protein extract delivered by inhalation on three consecutive days. The rAAV5Delta-264CFTR-treated mice had lower total serum IgE levels (172513 ng/ml +/- 1312) than rAAV5-GFP controls (26 892 ng/ml +/- 3715) (p = 0.037) and non-treated, sensitized controls (24 816 +/- 4219 ng/ml). Serum IgG1 levels also were lower in mice receiving the CFTR vector. Interestingly, splenocytes from rAAV5Delta-264CFTR-treated mice secreted less IL-13, INFg, TNFa, RANTES and GM-CSF after ConA stimulation. Gene therapy with rAAV5Delta-264CFTR attenuated the hyper-IgE response in this reproducible CF mouse model of ABPA, with systemic effects also evident in the cytokine response of stimulated splenocytes. PMID:18023072

  19. Anion conductance selectivity mechanism of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2016-04-01

    All ion channels are able to discriminate between substrate ions to some extent, a process that involves specific interactions between permeant anions and the so-called selectivity filter within the channel pore. In the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion-selective channel, both anion relative permeability and anion relative conductance are dependent on anion free energy of hydration--anions that are relatively easily dehydrated tend to show both high permeability and low conductance. In the present work, patch clamp recording was used to investigate the relative conductance of different anions in CFTR, and the effect of mutations within the channel pore. In constitutively-active E1371Q-CFTR channels, the anion conductance sequence was Cl(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > formate > SCN(-) > I(-). A mutation that disrupts anion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore (K95Q) disrupted anion conductance selectivity, such that anions with different permeabilities showed almost indistinguishable conductances. Conversely, a mutation at the putative narrowest pore region that is known to disrupt anion permeability selectivity (F337A) had minimal effects on anion relative conductance. Ion competition experiments confirmed that relatively tight binding of permeant anions resulted in relatively low conductance. These results suggest that the relative affinity of ion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore controls the relative conductance of different permeant anions in CFTR, and that the pore has two physically distinct anion selectivity filters that act in series to control anion conductance selectivity and anion permeability selectivity respectively. PMID:26779604

  20. CFTR Modulators for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Rebecca S; Fellner, Chris

    2014-07-01

    Defects in a single gene lead to the defective proteins that cause cystic fibrosis, making the disease an ideal candidate for mutation-targeted therapy. Although ivacaftor is currently the only FDA-approved CFTR modifier, others are in development. PMID:25083129

  1. Regulation of CFTR ion channel gating by MgATP.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A A; Riordan, J R

    1998-07-10

    Single channel currents of wild-type CFTR reconstituted in lipid bilayers were recorded to study the temperature dependence of channel gating between +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C. The opening of the channel was highly temperature dependent and required an activation energy of about 100 kJ/mol. Closing of the channel was only weakly temperature dependent with an activation energy close to that of diffusion in water. We found no significant difference in the free energy between the open and closed states. Most of the excess energy needed to activate channel opening is used to diminish the entropy of the open state. This structural reorganization is initiated by ATP binding followed by interconversion to the open channel structure as the CFTR-ATP-Mg complex passes to the transition state for hydrolysis. The energy of the CFTR-ATP-Mg interaction in the transition state is responsible for the CFTR ion channel opening rather than the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Channel closing is a diffusion limited process and does not require additional ATP binding. PMID:9684873

  2. State-dependent modulation of CFTR gating by pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2009-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated chloride channel. ATP-induced dimerization of CFTR's two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) has been shown to reflect the channel open state, whereas hydrolysis of ATP is associated with channel closure. Pyrophosphate (PPi), like nonhydrolytic ATP analogues, is known to lock open the CFTR channel for tens of seconds when applied with ATP. Here, we demonstrate that PPi by itself opens the CFTR channel in a Mg(2+)-dependent manner long after ATP is removed from the cytoplasmic side of excised membrane patches. However, the short-lived open state (tau approximately 1.5 s) induced by MgPPi suggests that MgPPi alone does not support a stable NBD dimer configuration. Surprisingly, MgPPi elicits long-lasting opening events (tau approximately 30 s) when administrated shortly after the closure of ATP-opened channels. These results indicate the presence of two different closed states (C(1) and C(2)) upon channel closure and a state-dependent effect of MgPPi on CFTR gating. The relative amount of channels entering MgPPi-induced long-open bursts during the ATP washout phase decreases over time, indicating a time-dependent dissipation of the closed state (C(2)) that can be locked open by MgPPi. The stability of the C(2) state is enhanced when the channel is initially opened by N(6)-phenylethyl-ATP, a high affinity ATP analogue, but attenuated by W401G mutation, which likely weakens ATP binding to NBD1, suggesting that an ATP molecule remains bound to the NBD1 site in the C(2) state. Taking advantage of the slow opening rate of Y1219G-CFTR, we are able to identify a C(2)-equivalent state (C(2)*), which exists before the channel in the C(1) state is opened by ATP. This closed state responds to MgPPi much more inefficiently than the C(2) state. Finally, we show that MgAMP-PNP exerts its effects on CFTR gating via a similar mechanism as MgPPi. The structural and functional

  3. State-dependent modulation of CFTR gating by pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated chloride channel. ATP-induced dimerization of CFTR's two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) has been shown to reflect the channel open state, whereas hydrolysis of ATP is associated with channel closure. Pyrophosphate (PPi), like nonhydrolytic ATP analogues, is known to lock open the CFTR channel for tens of seconds when applied with ATP. Here, we demonstrate that PPi by itself opens the CFTR channel in a Mg2+-dependent manner long after ATP is removed from the cytoplasmic side of excised membrane patches. However, the short-lived open state (τ ∼1.5 s) induced by MgPPi suggests that MgPPi alone does not support a stable NBD dimer configuration. Surprisingly, MgPPi elicits long-lasting opening events (τ ∼30 s) when administrated shortly after the closure of ATP-opened channels. These results indicate the presence of two different closed states (C1 and C2) upon channel closure and a state-dependent effect of MgPPi on CFTR gating. The relative amount of channels entering MgPPi-induced long-open bursts during the ATP washout phase decreases over time, indicating a time-dependent dissipation of the closed state (C2) that can be locked open by MgPPi. The stability of the C2 state is enhanced when the channel is initially opened by N6-phenylethyl-ATP, a high affinity ATP analogue, but attenuated by W401G mutation, which likely weakens ATP binding to NBD1, suggesting that an ATP molecule remains bound to the NBD1 site in the C2 state. Taking advantage of the slow opening rate of Y1219G-CFTR, we are able to identify a C2-equivalent state (C2*), which exists before the channel in the C1 state is opened by ATP. This closed state responds to MgPPi much more inefficiently than the C2 state. Finally, we show that MgAMP-PNP exerts its effects on CFTR gating via a similar mechanism as MgPPi. The structural and functional significance of our findings is discussed. PMID:19332621

  4. Optimal correction of distinct CFTR folding mutants in rectal cystic fibrosis organoids.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Gogorza Gondra, Ricardo A; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte M; Janssens, Hettie M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-08-01

    Small-molecule therapies that restore defects in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating (potentiators) or trafficking (correctors) are being developed for cystic fibrosis (CF) in a mutation-specific fashion. Options for pharmacological correction of CFTR-p.Phe508del (F508del) are being extensively studied but correction of other trafficking mutants that may also benefit from corrector treatment remains largely unknown.We studied correction of the folding mutants CFTR-p.Phe508del, -p.Ala455Glu (A455E) and -p.Asn1303Lys (N1303K) by VX-809 and 18 other correctors (C1-C18) using a functional CFTR assay in human intestinal CF organoids.Function of both CFTR-p.Phe508del and -p.Ala455Glu was enhanced by a variety of correctors but no residual or corrector-induced activity was associated with CFTR-p.Asn1303Lys. Importantly, VX-809-induced correction was most dominant for CFTR-p.Phe508del, while correction of CFTR-p.Ala455Glu was highest by a subgroup of compounds called bithiazoles (C4, C13, C14 and C17) and C5.These data support the development of mutation-specific correctors for optimal treatment of different CFTR trafficking mutants, and identify C5 and bithiazoles as the most promising compounds for correction of CFTR-p.Ala455Glu. PMID:27103391

  5. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators. PMID:27226582

  6. Conformational changes opening and closing the CFTR chloride channel: insights from cysteine scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease affecting young people in North America, is caused by failure of the chloride ion channel known as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). CFTR belongs to the large family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters. In CFTR, ATP-driven events at the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) open and close a gate that controls chloride permeation. However, the conformational changes concomitant with opening and closing of the CFTR gate are unknown. Diverse techniques including substituted cysteine accessibility method, disulfide cross-linking, and patch-clamp recording have been used to explore CFTR channel structure. Here, we consider the architecture of both the open and the closed CFTR channel. We review how CFTR channel structure changes between the closed and the open channel conformations and portray the relative function of both cytoplasmic and vestigial gates during the gating cycle. Understanding how the CFTR channel gates chloride permeation is central for understanding how CFTR defects lead to CF. Such knowledge opens the door for novel ways to maximize CFTR channel activity in a CF setting. PMID:25367045

  7. Deletion of CFTR Translation Start Site Reveals Functional Isoforms of the Protein in CF Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Anabela S.; Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Farinha, Carlos M.; Mendes, Filipa; Gonçalves, Juan; Barreto, Celeste; Harris, Ann; Amaral, Margarida D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Mutations in the CFTR gene cause Cystic Fibrosis (CF) the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasians. We identified a CFTR mutation (c.120del23) abolishing the normal translation initiation codon, which occurs in two Portuguese CF patients. This study aims at functionally characterizing the effect of this novel mutation. Methods: RNA and protein techniques were applied to both native tissues from CF patients and recombinant cells expressing CFTR constructs to determine whether c.120del23 allows CFTR protein production through usage of alternative internal codons, and to characterize the putative truncated CFTR form(s). Results: Our data show that two shorter forms of CFTR protein are produced when the initiation translation codon is deleted indicating usage of internal initiation codons. The N-truncated CFTR generated by this mutation has decreased stability, very low processing efficiency, and drastically reduced function. Analysis of mutants of four methionine codons downstream to M1 (M82, M150, M152, M156) revealed that each of the codons M150/M152/M156 (exon 4) can mediate CFTR alternative translation. Conclusions: The CFTR N-terminus has an important role in avoiding CFTR turnover and in rendering effective its plasma membrane traffic. These data correlate well with the severe clinical phenotype of CF patients bearing the c.120del23 mutation. PMID:19910674

  8. ΔF508 CFTR interactome remodeling promotes rescue of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E.; Yates, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is the major cause of Cystic Fibrosis (CF), one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of CF patients. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACi) can partially rescue ΔF508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favorable change of ΔF508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as mechanism of rescue, however CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature-shift and HDACi rescue are unknown. Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of the wt and ΔF508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and HDACi. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method (CoPIT), we identified 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discovered a mutation-specific interactome, which is extensively remodeled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodeling identified key novel interactors, whose loss promoted enhanced CFTR channel function in primary CF epithelia or which were critical for normal CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodeling of ΔF508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of CF caused by deletion of F508. PMID:26618866

  9. Lumacaftor alone and combined with ivacaftor: preclinical and clinical trial experience of F508del CFTR correction.

    PubMed

    Brewington, John J; McPhail, Gary L; Clancy, John P

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), leading to significant morbidity and mortality. CFTR is a chloride and bicarbonate channel at the epithelial cell membrane. The most common CFTR mutation is F508del, resulting in minimal CFTR at the plasma membrane. Current disease management is supportive, whereas an ultimate goal is to develop therapies to restore CFTR activity. We summarize experience with lumacaftor, a small molecule that increases F508del-CFTR levels at the plasma membrane. Lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor, a modulator of CFTR gating defects, improves clinical outcome measures in patients homozygous for the F508del mutation. Lumacaftor represents a significant advancement in the treatment of biochemical abnormalities in CF. Further development of CFTR modulators will improve upon current therapies, although it remains unclear whether this approach will provide therapies for all CFTR mutations. PMID:26581802

  10. Pathways of Arsenic Uptake and Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Chi; Fu, Hsueh-Liang; Lin, Yung-Feng; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic substance and ranks first on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund List. Arsenic is a carcinogen and a causative agent of numerous human diseases. Paradoxically arsenic is used as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Inorganic arsenic has two biological important oxidation states: As(V) (arsenate) and As(III) (arsenite). Arsenic uptake is adventitious because the arsenate and arsenite are chemically similar to required nutrients. Arsenate resembles phosphate and is a competitive inhibitor of many phosphate-utilizing enzymes. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transport systems. In contrast, at physiological pH, the form of arsenite is As(OH)3, which resembles organic molecules such as glycerol. Consequently, arsenite is taken into cells by aquaglyceroporin channels. Arsenic efflux systems are found in nearly every organism and evolved to rid cells of this toxic metalloid. These efflux systems include members of the multidrug resistance protein family and the bacterial exchangers Acr3 and ArsB. ArsB can also be a subunit of the ArsAB As(III)-translocating ATPase, an ATP-driven efflux pump. The ArsD metallochaperone binds cytosolic As(III) and transfers it to the ArsA subunit of the efflux pump. Knowledge of the pathways and transporters for arsenic uptake and efflux is essential for understanding its toxicity and carcinogenicity and for rational design of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:23046656

  11. Optimization of hCFTR lung expression in mice using DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Padegimas, Linas; Kowalczyk, Tomasz H; Adams, Sam; Gedeon, Chris R; Oette, Sharon M; Dines, Karla; Hyatt, Susannah L; Sesenoglu-Laird, Ozge; Tyr, Olena; Moen, Robert C; Cooper, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and prolonged human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) expression is a major goal for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung therapy. A hCFTR expression plasmid was optimized as a payload for compacted DNA nanoparticles formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-substituted 30-mer lysine peptides. A codon-optimized and CpG-reduced hCFTR synthetic gene (CO-CFTR) was placed in a polyubiquitin C expression plasmid. Compared to hCFTR complementary DNA (cDNA), CO-CFTR produced a ninefold increased level of hCFTR protein in transfected HEK293 cells and, when compacted as DNA nanoparticles, produced a similar improvement in lung mRNA expression in Balb/c and fatty acid binding protein promoter (FABP) CF mice, although expression duration was transient. Various vector modifications were tested to extend duration of CO-CFTR expression. A novel prolonged expression (PE) element derived from the bovine growth hormone (BGH) gene 3' flanking sequence produced prolonged expression of CO-CFTR mRNA at biologically relevant levels. A time course study in the mouse lung revealed that CO-CFTR mRNA did not change significantly, with CO-CFTR/mCFTR geometric mean ratios of 94% on day 2, 71% on day 14, 53% on day 30, and 14% on day 59. Prolonged CO-CFTR expression is dependent on the orientation of the PE element and its transcription, is not specific to the UbC promoter, and is less dependent on other vector backbone elements. PMID:21952168

  12. CFTR: a hub for kinases and crosstalk of cAMP and Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl; Mehta, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The resulting disease is pleiotropic consistent with the idea that CFTR acts as a node within a network of signalling proteins. CFTR is not only a regulator of multiple transport proteins and controlled by numerous kinases but also participates in many signalling pathways that are disrupted after expression of its commonest mutant (F508del-CFTR). It operates in membrane compartments creating a scaffold for cytoskeletal elements, surface receptors, kinases and phosphodiesterases. CFTR is exposed to membrane-local second messengers such that a CFTR-interacting, low cellular energy sensor kinase (AMP- and ADP-activated kinase, AMPK) signals through a high energy phosphohistidine protein kinase (nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NDPK). CFTR also translocates a Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase to its proximity so that a rigid separation between cAMP-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Cl(-) transport becomes obsolete. In the presence of wild-type CFTR, parallel activation of CFTR and outwardly rectifying anoctamin 6 Cl(-) channels is observed, while the Ca(2+)-activated anoctamin 1 Cl(-) channel is inhibited. In contrast, in CF cells, CFTR is missing/mislocalized and the outwardly rectifying chloride channel is attenuated while Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion (anoctamin 1) appears upregulated. Additionally, we consider the idea that F508del-CFTR when trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum augments IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release by providing a shunt pathway for Cl(-). CFTR and the IP3 receptor share the characteristic that they both assemble their partner proteins to increase the plasticity of their hub responses. In CF, the CFTR hub fails to form at the plasma membrane, with widespread detrimental consequences for cell signalling. PMID:23895508

  13. CFTR channel in oocytes from Xenopus laevis and its regulation by xShroom1 protein.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alejandra G; Galizia, Luciano; Kotsias, Basilio A; Marino, Gabriela I

    2016-05-01

    Shroom is a family of related proteins linked to the actin cytoskeleton. xShroom1 is constitutively expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and it is required for the expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). As there is a close relationship between ENaC and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), we examined the action of xShroom1 on CFTR expression and activity. Biotinylation was used to measure CFTR surface expression, and currents were registered with voltage clamp when stimulated with forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Oocytes were coinjected with CFTR complementary RNAs (cRNAs) and xShroom1 sense or antisense oligonucleotides. We observed an increment in CFTR currents and CFTR surface expression in oocytes coinjected with CFTR and xShroom1 antisense oligonucleotides. MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, did not prevent the increment in currents when xShroom1 was suppressed by antisense oligonucleotides. In addition, we inhibited the delivery of newly synthesized proteins to the plasma membrane with BFA and we found that the half-life of plasma membrane CFTR was prolonged when coinjected with the xShroom1 antisense oligonucleotides. Chloroquine, an inhibitor of the late endosome/lysosome, did not significantly increase CFTR currents when xShroom1 expression was inhibited. The higher expression of CFTR when xShroom1 is suppressed is in concordance with the functional studies suggesting that the suppression of the xShroom1 protein resulted in an increment in CFTR currents by promoting the increase of the half-life of CFTR in the plasma membrane. The role of xShroom1 in regulating CFTR expression could be relevant in the understanding of the channel malfunction in several diseases. PMID:26888038

  14. A perchlorate sensitive iodide transporter in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Deborah L.; Carr, James A.; Willis, Ray E.; Pressley, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence comparisons have identified a gene product in the genome database of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) as a probable member of the solute carrier family of membrane transporters. To confirm its identity as a putative iodide transporter, we examined the function of this sequence after heterologous expression in mammalian cells. A green monkey kidney cell line transfected with the Xenopus nucleotide sequence had significantly greater 125I uptake than sham-transfected control cells. The uptake in carrier-transfected cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of perchlorate, a competitive inhibitor of mammalian Na+/iodide symporter. Tissue distributions of the sequence were also consistent with a role in iodide uptake. The mRNA encoding the carrier was found to be expressed in the thyroid gland, stomach, and kidney of tadpoles from X. laevis, as well as the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The ovaries of adult X. laevis also were found to express the carrier. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the putative X. laevis iodide transporter is orthologous to vertebrate Na+-dependent iodide symporters. We conclude that the amphibian sequence encodes a protein that is indeed a functional Na+/iodide symporter in Xenopus laevis, as well as Rana catesbeiana. PMID:18275962

  15. Iodide transport: implications for health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Liuska; Kopp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common conditions diagnosed and managed by pediatric endocrinologists. Thyroid hormone synthesis depends on normal iodide transport and knowledge of its regulation is fundamental to understand the etiology and management of congenital and acquired thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine is also widely used as a tool for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and in the management and follow up of the most common type of endocrine cancers: papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. More recently, the regulation of iodide transport has also been the center of attention to improve the management of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Iodine deficiency disorders (goiter, impaired mental development) due to insufficient nutritional intake remain a universal public health problem. Thyroid function can also be influenced by medications that contain iodide or interfere with iodide metabolism such as iodinated contrast agents, povidone, lithium and amiodarone. In addition, some environmental pollutants such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrates may affect iodide transport. Furthermore, nuclear accidents increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer and the therapy used to prevent exposure to these isotopes relies on the ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine. The array of disorders involving iodide transport affect individuals during the whole life span and, if undiagnosed or improperly managed, they can have a profound impact on growth, metabolism, cognitive development and quality of life. PMID:25009573

  16. CFTR expression and organ damage in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tizzano, E.; Chitayat, D.; Buchwald, M.

    1994-09-01

    To assist our understanding of the origin of organ damage caused by cystic fibrosis (CF) disease, we have analyzed the pattern of expression of the CF gene (CFTR). mRNA in situ hybridization analysis was carried out in human fetal, newborn, infant and adult tissues and the abundance of the mRNA was correlated with the known pathology at the various stages of human development. Analysis of the pattern of expression indicates a constitutive level of mRNA in gastrointestinal tissues starting during early development and maintained throughout life. Prenatal respiratory tissues show qualitative and quantitative major differences in comparison to postnatal lung samples. Male reproductive tissues show high levels of expression in the head of the epididymis compared with the rest of the male ducts. Female reproductive tissues show a variable pattern of expression at different stages during fetal development and during puberty probably due to changes in hormonal levels. Gastrointestinal and male reproductive tissues have a consistent pathology at birth, whereas no lung abnormalities have been described in newborns affected by CF. Our results show that there is no exact correlations between organ damage present at birth and the degree of CFTR expression. To explain these observations, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of organ damage in CF depend on at least three factors: the rate of CFTR-mediated fluid secretion, differences in genotype and environmental factors, such as the amount of macromolecules in the lumen of the ducts. This last element predicts that damage will occur in tissues with high protein loads and low flow rates (e.g. pancreas, epididymis), where the absence of CFTR function leads to obstruction and pathology. Organs that express CFTR but with no significant damage (e.g. prenatal lung, female reproductive tissues), will have a low protein load and a high flow rates.

  17. On the mechanism of CFTR inhibition by a thiazolidinone derivative.

    PubMed

    Kopeikin, Zoia; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2010-12-01

    The effects of a thiazolidinone derivative, 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (or CFTRinh-172), on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating were studied in excised inside-out membrane patches from Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing wild-type and mutant CFTR. We found that the application of CFTRinh-172 results in an increase of the mean closed time and a decrease of the mean open time of the channel. A hyperbolic relationship between the closing rate and [CFTRinh-172] suggests that CFTRinh-172 does not act as a simple pore blocker. Interestingly, the potency of inhibition increases as the open time of the channel is increased with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range for CFTR channels locked in an open state for tens of seconds. Our studies also provide evidence that CFTRinh-172 can bind to both the open state and the closed state. However, at least one additional step, presumably reflecting inhibitor-induced conformational changes, is required to shut down the conductance after the binding of the inhibitor to the channel. Using the hydrolysis-deficient mutant E1371S as a tool as the closing rate of this mutant is dramatically decreased, we found that CFTRinh-172-dependent inhibition of CFTR channel gating, in two aspects, mimics the inactivation of voltage-dependent cation channels. First, similar to the recovery from inactivation in voltage-gated channels, once CFTR is inhibited by CFTRinh-172, reopening of the channel can be seen upon removal of the inhibitor in the absence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Second, ATP induced a biphasic current response on inhibitor-bound closed channels as if the ATP-opened channels "inactivate" despite a continuous presence of ATP. A simplified six-state kinetic scheme can well describe our data, at least qualitatively. Several possible structural mechanisms for the effects of CFTRinh-172 will be discussed. PMID:21078867

  18. On the mechanism of CFTR inhibition by a thiazolidinone derivative

    PubMed Central

    Kopeikin, Zoia; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a thiazolidinone derivative, 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (or CFTRinh-172), on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating were studied in excised inside-out membrane patches from Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing wild-type and mutant CFTR. We found that the application of CFTRinh-172 results in an increase of the mean closed time and a decrease of the mean open time of the channel. A hyperbolic relationship between the closing rate and [CFTRinh-172] suggests that CFTRinh-172 does not act as a simple pore blocker. Interestingly, the potency of inhibition increases as the open time of the channel is increased with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range for CFTR channels locked in an open state for tens of seconds. Our studies also provide evidence that CFTRinh-172 can bind to both the open state and the closed state. However, at least one additional step, presumably reflecting inhibitor-induced conformational changes, is required to shut down the conductance after the binding of the inhibitor to the channel. Using the hydrolysis-deficient mutant E1371S as a tool as the closing rate of this mutant is dramatically decreased, we found that CFTRinh-172–dependent inhibition of CFTR channel gating, in two aspects, mimics the inactivation of voltage-dependent cation channels. First, similar to the recovery from inactivation in voltage-gated channels, once CFTR is inhibited by CFTRinh-172, reopening of the channel can be seen upon removal of the inhibitor in the absence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Second, ATP induced a biphasic current response on inhibitor-bound closed channels as if the ATP-opened channels “inactivate” despite a continuous presence of ATP. A simplified six-state kinetic scheme can well describe our data, at least qualitatively. Several possible structural mechanisms for the effects of CFTRinh-172 will be discussed. PMID:21078867

  19. Recovery of anhydrous hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; McCorkle, Jr., Kenneth H.; de Graaf, Johannes D.

    1982-01-01

    Relatively dry hydrogen iodide can be recovered from a mixture of HI, I.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. After the composition of the mixture is adjusted so that the amounts of H.sub.2 O and I.sub.2 do not exceed certain maximum limits, subjection of the mixture to superatmospheric pressure in an amount equal to about the vapor pressure of HI at the temperature in question causes distinct liquid phases to appear. One of the liquid phases contains HI and not more than about 1 weight percent water. Often the adjustment in the composition will include the step of vaporization, and the distinct layers appear following the increase in pressure of the vapor mixture. Adjustment in the composition may also include the addition of an extraction agent, such as H.sub.3 PO.sub.4, and even though the adjusted composition mixture contains a significant amount of such an agent, the creation of the distinct liquid phases is not adversely affected.

  20. Bacterial multi-drug efflux transporters

    PubMed Central

    Delmar, Jared A.; Su, Chih-Chia; Yu, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by bacteria remain a leading cause of death worldwide. While antibiotics remain a key clinical therapy, their effectiveness has been severely compromised by the development of drug resistance in these pathogens. A common and powerful resistance mechanism, multi-drug efflux transporters are capable of extruding a number of structurally unrelated antimicrobials from the bacterial cell, including antibiotics and toxic heavy metal ions, facilitating their survival in noxious environments. Those transporters belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily typically assemble as tripartite efflux complexes, spanning the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope. In Escherichia coli, the CusCFBA complex, which mediates resistance to copper(I) and silver(I) ions, is the only known RND transporter with a specificity for heavy metals. Herein, we describe the current knowledge of individual pump components of the Cus system, a paradigm for efflux machinery, and speculate on how RND pumps assemble to fight diverse antimicrobials. PMID:24702006

  1. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  2. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Shawn P.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  3. Molecular mechanisms of reduced glutathione transport: role of the MRP/CFTR/ABCC and OATP/SLC21A families of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ballatori, Nazzareno . E-mail: Ned_Ballatori@urmc.rochester.edu; Hammond, Christine L.; Cunningham, Jennifer B.; Krance, Suzanne M.; Marchan, Rosemarie

    2005-05-01

    The initial step in reduced glutathione (GSH) turnover in all mammalian cells is its transport across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space; however, the mechanisms of GSH transport are not clearly defined. GSH export is required for the delivery of its constituent amino acids to other tissues, detoxification of drugs, metals, and other reactive compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin, protection against oxidant stress, and secretion of hepatic bile. Recent studies indicate that some members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP/CFTR or ABCC) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, as well as some members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP or SLC21A) family of transporters contribute to this process. In particular, five of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR family appear to mediate GSH export from cells namely, MRP1, MRP2, MRP4, MRP5, and CFTR. Additionally, two members of the OATP family, rat Oatp1 and Oatp2, have been identified as GSH transporters. For the Oatp1 transporter, efflux of GSH may provide the driving force for the uptake of extracellular substrates. In humans, OATP-B and OATP8 do not appear to transport GSH; however, other members of this family have yet to be characterized in regards to GSH transport. In yeast, the ABC proteins Ycf1p and Bpt1p transport GSH from the cytosol into the vacuole, whereas Hgt1p mediates GSH uptake across the plasma membrane. Because transport is a key step in GSH homeostasis and is intimately linked to its biological functions, GSH export proteins are likely to modulate essential cellular functions.

  4. Targeted Correction and Restored Function of the CFTR Gene in Cystic Fibrosis Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Ana M.; Kramer, Philipp; Bui, Jacquelin H.; Chung, Wook Joon; Li, Xuan Shirley; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Hawkins, Finn; Liao, Wei; Mora, Daniela; Choi, Sangbum; Wang, Jianbin; Sun, Helena C.; Paschon, David E.; Guschin, Dmitry Y.; Gregory, Philip D.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Holmes, Michael C.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Davis, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recently developed reprogramming and genome editing technologies make possible the derivation of corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cell sources—potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Starting with skin fibroblasts from patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, we derived and characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. We then utilized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), designed to target the endogenous CFTR gene, to mediate correction of the inherited genetic mutation in these patient-derived lines via homology-directed repair (HDR). We observed an exquisitely sensitive, homology-dependent preference for targeting one CFTR allele versus the other. The corrected cystic fibrosis iPSCs, when induced to differentiate in vitro, expressed the corrected CFTR gene; importantly, CFTR correction resulted in restored expression of the mature CFTR glycoprotein and restoration of CFTR chloride channel function in iPSC-derived epithelial cells. PMID:25772471

  5. CFTR regulates outwardly rectifying chloride channels through an autocrine mechanism involving ATP.

    PubMed

    Schwiebert, E M; Egan, M E; Hwang, T H; Fulmer, S B; Allen, S S; Cutting, G R; Guggino, W B

    1995-06-30

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions to regulate both Cl- and Na+ conductive pathways; however, the cellular mechanisms whereby CFTR acts as a conductance regulator are unknown. CFTR and outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs) are distinct channels but are linked functionally via an unknown regulatory mechanism. We present results from whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp recordings, short-circuit current recordings, and [gamma-32P]ATP release assays of normal, CF, and wild-type or mutant CFTR-transfected CF airway cultured epithelial cells wherein CFTR regulates ORCCs by triggering the transport of the potent agonist, ATP, out of the cell. Once released, ATP stimulates ORCCs through a P2U purinergic receptor-dependent signaling mechanism. Our results suggest that CFTR functions to regulate other Cl- secretory pathways in addition to itself conducting Cl-. PMID:7541313

  6. Targeted correction and restored function of the CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Crane, Ana M; Kramer, Philipp; Bui, Jacquelin H; Chung, Wook Joon; Li, Xuan Shirley; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Hawkins, Finn; Liao, Wei; Mora, Daniela; Choi, Sangbum; Wang, Jianbin; Sun, Helena C; Paschon, David E; Guschin, Dmitry Y; Gregory, Philip D; Kotton, Darrell N; Holmes, Michael C; Sorscher, Eric J; Davis, Brian R

    2015-04-14

    Recently developed reprogramming and genome editing technologies make possible the derivation of corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cell sources-potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Starting with skin fibroblasts from patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, we derived and characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. We then utilized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), designed to target the endogenous CFTR gene, to mediate correction of the inherited genetic mutation in these patient-derived lines via homology-directed repair (HDR). We observed an exquisitely sensitive, homology-dependent preference for targeting one CFTR allele versus the other. The corrected cystic fibrosis iPSCs, when induced to differentiate in vitro, expressed the corrected CFTR gene; importantly, CFTR correction resulted in restored expression of the mature CFTR glycoprotein and restoration of CFTR chloride channel function in iPSC-derived epithelial cells. PMID:25772471

  7. Formation of methyl iodide on a natural manganese oxide.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; Gallard, Hervé; Fontaine, Claude; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2010-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that manganese oxides can initiate the formation of methyl iodide, a volatile compound that participates to the input of iodine into the atmosphere. The formation of methyl iodide was investigated using a natural manganese oxide in batch experiments for different conditions and concentrations of iodide, natural organic matter (NOM) and manganese oxide. Methyl iodide was formed at concentrations iodide concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 38.0 mg L(-1). The production of methyl iodide increased with increasing initial concentrations of iodide ion and Mn sand and when pH decreased from 7 to 5. The hydrophilic NOM isolate exhibited the lowest yield of methyl iodide whereas hydrophobic NOM isolates such as Suwannee River HPOA fraction produced the highest concentration of methyl iodide. The formation of methyl iodide could take place through the oxidation of NOM on manganese dioxide in the presence of iodide. However, the implication of elemental iodine cannot be excluded at acidic pH. Manganese oxides can then participate with ferric oxides to the formation of methyl iodide in soils and sediments. The formation of methyl iodide is unlikely in technical systems such as drinking water treatment i.e. for ppt levels of iodide and low contact times with manganese oxides. PMID:20580399

  8. Synonymous Codon Usage Affects the Expression of Wild Type and F508del CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil; Mueller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508, (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements, were expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30 fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to exon junction complex independent nonsense mediated decay. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped ERAD resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that for CFTR, codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels, protein expression and likely, for F508del CFTR, chaperone assisted folding pathway. PMID:25676312

  9. RNA Interference Screen to Identify Kinases That Suppress Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR*

    PubMed Central

    Trzcińska-Daneluti, Agata M.; Chen, Anthony; Nguyen, Leo; Murchie, Ryan; Jiang, Chong; Moffat, Jason; Pelletier, Lawrence; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508-CFTR, the most common disease-causing CF mutant, exhibits folding and trafficking defects and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. To identify signaling pathways involved in ΔF508-CFTR rescue, we screened a library of endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs) that target ∼750 different kinases and associated signaling proteins. We identified 20 novel suppressors of ΔF508-CFTR maturation, including the FGFR1. These were subsequently validated by measuring channel activity by the YFP halide-sensitive assay following shRNA-mediated knockdown, immunoblotting for the mature (band C) ΔF508-CFTR and measuring the amount of surface ΔF508-CFTR by ELISA. The role of FGFR signaling on ΔF508-CFTR trafficking was further elucidated by knocking down FGFRs and their downstream signaling proteins: Erk1/2, Akt, PLCγ-1, and FRS2. Interestingly, inhibition of FGFR1 with SU5402 administered to intestinal organoids (mini-guts) generated from the ileum of ΔF508-CFTR homozygous mice resulted in a robust ΔF508-CFTR rescue. Moreover, combination of SU5402 and VX-809 treatments in cells led to an additive enhancement of ΔF508-CFTR rescue, suggesting these compounds operate by different mechanisms. Chaperone array analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells harvested from ΔF508/ΔF508-CFTR transplant patients treated with SU5402 identified altered expression of several chaperones, an effect validated by their overexpression or knockdown experiments. We propose that FGFR signaling regulates specific chaperones that control ΔF508-CFTR maturation, and suggest that FGFRs may serve as important targets for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of CF. PMID:25825526

  10. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Karp, Philip H.; Ernst, Sarah E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Rector, Michael V.; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A.; McCray, Paul B.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (T2AECs) cultured at the air-liquid interface. CFTR was distributed exclusively to the apical surface of cultured T2AECs. Alveolar epithelia from CFTR−/− pigs failed to increase liquid absorption in response to agents that increase cAMP, whereas cAMP-stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR+/− epithelia was similar to that in CFTR+/+ epithelia. Expression of recombinant CFTR restored stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR−/− T2AECs but had no effect on CFTR+/+ epithelia. In ex vivo studies of nonperfused lungs, stimulated liquid absorption was defective in CFTR−/− alveolar epithelia but similar between CFTR+/+ and CFTR+/− epithelia. When epithelia were studied at the air-liquid interface, elevating cAMP levels increased subphase liquid height in CFTR+/+ but not in CFTR−/− T2AECs. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR is required for maximal liquid absorption under cAMP stimulation, but it is not the rate-limiting factor. Furthermore, our data define a role for CFTR in liquid secretion by T2AECs. These insights may help to develop new treatment strategies for pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, diseases in which lung liquid transport is disrupted. PMID:22637155

  11. Domain interdependence in the biosynthetic assembly of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liying; Aleksandrov, Luba; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Hou, Yue-Xian; He, Lihua; Hegedus, Tamas; Gentzsch, Martina; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Balch, William E; Riordan, John R

    2007-01-26

    The dimerization of their two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) in a so-called "nucleotide-sandwich" is the hallmark of ATP cassette binding (ABC) proteins and the basis of their catalytic activities. The major disease-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR or ABCC7), deletion of Phe508 in NBD1, does not grossly alter the structure of that domain but prevents conformational maturation of the whole CFTR protein, possibly by disrupting the native interaction between NBD1 and NBD2. However, the role of inter-domain interactions in CFTR folding has been brought into question by a recent report that all CFTR domains fold independently. Here we show that in addition to domain folding, correct inter-domain assembly is essential to form a stable unit that satisfies endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control. N-terminal domains depend on their more C-terminal neighbors, most essentially the second membrane-spanning domain (MSD2) but significantly, not NBD2. Wild-type C-terminal truncation constructs, completely devoid of NBD2 are transported out of the ER and to the cell surface where they form characteristic CFTR chloride channels with low open probability. The DeltaNBD2 wild-type protein matures and has similar stability as its full-length counterpart. Therefore, the catalytically crucial inter-NBD associations are not required to satisfy ER quality control mechanisms. The DeltaF508 mutation arrests the maturation of DeltaNBD2 just as it does full-length CFTR, indicating that DeltaF508 perturbs other portions of the molecule in addition to NBD2. We find that the mutation prevents formation of a compact MSD1, reflected in its susceptibility to protease digestion. This perturbation of MSD1 may in turn prevent its normal integration with MSD2. The dispensability of NBD2 in the folding of more N-terminal domains stands in contrast to the known hypersensitivity to proteolysis of NBD2 in the DeltaF508 protein. PMID:17113596

  12. THE CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR (CFTR) IS EXPRESSED IN MATURATION STAGE AMELOBLASTS, ODONTOBLASTS AND BONE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, Antonius; Kalogeraki, Lida; Jorna, Huub J.N.; Wilke, Martina; Bervoets, Theodore J.; Lyaruu, Donacian M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; DenBesten, Pamela; de Jonge, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have mild defects in dental enamel. The gene mutated in these patients is CFTR, a Cl− channel involved in transepithelial salt- and water transport and bicarbonate secretion. We tested the hypothesis that Cftr channels are present and operating in the plasma membranes of mouse ameloblasts. Tissue sections of young mouse jaws and fetal human jaws were immunostained with various anti-Cftr antibodies. Specificity of the antibodies was validated in Cftr-deficient murine and human tissues. Immunostaining for Cftr was obtained in the apical plasma membranes of mouse maturation ameloblasts of both incisor and molar tooth germs. A granular intracellular immunostaining of variable intensity was also noted in bone cells and odontoblasts. In Cftr-deficient mice the incisors were chalky white and eroded much faster than in wild type mice. Histologically, only maturation ameloblasts of incisors were structurally affected in Cftr-deficient mice. Some antibody species gave also a positive cytosolic staining in Cftr-deficient cells. Transcripts of Cftr were found in maturation ameloblasts, odontoblasts and bone cells. Similar data were obtained in forming human dentin and bone. We conclude that Cftr protein locates in the apical plasma membranes of mouse maturation ameloblasts. In mouse incisors Cftr is critical for completion of enamel mineralization and conceivably functions as a regulator of pH during rapid crystal growth. Osteopenia found in CF patients as well as in Cftr-deficient mice is likely associated with defective Cftr operating in bone cells. PMID:20004757

  13. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  14. Duplicated CFTR isoforms in eels diverged in regulatory structures and osmoregulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty Kwok-Shing; Pipil, Supriya; Kato, Akira; Takei, Yoshio

    2016-09-01

    Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isoforms, CFTRa and CFTRb, were cloned in Japanese eel and their structures and functions were studied in different osmoregulatory tissues in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) eels. Molecular phylogenetic results suggested that the CFTR duplication in eels occurred independently of the duplication event in salmonid. CFTRa was expressed in the intestine and kidney and downregulated in both tissues in SW eels, while CFTRb was specifically expressed in the gill and greatly upregulated in SW eels. Structurally, the CFTR isoforms are similar in most functional domains except the regulatory R domain, where the R domain of CFTRa is similar to that of human CFTR but the R domain of CFTRb is unique in having high intrinsic negative charges and fewer phosphorylation sites, suggesting divergence of isoforms in terms of gating properties and hormonal regulation. Immunohistochemical results showed that CFTR was localized on the apical regions of SW ionocytes, suggesting a Cl(-) secretory role as in other teleosts. In intestine and kidney, however, immunoreactive CFTR was mostly found in the cytosolic vesicles in FW eels, indicating that Cl(-) channel activity could be low at basal conditions, but could be rapidly increased by membrane insertion of the stored channels. Guanylin (GN), a known hormone that increases CFTR activity in mammalian intestine, failed to redistribute CFTR and to affect its expression in eel intestine. The results suggested that GN-independent CFTR regulation is present in eel intestine and kidney. PMID:27322796

  15. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists activate CFTR in intestinal organoids and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vijftigschild, Lodewijk A W; Berkers, Gitte; Dekkers, Johanna F; Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Matthes, Elizabeth; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; Hensen, Chantal E; Heida-Michel, Sabine; Geerdink, Margot; Janssens, Hettie M; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Bronsveld, Inez; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Jonge, Hugo R; Hanrahan, John W; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that people with cystic fibrosis (CF) who express CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations associated with residual function may benefit from G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-targeting drugs that can activate and enhance CFTR function.We used intestinal organoids to screen a GPCR-modulating compound library and identified β2-adrenergic receptor agonists as the most potent inducers of CFTR function.β2-Agonist-induced organoid swelling correlated with the CFTR genotype, and could be induced in homozygous CFTR-F508del organoids and highly differentiated primary CF airway epithelial cells after rescue of CFTR trafficking by small molecules. The in vivo response to treatment with an oral or inhaled β2-agonist (salbutamol) in CF patients with residual CFTR function was evaluated in a pilot study. 10 subjects with a R117H or A455E mutation were included and showed changes in the nasal potential difference measurement after treatment with oral salbutamol, including a significant improvement of the baseline potential difference of the nasal mucosa (+6.35 mV, p<0.05), suggesting that this treatment might be effective in vivo Furthermore, plasma that was collected after oral salbutamol treatment induced CFTR activation when administered ex vivo to organoids.This proof-of-concept study suggests that organoids can be used to identify drugs that activate CFTR function in vivo and to select route of administration. PMID:27471203

  16. SNaPshot Assay for the Detection of the Most Common CFTR Mutations in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751

  17. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Andreas; Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Dübbers, Angelika; Bruns, Reimer; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl-) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.

  18. Pseudohalide anions reveal a novel extracellular site for potentiators to increase CFTR function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Man-Song; Cowley, Elizabeth A; Linsdell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is great interest in the development of potentiator drugs to increase the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cystic fibrosis. We tested the ability of several anions to potentiate CFTR activity by a novel mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Patch clamp recordings were used to investigate the ability of extracellular pseudohalide anions (Co(CN)63−, Co(NO2)63−, Fe(CN)63−, IrCl63−, Fe(CN)64−) to increase the macroscopic conductance of mutant CFTR in intact cells via interactions with cytoplasmic blocking anions. Mutagenesis of CFTR was used to identify a possible molecular mechanism of action. Transepithelial short-circuit current recordings from human airway epithelial cells were used to determine effects on net anion secretion. KEY RESULTS Extracellular pseudohalide anions were able to increase CFTR conductance in intact cells, as well as increase anion secretion in airway epithelial cells. This effect appears to reflect the interaction of these substances with a site on the extracellular face of the CFTR protein. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results identify pseudohalide anions as increasing CFTR function by a previously undescribed molecular mechanism that involves an interaction with an extracellular site on the CFTR protein. Future drugs could utilize this mechanism to increase CFTR activity in cystic fibrosis, possibly in conjunction with known intracellularly-active potentiators. PMID:22612315

  19. CFTR chloride channels are regulated by a SNAP-23/syntaxin 1A complex

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Di, Anke; Chang, Steven Y.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Tousson, Albert; Nelson, Deborah J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2002-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate membrane fusion reactions in eukaryotic cells by assembling into complexes that link vesicle-associated SNAREs with SNAREs on target membranes (t-SNAREs). Many SNARE complexes contain two t-SNAREs that form a heterodimer, a putative intermediate in SNARE assembly. Individual t-SNAREs (e.g., syntaxin 1A) also regulate synaptic calcium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial chloride channel that is defective in cystic fibrosis. Whether the regulation of ion channels by individual t-SNAREs is related to SNARE complex assembly and membrane fusion is unknown. Here we show that CFTR channels are coordinately regulated by two cognate t-SNAREs, SNAP-23 (synaptosome-associated protein of 23 kDa) and syntaxin 1A. SNAP-23 physically associates with CFTR by binding to its amino-terminal tail, a region that modulates channel gating. CFTR-mediated chloride currents are inhibited by introducing excess SNAP-23 into HT29-Cl.19A epithelial cells. Conversely, CFTR activity is stimulated by a SNAP-23 antibody that blocks the binding of this t-SNARE to the CFTR amino-terminal tail. The physical and functional interactions between SNAP-23 and CFTR depend on syntaxin 1A, which binds to both proteins. We conclude that CFTR channels are regulated by a t-SNARE complex that may tune CFTR activity to rates of membrane traffic in epithelial cells. PMID:12209004

  20. RNA interference for CFTR attenuates lung fluid absorption at birth in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianbo; Koshy, Shyny; Folkesson, Hans G

    2008-01-01

    Background Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against αENaC (α-subunit of the epithelial Na channel) and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) was used to explore ENaC and CTFR function in newborn rat lungs. Methods Twenty-four hours after trans-thoracic intrapulmonary (ttip) injection of siRNA-generating plasmid DNA (pSi-0, pSi-4, or pSi-C2), we measured CFTR and ENaC expression, extravascular lung water, and mortality. Results αENaC and CFTR mRNA and protein decreased by ~80% and ~85%, respectively, following αENaC and CFTR silencing. Extravascular lung water and mortality increased after αENaC and CFTR-silencing. In pSi-C2-transfected isolated DLE cells there were attenuated CFTR mRNA and protein. In pSi-4-transfected DLE cells αENaC mRNA and protein were both reduced. Interestingly, CFTR-silencing also reduced αENaC mRNA and protein. αENaC silencing, on the other hand, only slightly reduced CFTR mRNA and protein. Conclusion Thus, ENaC and CFTR are both involved in the fluid secretion to absorption conversion around at birth. PMID:18652671

  1. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  2. Regulation of CFTR expression and function during differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sood, R; Bear, C; Auerbach, W; Reyes, E; Jensen, T; Kartner, N; Riordan, J R; Buchwald, M

    1992-01-01

    CFTR, the protein defective in cystic fibrosis is regulated during differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. The undifferentiated cells (Caco-2 and HT-29) show a lower level of CFTR mRNA, while a 10-fold increase is seen in differentiated cells. These differences correlate well with those of other intestinal-specific genes, including sucrase-isomaltase, villin and alpha 1-antitrypsin, indicating that the regulation is cell specific. In Caco-2 cells the increase in CFTR mRNA cannot be accounted for by increased transcription of the gene. These data indicate that CFTR mRNA stabilizing factor(s) might be present in differentiated cells. The higher levels of CFTR mRNA in differentiated cells are accompanied by decreased protein levels, indicating, as well, involvement of translational control in the regulation of CFTR in these cells. Finally, fully differentiated cells show lowered levels of cyclic AMP-activated C1- transport, the characteristic function of CFTR. Thus, CFTR function in differentiated cells is modulated by a complex interaction of regulatory elements. Caco-2 and HT-29 cells provide a suitable in vitro system in which to study the mechanism of regulation of CFTR. Images PMID:1378393

  3. Processing and function of CFTR-ΔF508 are species-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Rogers, Christopher S.; Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The most common mutation, a deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (ΔF508), disrupts processing of the protein. Nearly all human CFTR-ΔF508 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, preventing maturation to the plasma membrane. In addition, the F508 deletion reduces the activity of single CFTR channels. Human CFTR-ΔF508 has been extensively studied to better understand its defects. Here, we adopted a cross-species comparative approach, examining human, pig, and mouse CFTR-ΔF508. As with human CFTR-ΔF508, the ΔF508 mutation reduced the single-channel activity of the pig and mouse channels. However, the mutant pig and mouse proteins were at least partially processed like their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, pig and mouse CFTR-ΔF508 partially restored transepithelial Cl− transport to CF airway epithelia. Our data, combined with earlier work, suggest that there is a gradient in the severity of the CFTR-ΔF508 processing defect, with human more severe than pig or mouse. These findings may explain some previously puzzling observations in CF mice, they have important implications for evaluation of potential therapeutics, and they suggest new strategies for discovering the mechanisms that disrupt processing of human CFTR-ΔF508. PMID:17873061

  4. Processing and function of CFTR-DeltaF508 are species-dependent.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Rogers, Christopher S; Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O; Vermeer, Daniel W; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H; Welsh, Michael J

    2007-09-25

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The most common mutation, a deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (DeltaF508), disrupts processing of the protein. Nearly all human CFTR-DeltaF508 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, preventing maturation to the plasma membrane. In addition, the F508 deletion reduces the activity of single CFTR channels. Human CFTR-DeltaF508 has been extensively studied to better understand its defects. Here, we adopted a cross-species comparative approach, examining human, pig, and mouse CFTR-DeltaF508. As with human CFTR-DeltaF508, the DeltaF508 mutation reduced the single-channel activity of the pig and mouse channels. However, the mutant pig and mouse proteins were at least partially processed like their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, pig and mouse CFTR-DeltaF508 partially restored transepithelial Cl(-) transport to CF airway epithelia. Our data, combined with earlier work, suggest that there is a gradient in the severity of the CFTR-DeltaF508 processing defect, with human more severe than pig or mouse. These findings may explain some previously puzzling observations in CF mice, they have important implications for evaluation of potential therapeutics, and they suggest new strategies for discovering the mechanisms that disrupt processing of human CFTR-DeltaF508. PMID:17873061

  5. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ruess, Roger W.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    Background CO2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured CO2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO2 efflux. CO2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10 600 tonnes km−2 year−1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km2 year−1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m−2 s−1), but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. Conclusions/Significance Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks. PMID:21738628

  6. An overview of bacterial efflux pumps and computational approaches to study efflux pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shirin; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms express a wide range of transmembrane pumps known as multidrug efflux pumps that improve the micro-organism's ability to survive in severe environments and contribute to resistance against antibiotic and antimicrobial agents. There is significant interest in developing efflux inhibitors as an adjunct to treatment with current and next generation of antibiotics. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. We summarize some structural and functional data that could provide insights into the inhibition of transport mechanisms of these intricate molecular nanomachines with a focus on the advances in computational approaches. PMID:26824720

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic detection of efflux pump in Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Pötter, Luciana; da Silveira, Bibiana Petri; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2014-01-01

    The req_39680 gene, associated to a putative efflux system, was detected in 60% (54/90) of R. equi isolates by PCR. The phenotypic expression of efflux mechanism was verified in 20% of the isolates using ethidium bromide. For the first time, the expression of efflux mechanism was demonstrated in R. equi. PMID:25242956

  8. CFTR gene mutations in isolated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatti, P.F.; Bombien, C.; Marigo, C.

    1994-09-01

    In order to identify a possible hereditary predisposition to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have looked for the presence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene DNA sequence modifications in 28 unrelated patients with no signs of cystic fibrosis. The known mutations in Italian CF patients, as well as the most frequent worldwide CF mutations, were investigated. In addition, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of about half of the coding sequence of the gene in 56 chromosomes from the patients and in 102 chromosomes from control individuals affected by other pulmonary diseases and from normal controls was performed. Nine different CFTR gene mutations and polymorphisms were found in seven patients, a highly significant increase over controls. Two of the patients were compound heterozygotes. Two frequent CF mutations were detected: deletion F508 and R117H; two rare CF mutations: R1066C and 3667ins4; and five CF sequence variants: R75Q (which was also described as a disease-causing mutation in male sterility cases due to the absence of the vasa deferentia), G576A, 2736 A{r_arrow}G, L997F, and 3271+18C{r_arrow}T. Seven (78%) of the mutations are localized in transmembrane domains. Six (86%) of the patients with defined mutations and polymorphisms had bronchiectasis. These results indicate that CFTR gene mutations and sequence alterations may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of COPD.

  9. Modeling the Conformational Changes Underlying Channel Opening in CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Kazi S.; Cui, Guiying; Harvey, Stephen C.; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disease among Caucasians. Although general features of the structure of CFTR have been predicted from homology models, the conformational changes that result in channel opening and closing have yet to be resolved. We created new closed- and open-state homology models of CFTR, and performed targeted molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational transitions in a channel opening event. The simulations predict a conformational wave that starts at the nucleotide binding domains and ends with the formation of an open conduction pathway. Changes in side-chain interactions are observed in all major domains of the protein, and experimental confirmation was obtained for a novel intra-protein salt bridge that breaks near the end of the transition. The models and simulation add to our understanding of the mechanism of ATP-dependent gating in this disease-relevant ion channel. PMID:24086355

  10. Modeling the conformational changes underlying channel opening in CFTR.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kazi S; Cui, Guiying; Harvey, Stephen C; McCarty, Nael A

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disease among Caucasians. Although general features of the structure of CFTR have been predicted from homology models, the conformational changes that result in channel opening and closing have yet to be resolved. We created new closed- and open-state homology models of CFTR, and performed targeted molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational transitions in a channel opening event. The simulations predict a conformational wave that starts at the nucleotide binding domains and ends with the formation of an open conduction pathway. Changes in side-chain interactions are observed in all major domains of the protein, and experimental confirmation was obtained for a novel intra-protein salt bridge that breaks near the end of the transition. The models and simulation add to our understanding of the mechanism of ATP-dependent gating in this disease-relevant ion channel. PMID:24086355