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Sample records for cftr iodide efflux

  1. CFTR mediates noradrenaline-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In our earlier study, noradrenaline (NA) stimulated ATP release from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as mediated via β3 adrenoceptors linked to Gs protein involving protein kinase A (PKA) activation, to cause allodynia. The present study was conducted to understand how ATP is released from DRG neurons. In an outside-out patch-clamp configuration from acutely dissociated rat DRG neurons, single-channel currents, sensitive to the P2X receptor inhibitor PPADS, were evoked by approaching the patch-electrode tip close to a neuron, indicating that ATP is released from DRG neurons, to activate P2X receptor. NA increased the frequency of the single-channel events, but such NA effect was not found for DRG neurons transfected with the siRNA to silence the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In the immunocytochemical study using acutely dissociated rat DRG cells, CFTR was expressed in neurons alone, but not satellite cells, fibroblasts, or Schwann cells. It is concluded from these results that CFTR mediates NA-induced ATP efflux from DRG neurons as an ATP channel. PMID:21943397

  2. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to A561E-CFTR, a cystic fibrosis mutant with a similar mechanism of dysfunction as F508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiting; Liu, Jia; Loizidou, Avgi; Bugeja, Luc A; Warner, Ross; Hawley, Bethan R; Cai, Zhiwei; Toye, Ashley M; Sheppard, David N; Li, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel causes the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of transformational drug therapies for CF, we investigated the channel function and action of CFTR potentiators on A561E, a CF mutation found frequently in Portugal. Like the most common CF mutation F508del, A561E causes a temperature-sensitive folding defect that prevents CFTR delivery to the cell membrane and is associated with severe disease. Experimental Approach Using baby hamster kidney cells expressing recombinant CFTR, we investigated CFTR expression by cell surface biotinylation, and function and pharmacology with the iodide efflux and patch-clamp techniques. Key Results Low temperature incubation delivered a small proportion of A561E-CFTR protein to the cell surface. Like F508del-CFTR, low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR exhibited a severe gating defect characterized by brief channel openings separated by prolonged channel closures. A561E-CFTR also exhibited thermoinstability, losing function more quickly than F508del-CFTR in cell-free membrane patches and intact cells. Using the iodide efflux assay, CFTR potentiators, including genistein and the clinically approved small-molecule ivacaftor, partially restored function to A561E-CFTR. Interestingly, ivacaftor restored wild-type levels of channel activity (as measured by open probability) to single A561E- and F508del-CFTR Cl− channels. However, it accentuated the thermoinstability of both mutants in cell-free membrane patches. Conclusions and Implications Like F508del-CFTR, A561E-CFTR perturbs protein processing, thermostability and channel gating. CFTR potentiators partially restore channel function to low temperature-rescued A561E-CFTR. Transformational drug therapy for A561E-CFTR is likely to require CFTR correctors, CFTR potentiators and special attention to thermostability. PMID:24902474

  3. Cftr

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuehong; Smith, Stephen S.; Sun, Fang; Dawson, David C.

    2001-01-01

    Some studies of CFTR imply that channel activation can be explained by an increase in open probability (Po), whereas others suggest that activation involves an increase in the number of CFTR channels (N) in the plasma membrane. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we tested for changes in N associated with activation of CFTR in Xenopus oocytes using a cysteine-substituted construct (R334C CFTR) that can be modified by externally applied, impermeant thiol reagents like [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] methanethiosulfonate bromide (MTSET+). Covalent modification of R334C CFTR with MTSET+ doubled the conductance and changed the I-V relation from inward rectifying to linear and was completely reversed by 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). Thus, labeled and unlabeled channels could be differentiated by noting the percent decrease in conductance brought about by exposure to 2-ME. When oocytes were briefly (20 s) exposed to MTSET+ before CFTR activation, the subsequently activated conductance was characteristic of labeled R334C CFTR, indicating that the entire pool of CFTR channels activated by cAMP was accessible to MTSET+. The addition of unlabeled, newly synthesized channels to the plasma membrane could be monitored on-line during the time when the rate of addition was most rapid after cRNA injection. The addition of new channels could be detected as early as 5 h after cRNA injection, occurred with a half time of ∼24–48 h, and was disrupted by exposing oocytes to Brefeldin A, whereas activation of R334C CFTR by cAMP occurred with a half time of tens of minutes, and did not appear to involve the addition of new channels to the plasma membrane. These findings demonstrate that in Xenopus oocytes, the major mechanism of CFTR activation by cAMP is by means of an increase in the open probability of CFTR channels. PMID:11585853

  4. Cftr

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen S.; Liu, Xuehong; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Sun, Fang; Kriewall, Thomas E.; McCarty, Nael A.; Dawson, David C.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the experiments described here was to explore the possible role of fixed charges in determining the conduction properties of CFTR. We focused on transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) which contains four basic residues (R334, K335, R347, and R352) that would be predicted, on the basis of their positions in the primary structure, to span TM6 from near the extracellular (R334, K335) to near the intracellular (R347, R352) end. Cysteines substituted at positions 334 and 335 were readily accessible to thiol reagents, whereas those at positions 347 and 352 were either not accessible or lacked significant functional consequences when modified. The charge at positions 334 and 335 was an important determinant of CFTR channel function. Charge changes at position 334—brought about by covalent modification of engineered cysteine residues, pH titration of cysteine and histidine residues, and amino acid substitution—produced similar effects on macroscopic conductance and the shape of the I-V plot. The effect of charge changes at position 334 on conduction properties could be described by electrodiffusion or rate-theory models in which the charge on this residue lies in an external vestibule of the pore where it functions to increase the concentration of Cl adjacent to the rate-limiting portion of the conduction path. Covalent modification of R334C CFTR increased single-channel conductance determined in detached patches, but did not alter open probability. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that in wild-type CFTR, R334 occupies a position where its charge can influence the distribution of anions near the mouth of the pore. PMID:11585852

  5. HEK‐293 cells expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): a model for studying regulation of Cl− transport

    PubMed Central

    Domingue, Jada C.; Ao, Mei; Sarathy, Jayashree; George, Alvin; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Nelson, Deborah J.; Rao, Mrinalini C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cell line (HEK‐293) readily lends itself to genetic manipulation and is a common tool for biologists to overexpress proteins of interest and study their function and molecular regulation. Although these cells have some limitations, such as an inability to form resistive monolayers necessary for studying transepithelial ion transport, they are nevertheless valuable in studying individual epithelial ion transporters. We report the use of HEK‐293 cells to study the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel. While HEK‐293 cells endogenously express mRNA for the Cl− channels, ClC‐2 and TMEM16A, they neither express CFTR mRNA nor protein. Therefore, we stably transfected HEK‐293 cells with EGFP‐CFTR (HEK‐CFTR) and demonstrated CFTR function by measuring forskolin‐stimulated iodide efflux. This efflux was inhibited by CFTRinh172, and the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, but not by Ca2+ chelation. In contrast to intestinal epithelia, forskolin stimulation does not increase surface CFTR expression and does not require intact microtubules in HEK‐CFTR. To investigate the role of an endogenous GαS‐coupled receptor, we examined the bile acid receptor, TGR5. Although HEK‐CFTR cells express TGR5, the potent TGR5 agonist lithocholic acid (LCA; 5–500 μmol/L) did not activate CFTR. Furthermore, forskolin, but not LCA, increased [cAMP]i in HEK‐CFTR suggesting that endogenous TGR5 may not be functionally linked to GαS. However, LCA did increase [Ca2+]i and interestingly, abolished forskolin‐stimulated iodide efflux. Thus, we propose that the stable HEK‐CFTR cell line is a useful model to study the multiple signaling pathways that regulate CFTR. PMID:25263207

  6. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Activity

    PubMed Central

    Semenkov, Illya; Molinski, Steven; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Bui, Hai H.; Bear, Christine E.; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L) attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P’s inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds), transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737) phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019) and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA) attenuate S1P-stimluated (i) AMPK phosphorylation, (ii) CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii) CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508), the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure). S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking. PMID:26079370

  7. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Is a Novel Regulator of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Activity.

    PubMed

    Malik, Firhan A; Meissner, Anja; Semenkov, Illya; Molinski, Steven; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Bui, Hai H; Bear, Christine E; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) attenuates sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in resistance arteries and has emerged as a prominent regulator of myogenic vasoconstriction. This investigation demonstrates that S1P inhibits CFTR activity via adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK), establishing a potential feedback link. In Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) cells expressing wild-type human CFTR, S1P (1μmol/L) attenuates forskolin-stimulated, CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. S1P's inhibitory effect is rapid (within 30 seconds), transient and correlates with CFTR serine residue 737 (S737) phosphorylation. Both S1P receptor antagonism (4μmol/L VPC 23019) and AMPK inhibition (80μmol/L Compound C or AMPK siRNA) attenuate S1P-stimluated (i) AMPK phosphorylation, (ii) CFTR S737 phosphorylation and (iii) CFTR activity inhibition. In BHK cells expressing the ΔF508 CFTR mutant (CFTRΔF508), the most common mutation causing cystic fibrosis, both S1P receptor antagonism and AMPK inhibition enhance CFTR activity, without instigating discernable correction. In summary, we demonstrate that S1P/AMPK signaling transiently attenuates CFTR activity. Since our previous work positions CFTR as a negative S1P signaling regulator, this signaling link may positively reinforce S1P signals. This discovery has clinical ramifications for the treatment of disease states associated with enhanced S1P signaling and/or deficient CFTR activity (e.g. cystic fibrosis, heart failure). S1P receptor/AMPK inhibition could synergistically enhance the efficacy of therapeutic strategies aiming to correct aberrant CFTR trafficking. PMID:26079370

  8. Disruption of cytokeratin-8 interaction with F508del-CFTR corrects its functional defect

    PubMed Central

    Colas, Julien; Faure, Grazyna; Saussereau, Emilie; Trudel, Stéphanie; Rabeh, Wael M.; Bitam, Sara; Guerrera, Ida Chiara; Fritsch, Janine; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Davezac, Noëlie; Brouillard, Franck; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Herrmann, Harald; Ollero, Mario; Edelman, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported an increased expression of cytokeratins 8/18 (K8/K18) in cells expressing the F508del mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This is associated with increased colocalization of CFTR and K18 in the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum, although this is reversed by treating cells with curcumin, resulting in the rescue of F508del-CFTR. In the present work, we hypothesized that (i) the K8/K18 network may interact physically with CFTR, and that (ii) this interaction may modify CFTR function. CFTR was immunoprecipitated from HeLa cells transfected with either wild-type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR. Precipitates were subjected to 2D-gel electrophoresis and differential spots identified by mass spectrometry. K8 and K18 were found significantly increased in F508del-CFTR precipitates. Using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrate that K8, but not K18, binds directly and preferentially to the F508del over the WT human NBD1 (nucleotide-binding domain-1). In vivo K8 interaction with F508del-CFTR was confirmed by proximity ligation assay in HeLa cells and in primary cultures of human respiratory epithelial cells. Ablation of K8 expression by siRNA in F508del-expressing HeLa cells led to the recovery of CFTR-dependent iodide efflux. Moreover, F508del-expressing mice topically treated with K8-siRNA showed restored nasal potential difference, equivalent to that of WT mice. These results show that disruption of F508del-CFTR and K8 interaction leads to the correction of the F508del-CFTR processing defect, suggesting a novel potential therapeutic target in CF. PMID:22038833

  9. A Soluble Sulfogalactosyl Ceramide Mimic Promotes ΔF508 CFTR Escape from Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Joo; Mylvaganum, Murugesapillai; McPherson, Anne; Fewell, Sheara W.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.; Lingwood, Clifford A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY AdaSGC binds Hsc70s to inhibit ATPase activity. Using single-turnover assays, adaSGC, a soluble SGC mimic, preferentially inhibited Hsp40-activated Hsc70 ATP hydrolysis (Ki ~ 10 μM) to reduce C-terminal Hsc70-peptide binding and, potentially, chaperone function. ERAD of misfolded ΔF508 CFTR requires Hsc70-Hsp40 chaperones. In transfected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, adaSGC increased ΔF508CFTR ERAD escape, and after low-temperature glycerol rescue, maturation, and iodide efflux. Inhibition of SGC biosynthesis reduced ΔF508CFTR but not wtCFTR expression, whereas depletion of other glycosphingolipids had no affect. WtCFTR transfected BHK cells showed increased SGC synthesis compared with ΔF508CFTR/mock-transfected cells. Partial rescue of ΔF508CFTR by low-temperature glycerol increased SGC synthesis. AdaSGC also increased cellular endogenous SGC levels. SGC in the lung, liver, and kidney was severely depleted in ΔF508CFTR compared with wtCFTR mice, suggesting a role for CFTR in SGC biosynthesis. PMID:19389632

  10. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites in NBD1 and the R domain control CFTR channel activation by PKA.

    PubMed

    Chappe, V; Hinkson, D A; Zhu, T; Chang, X-B; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    2003-04-01

    Activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel by protein kinase A (PKA) is enhanced by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the mechanism of modulation is not known and it remains uncertain whether PKC acts directly on CFTR or through phosphorylation of an ancillary protein. Using excised patches that had been pre-treated with phosphatases, we found that PKC exposure results in much larger PKA-activated currents and shifts the PKA concentration dependence. To examine if these effects are mediated by direct PKC phosphorylation of CFTR, a mutant was constructed in which serines or threonines at nine PKC consensus sequences on CFTR were replaced by alanines (i.e. the '9CA' mutant T582A/T604A/S641A/T682A/S686A/S707A/S790A/T791A/S809A). In excised patches, 9CA channels had greatly reduced responses to PKA (i.e. 5-10 % that of wild-type), which were not enhanced by PKC pre-treatment, although the mutant channels were still functional according to iodide efflux assays. Stimulation of iodide efflux by chlorophenylthio-cAMP (cpt-cAMP) was delayed in cells expressing 9CA channels, and a similar delay was observed when cells expressing wild-type CFTR were treated with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine. This suggests that weak activation by PKA in excised patches and slow stimulation of iodide efflux from intact cells are specifically due to the loss of PKC phosphorylation. Finally, PKC caused a slight activation of wild-type channels when added to excised patches after phosphatase pre-treatment but had no effect on the mutant. We conclude that direct phosphorylation of CFTR at one or more of the nine sites mutated in 9CA is required for both the partial activation by PKC and for its modulation of CFTR responses to PKA. PMID:12588899

  11. Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites in NBD1 and the R domain control CFTR channel activation by PKA

    PubMed Central

    Chappe, V; Hinkson, D A; Zhu, T; Chang, X-B; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel by protein kinase A (PKA) is enhanced by protein kinase C (PKC). However, the mechanism of modulation is not known and it remains uncertain whether PKC acts directly on CFTR or through phosphorylation of an ancillary protein. Using excised patches that had been pre-treated with phosphatases, we found that PKC exposure results in much larger PKA-activated currents and shifts the PKA concentration dependence. To examine if these effects are mediated by direct PKC phosphorylation of CFTR, a mutant was constructed in which serines or threonines at nine PKC consensus sequences on CFTR were replaced by alanines (i.e. the ‘9CA’ mutant T582A/T604A/S641A/T682A/S686A/S707A/S790A/T791A/S809A). In excised patches, 9CA channels had greatly reduced responses to PKA (i.e. 5–10 % that of wild-type), which were not enhanced by PKC pre-treatment, although the mutant channels were still functional according to iodide efflux assays. Stimulation of iodide efflux by chlorophenylthio-cAMP (cpt-cAMP) was delayed in cells expressing 9CA channels, and a similar delay was observed when cells expressing wild-type CFTR were treated with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine. This suggests that weak activation by PKA in excised patches and slow stimulation of iodide efflux from intact cells are specifically due to the loss of PKC phosphorylation. Finally, PKC caused a slight activation of wild-type channels when added to excised patches after phosphatase pre-treatment but had no effect on the mutant. We conclude that direct phosphorylation of CFTR at one or more of the nine sites mutated in 9CA is required for both the partial activation by PKC and for its modulation of CFTR responses to PKA. PMID:12588899

  12. Revertant mutants modify, but do not rescue, the gating defect of the cystic fibrosis mutant G551D-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhe; Pissarra, Luísa S; Farinha, Carlos M; Liu, Jia; Cai, Zhiwei; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Amaral, Margarida D; Sheppard, David N

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by dysfunction of the epithelial anion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). One strategy to restore function to CF mutants is to suppress defects in CFTR processing and function using revertant mutations. Here, we investigate the effects of the revertant mutations G550E and 4RK (the simultaneous disruption of four arginine-framed tripeptides (AFTs): R29K, R516K, R555K and R766K) on the CF mutant G551D, which impairs severely channel gating without altering protein processing and which affects a residue in the same α-helix as G550 and R555. Both G550E and 4RK augmented strongly CFTR-mediated iodide efflux from BHK cells expressing G551D-CFTR. To learn how revertant mutations influence G551D-CFTR function, we studied protein processing and single-channel behaviour. Neither G550E nor 4RK altered the expression and maturation of G551D-CFTR protein. By contrast, both revertants had marked effects on G551D-CFTR channel gating, increasing strongly opening frequency, while 4RK also diminished noticeably the duration of channel openings. Because G551D-CFTR channel gating is ATP independent, we investigated whether revertant mutations restore ATP dependence to G551D-CFTR. Like wild-type CFTR, the activity of 4RK-G551D-CFTR varied with ATP concentration, suggesting that 4RK confers some ATP dependence on the G551D-CFTR channel. Thus, the revertant mutations G550E and 4RK alter the gating pattern and ATP dependence of G551D-CFTR without restoring single-channel activity to wild-type levels. Based on their impact on the CF mutants F508del and G551D, we conclude that G550E and 4RK have direct effects on CFTR structure, but that their action on CFTR processing and channel function is CF mutation specific. PMID:24591578

  13. CFTR Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Verkman, Alan S.; Synder, David; Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Thiagarajah, Jay R.; Anderson, Marc O.

    2014-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel whose major function is to facilitate epithelial fluid secretion. Loss-of-function mutations in CFTR cause the genetic disease cystic fibrosis. CFTR is required for transepithelial fluid transport in certain secretory diarrheas, such as cholera, and for cyst expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. High-throughput screening has yielded CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone, glycine hydrazide and quinoxalinedione chemical classes. The glycine hydrazides target the extracellular CFTR pore, whereas the thiazolidinones and quinoxalinediones act at the cytoplasmic surface. These inhibitors have been widely used in cystic fibrosis research to study CFTR function at the cell and organ levels. The most potent CFTR inhibitor has IC50 of approximately 4 nM. Studies in animal models support the development of CFTR inhibitors for antisecretory therapy of enterotoxin-mediated diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23331030

  14. Increased efficacy of VX-809 in different cellular systems results from an early stabilization effect of F508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Farinha, Carlos M; Sousa, Marisa; Canato, Sara; Schmidt, André; Uliyakina, Inna; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common recessive autosomal disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, F508del, leads to CFTR impaired plasma membrane trafficking. Therapies modulating CFTR basic defect are emerging, such as VX-809, a corrector of F508del-CFTR traffic which just succeeded in a Phase III clinical trial. We recently showed that VX-809 is additive to two other correctors (VRT-325 and compound 4a). Here, we aimed to determine whether the differential rescuing by these compounds results from cell-specific factors or rather from distinct effects at the early biogenesis and/or processing. The rescuing efficiencies of the above three correctors were first compared in different cellular models (primary respiratory cells, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial and baby hamster kidney [BHK] cell lines) by functional approaches: micro-Ussing chamber and iodide efflux. Next, biochemical methods (metabolic labeling, pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation) were used to determine their impact on CFTR biogenesis / processing. Functional analyses revealed that VX-809 has the greatest rescuing efficacy and that the relative efficiencies of the three compounds are essentially maintained in all three cellular models tested. Nevertheless, biochemical data show that VX-809 significantly stabilizes F508del-CFTR immature form, an effect that is not observed for C3 nor C4. VX-809 and C3 also significantly increase accumulation of immature CFTR. Our data suggest that VX-809 increases the stability of F508del-CFTR immature form at an early phase of its biogenesis, thus explaining its increased efficacy when inducing its rescue. PMID:26171232

  15. Increased efficacy of VX-809 in different cellular systems results from an early stabilization effect of F508del-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M; Sousa, Marisa; Canato, Sara; Schmidt, André; Uliyakina, Inna; Amaral, Margarida D

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common recessive autosomal disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The most common mutation, F508del, leads to CFTR impaired plasma membrane trafficking. Therapies modulating CFTR basic defect are emerging, such as VX-809, a corrector of F508del-CFTR traffic which just succeeded in a Phase III clinical trial. We recently showed that VX-809 is additive to two other correctors (VRT-325 and compound 4a). Here, we aimed to determine whether the differential rescuing by these compounds results from cell-specific factors or rather from distinct effects at the early biogenesis and/or processing. The rescuing efficiencies of the above three correctors were first compared in different cellular models (primary respiratory cells, cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial and baby hamster kidney [BHK] cell lines) by functional approaches: micro-Ussing chamber and iodide efflux. Next, biochemical methods (metabolic labeling, pulse-chase and immunoprecipitation) were used to determine their impact on CFTR biogenesis / processing. Functional analyses revealed that VX-809 has the greatest rescuing efficacy and that the relative efficiencies of the three compounds are essentially maintained in all three cellular models tested. Nevertheless, biochemical data show that VX-809 significantly stabilizes F508del-CFTR immature form, an effect that is not observed for C3 nor C4. VX-809 and C3 also significantly increase accumulation of immature CFTR. Our data suggest that VX-809 increases the stability of F508del-CFTR immature form at an early phase of its biogenesis, thus explaining its increased efficacy when inducing its rescue. PMID:26171232

  16. Inhibition by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of P2-purinergic receptor-mediated iodide efflux and phosphoinositide turnover in FRTL-5 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Okajima, F.; Sho, K.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-08-01

    Exposure of FRTL-5 thyroid cells to ATP (1 microM to 1 mM) resulted in the stimulation of I- efflux in association with the induction of inositol trisphosphate production and intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Nonhydrolyzable ATP derivatives, ADP and GTP, were also as effective in magnitude as ATP, whereas neither AMP nor adenosine exerted significant effect on I- efflux, suggesting a P2-purinergic receptor-mediated activation of I- efflux. Treatment of the cells with the islet-activating protein (IAP) pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylated a 41,000 mol wt membrane protein, effectively suppressed the phosphoinositide response to ATP in addition to ATP-dependent I- efflux at agonist concentrations below 10 microM. In contrast, the I- efflux stimulated by TSH, A23187, or phorbol myristate acetate was insusceptible to IAP. The IAP substrate, probably GTP-binding protein, is hence proposed to mediate the activation of P2-purinergic receptor-linked phospholipase-C in FRTL-5 cells. However, the responses to ATP, its nonhydrolyzable derivatives, or ADP at the higher agonist concentrations, especially above 100 microM, were only partially inhibited by IAP, even though the IAP substrate was totally ADP ribosylated by the toxin. The responses to GTP in the whole concentration range tested were not influenced by IAP treatment. Thus, signals arising from the P2-receptor might be transduced to phospholipase-C by two different pathways, i.e. IAP-sensitive and insensitive ones, and result in the stimulation of I- efflux.

  17. Genistein potentiates wild-type and delta F508-CFTR channel activity.

    PubMed

    Hwang, T C; Wang, F; Yang, I C; Reenstra, W W

    1997-09-01

    Effects of genistein on wild-type (wt) and delta F508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were studied in NIH/3T3 cells stably transfected with wt or mutant CFTR cDNA. As measured by I- efflux, half-maximal concentration of agonist (K1/2) for forskolin-dependent activation was greater for delta F508-CFTR than wt-CFTR. Genistein decreased the K1/2 for both forms of the channel and increased the maximal activity of delta F508-CFTR by 3.7-fold. In cell-attached patches, 10 microM forskolin induced minimal delta F508-CFTR activity with characteristic prolonged closed times (estimated time constant, > 30 s). Genistein increased the forskolin-induced macroscopic currents of wt-CFTR and delta F508-CFTR by 3- and 19-fold, respectively. Variance analysis suggested that in the presence of forskolin and genistein the open probabilities (Po) of wt- and delta F508-CFTR were identical. In single-channel studies, at maximal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation, genistein increased the Po of wt-CFTR by prolonging the open time, but, at submaximal cAMP stimulation, the Po was increased by prolonging the open time and shortening the closed time. In excised patches with CFTR channels preactivated in the cell-attached mode, genistein increased ATP-dependent wt- and delta F508-CFTR current about twofold by prolonging the open time. Our results thus suggest that phosphorylation-dependent activation of delta F508-CFTR is defective and that genistein corrects this defect at least in part by binding to the CFTR protein. PMID:9316420

  18. CFTR-independent ATP release from epithelial cells triggered by mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Grygorczyk, R; Hanrahan, J W

    1997-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated ATP efflux has been proposed as an autocrine mechanism for regulating chloride secretion through other types of chloride channels. Although we found in previous studies that wild-type CFTR channels bathed with high-ATP solutions do not conduct ATP at rates that can be measured with the patch-clamp technique, those experiments would not have detected very small or electroneutral ATP fluxes through CFTR or ATP efflux through other pathways that might be regulated by CFTR. To examine these possibilities, we have now used a sensitive luciferase luminometric assay to measure ATP efflux from epithelial and nonepithelial cell lines. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) stimulation did not raise external ATP concentration above the background noise in any of the cell lines tested [T84, Calu-3, 9HTEo- and sigma CFTE29o- (colonic and airway human epithelial cells, respectively), NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, and Chinese hamster ovary cells], and variations in ATP release were not correlated with CFTR expression. The rate of ATP release was unaffected by cAMP but was exquisitely sensitive to mechanical perturbations in both CFTR expressing and nonexpressing cells. Mechanically induced, CFTR-independent ATP release may be a physiologically relevant mechanism of epithelial regulation, which has not previously been fully appreciated. PMID:9124508

  19. Enteric oxalate secretion is not directly mediated by the human CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Marguerite

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of the oxalate anion by intestinal epithelia is a functionally significant component of oxalate homeostasis and hence a relevant factor in the etiology and management of calcium oxalate urolithiasis. To test the hypothesis that human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) can directly mediate the efflux of the oxalate anion, we compared cAMP-stimulated 36Cl−, 14C-oxalate, and 35SO42− efflux from Xenopus oocytes expressing hCFTR with water-injected control oocytes. hCFTR-expressing oocytes exhibited a large, reversible cAMP-dependent increase in whole cell conductance measured using a two-electrode voltage clamp and a 13-fold increase in rate of cAMP-stimulated 36Cl− efflux. In contrast, the rate constants of oxalate and sulfate efflux were low and unaffected by cAMP in either control or hCFTR-expressing oocytes. We conclude that the human CFTR gene product does not directly mediate oxalate efflux in secretory epithelia and hence is not directly involved in oxalate homeostasis in humans. PMID:18563405

  20. CFTR Gating I

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, Silvia G.; Ai, Tomohiko; Cho, Jeong Han; Wang, Xiaohui; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-01-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is activated by phosphorylation of serine residues in the regulatory (R) domain and then gated by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). Studies of the ATP-dependent gating process in excised inside-out patches are very often hampered by channel rundown partly caused by membrane-associated phosphatases. Since the severed ΔR-CFTR, whose R domain is completely removed, can bypass the phosphorylation-dependent regulation, this mutant channel might be a useful tool to explore the gating mechanisms of CFTR. To this end, we investigated the regulation and gating of the ΔR-CFTR expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the cell-attached mode, basal ΔR-CFTR currents were always obtained in the absence of cAMP agonists. Application of cAMP agonists or PMA, a PKC activator, failed to affect the activity, indicating that the activity of ΔR-CFTR channels is indeed phosphorylation independent. Consistent with this conclusion, in excised inside-out patches, application of the catalytic subunit of PKA did not affect ATP-induced currents. Similarities of ATP-dependent gating between wild type and ΔR-CFTR make this phosphorylation-independent mutant a useful system to explore more extensively the gating mechanisms of CFTR. Using the ΔR-CFTR construct, we studied the inhibitory effect of ADP on CFTR gating. The Ki for ADP increases as the [ATP] is increased, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. Single channel kinetic analysis reveals a new closed state in the presence of ADP, consistent with a kinetic mechanism by which ADP binds at the same site as ATP for channel opening. Moreover, we found that the open time of the channel is shortened by as much as 54% in the presence of ADP. This unexpected result suggests another ADP binding site that modulates channel closing. PMID:15767295

  1. CFTR and lung homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Matalon, Sadis

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride and bicarbonate channel that is critical for lung homeostasis. Decreases in CFTR expression have dire consequences in cystic fibrosis (CF) and have been suggested to be a component of the lung pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Decreases or loss of channel function often lead to mucus stasis, chronic bacterial infections, and the accompanying chronic inflammatory responses that promote progressive lung destruction, and, eventually in CF, lung failure. Here we discuss CFTR's functional role airway surface liquid hydration and pH, in regulation of other channels such as the epithelial sodium channel, and in regulating inflammatory responses in the lung. PMID:25381027

  2. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    ... radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. ... only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and public officials tell you that you ...

  3. Potassium Iodide

    MedlinePlus

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released during a nuclear radiation emergency. Radioactive iodine can damage the thyroid gland. You ...

  4. Murine and human CFTR exhibit different sensitivities to CFTR potentiators.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2015-10-01

    Development of therapeutic molecules with clinical efficacy as modulators of defective CFTR includes efforts to identify potentiators that can overcome or repair the gating defect in mutant CFTR channels. This has taken a great leap forward with the identification of the potentiator VX-770, now available to patients as "Kalydeco." Other small molecules with different chemical structure also are capable of potentiating the activity of either wild-type or mutant CFTR, suggesting that there are features of the protein that may be targeted to achieve stimulation of channel activity by structurally diverse compounds. However, neither the mechanisms by which these compounds potentiate mutant CFTR nor the site(s) where these compounds bind have been identified. This knowledge gap partly reflects the lack of appropriate experimental models to provide clues toward the identification of binding sites. Here, we have compared the channel behavior and response to novel and known potentiators of human CFTR (hCFTR) and murine (mCFTR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Both hCFTR and mCFTR were blocked by GlyH-101 from the extracellular side, but mCFTR activity was increased with GlyH-101 applied directly to the cytoplasmic side. Similarly, glibenclamide only exhibited a blocking effect on hCFTR but both blocked and potentiated mCFTR in excised membrane patches and in intact oocytes. The clinically used CFTR potentiator VX-770 transiently increased hCFTR by ∼13% but potentiated mCFTR significantly more strongly. Our results suggest that mCFTR pharmacological sensitivities differ from hCFTR, which will provide a useful tool for identifying the binding sites and mechanism for these potentiators. PMID:26209275

  5. Methyl iodide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl iodide ; CASRN 74 - 88 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  6. Methyl Iodide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane, CH3I) was reported as a potential alternative to the stratospheric ozone-depleting fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) in the mid-1990s (Sims et al., 1995; Ohr et al., 1996). It has since received significant research attention to determine its environmental fate and tran...

  7. Glutathione permeability of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P; Hanrahan, J W

    1998-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) forms an ion channel that is permeable both to Cl- and to larger organic anions. Here we show, using macroscopic current recording from excised membrane patches, that the anionic antioxidant tripeptide glutathione is permeant in the CFTR channel. This permeability may account for the high concentrations of glutathione that have been measured in the surface fluid that coats airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, loss of this pathway for glutathione transport may contribute to the reduced levels of glutathione observed in airway surface fluid of cystic fibrosis patients, which has been suggested to contribute to the oxidative stress observed in the lung in cystic fibrosis. We suggest that release of glutathione into airway surface fluid may be a novel function of CFTR. PMID:9688865

  8. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Luo, Yishan; Wiseman, Paul W.; Hanrahan, John W.; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Sauvé, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    In epithelia, Cl- channels play a prominent role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Of particular importance is the cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) with mutations of the CFTR encoding gene causing cystic fibrosis. The bulk transepithelial transport of Cl- ions and electrolytes needs however to be coupled to an increase in K+ conductance in order to recycle K+ and maintain an electrical driving force for anion exit across the apical membrane. In several epithelia, this K+ efflux is ensured by K+ channels, including KCa3.1, which is expressed at both the apical and basolateral membranes. We show here for the first time that CFTR and KCa3.1 can physically interact. We first performed a two-hybrid screen to identify which KCa3.1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3.1 calmodulin binding domain (residues L345-A400) interact with the NBD2 segment (G1237-Y1420) and C- region of CFTR (residues T1387-L1480), respectively. An association of CFTR and F508del-CFTR with KCa3.1 was further confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrating the formation of immunoprecipitable CFTR/KCa3.1 complexes in CFBE cells. Co-expression of KCa3.1 and CFTR in HEK cells did not impact CFTR expression at the cell surface, and KCa3.1 trafficking appeared independent of CFTR stimulation. Finally, evidence is presented through cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements that KCa3.1 and CFTR colocalize at the plasma membrane and that KCa3.1 channels tend to aggregate consequent to an enhanced interaction with CFTR channels at the plasma membrane following an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Altogether, these results suggest 1) that the physical interaction KCa3.1/CFTR can occur early during the biogenesis of both proteins and 2) that KCa3.1 and CFTR form a dynamic complex, the formation of which depends on

  9. Investigating CFTR and KCa3.1 Protein/Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Hélène; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Trinh, Nguyen Thu Ngan; Luo, Yishan; Wiseman, Paul W; Hanrahan, John W; Brochiero, Emmanuelle; Sauvé, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    In epithelia, Cl- channels play a prominent role in fluid and electrolyte transport. Of particular importance is the cAMP-dependent cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) with mutations of the CFTR encoding gene causing cystic fibrosis. The bulk transepithelial transport of Cl- ions and electrolytes needs however to be coupled to an increase in K+ conductance in order to recycle K+ and maintain an electrical driving force for anion exit across the apical membrane. In several epithelia, this K+ efflux is ensured by K+ channels, including KCa3.1, which is expressed at both the apical and basolateral membranes. We show here for the first time that CFTR and KCa3.1 can physically interact. We first performed a two-hybrid screen to identify which KCa3.1 cytosolic domains might mediate an interaction with CFTR. Our results showed that both the N-terminal fragment M1-M40 of KCa3.1 and part of the KCa3.1 calmodulin binding domain (residues L345-A400) interact with the NBD2 segment (G1237-Y1420) and C- region of CFTR (residues T1387-L1480), respectively. An association of CFTR and F508del-CFTR with KCa3.1 was further confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrating the formation of immunoprecipitable CFTR/KCa3.1 complexes in CFBE cells. Co-expression of KCa3.1 and CFTR in HEK cells did not impact CFTR expression at the cell surface, and KCa3.1 trafficking appeared independent of CFTR stimulation. Finally, evidence is presented through cross-correlation spectroscopy measurements that KCa3.1 and CFTR colocalize at the plasma membrane and that KCa3.1 channels tend to aggregate consequent to an enhanced interaction with CFTR channels at the plasma membrane following an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Altogether, these results suggest 1) that the physical interaction KCa3.1/CFTR can occur early during the biogenesis of both proteins and 2) that KCa3.1 and CFTR form a dynamic complex, the formation of which depends on

  10. The effect of ambroxol on chloride transport, CFTR and ENaC in cystic fibrosis airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Hussain, Rashida; Strid, Hilja; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2013-11-01

    Ambroxol, a mucokinetic anti-inflammatory drug, has been used for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF). The respiratory epithelium is covered by the airway surface liquid (ASL), the thickness and composition of which is determined by Cl(-) efflux via the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na(+) influx via the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC). In cells expressing wt-CFTR, ambroxol increased the Cl(-) conductance, but not the bicarbonate conductance of the CFTR channels. We investigated whether treatment with ambroxol enhances chloride transport and/or CFTR and ENaC expression in CF airway epithelial cells (CFBE) cells. CFBE cells were treated with 100 µM ambroxol for 2, 4 or 8 h. mRNA expression for CFTR and ENaC subunits was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); protein expression was measured by Western blot. The effect of ambroxol on Cl(-) transport was measured by Cl(-) efflux measurements with a fluorescent chloride probe. Ambroxol significantly stimulated Cl(-) efflux from CFBE cells (a sixfold increase after 8 h treatment), and enhanced the expression of the mRNA of CFTR and α-ENaC, and of the CFTR protein. No significant difference was observed in β-ENaC after exposure to ambroxol, whereas mRNA expression of γ-ENaC was reduced. No significant effects of ambroxol on the ENaC subunits were observed by Western blot. Ambroxol did not significantly affect the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. Upregulation of CFTR and enhanced Cl(-) efflux after ambroxol treatment should promote transepithelial ion and water transport, which may improve hydration of the mucus, and therefore be beneficial to CF-patients. PMID:23765701

  11. CFTR Gating II

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, Silvia G.; Cho, Jeong Han; Wang, Xiaohui; Zou, Xiaoqin; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that ADP inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) opening by competing with ATP for a binding site presumably in the COOH-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD2). We also found that the open time of the channel is shortened in the presence of ADP. To further study this effect of ADP on the open state, we have used two CFTR mutants (D1370N and E1371S); both have longer open times because of impaired ATP hydrolysis at NBD2. Single-channel kinetic analysis of ΔR/D1370N-CFTR shows unequivocally that the open time of this mutant channel is decreased by ADP. ΔR/E1371S-CFTR channels can be locked open by millimolar ATP with a time constant of ∼100 s, estimated from current relaxation upon nucleotide removal. ADP induces a shorter locked-open state, suggesting that binding of ADP at a second site decreases the locked-open time. To test the functional consequence of the occupancy of this second nucleotide binding site, we changed the [ATP] and performed similar relaxation analysis for E1371S-CFTR channels. Two locked-open time constants can be discerned and the relative distribution of each component is altered by changing [ATP] so that increasing [ATP] shifts the relative distribution to the longer locked-open state. Single-channel kinetic analysis for ΔR/E1371S-CFTR confirms an [ATP]-dependent shift of the distribution of two locked-open time constants. These results support the idea that occupancy of a second ATP binding site stabilizes the locked-open state. This binding site likely resides in the NH2-terminal nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) because introducing the K464A mutation, which decreases ATP binding affinity at NBD1, into E1371S-CFTR shortens the relaxation time constant. These results suggest that the binding energy of nucleotide at NBD1 contributes to the overall energetics of the open channel conformation. PMID:15767296

  12. Novel regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel gating by external chloride.

    PubMed

    Wright, Angela M; Gong, Xiandi; Verdon, Burns; Linsdell, Paul; Mehta, Anil; Riordan, John R; Argent, Barry E; Gray, Mike A

    2004-10-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is vital for Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) transport in many epithelia. As the HCO(3)(-) concentration in epithelial secretions varies and can reach as high as 140 mm, the lumen-facing domains of CFTR are exposed to large reciprocal variations in Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) levels. We have investigated whether changes in the extracellular anionic environment affects the activity of CFTR using the patch clamp technique. In fast whole cell current recordings, the replacement of 100 mm external Cl(-) ((Cl(o)(-))) with HCO(3)(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), or aspartate(-) inhibited inward CFTR current (Cl(-) efflux) by approximately 50% in a reversible manner. Lowering Cl(o)(-) alone by iso-osmotic replacement with mannitol also reduced Cl(-) efflux to a similar extent. The maximal inhibition of CFTR current was approximately 70%. Raising cytosolic calcium shifted the Cl(-) dose-inhibition curve to the left but did not alter the maximal current inhibition observed. In contrast, a reduction in the internal [Cl(-)] neither inhibited CFTR nor altered the block caused by reduced Cl(o)(-). Single channel recordings from outside-out patches showed that lowering Cl(o)(-) markedly reduced channel open probability with little effect on unitary conductance. Together, these results indicate that alterations in Cl(o)(-) alone and not the Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) ratio regulate the gating of CFTR. Physiologically, our data have implications for current models of epithelial HCO(3)(-) secretion and for the control of pH at epithelial cell surfaces. PMID:15286085

  13. Molecular pharmacology of the CFTR Cl- channel.

    PubMed

    Hwang, T C; Sheppard, D N

    1999-11-01

    Dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel is associated with a wide spectrum of disease. In the search for modulators of CFTR, pharmacological agents that interact directly with the CFTR Cl- channel have been identified. Some agents stimulate CFTR by interacting with the nucleotide-binding domains that control channel gating, whereas others inhibit CFTR by binding within the channel pore and preventing Cl- permeation. Knowledge of the molecular pharmacology of CFTR might lead to new treatments for diseases caused by the dysfunction of CFTR. PMID:10542444

  14. Activation of CFTR by genistein in human airway epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Charlotte; Servetnyk, Zhanna; Roomans, Godfried M

    2003-08-29

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a chloride channel expressed in epithelial cells. The effects of genistein and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) on CFTR were studied in three human airway epithelial cell lines expressing wild-type or DeltaF508 CFTR: Calu-3, CFSMEo-, and CFBE41o- cells. The cells were loaded with the fluorescent dye N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide (MQAE) and chloride efflux was studied. Forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) induced chloride efflux in Calu-3 cells but not in CF lines. Genistein (2.5-50 microM) alone was able to induce chloride efflux in all cell lines. Genistein did not enhance the effect of forskolin and IBMX. PBA had little or no effect on genistein-induced chloride efflux. The effect of genistein seen at low concentrations makes genistein interesting for possible pharmacological treatment of CF, since it is known that similar concentrations can be obtained in plasma by a soy-rich diet. PMID:12914781

  15. Oridonin: a small molecule inhibitor of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isolated from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jian; Zhang, Yaofang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xue; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an epithelial chloride channel regulating the transepithelial transport of electrolyte and water. In the recent years, CFTR chloride channel becomes the new molecular target of treating secretory diarrhea. The objective of this study is to find out a novel CFTR inhibitor from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and study on its pharmacological activity. About 34,000 factions of TCM extracts were screened by high throughput screening (HTS) in this research. We found that Rabdosia rubescens show a potent inhibition on CFTR. Under the bio-active analysis guidance, an ent-kaurane diterpenoid - oridonin (PubChem CID: 34378) was isolated from R. rubescens. A series of intensive studies showed that oridonin remarkably reduced iodide influx in wt-CFTR and ΔF508-CFTR FRT epithelial cells in a dose-dependent and irreversible way. Oridonin sharply blocked FSK-stimulated short-circuit current in both rats and mice intestine in vitro. In mouse closed-loop model, oridonin reduced cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion significantly over 6hours in vivo. Thus we concluded that oridonin is a new inhibitor of CFTR Cl(-) channel. It will be a good leading compound for developing the new drug of cholera toxin-induced secretory diarrhea. PMID:25447156

  16. Correction of F508del CFTR in airway epithelium using nanoparticles delivering triplex-forming PNAs

    PubMed Central

    McNeer, Nicole Ali; Anandalingam, Kavitha; Fields, Rachel J.; Caputo, Christina; Kopic, Sascha; Gupta, Anisha; Quijano, Elias; Polikoff, Lee; Kong, Yong; Bahal, Raman; Geibel, John P; Glazer, Peter M.; Saltzman, W. Mark; Egan, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder most commonly caused by the F508del mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It is not readily amenable to gene therapy because of its systemic nature and challenges including in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression. Here, we use triplex-forming PNA molecules and donor DNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles to correct F508del. We confirm modification with sequencing and a functional chloride efflux assay. In vitro correction of chloride efflux occurs in up to 25% of human cells. Deep sequencing reveals negligible off-target effects in partially homologous sites. Intranasal application of nanoparticles in CF mice produces changes in nasal epithelium potential differences consistent with corrected CFTR, with gene correction also detected in lung tissue. This work represents facile genome engineering in vivo with oligonucleotides using a nanoparticle system to achieve clinically relevant levels of gene editing without off-target effects. PMID:25914116

  17. Ouabain Regulates CFTR-Mediated Anion Secretion and Na,K-ATPase Transport in ADPKD Cells.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Kyle; Venugopal, Jessica; Sánchez, Gladis; Magenheimer, Brenda S; Reif, Gail A; Wallace, Darren P; Calvet, James P; Blanco, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    Cyst enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) requires the transepithelial secretion of fluid into the cyst lumen. We previously showed that physiological amounts of ouabain enhance cAMP-dependent fluid secretion and cyst growth of human ADPKD cyst epithelial cells in culture and formation of cyst-like dilations in metanephric kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which ouabain promotes cAMP-dependent fluid secretion and cystogenesis. Ouabain (3 nM) enhanced cAMP-induced cyst-like dilations in embryonic kidneys from Pkd1 (m1Bei) mice, but had no effect on metanephroi from Pkd1 (m1Bei) mice that lack expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Similarly, ouabain stimulation of cAMP-induced fluid secretion and in vitro cyst growth of ADPKD cells were abrogated by CFTR inhibition, showing that CFTR is required for ouabain effects on ADPKD fluid secretion. Moreover, ouabain directly enhanced the cAMP-dependent Cl(-) efflux mediated by CFTR in ADPKD monolayers. Ouabain increased the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane and up-regulated the expression of the CFTR activator PDZK1. Finally, ouabain decreased plasma membrane expression and activity of the Na,K-ATPase in ADPKD cells. Altogether, these results show that ouabain enhances net fluid secretion and cyst formation by activating apical anion secretion via CFTR and decreasing basolateral Na(+) transport via Na,K-ATPase. These results provide new information on the mechanisms by which ouabain affects ADPKD cells and further highlight the importance of ouabain as a non-genomic stimulator of cystogenesis in ADPKD. PMID:26289599

  18. Phosphate stimulates CFTR Cl- channels.

    PubMed Central

    Carson, M R; Travis, S M; Winter, M C; Sheppard, D N; Welsh, M J

    1994-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels appear to be regulated by hydrolysis of ATP and are inhibited by a product of hydrolysis, ADP. We assessed the effect of the other product of hydrolysis, inorganic phosphate (P(i)), on CFTR Cl- channel activity using the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Millimolar concentrations of P(i) caused a dose-dependent stimulation of CFTR Cl- channel activity. Single-channel analysis demonstrated that the increase in macroscopic current was due to an increase in single-channel open-state probability (po) and not single-channel conductance. Kinetic modeling of the effect of P(i) using a linear three-state model indicated that the effect on po was predominantly the result of an increase in the rate at which the channel passed from the long closed state to the bursting state. P(i) also potentiated activity of channels studied in the presence of 10 mM ATP and stimulated Cl- currents in CFTR mutants lacking much of the R domain. Binding studies with a photoactivatable ATP analog indicated that Pi decreased the amount of bound nucleotide. These results suggest that P(i) increased CFTR Cl- channel activity by stimulating a rate-limiting step in channel opening that may occur by an interaction of P(i) at one or both nucleotide-binding domains. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:7532021

  19. Regulation of CFTR channel gating.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, D C; Hwang, T C; Baukrowitz, T; Nagel, G; Horie, M; Nairn, A C

    1994-01-01

    Findings outlined here support a complex model for the regulation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl channel gating that incorporates incremental protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation of CFTR at multiple sites which, in turn, differentially control the activity of CFTR's two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The NBDs are functionally distinct: only one can respond to the non-hydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PNP, and then only after ATP has acted at the other. Moreover, the nature of the responses to AMP-PNP, and to the inorganic phosphate analogue orthovanadate, argues that ATP hydrolysis normally occurs at both NBDs, at one to initiate channel opening and at the other to initiate closing. PMID:7752525

  20. Regulation of Plasma Membrane Recycling by CFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Neil A.; Jilling, Tamas; Berta, Gabor; Sorscher, Eric J.; Bridges, Robert J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    1992-04-01

    The gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis. Although the protein product of the CFTR gene has been proposed to function as a chloride ion channel, certain aspects of its function remain unclear. The role of CFTR in the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent regulation of plasma membrane recycling was examined. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate is known to regulate endocytosis and exocytosis in chloride-secreting epithelial cells that express CFTR. However, mutant epithelial cells derived from a patient with cystic fibrosis exhibited no cAMP-dependent regulation of endocytosis and exocytosis until they were transfected with complementary DNA encoding wild-type CFTR. Thus, CFTR is critical for cAMP-dependent regulation of membrane recycling in epithelial tissues, and this function of CFTR could explain in part the pleiotropic nature of cystic fibrosis.

  1. Dual activation of CFTR and CLCN2 by lubiprostone in murine nasal epithelia.

    PubMed

    Schiffhauer, Eric S; Vij, Neeraj; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Doug; Lee, Seakwoo; Zeitlin, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple sodium and chloride channels on the apical surface of nasal epithelial cells contribute to periciliary fluid homeostasis, a function that is disrupted in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Among these channels is the chloride channel CLCN2, which has been studied as a potential alternative chloride efflux pathway in the absence of CFTR. The object of the present study was to use the nasal potential difference test (NPD) to quantify CLCN2 function in an epithelial-directed TetOn CLCN2 transgenic mouse model (TGN-K18rtTA-hCLCN2) by using the putative CLCN2 pharmacological agonist lubiprostone and peptide inhibitor GaTx2. Lubiprostone significantly increased chloride transport in the CLCN2-overexpressing mice following activation of the transgene by doxycycline. This response to lubiprostone was significantly inhibited by GaTx2 after CLCN2 activation in TGN-CLCN2 mice. Cftr(-/-) and Clc2(-/-) mice showed hyperpolarization indicative of chloride efflux in response to lubiprostone, which was fully inhibited by GaTx2 and CFTR inhibitor 172 + GlyH-101, respectively. Our study reveals lubiprostone as a pharmacological activator of both CFTR and CLCN2. Overexpression and activation of CLCN2 leads to improved mouse NPD readings, suggesting it is available as an alternative pathway for epithelial chloride secretion in murine airways. The utilization of CLCN2 as an alternative chloride efflux channel could provide clinical benefit to patients with CF, especially if the pharmacological activator is administered as an aerosol. PMID:23316067

  2. Imaging CFTR in its native environment.

    PubMed

    Schillers, Hermann

    2008-04-01

    Application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) on isolated plasma membranes is a valuable method to study membrane proteins down to single-molecule level in their native environment. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a protein of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter superfamily, is known to play a crucial role in maintaining the salt and water balance on the epithelium and to influence processes such as cell volume regulation. A mutation in the gene encoding for CFTR results in cystic fibrosis (CF), a very common lethal genetic disease. Identification of CFTR within the cell membrane at the single-molecule level makes it feasible to visualize the distribution and organization of CFTR proteins within the cell membrane of healthy individuals and CF patients. We were able to show that human red blood cells have a CFTR distribution comparable to that of epithelial cells and that the number of CFTR in cells derived from CF patients is strongly reduced. Studies on CFTR-expressing oocytes disclose CFTR dynamics upon CFTR activation. We observed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate induces an insertion of CFTR in the plasma membrane and the formation of heteromeric CFTR-containing structures with yet unknown stoichiometry. The structure of CFTR was identified by high-resolution scans of immunogold-labeled CFTR, revealing that CFTR forms a tail-to-tail dimer with a central pore. In conclusion, these studies show that AFM experiments on isolated plasma membranes allow not only quantification and localization of membrane proteins but also provide insight in their dynamics at a single-molecule level. PMID:18057957

  3. CFTR activity and mitochondrial function☆

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Angel Gabriel; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a frequent and lethal autosomal recessive disease, caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). Before the discovery of the CFTR gene, several hypotheses attempted to explain the etiology of this disease, including the possible role of a chloride channel, diverse alterations in mitochondrial functions, the overexpression of the lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase and a deficiency in the cytosolic enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Because of the diverse mitochondrial changes found, some authors proposed that the affected gene should codify for a mitochondrial protein. Later, the CFTR cloning and the demonstration of its chloride channel activity turned the mitochondrial, lysosomal and cytosolic hypotheses obsolete. However, in recent years, using new approaches, several investigators reported similar or new alterations of mitochondrial functions in Cystic Fibrosis, thus rediscovering a possible role of mitochondria in this disease. Here, we review these CFTR-driven mitochondrial defects, including differential gene expression, alterations in oxidative phosphorylation, calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, apoptosis and innate immune response, which might explain some characteristics of the complex CF phenotype and reveals potential new targets for therapy. PMID:24024153

  4. Localizing a gate in CFTR.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaolong; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-02-24

    Experimental and computational studies have painted a picture of the chloride permeation pathway in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a short narrow tunnel flanked by wider inner and outer vestibules. Although these studies also identified a number of transmembrane segments (TMs) as pore-lining, the exact location of CFTR's gate(s) remains unknown. Here, using a channel-permeant probe, [Au(CN)2](-), we provide evidence that CFTR bears a gate that coincides with the predicted narrow section of the pore defined as residues 338-341 in TM6. Specifically, cysteines introduced cytoplasmic to the narrow region (i.e., positions 344 in TM6 and 1148 in TM12) can be modified by intracellular [Au(CN)2](-) in both open and closed states, corroborating the conclusion that the internal vestibule does not harbor a gate. However, cysteines engineered to positions external to the presumed narrow region (e.g., 334, 335, and 337 in TM6) are all nonreactive toward cytoplasmic [Au(CN)2](-) in the absence of ATP, whereas they can be better accessed by extracellular [Au(CN)2](-) when the open probability is markedly reduced by introducing a second mutation, G1349D. As [Au(CN)2](-) and chloride ions share the same permeation pathway, these results imply a gate is situated between amino acid residues 337 and 344 along TM6, encompassing the very segment that may also serve as the selectivity filter for CFTR. The unique position of a gate in the middle of the ion translocation pathway diverges from those seen in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and thus distinguishes CFTR from other members of the ABC transporter family. PMID:25675504

  5. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  6. Localizing a gate in CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaolong; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and computational studies have painted a picture of the chloride permeation pathway in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) as a short narrow tunnel flanked by wider inner and outer vestibules. Although these studies also identified a number of transmembrane segments (TMs) as pore-lining, the exact location of CFTR’s gate(s) remains unknown. Here, using a channel-permeant probe, [Au(CN)2]−, we provide evidence that CFTR bears a gate that coincides with the predicted narrow section of the pore defined as residues 338–341 in TM6. Specifically, cysteines introduced cytoplasmic to the narrow region (i.e., positions 344 in TM6 and 1148 in TM12) can be modified by intracellular [Au(CN)2]− in both open and closed states, corroborating the conclusion that the internal vestibule does not harbor a gate. However, cysteines engineered to positions external to the presumed narrow region (e.g., 334, 335, and 337 in TM6) are all nonreactive toward cytoplasmic [Au(CN)2]− in the absence of ATP, whereas they can be better accessed by extracellular [Au(CN)2]− when the open probability is markedly reduced by introducing a second mutation, G1349D. As [Au(CN)2]− and chloride ions share the same permeation pathway, these results imply a gate is situated between amino acid residues 337 and 344 along TM6, encompassing the very segment that may also serve as the selectivity filter for CFTR. The unique position of a gate in the middle of the ion translocation pathway diverges from those seen in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and thus distinguishes CFTR from other members of the ABC transporter family. PMID:25675504

  7. Chimeric constructs endow the human CFTR Cl− channel with the gating behavior of murine CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Ward, Toby S.; Cai, Zhiwei; Dawson, Elizabeth S.; Doherty, Ann; Carina Da Paula, Ana; Davidson, Heather; Porteous, David J.; Wainwright, Brandon J.; Amaral, Margarida D.; Sheppard, David N.; Boyd, A. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl− channel gated by ATP-driven nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) dimerization. Here we exploit species differences between human and murine CFTR to investigate CFTR channel gating. Using homologous recombination, we constructed human-murine CFTR (hmCFTR) chimeras with sequences from NBD1, NBD2, or the regulatory domain (RD) of human CFTR replaced by the equivalent regions of murine CFTR. The gating behavior of hmRD and human CFTR were indistinguishable, whereas hmNBD1 and hmNBD2 had subtle effects on channel gating, prolonging both burst duration and interburst interval. By contrast, hmNBD1+2, containing both NBDs of murine CFTR, reproduced the gating behavior of the subconductance state of murine CFTR, which has dramatically prolonged channel openings. The CFTR potentiator pyrophosphate (PPi) enhanced human, hmRD, and hmNBD1 CFTR Cl− currents, but not those of hmNBD2, hmNBD1+2, and murine CFTR. By analyzing the rate-equilibrium free-energy relationships of chimeric channels, we obtained snapshots of the conformation of the NBDs during ATP-driven dimerization. Our data demonstrate that the conformation of NBD1 changes before that of NBD2 during channel opening. This finding suggests that NBD dimerization does not proceed by a symmetric tweezer-like motion, but instead in an asymmetric fashion led by NBD1. We conclude that the NBDs of murine CFTR determine the unique gating behavior of its subconductance state, whereas NBD2 controls channel potentiation by PPi. PMID:17913891

  8. Mercury iodide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadoret, R.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Mercury Iodide Crystal Growth (MICG) experiment is the growth of near-perfect single crystals of mercury Iodide (HgI2) in a microgravity environment which will decrease the convection effects on crystal growth. Evaporation and condensation are the only transformations involved in this experiment. To accomplish these objectives, a two-zone furnace will be used in which two sensors collect the temperature data (one in each zone).

  9. Bacterial multidrug efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Delmar, Jared A; Su, Chih-Chia; Yu, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by bacteria are a leading cause of death worldwide. Although antibiotics remain a key clinical therapy, their effectiveness has been severely compromised by the development of drug resistance in bacterial pathogens. Multidrug efflux transporters--a common and powerful resistance mechanism--are capable of extruding a number of structurally unrelated antimicrobials from the bacterial cell, including antibiotics and toxic heavy metal ions, facilitating their survival in noxious environments. Transporters of the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily typically assemble as tripartite efflux complexes spanning the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope. In Escherichia coli, the CusCFBA complex, which mediates resistance to copper(I) and silver(I) ions, is the only known RND transporter specific to heavy metals. Here, we describe the current knowledge of individual pump components of the Cus system, a paradigm for efflux machinery, and speculate on how RND pumps assemble to fight diverse antimicrobials. PMID:24702006

  10. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Kleizen, B; Braakman, I; de Jonge, H R

    2000-08-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Whereas a key role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in CFTR-channel gating has been firmly established, more recent studies have provided clear evidence for the existence of a second level of cAMP regulation, i.e. the exocytotic recruitment of CFFR to the plasma membrane and its endocytotic retrieval. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR Cl- channel has sofar been demonstrated only in a subset of CFTR-expressing cell types. However, with the introduction of more sensitive methods to measure CFTR cycling and submembrane localization, it might turn out to be a more general phenomenon that could contribute importantly to both the regulation of CFTR-mediated chloride transport itself and to the regulation of other transporters and CFTR-modulated cellular functions. This review aims to summarize the present state of knowledge regarding polarized and regulated CFTR trafficking and endosomal recycling in epithelial cells, to discuss present gaps in our understanding of these processes at the cellular and molecular level, and to consider its possible implications for cystic fibrosis. PMID:11001491

  11. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Valentina; Vergani, Paola; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. CFTR controls the flow of anions through the apical membrane of epithelia. Dysfunctional CFTR causes the common lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Transitions between open and closed states of CFTR are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis on the cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, which are coupled with the transmembrane (TM) domains forming the pathway for anion permeation. Lack of structural data hampers a global understanding of CFTR and thus the development of “rational” approaches directly targeting defective CFTR. In this work, we explored possible conformational states of the CFTR gating cycle by means of homology modeling. As templates, we used structures of homologous ABC transporters, namely TM(287–288), ABC-B10, McjD, and Sav1866. In the light of published experimental results, structural analysis of the transmembrane cavity suggests that the TM(287–288)-based CFTR model could correspond to a commonly occupied closed state, whereas the McjD-based model could represent an open state. The models capture the important role played by Phe-337 as a filter/gating residue and provide structural information on the conformational transition from closed to open channel. PMID:26229102

  12. [Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis with CFTR Modulators].

    PubMed

    Tümmler, B

    2016-05-01

    Personalized medicine promises that medical decisions, practices and products are tailored to the individual patient. Cystic fibrosis, an inherited disorder of chloride and bicarbonate transport in exocrine glands, is the first successful example of customized drug development for mutation-specific therapy. There are two classes of CFTR modulators: potentiators that increase the activity of CFTR at the cell surface, and correctors that either promote the read-through of nonsense mutations or facilitate the translation, folding, maturation and trafficking of mutant CFTR to the cell surface. The potentiator ivacaftor and the corrector lumacaftor are approved in Germany for the treatment of people with cystic fibrosis who carry a gating mutation such as p.Gly551Asp or who are homozygous for the most common mutation p.Phe508del, respectively. This report provides an overview of the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, the population genetics of CFTR mutations in Germany and the bioassays to assess CFTR function in humans together with the major achievements of preclinical research and clinical trials to bring CFTR modulators to the clinic. Some practical information on the use of ivacaftor and lumacaftor in daily practice and an update on pitfalls, challenges and novel strategies of bench-to-bedside development of CFTR modulators are also provided. PMID:26894479

  13. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on chloride efflux from airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Varelogianni, Georgia; Oliynyk, Igor; Roomans, Godfried M; Johannesson, Marie

    2010-03-01

    Defective chloride transport in epithelial cells increases mucus viscosity and leads to recurrent infections with high oxidative stress in patients with CF (cystic fibrosis). NAC (N-acetylcysteine) is a well known mucolytic and antioxidant drug, and an indirect precursor of glutathione. Since GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) previously has been shown to be able to promote Cl- efflux from CF airway epithelial cells, it was investigated whether NAC also could stimulate Cl- efflux from CF and non-CF epithelial cells and through which mechanisms. CFBE (CF bronchial epithelial cells) and normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) were treated with 1 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM or 15 mM NAC for 4 h at 37 degrees C. The effect of NAC on Cl- transport was measured by Cl- efflux measurements and by X-ray microanalysis. Cl- efflux from CFBE cells was stimulated by NAC in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 mM NAC causing a significant increase in Cl- efflux with nearly 80% in CFBE cells. The intracellular Cl- concentration in CFBE cells was significantly decreased up to 60% after 4 h treatment with 10 mM NAC. Moreover immunocytochemistry and Western blot experiments revealed expression of CFTR channel on CFBE cells after treatment with 10 mM NAC. The stimulation of Cl- efflux by NAC in CF airway epithelial cells may improve hydration of the mucus and thereby be beneficial for CF patients. PMID:19947928

  14. Compartmentalized Accumulation of cAMP near Complexes of Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Contributes to Drug-induced Diarrhea*

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Ren, Aixia; Arora, Kavisha; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Woodrooffe, Koryse; Schuetz, John D.; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; de Jonge, Hugo R.; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M.; Buddington, Randal K.; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either substrates or inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), such as the anti-colon cancer drug irinotecan and an anti-retroviral used to treat HIV infection, 3′-azido-3′-deoxythymidine (AZT). These drugs activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluid secretion by inhibiting MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux. Binding of drugs to MRP4 augments the formation of MRP4-CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes that is mediated via scaffolding protein PDZK1. Importantly, HIV patients on AZT treatment demonstrate augmented MRP4-CFTR complex formation in the colon, which defines a novel paradigm of drug-induced diarrhea. PMID:25762723

  15. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2015-03-31

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca(2+) mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca(2+) mobilization. Ca(2+) mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  16. CFTR and sphingolipids mediate hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    Tabeling, Christoph; Yu, Hanpo; Wang, Liming; Ranke, Hannes; Goldenberg, Neil M.; Zabini, Diana; Noe, Elena; Krauszman, Adrienn; Gutbier, Birgitt; Yin, Jun; Schaefer, Michael; Arenz, Christoph; Hocke, Andreas C.; Suttorp, Norbert; Proia, Richard L.; Witzenrath, Martin; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) optimizes pulmonary ventilation-perfusion matching in regional hypoxia, but promotes pulmonary hypertension in global hypoxia. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch is a major cause of hypoxemia in cystic fibrosis. We hypothesized that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) may be critical in HPV, potentially by modulating the response to sphingolipids as mediators of HPV. HPV and ventilation-perfusion mismatch were analyzed in isolated mouse lungs or in vivo. Ca2+ mobilization and transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) translocation were studied in human pulmonary (PASMCs) or coronary (CASMCs) artery smooth muscle cells. CFTR inhibition or deficiency diminished HPV and aggravated ventilation-perfusion mismatch. In PASMCs, hypoxia caused CFTR to interact with TRPC6, whereas CFTR inhibition attenuated hypoxia-induced TRPC6 translocation to caveolae and Ca2+ mobilization. Ca2+ mobilization by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was also attenuated by CFTR inhibition in PASMCs, but amplified in CASMCs. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase (nSMase) blocked HPV, whereas exogenous nSMase caused TRPC6 translocation and vasoconstriction that were blocked by CFTR inhibition. nSMase- and hypoxia-induced vasoconstriction, yet not TRPC6 translocation, were blocked by inhibition or deficiency of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) or antagonism of S1P receptors 2 and 4 (S1P2/4). S1P and nSMase had synergistic effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction that involved TRPC6, phospholipase C, and rho kinase. Our findings demonstrate a central role of CFTR and sphingolipids in HPV. Upon hypoxia, nSMase triggers TRPC6 translocation, which requires its interaction with CFTR. Concomitant SphK1-dependent formation of S1P and activation of S1P2/4 result in phospholipase C-mediated TRPC6 and rho kinase activation, which conjointly trigger vasoconstriction. PMID:25829545

  17. CFTR function and prospects for therapy.

    PubMed

    Riordan, John R

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) epithelial anion channel cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The multidomain integral membrane glycoprotein, a member of the adenine nucleotide-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, conserved in metazoan salt-transporting tissues, is required to control ion and fluid homeostasis on epithelial surfaces. This review considers different therapeutic strategies that have arisen from knowledge of CFTR structure and function as well as its biosynthetic processing, intracellular trafficking, and turnover. PMID:18304008

  18. Functional architecture of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of membrane transport proteins. CFTR is unique among ABC proteins in that it functions not as an active transporter but as an ATP-gated Cl(-) channel. As an ion channel, the function of the CFTR transmembrane channel pore that mediates Cl(-) movement has been studied in great detail. On the other hand, only low resolution structural data is available on the transmembrane parts of the protein. The structure of the channel pore has, however, been modeled on the known structure of active transporter ABC proteins. Currently, significant barriers exist to building a unified view of CFTR pore structure and function. Reconciling functional data on the channel with indirect structural data based on other proteins with very different transport functions and substrates has proven problematic. This review summarizes current structural and functional models of the CFTR Cl(-) channel pore, including a comprehensive review of previous electrophysiological investigations of channel structure and function. In addition, functional data on the three-dimensional arrangement of pore-lining helices, as well as contemporary hypotheses concerning conformational changes in the pore that occur during channel opening and closing, are discussed. Important similarities and differences between different models of the pore highlight current gaps in our knowledge of CFTR structure and function. In order to fill these gaps, structural and functional models of the membrane-spanning pore need to become better integrated. PMID:24341413

  19. Direct action of genistein on CFTR.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, F; Wood, P G; Riordan, J R; Nagel, G

    1997-08-01

    Human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels were expressed in oocytes from Xenopus laevis after injection of CFTR cRNA and studied with the two-electrode voltage-clamp and the giant patch techniques. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein alone activated a small chloride current in whole oocytes expressing CFTR and substantially increased the chloride current obtained upon stimulation with forskolin and isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX). In giant excised patches, genistein was unable to open protein-kinase-A-phosphorylated CFTR channels in the absence of ATP, but increased the ATP-induced CFTR channel currents by a factor of 3.8 +/- 1.7. This genistein-mediated potentiation in excised patches is independent of protein phosphatase activity, as it is readily reversible, even after complete inhibition of protein kinase A activity. Involvement of protein tyrosine kinases also seems unlikely, because this effect of genistein is not antagonized by high concentrations of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor ortho-vanadate. We, therefore, propose a direct interaction of genistein with CFTR, probably at a nucleotide binding site, which leads to a higher open probability. PMID:9211816

  20. Regulatory insertion removal restores maturation, stability and function of DeltaF508 CFTR.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Kota, Pradeep; Aleksandrov, Luba A; He, Lihua; Jensen, Tim; Cui, Liying; Gentzsch, Martina; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Riordan, John R

    2010-08-13

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) epithelial anion channel is a large multidomain membrane protein that matures inefficiently during biosynthesis. Its assembly is further perturbed by the deletion of F508 from the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) responsible for most cystic fibrosis. The mutant polypeptide is recognized by cellular quality control systems and is proteolyzed. CFTR NBD1 contains a 32-residue segment termed the regulatory insertion (RI) not present in other ATP-binding cassette transporters. We report here that RI deletion enabled F508 CFTR to mature and traffic to the cell surface where it mediated regulated anion efflux and exhibited robust single chloride channel activity. Long-term pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature DeltaRI/DeltaF508 had a T(1/2) of approximately 14 h in cells, similar to the wild type. RI deletion restored ATP occlusion by NBD1 of DeltaF508 CFTR and had a strong thermostabilizing influence on the channel with gating up to at least 40 degrees C. None of these effects of RI removal were achieved by deletion of only portions of RI. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations of NBD1 indicated that RI might indirectly influence the interaction of NBD1 with the rest of the protein by attenuating the coupling of the F508-containing loop with the F1-like ATP-binding core subdomain so that RI removal overcame the perturbations caused by F508 deletion. Restriction of RI to a particular conformational state may ameliorate the impact of the disease-causing mutation. PMID:20561529

  1. Regulatory insertion removal restores maturation, stability and function of ΔF508 CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Kota, Pradeep; Aleksandrov, Luba A.; He, Lihua; Jensen, Tim; Cui, Liying; Gentzsch, Martina; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Riordan, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) epithelial anion channel is a large multi-domain membrane protein which matures inefficiently during biosynthesis. Its assembly is further perturbed by the deletion of F508 from the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) responsible for most cystic fibrosis. The mutant polypeptide is recognized by cellular quality control systems and is proteolyzed. CFTR NBD1 contains a 32 residue segment termed the regulatory insertion (RI) not present in other ABC transporters. We report here that RI deletion enabled ΔF508 CFTR to mature and traffic to the cell surface where it mediated regulated anion efflux and exhibited robust single chloride channel activity. Long term pulse-chase experiments showed that the mature ΔRI/ΔF508 had a T1/2 of ~14h in cells, similar to the wild-type. RI deletion restored ATP occlusion by NBD1 of ΔF508 CFTR and had a strong thermo-stabilizing influence on the channel with gating up to at least 40°C. None of these effects of RI removal were achieved by deletion of only portions of RI. Discrete molecular dynamics simulations of NBD1 indicated that RI might indirectly influence the interaction of NBD1 with the rest of the protein by attenuating the coupling of the F508 containing loop with the F1-like ATP-binding core subdomain so that RI removal overcame the perturbations caused by F508 deletion. Restriction of RI to a particular conformational state may ameliorate the impact of the disease-causing mutation. PMID:20561529

  2. Conserved Allosteric Hot Spots in the Transmembrane Domains of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Channels and Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) Pumps*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shipeng; Roessler, Bryan C.; Chauvet, Sylvain; Guo, Jingyu; Hartman, John L.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are an ancient family of transmembrane proteins that utilize ATPase activity to move substrates across cell membranes. The ABCC subfamily of the ABC transporters includes active drug exporters (the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs)) and a unique ATP-gated ion channel (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)). The CFTR channel shares gating principles with conventional ligand-gated ion channels, but the allosteric network that couples ATP binding at its nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) with conformational changes in its transmembrane helices (TMs) is poorly defined. It is also unclear whether the mechanisms that govern CFTR gating are conserved with the thermodynamically distinct MRPs. Here we report a new class of gain of function (GOF) mutation of a conserved proline at the base of the pore-lining TM6. Multiple substitutions of this proline promoted ATP-free CFTR activity and activation by the weak agonist, 5′-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). TM6 proline mutations exhibited additive GOF effects when combined with a previously reported GOF mutation located in an outer collar of TMs that surrounds the pore-lining TMs. Each TM substitution allosterically rescued the ATP sensitivity of CFTR gating when introduced into an NBD mutant with defective ATP binding. Both classes of GOF mutations also rescued defective drug export by a yeast MRP (Yor1p) with ATP binding defects in its NBDs. We conclude that the conserved TM6 proline helps set the energy barrier to both CFTR channel opening and MRP-mediated drug efflux and that CFTR channels and MRP pumps utilize similar allosteric mechanisms for coupling conformational changes in their translocation pathways to ATP binding at their NBDs. PMID:24876383

  3. Cesium iodide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Moorhead, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a CsI composition with improved mechanical strength and outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance, for window use. The additive is a monovalent iodide, other than CsI, added in amounts sufficient to maximize fracture strength from 16 to 40 MPa, while maintaining at least 10% transparency in the 4 to 50 micrometer wavelength range. The preferred additive is AgI, although RbI or CuI can be used. 6 figs. (DLC)

  4. Modulation of CFTR gating by permeant ions.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Han-I; Yeh, Jiunn-Tyng; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is unique among ion channels in that after its phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), its ATP-dependent gating violates microscopic reversibility caused by the intimate involvement of ATP hydrolysis in controlling channel closure. Recent studies suggest a gating model featuring an energetic coupling between opening and closing of the gate in CFTR's transmembrane domains and association and dissociation of its two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We found that permeant ions such as nitrate can increase the open probability (Po) of wild-type (WT) CFTR by increasing the opening rate and decreasing the closing rate. Nearly identical effects were seen with a construct in which activity does not require phosphorylation of the regulatory domain, indicating that nitrate primarily affects ATP-dependent gating steps rather than PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the effects of nitrate on CFTR gating are remarkably similar to those of VX-770 (N-(2,4-Di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide), a potent CFTR potentiator used in clinics. These include effects on single-channel kinetics of WT CFTR, deceleration of the nonhydrolytic closing rate, and potentiation of the Po of the disease-associated mutant G551D. In addition, both VX-770 and nitrate increased the activity of a CFTR construct lacking NBD2 (ΔNBD2), indicating that these gating effects are independent of NBD dimerization. Nonetheless, whereas VX-770 is equally effective when applied from either side of the membrane, nitrate potentiates gating mainly from the cytoplasmic side, implicating a common mechanism for gating modulation mediated through two separate sites of action. PMID:25512598

  5. Modulation of CFTR chloride channels by calyculin A and genistein.

    PubMed

    Yang, I C; Cheng, T H; Wang, F; Price, E M; Hwang, T C

    1997-01-01

    Modulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel by calyculin A and genistein was studied in Hi-5 insect cells infected with baculovirus containing the wild-type CFTR cDNA. In cell-attached patches, CFTR channel activity was not observed until stimulated by forskolin in 90% of the cells, suggesting a low level of basal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate activity. Calyculin A, a specific inhibitor of phosphatases 1 and 2A, increased forskolin-induced CFTR activity by 17.2-fold. CFTR channel currents did not deactivate completely after forskolin was withdrawn in the continued presence of calyculin A. Genistein enhanced forskolin-induced CFTR activity by 44.9-fold but could neither activate the CFTR by itself nor prevent complete deactivation on removal of forskolin. Genistein together with calyculin A could adequately prevent deactivation of CFTR currents. Noise analysis of the macroscopic CFTR currents revealed significant differences in the mean current-variance-relationship and the corner frequency of the noise spectra between currents activated by forskolin plus genistein and those activated by forskolin plus calyculin A. Furthermore, genistein enhanced CFTR activity induced by saturating concentrations of forskolin and calyculin A. Our results suggest that genistein and calyculin A modulate the CFTR by different mechanisms and that genistein might inhibit calyculin A-insensitive dephosphorylation of the CFTR. PMID:9038820

  6. Permeation through the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    McCarty, N A

    2000-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein forms a Cl(-) channel found in the plasma membranes of many epithelial cells, including those of the kidney, gut and conducting airways. Mutation of the gene encoding CFTR is the primary defect in cystic fibrosis, a disease that affects approximately 30 000 individuals in the United States alone. Alteration of CFTR function also plays an important role in the pathophysiology of secretory diarrhea and polycystic kidney disease. The basic mechanisms of permeation in this channel are not well understood. It is not known which portions of the protein contribute to forming the pore or which amino acid residues in those domains are involved in the biophysical processes of ion permeation. In this review, I will discuss (i) the present understanding of ion transport processes in the wild-type CFTR channel, (ii) the experimental approaches currently being applied to investigate the pore, and (iii) a proposed structure that takes into account the present data on mechanisms of ion selectivity in the CFTR channel and on blockade of the pore by open-channel blockers. PMID:10851114

  7. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Mark F.; O'Ryan, Liam P.; Hughes, Guy; Zhao, Zhefeng; Aleksandrov, Luba A.; Riordan, John R.; Ford, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis affects about 1 in 2500 live births and involves loss of transmembrane chloride flux due to a lack of a membrane protein channel termed the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). We have studied CFTR structure by electron crystallography. The data were compared with existing structures of other ATP-binding cassette transporters. The protein was crystallized in the outward facing state and resembled the well characterized Sav1866 transporter. We identified regions in the CFTR map, not accounted for by Sav1866, which were potential locations for the regulatory region as well as the channel gate. In this analysis, we were aided by the fact that the unit cell was composed of two molecules not related by crystallographic symmetry. We also identified regions in the fitted Sav1866 model that were missing from the map, hence regions that were either disordered in CFTR or differently organized compared with Sav1866. Apart from the N and C termini, this indicated that in CFTR, the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane helix 5/11 and its associated loop could be partly disordered (or alternatively located). PMID:21931164

  8. CFTR mutations in the Algerian population.

    PubMed

    Loumi, O; Ferec, C; Mercier, B; Creff, J; Fercot, B; Denine, R; Grangaud, J P

    2008-01-01

    The nature and frequency of the major CFTR mutations in the North African population remain unclear, although a small number of CFTR mutation detection studies have been done in Algeria and Tunisia, showing largely European mutations such as F508del, G542X and N1303K, albeit at different frequencies, which presumably emerged via population admixture with Caucasians. Some unique mutations were identified in these populations. This is the first study that includes a genetic and clinical evaluation of CF patients living in Algeria. In order to offer an effective diagnostic service and to make accurate risk estimates, we decided to identify the CFTR mutations in 81 Algerian patients. We carried out D-HPLC, chemical-clamp denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, multiplex amplification analysis of the CFTR gene and automated direct DNA sequencing. We identified 15 different mutations which account for 58.5% of the CF chromosomes. We used a quantitative PCR technique (quantitative multiplex PCR short fragment fluorescence analysis) to screen for deletion/duplication in the 27 exons of the gene. Taking advantage of the homogeneity of the sample, we report clinical features of homozygous CF patients. As CFTR mutations have been detected in males with infertility, 46 unrelated Algerian individuals with obstructive azoospermia were also investigated. PMID:17572159

  9. Islet-intrinsic effects of CFTR mutation.

    PubMed

    Koivula, Fiona N Manderson; McClenaghan, Neville H; Harper, Alan G S; Kelly, Catriona

    2016-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) is the most significant extra-pulmonary comorbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and accelerates lung decline. In addition to the traditional view that CFRD is a consequence of fibrotic destruction of the pancreas as a whole, emerging evidence may implicate a role for cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in the regulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet. Impaired first-phase insulin responses and glucose homeostasis have also been reported in CF patients. CFTR expression in both human and mouse beta cells has been confirmed, and recent studies have shown differences in endocrine pancreatic morphology from birth in CF. Recent experimental evidence suggests that functional CFTR channels are required for insulin exocytosis and the regulation of membrane potential in the pancreatic beta cell, which may account for the impairments in insulin secretion observed in many CF patients. These novel insights suggest that the pathogenesis of CFRD is more complicated than originally thought, with implications for diabetes treatment and screening in the CF population. This review summarises recent emerging evidence in support of a primary role for endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in the development of CFRD. Summary • CF is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene • The vast majority of morbidity and mortality in CF results from lung disease. However CFRD is the largest extra-pulmonary co-morbidity and rapidly accelerates lung decline • Recent experimental evidence shows that functional CFTR channels are required for normal patterns of first phase insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cell • Current clinical recommendations suggest that insulin is more effective than oral glucose-lowering drugs for the treatment of CFRD. However, the emergence of CFTR corrector and potentiator drugs may offer a personalised approach to treating diabetes in the CF population

  10. Modulation of CFTR gating by permeant ions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Han-I; Yeh, Jiunn-Tyng

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is unique among ion channels in that after its phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA), its ATP-dependent gating violates microscopic reversibility caused by the intimate involvement of ATP hydrolysis in controlling channel closure. Recent studies suggest a gating model featuring an energetic coupling between opening and closing of the gate in CFTR’s transmembrane domains and association and dissociation of its two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We found that permeant ions such as nitrate can increase the open probability (Po) of wild-type (WT) CFTR by increasing the opening rate and decreasing the closing rate. Nearly identical effects were seen with a construct in which activity does not require phosphorylation of the regulatory domain, indicating that nitrate primarily affects ATP-dependent gating steps rather than PKA-dependent phosphorylation. Surprisingly, the effects of nitrate on CFTR gating are remarkably similar to those of VX-770 (N-(2,4-Di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide), a potent CFTR potentiator used in clinics. These include effects on single-channel kinetics of WT CFTR, deceleration of the nonhydrolytic closing rate, and potentiation of the Po of the disease-associated mutant G551D. In addition, both VX-770 and nitrate increased the activity of a CFTR construct lacking NBD2 (ΔNBD2), indicating that these gating effects are independent of NBD dimerization. Nonetheless, whereas VX-770 is equally effective when applied from either side of the membrane, nitrate potentiates gating mainly from the cytoplasmic side, implicating a common mechanism for gating modulation mediated through two separate sites of action. PMID:25512598

  11. Assembly of functional CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Riordan, John R

    2005-01-01

    The assembly of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is of interest from the broad perspective of understanding how ion channels and ABC transporters are formed as well as dealing with the mis-assembly of CFTR in cystic fibrosis. CFTR is functionally distinct from other ABC transporters because it permits bidirectional permeation of anions rather than vectorial transport of solutes. This adaptation of the ABC transporter structure can be rationalized by considering CFTR as a hydrolyzable-ligand-gated channel with cytoplasmic ATP as ligand. Channel gating is initiated by ligand binding when the protein is also phosphorylated by protein kinase A and made reversible by ligand hydrolysis. The two nucleotide-binding sites play different roles in channel activation. CFTR self-associates, possibly as a function of its activation, but most evidence, including the low-resolution three-dimensional structure, indicates that the channel is monomeric. Domain assembly and interaction within the monomer is critical in maturation, stability, and function of the protein. Disease-associated mutations, including the most common, DeltaF508, interfere with domain folding and association, which occur both co- and post-translationally. Intermolecular interactions of mature CFTR have been detected primarily with the N- and C-terminal tails, and these interactions have some impact not only on channel function but also on localization and processing within the cell. The biosynthetic processing of the nascent polypeptide leading to channel assembly involves transient interactions with numerous chaperones and enzymes on both sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. PMID:15709975

  12. Frequently Asked Questions on Potassium Iodide (KI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? What potassium iodide (KI) products are currently ... needs to take potassium iodide (KI) after a nuclear radiation release? The FDA guidance prioritizes groups based on ...

  13. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; Norman, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  14. Involvement of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in the acidosis-induced efflux of ATP from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jie; Le, Gengyun; Ballard, Heather J

    2010-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of acidosis on the efflux of ATP from skeletal muscle. Infusion of lactic acid to the perfused hindlimb muscles of anaesthetised rats produced dose-dependent decreases in pH and increases in the interstitial ATP of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle: 10 mm lactic acid reduced the venous pH from 7.22 ± 0.04 to 6.97 ± 0.02 and increased interstitial ATP from 38 ± 8 to 67 ± 11 nm. The increase in interstitial ATP was well-correlated with the decrease in pH (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05). Blockade of cellular uptake of lactic acid using α-cyano-hydroxycinnamic acid abolished the lactic acid-induced ATP release, whilst infusion of sodium lactate failed to depress pH or increase interstitial ATP, suggesting that intracellular pH depression, rather than lactate, stimulated the ATP efflux. Incubation of cultured skeletal myoblasts with 10 mm lactic acid significantly increased the accumulation of ATP in the bathing medium from 0.46 ± 0.06 to 0.76 ± 0.08 μm, confirming the skeletal muscle cells as the source of the released ATP. Acidosis-induced ATP efflux from the perfused muscle was abolished by CFTRinh-172, a specific inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of both KATP channels and CFTR, but it was not affected by atractyloside, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial ATP transporter. Silencing of the CFTR gene using an siRNA abolished the acidosis-induced increase in ATP release from cultured myoblasts. CFTR expression on skeletal muscle cells was confirmed using immunostaining in the intact muscle and Western blotting in the cultured cells. These data suggest that depression of the intracellular pH of skeletal muscle cells stimulates ATP efflux, and that CFTR plays an important role in the release mechanism. PMID:20819945

  15. Capturing the Direct Binding of CFTR Correctors to CFTR by Using Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Chandrima; Zhang, Weiqiang; Moon, Chang Suk; Actis, Marcelo; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Arora, Kavisha; Woodroofe, Koryse; Clancy, John P; Lin, Songbai; Ziady, Assem G; Frizzell, Raymond; Fujii, Naoaki; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-09-21

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. F508del is the most prevalent mutation of the CFTR gene and encodes a protein defective in folding and processing. VX-809 has been reported to facilitate the folding and trafficking of F508del-CFTR and augment its channel function. The mechanism of action of VX-809 has been poorly understood. In this study, we sought to answer a fundamental question underlying the mechanism of VX-809: does it bind CFTR directly in order to exert its action? We synthesized two VX-809 derivatives, ALK-809 and SUL-809, that possess an alkyne group and retain the rescue capacity of VX-809. By using Cu(I) -catalyzed click chemistry, we provide evidence that the VX-809 derivatives bind CFTR directly in vitro and in cells. Our findings will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of action of CFTR correctors and the design of more potent therapeutics to combat CF. PMID:26227551

  16. CFTR protein repair therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gallego, Esther; Delgado-Pecellín, Isabel; Calero Acuña, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a single gene, autosomal recessive disorder, in which more than 1,900 mutations grouped into 6 classes have been described. It is an example a disease that could be well placed to benefit from personalised medicine. There are currently 2 very different approaches that aim to correct the basic defect: gene therapy, aimed at correcting the genetic alteration, and therapy aimed at correcting the defect in the CFTR protein. The latter is beginning to show promising results, with several molecules under development. Ataluren (PTC124) is a molecule designed to make the ribosomes become less sensitive to the premature stop codons responsible for class i mutations. Lumacaftor (VX-809) is a CFTR corrector directed at class ii mutations, among which Phe508del is the most frequent, with encouraging results. Ivacaftor (VX-770) is a potentiator, the only one marketed to date, which has shown good efficacy for the class iii mutation Gly551Asp in children over the age of 6 and adults. These drugs, or a combination of them, are currently undergoing various clinical trials for other less common genetic mutations. In the last 5 years, CFTR has been designated as a therapeutic target. Ivacaftor is the first drug to treat the basic defect in cystic fibrosis, but only provides a response in a small number of patients. New drugs capable of restoring the CFTR protein damaged by the most common mutations are required. PMID:24095197

  17. CFTR: what's it like inside the pore?

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehong; Smith, Stephen S; Dawson, David C

    2003-11-01

    The Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator (CFTR) functions as a cAMP-activated, anion-selective channel, but the structural basis for anion permeation is not well understood. Here we summarize recent studies aimed at understanding how anions move through the CFTR channel, and the nature of the environment anions experience inside the pore. From these studies it is apparent that anion permeability selectivity and anion binding selectivity of the pore are consistent with a model based on a "dielectric tunnel." The selectivity pattern for halides and pseudohalides can be predicted if it is assumed that permeant anions partition between bulk water and a polarizable space that is characterized by an effective dielectric constant of about 19. Covalent labeling of engineered cysteines and pH titration of engineered cysteines and histidines lead to the conclusion that the CFTR anion conduction path includes a positively charged outer vestibule. A residue in transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) (R334) appears to reside in the outer vestibule of the CFTR pore where it creates a positive electrostatic potential that enhances anion conduction. PMID:14598388

  18. Etching of mercuric iodide in cation iodide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponpon, J. P.; Amann, M.

    2006-07-01

    The surface properties of mercuric iodide after etching in various cation iodide solutions have been investigated in terms of dissolution rate, morphology, electrical properties and reaction with water vapour. No significant differences have been observed in the etching rates. However, dissolution of HgI 2 in NH 4I, NaI, KI or RbI leaves the surface more or less covered with a residual iodo mercurate compound whose electrical properties and stability with regard to humidity may noticeably influence the behaviour of mercuric iodide devices. The smallest effect has been observed for etching in NaI.

  19. Novel opportunities for CFTR-targeting drug development using organoids

    PubMed Central

    Dekkers, Johanna F; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR mutations lead to production of non-functional CFTR, reduced amounts of normal functioning CFTR or misfolded CFTR with defects in trafficking or function. For decades, CF treatment has been focused on the symptoms of CF, but pharmacotherapy using small molecules that target the basic defect of CF, the mutant CFTR protein, is now possible for a limited amount of subjects with CF. This raises the exciting possibility that the majority of people with CF may receive effective treatment targeting the different CFTR mutants in the future. We recently described a functional CFTR assay using rectal biopsies from subjects with CF that were cultured in vitro into self-organizing mini-guts or organoids. We here describe how this model may assist in the discovery of new CFTR-targeting drugs, the subjects that may benefit from these drugs, and the mechanisms underlying variability in CFTR genotype-phenotype relations. PMID:25003014

  20. Curcumin and genistein additively potentiate G551D-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying-Chun; Miki, Haruna; Nakamura, Yumi; Hanyuda, Akiko; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Abe, Yoichiro; Yasui, Masato; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Bompadre, Silvia G.; Sohma, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Background The G551D mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). G551D-CFTR is characterized by an extremely low open probability despite its normal trafficking to the plasma membrane. Numerous small molecules have been shown to increase the activity of G551D-CFTR presumably by binding to the CFTR protein. Methods We investigated the effect of curcumin, genistein and their combined application on G551D-CFTR activity using the patch clamp technique. Results Curcumin increased G551D-CFTR whole-cell and single-channel currents less than genistein did at their maximally effective concentrations. However, curcumin further increased the channel activity of G551D-CFTR that had been already maximally potentiated by genistein, up to ~50% of the WT-CFTR level. In addition, the combined application of genistein and curcumin over a lower concentration range synergistically rescued the gating defect of G551D-CFTR. Conclusions The additive effects between curcumin and genistein not only support the hypothesis that multiple mechanisms are involved in the action of CFTR potentiators, but also pose pharmaceutical implications in the development of drugs for CF pharmacotherapy. PMID:21441077

  1. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Anna E.; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  2. N-Alpha-Acetyltransferases and Regulation of CFTR Expression.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Ali J; Karamyshev, Andrey L; Patrick, Anna E; Hudson, Henry; Thomas, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of cystic fibrosis (CF)-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) lead to the misfolding, mistrafficking, and degradation of the mutant protein. Inhibition of degradation does not effectively increase the amount of trafficking competent CFTR, but typically leads to increased ER retention of misfolded forms. Thus, the initial off pathway steps occur early in the processing of the protein. To identify proteins that interact with these early forms of CFTR, in vitro crosslink experiments identified cotranslational partners of the nascent chain of the severe misfolded mutant, G85E CFTR. The mutant preferentially interacts with a subunit of an N-alpha-acetyltransferase A. Based on recent reports that acetylation of the N-termini of some N-end rule substrates control their ubiquitination and subsequent degradation, a potential role for this modification in regulation of CFTR expression was assessed. Knockdown experiments identified two complexes, which affect G85E CFTR proteins levels, NatA and NatB. Effects of the knockdowns on mRNA levels, translation rates, and degradation rates established that the two complexes regulate G85E CFTR through two separate mechanisms. NatA acts indirectly by regulating transcription levels and NatB acts through a previously identified, but incompletely understood posttranslational mechanism. This regulation did not effect trafficking of G85E CFTR, which remains retained in the ER, nor did it alter the degradation rate of CFTR. A mutation predicted to inhibit N-terminal acetylation of CFTR, Q2P, was without effect, suggesting neither system acts directly on CFTR. These results contradict the prediction that N-terminal acetylation of CFTR determines its fitness as a proteasome substrate, but rather NatB plays a role in the conformational maturation of CFTR in the ER through actions on an unidentified protein. PMID:27182737

  3. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  4. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  5. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  6. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and....375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be safely added to a food as a source of...

  7. 21 CFR 172.375 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 172.375 Section 172.375 Food and... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.375 Potassium iodide. The food additive potassium iodide may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Potassium iodide may be...

  8. Excited State Electronic Properties of Sodium Iodide and Cesium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Luke W.; Gao, Fei

    2013-05-01

    We compute from first principles the dielectric function, loss function, lifetime and scattering rate of quasiparticles due to electronic losses, and secondary particle spectrum due to plasmon decay in two scintillating alkali halides, sodium iodide and cesium iodide. Particular emphasis is placed on quasiparticles within several multiples of the band gap from the band edges. A theory for the decay spectra of plasmons and other electronic excitations in crystals is presented. Applications to Monte Carlo radiation transport codes are discussed.

  9. A novel CFTR disease-associated mutation causes addition of an extra N-linked oligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, M M; Aleksandrov, A A; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R

    2000-11-01

    We have examined the influence of a novel missense mutation in the fourth extracytoplasmic loop (EL4) of CFTR detected in a patient with cystic fibrosis. This substitution (T908N) creates a consensus sequence (N X S/T) for addition of an N-linked oligosaccharide chain near the C-terminal end of EL4. Oligosaccharyl transferase generally does not have access to this consensus sequence if it is closer than about twelve amino acids from the membrane. However, the T908N site is used, even though it is within four residues of the predicted membrane interface and the oligosaccharide chain added binds calnexin, a resident chaperone of the ER membrane. The chloride channel activity of this variant CFTR is abnormal as evidenced by a reduced rate of (36)Cl(-) efflux and a noisy single channel open state. This may reflect some displacement of the membrane spanning sequence C-terminal of EL4 since it contains residues influencing the ion pore. PMID:11443282

  10. Nanoparticles that deliver triplex-forming peptide nucleic acid molecules correct F508del CFTR in airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    McNeer, Nicole Ali; Anandalingam, Kavitha; Fields, Rachel J; Caputo, Christina; Kopic, Sascha; Gupta, Anisha; Quijano, Elias; Polikoff, Lee; Kong, Yong; Bahal, Raman; Geibel, John P; Glazer, Peter M; Saltzman, W Mark; Egan, Marie E

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder most commonly caused by the F508del mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. It is not readily amenable to gene therapy because of its systemic nature and challenges including in vivo gene delivery and transient gene expression. Here we use triplex-forming peptide nucleic acids and donor DNA in biodegradable polymer nanoparticles to correct F508del. We confirm modification with sequencing and a functional chloride efflux assay. In vitro correction of chloride efflux occurs in up to 25% of human cells. Deep-sequencing reveals negligible off-target effects in partially homologous sites. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticles in CF mice produces changes in the nasal epithelium potential difference assay, consistent with corrected CFTR function. Also, gene correction is detected in the nasal and lung tissue. This work represents facile genome engineering in vivo with oligonucleotides using a nanoparticle system to achieve clinically relevant levels of gene editing without off-target effects. PMID:25914116

  11. The CFTR Ion Channel: Gating, Regulation, and Anion Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel—almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle—a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. PMID:23284076

  12. The CFTR ion channel: gating, regulation, and anion permeation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Kirk, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel--almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle--a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. PMID:23284076

  13. CFTR is a monomer: biochemical and functional evidence.

    PubMed

    Chen, J-H; Chang, X-B; Aleksandrov, A A; Riordan, J R

    2002-07-01

    Although the CFTR protein alone is sufficient to generate a regulated chloride channel, it is unknown how many of the polypeptides form the channel. Using biochemical and functional assays, we demonstrate that the CFTR polypeptide is a monomer. CFTR sediments as a monomer in a linear, continuous sucrose gradient. Cells co-expressing different epitope-tagged CFTR provide no evidence of co-assembly in immunoprecipitation and nickel affinity binding experiments. Co-expressed wild-type and DF508 CFTR are without influence on each other in their ability to progress through the secretory pathway, suggesting they do not associate in the endoplasmic reticulum. No hybrid conducting single channels are seen in planar lipid bilayers with which membrane vesicles from cells co-expressing similar amounts of two different CFTR conduction species have been fused. PMID:12172647

  14. F508del CFTR with two altered RXR motifs escapes from ER quality control but its channel activity is thermally sensitive.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Tamás; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Cui, Liying; Gentzsch, Martina; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R

    2006-05-01

    Most cystic fibrosis (CF) patients carry the F508del mutation in the CFTR chloride channel protein resulting in its misassembly, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and proteasomal degradation. Therefore, characterization of the retention and attempts to rescue the mutant CFTR are a major focus of CF research. Earlier, we had shown that four arginine-framed tripeptide (AFT) signals in CFTR participate in the quality control. Now we have mutated these four AFTs in all possible combinations and found that simultaneous inactivation of two of them (R29K and R555K) is necessary and sufficient to overcome F508del CFTR retention. Immunofluorescence staining of BHK cells expressing this variant indicates that it matures and is routed to the plasma membrane. Acquisition of at least some wild-type structure was detected in the pattern of proteolytic digestion fragments. Functional activity at the cell surface was evident in chloride efflux assays. However, single channel activity of the rescued mutant measured in planar lipid bilayers diminished as temperature was increased from 30 to 37 degrees C. These findings support the idea that absence of Phe 508 causes not only a kinetic folding defect but also steady-state structural instability. Therefore effective molecular therapies developed to alleviate disease caused by F508del and probably other misprocessing mutants will require overcoming both their kinetic and steady-state impacts. PMID:16624253

  15. Interaction between CFTR and prestin (SLC26A5)

    PubMed Central

    Homma, Kazuaki; Miller, Katharine K.; Anderson, Charles T.; Sengupta, Soma; Du, Guo-Guang; Aguiñaga, Salvador; Cheatham, MaryAnn; Dallos, Peter; Zheng, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel that is present in a variety of epithelial cell types, and usually expressed in the luminal membrane. In contrast, prestin (SLC26A5) is a voltage-dependent motor protein, which is present in the basolateral membrane of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), and plays an important role in the frequency selectivity and sensitivity of mammalian hearing. By using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, we found that both mRNA and protein of CFTR are present in OHCs, and that CFTR localizes in both the apical and the lateral membranes. CFTR was not detected in the lateral membrane of inner hair cells (IHCs) or in that of OHCs derived from prestin-knockout mice, i.e., in instances where prestin is not expressed. These results suggest that prestin may interact physically with CFTR in the lateral membrane of OHCs. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed a prestin-CFTR interaction. Because chloride is important for prestin function and for the efferent-mediated inhibition of cochlear output, the prestin-directed localization of CFTR to the lateral membrane of OHCs has a potential physiological significance. Aside from its role as a chloride channel, CFTR is known as a regulator of multiple protein functions, including those of the solute carrier family 26 (SLC26). Because prestin is in the SLC26 family, several members of which interact with CFTR, we explored the potential modulatory relationship associated with a direct, physical interaction between prestin and CFTR. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that cAMP– activated CFTR is capable of enhancing voltage-dependent charge displacement, a signature of OHC motility, whereas prestin does not affect the chloride conductance of CFTR. PMID:20138822

  16. Divergent signaling via SUMO modification: potential for CFTR modulation.

    PubMed

    Ahner, Annette; Gong, Xiaoyan; Frizzell, Raymond A

    2016-02-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is generally responsible for the cAMP/PKA regulated anion conductance at the apical membranes of secretory epithelial cells. Mutations in CFTR underlie cystic fibrosis (CF), in which the most common variant, F508del, causes protein misfolding and its proteasome-mediated degradation. A new pathway that contributes to mutant CFTR degradation is mediated by the small heat shock protein, Hsp27, which cooperates with Ubc9, the E2 enzyme for SUMOylation, to selectively conjugate mutant CFTR with SUMO-2/3. This SUMO paralog can form polychains, which are recognized by the ubiquitin E3 enzyme, RNF4, leading to CFTR ubiquitylation and recognition by the proteasome. We found also that F508del CFTR could be modified by SUMO-1, a paralog that does not support SUMO polychain formation. The use of different SUMO paralogs to modify and target a single substrate for divergent purposes is not uncommon. In this short review we discuss the possibility that conjugation with SUMO-1 could protect mutant CFTR from disposal by RNF4 and similar ubiquitin ligases. We hypothesize that such a pathway could contribute to therapeutic efforts to stabilize immature mutant CFTR and thereby enhance the action of therapeutics that correct CFTR trafficking to the apical membranes. PMID:26582473

  17. CFTR gating I: Characterization of the ATP-dependent gating of a phosphorylation-independent CFTR channel (DeltaR-CFTR).

    PubMed

    Bompadre, Silvia G; Ai, Tomohiko; Cho, Jeong Han; Wang, Xiaohui; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2005-04-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is activated by phosphorylation of serine residues in the regulatory (R) domain and then gated by ATP binding and hydrolysis at the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). Studies of the ATP-dependent gating process in excised inside-out patches are very often hampered by channel rundown partly caused by membrane-associated phosphatases. Since the severed DeltaR-CFTR, whose R domain is completely removed, can bypass the phosphorylation-dependent regulation, this mutant channel might be a useful tool to explore the gating mechanisms of CFTR. To this end, we investigated the regulation and gating of the DeltaR-CFTR expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. In the cell-attached mode, basal DeltaR-CFTR currents were always obtained in the absence of cAMP agonists. Application of cAMP agonists or PMA, a PKC activator, failed to affect the activity, indicating that the activity of DeltaR-CFTR channels is indeed phosphorylation independent. Consistent with this conclusion, in excised inside-out patches, application of the catalytic subunit of PKA did not affect ATP-induced currents. Similarities of ATP-dependent gating between wild type and DeltaR-CFTR make this phosphorylation-independent mutant a useful system to explore more extensively the gating mechanisms of CFTR. Using the DeltaR-CFTR construct, we studied the inhibitory effect of ADP on CFTR gating. The Ki for ADP increases as the [ATP] is increased, suggesting a competitive mechanism of inhibition. Single channel kinetic analysis reveals a new closed state in the presence of ADP, consistent with a kinetic mechanism by which ADP binds at the same site as ATP for channel opening. Moreover, we found that the open time of the channel is shortened by as much as 54% in the presence of ADP. This unexpected result suggests another ADP binding site that modulates channel closing. PMID:15767295

  18. Curcumin Cross-links Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Polypeptides and Potentiates CFTR Channel Activity by Distinct Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen; Wang, Wei; Narlawar, Rajeshwar; Schmidt, Boris; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CFTR chloride channel. Wild type and mutant CFTR channels can be activated by curcumin, a well tolerated dietary compound with some appeal as a prospective CF therapeutic. However, we show here that curcumin has the unexpected effect of cross-linking CFTR polypeptides into SDS-resistant oligomers. This effect occurred for CFTR channels in microsomes as well as in intact cells and at the same concentrations that are effective for promoting CFTR channel activity (5–50 μm). Both mature CFTR polypeptides at the cell surface and immature CFTR protein in the endoplasmic reticulum were cross-linked by curcumin, although the latter pool was more susceptible to this modification. Curcumin cross-linked two CF mutant channels (ΔF508 and G551D) as well as a variety of deletion constructs that lack the major cytoplasmic domains. In vitro cross-linking could be prevented by high concentrations of oxidant scavengers (i.e. reduced glutathione and sodium azide) indicating a possible oxidation reaction with the CFTR polypeptide. Importantly, cyclic derivatives of curcumin that lack the reactive β diketone moiety had no cross-linking activity. One of these cyclic derivatives stimulated the activities of wild type CFTR channels, Δ1198-CFTR channels, and G551D-CFTR channels in excised membrane patches. Like the parent compound, the cyclic derivative irreversibly activated CFTR channels in excised patches during prolonged exposure (>5 min). Our results raise a note of caution about secondary biochemical effects of reactive compounds like curcumin in the treatment of CF. Cyclic curcumin derivatives may have better therapeutic potential in this regard. PMID:19740743

  19. G551D-CFTR needs more bound actin than wild-type CFTR to maintain its presence in plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Trouvé, Pascal; Kerbiriou, Mathieu; Teng, Ling; Benz, Nathalie; Taiya, Mehdi; Le Hir, Sophie; Férec, Claude

    2015-08-01

    Cystic Fibrosis is due to mutations in the CFTR gene. The missense mutation G551D (approx. 5% of cases) encodes a CFTR chloride channel with normal cell surface expression but with an altered chloride channel activity, leading to a severe phenotype. Our aim was to identify specific interacting proteins of G551D-CFTR which could explain the channel defect. Wild-type CFTR (Wt-CFTR) was co-immunoprecipitated from stably transfected HeLa cells and resolved by 2D gel electrophoresis. Among the detected spots, one was expressed at a high level. Mass Spectrometry revealed that it corresponded to actin which is known to be involved in the CFTR's channel function. To assess whether actin could be involved in the altered G551D-CFTR function, its basal expression was studied. Because actin expression was the same in wt- and in G551D-CFTR expressing cells, its interaction with both wt- and G551D-CFTR was studied by co-immunoprecipitation, and we found that a higher amount of actin was bound onto G551D-CFTR than onto Wt-CFTR. The role of actin upon wt- and G551D-CFTR function was further studied by patch-clamp experiments after cytochalasin D treatment of the cells. We found a decrease of the very weak currents in G551D-CFTR expressing cells. Because a higher amount of actin is bound onto G551D-CFTR than onto Wt-CFTR, it is likely to be not involved in the mutated CFTR's defect. Nevertheless, because actin is necessary to maintain the very weak global currents observed in G551D-CFTR expressing HeLa cells, we conclude that more actin is necessary to maintain G551D-CFTR in the plasma membrane than for Wt-CFTR. PMID:25712891

  20. Nonequilibrium Gating of CFTR on an Equilibrium Theme

    PubMed Central

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Malfunction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ABC protein superfamily that functions as an ATP-gated chloride channel, causes the lethal genetic disease, cystic fibrosis. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the gating mechanism of CFTR. Potential clinical relevance and implications to ABC transporter function are also discussed. PMID:23223629

  1. Nonequilibrium gating of CFTR on an equilibrium theme.

    PubMed

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2012-12-01

    Malfunction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the ABC protein superfamily that functions as an ATP-gated chloride channel, causes the lethal genetic disease, cystic fibrosis. This review focuses on the most recent findings on the gating mechanism of CFTR. Potential clinical relevance and implications to ABC transporter function are also discussed. PMID:23223629

  2. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H Abou; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  3. Molecular mechanisms controlling CFTR gene expression in the airway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaolin; Ott, Christopher J; Lewandowska, Marzena A; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The low levels of CFTR gene expression and paucity of CFTR protein in human airway epithelial cells are not easily reconciled with the pivotal role of the lung in cystic fibrosis pathology. Previous data suggested that the regulatory mechanisms controlling CFTR gene expression might be different in airway epithelium in comparison to intestinal epithelium where CFTR mRNA and protein is much more abundant. Here we examine chromatin structure and modification across the CFTR locus in primary human tracheal (HTE) and bronchial (NHBE) epithelial cells and airway cell lines including 16HBE14o- and Calu3. We identify regions of open chromatin that appear selective for primary airway epithelial cells and show that several of these are enriched for a histone modification (H3K4me1) that is characteristic of enhancers. Consistent with these observations, three of these sites encompass elements that have cooperative enhancer function in reporter gene assays in 16HBE14o- cells. Finally, we use chromosome conformation capture (3C) to examine the three-dimensional structure of nearly 800 kb of chromosome 7 encompassing CFTR and observe long-range interactions between the CFTR promoter and regions far outside the locus in cell types that express high levels of CFTR. PMID:21895967

  4. On the structural organization of the intracellular domains of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Moran, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a multidomain membrane protein forming an anion selective channel. Mutations in the gene encoding CFTR cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The intracellular side of CFTR constitutes about 80% of the total mass of the protein. This region includes domains involved in ATP-dependent gating and regulatory protein kinase-A phosphorylation sites. The high-resolution molecular structure of CFTR has not yet been solved. However, a range of lower resolution structural data, as well as functional biochemical and electrophysiological data, are now available. This information has enabled the proposition of a working model for the structural architecture of the intracellular domains of the CFTR protein. PMID:24513531

  5. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Georg; Szellas, Tanjef; Riordan, John R.; Friedrich, Thomas; Hartung, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride channels. Voltage– and patch–clamp measurements, however, showed neither stimulation nor inhibition of ENaC-mediated conductance by activated CFTR. We conclude that the observed modulation of 22Na+ uptake by activated CFTR is due to the effect of CFTR-mediated chloride conductance on the membrane potential. These findings argue against the notion of a specific influence of CFTR on ENaC and emphasize the chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:11266369

  6. Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Nagel, G; Szellas, T; Riordan, J R; Friedrich, T; Hartung, K

    2001-03-01

    The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of (22)Na(+) through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we found that the effect of CFTR activation could be mimicked by other chloride channels. Voltage- and patch-clamp measurements, however, showed neither stimulation nor inhibition of ENaC-mediated conductance by activated CFTR. We conclude that the observed modulation of (22)Na(+) uptake by activated CFTR is due to the effect of CFTR-mediated chloride conductance on the membrane potential. These findings argue against the notion of a specific influence of CFTR on ENaC and emphasize the chloride channel function of CFTR. PMID:11266369

  7. Regulation of CFTR chloride channel macroscopic conductance by extracellular bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Li, Man-Song; Holstead, Ryan G; Wang, Wuyang; Linsdell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The CFTR contributes to Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ transport across epithelial cell apical membranes. The extracellular face of CFTR is exposed to varying concentrations of Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ in epithelial tissues, and there is evidence that CFTR is sensitive to changes in extracellular anion concentrations. Here we present functional evidence that extracellular Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ regulate anion conduction in open CFTR channels. Using cell-attached and inside-out patch-clamp recordings from constitutively active mutant E1371Q-CFTR channels, we show that voltage-dependent inhibition of CFTR currents in intact cells is significantly stronger when the extracellular solution contains HCO₃⁻ than when it contains Cl⁻. This difference appears to reflect differences in the ability of extracellular HCO₃⁻ and Cl⁻ to interact with and repel intracellular blocking anions from the pore. Strong block by endogenous cytosolic anions leading to reduced CFTR channel currents in intact cells occurs at physiologically relevant HCO₃⁻ concentrations and membrane potentials and can result in up to ∼50% inhibition of current amplitude. We propose that channel block by cytosolic anions is a previously unrecognized, physiologically relevant mechanism of channel regulation that confers on CFTR channels sensitivity to different anions in the extracellular fluid. We further suggest that this anion sensitivity represents a feedback mechanism by which CFTR-dependent anion secretion could be regulated by the composition of the secretions themselves. Implications for the mechanism and regulation of CFTR-dependent secretion in epithelial tissues are discussed. PMID:20926782

  8. Potentiators exert distinct effects on human, murine, and Xenopus CFTR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; Khazanov, Netaly; Stauffer, Brandon B; Infield, Daniel T; Imhoff, Barry R; Senderowitz, Hanoch; McCarty, Nael A

    2016-08-01

    VX-770 (Ivacaftor) has been approved for clinical usage in cystic fibrosis patients with several CFTR mutations. Yet the binding site(s) on CFTR for this compound and other small molecule potentiators are unknown. We hypothesize that insight into this question could be gained by comparing the effect of potentiators on CFTR channels from different origins, e.g., human, mouse, and Xenopus (frog). In the present study, we combined this comparative molecular pharmacology approach with that of computer-aided drug discovery to identify and characterize new potentiators of CFTR and to explore possible mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that 1) VX-770, NPPB, GlyH-101, P1, P2, and P3 all exhibited ortholog-specific behavior in that they potentiated hCFTR, mCFTR, and xCFTR with different efficacies; 2) P1, P2, and P3 potentiated hCFTR in excised macropatches in a manner dependent on the degree of PKA-mediated stimulation; 3) P1 and P2 did not have additive effects, suggesting that these compounds might share binding sites. Also 4) using a pharmacophore modeling approach, we identified three new potentiators (IOWH-032, OSSK-2, and OSSK-3) that have structures similar to GlyH-101 and that also exhibit ortholog-specific potentiation of CFTR. These could potentially serve as lead compounds for development of new drugs for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. The ortholog-specific behavior of these compounds suggest that a comparative pharmacology approach, using cross-ortholog chimeras, may be useful for identification of binding sites on human CFTR. PMID:27288484

  9. IODIDE DEFICIENCY, THYROID HORMONES, AND NEURODEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Iodide is an essential nutrient for thyroid hormone synthesis. Severe iodide insufficiency during early development is associated with cognitive deficits. Environmental contaminants can perturb the thyroid axis and this perturbation may be more acute under conditio...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium... reacting hydriodic acid (HI) with potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3). (b) The ingredient meets...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  16. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 582.5634 Section 582.5634 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5634 Potassium iodide. (a) Product. Potassium iodide. (b) Tolerance. 0.01 percent....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1634 - Potassium iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium iodide. 184.1634 Section 184.1634 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1634 Potassium iodide. (a) Potassium iodide (KI, CAS Reg. No. 7681-11-0) is the potassium salt of hydriodic acid. It occurs naturally in sea water and in...

  20. Peptide mediators of cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan

    2013-04-09

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  1. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed Central

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7522329

  2. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-09-13

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epithelial cells. We report that the alkaline phosphatase inhibitors bromotetramisole, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, theophylline, and vanadate slow the rundown of CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches and reduce dephosphorylation of CFTR protein in isolated membranes. It was also found that in unstimulated cells, CFTR channels can be activated by exposure to phosphatase inhibitors alone. Most importantly, exposure of mammalian cells to phosphatase inhibitors alone activates CFTR channels that have disease-causing mutations, provided the mutant channels are present in the plasma membrane (R117H, G551D, and delta F508 after cooling). These results suggest that CFTR dephosphorylation is dynamic and that membrane-associated phosphatase activity may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:7522329

  3. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  4. Function and regulation of TRPM7, as well as intracellular magnesium content, are altered in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Calvez, M L; Benz, N; Le Hir, S; Mignen, O; Buscaglia, P; Horgen, F D; Férec, C; Kerbiriou, M; Trouvé, P

    2016-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common fatal hereditary disorders, is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The CFTR gene product is a multidomain adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) protein that functions as a chloride (Cl(-)) channel that is regulated by intracellular magnesium [Mg(2+)]i. The most common mutations in CFTR are a deletion of a phenylalanine residue at position 508 (ΔF508-CFTR, 70-80 % of CF phenotypes) and a Gly551Asp substitution (G551D-CFTR, 4-5 % of alleles), which lead to decreased or almost abolished Cl(-) channel function, respectively. Magnesium ions have to be finely regulated within cells for optimal expression and function of CFTR. Therefore, the melastatin-like transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7), which is responsible for Mg(2+) entry, was studies and [Mg(2+)]i measured in cells stably expressing wildtype CFTR, and two mutant proteins (ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR). This study shows for the first time that [Mg(2+)]i is decreased in cells expressing ΔF508-CFTR and G551D-CFTR mutated proteins. It was also observed that the expression of the TRPM7 protein is increased; however, membrane localization was altered for both ΔF508del-CFTR and G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, both the function and regulation of the TRPM7 channel regarding Mg(2+) is decreased in the cells expressing the mutated CFTR. Ca(2+) influx via TRPM7 were also modified in cells expressing a mutated CFTR. Therefore, there appears to be a direct involvement of TRPM7 in CF physiopathology. Finally, we propose that the TRPM7 activator Naltriben is a new potentiator for G551D-CFTR as the function of this mutant increases upon activation of TRPM7 by Naltriben. PMID:26874684

  5. Rescuing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-processing mutants by transcomplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Jablonsky, Michael; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Muccio, Donald D.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2004-01-01

    Most cases of cystic fibrosis (CF) are caused by mutations that block the biosynthetic maturation of the CF gene product, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. CFTR-processing mutants fail to escape the endoplasmic reticulum and are rapidly degraded. Current efforts to induce the maturation of CFTR mutants target components of the biosynthetic pathway (e.g., chaperones) rather than CFTR per se. Such methods are inherently nonspecific. Here we show that the most common CF-causing mutant (ΔF508-CFTR) can form mature, functional chloride channels that reach the cell surface when coexpressed with several other CFTR-processing mutants or with amino fragments of the wild-type CFTR protein. This transcomplementation effect required a specific match between the region flanking the disease-causing mutation and the complementing fragment; e.g., amino fragments complemented ΔF508-CFTR but not H1085R (a carboxy-processing mutant), whereas a carboxy fragment complemented H1085R but not ΔF508-CFTR. Transcomplementing fragments did not affect CFTR interactions with Hsc70, a chaperone previously implicated in CFTR biosynthesis. Instead, they may promote CFTR maturation by blocking nonproductive interactions between domains within the same or neighboring CFTR polypeptides that prevent normal processing. These findings indicate that it may be possible to develop CF therapies (e.g., mini-cDNA constructs for gene therapy) that are tailored to specific disease-causing mutants of CFTR. PMID:15141088

  6. Electrodeposition of Epitaxial Lead Iodide and Conversion to Textured Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Hill, James C; Koza, Jakub A; Switzer, Jay A

    2015-12-01

    Applications for lead iodide, such as lasing, luminescence, radiation detection, and as a precursor for methylammonium lead iodide perovskite photovoltaic cells, require highly ordered crystalline thin films. Here, an electrochemical synthesis route is introduced that yields textured and epitaxial films of lead iodide at room temperature by reducing molecular iodine to iodide ions in the presence of lead ions. Lead iodide grows with a [0001] fiber texture on polycrystalline substrates such as fluorine-doped tin oxide. On single-crystal Au(100), Au(111), and Au(110) the out-of-plane orientation of lead iodide is also [0001], but the in-plane orientation is controlled by the single-crystal substrate. The epitaxial lead iodide on single-crystal gold is converted to textured methylammonium lead iodide perovskite with a preferred [110] orientation via methylammonium iodide vapor-assisted chemical transformation of the solid. PMID:26565593

  7. Regulatory crosstalk by protein kinases on CFTR trafficking and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinha, Carlos Miguel; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e. channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease.

  8. Regulatory Crosstalk by Protein Kinases on CFTR Trafficking and Activity

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Carlos M.; Swiatecka-Urban, Agnieszka; Brautigan, David L.; Jordan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a cAMP-activated chloride ion channel in fluid-transporting epithelia. There is abundant evidence that CFTR activity (i.e., channel opening and closing) is regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Here, we review recent evidence for the role of protein kinases in regulation of CFTR delivery to and retention in the plasma membrane. We review this information in a broader context of regulation of other transporters by protein kinases because the overall functional output of transporters involves the integrated control of both their number at the plasma membrane and their specific activity. While many details of the regulation of intracellular distribution of CFTR and other transporters remain to be elucidated, we hope that this review will motivate research providing new insights into how protein kinases control membrane transport to impact health and disease. PMID:26835446

  9. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    PubMed

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. PMID:26057987

  10. CHD6 regulates the topological arrangement of the CFTR locus

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, Ana; Li, SiDe; Paul, Thankam; Zhang, Fan; Aguilo, Francesca; Vashisht, Ajay; Balasubramaniyan, Natarajan; Leleiko, Neal S.; Suchy, Frederick J.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Zhang, Weijia; Walsh, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The control of transcription is regulated through the well-coordinated spatial and temporal interactions between distal genomic regulatory elements required for specialized cell-type and developmental gene expression programs. With recent findings CFTR has served as a model to understand the principles that govern genome-wide and topological organization of distal intra-chromosomal contacts as it relates to transcriptional control. This is due to the extensive characterization of the DNase hypersensitivity sites, modification of chromatin, transcription factor binding sites and the arrangement of these sites in CFTR consistent with the restrictive expression in epithelial cell types. Here, we identified CHD6 from a screen among several chromatin-remodeling proteins as a putative epigenetic modulator of CFTR expression. Moreover, our findings of CTCF interactions with CHD6 are consistent with the role described previously for CTCF in CFTR regulation. Our results now reveal that the CHD6 protein lies within the infrastructure of multiple transcriptional complexes, such as the FACT, PBAF, PAF1C, Mediator, SMC/Cohesion and MLL complexes. This model underlies the fundamental role CHD6 facilitates by tethering cis-acting regulatory elements of CFTR in proximity to these multi-subunit transcriptional protein complexes. Finally, we indicate that CHD6 structurally coordinates a three-dimensional stricture between intragenic elements of CFTR bound by several cell-type specific transcription factors, such as CDX2, SOX18, HNF4α and HNF1α. Therefore, our results reveal new insights into the epigenetic regulation of CFTR expression, whereas the manipulation of CFTR gene topology could be considered for treating specific indications of cystic fibrosis and/or pancreatitis. PMID:25631877

  11. Corrector VX-809 stabilizes the first transmembrane domain of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Bartlett, M Claire; Clarke, David M

    2013-09-01

    Processing mutations that inhibit folding and trafficking of CFTR are the main cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). A potential CF therapy would be to repair CFTR processing mutants. It has been demonstrated that processing mutants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), CFTR's sister protein, can be efficiently repaired by a drug-rescue mechanism. Many arginine suppressors that mimic drug-rescue have been identified in the P-gp transmembrane (TM) domains (TMDs) that rescue by forming hydrogen bonds with residues in adjacent helices to promote packing of the TM segments. To test if CFTR mutants could be repaired by a drug-rescue mechanism, we used truncation mutants to test if corrector VX-809 interacted with the TMDs. VX-809 was selected for study because it is specific for CFTR, it is the most effective corrector identified to date, but it has limited clinical benefit. Identification of the VX-809 target domain will help to develop correctors with improved clinical benefits. It was found that VX-809 rescued truncation mutants lacking the NBD2 and R domains. When the remaining domains (TMD1, NBD1, TMD2) were expressed as separate polypeptides, VX-809 only increased the stability of TMD1. We then performed arginine mutagenesis on TM6 in TMD1. Although the results showed that TM6 had distinct lipid and aqueous faces, CFTR was different from P-gp as no arginine promoted maturation of CFTR processing mutants. The results suggest that TMD1 contains a VX-809 binding site, but its mechanism differed from P-gp drug-rescue. We also report that V510D acts as a universal suppressor to rescue CFTR processing mutants. PMID:23835419

  12. Iodide accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; McFiggans, Gordon B.; Palmer, Carl J.; Waite, Tim J.; Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Woitsch, Sonja; Weiller, Markus; Abela, Rafael; Grolimund, Daniel; Potin, Philippe; Butler, Alison; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Feiters, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Brown algae of the Laminariales (kelps) are the strongest accumulators of iodine among living organisms. They represent a major pump in the global biogeochemical cycle of iodine and, in particular, the major source of iodocarbons in the coastal atmosphere. Nevertheless, the chemical state and biological significance of accumulated iodine have remained unknown to this date. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide, which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to be described in a living system. Upon oxidative stress, iodide is effluxed. On the thallus surface and in the apoplast, iodide detoxifies both aqueous oxidants and ozone, the latter resulting in the release of high levels of molecular iodine and the consequent formation of hygroscopic iodine oxides leading to particles, which are precursors to cloud condensation nuclei. In a complementary set of experiments using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in human blood cells. PMID:18458346

  13. Diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NOXes and DUOXes, is also an iodide-specific transporter.

    PubMed

    Massart, C; Giusti, N; Beauwens, R; Dumont, J E; Miot, F; Sande, J Van

    2013-01-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXes) and dual oxidases (DUOXes) generate O2 (.-) and H2O2. Diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) inhibits the activity of these enzymes and is often used as a specific inhibitor. It is shown here that DPI, at concentrations similar to those which inhibit the generation of O2 derivatives, activated the efflux of radioiodide but not of its analog (99m)TcO4 (-) nor of the K(+) cation mimic (86)Rb(+) in thyroid cells, in the PCCl3 rat thyroid cell line and in COS cell lines expressing the iodide transporter NIS. Effects obtained with DPI, especially in thyroid cells, should therefore be interpreted with caution. PMID:24371722

  14. Cigarette smoke and CFTR: implications in the pathogenesis of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven M.; Raju, S. Vamsee; Bebok, Zsuzsa; Matalon, Sadis; Collawn, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive respiratory disorder consisting of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema. COPD patients suffer from chronic infections and display exaggerated inflammatory responses and a progressive decline in respiratory function. The respiratory symptoms of COPD are similar to those seen in cystic fibrosis (CF), although the molecular basis of the two disorders differs. CF is a genetic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene encoding a chloride and bicarbonate channel (CFTR), leading to CFTR dysfunction. The majority of COPD cases result from chronic oxidative insults such as cigarette smoke. Interestingly, environmental stresses including cigarette smoke, hypoxia, and chronic inflammation have also been implicated in reduced CFTR function, and this suggests a common mechanism that may contribute to both the CF and COPD. Therefore, improving CFTR function may offer an excellent opportunity for the development of a common treatment for CF and COPD. In this article, we review what is known about the CF respiratory phenotype and discuss how diminished CFTR expression-associated ion transport defects may contribute to some of the pathological changes seen in COPD. PMID:23934925

  15. Mechanism of lonidamine inhibition of the CFTR chloride channel

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiandi; Burbridge, Susan M; Lewis, Angie C; Wong, Patrick Y D; Linsdell, Paul

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel is blocked by a broad range of organic anionic compounds. Here we investigate the effects of the indazole compound lonidamine on CFTR channels expressed in mammalian cell lines using patch clamp recording. Application of lonidamine to the intracellular face of excised membrane patches caused a voltage-dependent block of CFTR currents, with an apparent Kd of 58 μM at −100 mV. Block by lonidamine was apparently independent of channel gating but weakly sensitive to the extracellular Cl− concentration. Intracellular lonidamine led to the introduction of brief interruptions in the single channel current at hyperpolarized voltages, leading to a reduction in channel mean open time. Lonidamine also introduced a new component of macroscopic current variance. Spectral analysis of this variance suggested a blocker on rate of 1.79 μM−1 s−1 and an off-rate of 143 s−1. Several point mutations within the sixth transmembrane region of CFTR (R334C, F337S, T338A and S341A) significantly weakened block of macroscopic CFTR current, suggesting that lonidamine enters deeply into the channel pore from its intracellular end. These results identify and characterize lonidamine as a novel CFTR open channel blocker and provide important information concerning its molecular mechanism of action. PMID:12411425

  16. Mechanism of lonidamine inhibition of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiandi; Burbridge, Susan M; Lewis, Angie C; Wong, Patrick Y D; Linsdell, Paul

    2002-11-01

    1. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel is blocked by a broad range of organic anionic compounds. Here we investigate the effects of the indazole compound lonidamine on CFTR channels expressed in mammalian cell lines using patch clamp recording. 2. Application of lonidamine to the intracellular face of excised membrane patches caused a voltage-dependent block of CFTR currents, with an apparent K(d) of 58 micro M at -100 mV. 3. Block by lonidamine was apparently independent of channel gating but weakly sensitive to the extracellular Cl(-) concentration. 4. Intracellular lonidamine led to the introduction of brief interruptions in the single channel current at hyperpolarized voltages, leading to a reduction in channel mean open time. Lonidamine also introduced a new component of macroscopic current variance. Spectral analysis of this variance suggested a blocker on rate of 1.79 micro M(-1) s(-1) and an off-rate of 143 s(-1). 5. Several point mutations within the sixth transmembrane region of CFTR (R334C, F337S, T338A and S341A) significantly weakened block of macroscopic CFTR current, suggesting that lonidamine enters deeply into the channel pore from its intracellular end. 6. These results identify and characterize lonidamine as a novel CFTR open channel blocker and provide important information concerning its molecular mechanism of action. PMID:12411425

  17. Multi-ion pore behaviour in the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Tabcharani, J A; Rommens, J M; Hou, Y X; Chang, X B; Tsui, L C; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1993-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a non-rectifying, low-conductance channel regulated by ATP and phosphorylation, which mediates apical chloride conductance in secretory epithelia and malfunctions in cystic fibrosis (CF). Mutations at Lys 335 and Arg 347 in the sixth predicted transmembrane helix of CFTR alter its halide selectivity in whole-cell studies and its single channel conductance, but the physical basis of these alterations is unknown and permeation in CFTR is poorly understood. Here we present evidence that wild-type CFTR can contain more than one anion simultaneously. The conductance of CFTR passes through a minimum when channels are bathed in mixtures of two permeant anions. This anomalous mole fraction effect can be abolished by replacing Arg 347 with an aspartate and can be toggled on or off by varying the pH after the same residue is replaced with a histidine. Thus the CFTR channel should provide a convenient model in which to study multi-ion pore behaviour and conduction. The loss of multiple occupancy may explain how naturally occurring CF mutations at this site cause disease. PMID:7694154

  18. Targeted therapies to improve CFTR function in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brodlie, Malcolm; Haq, Iram J; Roberts, Katie; Elborn, J Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetically determined, life-limiting disorder in populations of European ancestry. The genetic basis of cystic fibrosis is well established to be mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that codes for an apical membrane chloride channel principally expressed by epithelial cells. Conventional approaches to cystic fibrosis care involve a heavy daily burden of supportive treatments to combat lung infection, help clear airway secretions and maintain nutritional status. In 2012, a new era of precision medicine in cystic fibrosis therapeutics began with the licensing of a small molecule, ivacaftor, which successfully targets the underlying defect and improves CFTR function in a subgroup of patients in a genotype-specific manner. Here, we review the three main targeted approaches that have been adopted to improve CFTR function: potentiators, which recover the function of CFTR at the apical surface of epithelial cells that is disrupted in class III and IV genetic mutations; correctors, which improve intracellular processing of CFTR, increasing surface expression, in class II mutations; and production correctors or read-through agents, which promote transcription of CFTR in class I mutations. The further development of such approaches offers great promise for future therapeutic strategies in cystic fibrosis. PMID:26403534

  19. Proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems.

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, I T; Brown, M H; Skurray, R A

    1996-01-01

    Multidrug efflux systems display the ability to transport a variety of structurally unrelated drugs from a cell and consequently are capable of conferring resistance to a diverse range of chemotherapeutic agents. This review examines multidrug efflux systems which use the proton motive force to drive drug transport. These proteins are likely to operate as multidrug/proton antiporters and have been identified in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Such proton-dependent multidrug efflux proteins belong to three distinct families or superfamilies of transport proteins: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the small multidrug resistance (SMR) family, and the resistance/ nodulation/cell division (RND) family. The MFS consists of symporters, antiporters, and uniporters with either 12 or 14 transmembrane-spanning segments (TMS), and we show that within the MFS, three separate families include various multidrug/proton antiport proteins. The SMR family consists of proteins with four TMS, and the multidrug efflux proteins within this family are the smallest known secondary transporters. The RND family consists of 12-TMS transport proteins and includes a number of multidrug efflux proteins with particularly broad substrate specificity. In gram-negative bacteria, some multidrug efflux systems require two auxiliary constituents, which might enable drug transport to occur across both membranes of the cell envelope. These auxiliary constituents belong to the membrane fusion protein and the outer membrane factor families, respectively. This review examines in detail each of the characterized proton-linked multidrug efflux systems. The molecular basis of the broad substrate specificity of these transporters is discussed. The surprisingly wide distribution of multidrug efflux systems and their multiplicity in single organisms, with Escherichia coli, for instance, possessing at least nine proton-dependent multidrug efflux systems with overlapping specificities, is examined. We also

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE CFTR POTENTIATOR IVACAFTOR

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Leah R.; Abou Alaiwa, Mahmoud H.; Dohrn, Cassie L.; Gansemer, Nick D.; Diekema, Daniel J.; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ivacaftor increases CFTR channel activity and improves pulmonary function for individuals bearing a G551D mutation. Because ivacaftor structurally resembles quinolone antibiotics, we tested the hypothesis that ivacaftor possesses antibacterial properties. Methods Bioluminescence, colony forming unit, and minimal inhibitory concentration assays were used to assess viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multiple clinical microbial isolates. Results Ivacaftor induced a dose-dependent reduction in bioluminescence of S. aureus and decreased the number of colony forming units. We observed a similar but less robust effect in P. aeruginosa following outer membrane permeabilization. Ivacaftor inhibited the growth of respiratory isolates of S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae and exhibited positive interactions with antibiotics against lab and respiratory strains of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae. Conclusion These data indicate that ivacaftor exhibits antibacterial properties and raise the intriguing possibility that ivacaftor might have an antibiotic effect in people with CF. PMID:24618508

  1. Characterizing responses to CFTR-modulating drugs using rectal organoids derived from subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Berkers, Gitte; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; de Jonge, Hugo R; Janssens, Hettie M; Bronsveld, Inez; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Houwen, Roderick H J; Vleggaar, Frank P; Escher, Johanna C; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Clevers, Hans; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-22

    Identifying subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF) who may benefit from cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-modulating drugs is time-consuming, costly, and especially challenging for individuals with rare uncharacterized CFTR mutations. We studied CFTR function and responses to two drugs-the prototypical CFTR potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor/KALYDECO) and the CFTR corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor)-in organoid cultures derived from the rectal epithelia of subjects with CF, who expressed a broad range of CFTR mutations. We observed that CFTR residual function and responses to drug therapy depended on both the CFTR mutation and the genetic background of the subjects. In vitro drug responses in rectal organoids positively correlated with published outcome data from clinical trials with VX-809 and VX-770, allowing us to predict from preclinical data the potential for CF patients carrying rare CFTR mutations to respond to drug therapy. We demonstrated proof of principle by selecting two subjects expressing an uncharacterized rare CFTR genotype (G1249R/F508del) who showed clinical responses to treatment with ivacaftor and one subject (F508del/R347P) who showed a limited response to drug therapy both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that in vitro measurements of CFTR function in patient-derived rectal organoids may be useful for identifying subjects who would benefit from CFTR-correcting treatment, independent of their CFTR mutation. PMID:27334259

  2. Protection of Cftr knockout mice from acute lung infection by a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing Cftr in airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, David R.; Sajjan, Umadevi; Chow, Yu-Hua; Martin, Bernard; Kent, Geraldine; Tanswell, A. Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Forstner, Janet F.; Hu, Jim

    2003-01-01

    We developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector for cystic fibrosis lung gene therapy. The vector expresses cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) using control elements from cytokeratin 18. The vector expressed properly localized CFTR in cultured cells and in the airway epithelia of mice. Cftr RNA and protein were present in whole lung and bronchioles, respectively, for 28 days after a vector dose. Acute inflammation was minimal to moderate. To test the therapeutic potential of the vector, we challenged mice with a clinical strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Cftr knockout mice (but not Cftr+/+ littermates) challenged with Bcc developed severe lung histopathology and had high lung bacteria counts. Cftr knockout mice receiving gene therapy 7 days before Bcc challenge had less severe histopathology, and the number of lung bacteria was reduced to the level seen in Cftr+/+ littermates. These data suggest that gene therapy could benefit cystic fibrosis patients by reducing susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. PMID:14673110

  3. Protection of Cftr knockout mice from acute lung infection by a helper-dependent adenoviral vector expressing Cftr in airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Koehler, David R; Sajjan, Umadevi; Chow, Yu-Hua; Martin, Bernard; Kent, Geraldine; Tanswell, A Keith; McKerlie, Colin; Forstner, Janet F; Hu, Jim

    2003-12-23

    We developed a helper-dependent adenoviral vector for cystic fibrosis lung gene therapy. The vector expresses cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) using control elements from cytokeratin 18. The vector expressed properly localized CFTR in cultured cells and in the airway epithelia of mice. Cftr RNA and protein were present in whole lung and bronchioles, respectively, for 28 days after a vector dose. Acute inflammation was minimal to moderate. To test the therapeutic potential of the vector, we challenged mice with a clinical strain of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Cftr knockout mice (but not Cftr+/+ littermates) challenged with Bcc developed severe lung histopathology and had high lung bacteria counts. Cftr knockout mice receiving gene therapy 7 days before Bcc challenge had less severe histopathology, and the number of lung bacteria was reduced to the level seen in Cftr+/+ littermates. These data suggest that gene therapy could benefit cystic fibrosis patients by reducing susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. PMID:14673110

  4. Efflux Of Nitrate From Hydroponically Grown Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Aslam, M.; Ward, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes experiments to measure influx, and efflux of nitrate from hydroponically grown wheat seedlings. Ratio between efflux and influx greater in darkness than in light; increased with concentration of nitrate in nutrient solution. On basis of experiments, authors suggest nutrient solution optimized at lowest possible concentration of nitrate.

  5. Efflux-Mediated Antifungal Drug Resistance†

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Richard D.; Lamping, Erwin; Holmes, Ann R.; Niimi, Kyoko; Baret, Philippe V.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Tanabe, Koichi; Niimi, Masakazu; Goffeau, Andre; Monk, Brian C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Fungi cause serious infections in the immunocompromised and debilitated, and the incidence of invasive mycoses has increased significantly over the last 3 decades. Slow diagnosis and the relatively few classes of antifungal drugs result in high attributable mortality for systemic fungal infections. Azole antifungals are commonly used for fungal infections, but azole resistance can be a problem for some patient groups. High-level, clinically significant azole resistance usually involves overexpression of plasma membrane efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily class of transporters. The heterologous expression of efflux pumps in model systems, such Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has enabled the functional analysis of efflux pumps from a variety of fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the ABC pleiotropic drug resistance family has provided a new view of the evolution of this important class of efflux pumps. There are several ways in which the clinical significance of efflux-mediated antifungal drug resistance can be mitigated. Alternative antifungal drugs, such as the echinocandins, that are not efflux pump substrates provide one option. Potential therapeutic approaches that could overcome azole resistance include targeting efflux pump transcriptional regulators and fungal stress response pathways, blockade of energy supply, and direct inhibition of efflux pumps. PMID:19366916

  6. Reversible Silencing of CFTR Chloride Channels by Glutathionylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Oliva, Claudia; Li, Ge; Holmgren, Arne; Lillig, Christopher Horst; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2005-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a phosphorylation- and ATP-dependent chloride channel that modulates salt and water transport across lung and gut epithelia. The relationship between CFTR and oxidized forms of glutathione is of potential interest because reactive glutathione species are produced in inflamed epithelia where they may be modulators or substrates of CFTR. Here we show that CFTR channel activity in excised membrane patches is markedly inhibited by several oxidized forms of glutathione (i.e., GSSG, GSNO, and glutathione treated with diamide, a strong thiol oxidizer). Three lines of evidence indicate that the likely mechanism for this inhibitory effect is glutathionylation of a CFTR cysteine (i.e., formation of a mixed disulfide with glutathione): (a) channels could be protected from inhibition by pretreating the patch with NEM (a thiol alkylating agent) or by lowering the bath pH; (b) inhibited channels could be rescued by reducing agents (e.g., DTT) or by purified glutaredoxins (Grxs; thiol disulfide oxidoreductases) including a mutant Grx that specifically reduces mixed disulfides between glutathione and cysteines within proteins; and (c) reversible glutathionylation of CFTR polypeptides in microsomes could be detected biochemically under the same conditions. At the single channel level, the primary effect of reactive glutathione species was to markedly inhibit the opening rates of individual CFTR channels. CFTR channel inhibition was not obviously dependent on phosphorylation state but was markedly slowed when channels were first “locked open” by a poorly hydrolyzable ATP analogue (AMP-PNP). Consistent with the latter finding, we show that the major site of inhibition is cys-1344, a poorly conserved cysteine that lies proximal to the signature sequence in the second nucleotide binding domain (NBD2) of human CFTR. This region is predicted to participate in ATP-dependent channel opening and to be occluded in the

  7. Role of CFTR's intrinsic adenylate kinase activity in gating of the Cl(-) channel.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph O; Welsh, Michael J

    2007-12-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-)channel in the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein family. CFTR features the modular design characteristic of ABC transporters, which includes two membrane-spanning domains forming the channel pore, and two ABC nucleotide-binding domains that interact with ATP and contain the enzymatic activity coupled to normal gating. Like other ABC transporters CFTR is an ATPase (ATP + H(2)O --> ADP + Pi). Recent work has shown that CFTR also possesses intrinsic adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP left arrow over right arrow ADP + ADP). This finding raises important questions: How does AMP influence CFTR gating? Why does ADP inhibit CFTR current? Which enzymatic activity gates CFTR in vivo? Are there implications for other ABC transporters? This minireview attempts to shed light on these questions by summarizing recent advances in our understanding of the role of the CFTR adenylate kinase activity for channel gating. PMID:17965924

  8. Influenza matrix protein 2 alters CFTR expression and function through its ion channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Londino, James D.; Lazrak, Ahmed; Jurkuvenaite, Asta; Collawn, James F.; Noah, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cyclic AMP-activated chloride (Cl−) channel in the lung epithelium that helps regulate the thickness and composition of the lung epithelial lining fluid. We investigated whether influenza M2 protein, a pH-activated proton (H+) channel that traffics to the plasma membrane of infected cells, altered CFTR expression and function. M2 decreased CFTR activity in 1) Xenopus oocytes injected with human CFTR, 2) epithelial cells (HEK-293) stably transfected with CFTR, and 3) human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o−) expressing native CFTR. This inhibition was partially reversed by an inhibitor of the ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. Next we investigated whether the M2 inhibition of CFTR activity was due to an increase of secretory organelle pH by M2. Incubation of Xenopus oocytes expressing CFTR with ammonium chloride or concanamycin A, two agents that alkalinize the secretory pathway, inhibited CFTR activity in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of M2- and CFTR-expressing oocytes with the M2 ion channel inhibitor amantadine prevented the loss in CFTR expression and activity; in addition, M2 mutants, lacking the ability to transport H+, did not alter CFTR activity in Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Expression of an M2 mutant retained in the endoplasmic reticulum also failed to alter CFTR activity. In summary, our data show that M2 decreases CFTR activity by increasing secretory organelle pH, which targets CFTR for destruction by the ubiquitin system. Alteration of CFTR activity has important consequences for fluid regulation and may potentially modify the immune response to viral infection. PMID:23457187

  9. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P; Karp, Philip H; Ernst, Sarah E; Moninger, Thomas O; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Taft, Peter J; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Rector, Michael V; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A; McCray, Paul B; Welsh, Michael J; Zabner, Joseph

    2012-07-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (T2AECs) cultured at the air-liquid interface. CFTR was distributed exclusively to the apical surface of cultured T2AECs. Alveolar epithelia from CFTR(-/-) pigs failed to increase liquid absorption in response to agents that increase cAMP, whereas cAMP-stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(+/-) epithelia was similar to that in CFTR(+/+) epithelia. Expression of recombinant CFTR restored stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs but had no effect on CFTR(+/+) epithelia. In ex vivo studies of nonperfused lungs, stimulated liquid absorption was defective in CFTR(-/-) alveolar epithelia but similar between CFTR(+/+) and CFTR(+/-) epithelia. When epithelia were studied at the air-liquid interface, elevating cAMP levels increased subphase liquid height in CFTR(+/+) but not in CFTR(-/-) T2AECs. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR is required for maximal liquid absorption under cAMP stimulation, but it is not the rate-limiting factor. Furthermore, our data define a role for CFTR in liquid secretion by T2AECs. These insights may help to develop new treatment strategies for pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, diseases in which lung liquid transport is disrupted. PMID:22637155

  10. Mutations at arginine 352 alter the pore architecture of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guiying; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; O'Brien, Andrew R W; Song, Binlin; McCarty, Nael A

    2008-03-01

    Arginine 352 (R352) in the sixth transmembrane domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) previously was reported to form an anion/cation selectivity filter and to provide positive charge in the intracellular vestibule. However, mutations at this site have nonspecific effects, such as inducing susceptibility of endogenous cysteines to chemical modification. We hypothesized that R352 stabilizes channel structure and that charge-destroying mutations at this site disrupt pore architecture, with multiple consequences. We tested the effects of mutations at R352 on conductance, anion selectivity and block by the sulfonylurea drug glipizide, using recordings of wild-type and mutant channels. Charge-altering mutations at R352 destabilized the open state and altered both selectivity and block. In contrast, R352K-CFTR was similar to wild-type. Full conductance state amplitude was similar to that of wild-type CFTR in all mutants except R352E, suggesting that R352 does not itself form an anion coordination site. In an attempt to identify an acidic residue that may interact with R352, we found that permeation properties were similarly affected by charge-reversing mutations at D993. Wild-type-like properties were rescued in R352E/D993R-CFTR, suggesting that R352 and D993 in the wild-type channel may interact to stabilize pore architecture. Finally, R352A-CFTR was sensitive to modification by externally applied MTSEA+, while wild-type and R352E/D993R-CFTR were not. These data suggest that R352 plays an important structural role in CFTR, perhaps reflecting its involvement in forming a salt bridge with residue D993. PMID:18421494

  11. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900 Section 866.5900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a device used to simultaneously detect and identify a panel of mutations and variants in the CFTR gene. It...

  16. Ethidium Bromide MIC Screening for Enhanced Efflux Pump Gene Expression or Efflux Activity in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Diixa; Kosmidis, Christos; Seo, Susan M.; Kaatz, Glenn W.

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug resistance efflux pumps contribute to antimicrobial and biocide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The detection of strains capable of efflux is time-consuming and labor-intensive using currently available techniques. A simple and inexpensive method to identify such strains is needed. Ethidium bromide is a substrate for all but one of the characterized S. aureus multidrug-resistant (MDR) efflux pumps (NorC), leading us to examine the utility of simple broth microtiter MIC determinations using this compound in identifying efflux-proficient strains. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR identified the increased expression of one or more MDR efflux pump genes in 151/309 clinical strains (49%). Ethidium bromide MIC testing was insensitive (48%) but specific (92%) in identifying strains with gene overexpression, but it was highly sensitive (95%) and specific (99%) in identifying strains capable of ethidium efflux. The increased expression of norA with or without other genes was most commonly associated with efflux, and in the majority of cases that efflux was inhibited by reserpine. Ethidium bromide MIC testing is a simple and straightforward method to identify effluxing strains and can provide accurate predictions of efflux prevalence in large strain sets in a short period of time. PMID:20855743

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Potentiators Protect G551D but Not ΔF508 CFTR from Thermal Instability

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation is associated with severe disease in ∼5% of cystic fibrosis patients worldwide. This amino acid substitution in NBD1 results in a CFTR chloride channel characterized by a severe gating defect that can be at least partially overcome in vitro by exposure to a CFTR potentiator. In contrast, the more common ΔF508 mutation is associated with a severe protein trafficking defect, as well as impaired channel function. Recent clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial effect of the CFTR potentiator, Ivacaftor (VX-770), on lung function of patients bearing at least one copy of G551D CFTR, but no comparable effect on ΔF508 homozygotes. This difference in efficacy was not surprising in view of the established difference in the molecular phenotypes of the two mutant channels. Recently, however, it was shown that the structural defect introduced by the deletion of F508 is associated with the thermal instability of ΔF508 CFTR channel function in vitro. This additional mutant phenotype raised the possibility that the differences in the behavior of ΔF508 and G551D CFTR, as well as the disparate efficacy of Ivacaftor, might be a reflection of the differing thermal stabilities of the two channels at 37 °C. We compared the thermal stability of G551D and ΔF508 CFTR in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of CTFR potentiators. G551D CFTR exhibited a thermal instability that was comparable to that of ΔF508 CFTR. G551D CFTR, however, was protected from thermal instability by CFTR potentiators, whereas ΔF508 CFTR was not. These results suggest that the efficacy of VX-770 in patients bearing the G551D mutation is due, at least in part, to the ability of the small molecule to protect the mutant channel from thermal instability at human body temperature. PMID:25148434

  18. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators protect G551D but not ΔF508 CFTR from thermal instability.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuehong; Dawson, David C

    2014-09-01

    The G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation is associated with severe disease in ∼5% of cystic fibrosis patients worldwide. This amino acid substitution in NBD1 results in a CFTR chloride channel characterized by a severe gating defect that can be at least partially overcome in vitro by exposure to a CFTR potentiator. In contrast, the more common ΔF508 mutation is associated with a severe protein trafficking defect, as well as impaired channel function. Recent clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial effect of the CFTR potentiator, Ivacaftor (VX-770), on lung function of patients bearing at least one copy of G551D CFTR, but no comparable effect on ΔF508 homozygotes. This difference in efficacy was not surprising in view of the established difference in the molecular phenotypes of the two mutant channels. Recently, however, it was shown that the structural defect introduced by the deletion of F508 is associated with the thermal instability of ΔF508 CFTR channel function in vitro. This additional mutant phenotype raised the possibility that the differences in the behavior of ΔF508 and G551D CFTR, as well as the disparate efficacy of Ivacaftor, might be a reflection of the differing thermal stabilities of the two channels at 37 °C. We compared the thermal stability of G551D and ΔF508 CFTR in Xenopus oocytes in the presence and absence of CTFR potentiators. G551D CFTR exhibited a thermal instability that was comparable to that of ΔF508 CFTR. G551D CFTR, however, was protected from thermal instability by CFTR potentiators, whereas ΔF508 CFTR was not. These results suggest that the efficacy of VX-770 in patients bearing the G551D mutation is due, at least in part, to the ability of the small molecule to protect the mutant channel from thermal instability at human body temperature. PMID:25148434

  19. Rattlesnake Phospholipase A2 Increases CFTR-Chloride Channel Current and Corrects ∆F508CFTR Dysfunction: Impact in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Faure, Grazyna; Bakouh, Naziha; Lourdel, Stéphane; Odolczyk, Norbert; Premchandar, Aiswarya; Servel, Nathalie; Hatton, Aurélie; Ostrowski, Maciej K; Xu, Haijin; Saul, Frederick A; Moquereau, Christelle; Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Planelles, Gabrielle; Teulon, Jacques; Herrmann, Harald; Roldan, Ariel; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Dadlez, Michal; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ollero, Mario; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Edelman, Aleksander

    2016-07-17

    Deletion of Phe508 in the nucleotide binding domain (∆F508-NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR; a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel) is the most frequent mutation associated with cystic fibrosis. This mutation affects the maturation and gating of CFTR protein. The search for new high-affinity ligands of CFTR acting as dual modulators (correctors/activators) presents a major challenge in the pharmacology of cystic fibrosis. Snake venoms are a rich source of natural multifunctional proteins, potential binders of ion channels. In this study, we identified the CB subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus as a new ligand and allosteric modulator of CFTR. We showed that CB interacts with NBD1 of both wild type and ∆F508CFTR and increases their chloride channel currents. The potentiating effect of CB on CFTR activity was demonstrated using electrophysiological techniques in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in CFTR-HeLa cells, and ex vivo in mouse colon tissue. The correcting effect of CB was shown by functional rescue of CFTR activity after 24-h ΔF508CFTR treatments with CB. Moreover, the presence of fully glycosylated CFTR was observed. Molecular docking allowed us to propose a model of the complex involving of the ABCβ and F1-like ATP-binding subdomains of ΔF508-NBD1. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange analysis confirmed stabilization in these regions, also showing allosteric stabilization in two other distal regions. Surface plasmon resonance competition studies showed that CB disrupts the ∆F508CFTR-cytokeratin 8 complex, allowing for the escape of ∆F508CFTR from degradation. Therefore CB, as a dual modulator of ΔF508CFTR, constitutes a template for the development of new anti-CF agents. PMID:27241308

  20. Restoration of CFTR function in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Daniela De; Villella, Valeria R; Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Sepe, Angela; Gregorio, Fabiola De; Salvadori, Laura; Grassia, Rosa; Leone, Carlo A; Rosa, Giuseppe De; Maiuri, Maria C; Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo; Guido, Stefano; Bossi, Anna; Zolin, Anna; Venerando, Andrea; Pinna, Lorenzo A; Mehta, Anil; Bona, Gianni; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi; Raia, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of BECN1/Beclin 1-dependent autophagy and depletion of SQSTM1/p62 by genetic manipulation or autophagy-stimulatory proteostasis regulators, such as cystamine, have positive effects on mouse models of human cystic fibrosis (CF). These measures rescue the functional expression of the most frequent pathogenic CFTR mutant, F508del, at the respiratory epithelial surface and reduce lung inflammation in CftrF508del homozygous mice. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is an FDA-approved drug. Here, we report that oral treatment with cysteamine greatly reduces the mortality rate and improves the phenotype of newborn mice bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation. Cysteamine was also able to increase the plasma membrane expression of the F508del-CFTR protein in nasal epithelial cells from F508del homozygous CF patients, and these effects persisted for 24 h after cysteamine withdrawal. Importantly, this cysteamine effect after washout was further sustained by the sequential administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea flavonoid, both in vivo, in mice, and in vitro, in primary epithelial cells from CF patients. In a pilot clinical trial involving 10 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients, the combination of cysteamine and EGCG restored BECN1, reduced SQSTM1 levels and improved CFTR function from nasal epithelial cells in vivo, correlating with a decrease of chloride concentrations in sweat, as well as with a reduction of the abundance of TNF/TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and CXCL8 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 8) transcripts in nasal brushing and TNF and CXCL8 protein levels in the sputum. Altogether, these results suggest that optimal schedules of cysteamine plus EGCG might be used for the treatment of CF caused by the F508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:25350163

  1. Neutron Detection with Mercuric Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Z.A.

    2003-06-17

    Mercuric iodide is a high-density, high-Z semiconducting material useful for gamma ray detection. This makes it convertible to a thermal neutron detector by covering it with a boron rich material and detecting the 478 keV gamma rays resulting from the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7}Li* reaction. However, the 374 barn thermal capture cross section of {sup nat}Hg, makes the detector itself an attractive absorber, and this has been exploited previously. Since previous work indicates that there are no low-energy gamma rays emitted in coincidence with the 368 keV capture gamma from the dominant {sup 199}Hg(n, {gamma}){sup 200}Hg reaction, only the 368 keV capture gamma is seen with any efficiency a relatively thin (few mm) detector. In this paper we report preliminary measurements of neutrons via capture reactions in a bare mercuric iodide crystal and a crystal covered in {sup 10}B-loaded epoxy. The covered detector is an improvement over the bare detector because the presence of both the 478 and 368 keV gamma rays removes the ambiguity associated with the observation of only one of them. Pulse height spectra, obtained with and without lead and cadmium absorbers, showed the expected gamma rays and demonstrated that they were caused by neutrons.

  2. COMPOSITION OF MINERALIZING INCISOR ENAMEL IN CFTR-DEFICIENT MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, ALJJ; Lyaruu, DM; Guo, J; Bijvelds, MJC; Bervoets, TJM; Zandieh-Doulabi, B; Medina, JF; Li, Z; Zhang, Y; DenBesten, PK

    2014-01-01

    Formation of crystals in the enamel space releases protons that need to be buffered to sustain mineral accretion. We hypothesized that apical Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into forming enamel as critical step to secrete bicarbonates. We tested this by determining the calcium, chloride and fluoride levels of developing enamel of Cftr-null mice by quantitative electron probe microanalysis. Maturation stage Cftr–null enamel contained less chloride and calcium than wild-type enamel, was more acidic when stained with pH dyes ex vivo and formed no fluorescent modulation bands after in vivo injection of the mice with calcein. To further acidify the enamel we exposed Cftr-null mice to fluoride in drinking water to stimulate proton release during formation of hypermineralized lines. In enamel of Cftr-deficient mice fluoride further lowered enamel calcium without further reducing chloride levels. The data support the view that apical Cftr in maturation ameloblasts transduces chloride into developing enamel as part of the machinery to buffer protons released during mineral accretion. PMID:25557910

  3. Nasal Potential Difference in Cystic Fibrosis considering Severe CFTR Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Ronny Tah Yen; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Sakano, Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    The gold standard for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF) is a sweat chloride value above 60 mEq/L. However, this historical and important tool has limitations; other techniques should be studied, including the nasal potential difference (NPD) test. CFTR gene sequencing can identify CFTR mutations, but this method is time-consuming and too expensive to be used in all CF centers. The present study compared CF patients with two classes I-III CFTR mutations (10 patients) (G1), CF patients with classes IV-VI CFTR mutations (five patients) (G2), and 21 healthy subjects (G3). The CF patients and healthy subjects also underwent the NPD test. A statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, χ2, and Fisher's exact tests, α = 0.05. No differences were observed between the CF patients and healthy controls for the PDMax, Δamiloride, and Δchloride + free + amiloride markers from the NPD test. For the finger value, a difference between G2 and G3 was described. The Wilschanski index values were different between G1 and G3. In conclusion, our data showed that NPD is useful for CF diagnosis when classes I-III CFTR mutations are screened. However, if classes IV-VI are considered, the NPD test showed an overlap in values with healthy subjects. PMID:25667564

  4. CFTR and Ca2+ Signaling in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Antigny, Fabrice; Norez, Caroline; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2011-01-01

    Among the diverse physiological functions exerted by calcium signaling in living cells, its role in the regulation of protein biogenesis and trafficking remains incompletely understood. In cystic fibrosis (CF) disease the most common CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation, F508del-CFTR generates a misprocessed protein that is abnormally retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) compartment, rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and hence absent at the plasma membrane of CF epithelial cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that intracellular calcium signals consequent to activation of apical G-protein-coupled receptors by different agonists are increased in CF airway epithelia. Moreover, the regulation of various intracellular calcium storage compartments, such as ER is also abnormal in CF cells. Although the molecular mechanism at the origin of this increase remains puzzling in epithelial cells, the F508del-CFTR mutation is proposed to be the onset of abnormal Ca2+ influx linking the calcium signaling to CFTR pathobiology. This article reviews the relationships between CFTR and calcium signaling in the context of the genetic disease CF. PMID:22046162

  5. Biochemistry of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanath; Varela, Manuel F.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens that are multi-drug resistant compromise the effectiveness of treatment when they are the causative agents of infectious disease. These multi-drug resistance mechanisms allow bacteria to survive in the presence of clinically useful antimicrobial agents, thus reducing the efficacy of chemotherapy towards infectious disease. Importantly, active multi-drug efflux is a major mechanism for bacterial pathogen drug resistance. Therefore, because of their overwhelming presence in bacterial pathogens, these active multi-drug efflux mechanisms remain a major area of intense study, so that ultimately measures may be discovered to inhibit these active multi-drug efflux pumps. PMID:22605991

  6. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Than, BLN; Linnekamp, JF; Starr, TK; Largaespada, DA; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O’Sullivan, MG; Medema, JP; Fijneman, RJA; Meijer, GA; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, CA; Scott, PM; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, RT

    2016-01-01

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid–base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated ApcMin mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc+/+ mice aged to ~ 1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc+/+ Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  7. CFTR is a tumor suppressor gene in murine and human intestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Than, B L N; Linnekamp, J F; Starr, T K; Largaespada, D A; Rod, A; Zhang, Y; Bruner, V; Abrahante, J; Schumann, A; Luczak, T; Niemczyk, A; O'Sullivan, M G; Medema, J P; Fijneman, R J A; Meijer, G A; Van den Broek, E; Hodges, C A; Scott, P M; Vermeulen, L; Cormier, R T

    2016-08-11

    CFTR, the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene, encodes for the CFTR protein that plays an essential role in anion regulation and tissue homeostasis of various epithelia. In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract CFTR promotes chloride and bicarbonate secretion, playing an essential role in ion and acid-base homeostasis. Cftr has been identified as a candidate driver gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) in several Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based forward genetic screens in mice. Further, recent epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that CF patients are at high risk for developing tumors in the colon. To investigate the effects of CFTR dysregulation on GI cancer, we generated Apc(Min) mice that carried an intestinal-specific knockout of Cftr. Our results indicate that Cftr is a tumor suppressor gene in the intestinal tract as Cftr mutant mice developed significantly more tumors in the colon and the entire small intestine. In Apc(+/+) mice aged to ~1 year, Cftr deficiency alone caused the development of intestinal tumors in >60% of mice. Colon organoid formation was significantly increased in organoids created from Cftr mutant mice compared with wild-type controls, suggesting a potential role of Cftr in regulating the intestinal stem cell compartment. Microarray data from the Cftr-deficient colon and the small intestine identified dysregulated genes that belong to groups of immune response, ion channel, intestinal stem cell and other growth signaling regulators. These associated clusters of genes were confirmed by pathway analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). We also conducted RNA Seq analysis of tumors from Apc(+/+) Cftr knockout mice and identified sets of genes dysregulated in tumors including altered Wnt β-catenin target genes. Finally we analyzed expression of CFTR in early stage human CRC patients stratified by risk of recurrence and found that loss of expression of CFTR was significantly associated with poor disease

  8. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in the Genus Erwinia: Physiology and Regulation of Efflux Pump Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Thekkiniath, J; Ravirala, R; San Francisco, M

    2016-01-01

    Plant pathogens belonging to the genus Erwinia cause diseases in several economically important plants. Plants respond to bacterial infection with a powerful chemical arsenal and signaling molecules to rid themselves of the microbes. Although our understanding of how Erwinia initiate infections in plants has become clear, a comprehensive understanding of how these bacteria rid themselves of noxious antimicrobial agents during the infection is important. Multidrug efflux pumps are key factors in bacterial resistance toward antibiotics by reducing the level of antimicrobial compounds in the bacterial cell. Erwinia induce the expression of efflux pump genes in response to plant-derived antimicrobials. The capability of Erwinia to co-opt plant defense signaling molecules such as salicylic acid to trigger multidrug efflux pumps might have developed to ensure bacterial survival in susceptible host plants. In this review, we discuss the developments in Erwinia efflux pumps, focusing in particular on efflux pump function and the regulation of efflux pump gene expression. PMID:27571694

  9. Direct interaction of a CFTR potentiator and a CFTR corrector with phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Debora; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Svensson, Agneta; Moran, Oscar

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors are new drugs that target the basic CFTR protein defect and are expected to benefit cystic fibrosis patients. To optimize the substances so far proposed for human use, and to minimise unwanted side effects, it is essential to investigate possible interactions between the drugs and cell components. We used small-angle X-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation to analyse the effects of two representative drugs, the potentiator VX-770 (Ivacaftor), approved for human use, and the corrector VX-809 (Lumacaftor), on a model phospholipid membrane. By reconstruction of the electron density profile of unilamellar vesicles treated with VX-770 or VX-809 we found that these drugs penetrate the phospholipid bilayer. VX-809 becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the bilayer whereas VX-770 accumulates predominantly in the internal leaflet, behaviour probably favoured by the asymmetry of the bilayer, because of vesicle curvature. Penetration of the bilayer by these drugs, probably as part of the mechanisms of permeation, causes destabilization of the membrane; this must be taken into account during future drug development. PMID:24771136

  10. Nucleoside triphosphate pentose ring impact on CFTR gating and hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Aleksandrov, Luba; Riordan, John R

    2002-05-01

    Alterations in the pentose ring of ATP have a major impact on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function. Both 2'- and 3'-deoxy-ATP (dATP) accelerate ion channel openings and stabilize open channel structure better than ATP. Purified wild-type CFTR hydrolyzes dATP. The apparent first-order rate constants for hydrolysis at low substrate concentration are the same for dATP and ATP. This suggests that product release and/or relaxation of the enzyme structure to the initial ligand free state is the rate-limiting step in the CFTR hydrolytic cycle. Circumvention of the normal requirement for protein kinase A phosphorylation of the R-domain for channel activation implies that the impact of the deoxyribonucleotide interaction with the nucleotide binding domains is transmitted to the channel-forming elements of the protein more readily than that of the ribonucleotide. PMID:11997043

  11. Multiple proteolytic systems, including the proteasome, contribute to CFTR processing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T J; Loo, M A; Pind, S; Williams, D B; Goldberg, A L; Riordan, J R

    1995-10-01

    The molecular components of the quality control system that rapidly degrades abnormal membrane and secretory proteins have not been identified. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an integral membrane protein to which this quality control is stringently applied; approximately 75% of the wild-type precursor and 100% of the delta F508 CFTR variant found in most CF patients are rapidly degraded before exiting from the ER. We now show that this ER degradation is sensitive to inhibitors of the cytosolic proteasome, including lactacystin and certain peptide aldehydes. One of the latter compounds, MG-132, also completely blocks the ATP-dependent conversion of the wild-type precursor to the native folded form that enables escape from degradation. Hence, CFTR and presumably other intrinsic membrane proteins are substrates for proteasomal degradation during their maturation within the ER. PMID:7553864

  12. Bioelectric characterization of epithelia from neonatal CFTR knockout ferrets.

    PubMed

    Fisher, John T; Tyler, Scott R; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R; Engelhardt, John F

    2013-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin-stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)-inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin-inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  13. Bioelectric Characterization of Epithelia from Neonatal CFTR Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, John T.; Tyler, Scott R.; Zhang, Yulong; Lee, Ben J.; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Xingshen; Sui, Hongshu; Liang, Bo; Luo, Meihui; Xie, Weiliang; Yi, Yaling; Zhou, Weihong; Song, Yi; Keiser, Nicholas; Wang, Kai; de Jonge, Hugo R.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening, recessive, multiorgan genetic disorder caused by the loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel function found in many types of epithelia. Animal models that recapitulate the human disease phenotype are critical to understanding pathophysiology in CF and developing therapies. CFTR knockout ferrets manifest many of the phenotypes observed in the human disease, including lung infections, pancreatic disease and diabetes, liver disease, malnutrition, and meconium ileus. In the present study, we have characterized abnormalities in the bioelectric properties of the trachea, stomach, intestine, and gallbladder of newborn CF ferrets. Short-circuit current (ISC) analysis of CF and wild-type (WT) tracheas revealed the following similarities and differences: (1) amiloride-sensitive sodium currents were similar between genotypes; (2) responses to 4,4′-diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulphonic acid were 3.3-fold greater in CF animals, suggesting elevated baseline chloride transport through non-CFTR channels in a subset of CF animals; and (3) a lack of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)/forskolin–stimulated and N-(2-Naphthalenyl)-((3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene)glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101)–inhibited currents in CF animals due to the lack of CFTR. CFTR mRNA was present throughout all levels of the WT ferret and IBMX/forskolin–inducible ISC was only observed in WT animals. However, despite the lack of CFTR function in the knockout ferret, the luminal pH of the CF ferret gallbladder, stomach, and intestines was not significantly changed relative to WT. The WT stomach and gallbladder exhibited significantly enhanced IBMX/forskolin ISC responses and inhibition by GlyH-101 relative to CF samples. These findings demonstrate that multiple organs affected by disease in the CF ferret have bioelectric abnormalities consistent with the lack of cAMP-mediated chloride transport. PMID:23782101

  14. CFTR, Mucins, and Mucus Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kreda, Silvia M.; Davis, C. William; Rose, Mary Callaghan

    2012-01-01

    Mucus pathology in cystic fibrosis (CF) has been known for as long as the disease has been recognized and is sometimes called mucoviscidosis. The disease is marked by mucus hyperproduction and plugging in many organs, which are usually most fatal in the airways of CF patients, once the problem of meconium ileus at birth is resolved. After the CF gene, CFTR, was cloned and its protein product identified as a cAMP-regulated Cl− channel, causal mechanisms underlying the strong mucus phenotype of the disease became obscure. Here we focus on mucin genes and polymeric mucin glycoproteins, examining their regulation and potential relationships to a dysfunctional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Detailed examination of CFTR expression in organs and different cell types indicates that changes in CFTR expression do not always correlate with the severity of CF disease or mucus accumulation. Thus, the mucus hyperproduction that typifies CF does not appear to be a direct cause of a defective CFTR but, rather, to be a downstream consequence. In organs like the lung, up-regulation of mucin gene expression by inflammation results from chronic infection; however, in other instances and organs, the inflammation may have a non-infectious origin. The mucus plugging phenotype of the β-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel (βENaC)-overexpressing mouse is proving to be an archetypal example of this kind of inflammation, with a dehydrated airway surface/concentrated mucus gel apparently providing the inflammatory stimulus. Data indicate that the luminal HCO3 − deficiency recently described for CF epithelia may also provide such a stimulus, perhaps by causing a mal-maturation of mucins as they are released onto luminal surfaces. In any event, the path between CFTR dysfunction and mucus hyperproduction has proven tortuous, and its unraveling continues to offer its own twists and turns, along with fascinating glimpses into biology. PMID:22951447

  15. Mutations at arginine 352 alter the pore architecture of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Guiying; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; O’Brien, Andrew R.W.; Song, Binlin; McCarty, Nael A.

    2008-01-01

    Arginine 352 (R352) in CFTR’s sixth transmembrane domain previously was reported to form an anion/cation selectivity filter and to provide positive charge in the intracellular vestibule. However, mutations at this site have non-specific effects, such as inducing susceptibility of endogenous cysteines to chemical modification. We hypothesized that R352 stabilizes channel structure and that charge-destroying mutations at this site disrupt pore architecture, with multiple consequences. We tested the effects of mutations at R352 on conductance, anion selectivity, and block by the sulphonylurea drug glipizide, using recordings of wildtype and mutant channels. Charge-altering mutations at R352 destabilized the open state, and altered both selectivity and block. In contrast, R352K-CFTR was similar to wildtype. Full conductance state amplitude was similar to that of wildtype CFTR in all mutants, except R352E, suggesting that R352 does not itself form an anion coordination site. In an attempt to identify an acidic residue that may interact with R352, we found that permeation properties were similarly affected by charge-reversing mutations at D993. Wildtype-like properties were rescued in R352E/D993R-CFTR, suggesting that R352 and D993 in the wildtype channel may interact to stabilize pore architecture. Finally, R352A-CFTR was sensitive to modification by externally-applied MTSEA+, while wild-type and R352E/D993R-CFTR were not. These data suggest that R352 plays an important structural role in CFTR, perhaps reflecting its involvement in forming a salt bridge with residue D993. PMID:18421494

  16. Probing an open CFTR pore with organic anion blockers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Shenghui; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2002-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts Cl- current. We explored the CFTR pore by studying voltage-dependent blockade of the channel by two organic anions: glibenclamide and isethionate. To simplify the kinetic analysis, a CFTR mutant, K1250A-CFTR, was used because this mutant channel, once opened, can remain open for minutes. Dose-response relationships of both blockers follow a simple Michaelis-Menten function with K(d) values that differ by three orders of magnitude. Glibenclamide blocks CFTR from the intracellular side of the membrane with slow kinetics. Both the on and off rates of glibenclamide block are voltage dependent. Removing external Cl- increases affinity of glibenclamide due to a decrease of the off rate and an increase of the on rate, suggesting the presence of a Cl- binding site external to the glibenclamide binding site. Isethionate blocks the channel from the cytoplasmic side with fast kinetics, but has no measurable effect when applied extracellularly. Increasing the internal Cl- concentration reduces isethionate block without affecting its voltage dependence, suggesting that Cl- and isethionate compete for a binding site in the pore. The voltage dependence and external Cl- concentration dependence of isethionate block are nearly identical to those of glibenclamide block, suggesting that these two blockers may bind to a common binding site, an idea further supported by kinetic studies of blocking with glibenclamide/isethionate mixtures. By comparing the physical and chemical natures of these two blockers, we propose that CFTR channel has an asymmetric pore with a wide internal entrance and a deeply embedded blocker binding site where local charges as well as hydrophobic components determine the affinity of the blockers. PMID:12407077

  17. Probing an Open CFTR Pore with Organic Anion Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Shenghui; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts Cl− current. We explored the CFTR pore by studying voltage-dependent blockade of the channel by two organic anions: glibenclamide and isethionate. To simplify the kinetic analysis, a CFTR mutant, K1250A-CFTR, was used because this mutant channel, once opened, can remain open for minutes. Dose–response relationships of both blockers follow a simple Michaelis-Menten function with Kd values that differ by three orders of magnitude. Glibenclamide blocks CFTR from the intracellular side of the membrane with slow kinetics. Both the on and off rates of glibenclamide block are voltage dependent. Removing external Cl− increases affinity of glibenclamide due to a decrease of the off rate and an increase of the on rate, suggesting the presence of a Cl− binding site external to the glibenclamide binding site. Isethionate blocks the channel from the cytoplasmic side with fast kinetics, but has no measurable effect when applied extracellularly. Increasing the internal Cl− concentration reduces isethionate block without affecting its voltage dependence, suggesting that Cl− and isethionate compete for a binding site in the pore. The voltage dependence and external Cl− concentration dependence of isethionate block are nearly identical to those of glibenclamide block, suggesting that these two blockers may bind to a common binding site, an idea further supported by kinetic studies of blocking with glibenclamide/isethionate mixtures. By comparing the physical and chemical natures of these two blockers, we propose that CFTR channel has an asymmetric pore with a wide internal entrance and a deeply embedded blocker binding site where local charges as well as hydrophobic components determine the affinity of the blockers. PMID:12407077

  18. Regulation of the CFTR chloride channel from humans and sharks.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, J W; Mathews, C J; Grygorczyk, R; Tabcharani, J A; Grzelczak, Z; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R

    1996-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in an ATP-dependent channel which mediates cAMP-stimulated chloride secretion by epithelia, particularly those of the pancreas, airways, and intestine. CFTR homologues have been found in all higher vertebrates examined to date and also in some lower vertebrates, although only the human, shark, and Xenopus genes have been heterologously expressed and shown to generate protein kinase A-activated Cl channels. Once phosphorylated, CFTR channels require hydrolyzable nucleotides to be active, but they can be locked in an open burst state when exposed to mixtures of ATP and its hydrolysis-resistant analogue AMP-PNP. This locking requires low-level phosphorylation at unidentified sites that are not among the ten "strong" (dibasic) PKA consensus sequences on CFTR. Mutagenesis of the dibasic PKA sites, which reduces in vitro phosphorylation by > 98%, reduces open probability (Po) by about 50% whilst having no effect on burst duration. Thus, incremental phosphorylation of these sites under normal conditions does not increase Po by slowing down ATP hydrolysis and stabilizing the open burst state, although locking does strictly require low-level phosphorylation at one or more cryptic sites. In addition to serving as a Cl channel, there is compelling evidence that CFTR inhibits the amiloride-sensitive, epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). The mechanism of coupling is not known but most likely involves physical interactions between the channels, perhaps mediated by an intermediate protein that impinges on other transport proteins. CFTR does not function as a conductive channel for ATP; however, extracellular ATP does regulate epithelial channels through activation of P2U purinergic receptors and, after being hydrolyzed extracellularly, through activation of adenosine receptors which elevate cAMP. PMID:8759925

  19. Human-mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chimeras identify regions that partially rescue CFTR-ΔF508 processing and alter its gating defect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qian; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Rogers, Christopher; Vermeer, Daniel W; Zhang, Yuping; Welsh, Michael J

    2012-01-17

    The ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis. The mutation disrupts biosynthetic processing, reduces channel opening rate, and decreases protein lifetime. In contrast to human CFTR (hCFTR)-ΔF508, mouse CFTR-ΔF508 is partially processed to the cell surface, although it exhibits a functional defect similar to hCFTR-ΔF508. To explore ΔF508 abnormalities, we generated human-mouse chimeric channels. Substituting mouse nucleotide-binding domain-1 (mNBD1) into hCFTR partially rescued the ΔF508-induced maturation defect, and substituting mouse membrane-spanning domain-2 or its intracellular loops (ICLs) into hCFTR prevented further ΔF508-induced gating defects. The protective effect of the mouse ICLs was reverted by inserting mouse NBDs. Our results indicate that the ΔF508 mutation affects maturation and gating via distinct regions of the protein; maturation of CFTR-ΔF508 depends on NBD1, and the ΔF508-induced gating defect depends on the interaction between the membrane-spanning domain-2 ICLs and the NBDs. These appear to be distinct processes, because none of the chimeras repaired both defects. This distinction was exemplified by the I539T mutation, which improved CFTR-ΔF508 processing but worsened the gating defect. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that many different NBD1 modifications improve CFTR-ΔF508 maturation and that the effect of modifications can be additive. Thus, it might be possible to enhance processing by targeting several different regions of the domain or by targeting a network of CFTR-associated proteins. Because no one modification corrected both maturation and gating, perhaps more than a single agent will be required to correct all CFTR-ΔF508 defects. PMID:22210114

  20. Human–mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chimeras identify regions that partially rescue CFTR-ΔF508 processing and alter its gating defect

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qian; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Rogers, Christopher; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Zhang, Yuping; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The ΔF508 mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis. The mutation disrupts biosynthetic processing, reduces channel opening rate, and decreases protein lifetime. In contrast to human CFTR (hCFTR)-ΔF508, mouse CFTR-ΔF508 is partially processed to the cell surface, although it exhibits a functional defect similar to hCFTR-ΔF508. To explore ΔF508 abnormalities, we generated human–mouse chimeric channels. Substituting mouse nucleotide-binding domain-1 (mNBD1) into hCFTR partially rescued the ΔF508-induced maturation defect, and substituting mouse membrane-spanning domain-2 or its intracellular loops (ICLs) into hCFTR prevented further ΔF508-induced gating defects. The protective effect of the mouse ICLs was reverted by inserting mouse NBDs. Our results indicate that the ΔF508 mutation affects maturation and gating via distinct regions of the protein; maturation of CFTR-ΔF508 depends on NBD1, and the ΔF508-induced gating defect depends on the interaction between the membrane-spanning domain-2 ICLs and the NBDs. These appear to be distinct processes, because none of the chimeras repaired both defects. This distinction was exemplified by the I539T mutation, which improved CFTR-ΔF508 processing but worsened the gating defect. Our results, together with previous studies, suggest that many different NBD1 modifications improve CFTR-ΔF508 maturation and that the effect of modifications can be additive. Thus, it might be possible to enhance processing by targeting several different regions of the domain or by targeting a network of CFTR-associated proteins. Because no one modification corrected both maturation and gating, perhaps more than a single agent will be required to correct all CFTR-ΔF508 defects. PMID:22210114

  1. ∆F508 CFTR interactome remodelling promotes rescue of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E; Yates, John R

    2015-12-24

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (∆F508 CFTR) is the major cause of cystic fibrosis, one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of patients with cystic fibrosis. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases can partly rescue ∆F508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favourable change of ∆F508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as a mechanism of rescue; however, CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases are unknown. Here we report the first comprehensive analysis of the CFTR and ∆F508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and inhibition of histone deacetylases. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method, we identify 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discover a ∆F508 deletion-specific interactome, which is extensively remodelled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodelling identifies key novel interactors, whose loss promote ∆F508 CFTR channel function in primary cystic fibrosis epithelia or which are critical for CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodelling of ∆F508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of cystic fibrosis caused by deletion of F508. PMID:26618866

  2. Generation of cAMP-Activated Chloride Currents by Expression of CFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Matthew P.; Rich, Devra P.; Gregory, Richard J.; Smith, Alan E.; Welsh, Michael J.

    1991-02-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. In order to evaluate its function, CFTR was expressed in HeLa, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO), and NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells, and anion permeability was assessed with a fluorescence microscopic assay and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) increased anion permeability and chloride currents in cells expressing CFTR, but not in cells expressing a mutant CFTR (ΔF508) or in nontransfected cells. The simplest interpretation of these observations is that CFTR is itself a cAMP-activated chloride channel. The alternative interpretation, that CFTR directly or indirectly regulates chloride channels, requires that these cells have endogenous cryptic, chloride channels that are stimulated by cAMP only in the presence of CFTR.

  3. CFTR: A New Horizon in the Pathomechanism and Treatment of Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Péter; Wilschanski, Michael; Muallem, Shmuel; Lukacs, Gergely L; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Uc, Aliye; Gray, Michael A; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Maléth, József

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ion channel that conducts chloride and bicarbonate ions across epithelial cell membranes. Mutations in the CFTR gene diminish the ion channel function and lead to impaired epithelial fluid transport in multiple organs such as the lung and the pancreas resulting in cystic fibrosis. Heterozygous carriers of CFTR mutations do not develop cystic fibrosis but exhibit increased risk for pancreatitis and associated pancreatic damage characterized by elevated mucus levels, fibrosis, and cyst formation. Importantly, recent studies demonstrated that pancreatitis causing insults, such as alcohol, smoking, or bile acids, strongly inhibit CFTR function. Furthermore, human studies showed reduced levels of CFTR expression and function in all forms of pancreatitis. These findings indicate that impairment of CFTR is critical in the development of pancreatitis; therefore, correcting CFTR function could be the first specific therapy in pancreatitis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the field and discuss new possibilities for the treatment of pancreatitis. PMID:26856995

  4. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Baklanov, A. V.; Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P.

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  5. Potential sites of CFTR activation by tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Billet, Arnaud; Jia, Yanlin; Jensen, Timothy J; Hou, Yue-Xian; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Riordan, John R; Hanrahan, John W

    2016-05-01

    The CFTR chloride channel is tightly regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues. Recently it has been proposed that its activity is also regulated by tyrosine kinases, however the tyrosine phosphorylation sites remain to be identified. In this study we examined 2 candidate tyrosine residues near the boundary between the first nucleotide binding domain and the R domain, a region which is important for channel function but devoid of PKA consensus sequences. Mutating tyrosines at positions 625 and 627 dramatically reduced responses to Src or Pyk2 without altering the activation by PKA, suggesting they may contribute to CFTR regulation. PMID:26645934

  6. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809.

    PubMed

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D J; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H; Straley, Kimberly S; Decker, Caroline J; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R; Wine, Jeffrey J; Frizzell, Ray A; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A

    2011-11-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC(50), 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  7. Correction of the F508del-CFTR protein processing defect in vitro by the investigational drug VX-809

    PubMed Central

    Van Goor, Fredrick; Hadida, Sabine; Grootenhuis, Peter D. J.; Burton, Bill; Stack, Jeffrey H.; Straley, Kimberly S.; Decker, Caroline J.; Miller, Mark; McCartney, Jason; Olson, Eric R.; Wine, Jeffrey J.; Frizzell, Ray A.; Ashlock, Melissa; Negulescu, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that impair the function of CFTR, an epithelial chloride channel required for proper function of the lung, pancreas, and other organs. Most patients with CF carry the F508del CFTR mutation, which causes defective CFTR protein folding and processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in minimal amounts of CFTR at the cell surface. One strategy to treat these patients is to correct the processing of F508del-CFTR with small molecules. Here we describe the in vitro pharmacology of VX-809, a CFTR corrector that was advanced into clinical development for the treatment of CF. In cultured human bronchial epithelial cells isolated from patients with CF homozygous for F508del, VX-809 improved F508del-CFTR processing in the endoplasmic reticulum and enhanced chloride secretion to approximately 14% of non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells (EC50, 81 ± 19 nM), a level associated with mild CF in patients with less disruptive CFTR mutations. F508del-CFTR corrected by VX-809 exhibited biochemical and functional characteristics similar to normal CFTR, including biochemical susceptibility to proteolysis, residence time in the plasma membrane, and single-channel open probability. VX-809 was more efficacious and selective for CFTR than previously reported CFTR correctors. VX-809 represents a class of CFTR corrector that specifically addresses the underlying processing defect in F508del-CFTR. PMID:21976485

  8. Mechanosensitive activation of CFTR by increased cell volume and hydrostatic pressure but not shear stress.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, Constanze; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a Cl(-) channel that is essential for electrolyte and fluid homeostasis. Preliminary evidence indicates that CFTR is a mechanosensitive channel. In lung epithelia, CFTR is exposed to different mechanical forces such as shear stress (Ss) and membrane distention. The present study questioned whether Ss and/or stretch influence CFTR activity (wild type, ∆F508, G551D). Human CFTR (hCFTR) was heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the response to the mechanical stimulus and forskolin/IBMX (FI) was measured by two-electrode voltage-clamp experiments. Ss had no influence on hCFTR activity. Injection of an intracellular analogous solution to increase cell volume alone did not affect hCFTR activity. However, hCFTR activity was augmented by injection after pre-stimulation with FI. The response to injection was similar in channels carrying the common mutations ∆F508 and G551D compared to wild type hCFTR. Stretch-induced CFTR activation was further assessed in Ussing chamber measurements using Xenopus lung preparations. Under control conditions increased hydrostatic pressure (HP) decreased the measured ion current including activation of a Cl(-) secretion that was unmasked by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101. These data demonstrate activation of CFTR in vitro and in a native pulmonary epithelium in response to mechanical stress. Mechanosensitive regulation of CFTR is highly relevant for pulmonary physiology that relies on ion transport processes facilitated by pulmonary epithelial cells. PMID:26357939

  9. Regulatory domain phosphorylation to distinguish the mechanistic basis underlying acute CFTR modulators

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Louise C.; Ehrhardt, Annette; Mitchell, Lisa High; Fan, LiJuan; Ren, Aixia; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Li, Yao; Clancy, J. P.; Bolger, Graeme B.; Sorscher, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    Modulator compounds intended to overcome disease-causing mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) show significant promise in clinical testing for cystic fibrosis. However, the mechanism(s) of action underlying these compounds are not fully understood. Activation of CFTR ion transport requires PKA-regulated phosphorylation of the regulatory domain (R-D) and dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains. Using a newly developed assay, we evaluated nine compounds including both CFTR potentatiators and activators discovered via various high-throughput screening strategies to acutely augment CFTR activity. We found considerable differences in the effects on R-D phosphorylation. Some (including UCCF-152) stimulated robust phosphorylation, and others had little effect (e.g., VRT-532 and VX-770). We then compared CFTR activation by UCCF-152 and VRT-532 in Ussing chamber studies using two epithelial models, CFBE41o− and Fischer rat thyroid cells, expressing various CFTR forms. UCCF-152 activated wild-type-, G551D-, and rescued F508del-CFTR currents but did not potentiate cAMP-mediated CFTR activation. In contrast, VRT-532 moderately activated CFTR short-circuit current and strongly potentiated forskolin-mediated current. Combined with the result that UCCF-152, but not VRT-532 or VX-770, acts by increasing CFTR R-D phosphorylation, these findings indicate that potentiation of endogenous cAMP-mediated activation of mutant CFTR is not due to a pathway involving augmented R-D phosphorylation. This study presents an assay useful to distinguish preclinical compounds by a crucial mechanism underlying CFTR activation, delineates two types of compound able to acutely augment CFTR activity (e.g., activators and potentiators), and demonstrates that a number of different mechanisms can be successfully employed to activate mutant CFTR. PMID:21724857

  10. Mercuric iodide light detector and related method

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Barton, Jeff B.; Dabrowski, Andrzej J.; Schnepple, Wayne F.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting light involve applying a substantially uniform electrical potential difference between first and second spaced surfaces of a body of mercuric iodide, exposing the first surface to light and measuring an electrical current passed through the body in response to the light. The mercuric iodide may be substantially monocrystalline and the potential may be applied between a substantially transparent conductive layer at the first surface and a second conductive layer at the second surface. In a preferred embodiment, the detector is coupled to a scintillator for passage of light to the mercuric iodide in response to ionizing radiation incident on the scintillator.

  11. Mercuric iodide light detector and related method

    DOEpatents

    Iwanczyk, J.S.; Barton, J.B.; Dabrowski, A.J.; Schnepple, W.F.

    1986-09-23

    Apparatus and method for detecting light involve applying a substantially uniform electrical potential difference between first and second spaced surfaces of a body of mercuric iodide, exposing the first surface to light and measuring an electrical current passed through the body in response to the light. The mercuric iodide may be substantially monocrystalline and the potential may be applied between a substantially transparent conductive layer at the first surface and a second conductive layer at the second surface. In a preferred embodiment, the detector is coupled to a scintillator for passage of light to the mercuric iodide in response to ionizing radiation incident on the scintillator. 7 figs.

  12. Lithium iodide cardiac pacemakers: initial clinical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Burr, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    A new long-life cardiac pacemaker pulse generator powered by a lithium iodide fuel cell was introduced in Canada in 1973. The compact, hermetically sealed unit is easily implanted and reliable, has excellent patient acceptance and has an anticipated battery life of almost 14 years. Among 105 patients who received a lithium iodide pacemaker, complications occurred in 18. The lithium iodide pacemaker represents a significant advance in pacemaker generator technology and is recommended for long-term cardiac pacing; the manufacturer guarantees the pulse generator for 6 years. Images FIG. 1 PMID:974965

  13. Iodide Protects Heart Tissue from Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Akiko; Morrison, Michael L.; Roth, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is an elemental nutrient that is essential for mammals. Here we provide evidence for an acute therapeutic role for iodine in ischemia reperfusion injury. Infusion of the reduced form, iodide, but not the oxidized form iodate, reduces heart damage by as much as 75% when delivered intravenously following temporary loss of blood flow but prior to reperfusion of the heart in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction. Normal thyroid function may be required because loss of thyroid activity abrogates the iodide benefit. Given the high degree of protection and the high degree of safety, iodide should be explored further as a therapy for reperfusion injury. PMID:25379708

  14. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide powder. 520.763b Section 520... iodide powder. (a) Chemical name. 3-Ethyl-2- -benzothiazoliumiodide. (b) Specifications. Dithiazanine iodide powder contains 200 milligrams of dithiazanine iodide per level standard tablespoon. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 520.763b - Dithiazanine iodide powder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide powder. 520.763b Section 520... iodide powder. (a) Chemical name. 3-Ethyl-2- -benzothiazoliumiodide. (b) Specifications. Dithiazanine iodide powder contains 200 milligrams of dithiazanine iodide per level standard tablespoon. (c)...

  16. Efflux pump inhibitors: targeting mycobacterial efflux systems to enhance TB therapy.

    PubMed

    Pule, Caroline M; Sampson, Samantha L; Warren, Robin M; Black, Philippa A; van Helden, Paul D; Victor, Tommie C; Louw, Gail E

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance continues to plague TB control, with a global increase in the prevalence of MDR-TB. This acts as a gateway to XDR-TB and thus emphasizes the urgency for drug development and optimal treatment options. Bedaquiline is the first new anti-TB drug approved by the FDA in 40 years and has been shown to be an effective treatment option for MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Bedaquiline has also recently been included in clinical trials for new regimens with the aim of improving and shortening treatment periods. Alarmingly, efflux-mediated bedaquiline resistance, as well as efflux-mediated cross-resistance to clofazimine, has been identified in treatment failures. This mechanism of resistance results in efflux of a variety of anti-TB drugs from the bacterial cell, thereby decreasing the intracellular drug concentration. In doing so, the bacillus is able to render the antibiotic treatment ineffective. Recent studies have explored strategies to reverse the resistance phenotype conferred by efflux pump activation. It was observed that the addition of efflux pump inhibitors partially restored drug susceptibility in vitro and in vivo. This has significant clinical implications, especially in MDR-TB management where treatment options are extremely limited. This review aims to highlight the current efflux pump inhibitors effective against M. tuberculosis, the effect of efflux pump inhibitors on mycobacterial growth and the clinical promise of treatment with efflux pump inhibitors and standard anti-TB therapy. PMID:26472768

  17. Radiocarbon in Tree STEM CO2 Efflux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhr, J.; Czimczik, C. I.; Angert, A.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide efflux from tree stems can be a significant component of the stand-level carbon balance. Recent studies have demonstrated that tree stem CO2 efflux may reflect more than just in-situ respiration but also transport from other locations and it has been suggested that it may also include C originally respired in roots or even uptake of soil CO2. We report measurements of the radiocarbon signature of carbon emitted from a range of mature tree stems in tropical and temperate forest ecosystems. Comparison of the radiocarbon signature of respired CO2 with the observed rate of decline in atmsopheric 14C-CO2 provides a measure of the time elapsed between C fixation by the plant and its return to the atmosphere as stem CO2 efflux. In all investigated trees, we observed that stem CO2 efflux had higher radiocarbon signatures than the contemporary atmospheric 14C-CO2, and therefore was derived from C fixed one to several years earlier. In tropical forest trees, we found that the 14C signature of CO2 within the stem (~4-5 cm depth) had even higher radiocarbon signatures than the stem CO2 efflux. In one of the investigated tree species, the in-stem CO2 was derived from C sources fixed on average ~20 years previously. These results confirm observations of root-respired CO2 that also have shown contributions of C substrates older than recent photosynthetic products, and the presence of extracable C reserves in wood that reflect the presence of older C sources. Our results imply that stem CO2 efflux is not only derived from respiration of recent photosynthetic products but includes contributions from older, stored C pools. Ongoing investigations will enable us to compare CO2 efflux for trees subjected to experimental drought, and using different life strategies (deciduous versus evergreen oaks) to determine if the use of these older C stores varies with stress.

  18. Partial correction of the CFTR-dependent ABPA mouse model with recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer of truncated CFTR gene.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Christian; Torrez, Daniel; Braag, Sofia; Martino, Ashley; Clarke, Tracy; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Flotte, Terence R

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we have developed a model of airway inflammation in a CFTR knockout mouse utilizing Aspergillus fumigatus crude protein extract (Af-cpe) to mimic allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) 1, an unusual IgE-mediated hypersensitivity syndrome seen in up to 15% of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and rarely elsewhere. We hypothesized that replacement of CFTR via targeted gene delivery to airway epithelium would correct aberrant epithelial cytokine signaling and ameliorate the ABPA phenotype in CFTR-deficient (CFTR 489X - /-, FABP-hCFTR + / +) mice. CFTR knockout mice underwent intra-tracheal (IT) delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 5 (rAAV5Delta-264CFTR) or rAAV5-GFP at 2.58 x 10(12) viral genomes/mouse. All mice were then sensitized with two serial injections (200 microg) of crude Af antigen via the intra-peritoneal (IP) route. Untreated mice were sensitized without virus exposure. Challenges were performed 2 weeks after final sensitization, using a 0.25% solution containing Aspergillus fumigatus crude protein extract delivered by inhalation on three consecutive days. The rAAV5Delta-264CFTR-treated mice had lower total serum IgE levels (172513 ng/ml +/- 1312) than rAAV5-GFP controls (26 892 ng/ml +/- 3715) (p = 0.037) and non-treated, sensitized controls (24 816 +/- 4219 ng/ml). Serum IgG1 levels also were lower in mice receiving the CFTR vector. Interestingly, splenocytes from rAAV5Delta-264CFTR-treated mice secreted less IL-13, INFg, TNFa, RANTES and GM-CSF after ConA stimulation. Gene therapy with rAAV5Delta-264CFTR attenuated the hyper-IgE response in this reproducible CF mouse model of ABPA, with systemic effects also evident in the cytokine response of stimulated splenocytes. PMID:18023072

  19. Anion conductance selectivity mechanism of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2016-04-01

    All ion channels are able to discriminate between substrate ions to some extent, a process that involves specific interactions between permeant anions and the so-called selectivity filter within the channel pore. In the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion-selective channel, both anion relative permeability and anion relative conductance are dependent on anion free energy of hydration--anions that are relatively easily dehydrated tend to show both high permeability and low conductance. In the present work, patch clamp recording was used to investigate the relative conductance of different anions in CFTR, and the effect of mutations within the channel pore. In constitutively-active E1371Q-CFTR channels, the anion conductance sequence was Cl(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > formate > SCN(-) > I(-). A mutation that disrupts anion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore (K95Q) disrupted anion conductance selectivity, such that anions with different permeabilities showed almost indistinguishable conductances. Conversely, a mutation at the putative narrowest pore region that is known to disrupt anion permeability selectivity (F337A) had minimal effects on anion relative conductance. Ion competition experiments confirmed that relatively tight binding of permeant anions resulted in relatively low conductance. These results suggest that the relative affinity of ion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore controls the relative conductance of different permeant anions in CFTR, and that the pore has two physically distinct anion selectivity filters that act in series to control anion conductance selectivity and anion permeability selectivity respectively. PMID:26779604

  20. CFTR Modulators for the Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Rebecca S; Fellner, Chris

    2014-07-01

    Defects in a single gene lead to the defective proteins that cause cystic fibrosis, making the disease an ideal candidate for mutation-targeted therapy. Although ivacaftor is currently the only FDA-approved CFTR modifier, others are in development. PMID:25083129

  1. Regulation of CFTR ion channel gating by MgATP.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, A A; Riordan, J R

    1998-07-10

    Single channel currents of wild-type CFTR reconstituted in lipid bilayers were recorded to study the temperature dependence of channel gating between +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C. The opening of the channel was highly temperature dependent and required an activation energy of about 100 kJ/mol. Closing of the channel was only weakly temperature dependent with an activation energy close to that of diffusion in water. We found no significant difference in the free energy between the open and closed states. Most of the excess energy needed to activate channel opening is used to diminish the entropy of the open state. This structural reorganization is initiated by ATP binding followed by interconversion to the open channel structure as the CFTR-ATP-Mg complex passes to the transition state for hydrolysis. The energy of the CFTR-ATP-Mg interaction in the transition state is responsible for the CFTR ion channel opening rather than the energy of ATP hydrolysis. Channel closing is a diffusion limited process and does not require additional ATP binding. PMID:9684873

  2. State-dependent modulation of CFTR gating by pyrophosphate.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2009-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated chloride channel. ATP-induced dimerization of CFTR's two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) has been shown to reflect the channel open state, whereas hydrolysis of ATP is associated with channel closure. Pyrophosphate (PPi), like nonhydrolytic ATP analogues, is known to lock open the CFTR channel for tens of seconds when applied with ATP. Here, we demonstrate that PPi by itself opens the CFTR channel in a Mg(2+)-dependent manner long after ATP is removed from the cytoplasmic side of excised membrane patches. However, the short-lived open state (tau approximately 1.5 s) induced by MgPPi suggests that MgPPi alone does not support a stable NBD dimer configuration. Surprisingly, MgPPi elicits long-lasting opening events (tau approximately 30 s) when administrated shortly after the closure of ATP-opened channels. These results indicate the presence of two different closed states (C(1) and C(2)) upon channel closure and a state-dependent effect of MgPPi on CFTR gating. The relative amount of channels entering MgPPi-induced long-open bursts during the ATP washout phase decreases over time, indicating a time-dependent dissipation of the closed state (C(2)) that can be locked open by MgPPi. The stability of the C(2) state is enhanced when the channel is initially opened by N(6)-phenylethyl-ATP, a high affinity ATP analogue, but attenuated by W401G mutation, which likely weakens ATP binding to NBD1, suggesting that an ATP molecule remains bound to the NBD1 site in the C(2) state. Taking advantage of the slow opening rate of Y1219G-CFTR, we are able to identify a C(2)-equivalent state (C(2)*), which exists before the channel in the C(1) state is opened by ATP. This closed state responds to MgPPi much more inefficiently than the C(2) state. Finally, we show that MgAMP-PNP exerts its effects on CFTR gating via a similar mechanism as MgPPi. The structural and functional

  3. State-dependent modulation of CFTR gating by pyrophosphate

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated chloride channel. ATP-induced dimerization of CFTR's two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) has been shown to reflect the channel open state, whereas hydrolysis of ATP is associated with channel closure. Pyrophosphate (PPi), like nonhydrolytic ATP analogues, is known to lock open the CFTR channel for tens of seconds when applied with ATP. Here, we demonstrate that PPi by itself opens the CFTR channel in a Mg2+-dependent manner long after ATP is removed from the cytoplasmic side of excised membrane patches. However, the short-lived open state (τ ∼1.5 s) induced by MgPPi suggests that MgPPi alone does not support a stable NBD dimer configuration. Surprisingly, MgPPi elicits long-lasting opening events (τ ∼30 s) when administrated shortly after the closure of ATP-opened channels. These results indicate the presence of two different closed states (C1 and C2) upon channel closure and a state-dependent effect of MgPPi on CFTR gating. The relative amount of channels entering MgPPi-induced long-open bursts during the ATP washout phase decreases over time, indicating a time-dependent dissipation of the closed state (C2) that can be locked open by MgPPi. The stability of the C2 state is enhanced when the channel is initially opened by N6-phenylethyl-ATP, a high affinity ATP analogue, but attenuated by W401G mutation, which likely weakens ATP binding to NBD1, suggesting that an ATP molecule remains bound to the NBD1 site in the C2 state. Taking advantage of the slow opening rate of Y1219G-CFTR, we are able to identify a C2-equivalent state (C2*), which exists before the channel in the C1 state is opened by ATP. This closed state responds to MgPPi much more inefficiently than the C2 state. Finally, we show that MgAMP-PNP exerts its effects on CFTR gating via a similar mechanism as MgPPi. The structural and functional significance of our findings is discussed. PMID:19332621

  4. Conformational changes opening and closing the CFTR chloride channel: insights from cysteine scanning mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El Hiani, Yassine; Linsdell, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis, the most common lethal genetic disease affecting young people in North America, is caused by failure of the chloride ion channel known as CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). CFTR belongs to the large family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters. In CFTR, ATP-driven events at the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) open and close a gate that controls chloride permeation. However, the conformational changes concomitant with opening and closing of the CFTR gate are unknown. Diverse techniques including substituted cysteine accessibility method, disulfide cross-linking, and patch-clamp recording have been used to explore CFTR channel structure. Here, we consider the architecture of both the open and the closed CFTR channel. We review how CFTR channel structure changes between the closed and the open channel conformations and portray the relative function of both cytoplasmic and vestigial gates during the gating cycle. Understanding how the CFTR channel gates chloride permeation is central for understanding how CFTR defects lead to CF. Such knowledge opens the door for novel ways to maximize CFTR channel activity in a CF setting. PMID:25367045

  5. Optimal correction of distinct CFTR folding mutants in rectal cystic fibrosis organoids.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Gogorza Gondra, Ricardo A; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte M; Janssens, Hettie M; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-08-01

    Small-molecule therapies that restore defects in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating (potentiators) or trafficking (correctors) are being developed for cystic fibrosis (CF) in a mutation-specific fashion. Options for pharmacological correction of CFTR-p.Phe508del (F508del) are being extensively studied but correction of other trafficking mutants that may also benefit from corrector treatment remains largely unknown.We studied correction of the folding mutants CFTR-p.Phe508del, -p.Ala455Glu (A455E) and -p.Asn1303Lys (N1303K) by VX-809 and 18 other correctors (C1-C18) using a functional CFTR assay in human intestinal CF organoids.Function of both CFTR-p.Phe508del and -p.Ala455Glu was enhanced by a variety of correctors but no residual or corrector-induced activity was associated with CFTR-p.Asn1303Lys. Importantly, VX-809-induced correction was most dominant for CFTR-p.Phe508del, while correction of CFTR-p.Ala455Glu was highest by a subgroup of compounds called bithiazoles (C4, C13, C14 and C17) and C5.These data support the development of mutation-specific correctors for optimal treatment of different CFTR trafficking mutants, and identify C5 and bithiazoles as the most promising compounds for correction of CFTR-p.Ala455Glu. PMID:27103391

  6. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators. PMID:27226582

  7. Deletion of CFTR Translation Start Site Reveals Functional Isoforms of the Protein in CF Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Anabela S.; Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Farinha, Carlos M.; Mendes, Filipa; Gonçalves, Juan; Barreto, Celeste; Harris, Ann; Amaral, Margarida D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Mutations in the CFTR gene cause Cystic Fibrosis (CF) the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasians. We identified a CFTR mutation (c.120del23) abolishing the normal translation initiation codon, which occurs in two Portuguese CF patients. This study aims at functionally characterizing the effect of this novel mutation. Methods: RNA and protein techniques were applied to both native tissues from CF patients and recombinant cells expressing CFTR constructs to determine whether c.120del23 allows CFTR protein production through usage of alternative internal codons, and to characterize the putative truncated CFTR form(s). Results: Our data show that two shorter forms of CFTR protein are produced when the initiation translation codon is deleted indicating usage of internal initiation codons. The N-truncated CFTR generated by this mutation has decreased stability, very low processing efficiency, and drastically reduced function. Analysis of mutants of four methionine codons downstream to M1 (M82, M150, M152, M156) revealed that each of the codons M150/M152/M156 (exon 4) can mediate CFTR alternative translation. Conclusions: The CFTR N-terminus has an important role in avoiding CFTR turnover and in rendering effective its plasma membrane traffic. These data correlate well with the severe clinical phenotype of CF patients bearing the c.120del23 mutation. PMID:19910674

  8. ΔF508 CFTR interactome remodeling promotes rescue of Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pankow, Sandra; Bamberger, Casimir; Calzolari, Diego; Martínez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Balch, William E.; Yates, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deletion of phenylalanine 508 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is the major cause of Cystic Fibrosis (CF), one of the most common inherited childhood diseases. The mutated CFTR anion channel is not fully glycosylated and shows minimal activity in bronchial epithelial cells of CF patients. Low temperature or inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACi) can partially rescue ΔF508 CFTR cellular processing defects and function. A favorable change of ΔF508 CFTR protein-protein interactions was proposed as mechanism of rescue, however CFTR interactome dynamics during temperature-shift and HDACi rescue are unknown. Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of the wt and ΔF508 CFTR interactome and its dynamics during temperature shift and HDACi. By using a novel deep proteomic analysis method (CoPIT), we identified 638 individual high-confidence CFTR interactors and discovered a mutation-specific interactome, which is extensively remodeled upon rescue. Detailed analysis of the interactome remodeling identified key novel interactors, whose loss promoted enhanced CFTR channel function in primary CF epithelia or which were critical for normal CFTR biogenesis. Our results demonstrate that global remodeling of ΔF508 CFTR interactions is crucial for rescue, and provide comprehensive insight into the molecular disease mechanisms of CF caused by deletion of F508. PMID:26618866

  9. Lumacaftor alone and combined with ivacaftor: preclinical and clinical trial experience of F508del CFTR correction.

    PubMed

    Brewington, John J; McPhail, Gary L; Clancy, John P

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR), leading to significant morbidity and mortality. CFTR is a chloride and bicarbonate channel at the epithelial cell membrane. The most common CFTR mutation is F508del, resulting in minimal CFTR at the plasma membrane. Current disease management is supportive, whereas an ultimate goal is to develop therapies to restore CFTR activity. We summarize experience with lumacaftor, a small molecule that increases F508del-CFTR levels at the plasma membrane. Lumacaftor in combination with ivacaftor, a modulator of CFTR gating defects, improves clinical outcome measures in patients homozygous for the F508del mutation. Lumacaftor represents a significant advancement in the treatment of biochemical abnormalities in CF. Further development of CFTR modulators will improve upon current therapies, although it remains unclear whether this approach will provide therapies for all CFTR mutations. PMID:26581802

  10. Pathways of Arsenic Uptake and Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hung-Chi; Fu, Hsueh-Liang; Lin, Yung-Feng; Rosen, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the most prevalent environmental toxic substance and ranks first on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Superfund List. Arsenic is a carcinogen and a causative agent of numerous human diseases. Paradoxically arsenic is used as a chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Inorganic arsenic has two biological important oxidation states: As(V) (arsenate) and As(III) (arsenite). Arsenic uptake is adventitious because the arsenate and arsenite are chemically similar to required nutrients. Arsenate resembles phosphate and is a competitive inhibitor of many phosphate-utilizing enzymes. Arsenate is taken up by phosphate transport systems. In contrast, at physiological pH, the form of arsenite is As(OH)3, which resembles organic molecules such as glycerol. Consequently, arsenite is taken into cells by aquaglyceroporin channels. Arsenic efflux systems are found in nearly every organism and evolved to rid cells of this toxic metalloid. These efflux systems include members of the multidrug resistance protein family and the bacterial exchangers Acr3 and ArsB. ArsB can also be a subunit of the ArsAB As(III)-translocating ATPase, an ATP-driven efflux pump. The ArsD metallochaperone binds cytosolic As(III) and transfers it to the ArsA subunit of the efflux pump. Knowledge of the pathways and transporters for arsenic uptake and efflux is essential for understanding its toxicity and carcinogenicity and for rational design of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:23046656

  11. CFTR channel in oocytes from Xenopus laevis and its regulation by xShroom1 protein.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alejandra G; Galizia, Luciano; Kotsias, Basilio A; Marino, Gabriela I

    2016-05-01

    Shroom is a family of related proteins linked to the actin cytoskeleton. xShroom1 is constitutively expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and it is required for the expression of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). As there is a close relationship between ENaC and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), we examined the action of xShroom1 on CFTR expression and activity. Biotinylation was used to measure CFTR surface expression, and currents were registered with voltage clamp when stimulated with forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Oocytes were coinjected with CFTR complementary RNAs (cRNAs) and xShroom1 sense or antisense oligonucleotides. We observed an increment in CFTR currents and CFTR surface expression in oocytes coinjected with CFTR and xShroom1 antisense oligonucleotides. MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, did not prevent the increment in currents when xShroom1 was suppressed by antisense oligonucleotides. In addition, we inhibited the delivery of newly synthesized proteins to the plasma membrane with BFA and we found that the half-life of plasma membrane CFTR was prolonged when coinjected with the xShroom1 antisense oligonucleotides. Chloroquine, an inhibitor of the late endosome/lysosome, did not significantly increase CFTR currents when xShroom1 expression was inhibited. The higher expression of CFTR when xShroom1 is suppressed is in concordance with the functional studies suggesting that the suppression of the xShroom1 protein resulted in an increment in CFTR currents by promoting the increase of the half-life of CFTR in the plasma membrane. The role of xShroom1 in regulating CFTR expression could be relevant in the understanding of the channel malfunction in several diseases. PMID:26888038

  12. Optimization of hCFTR lung expression in mice using DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Padegimas, Linas; Kowalczyk, Tomasz H; Adams, Sam; Gedeon, Chris R; Oette, Sharon M; Dines, Karla; Hyatt, Susannah L; Sesenoglu-Laird, Ozge; Tyr, Olena; Moen, Robert C; Cooper, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Efficient and prolonged human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (hCFTR) expression is a major goal for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung therapy. A hCFTR expression plasmid was optimized as a payload for compacted DNA nanoparticles formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-substituted 30-mer lysine peptides. A codon-optimized and CpG-reduced hCFTR synthetic gene (CO-CFTR) was placed in a polyubiquitin C expression plasmid. Compared to hCFTR complementary DNA (cDNA), CO-CFTR produced a ninefold increased level of hCFTR protein in transfected HEK293 cells and, when compacted as DNA nanoparticles, produced a similar improvement in lung mRNA expression in Balb/c and fatty acid binding protein promoter (FABP) CF mice, although expression duration was transient. Various vector modifications were tested to extend duration of CO-CFTR expression. A novel prolonged expression (PE) element derived from the bovine growth hormone (BGH) gene 3' flanking sequence produced prolonged expression of CO-CFTR mRNA at biologically relevant levels. A time course study in the mouse lung revealed that CO-CFTR mRNA did not change significantly, with CO-CFTR/mCFTR geometric mean ratios of 94% on day 2, 71% on day 14, 53% on day 30, and 14% on day 59. Prolonged CO-CFTR expression is dependent on the orientation of the PE element and its transcription, is not specific to the UbC promoter, and is less dependent on other vector backbone elements. PMID:21952168

  13. CFTR: a hub for kinases and crosstalk of cAMP and Ca2+.

    PubMed

    Kunzelmann, Karl; Mehta, Anil

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The resulting disease is pleiotropic consistent with the idea that CFTR acts as a node within a network of signalling proteins. CFTR is not only a regulator of multiple transport proteins and controlled by numerous kinases but also participates in many signalling pathways that are disrupted after expression of its commonest mutant (F508del-CFTR). It operates in membrane compartments creating a scaffold for cytoskeletal elements, surface receptors, kinases and phosphodiesterases. CFTR is exposed to membrane-local second messengers such that a CFTR-interacting, low cellular energy sensor kinase (AMP- and ADP-activated kinase, AMPK) signals through a high energy phosphohistidine protein kinase (nucleoside diphosphate kinase, NDPK). CFTR also translocates a Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase to its proximity so that a rigid separation between cAMP-dependent and Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of Cl(-) transport becomes obsolete. In the presence of wild-type CFTR, parallel activation of CFTR and outwardly rectifying anoctamin 6 Cl(-) channels is observed, while the Ca(2+)-activated anoctamin 1 Cl(-) channel is inhibited. In contrast, in CF cells, CFTR is missing/mislocalized and the outwardly rectifying chloride channel is attenuated while Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) secretion (anoctamin 1) appears upregulated. Additionally, we consider the idea that F508del-CFTR when trapped in the endoplasmic reticulum augments IP3-mediated Ca(2+) release by providing a shunt pathway for Cl(-). CFTR and the IP3 receptor share the characteristic that they both assemble their partner proteins to increase the plasticity of their hub responses. In CF, the CFTR hub fails to form at the plasma membrane, with widespread detrimental consequences for cell signalling. PMID:23895508

  14. Iodide transport: implications for health and disease.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Liuska; Kopp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disorders of the thyroid gland are among the most common conditions diagnosed and managed by pediatric endocrinologists. Thyroid hormone synthesis depends on normal iodide transport and knowledge of its regulation is fundamental to understand the etiology and management of congenital and acquired thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine is also widely used as a tool for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and in the management and follow up of the most common type of endocrine cancers: papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. More recently, the regulation of iodide transport has also been the center of attention to improve the management of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer. Iodine deficiency disorders (goiter, impaired mental development) due to insufficient nutritional intake remain a universal public health problem. Thyroid function can also be influenced by medications that contain iodide or interfere with iodide metabolism such as iodinated contrast agents, povidone, lithium and amiodarone. In addition, some environmental pollutants such as perchlorate, thiocyanate and nitrates may affect iodide transport. Furthermore, nuclear accidents increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer and the therapy used to prevent exposure to these isotopes relies on the ability of the thyroid to concentrate iodine. The array of disorders involving iodide transport affect individuals during the whole life span and, if undiagnosed or improperly managed, they can have a profound impact on growth, metabolism, cognitive development and quality of life. PMID:25009573

  15. A perchlorate sensitive iodide transporter in frogs

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Deborah L.; Carr, James A.; Willis, Ray E.; Pressley, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence comparisons have identified a gene product in the genome database of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) as a probable member of the solute carrier family of membrane transporters. To confirm its identity as a putative iodide transporter, we examined the function of this sequence after heterologous expression in mammalian cells. A green monkey kidney cell line transfected with the Xenopus nucleotide sequence had significantly greater 125I uptake than sham-transfected control cells. The uptake in carrier-transfected cells was significantly inhibited in the presence of perchlorate, a competitive inhibitor of mammalian Na+/iodide symporter. Tissue distributions of the sequence were also consistent with a role in iodide uptake. The mRNA encoding the carrier was found to be expressed in the thyroid gland, stomach, and kidney of tadpoles from X. laevis, as well as the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana. The ovaries of adult X. laevis also were found to express the carrier. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the putative X. laevis iodide transporter is orthologous to vertebrate Na+-dependent iodide symporters. We conclude that the amphibian sequence encodes a protein that is indeed a functional Na+/iodide symporter in Xenopus laevis, as well as Rana catesbeiana. PMID:18275962

  16. CFTR expression and organ damage in cystic fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tizzano, E.; Chitayat, D.; Buchwald, M.

    1994-09-01

    To assist our understanding of the origin of organ damage caused by cystic fibrosis (CF) disease, we have analyzed the pattern of expression of the CF gene (CFTR). mRNA in situ hybridization analysis was carried out in human fetal, newborn, infant and adult tissues and the abundance of the mRNA was correlated with the known pathology at the various stages of human development. Analysis of the pattern of expression indicates a constitutive level of mRNA in gastrointestinal tissues starting during early development and maintained throughout life. Prenatal respiratory tissues show qualitative and quantitative major differences in comparison to postnatal lung samples. Male reproductive tissues show high levels of expression in the head of the epididymis compared with the rest of the male ducts. Female reproductive tissues show a variable pattern of expression at different stages during fetal development and during puberty probably due to changes in hormonal levels. Gastrointestinal and male reproductive tissues have a consistent pathology at birth, whereas no lung abnormalities have been described in newborns affected by CF. Our results show that there is no exact correlations between organ damage present at birth and the degree of CFTR expression. To explain these observations, we hypothesize that the pathogenesis of organ damage in CF depend on at least three factors: the rate of CFTR-mediated fluid secretion, differences in genotype and environmental factors, such as the amount of macromolecules in the lumen of the ducts. This last element predicts that damage will occur in tissues with high protein loads and low flow rates (e.g. pancreas, epididymis), where the absence of CFTR function leads to obstruction and pathology. Organs that express CFTR but with no significant damage (e.g. prenatal lung, female reproductive tissues), will have a low protein load and a high flow rates.

  17. On the mechanism of CFTR inhibition by a thiazolidinone derivative.

    PubMed

    Kopeikin, Zoia; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2010-12-01

    The effects of a thiazolidinone derivative, 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (or CFTRinh-172), on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating were studied in excised inside-out membrane patches from Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing wild-type and mutant CFTR. We found that the application of CFTRinh-172 results in an increase of the mean closed time and a decrease of the mean open time of the channel. A hyperbolic relationship between the closing rate and [CFTRinh-172] suggests that CFTRinh-172 does not act as a simple pore blocker. Interestingly, the potency of inhibition increases as the open time of the channel is increased with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range for CFTR channels locked in an open state for tens of seconds. Our studies also provide evidence that CFTRinh-172 can bind to both the open state and the closed state. However, at least one additional step, presumably reflecting inhibitor-induced conformational changes, is required to shut down the conductance after the binding of the inhibitor to the channel. Using the hydrolysis-deficient mutant E1371S as a tool as the closing rate of this mutant is dramatically decreased, we found that CFTRinh-172-dependent inhibition of CFTR channel gating, in two aspects, mimics the inactivation of voltage-dependent cation channels. First, similar to the recovery from inactivation in voltage-gated channels, once CFTR is inhibited by CFTRinh-172, reopening of the channel can be seen upon removal of the inhibitor in the absence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Second, ATP induced a biphasic current response on inhibitor-bound closed channels as if the ATP-opened channels "inactivate" despite a continuous presence of ATP. A simplified six-state kinetic scheme can well describe our data, at least qualitatively. Several possible structural mechanisms for the effects of CFTRinh-172 will be discussed. PMID:21078867

  18. On the mechanism of CFTR inhibition by a thiazolidinone derivative

    PubMed Central

    Kopeikin, Zoia; Sohma, Yoshiro; Li, Min

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a thiazolidinone derivative, 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (or CFTRinh-172), on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gating were studied in excised inside-out membrane patches from Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently expressing wild-type and mutant CFTR. We found that the application of CFTRinh-172 results in an increase of the mean closed time and a decrease of the mean open time of the channel. A hyperbolic relationship between the closing rate and [CFTRinh-172] suggests that CFTRinh-172 does not act as a simple pore blocker. Interestingly, the potency of inhibition increases as the open time of the channel is increased with an IC50 in the low nanomolar range for CFTR channels locked in an open state for tens of seconds. Our studies also provide evidence that CFTRinh-172 can bind to both the open state and the closed state. However, at least one additional step, presumably reflecting inhibitor-induced conformational changes, is required to shut down the conductance after the binding of the inhibitor to the channel. Using the hydrolysis-deficient mutant E1371S as a tool as the closing rate of this mutant is dramatically decreased, we found that CFTRinh-172–dependent inhibition of CFTR channel gating, in two aspects, mimics the inactivation of voltage-dependent cation channels. First, similar to the recovery from inactivation in voltage-gated channels, once CFTR is inhibited by CFTRinh-172, reopening of the channel can be seen upon removal of the inhibitor in the absence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Second, ATP induced a biphasic current response on inhibitor-bound closed channels as if the ATP-opened channels “inactivate” despite a continuous presence of ATP. A simplified six-state kinetic scheme can well describe our data, at least qualitatively. Several possible structural mechanisms for the effects of CFTRinh-172 will be discussed. PMID:21078867

  19. Recovery of anhydrous hydrogen iodide

    DOEpatents

    O'Keefe, Dennis R.; McCorkle, Jr., Kenneth H.; de Graaf, Johannes D.

    1982-01-01

    Relatively dry hydrogen iodide can be recovered from a mixture of HI, I.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. After the composition of the mixture is adjusted so that the amounts of H.sub.2 O and I.sub.2 do not exceed certain maximum limits, subjection of the mixture to superatmospheric pressure in an amount equal to about the vapor pressure of HI at the temperature in question causes distinct liquid phases to appear. One of the liquid phases contains HI and not more than about 1 weight percent water. Often the adjustment in the composition will include the step of vaporization, and the distinct layers appear following the increase in pressure of the vapor mixture. Adjustment in the composition may also include the addition of an extraction agent, such as H.sub.3 PO.sub.4, and even though the adjusted composition mixture contains a significant amount of such an agent, the creation of the distinct liquid phases is not adversely affected.

  20. Bacterial multi-drug efflux transporters

    PubMed Central

    Delmar, Jared A.; Su, Chih-Chia; Yu, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    Infections caused by bacteria remain a leading cause of death worldwide. While antibiotics remain a key clinical therapy, their effectiveness has been severely compromised by the development of drug resistance in these pathogens. A common and powerful resistance mechanism, multi-drug efflux transporters are capable of extruding a number of structurally unrelated antimicrobials from the bacterial cell, including antibiotics and toxic heavy metal ions, facilitating their survival in noxious environments. Those transporters belonging to the resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) superfamily typically assemble as tripartite efflux complexes, spanning the inner and outer membranes of the cell envelope. In Escherichia coli, the CusCFBA complex, which mediates resistance to copper(I) and silver(I) ions, is the only known RND transporter with a specificity for heavy metals. Herein, we describe the current knowledge of individual pump components of the Cus system, a paradigm for efflux machinery, and speculate on how RND pumps assemble to fight diverse antimicrobials. PMID:24702006

  1. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Shawn P.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  2. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  3. Molecular mechanisms of reduced glutathione transport: role of the MRP/CFTR/ABCC and OATP/SLC21A families of membrane proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ballatori, Nazzareno . E-mail: Ned_Ballatori@urmc.rochester.edu; Hammond, Christine L.; Cunningham, Jennifer B.; Krance, Suzanne M.; Marchan, Rosemarie

    2005-05-01

    The initial step in reduced glutathione (GSH) turnover in all mammalian cells is its transport across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space; however, the mechanisms of GSH transport are not clearly defined. GSH export is required for the delivery of its constituent amino acids to other tissues, detoxification of drugs, metals, and other reactive compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin, protection against oxidant stress, and secretion of hepatic bile. Recent studies indicate that some members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP/CFTR or ABCC) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, as well as some members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP or SLC21A) family of transporters contribute to this process. In particular, five of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR family appear to mediate GSH export from cells namely, MRP1, MRP2, MRP4, MRP5, and CFTR. Additionally, two members of the OATP family, rat Oatp1 and Oatp2, have been identified as GSH transporters. For the Oatp1 transporter, efflux of GSH may provide the driving force for the uptake of extracellular substrates. In humans, OATP-B and OATP8 do not appear to transport GSH; however, other members of this family have yet to be characterized in regards to GSH transport. In yeast, the ABC proteins Ycf1p and Bpt1p transport GSH from the cytosol into the vacuole, whereas Hgt1p mediates GSH uptake across the plasma membrane. Because transport is a key step in GSH homeostasis and is intimately linked to its biological functions, GSH export proteins are likely to modulate essential cellular functions.

  4. CFTR regulates outwardly rectifying chloride channels through an autocrine mechanism involving ATP.

    PubMed

    Schwiebert, E M; Egan, M E; Hwang, T H; Fulmer, S B; Allen, S S; Cutting, G R; Guggino, W B

    1995-06-30

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions to regulate both Cl- and Na+ conductive pathways; however, the cellular mechanisms whereby CFTR acts as a conductance regulator are unknown. CFTR and outwardly rectifying Cl- channels (ORCCs) are distinct channels but are linked functionally via an unknown regulatory mechanism. We present results from whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp recordings, short-circuit current recordings, and [gamma-32P]ATP release assays of normal, CF, and wild-type or mutant CFTR-transfected CF airway cultured epithelial cells wherein CFTR regulates ORCCs by triggering the transport of the potent agonist, ATP, out of the cell. Once released, ATP stimulates ORCCs through a P2U purinergic receptor-dependent signaling mechanism. Our results suggest that CFTR functions to regulate other Cl- secretory pathways in addition to itself conducting Cl-. PMID:7541313

  5. Targeted Correction and Restored Function of the CFTR Gene in Cystic Fibrosis Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Ana M.; Kramer, Philipp; Bui, Jacquelin H.; Chung, Wook Joon; Li, Xuan Shirley; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Hawkins, Finn; Liao, Wei; Mora, Daniela; Choi, Sangbum; Wang, Jianbin; Sun, Helena C.; Paschon, David E.; Guschin, Dmitry Y.; Gregory, Philip D.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Holmes, Michael C.; Sorscher, Eric J.; Davis, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recently developed reprogramming and genome editing technologies make possible the derivation of corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cell sources—potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Starting with skin fibroblasts from patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, we derived and characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. We then utilized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), designed to target the endogenous CFTR gene, to mediate correction of the inherited genetic mutation in these patient-derived lines via homology-directed repair (HDR). We observed an exquisitely sensitive, homology-dependent preference for targeting one CFTR allele versus the other. The corrected cystic fibrosis iPSCs, when induced to differentiate in vitro, expressed the corrected CFTR gene; importantly, CFTR correction resulted in restored expression of the mature CFTR glycoprotein and restoration of CFTR chloride channel function in iPSC-derived epithelial cells. PMID:25772471

  6. Targeted correction and restored function of the CFTR gene in cystic fibrosis induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Crane, Ana M; Kramer, Philipp; Bui, Jacquelin H; Chung, Wook Joon; Li, Xuan Shirley; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L; Hawkins, Finn; Liao, Wei; Mora, Daniela; Choi, Sangbum; Wang, Jianbin; Sun, Helena C; Paschon, David E; Guschin, Dmitry Y; Gregory, Philip D; Kotton, Darrell N; Holmes, Michael C; Sorscher, Eric J; Davis, Brian R

    2015-04-14

    Recently developed reprogramming and genome editing technologies make possible the derivation of corrected patient-specific pluripotent stem cell sources-potentially useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches. Starting with skin fibroblasts from patients diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, we derived and characterized induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. We then utilized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), designed to target the endogenous CFTR gene, to mediate correction of the inherited genetic mutation in these patient-derived lines via homology-directed repair (HDR). We observed an exquisitely sensitive, homology-dependent preference for targeting one CFTR allele versus the other. The corrected cystic fibrosis iPSCs, when induced to differentiate in vitro, expressed the corrected CFTR gene; importantly, CFTR correction resulted in restored expression of the mature CFTR glycoprotein and restoration of CFTR chloride channel function in iPSC-derived epithelial cells. PMID:25772471

  7. Formation of methyl iodide on a natural manganese oxide.

    PubMed

    Allard, Sébastien; Gallard, Hervé; Fontaine, Claude; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2010-08-01

    This paper demonstrates that manganese oxides can initiate the formation of methyl iodide, a volatile compound that participates to the input of iodine into the atmosphere. The formation of methyl iodide was investigated using a natural manganese oxide in batch experiments for different conditions and concentrations of iodide, natural organic matter (NOM) and manganese oxide. Methyl iodide was formed at concentrations iodide concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 38.0 mg L(-1). The production of methyl iodide increased with increasing initial concentrations of iodide ion and Mn sand and when pH decreased from 7 to 5. The hydrophilic NOM isolate exhibited the lowest yield of methyl iodide whereas hydrophobic NOM isolates such as Suwannee River HPOA fraction produced the highest concentration of methyl iodide. The formation of methyl iodide could take place through the oxidation of NOM on manganese dioxide in the presence of iodide. However, the implication of elemental iodine cannot be excluded at acidic pH. Manganese oxides can then participate with ferric oxides to the formation of methyl iodide in soils and sediments. The formation of methyl iodide is unlikely in technical systems such as drinking water treatment i.e. for ppt levels of iodide and low contact times with manganese oxides. PMID:20580399

  8. Synonymous Codon Usage Affects the Expression of Wild Type and F508del CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Kalpit; Cheng, Yi; Hahn, Brian; Bridges, Robert; Bradbury, Neil; Mueller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel composed of 1480 amino acids. The major mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis results in loss of amino acid residue, F508, (F508del). Loss of F508 in CFTR alters the folding pathway resulting in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD). This study investigates the role of synonymous codon in the expression of CFTR and CFTR F508del in human HEK293 cells. DNA encoding the open reading frame (ORF) for CFTR containing synonymous codon replacements, were expressed using a heterologous vector integrated into the genome. The results indicate that the codon usage greatly affects the expression of CFTR. While the promoter strength driving expression of the ORFs was largely unchanged and the mRNA half-lives were unchanged, the steady state levels of the mRNA varied by as much as 30 fold. Experiments support that this apparent inconsistency is attributed to exon junction complex independent nonsense mediated decay. The ratio of CFTR/mRNA indicates that mRNA containing native codons was more efficient in expressing mature CFTR as compared to mRNA containing synonymous high expression codons. However, when F508del CFTR was expressed after codon optimization, a greater percentage of the protein escaped ERAD resulting in considerable levels of mature F508del CFTR on the plasma membrane, which showed channel activity. These results indicate that for CFTR, codon usage has an effect on mRNA levels, protein expression and likely, for F508del CFTR, chaperone assisted folding pathway. PMID:25676312

  9. RNA Interference Screen to Identify Kinases That Suppress Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR*

    PubMed Central

    Trzcińska-Daneluti, Agata M.; Chen, Anthony; Nguyen, Leo; Murchie, Ryan; Jiang, Chong; Moffat, Jason; Pelletier, Lawrence; Rotin, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508-CFTR, the most common disease-causing CF mutant, exhibits folding and trafficking defects and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted for proteasomal degradation. To identify signaling pathways involved in ΔF508-CFTR rescue, we screened a library of endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNAs (esiRNAs) that target ∼750 different kinases and associated signaling proteins. We identified 20 novel suppressors of ΔF508-CFTR maturation, including the FGFR1. These were subsequently validated by measuring channel activity by the YFP halide-sensitive assay following shRNA-mediated knockdown, immunoblotting for the mature (band C) ΔF508-CFTR and measuring the amount of surface ΔF508-CFTR by ELISA. The role of FGFR signaling on ΔF508-CFTR trafficking was further elucidated by knocking down FGFRs and their downstream signaling proteins: Erk1/2, Akt, PLCγ-1, and FRS2. Interestingly, inhibition of FGFR1 with SU5402 administered to intestinal organoids (mini-guts) generated from the ileum of ΔF508-CFTR homozygous mice resulted in a robust ΔF508-CFTR rescue. Moreover, combination of SU5402 and VX-809 treatments in cells led to an additive enhancement of ΔF508-CFTR rescue, suggesting these compounds operate by different mechanisms. Chaperone array analysis on human bronchial epithelial cells harvested from ΔF508/ΔF508-CFTR transplant patients treated with SU5402 identified altered expression of several chaperones, an effect validated by their overexpression or knockdown experiments. We propose that FGFR signaling regulates specific chaperones that control ΔF508-CFTR maturation, and suggest that FGFRs may serve as important targets for therapeutic intervention for the treatment of CF. PMID:25825526

  10. CFTR is required for maximal transepithelial liquid transport in pig alveolar epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Karp, Philip H.; Ernst, Sarah E.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Rector, Michael V.; Rossen, Nathan; Stoltz, David A.; McCray, Paul B.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A balance between alveolar liquid absorption and secretion is critical for maintaining optimal alveolar subphase liquid height and facilitating gas exchange in the alveolar space. However, the role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR) in this homeostatic process has remained elusive. Using a newly developed porcine model of cystic fibrosis, in which CFTR is absent, we investigated ion transport properties and alveolar liquid transport in isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells (T2AECs) cultured at the air-liquid interface. CFTR was distributed exclusively to the apical surface of cultured T2AECs. Alveolar epithelia from CFTR−/− pigs failed to increase liquid absorption in response to agents that increase cAMP, whereas cAMP-stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR+/− epithelia was similar to that in CFTR+/+ epithelia. Expression of recombinant CFTR restored stimulated liquid absorption in CFTR−/− T2AECs but had no effect on CFTR+/+ epithelia. In ex vivo studies of nonperfused lungs, stimulated liquid absorption was defective in CFTR−/− alveolar epithelia but similar between CFTR+/+ and CFTR+/− epithelia. When epithelia were studied at the air-liquid interface, elevating cAMP levels increased subphase liquid height in CFTR+/+ but not in CFTR−/− T2AECs. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR is required for maximal liquid absorption under cAMP stimulation, but it is not the rate-limiting factor. Furthermore, our data define a role for CFTR in liquid secretion by T2AECs. These insights may help to develop new treatment strategies for pulmonary edema and respiratory distress syndrome, diseases in which lung liquid transport is disrupted. PMID:22637155

  11. Domain interdependence in the biosynthetic assembly of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liying; Aleksandrov, Luba; Chang, Xiu-Bao; Hou, Yue-Xian; He, Lihua; Hegedus, Tamas; Gentzsch, Martina; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Balch, William E; Riordan, John R

    2007-01-26

    The dimerization of their two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) in a so-called "nucleotide-sandwich" is the hallmark of ATP cassette binding (ABC) proteins and the basis of their catalytic activities. The major disease-causing mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR or ABCC7), deletion of Phe508 in NBD1, does not grossly alter the structure of that domain but prevents conformational maturation of the whole CFTR protein, possibly by disrupting the native interaction between NBD1 and NBD2. However, the role of inter-domain interactions in CFTR folding has been brought into question by a recent report that all CFTR domains fold independently. Here we show that in addition to domain folding, correct inter-domain assembly is essential to form a stable unit that satisfies endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control. N-terminal domains depend on their more C-terminal neighbors, most essentially the second membrane-spanning domain (MSD2) but significantly, not NBD2. Wild-type C-terminal truncation constructs, completely devoid of NBD2 are transported out of the ER and to the cell surface where they form characteristic CFTR chloride channels with low open probability. The DeltaNBD2 wild-type protein matures and has similar stability as its full-length counterpart. Therefore, the catalytically crucial inter-NBD associations are not required to satisfy ER quality control mechanisms. The DeltaF508 mutation arrests the maturation of DeltaNBD2 just as it does full-length CFTR, indicating that DeltaF508 perturbs other portions of the molecule in addition to NBD2. We find that the mutation prevents formation of a compact MSD1, reflected in its susceptibility to protease digestion. This perturbation of MSD1 may in turn prevent its normal integration with MSD2. The dispensability of NBD2 in the folding of more N-terminal domains stands in contrast to the known hypersensitivity to proteolysis of NBD2 in the DeltaF508 protein. PMID:17113596

  12. THE CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR (CFTR) IS EXPRESSED IN MATURATION STAGE AMELOBLASTS, ODONTOBLASTS AND BONE CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Bronckers, Antonius; Kalogeraki, Lida; Jorna, Huub J.N.; Wilke, Martina; Bervoets, Theodore J.; Lyaruu, Donacian M.; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; DenBesten, Pamela; de Jonge, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have mild defects in dental enamel. The gene mutated in these patients is CFTR, a Cl− channel involved in transepithelial salt- and water transport and bicarbonate secretion. We tested the hypothesis that Cftr channels are present and operating in the plasma membranes of mouse ameloblasts. Tissue sections of young mouse jaws and fetal human jaws were immunostained with various anti-Cftr antibodies. Specificity of the antibodies was validated in Cftr-deficient murine and human tissues. Immunostaining for Cftr was obtained in the apical plasma membranes of mouse maturation ameloblasts of both incisor and molar tooth germs. A granular intracellular immunostaining of variable intensity was also noted in bone cells and odontoblasts. In Cftr-deficient mice the incisors were chalky white and eroded much faster than in wild type mice. Histologically, only maturation ameloblasts of incisors were structurally affected in Cftr-deficient mice. Some antibody species gave also a positive cytosolic staining in Cftr-deficient cells. Transcripts of Cftr were found in maturation ameloblasts, odontoblasts and bone cells. Similar data were obtained in forming human dentin and bone. We conclude that Cftr protein locates in the apical plasma membranes of mouse maturation ameloblasts. In mouse incisors Cftr is critical for completion of enamel mineralization and conceivably functions as a regulator of pH during rapid crystal growth. Osteopenia found in CF patients as well as in Cftr-deficient mice is likely associated with defective Cftr operating in bone cells. PMID:20004757

  13. Determination of CFTR densities in erythrocyte plasma membranes using recognition imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebner, Andreas; Nikova, Dessy; Lange, Tobias; Häberle, Johannes; Falk, Sabine; Dübbers, Angelika; Bruns, Reimer; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Oberleithner, Hans; Schillers, Hermann

    2008-09-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a cAMP-regulated chloride (Cl-) channel that plays an important role in salt and fluid movement across epithelia. Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CFTR. The most predominant mutation, F508del, disturbs CFTR protein trafficking, resulting in a reduced number of CFTR in the plasma membrane. Recent studies indicate that CFTR is not only found in epithelia but also in human erythrocytes. Although considerable attempts have been made to quantify CFTR in cells, conclusions on numbers of CFTR molecules localized in the plasma membrane have been drawn indirectly. AFM has the power to provide the needed information, since both sub-molecular spatial resolution and direct protein recognition via antibody-antigen interaction can be observed. We performed a quantification study of the CFTR copies in erythrocyte membranes at the single molecule level, and compared the difference between healthy donors and CF patients. We detected that the number of CFTR molecules is reduced by 70% in erythrocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.

  14. Pseudohalide anions reveal a novel extracellular site for potentiators to increase CFTR function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Man-Song; Cowley, Elizabeth A; Linsdell, Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE There is great interest in the development of potentiator drugs to increase the activity of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cystic fibrosis. We tested the ability of several anions to potentiate CFTR activity by a novel mechanism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Patch clamp recordings were used to investigate the ability of extracellular pseudohalide anions (Co(CN)63−, Co(NO2)63−, Fe(CN)63−, IrCl63−, Fe(CN)64−) to increase the macroscopic conductance of mutant CFTR in intact cells via interactions with cytoplasmic blocking anions. Mutagenesis of CFTR was used to identify a possible molecular mechanism of action. Transepithelial short-circuit current recordings from human airway epithelial cells were used to determine effects on net anion secretion. KEY RESULTS Extracellular pseudohalide anions were able to increase CFTR conductance in intact cells, as well as increase anion secretion in airway epithelial cells. This effect appears to reflect the interaction of these substances with a site on the extracellular face of the CFTR protein. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our results identify pseudohalide anions as increasing CFTR function by a previously undescribed molecular mechanism that involves an interaction with an extracellular site on the CFTR protein. Future drugs could utilize this mechanism to increase CFTR activity in cystic fibrosis, possibly in conjunction with known intracellularly-active potentiators. PMID:22612315

  15. CFTR chloride channels are regulated by a SNAP-23/syntaxin 1A complex

    PubMed Central

    Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Di, Anke; Chang, Steven Y.; Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Tousson, Albert; Nelson, Deborah J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2002-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) mediate membrane fusion reactions in eukaryotic cells by assembling into complexes that link vesicle-associated SNAREs with SNAREs on target membranes (t-SNAREs). Many SNARE complexes contain two t-SNAREs that form a heterodimer, a putative intermediate in SNARE assembly. Individual t-SNAREs (e.g., syntaxin 1A) also regulate synaptic calcium channels and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the epithelial chloride channel that is defective in cystic fibrosis. Whether the regulation of ion channels by individual t-SNAREs is related to SNARE complex assembly and membrane fusion is unknown. Here we show that CFTR channels are coordinately regulated by two cognate t-SNAREs, SNAP-23 (synaptosome-associated protein of 23 kDa) and syntaxin 1A. SNAP-23 physically associates with CFTR by binding to its amino-terminal tail, a region that modulates channel gating. CFTR-mediated chloride currents are inhibited by introducing excess SNAP-23 into HT29-Cl.19A epithelial cells. Conversely, CFTR activity is stimulated by a SNAP-23 antibody that blocks the binding of this t-SNARE to the CFTR amino-terminal tail. The physical and functional interactions between SNAP-23 and CFTR depend on syntaxin 1A, which binds to both proteins. We conclude that CFTR channels are regulated by a t-SNARE complex that may tune CFTR activity to rates of membrane traffic in epithelial cells. PMID:12209004

  16. RNA interference for CFTR attenuates lung fluid absorption at birth in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianbo; Koshy, Shyny; Folkesson, Hans G

    2008-01-01

    Background Small interfering RNA (siRNA) against αENaC (α-subunit of the epithelial Na channel) and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) was used to explore ENaC and CTFR function in newborn rat lungs. Methods Twenty-four hours after trans-thoracic intrapulmonary (ttip) injection of siRNA-generating plasmid DNA (pSi-0, pSi-4, or pSi-C2), we measured CFTR and ENaC expression, extravascular lung water, and mortality. Results αENaC and CFTR mRNA and protein decreased by ~80% and ~85%, respectively, following αENaC and CFTR silencing. Extravascular lung water and mortality increased after αENaC and CFTR-silencing. In pSi-C2-transfected isolated DLE cells there were attenuated CFTR mRNA and protein. In pSi-4-transfected DLE cells αENaC mRNA and protein were both reduced. Interestingly, CFTR-silencing also reduced αENaC mRNA and protein. αENaC silencing, on the other hand, only slightly reduced CFTR mRNA and protein. Conclusion Thus, ENaC and CFTR are both involved in the fluid secretion to absorption conversion around at birth. PMID:18652671

  17. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70 000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  18. Duplicated CFTR isoforms in eels diverged in regulatory structures and osmoregulatory functions.

    PubMed

    Wong, Marty Kwok-Shing; Pipil, Supriya; Kato, Akira; Takei, Yoshio

    2016-09-01

    Two cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) isoforms, CFTRa and CFTRb, were cloned in Japanese eel and their structures and functions were studied in different osmoregulatory tissues in freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) eels. Molecular phylogenetic results suggested that the CFTR duplication in eels occurred independently of the duplication event in salmonid. CFTRa was expressed in the intestine and kidney and downregulated in both tissues in SW eels, while CFTRb was specifically expressed in the gill and greatly upregulated in SW eels. Structurally, the CFTR isoforms are similar in most functional domains except the regulatory R domain, where the R domain of CFTRa is similar to that of human CFTR but the R domain of CFTRb is unique in having high intrinsic negative charges and fewer phosphorylation sites, suggesting divergence of isoforms in terms of gating properties and hormonal regulation. Immunohistochemical results showed that CFTR was localized on the apical regions of SW ionocytes, suggesting a Cl(-) secretory role as in other teleosts. In intestine and kidney, however, immunoreactive CFTR was mostly found in the cytosolic vesicles in FW eels, indicating that Cl(-) channel activity could be low at basal conditions, but could be rapidly increased by membrane insertion of the stored channels. Guanylin (GN), a known hormone that increases CFTR activity in mammalian intestine, failed to redistribute CFTR and to affect its expression in eel intestine. The results suggested that GN-independent CFTR regulation is present in eel intestine and kidney. PMID:27322796

  19. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists activate CFTR in intestinal organoids and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vijftigschild, Lodewijk A W; Berkers, Gitte; Dekkers, Johanna F; Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Matthes, Elizabeth; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; Hensen, Chantal E; Heida-Michel, Sabine; Geerdink, Margot; Janssens, Hettie M; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Bronsveld, Inez; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Jonge, Hugo R; Hanrahan, John W; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that people with cystic fibrosis (CF) who express CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations associated with residual function may benefit from G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-targeting drugs that can activate and enhance CFTR function.We used intestinal organoids to screen a GPCR-modulating compound library and identified β2-adrenergic receptor agonists as the most potent inducers of CFTR function.β2-Agonist-induced organoid swelling correlated with the CFTR genotype, and could be induced in homozygous CFTR-F508del organoids and highly differentiated primary CF airway epithelial cells after rescue of CFTR trafficking by small molecules. The in vivo response to treatment with an oral or inhaled β2-agonist (salbutamol) in CF patients with residual CFTR function was evaluated in a pilot study. 10 subjects with a R117H or A455E mutation were included and showed changes in the nasal potential difference measurement after treatment with oral salbutamol, including a significant improvement of the baseline potential difference of the nasal mucosa (+6.35 mV, p<0.05), suggesting that this treatment might be effective in vivo Furthermore, plasma that was collected after oral salbutamol treatment induced CFTR activation when administered ex vivo to organoids.This proof-of-concept study suggests that organoids can be used to identify drugs that activate CFTR function in vivo and to select route of administration. PMID:27471203

  20. SNaPshot Assay for the Detection of the Most Common CFTR Mutations in Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Mircevska, Marija; Plaseski, Toso; Filipovski, Vanja; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    Congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD) is the most common CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) that explains about 1–2% of the male infertility cases. Controversial data have been published regarding the involvement of CFTR mutations in infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligozoospermia. Here, we describe single base extension (SNaPshot) assay for detection of 11 common CFTR mutations: F508del, G542X, N1303K, 621+1G->T, G551D, R553X, R1162X, W1282X, R117H, 2184insA and 1717-1G->A and IVS8polyT variants. The assay was validated on 50 previously genotyped samples and was used to screen a total of 369 infertile men with different impairment of spermatogenesis and 136 fertile controls. Our results show that double heterozygosity of cystic fibrosis (CF) and CFTR-related disorder (CFTR-RD) mutations are found in a high percentage (22.7%) of infertile men with obstructive azoospermia, but not in other studied groups of infertile men. The SNaPshot assay described here is an inexpensive, fast and robust method for primary screening of the most common CFTR mutations both in patients with classical CF and CFTR-RD. It can contribute to better understanding of the role of CFTR mutations in impaired spermatogenesis, ultimately leading to improved management of infertile men. PMID:25386751

  1. Regulation of CFTR expression and function during differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sood, R; Bear, C; Auerbach, W; Reyes, E; Jensen, T; Kartner, N; Riordan, J R; Buchwald, M

    1992-01-01

    CFTR, the protein defective in cystic fibrosis is regulated during differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. The undifferentiated cells (Caco-2 and HT-29) show a lower level of CFTR mRNA, while a 10-fold increase is seen in differentiated cells. These differences correlate well with those of other intestinal-specific genes, including sucrase-isomaltase, villin and alpha 1-antitrypsin, indicating that the regulation is cell specific. In Caco-2 cells the increase in CFTR mRNA cannot be accounted for by increased transcription of the gene. These data indicate that CFTR mRNA stabilizing factor(s) might be present in differentiated cells. The higher levels of CFTR mRNA in differentiated cells are accompanied by decreased protein levels, indicating, as well, involvement of translational control in the regulation of CFTR in these cells. Finally, fully differentiated cells show lowered levels of cyclic AMP-activated C1- transport, the characteristic function of CFTR. Thus, CFTR function in differentiated cells is modulated by a complex interaction of regulatory elements. Caco-2 and HT-29 cells provide a suitable in vitro system in which to study the mechanism of regulation of CFTR. Images PMID:1378393

  2. Processing and function of CFTR-ΔF508 are species-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Rogers, Christopher S.; Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O.; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The most common mutation, a deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (ΔF508), disrupts processing of the protein. Nearly all human CFTR-ΔF508 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, preventing maturation to the plasma membrane. In addition, the F508 deletion reduces the activity of single CFTR channels. Human CFTR-ΔF508 has been extensively studied to better understand its defects. Here, we adopted a cross-species comparative approach, examining human, pig, and mouse CFTR-ΔF508. As with human CFTR-ΔF508, the ΔF508 mutation reduced the single-channel activity of the pig and mouse channels. However, the mutant pig and mouse proteins were at least partially processed like their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, pig and mouse CFTR-ΔF508 partially restored transepithelial Cl− transport to CF airway epithelia. Our data, combined with earlier work, suggest that there is a gradient in the severity of the CFTR-ΔF508 processing defect, with human more severe than pig or mouse. These findings may explain some previously puzzling observations in CF mice, they have important implications for evaluation of potential therapeutics, and they suggest new strategies for discovering the mechanisms that disrupt processing of human CFTR-ΔF508. PMID:17873061

  3. Processing and function of CFTR-DeltaF508 are species-dependent.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Rogers, Christopher S; Dong, Qian; Randak, Christoph O; Vermeer, Daniel W; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Karp, Philip H; Welsh, Michael J

    2007-09-25

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis. The most common mutation, a deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (DeltaF508), disrupts processing of the protein. Nearly all human CFTR-DeltaF508 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded, preventing maturation to the plasma membrane. In addition, the F508 deletion reduces the activity of single CFTR channels. Human CFTR-DeltaF508 has been extensively studied to better understand its defects. Here, we adopted a cross-species comparative approach, examining human, pig, and mouse CFTR-DeltaF508. As with human CFTR-DeltaF508, the DeltaF508 mutation reduced the single-channel activity of the pig and mouse channels. However, the mutant pig and mouse proteins were at least partially processed like their wild-type counterparts. Moreover, pig and mouse CFTR-DeltaF508 partially restored transepithelial Cl(-) transport to CF airway epithelia. Our data, combined with earlier work, suggest that there is a gradient in the severity of the CFTR-DeltaF508 processing defect, with human more severe than pig or mouse. These findings may explain some previously puzzling observations in CF mice, they have important implications for evaluation of potential therapeutics, and they suggest new strategies for discovering the mechanisms that disrupt processing of human CFTR-DeltaF508. PMID:17873061

  4. Advancing clinical development pathways for new CFTR modulators in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Hamblett, Nicole; Boyle, Michael; VanDevanter, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening genetic disease affecting approximately 70,000 individuals worldwide. Until recently, drug development efforts have emphasised therapies treating downstream signs and symptoms resulting from the underlying CF biological defect: reduced function of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The current CF drug development landscape has expanded to include therapies that enhance CFTR function by either restoring wild-type CFTR protein expression or increasing (modulating) the function of mutant CFTR proteins in cells. To date, two systemic small-molecule CFTR modulators have been evaluated in pivotal clinical trials in individuals with CF and specific mutant CFTR genotypes that have led to regulatory review and/or approval. Advances in the discovery of CFTR modulators as a promising new class of therapies have been impressive, yet work remains to develop highly effective, disease-modifying modulators for individuals of all CF genotypes. The objectives of this review are to outline the challenges and opportunities in drug development created by systemic genotype-specific CFTR modulators, highlight the advantages of sweat chloride as an established biomarker of CFTR activity to streamline early-phase development and summarise options for later phase clinical trial designs that respond to the adoption of approved genotype-specific modulators into standard of care. An optimal development framework will be needed to move the most promising therapies efficiently through the drug development pipeline and ultimately deliver efficacious and safe therapies to all individuals with CF. PMID:26903594

  5. CO2 Efflux from Cleared Mangrove Peat

    PubMed Central

    Lovelock, Catherine E.; Ruess, Roger W.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2011-01-01

    Background CO2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured CO2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO2 efflux. CO2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10 600 tonnes km−2 year−1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km2 year−1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO2 efflux (27 umol m−2 s−1), but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days. Conclusions/Significance Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks. PMID:21738628

  6. An overview of bacterial efflux pumps and computational approaches to study efflux pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shirin; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms express a wide range of transmembrane pumps known as multidrug efflux pumps that improve the micro-organism's ability to survive in severe environments and contribute to resistance against antibiotic and antimicrobial agents. There is significant interest in developing efflux inhibitors as an adjunct to treatment with current and next generation of antibiotics. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. We summarize some structural and functional data that could provide insights into the inhibition of transport mechanisms of these intricate molecular nanomachines with a focus on the advances in computational approaches. PMID:26824720

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic detection of efflux pump in Rhodococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Gressler, Letícia Trevisan; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Pötter, Luciana; da Silveira, Bibiana Petri; Sangioni, Luis Antônio; de Avila Botton, Sônia

    2014-01-01

    The req_39680 gene, associated to a putative efflux system, was detected in 60% (54/90) of R. equi isolates by PCR. The phenotypic expression of efflux mechanism was verified in 20% of the isolates using ethidium bromide. For the first time, the expression of efflux mechanism was demonstrated in R. equi. PMID:25242956

  8. CFTR gene mutations in isolated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    SciTech Connect

    Pignatti, P.F.; Bombien, C.; Marigo, C.

    1994-09-01

    In order to identify a possible hereditary predisposition to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have looked for the presence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene DNA sequence modifications in 28 unrelated patients with no signs of cystic fibrosis. The known mutations in Italian CF patients, as well as the most frequent worldwide CF mutations, were investigated. In addition, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of about half of the coding sequence of the gene in 56 chromosomes from the patients and in 102 chromosomes from control individuals affected by other pulmonary diseases and from normal controls was performed. Nine different CFTR gene mutations and polymorphisms were found in seven patients, a highly significant increase over controls. Two of the patients were compound heterozygotes. Two frequent CF mutations were detected: deletion F508 and R117H; two rare CF mutations: R1066C and 3667ins4; and five CF sequence variants: R75Q (which was also described as a disease-causing mutation in male sterility cases due to the absence of the vasa deferentia), G576A, 2736 A{r_arrow}G, L997F, and 3271+18C{r_arrow}T. Seven (78%) of the mutations are localized in transmembrane domains. Six (86%) of the patients with defined mutations and polymorphisms had bronchiectasis. These results indicate that CFTR gene mutations and sequence alterations may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of some cases of COPD.

  9. Modeling the Conformational Changes Underlying Channel Opening in CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Kazi S.; Cui, Guiying; Harvey, Stephen C.; McCarty, Nael A.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disease among Caucasians. Although general features of the structure of CFTR have been predicted from homology models, the conformational changes that result in channel opening and closing have yet to be resolved. We created new closed- and open-state homology models of CFTR, and performed targeted molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational transitions in a channel opening event. The simulations predict a conformational wave that starts at the nucleotide binding domains and ends with the formation of an open conduction pathway. Changes in side-chain interactions are observed in all major domains of the protein, and experimental confirmation was obtained for a novel intra-protein salt bridge that breaks near the end of the transition. The models and simulation add to our understanding of the mechanism of ATP-dependent gating in this disease-relevant ion channel. PMID:24086355

  10. Modeling the conformational changes underlying channel opening in CFTR.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Kazi S; Cui, Guiying; Harvey, Stephen C; McCarty, Nael A

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) cause cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common life-shortening genetic disease among Caucasians. Although general features of the structure of CFTR have been predicted from homology models, the conformational changes that result in channel opening and closing have yet to be resolved. We created new closed- and open-state homology models of CFTR, and performed targeted molecular dynamics simulations of the conformational transitions in a channel opening event. The simulations predict a conformational wave that starts at the nucleotide binding domains and ends with the formation of an open conduction pathway. Changes in side-chain interactions are observed in all major domains of the protein, and experimental confirmation was obtained for a novel intra-protein salt bridge that breaks near the end of the transition. The models and simulation add to our understanding of the mechanism of ATP-dependent gating in this disease-relevant ion channel. PMID:24086355

  11. CLC-0 and CFTR: chloride channels evolved from transporters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Yu; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2008-04-01

    CLC-0 and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels play important roles in Cl(-) transport across cell membranes. These two proteins belong to, respectively, the CLC and ABC transport protein families whose members encompass both ion channels and transporters. Defective function of members in these two protein families causes various hereditary human diseases. Ion channels and transporters were traditionally viewed as distinct entities in membrane transport physiology, but recent discoveries have blurred the line between these two classes of membrane transport proteins. CLC-0 and CFTR can be considered operationally as ligand-gated channels, though binding of the activating ligands appears to be coupled to an irreversible gating cycle driven by an input of free energy. High-resolution crystallographic structures of bacterial CLC proteins and ABC transporters have led us to a better understanding of the gating properties for CLC and CFTR Cl(-) channels. Furthermore, the joined force between structural and functional studies of these two protein families has offered a unique opportunity to peek into the evolutionary link between ion channels and transporters. A promising byproduct of this exercise is a deeper mechanistic insight into how different transport proteins work at a fundamental level. PMID:18391167

  12. CFTR (ABCC7) is a hydrolyzable-ligand-gated channel.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Riordan, John R

    2007-02-01

    As the product of the gene mutated in cystic fibrosis, the most common genetic disease of Caucasians, CFTR is an atypical ABC protein. From an evolutionary perspective, it is apparently a relatively young member of the ABC family, present only in metazoans where it plays a critical role in epithelial salt and fluid homeostasis. Functionally, the membrane translocation process it mediates, the passive bidirectional diffusion of small inorganic anions, is simpler than the vectorial transport of larger more complex substrates ("allocrites") by most ABC transporters. However, the control of the permeation pathway which cannot go unchecked is necessarily more stringent than in the case of the transporters. There is tight regulation by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the unique CFTR R domain superimposed on the basic ABC regulation mode of ATP binding and hydrolysis at the dual nucleotide binding sites. As with other ABCC subfamily members, only the second of these sites is hydrolytic in CFTR. The phosphorylation and ATP binding/hydrolysis events do not strongly influence each other; rather, R domain phosphorylation appears to enable transduction of the nucleotide binding allosteric signal to the responding channel gate. ATP hydrolysis is not required for either the opening or closing gating transitions but efficiently clears the ligand-binding site enabling a new gating cycle to be initiated. PMID:17021796

  13. Energy resolution enhancement of mercuric iodide detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.; Padgett, L.; Prickett, B.; Schnepple, W.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse processing technique has been developed which improves the gamma-ray energy resolution of mercuric iodide detectors. The technique employs a fast (100 ns) and a slow (6.4 microsec) pulse height analysis to correct for signal variations due to variations in charge trapping. The capabilities of the technique for energy resolution enhancement are discussed as well as the utility of the technique for examining the trapping characteristics of individual detectors. An energy resolution of 2.6 percent FWHM at 662 keV was achieved with an acceptance efficiency of 100 percent from a mercuric iodide detector which gives 8.3 percent FWHM using standard techniques.

  14. Results of a phase IIa study of VX-809, an investigational CFTR corrector compound, in subjects with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, JP; Rowe, Steven M; Accurso, Frank J; Aitken, Moira L; Amin, Raouf S; Ashlock, Melissa A; Ballmann, Manfred; Boyle, Michael P; Bronsveld, Inez; Campbell, Preston W; DeBoeck, Kris; Donaldson, Scott H; Dorkin, Henry L; Dunitz, Jordan M; Durie, Peter R; Jain, Manu; Leonard, Anissa; McCoy, Karen S; Moss, Richard B; Pilewski, Joseph M; Rosenbluth, Daniel B; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Schechter, Michael S; Botfield, Martyn; Ordoñez, Claudia L; Spencer-Green, George T; Vernillet, Laurent; Wisseh, Steve; Yen, Karl; Konstan, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Background VX-809, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulator, has been shown to increase the cell surface density of functional F508del-CFTR in vitro. Methods A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the safety, tolerability and pharmacodynamics of VX-809 in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (n=89) who were homozygous for the F508del-CFTR mutation. Subjects were randomised to one of four VX-809 28 day dose groups (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) or matching placebo. Results The type and incidence of adverse events were similar among VX-809- and placebo-treated subjects. Respiratory events were the most commonly reported and led to discontinuation by one subject in each active treatment arm. Pharmacokinetic data supported a once-daily oral dosing regimen. Pharmacodynamic data suggested that VX-809 improved CFTR function in at least one organ (sweat gland). VX-809 reduced elevated sweat chloride values in a dose-dependent manner (p=0.0013) that was statistically significant in the 100 and 200 mg dose groups. There was no statistically significant improvement in CFTR function in the nasal epithelium as measured by nasal potential difference, nor were there statistically significant changes in lung function or patient-reported outcomes. No maturation of immature F508del-CFTR was detected in the subgroup that provided rectal biopsy specimens. Conclusions In this study, VX-809 had a similar adverse event profile to placebo for 28 days in F508del-CFTR homozygous patients, and demonstrated biological activity with positive impact on CFTR function in the sweat gland. Additional data are needed to determine how improvements detected in CFTR function secondary to VX-809 in the sweat gland relate to those measurable in the respiratory tract and to long-term measures of clinical benefit. Clinical trial number NCT00865904 PMID:21825083

  15. Simple image-based no-wash method for quantitative detection of surface expressed CFTR.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads Breum; Hu, Jennifer; Frizzell, Raymond A; Watkins, Simon C

    2016-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease among Caucasians. It is caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes an apical membrane anion channel that is required for regulating the volume and composition of epithelial secretions. The most common CFTR mutation, present on at least one allele in >90% of CF patients, deletes phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del), which causes the protein to misfold. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control elicits the degradation of mutant CFTR, compromising its trafficking to the epithelial cell apical membrane. The absence of functional CFTR leads to depletion of airway surface liquid, impaired clearance of mucus and bacteria from the lung, and predisposes to recurrent infections. Ultimately, respiratory failure results from inflammation and bronchiectasis. Although high throughput screening has identified small molecules that can restore the anion transport function of F508del CFTR, they correct less than 15% of WT CFTR activity, yielding insufficient clinical benefit. To date, most primary CF drug discovery assays have employed measurements of CFTR's anion transport function, a method that depends on the recruitment of a functional CFTR to the cell surface, involves multiple wash steps, and relies on a signal that saturates rapidly. Screening efforts have also included assays for detection of extracellularly HA-tagged or HRP-tagged CFTR, which require multiple washing steps. We have recently developed tools and cell lines that report the correction of mutant CFTR trafficking by currently available small molecules, and have extended this assay to the 96-well format. This new and simple no-wash assay of F508del CFTR at the cell surface may permit the discovery of more efficacious drugs, and hopefully thereby prevent the catastrophic effects of this disease. In addition, the modular design of this platform should make it useful for other diseases where loss

  16. Accumulation of metals in GOLD4 COPD lungs is associated with decreased CFTR levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel that primarily resides in airway epithelial cells. Decreased CFTR expression and/or function lead to impaired airway surface liquid (ASL) volume homeostasis, resulting in accumulation of mucus, reduced clearance of bacteria, and chronic infection and inflammation. Methods Expression of CFTR and the cigarette smoke metal content were assessed in lung samples of controls and COPD patients with established GOLD stage 4. CFTR protein and mRNA were quantified by immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Metals present in lung samples were quantified by ICP-AES. The effect of cigarette smoke on down-regulation of CFTR expression and function was assessed using primary human airway epithelial cells. The role of leading metal(s) found in lung samples of GOLD 4 COPD patients involved in the alteration of CFTR was confirmed by exposing human bronchial epithelial cells 16HBE14o- to metal-depleted cigarette smoke extracts. Results We found that CFTR expression is reduced in the lungs of GOLD 4 COPD patients, especially in bronchial epithelial cells. Assessment of metals present in lung samples revealed that cadmium and manganese were significantly higher in GOLD 4 COPD patients when compared to control smokers (GOLD 0). Primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke resulted in decreased expression of CFTR protein and reduced airway surface liquid height. 16HBE14o-cells exposed to cigarette smoke also exhibited reduced levels of CFTR protein and mRNA. Removal and/or addition of metals to cigarette smoke extracts before exposure established their role in decrease of CFTR in airway epithelial cells. Conclusions CFTR expression is reduced in the lungs of patients with severe COPD. This effect is associated with the accumulation of cadmium and manganese suggesting a role for these metals in the pathogenesis of COPD. PMID:24957904

  17. Vx-770 potentiates CFTR function by promoting decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle.

    PubMed

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2013-03-12

    Vx-770 (Ivacaftor), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for clinical application to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), shifts the paradigm from conventional symptomatic treatments to therapeutics directly tackling the root of the disease: functional defects of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel caused by pathogenic mutations. The underlying mechanism for the action of Vx-770 remains elusive partly because this compound not only increases the activity of wild-type (WT) channels whose gating is primarily controlled by ATP binding/hydrolysis, but also improves the function of G551D-CFTR, a disease-associated mutation that abolishes CFTR's responsiveness to ATP. Here we provide a unified theory to account for this dual effect of Vx-770. We found that Vx-770 enhances spontaneous, ATP-independent activity of WT-CFTR to a similar magnitude as its effects on G551D channels, a result essentially explaining Vx-770's effect on G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR in an [ATP]-dependent manner. This distinct kinetic effect is accountable with a newly proposed CFTR gating model depicting an [ATP]-dependent "reentry" mechanism that allows CFTR shuffling among different open states by undergoing multiple rounds of ATP hydrolysis. We further examined the effect of Vx-770 on R352C-CFTR, a unique mutant that allows direct observation of hydrolysis-triggered gating events. Our data corroborate that Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR by stabilizing a posthydrolytic open state and thereby fosters decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle. The current study also suggests that this unique mechanism of drug action can be further exploited to develop strategies that enhance the function of CFTR. PMID:23440202

  18. Modulation of endocytic trafficking and apical stability of CFTR in primary human airway epithelial cultures.

    PubMed

    Cholon, Deborah M; O'Neal, Wanda K; Randell, Scott H; Riordan, John R; Gentzsch, Martina

    2010-03-01

    CFTR is a highly regulated apical chloride channel of epithelial cells that is mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we characterized the apical stability and intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR in its native environment, i.e., highly differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. We labeled the apical pool of CFTR and subsequently visualized the protein in intracellular compartments. CFTR moved from the apical surface to endosomes and then efficiently recycled back to the surface. CFTR endocytosis occurred more slowly in polarized than in nonpolarized HAE cells or in a polarized epithelial cell line. The most common mutation in CF, DeltaF508 CFTR, was rescued from endoplasmic reticulum retention by low-temperature incubation but transited from the apical membrane to endocytic compartments more rapidly and recycled less efficiently than wild-type CFTR. Incubation with small-molecule correctors resulted in DeltaF508 CFTR at the apical membrane but did not restore apical stability. To stabilize the mutant protein at the apical membrane, we found that the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore and the cholesterol-extracting agent cyclodextrin dramatically reduced internalization of DeltaF508, whereas the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely blocked endocytosis of DeltaF508. On examination of intrinsic properties of CFTR that may affect its apical stability, we found that N-linked oligosaccharides were not necessary for transport to the apical membrane but were required for efficient apical recycling and, therefore, influenced the turnover of surface CFTR. Thus apical stability of CFTR in its native environment is affected by properties of the protein and modulation of endocytic trafficking. PMID:20008117

  19. Modulation of endocytic trafficking and apical stability of CFTR in primary human airway epithelial cultures

    PubMed Central

    Cholon, Deborah M.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Randell, Scott H.; Riordan, John R.

    2010-01-01

    CFTR is a highly regulated apical chloride channel of epithelial cells that is mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we characterized the apical stability and intracellular trafficking of wild-type and mutant CFTR in its native environment, i.e., highly differentiated primary human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures. We labeled the apical pool of CFTR and subsequently visualized the protein in intracellular compartments. CFTR moved from the apical surface to endosomes and then efficiently recycled back to the surface. CFTR endocytosis occurred more slowly in polarized than in nonpolarized HAE cells or in a polarized epithelial cell line. The most common mutation in CF, ΔF508 CFTR, was rescued from endoplasmic reticulum retention by low-temperature incubation but transited from the apical membrane to endocytic compartments more rapidly and recycled less efficiently than wild-type CFTR. Incubation with small-molecule correctors resulted in ΔF508 CFTR at the apical membrane but did not restore apical stability. To stabilize the mutant protein at the apical membrane, we found that the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore and the cholesterol-extracting agent cyclodextrin dramatically reduced internalization of ΔF508, whereas the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 completely blocked endocytosis of ΔF508. On examination of intrinsic properties of CFTR that may affect its apical stability, we found that N-linked oligosaccharides were not necessary for transport to the apical membrane but were required for efficient apical recycling and, therefore, influenced the turnover of surface CFTR. Thus apical stability of CFTR in its native environment is affected by properties of the protein and modulation of endocytic trafficking. PMID:20008117

  20. Robust Stimulation of W1282X-CFTR Channel Activity by a Combination of Allosteric Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Hong, Jeong S.; Rab, Andras; Sorscher, Eric J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2016-01-01

    W1282X is a common nonsense mutation among cystic fibrosis patients that results in the production of a truncated Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel. Here we show that the channel activity of the W1282X-CFTR polypeptide is exceptionally low in excised membrane patches at normally saturating doses of ATP and PKA (single channel open probability (PO) < 0.01). However, W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by two CFTR modulators, the FDA-approved VX-770 and the dietary compound curcumin. Each of these compounds is an allosteric modulator of CFTR gating that promotes channel activity in the absence of the native ligand, ATP. Although W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by VX-770 in the absence of ATP their activities remained dependent on PKA phosphorylation. Thus, activated W1282X-CFTR channels should remain under physiologic control by cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways in vivo. VX-770 and curcumin exerted additive effects on W1282X-CFTR channel gating (opening/closing) in excised patches such that the Po of the truncated channel approached unity (> 0.9) when treated with both modulators. VX-770 and curcumin also additively stimulated W1282X-CFTR mediated currents in polarized FRT epithelial monolayers. In this setting, however, the stimulated W1282X-CFTR currents were smaller than those mediated by wild type CFTR (3–5%) due presumably to lower expression levels or cell surface targeting of the truncated protein. Combining allosteric modulators of different mechanistic classes is worth considering as a treatment option for W1282X CF patients perhaps when coupled with maneuvers to increase expression of the truncated protein. PMID:27007499

  1. In vivo pharmacology and antidiarrheal efficacy of a thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, N D; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Nagatani, Ray; Song, Yuanlin; Verkman, A S

    2005-01-01

    A small-molecule inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (CFTR(inh)-172), reduces enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in rodents. Here, we study CFTR(inh)-172 pharmacology and antidiarrheal efficacy in rodents using (14)C-labeled CFTR(inh)-172, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a closed intestinal loop model of fluid secretion. CFTR(inh)-172 was cleared primarily by renal glomerular filtration without chemical modification. CFTR(inh)-172 accumulated in liver within 5 min after intravenous infusion in mice, and was concentrated fivefold in bile over blood. At 30-240 min, CFTR(inh)-172 was found mainly in liver, intestine, and kidney, with little detectable in the brain, heart, skeletal muscle, or lung. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats following intravenous bolus infusion showed a distribution volume of 770 mL with redistribution and elimination half-times of 0.14 h and 10.3 h, respectively. CFTR(inh)-172 was stable in hepatic microsomes. Closed-loop studies in mice indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 microg CFTR(inh)-172 inhibited fluid accumulation at 6 h after cholera toxin by >90% in duodenum and jejunum, approximately 60% in ileum and <10% in colon. No toxicity was seen after high-dose CFTR(inh)-172 administration (3 mg/kg/day in two daily doses) in mice over the first 6 weeks of life. The metabolic stability, enterohepatic recirculation, slow renal elimination, and intestinal accumulation of CFTR(inh)-172 account for its efficacy as an antidiarrheal. PMID:15761937

  2. Robust Stimulation of W1282X-CFTR Channel Activity by a Combination of Allosteric Modulators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hong, Jeong S; Rab, Andras; Sorscher, Eric J; Kirk, Kevin L

    2016-01-01

    W1282X is a common nonsense mutation among cystic fibrosis patients that results in the production of a truncated Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) channel. Here we show that the channel activity of the W1282X-CFTR polypeptide is exceptionally low in excised membrane patches at normally saturating doses of ATP and PKA (single channel open probability (PO) < 0.01). However, W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by two CFTR modulators, the FDA-approved VX-770 and the dietary compound curcumin. Each of these compounds is an allosteric modulator of CFTR gating that promotes channel activity in the absence of the native ligand, ATP. Although W1282X-CFTR channels were stimulated by VX-770 in the absence of ATP their activities remained dependent on PKA phosphorylation. Thus, activated W1282X-CFTR channels should remain under physiologic control by cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways in vivo. VX-770 and curcumin exerted additive effects on W1282X-CFTR channel gating (opening/closing) in excised patches such that the Po of the truncated channel approached unity (> 0.9) when treated with both modulators. VX-770 and curcumin also additively stimulated W1282X-CFTR mediated currents in polarized FRT epithelial monolayers. In this setting, however, the stimulated W1282X-CFTR currents were smaller than those mediated by wild type CFTR (3-5%) due presumably to lower expression levels or cell surface targeting of the truncated protein. Combining allosteric modulators of different mechanistic classes is worth considering as a treatment option for W1282X CF patients perhaps when coupled with maneuvers to increase expression of the truncated protein. PMID:27007499

  3. Vitamin D attenuates inflammation in CFTR knockdown intestinal epithelial cells but has no effect in cells with intact CFTR.

    PubMed

    Morin, Geneviève; Orlando, Valérie; St-Martin Crites, Karoline; Patey, Natacha; Mailhot, Geneviève

    2016-04-15

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine is characterized by chronic inflammation. CF patients are instructed to ingest supplemental vitamin D on a daily basis thereby exposing their intestinal tract to pharmacological amounts of this vitamin. It has been shown that vitamin D exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory properties. We therefore postulate that vitamin D may be beneficial in the management of CF intestinal inflammation by attenuating cellular inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the oral form of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and its metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, on cytokine-induced inflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial Caco-2/15 cells with intact expression of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and knockdown for CFTR. We show that 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibited p38MAPK phosphorylation and that these effects were not mediated by changes in the expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). However, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 exhibited superior anti-inflammatory effects as it furthermore reduced cytokine-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation and interleukin-8 mRNA stability and secretion. Intriguingly, the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D metabolites were only observed in CFTR knockdown cells, which may be explained by alterations in its catabolism associated with changes in CYP24A1 expression. These observations were supported in vivo whereby Cftr(-/-) mice fed large amounts of vitamin D3 for 2 mo led to a reduction in the number of eosinophils and apoptotic cells in the duodenal mucosa of females but not males. Altogether, these findings suggest that vitamin D exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory actions under specific circumstances and may thus prove beneficial in CF. PMID:26893158

  4. Development of efflux pump inhibitors in antituberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Lele; Wu, Xueqiong

    2016-06-01

    Resistance and tolerance to antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, especially the first-line drugs, has become a serious problem in anti-TB therapy. Efflux of antimicrobial agents via bacterial efflux pumps is one of the main reasons for drug resistance. Efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) bind to efflux pumps to inhibit drug efflux and thus enhance the drug effect and reduce drug resistance. Studies on EPIs targeting the efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) help to understand Mtb resistance and to identify the potential drug target and are of significance in guiding the development of new anti-TB drugs and optimal combinations. Currently, there are many potential EPIs under study, but none of them has been used clinically for anti-TB therapy. In this article, we will provide an overview on the current development of EPIs targeting the efflux pumps of Mtb and discuss their potential clinical applications. PMID:27211826

  5. How to Measure Export via Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Blair, Jessica M A; Piddock, Laura J V

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps are an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance and are required for many pathogens to cause infection. They are also being harnessed to improve microbial biotechnological processes, including biofuel production. Therefore, scientists of many specialties must be able to accurately measure efflux activity. However, myriad methodologies have been described and the most appropriate method is not always clear. Within the scientific literature, many methods are misused or data arising are misinterpreted. The methods for measuring efflux activity can be split into two groups, (i) those that directly measure efflux and (ii) those that measure the intracellular accumulation of a substrate, which is then used to infer efflux activity. Here, we review the methods for measuring efflux and explore the most recent advances in this field, including single-cell or cell-free technologies and mass spectrometry, that are being used to provide more detailed information about efflux pump activity. PMID:27381291

  6. How to Measure Export via Bacterial Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps are an important mechanism of antibiotic resistance and are required for many pathogens to cause infection. They are also being harnessed to improve microbial biotechnological processes, including biofuel production. Therefore, scientists of many specialties must be able to accurately measure efflux activity. However, myriad methodologies have been described and the most appropriate method is not always clear. Within the scientific literature, many methods are misused or data arising are misinterpreted. The methods for measuring efflux activity can be split into two groups, (i) those that directly measure efflux and (ii) those that measure the intracellular accumulation of a substrate, which is then used to infer efflux activity. Here, we review the methods for measuring efflux and explore the most recent advances in this field, including single-cell or cell-free technologies and mass spectrometry, that are being used to provide more detailed information about efflux pump activity. PMID:27381291

  7. Simplest Formula of Copper Iodide: A Stoichiometry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment presented to students as a problem in determining the stoichiometry of "copper iodide" to decide whether it is cuprous iodide or cupric iodide. The experiment illustrates stoichiometry principles, providing experiences with laboratory techniques and numerical computation. Detailed outline (written for student use) is…

  8. Processing of CFTR bearing the P574H mutation differs from wild-type and deltaF508-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, L S; Zeiher, B; Welsh, M J

    1999-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) containing the deltaF508 mutation is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This defect can be partially overcome by a reduction in temperature which allows some of the deltaF508 protein to exit the ER and move to the cell surface. Earlier studies showed that the CF-associated mutants, P574H and A455E, were also misprocessed. In this study, we found that processing of P574H and A455E was also temperature-sensitive; at 26 degrees C, some of the protein matured. In contrast to other CFTR mutants, P574H accumulated in punctate cytoplasmic bodies that colocalized with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) markers. At 26 degrees C, these bodies were no longer present. P574H showed a prolonged association with Hsp70 and also colocalized with Hsp70. We used brefeldin A (BFA) to determine which processing step(s) was altered by reduced temperature. Unlike wild-type CFTR, which was converted into an intermediate that was stable in the presence of BFA at 37 degrees C, deltaF508 and P574H produced the intermediate only when the temperature was reduced to 26 degrees C. Furthermore the wild-type intermediate was not associated with Hsp70. These data suggest that formation of the stable intermediate is a key temperature-sensitive step and appears to be coincident with release of the wild-type protein from Hsp70. PMID:10362539

  9. Barium iodide and strontium iodide crystals andd scintillators implementing the same

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A; Cherepy, Nerine J; Hull, Giulia E; Drobshoff, Alexander D; Burger, Arnold

    2013-11-12

    In one embodiment, a material comprises a crystal comprising strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector according to another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising europium-doped strontium iodide providing at least 50,000 photons per MeV. A scintillator radiation detector in yet another embodiment includes a scintillator optic comprising SrI.sub.2 and BaI.sub.2, wherein a ratio of SrI.sub.2 to BaI.sub.2 is in a range of between 0:1 A method for manufacturing a crystal suitable for use in a scintillator includes mixing strontium iodide-containing crystals with a source of Eu.sup.2+, heating the mixture above a melting point of the strontium iodide-containing crystals, and cooling the heated mixture near the seed crystal for growing a crystal. Additional materials, systems, and methods are presented.

  10. Syntaxin 1A is expressed in airway epithelial cells, where it modulates CFTR Cl– currents

    PubMed Central

    Naren, Anjaparavanda P.; Di, Anke; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Boyaka, Prosper N.; McGhee, Jerry R.; Zhou, Weihong; Akagawa, Kimio; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Thome, Ulrich; Engelhardt, John F.; Nelson, Deborah J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2000-01-01

    The CFTR Cl– channel controls salt and water transport across epithelial tissues. Previously, we showed that CFTR-mediated Cl– currents in the Xenopus oocyte expression system are inhibited by syntaxin 1A, a component of the membrane trafficking machinery. This negative modulation of CFTR function can be reversed by soluble syntaxin 1A peptides and by the syntaxin 1A binding protein, Munc-18. In the present study, we determined whether syntaxin 1A is expressed in native epithelial tissues that normally express CFTR and whether it modulates CFTR currents in these tissues. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we observed syntaxin 1A in native gut and airway epithelial tissues and showed that epithelial cells from these tissues express syntaxin 1A at >10-fold molar excess over CFTR. Syntaxin 1A is seen near the apical cell surfaces of human bronchial airway epithelium. Reagents that disrupt the CFTR-syntaxin 1A interaction, including soluble syntaxin 1A cytosolic domain and recombinant Munc-18, augmented cAMP-dependent CFTR Cl– currents by more than 2- to 4-fold in mouse tracheal epithelial cells and cells derived from human nasal polyps, but these reagents did not affect CaMK II–activated Cl– currents in these cells. PMID:10675364

  11. Structural basis for the channel function of a degraded ABC transporter, CFTR (ABCC7).

    PubMed

    Bai, Yonghong; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2011-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, but little is known about how this ion channel that harbors an uninterrupted ion permeation pathway evolves from a transporter that works by alternately exposing its substrate conduit to the two sides of the membrane. Here, we assessed reactivity of intracellularly applied thiol-specific probes with cysteine residues substituted into the 12th transmembrane segment (TM12) of CFTR. Our experimental data showing high reaction rates of substituted cysteines toward the probes, strong blocker protection of cysteines against reaction, and reaction-induced alterations in channel conductance support the idea that TM12 of CFTR contributes to the lining of the ion permeation pathway. Together with previous work, these findings raise the possibility that pore-lining elements of CFTR involve structural components resembling those that form the substrate translocation pathway of ABC transporters. In addition, comparison of reaction rates in the open and closed states of the CFTR channel leads us to propose that upon channel opening, the wide cytoplasmic vestibule tightens and the pore-lining TM12 rotates along its helical axis. This simple model for gating conformational changes in the inner pore domain of CFTR argues that the gating transition of CFTR and the transport cycle of ABC proteins share analogous conformational changes. Collectively, our data corroborate the popular hypothesis that degradation of the cytoplasmic-side gate turned an ABC transporter into the CFTR channel. PMID:22042986

  12. Structural basis for the channel function of a degraded ABC transporter, CFTR (ABCC7)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yonghong

    2011-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, but little is known about how this ion channel that harbors an uninterrupted ion permeation pathway evolves from a transporter that works by alternately exposing its substrate conduit to the two sides of the membrane. Here, we assessed reactivity of intracellularly applied thiol-specific probes with cysteine residues substituted into the 12th transmembrane segment (TM12) of CFTR. Our experimental data showing high reaction rates of substituted cysteines toward the probes, strong blocker protection of cysteines against reaction, and reaction-induced alterations in channel conductance support the idea that TM12 of CFTR contributes to the lining of the ion permeation pathway. Together with previous work, these findings raise the possibility that pore-lining elements of CFTR involve structural components resembling those that form the substrate translocation pathway of ABC transporters. In addition, comparison of reaction rates in the open and closed states of the CFTR channel leads us to propose that upon channel opening, the wide cytoplasmic vestibule tightens and the pore-lining TM12 rotates along its helical axis. This simple model for gating conformational changes in the inner pore domain of CFTR argues that the gating transition of CFTR and the transport cycle of ABC proteins share analogous conformational changes. Collectively, our data corroborate the popular hypothesis that degradation of the cytoplasmic-side gate turned an ABC transporter into the CFTR channel. PMID:22042986

  13. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration.

    PubMed

    Clunes, Lucy A; Davies, Catrin M; Coakley, Raymond D; Aleksandrov, Andrei A; Henderson, Ashley G; Zeman, Kirby L; Worthington, Erin N; Gentzsch, Martina; Kreda, Silvia M; Cholon, Deborah; Bennett, William D; Riordan, John R; Boucher, Richard C; Tarran, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces mucus obstruction and the development of chronic bronchitis (CB). While many of these responses are determined genetically, little is known about the effects CS can exert on pulmonary epithelia at the protein level. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that CS exerts direct effects on the CFTR protein, which could impair airway hydration, leading to the mucus stasis characteristic of both cystic fibrosis and CB. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that CS rapidly decreased CFTR activity, leading to airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion (i.e., dehydration). Further studies revealed that CS induced internalization of CFTR. Surprisingly, CS-internalized CFTR did not colocalize with lysosomal proteins. Instead, the bulk of CFTR shifted to a detergent-resistant fraction within the cell and colocalized with the intermediate filament vimentin, suggesting that CS induced CFTR movement into an aggresome-like, perinuclear compartment. To test whether airway dehydration could be reversed, we used hypertonic saline (HS) as an osmolyte to rehydrate ASL. HS restored ASL height in CS-exposed, dehydrated airway cultures. Similarly, inhaled HS restored mucus transport and increased clearance in patients with CB. Thus, we propose that CS exposure rapidly impairs CFTR function by internalizing CFTR, leading to ASL dehydration, which promotes mucus stasis and a failure of mucus clearance, leaving smokers at risk for developing CB. Furthermore, our data suggest that strategies to rehydrate airway surfaces may provide a novel form of therapy for patients with CB. PMID:21990373

  14. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR): CLOSED AND OPEN STATE CHANNEL MODELS.

    PubMed

    Corradi, Valentina; Vergani, Paola; Tieleman, D Peter

    2015-09-18

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. CFTR controls the flow of anions through the apical membrane of epithelia. Dysfunctional CFTR causes the common lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Transitions between open and closed states of CFTR are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis on the cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, which are coupled with the transmembrane (TM) domains forming the pathway for anion permeation. Lack of structural data hampers a global understanding of CFTR and thus the development of "rational" approaches directly targeting defective CFTR. In this work, we explored possible conformational states of the CFTR gating cycle by means of homology modeling. As templates, we used structures of homologous ABC transporters, namely TM(287-288), ABC-B10, McjD, and Sav1866. In the light of published experimental results, structural analysis of the transmembrane cavity suggests that the TM(287-288)-based CFTR model could correspond to a commonly occupied closed state, whereas the McjD-based model could represent an open state. The models capture the important role played by Phe-337 as a filter/gating residue and provide structural information on the conformational transition from closed to open channel. PMID:26229102

  15. Interference with Ubiquitination in CFTR Modifies Stability of Core Glycosylated and Cell Surface Pools

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seakwoo; Henderson, Mark J.; Schiffhauer, Eric; Despanie, Jordan; Henry, Katherine; Kang, Po Wei; Walker, Douglas; McClure, Michelle L.; Wilson, Landon; Sorscher, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    It is recognized that both wild-type and mutant CFTR proteins undergo ubiquitination at multiple lysines in the proteins and in one or more subcellular locations. We hypothesized that ubiquitin is added to specific sites in wild-type CFTR to stabilize it and at other sites to signal for proteolysis. Mass spectrometric analysis of wild-type CFTR identified ubiquitinated lysines 68, 710, 716, 1041, and 1080. We demonstrate that the ubiquitinated K710, K716, and K1041 residues stabilize wild-type CFTR, protecting it from proteolysis. The polyubiquitin linkage is predominantly K63. N-tail mutants, K14R and K68R, lead to increased mature band C CFTR, which can be augmented by proteasomal (but not lysosomal) inhibition, allowing trafficking to the surface. The amount of CFTR in the K1041R mutant was drastically reduced and consisted of bands A/B, suggesting that the site in transmembrane 10 (TM10) was critical to further processing beyond the proteasome. The K1218R mutant increases total and cell surface CFTR, which is further accumulated by proteasomal and lysosomal inhibition. Thus, ubiquitination at residue 1218 may destabilize wild-type CFTR in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and recycling pools. Small molecules targeting the region of residue 1218 to block ubiquitination or to preserving structure at residues 710 to 716 might be protein sparing for some forms of cystic fibrosis. PMID:24777605

  16. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1265 - Cuprous iodide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the following specific limitations: Category of food Maximum treatment level in food Functional use... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cuprous iodide. 184.1265 Section 184.1265 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; Beyerle, A. G.; Dolin, R. C.; Ortale, C.

    A mercuric iodide gamma-ray imaging array and camera system previously described has been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on this data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criterion for the new camera will be presented.

  19. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; Beyerle, A. G.; Dolin, R. C.; Ortale, C.

    1989-11-01

    A mercuric iodide (HgI2) gamma ray imaging array and camera system previously described have been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on these data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criteria for the new camera will be presented.

  20. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures. PMID:26502561

  1. Scintillator handbook with emphasis on cesium iodide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidd, J. L.; Dabbs, J. R.; Levine, N.

    1973-01-01

    This report provides a background of reasonable depth and reference material on scintillators in general. Particular attention is paid to the cesium iodide scintillators as used in the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) experiments. It is intended especially for use by persons such as laboratory test personnel who need to obtain a working knowledge of these materials and their characteristics in a short time.

  2. Iodide effects in transition metal catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Maitlis, Peter M; Haynes, Anthony; James, Brian R; Catellani, Marta; Chiusoli, Gian Paolo

    2004-11-01

    The unique properties of I(-) allow it to be involved in several different ways in reactions catalyzed by the late transition metals: in the oxidative addition, the migration, and the coupling/reductive elimination steps, as well as in substrate activation. Most steps are accelerated by I(-)(for example through an increased nucleophilicity of the metal center), but some are retarded, because a coordination site is blocked. The "soft" iodide ligand binds more strongly to soft metals (low oxidation state, electron rich, and polarizable) such as the later and heavier transition metals, than do the other halides, or N- and O-centered ligands. Hence in a catalytic cycle that includes the metal in a formally low oxidation state there will be less tendency for the metal to precipitate (and be removed from the cycle) in the presence of I(-) than most other ligands. Iodide is a good nucleophile and is also easily and reversibly oxidized to I(2). In addition, I(-) can play key roles in purely organic reactions that occur as part of a catalytic cycle. Thus to understand the function of iodide requires careful analysis, since two or sometimes more effects occur in different steps of one single cycle. Each of these topics is illustrated with examples of the influence of iodide from homogeneous catalytic reactions in the literature: methanol carbonylation to acetic acid and related reactions; CO hydrogenation; imine hydrogenation; and C-C and C-N coupling reactions. General features are summarised in the Conclusions. PMID:15510253

  3. Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan

    2015-03-24

    The present invention provides a family of non-naturally occurring polypeptides having cholesterol efflux activity that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins (e.g., Apo AI and Apo E), and having high selectivity for ABAC1 that parallels that of full-length apolipoproteins. The invention also provides compositions comprising such polypeptides, methods of identifying, screening and synthesizing such polypeptides, and methods of treating, preventing or diagnosing diseases and disorders associated with dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and inflammation.

  4. Differentiation between human ClC-2 and CFTR Cl- channels with pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Cuppoletti, John; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Tewari, Kirti P; Malinowska, Danuta H

    2014-09-01

    It has been difficult to separate/identify the roles of ClC-2 and CFTR in Cl(-) transport studies. Using pharmacological agents, we aimed to differentiate functionally between ClC-2 and CFTR Cl(-) channel currents. Effects of CFTR inhibitor 172 (CFTRinh172), N-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-N'-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)urea (DASU-02), and methadone were examined by whole cell patch clamp on Cl(-) currents in recombinant human ClC-2/human embryonic kidney 293 (ClC-2/HEK293) cells stably transformed with Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (hClC-2/293EBNA) and human CFTR/HEK293 (hCFTR/HEK293) cells and by short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in T84 cells. Lubiprostone and forskolin-IBMX were used as activators. CFTRinh172 inhibited forskolin-IBMX-stimulated recombinant human CFTR (hCFTR) and lubiprostone-stimulated recombinant human ClC-2 (hClC-2) Cl(-) currents in a concentration-dependent manner equipotently. DASU-02 inhibited forskolin-IBMX-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hCFTR/HEK293 cells, but not lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hClC-2/293EBNA cells. In T84 cells with basolateral nystatin or 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), lubiprostone-stimulated and forskolin-IBMX-cyclosporin A (FICA)-stimulated Isc components were observed. CFTRinh172 inhibited major portions of both components. DASU-02 had no effect on lubiprostone-stimulated Isc but partially inhibited FICA-stimulated Isc. T84 cells in which ClC-2 or CFTR was knocked down using siRNAs were constructed. T84 ClC-2 knockdown cells did not respond to lubiprostone but did respond to forskolin-IBMX in a methadone-insensitive, DASU-02-sensitive manner, indicating CFTR function. T84 CFTR knockdown cells responded separately to lubiprostone and forskolin-IBMX in a methadone-sensitive and DASU-02-insensitive manner, indicating ClC-2 function. Low lubiprostone concentrations activated ClC-2, but not CFTR, and both channels were activated by forskolin-IBMX but have different inhibitor sensitivities. Methadone, but

  5. Deletion of phenylalanine 508 causes attenuated phosphorylation-dependent activation of CFTR chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Zeltwanger, S; Hu, S; Hwang, T C

    2000-05-01

    In cell-attached patches stimulated with cAMP agonists, the single-channel open probability (Po) of the phenylalanine 508-deleted cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (DeltaF508-CFTR) channel, the most common disease-associated mutation in cystic fibrosis, was abnormally low (a functional defect). To investigate the mechanism for the poor response of DeltaF508-CFTR to cAMP stimulation, we examined, in excised inside-out patches, protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation activation and ATP-dependent gating of wild-type (WT) and DeltaF508-CFTR channels expressed in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts. For WT-CFTR, the activation time course of CFTR channel current upon addition of PKA and ATP followed a sigmoidal function with time constants that decreased as [PKA] was increased. The curvilinear relationship between [PKA] and the apparent activation rate suggests an incremental phosphorylation-dependent activation of CFTR at multiple phosphorylation sites. The time course of PKA-dependent activation of DeltaF508-CFTR channel current also followed a sigmoidal function, but the rate of activation was at least 7-fold slower than that with WT channels. This result suggests that deletion of phenylalanine 508 causes attenuated PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the CFTR chloride channel. Once DeltaF508-CFTR channels were maximally activated with PKA, the mutant channel and WT channel had indistinguishable steady-state Po values, ATP dose-response relationships and single-channel kinetics, indicating that DeltaF508-CFTR is not defective in ATP-dependent gating. By measuring whole-cell current density, we compared the number of functional channels in WT- and DeltaF508-CFTR cell membrane. Our data showed that the estimated channel density for DeltaF508-CFTR was approximately 10-fold lower than that for WT-CFTR, but the cAMP-dependent whole-cell current density differed by approximately 200-fold. We thus conclude that the functional defect (a decrease in Po) of Delta

  6. Deletion of phenylalanine 508 causes attenuated phosphorylation-dependent activation of CFTR chloride channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Zeltwanger, Shawn; Hu, Shenghui; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2000-01-01

    In cell-attached patches stimulated with cAMP agonists, the single-channel open probability (Po) of the phenylalanine 508-deleted cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ΔF508-CFTR) channel, the most common disease-associated mutation in cystic fibrosis, was abnormally low (a functional defect). To investigate the mechanism for the poor response of ΔF508-CFTR to cAMP stimulation, we examined, in excised inside-out patches, protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent phosphorylation activation and ATP-dependent gating of wild-type (WT) and ΔF508-CFTR channels expressed in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts.For WT-CFTR, the activation time course of CFTR channel current upon addition of PKA and ATP followed a sigmoidal function with time constants that decreased as [PKA] was increased. The curvilinear relationship between [PKA] and the apparent activation rate suggests an incremental phosphorylation-dependent activation of CFTR at multiple phosphorylation sites.The time course of PKA-dependent activation of ΔF508-CFTR channel current also followed a sigmoidal function, but the rate of activation was at least 7-fold slower than that with WT channels. This result suggests that deletion of phenylalanine 508 causes attenuated PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the CFTR chloride channel.Once ΔF508-CFTR channels were maximally activated with PKA, the mutant channel and WT channel had indistinguishable steady-state Po values, ATP dose-response relationships and single-channel kinetics, indicating that ΔF508-CFTR is not defective in ATP-dependent gating.By measuring whole-cell current density, we compared the number of functional channels in WT- and ΔF508-CFTR cell membrane. Our data showed that the estimated channel density for ΔF508-CFTR was ∼10-fold lower than that for WT-CFTR, but the cAMP-dependent whole-cell current density differed by ∼200-fold. We thus conclude that the functional defect (a decrease in Po) of ΔF508-CFTR is as important as the trafficking defect (a

  7. Cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Favari, Elda; Chroni, Angelika; Tietge, Uwe J F; Zanotti, Ilaria; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Bernini, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Both alterations of lipid/lipoprotein metabolism and inflammatory events contribute to the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque, characterized by the accumulation of abnormal amounts of cholesterol and macrophages in the artery wall. Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) may counteract the pathogenic events leading to the formation and development of atheroma, by promoting the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated removal of cholesterol from the artery wall. Recent in vivo studies established the inverse relationship between RCT efficiency and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD), thus suggesting that the promotion of this process may represent a novel strategy to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden and subsequent cardiovascular events. HDL plays a primary role in all stages of RCT: (1) cholesterol efflux, where these lipoproteins remove excess cholesterol from cells; (2) lipoprotein remodeling, where HDL undergo structural modifications with possible impact on their function; and (3) hepatic lipid uptake, where HDL releases cholesterol to the liver, for the final excretion into bile and feces. Although the inverse association between HDL plasma levels and CVD risk has been postulated for years, recently this concept has been challenged by studies reporting that HDL antiatherogenic functions may be independent of their plasma levels. Therefore, assessment of HDL function, evaluated as the capacity to promote cell cholesterol efflux may offer a better prediction of CVD than HDL levels alone. Consistent with this idea, it has been recently demonstrated that the evaluation of serum cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is a predictor of atherosclerosis extent in humans. PMID:25522988

  8. The secret life of CFTR as a calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Billet, Arnaud; Hanrahan, John W

    2013-11-01

    cAMP-stimulated anion conductance is defective in cystic fibrosis (CF). The regulatory domain of CFTR, the anion channel protein encoded by the CF gene, possesses an unusually high density of consensus sequences for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (14 in a stretch of <200 amino acids). Thus it is not surprising that CFTR is viewed primarily as a cAMP-stimulated anion channel, and most studies have focused on this mode of activation. However, there is growing evidence that CFTR also responds to Ca(2+)-mobilizing secretagogues and contributes substantially to cholinergic and purinergic responses in native tissues. G protein-coupled receptors that signal through Gαq can stimulate CFTR channels by activating Ca(2+)-dependent adenylyl cyclase and tyrosine kinases, and also by inhibiting protein phosphatase type 2A. Here we review evidence for these novel mechanisms of CFTR activation and discuss how they may help explain previous observations. PMID:23959675

  9. An intrinsic adenylate kinase activity regulates gating of the ABC transporter CFTR.

    PubMed

    Randak, Christoph; Welsh, Michael J

    2003-12-26

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an anion channel in the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. Like other ABC transporters, it can hydrolyze ATP. Yet while ATP hydrolysis influences channel gating, it has long seemed puzzling that CFTR would require this reaction because anions flow passively through CFTR. Moreover, no other ion channel is known to require the large energy of ATP hydrolysis to gate. We found that CFTR also has adenylate kinase activity (ATP + AMP <=> ADP + ADP) that regulates gating. When functioning as an adenylate kinase, CFTR showed positive cooperativity for ATP suggesting its two nucleotide binding domains may dimerize. Thus, channel activity could be regulated by two different enzymatic reactions, ATPase and adenylate kinase, that share a common ATP binding site in the second nucleotide binding domain. At physiologic nucleotide concentrations, adenylate kinase activity, rather than ATPase activity may control gating, and therefore involve little energy consumption. PMID:14697202

  10. CFTR-deficient pigs display peripheral nervous system defects at birth.

    PubMed

    Reznikov, Leah R; Dong, Qian; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Moninger, Thomas O; Park, Jung Min; Zhang, Yuzhou; Du, Jianyang; Hildebrand, Michael S; Smith, Richard J H; Randak, Christoph O; Stoltz, David A; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-02-19

    Peripheral nervous system abnormalities, including neuropathy, have been reported in people with cystic fibrosis. These abnormalities have largely been attributed to secondary manifestations of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene directly influences nervous system function by studying newborn CFTR(-/-) pigs. We discovered CFTR expression and activity in Schwann cells, and loss of CFTR caused ultrastructural myelin sheath abnormalities similar to those in known neuropathies. Consistent with neuropathic changes, we found increased transcripts for myelin protein zero, a gene that, when mutated, can cause axonal and/or demyelinating neuropathy. In addition, axon density was reduced and conduction velocities of the trigeminal and sciatic nerves were decreased. Moreover, in vivo auditory brainstem evoked potentials revealed delayed conduction of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Our data suggest that loss of CFTR directly alters Schwann cell function and that some nervous system defects in people with cystic fibrosis are likely primary. PMID:23382208

  11. An unexpected effect of TNF-α on F508del-CFTR maturation and function

    PubMed Central

    Bitam, Sara; Urbach, Valérie; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Edelman, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multifactorial disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ( CFTR), which encodes a cAMP-dependent Cl - channel. The most frequent mutation, F508del, leads to the synthesis of a prematurely degraded, otherwise partially functional protein. CFTR is expressed in many epithelia, with major consequences in the airways of patients with CF, characterized by both fluid transport abnormalities and persistent inflammatory responses. The relationship between the acute phase of inflammation and the expression of wild type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect. The results show that 10 min exposure to TNF-alpha (0.5-50ng/ml) of F508del-CFTR-transfected HeLa cells and human bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR in primary culture (HBE) leads to the maturation of F508del-CFTR and induces CFTR chloride currents. The enhanced CFTR expression and function upon TNFα is sustained, in HBE cells, for at least 24 h. The underlying mechanism of action involves a protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway, and occurs through insertion of vesicles containing F508del-CFTR to the plasma membrane, with TNFα behaving as a corrector molecule. In conclusion, a novel and unexpected action of TNFα has been discovered and points to the importance of systematic studies on the roles of inflammatory mediators in the maturation of abnormally folded proteins in general and in the context of CF in particular. PMID:26594334

  12. Simple image-based no-wash method for quantitative detection of surface expressed CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Mads Breum; Hu, Jennifer; Frizzell, Raymond A.; Watkins, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disease among Caucasians. It is caused by mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes an apical membrane anion channel that is required for regulating the volume and composition of epithelial secretions. The most common CFTR mutation, present on at least one allele in >90% of CF patients, deletes phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del), which causes the protein to misfold. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control elicits the degradation of mutant CFTR, compromising its trafficking to the epithelial cell apical membrane. The absence of functional CFTR leads to depletion of airway surface liquid, impaired clearance of mucus and bacteria from the lung, and predisposes to recurrent infections. Ultimately, respiratory failure results from inflammation and bronchiectasis. Although high throughput screening has identified small molecules that can restore the anion transport function of F508del CFTR, they correct less than 15% of WT CFTR activity, yielding insufficient clinical benefit. To date, most primary CF drug discovery assays have employed measurements of CFTR’s anion transport function, a method that depends on the recruitment of a functional CFTR to the cell surface, involves multiple wash steps, and relies on a signal that saturates rapidly. Screening efforts have also included assays for detection of extracellularly HA-tagged or HRP-tagged CFTR, which require multiple washing steps. We have recently developed tools and cell lines that report the correction of mutant CFTR trafficking by currently available small molecules, and have extended this assay to the 96-well format. This new and simple no-wash assay of F508del CFTR at the cell surface may permit the discovery of more efficacious drugs, and hopefully thereby prevent the catastrophic effects of this disease. In addition, the modular design of this platform should make it useful for other diseases where loss

  13. Potentiator Ivacaftor Abrogates Pharmacological Correction of ΔF508 CFTR in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cholon, Deborah M.; Quinney, Nancy L.; Fulcher, M. Leslie; Esther, Charles R.; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Randell, Scott H.; Boucher, Richard C.; Gentzsch, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Newly developed “correctors” such as lumacaftor (VX-809) that improve CFTR maturation and trafficking and “potentiators” such as ivacaftor (VX-770) that enhance channel activity may provide important advances in CF therapy. Although VX-770 has demonstrated substantial clinical efficacy in the small subset of patients with a mutation (G551D) that affects only channel activity, a single compound is not sufficient to treat patients with the more common CFTR mutation, ΔF508. Thus, patients with ΔF508 will likely require treatment with both correctors and potentiators to achieve clinical benefit. However, whereas the effectiveness of acute treatment with this drug combination has been demonstrated in vitro, the impact of chronic therapy has not been established. In studies of human primary airway epithelial cells, we found that both acute and chronic treatment with VX-770 improved CFTR function in cells with the G551D mutation, consistent with clinical studies. In contrast, chronic VX-770 administration caused a dose-dependent reversal of VX-809-mediated CFTR correction in ΔF508 homozygous cultures. This result reflected the destabilization of corrected ΔF508 CFTR by VX-770, dramatically increasing its turnover rate. Chronic VX-770 treatment also reduced mature wild-type CFTR levels and function. These findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with CFTR potentiators and correctors may have unexpected effects that cannot be predicted from short-term studies. Combining of these drugs to maximize rescue of ΔF508 CFTR may require changes in dosing and/or development of new potentiator compounds that do not interfere with CFTR stability. PMID:25101886

  14. Potentiator ivacaftor abrogates pharmacological correction of ΔF508 CFTR in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cholon, Deborah M; Quinney, Nancy L; Fulcher, M Leslie; Esther, Charles R; Das, Jhuma; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Randell, Scott H; Boucher, Richard C; Gentzsch, Martina

    2014-07-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Newly developed "correctors" such as lumacaftor (VX-809) that improve CFTR maturation and trafficking and "potentiators" such as ivacaftor (VX-770) that enhance channel activity may provide important advances in CF therapy. Although VX-770 has demonstrated substantial clinical efficacy in the small subset of patients with a mutation (G551D) that affects only channel activity, a single compound is not sufficient to treat patients with the more common CFTR mutation, ΔF508. Thus, patients with ΔF508 will likely require treatment with both correctors and potentiators to achieve clinical benefit. However, whereas the effectiveness of acute treatment with this drug combination has been demonstrated in vitro, the impact of chronic therapy has not been established. In studies of human primary airway epithelial cells, we found that both acute and chronic treatment with VX-770 improved CFTR function in cells with the G551D mutation, consistent with clinical studies. In contrast, chronic VX-770 administration caused a dose-dependent reversal of VX-809-mediated CFTR correction in ΔF508 homozygous cultures. This result reflected the destabilization of corrected ΔF508 CFTR by VX-770, markedly increasing its turnover rate. Chronic VX-770 treatment also reduced mature wild-type CFTR levels and function. These findings demonstrate that chronic treatment with CFTR potentiators and correctors may have unexpected effects that cannot be predicted from short-term studies. Combining these drugs to maximize rescue of ΔF508 CFTR may require changes in dosing and/or development of new potentiator compounds that do not interfere with CFTR stability. PMID:25101886

  15. CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB signaling in pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Zhi Wei; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Ye Chun; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Yu; Chen, YaJie; Tsang, Lai Ling; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Peng, Yi Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains elusive. Cystic fibrosis, also hallmarked with pulmonary inflammation, is caused by mutations in CFTR, the expression of which is temperature-sensitive. We investigated whether CFTR is involved in heat-induced pulmonary inflammation. We applied heat-treatment in 16HBE14o- cells with CFTR knockdown or overexpression and heat-inhalation in rats in vivo. Heat-treatment caused significant reduction in CFTR and, reciprocally, increase in COX-2 at early stages both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of ERK/JNK, NF-κB and COX-2/PGE2 were detected in heat-treated cells, which were mimicked by knockdown, and reversed by overexpression of CFTR or VX-809, a reported CFTR mutation corrector. JNK/ERK inhibition reversed heat-/CFTR-knockdown-induced NF-κB activation, whereas NF-κB inhibitor showed no effect on JNK/ERK. IL-8 was augmented by heat-treatment or CFTR-knockdown, which was abolished by inhibition of NF-κB, JNK/ERK or COX-2. Moreover, in vitro or in vivo treatment with curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, significantly enhanced CFTR expression and reversed the heat-induced increases in COX-2/PGE2/IL-8, neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in the airway. These results have revealed a CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB pathway leading to COX-2/PGE2/IL-8 activation in thermal inhalation injury, and demonstrated therapeutic potential of curcumin for alleviating heat-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26515683

  16. Rab4GTPase modulates CFTR function by impairing channel expression at plasma membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Sunil K. . E-mail: ssaxena@stevens.edu; Kaur, Simarna; George, Constantine

    2006-03-03

    Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive disorder, is caused by the disruption of biosynthesis or the function of a membrane cAMP-activated chloride channel, CFTR. CFTR regulatory mechanisms include recruitment of channel proteins to the cell surface from intracellular pools and by protein-protein interactions. Rab proteins are small GTPases involved in regulated trafficking controlling vesicle docking and fusion. Rab4 controls recycling events from endosome to the plasma membrane, fusion, and degradation. The colorectal cell line HT-29 natively expresses CFTR and responds to cAMP stimulation with an increase in CFTR-mediated currents. Rab4 over-expression in HT-29 cells inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated CFTR-mediated currents. GTPase-deficient Rab4Q67L and GDP locked Rab4S22N both inhibit channel activity, which appears characteristically different. Active status of Rab4 was confirmed by GTP overlay assay, while its expression was verified by Western blotting. The pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that Rab4 physically interacts with CFTR through protein-protein interaction. Biotinylation with cell impermeant NHS-Sulfo-SS-Biotin implies that Rab4 impairs CFTR expression at cell surface. The enhanced cytosolic CFTR indicates that Rab4 expression restrains CFTR appearance at the cell membrane. The study suggests that Rab4 regulates the channel through multiple mechanisms that include protein-protein interaction, GTP/GDP exchange, and channel protein trafficking. We propose that Rab4 is a dynamic molecule with a significant role in CFTR function.

  17. ATP secretion in the male reproductive tract: essential role of CFTR.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Shum, Winnie W C; Belleannée, Clémence; Da Silva, Nicolas; Breton, Sylvie

    2012-09-01

    Extracellular ATP is essential for the function of the epididymis and spermatozoa, but ATP release in the epididymis remains uncharacterized. We investigated here whether epithelial cells release ATP into the lumen of the epididymis, and we examined the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) conducting ion channel known to be associated with male fertility, in this process. Immunofluorescence labelling of mouse cauda epididymidis showed expression of CFTR in principal cells but not in other epithelial cells. CFTR mRNA was not detectable in clear cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) from B1-EGFP mice, which express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) exclusively in these cells in the epididymis. ATP release was detected from the mouse epididymal principal cell line (DC2) and increased by adrenaline and forskolin. Inhibition of CFTR with CFTR(inh172) and transfection with CFTR-specific siRNAs in DC2 cells reduced basal and forskolin-activated ATP release. CFTR-dependent ATP release was also observed in primary cultures of mouse epididymal epithelial cells. In addition, steady-state ATP release was detected in vivo in mice, by measuring ATP concentration in a solution perfused through the lumen of the cauda epididymidis tubule and collected by cannulation of the vas deferens. Luminal CFTR(inh172) reduced the ATP concentration detected in the perfusate. This study shows that CFTR is involved in the regulation of ATP release from principal cells in the cauda epididymidis. Given that mutations in CFTR are a leading cause of male infertility, we propose that defective ATP signalling in the epididymis might contribute to dysfunction of the male reproductive tract associated with these mutations. PMID:22711960

  18. Vx-770 potentiates CFTR function by promoting decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle

    PubMed Central

    Jih, Kang-Yang; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Vx-770 (Ivacaftor), a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug for clinical application to patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), shifts the paradigm from conventional symptomatic treatments to therapeutics directly tackling the root of the disease: functional defects of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel caused by pathogenic mutations. The underlying mechanism for the action of Vx-770 remains elusive partly because this compound not only increases the activity of wild-type (WT) channels whose gating is primarily controlled by ATP binding/hydrolysis, but also improves the function of G551D-CFTR, a disease-associated mutation that abolishes CFTR’s responsiveness to ATP. Here we provide a unified theory to account for this dual effect of Vx-770. We found that Vx-770 enhances spontaneous, ATP-independent activity of WT-CFTR to a similar magnitude as its effects on G551D channels, a result essentially explaining Vx-770’s effect on G551D-CFTR. Furthermore, Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR in an [ATP]-dependent manner. This distinct kinetic effect is accountable with a newly proposed CFTR gating model depicting an [ATP]-dependent “reentry” mechanism that allows CFTR shuffling among different open states by undergoing multiple rounds of ATP hydrolysis. We further examined the effect of Vx-770 on R352C-CFTR, a unique mutant that allows direct observation of hydrolysis-triggered gating events. Our data corroborate that Vx-770 increases the open time of WT-CFTR by stabilizing a posthydrolytic open state and thereby fosters decoupling between the gating cycle and ATP hydrolysis cycle. The current study also suggests that this unique mechanism of drug action can be further exploited to develop strategies that enhance the function of CFTR. PMID:23440202

  19. CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB signaling in pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhi Wei; Chen, Jing; Ruan, Ye Chun; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Yu; Chen, YaJie; Tsang, Lai Ling; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Peng, Yi Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying pulmonary inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains elusive. Cystic fibrosis, also hallmarked with pulmonary inflammation, is caused by mutations in CFTR, the expression of which is temperature-sensitive. We investigated whether CFTR is involved in heat-induced pulmonary inflammation. We applied heat-treatment in 16HBE14o- cells with CFTR knockdown or overexpression and heat-inhalation in rats in vivo. Heat-treatment caused significant reduction in CFTR and, reciprocally, increase in COX-2 at early stages both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of ERK/JNK, NF-κB and COX-2/PGE2 were detected in heat-treated cells, which were mimicked by knockdown, and reversed by overexpression of CFTR or VX-809, a reported CFTR mutation corrector. JNK/ERK inhibition reversed heat-/CFTR-knockdown-induced NF-κB activation, whereas NF-κB inhibitor showed no effect on JNK/ERK. IL-8 was augmented by heat-treatment or CFTR-knockdown, which was abolished by inhibition of NF-κB, JNK/ERK or COX-2. Moreover, in vitro or in vivo treatment with curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, significantly enhanced CFTR expression and reversed the heat-induced increases in COX-2/PGE2/IL-8, neutrophil infiltration and tissue damage in the airway. These results have revealed a CFTR-regulated MAPK/NF-κB pathway leading to COX-2/PGE2/IL-8 activation in thermal inhalation injury, and demonstrated therapeutic potential of curcumin for alleviating heat-induced pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26515683

  20. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:26976279

  1. Identification of a multidrug efflux pump in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankita; Mallik, Dhriti; Kar, Debasish; Ghosh, Anindya S

    2016-07-01

    Cell wall impermeability and active efflux of drugs are among the primary reasons for drug resistance in mycobacteria. Efflux pumps are tripartite membrane localized transport proteins that expel drug molecules outside the cells. Several of such efflux pumps are annotated in mycobacteria, but few have been characterized, like MSMEG_2991, a putative efflux pump permease of Mycobacterium smegmatis To substantiate this, we overexpressed MSMEG_2991 protein in Escherichia coli 2443. Expression of MSMEG_2991 elevated the resistance towards structurally unrelated groups of antibiotics. An active antibiotic efflux pump nature of MSMEG_2991 was revealed by assessing the acquisition of ciprofloxacin in the absence and presence of the efflux pump inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone, indicating the involvement of proton-motive force (pmf) during the efflux activity. MSMEG_2991 expression elevated biofilm formation in E. coli by 4-fold, keeping parity to some of the earlier reported efflux pumps. In silico analysis suggested the presence of 12 transmembrane helices in MSMEG_2991 resembling EmrD efflux pump of E. coli Based on in vivo and in silico analyses, MSMEG_2991 may be designated as a pmf-mediated multidrug efflux pump protein that expels diverse groups of antibiotics and might as well be involved in the biofilm enhancement. PMID:27190152

  2. Efflux-Mediated Drug Resistance in Bacteria: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xian-Zhi; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Drug efflux pumps play a key role in drug resistance and also serve other functions in bacteria. There has been a growing list of multidrug and drug-specific efflux pumps characterized from bacteria of human, animal, plant and environmental origins. These pumps are mostly encoded on the chromosome although they can also be plasmid-encoded. A previous article (Li X-Z and Nikaido H, Drugs, 2004; 64[2]: 159–204) had provided a comprehensive review regarding efflux-mediated drug resistance in bacteria. In the past five years, significant progress has been achieved in further understanding of drug resistance-related efflux transporters and this review focuses on the latest studies in this field since 2003. This has been demonstrated in multiple aspects that include but are not limited to: further molecular and biochemical characterization of the known drug efflux pumps and identification of novel drug efflux pumps; structural elucidation of the transport mechanisms of drug transporters; regulatory mechanisms of drug efflux pumps; determining the role of the drug efflux pumps in other functions such as stress responses, virulence and cell communication; and development of efflux pump inhibitors. Overall, the multifaceted implications of drug efflux transporters warrant novel strategies to combat multidrug resistance in bacteria. PMID:19678712

  3. Gene transfer of CFTR to airway epithelia: low levels of expression are sufficient to correct Cl- transport and overexpression can generate basolateral CFTR.

    PubMed

    Farmen, Sara L; Karp, Philip H; Ng, Philip; Palmer, Donna J; Koehler, David R; Hu, Jim; Beaudet, Arthur L; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J

    2005-12-01

    Gene transfer of CFTR cDNA to airway epithelia is a promising approach to treat cystic fibrosis (CF). Most gene transfer vectors use strong viral promoters even though the endogenous CFTR promoter is very weak. To learn whether expressing CFTR at a low level in a fraction of cells would correct Cl(-) transport, we mixed freshly isolated wild-type and CF airway epithelial cells in varying proportions and generated differentiated epithelia. Epithelia with approximately 20% wild-type cells generated approximately 70% the transepithelial Cl(-) current of epithelia containing 100% wild-type cells. These data were nearly identical to those previously obtained with CFTR expressed under control of a strong promoter in a CF epithelial cell line. We also tested high level CFTR expression using the very strong cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter as well as the cytokeratin-18 (K18) promoter. In differentiated airway epithelia, the CMV promoter generated 50-fold more transgene expression than the K18 promoter, but the K18 promoter generated more transepithelial Cl(-) current at high vector doses. Using functional studies, we found that with marked overexpression, some CFTR channels were present in the basolateral membrane where they shunted Cl(-) flow, thereby reducing net transepithelial Cl(-) transport. These results suggest that very little CFTR is required in a fraction of CF epithelial cells to complement Cl(-) transport because transepithelial Cl(-) flow is limited at the basolateral membrane. Thus they suggest a broad leeway in promoter strength for correcting the CF gene transfer, although at very high expression levels CFTR may be mislocalized to the basolateral membrane. PMID:16085675

  4. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) expression in the developing human brain: comparative immunohistochemical study between patients with normal and mutated CFTR.

    PubMed

    Marcorelles, Pascale; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Uguen, Arnaud; Ledé, Françoise; Férec, Claude; Laquerrière, Annie

    2014-11-01

    Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein has recently been shown to be expressed in the human adult central nervous system (CNS). As CFTR expression has also been documented during embryonic development in several organs, such as the respiratory tract, the intestine and the male reproductive system, suggesting a possible role during development we decided to investigate the expression of CFTR in the human developing CNS. In addition, as some, although rare, neurological symptoms have been reported in patients with CF, we compared the expression of normal and mutated CFTR at several fetal stages. Immunohistochemistry was performed on brain and spinal cord samples of foetuses between 13 and 40 weeks of gestation and compared with five patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) of similar ages. We showed in this study that CFTR is only expressed in neurons and has an early and widespread distribution during development. Although we did not observe any cerebral abnormality in patients with CF, we observed a slight delay in the maturation of several brain structures. We also observed different expression and localization of CFTR depending on the brain structure or the cell maturation stage. Our findings, along with a literature review on the neurological phenotypes of patients with CF, suggest that this gene may play previously unsuspected roles in neuronal maturation or function. PMID:25062999

  5. Targeting the Intracellular Environment in Cystic Fibrosis: Restoring Autophagy as a Novel Strategy to Circumvent the CFTR Defect

    PubMed Central

    Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Bruscia, Emanuela M.; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane (PM)-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the PM even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1), a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the PM. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR PM stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent pre-clinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation. PMID:23346057

  6. Transcription factors and miRNAs that regulate fetal to adult CFTR expression change are new targets for cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Viart, Victoria; Bergougnoux, Anne; Bonini, Jennifer; Varilh, Jessica; Chiron, Raphaël; Tabary, Olivier; Molinari, Nicolas; Claustres, Mireille; Taulan-Cadars, Magali

    2015-01-01

    The CFTR gene displays a tightly regulated tissue-specific and temporal expression. Mutations in this gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study we wanted to identify trans-regulatory elements responsible for CFTR differential expression in fetal and adult lung, and to determine the importance of inhibitory motifs in the CFTR-3'UTR with the aim of developing new tools for the correction of disease-causing mutations within CFTR. We show that lung development-specific transcription factors (FOXA, C/EBP) and microRNAs (miR-101, miR-145, miR-384) regulate the switch from strong fetal to very low CFTR expression after birth. By using miRNome profiling and gene reporter assays, we found that miR-101 and miR-145 are specifically upregulated in adult lung and that miR-101 directly acts on its cognate site in the CFTR-3'UTR in combination with an overlapping AU-rich element. We then designed miRNA-binding blocker oligonucleotides (MBBOs) to prevent binding of several miRNAs to the CFTR-3'UTR and tested them in primary human nasal epithelial cells from healthy individuals and CF patients carrying the p.Phe508del CFTR mutation. These MBBOs rescued CFTR channel activity by increasing CFTR mRNA and protein levels. Our data offer new understanding of the control of the CFTR gene regulation and new putative correctors for cystic fibrosis. PMID:25186262

  7. Targeting the Intracellular Environment in Cystic Fibrosis: Restoring Autophagy as a Novel Strategy to Circumvent the CFTR Defect.

    PubMed

    Villella, Valeria Rachela; Esposito, Speranza; Bruscia, Emanuela M; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harboring the most common deletion mutation of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), F508del, are poor responders to potentiators of CFTR channel activity which can be used to treat a small subset of CF patients who genetically carry plasma membrane (PM)-resident CFTR mutants. The misfolded F508del-CFTR protein is unstable in the PM even if rescued by pharmacological agents that prevent its intracellular retention and degradation. CF is a conformational disease in which defective CFTR induces an impressive derangement of general proteostasis resulting from disabled autophagy. In this review, we discuss how rescuing Beclin 1 (BECN1), a major player of autophagosome formation, either by means of direct gene transfer or indirectly by administration of proteostasis regulators, could stabilize F508del-CFTR at the PM. We focus on the relationship between the improvement of peripheral proteostasis and CFTR PM stability in F508del-CFTR homozygous bronchial epithelia or mouse lungs. Moreover, this article reviews recent pre-clinical evidence indicating that targeting the intracellular environment surrounding the misfolded mutant CFTR instead of protein itself could constitute an attractive therapeutic option to sensitize patients carrying the F508del-CFTR mutation to the beneficial action of CFTR potentiators on lung inflammation. PMID:23346057

  8. Recent advances and new perspectives in targeting CFTR for therapy of cystic fibrosis and enterotoxin-induced secretory diarrheas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiqiang; Fujii, Naoaki; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2012-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated chloride channel localized primarily at the apical surfaces of epithelial cells lining airway, gut and exocrine glands, where it is responsible for transepithelial salt and water transport. Several human diseases are associated with an altered channel function of CFTR. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the loss or dysfunction of CFTR-channel activity resulting from the mutations on the gene; whereas enterotoxin-induced secretory diarrheas are caused by the hyperactivation of CFTR channel function. CFTR is a validated target for drug development to treat these diseases. Significant progress has been made in developing CFTR modulator therapy by means of high-throughput screening followed by hit-to-lead optimization. Several oral administrated investigational drugs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for CF. Also importantly, new ideas and methodologies are emerging. Targeting CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes is one such novel approach. PMID:22393940

  9. Natural and Synthetic Polymers as Inhibitors of Drug Efflux Pumps

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of efflux pumps is an emerging approach in cancer therapy and drug delivery. Since it has been discovered that polymeric pharmaceutical excipients such as Tweens® or Pluronics® can inhibit efflux pumps, various other polymers have been investigated regarding their potential efflux pump inhibitory activity. Among them are polysaccharides, polyethylene glycols and derivatives, amphiphilic block copolymers, dendrimers and thiolated polymers. In the current review article, natural and synthetic polymers that are capable of inhibiting efflux pumps as well as their application in cancer therapy and drug delivery are discussed. PMID:17896100

  10. Inflammatory remodeling of the HDL proteome impairs cholesterol efflux capacity.

    PubMed

    Vaisar, Tomáš; Tang, Chongren; Babenko, Ilona; Hutchins, Patrick; Wimberger, Jake; Suffredini, Anthony F; Heinecke, Jay W

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that HDL's ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages associates strongly with cardioprotection in humans independently of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I, HDL's major protein. However, the mechanisms that impair cholesterol efflux capacity during vascular disease are unclear. Inflammation, a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has been shown to impair HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HDL's impaired efflux capacity is mediated by specific changes of its protein cargo. Humans with acute inflammation induced by low-level endotoxin had unchanged HDL-C levels, but their HDL-C efflux capacity was significantly impaired. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity correlated inversely with HDL content of serum amyloid A (SAA)1 and SAA2. In mice, acute inflammation caused a marked impairment of HDL-C efflux capacity that correlated with a large increase in HDL SAA. In striking contrast, the efflux capacity of mouse inflammatory HDL was preserved with genetic ablation of SAA1 and SAA2. Our observations indicate that the inflammatory impairment of HDL-C efflux capacity is due in part to SAA-mediated remodeling of HDL's protein cargo. PMID:25995210

  11. Mercuric iodide X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; Delduca, A.; Dolin, R.; Ortale, C.

    A prototype X-ray camera utilizing a 1.5- by 1.5-in., 1024-element, thin mercuric iodide detector array has been tested and evaluated. The microprocessor-based camera is portable and operates at room temperature. Events can be localized within 1 to 2 mm at energies below 60 keV and within 5 to 6 mm at energies on the order of 600 keV.

  12. Mechanical Properties Of Large Sodium Iodide Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Henry M.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents data on mechanical properties of large crystals of thallium-doped sodium iodide. Five specimens in shape of circular flat plates subjected to mechanical tests. Presents test results for each specimen as plots of differential pressure versus center displacement and differential pressure versus stress at center. Also tabulates raw data. Test program also developed procedure for screening candidate crystals for gamma-ray sensor. Procedure eliminates potentially weak crystals before installed and ensures material yielding kept to minimum.

  13. Mercuric iodide X-ray camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, B. E.; del Duca, A.; Dolin, R.; Ortale, C.

    1986-02-01

    A prototype X-ray camera utilizing a 1.5- by 1.5-in., 1024-element, thin mercuric iodide detector array has been tested and evaluated. The microprocessor-based camera is portable and operates at room temperature. Events can be localized within 1-2 mm at energies below 60 keV and within 5-6 mm at energies on the order of 600 keV.

  14. Creation and characterization of an airway epithelial cell line for stable expression of CFTR variants

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Laura B.; Vecchio-Pagan, Briana; Sharma, Neeraj; Han, Sangwoo T.; Franca, Arianna; Wohler, Elizabeth S.; Batista, Denise A.S.; Goff, Loyal A.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Analysis of the functional consequences and treatment response of rare CFTR variants is challenging due to the limited availability of primary airways cells. Methods A Flp recombination target (FRT) site for stable expression of CFTR was incorporated into an immortalized CF bronchial epithelial cell line (CFBE41o−). CFTR cDNA was integrated into the FRT site. Expression was evaluated by western blotting and confocal microscopy and function measured by short circuit current. RNA sequencing was used to compare the transcriptional profile of the resulting CF8Flp cell line to primary cells and tissues. Results Functional CFTR was expressed from integrated cDNA at the FRT site of the CF8Flp cell line at levels comparable to that seen in native airway cells. CF8Flp cells expressing WT-CFTR have a stable transcriptome comparable to that of primary cultured airway epithelial cells, including genes that play key roles in CFTR pathways. Conclusion CF8Flp cells provide a viable substitute for primary CF airway cells for the analysis of CFTR variants in a native context. PMID:26694805

  15. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane recruiter the alter ego of CFTR as a multi-kinase anchor

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on a newly discovered interaction between protein kinases involved in cellular energetics, a process that may be disturbed in cystic fibrosis for unknown reasons. I propose a new model where kinase-mediated cellular transmission of energy provides mechanistic insight to a latent role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). I suggest that CFTR acts as a multi-kinase recruiter to the apical epithelial membrane. My group finds that, in the cytosol, two protein kinases involved in cell energy homeostasis, nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), bind one another. Preliminary data suggest that both can also bind CFTR (function unclear). The disrupted role of this CFTR-kinase complex as ‘membrane transmitter to the cell’ is proposed as an alternative paradigm to the conventional ion transport mediated and CFTR/chloride-centric view of cystic fibrosis pathogenesis. Chloride remains important, but instead, chloride-induced control of the phosphohistidine content of one kinase component (NDPK, via a multi-kinase complex that also includes a third kinase, CK2; formerly casein kinase 2). I suggest that this complex provides the necessary near-equilibrium conditions needed for efficient transmission of phosphate energy to proteins controlling cellular energetics. Crucially, a new role for CFTR as a kinase controller is proposed with ionic concentration acting as a signal. The model posits a regulatory control relay for energy sensing involving a cascade of protein kinases bound to CFTR. PMID:17805562

  16. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. PMID:26701908

  17. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10365.001 PMID:26701908

  18. Induction of multidrug resistance downregulates the expression of CFTR in colon epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Breuer, W; Slotki, I N; Ausiello, D A; Cabantchik, I Z

    1993-12-01

    The epithelial cell line HT-29, which constitutively expresses the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), was induced to become drug resistant by cultivation in the presence of colchicine. The gradual acquisition of drug resistance was associated with a corresponding increase in the expression of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and a marked (> 80%) decrease in the constitutive levels of CFTR protein, as determined by immunoblotting. The reduction in CFTR content occurred at the onset of acquisition of drug resistance when P-gp expression was still relatively low. Reversal of drug resistance by removal of colchicine from the culture medium led to a 70% decrease in P-gp levels and a concomitant 40% increase in CFTR. The levels of other membrane proteins such as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and alkaline phosphatase remained relatively constant (< 26% variation). We propose that a selective downregulation of CFTR is elicited by acquisition of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype and that induction of P-gp expression leads to a reversible repression of CFTR biosynthesis. These findings provide an experimental foundation for the complementary patterns of expression of the CFTR and MDR1 genes observed in vivo. PMID:7506492

  19. Characterization of mitochondrial function in cells with impaired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function.

    PubMed

    Atlante, Anna; Favia, Maria; Bobba, Antonella; Guerra, Lorenzo; Casavola, Valeria; Reshkin, Stephan Joel

    2016-06-01

    Evidence supporting the occurrence of oxidative stress in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is well established and the literature suggests that oxidative stress is inseparably linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, we have characterized mitochondrial function, in particular as it regards the steps of oxidative phosphorylation and ROS production, in airway cells either homozygous for the F508del-CFTR allele or stably expressing wt-CFTR. We find that oxygen consumption, ΔΨ generation, adenine nucleotide translocator-dependent ADP/ATP exchange and both mitochondrial Complex I and IV activities are impaired in CF cells, while both mitochondrial ROS production and membrane lipid peroxidation increase. Importantly, treatment of CF cells with the small molecules VX-809 and 4,6,4'-trimethylangelicin, which act as "correctors" for F508del CFTR by rescuing the F508del CFTR-dependent chloride secretion, while having no effect per sè on mitochondrial function in wt-CFTR cells, significantly improved all the above mitochondrial parameters towards values found in the airway cells expressing wt-CFTR. This novel study on mitochondrial bioenergetics provides a springboard for future research to further understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for the involvement of mitochondria in CF and identify the proteins primarily responsible for the F508del-CFTR-dependent mitochondrial impairment and thus reveal potential novel targets for CF therapy. PMID:27146408

  20. CFTR Deletion in Mouse Testis Induces VDAC1 Mediated Inflammatory Pathway Critical for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huijuan, Liao; Jiang, Xie; Ming, Yang; Huaqin, Sun; Wenming, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and affects tissues including lung, pancreas and reproductive tracts. It has been shown that Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock response are two major deregulated functional modules related to CFTR dysfunction. To identify the impact of CFTR deletion during spermatogenesis, we examined the expression of spermiogenesis-related genes in the testis of CFTR mutant mice (CF mice). We confirmed expression changes of MSY2, a germ cell specific RNA binding protein, resulting from deletion of CFTR in testis. Furthermore, real time PCR and Western blot results showed that an inflammatory response was activated in CF mice testis, as reflected by the altered expression of cytokines. We demonstrate for the first time that expression of MSY2 is decreased in CF mice. Our results suggest that CFTR deletion in testis influences inflammatory responses and these features are likely to be due to the unique environment of the seminiferous tubule during the spermatogenesis process. The current study also suggests avenues to understand the pathophysiology of CFTR during spermatogenesis and provides targets for the possible treatment of CFTR-related infertility. PMID:27483469

  1. CFTR Deletion in Mouse Testis Induces VDAC1 Mediated Inflammatory Pathway Critical for Spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chen; Lang, Qin; Huijuan, Liao; Jiang, Xie; Ming, Yang; Huaqin, Sun; Wenming, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and affects tissues including lung, pancreas and reproductive tracts. It has been shown that Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock response are two major deregulated functional modules related to CFTR dysfunction. To identify the impact of CFTR deletion during spermatogenesis, we examined the expression of spermiogenesis-related genes in the testis of CFTR mutant mice (CF mice). We confirmed expression changes of MSY2, a germ cell specific RNA binding protein, resulting from deletion of CFTR in testis. Furthermore, real time PCR and Western blot results showed that an inflammatory response was activated in CF mice testis, as reflected by the altered expression of cytokines. We demonstrate for the first time that expression of MSY2 is decreased in CF mice. Our results suggest that CFTR deletion in testis influences inflammatory responses and these features are likely to be due to the unique environment of the seminiferous tubule during the spermatogenesis process. The current study also suggests avenues to understand the pathophysiology of CFTR during spermatogenesis and provides targets for the possible treatment of CFTR-related infertility. PMID:27483469

  2. The Block of CFTR by Scorpion Venom is State-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Matthew D.; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A.

    2005-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) adenosine triphosphate-dependent chloride channels are expressed in epithelial cells and are associated with a number of genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis. Venom of the scorpion Leirus quinquestriatus hebraeus reversibly inhibits CFTR when applied to its cytoplasmic surface. To examine the state-dependence of inhibition we recorded wild-type and mutant CFTR channel currents using inside-out membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes. Application of either venom or diphenylamine-2-carboxylate to channels that were either activated (open) or resting (closed) indicate primarily closed state-dependent inhibition of CFTR by venom, whereas diphenylamine-2-carboxylate showed no state-dependence of block. Efficacy of venom-mediated macroscopic current inhibition was inversely related to channel activity. Analysis of single-channel and macropatch data indicated that venom could either inhibit channel opening, if it binds during an interburst closed state or in the absence of cytosolic adenosine triphosphate, or introduce new intraburst closed states, if it binds during an open event. The on-rate of venom binding for intraburst block could be modulated by changing CFTR activity with vanadate or adenylyl-imidodiphosphate, or by introducing the Walker A mutation K1250A. These findings represent the first description of state-dependent inhibition of CFTR and suggest that the active toxin could be used as a tool to study the conformational changes that occur during CFTR gating. PMID:16183882

  3. The block of CFTR by scorpion venom is state-dependent.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Matthew D; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Cui, Guiying; McCarty, Nael A

    2005-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) adenosine triphosphate-dependent chloride channels are expressed in epithelial cells and are associated with a number of genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis. Venom of the scorpion Leirus quinquestriatus hebraeus reversibly inhibits CFTR when applied to its cytoplasmic surface. To examine the state-dependence of inhibition we recorded wild-type and mutant CFTR channel currents using inside-out membrane patches from Xenopus oocytes. Application of either venom or diphenylamine-2-carboxylate to channels that were either activated (open) or resting (closed) indicate primarily closed state-dependent inhibition of CFTR by venom, whereas diphenylamine-2-carboxylate showed no state-dependence of block. Efficacy of venom-mediated macroscopic current inhibition was inversely related to channel activity. Analysis of single-channel and macropatch data indicated that venom could either inhibit channel opening, if it binds during an interburst closed state or in the absence of cytosolic adenosine triphosphate, or introduce new intraburst closed states, if it binds during an open event. The on-rate of venom binding for intraburst block could be modulated by changing CFTR activity with vanadate or adenylyl-imidodiphosphate, or by introducing the Walker A mutation K1250A. These findings represent the first description of state-dependent inhibition of CFTR and suggest that the active toxin could be used as a tool to study the conformational changes that occur during CFTR gating. PMID:16183882

  4. Gating of the CFTR Cl- channel by ATP-driven nucleotide-binding domain dimerisation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Sheppard, David N

    2009-05-15

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a fundamental role in fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelial tissues. Based on its structure, function and regulation, CFTR is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. These transporters are assembled from two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). In the vast majority of ABC transporters, the NBDs form a common engine that utilises the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump a wide spectrum of substrates through diverse transmembrane pathways formed by the MSDs. By contrast, in CFTR the MSDs form a pathway for passive anion flow that is gated by cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis by the NBDs. Here, we consider how the interaction of ATP with two ATP-binding sites, formed by the NBDs, powers conformational changes in CFTR structure to gate the channel pore. We explore how conserved sequences from both NBDs form ATP-binding sites at the interface of an NBD dimer and highlight the distinct roles that each binding site plays during the gating cycle. Knowledge of how ATP gates the CFTR Cl- channel is critical for understanding CFTR's physiological role, its malfunction in disease and the mechanism of action of small molecules that modulate CFTR channel gating. PMID:19332488

  5. Gating of the CFTR Cl− channel by ATP-driven nucleotide-binding domain dimerisation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Sheppard, David N

    2009-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plays a fundamental role in fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelial tissues. Based on its structure, function and regulation, CFTR is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter. These transporters are assembled from two membrane-spanning domains (MSDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). In the vast majority of ABC transporters, the NBDs form a common engine that utilises the energy of ATP hydrolysis to pump a wide spectrum of substrates through diverse transmembrane pathways formed by the MSDs. By contrast, in CFTR the MSDs form a pathway for passive anion flow that is gated by cycles of ATP binding and hydrolysis by the NBDs. Here, we consider how the interaction of ATP with two ATP-binding sites, formed by the NBDs, powers conformational changes in CFTR structure to gate the channel pore. We explore how conserved sequences from both NBDs form ATP-binding sites at the interface of an NBD dimer and highlight the distinct roles that each binding site plays during the gating cycle. Knowledge of how ATP gates the CFTR Cl− channel is critical for understanding CFTR's physiological role, its malfunction in disease and the mechanism of action of small molecules that modulate CFTR channel gating. PMID:19332488

  6. Analysis of long-range interactions in primary human cells identifies cooperative CFTR regulatory elements

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Stéphanie; Berlivet, Soizik; Ka, Chandran; Gac, Gérald Le; Dostie, Josée; Férec, Claude

    2016-01-01

    A mechanism by which control DNA elements regulate transcription over large linear genomic distances is by achieving close physical proximity with genes, and looping of the intervening chromatin paths. Alterations of such regulatory ‘chromatin looping’ systems are likely to play a critical role in human genetic disease at large. Here, we studied the spatial organization of a ≈790 kb locus encompassing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Dysregulation of CFTR is responsible for cystic fibrosis, which is the most common lethal genetic disorder in Caucasian populations. CFTR is a relatively large gene of 189 kb with a rather complex tissue-specific and temporal expression profile. We used chromatin conformation at the CFTR locus to identify new DNA sequences that regulate its transcription. By comparing 5C chromatin interaction maps of the CFTR locus in expressing and non-expressing human primary cells, we identified several new contact points between the CFTR promoter and its surroundings, in addition to regions featuring previously described regulatory elements. We demonstrate that two of these novel interacting regions cooperatively increase CFTR expression, and suggest that the new enhancer elements located on either side of the gene are brought together through chromatin looping via CTCF. PMID:26615198

  7. Correctors Rescue CFTR Mutations in Nucleotide-Binding Domain 1 (NBD1) by Modulating Proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias; Sabirzhanova, Inna; Rapino, Daniele; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B; Cebotaru, Liudmila

    2016-03-15

    We evaluated whether small molecule correctors could rescue four nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1) mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene (A455E, S492F, ΔI507, and R560T). We first transfected Cos-7 cells (green monkey kidney cells) with A455E, S492F, ΔI507, or R560T and created HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney cells) cell lines stably expressing these CFTR mutations. The mutants showed lowered protein expression, instability at physiological temperature, and rapid degradation. After treatment with correctors CFFT-002, CFFT-003, C3, C4, and/or C18, the combination of C18+C4 showed the most correction and resulted in increased CFTR residing in the plasma membrane. We found a profound decrease in binding of CFTR to histone deacetylases (HDAC) 6 and 7 and heat shock proteins (Hsps) 27 and 40. Silencing Hsp27 or 40 rescued the mutants, but no additional amount of CFTR was rescued when both proteins were knocked down simultaneously. Thus, CFTR mutations in NBD1 can be rescued by a combination of correctors, and the treatment alters the interaction between mutated CFTR and the endoplasmic reticulum machinery. PMID:26864378

  8. Formation of cyanogen iodide by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Schlorke, Denise; Flemmig, Jörg; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The haem protein lactoperoxidase (LPO) is an important component of the anti-microbial immune defence in external secretions and is also applied as preservative in food, oral care and cosmetic products. Upon oxidation of SCN(-) and I(-) by the LPO-hydrogen peroxide system, oxidised species are formed with bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal activity. Here we describe the formation of the inter(pseudo)halogen cyanogen iodide (ICN) by LPO. This product is formed when both, thiocyanate and iodide, are present together in the reaction mixture. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we could identify this inter(pseudo)halogen after applying iodide in slight excess over thiocyanate. The formation of ICN is based on the reaction of oxidised iodine species with thiocyanate. Further, we could demonstrate that ICN is also formed by the related haem enzyme myeloperoxidase and, in lower amounts, in the enzyme-free system. As I(-) is not competitive for SCN(-) under physiologically relevant conditions, the formation of ICN is not expected in secretions but may be relevant for LPO-containing products. PMID:26580225

  9. Composition and properties of thallium mercury iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, John H.; Schaupp, Christopher; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Zhengming; Novinson, Thomas; Hoffard, Theresa

    1990-10-01

    Conflicting reports exist in the literature concerning the composition of thallium mercury iodide. Solid state synthesis with HgI 2 and TlI has been reported to give Tl 4HgI 6 while synthesis from solution has been reported to give Tl 2HgI 4. In this report we show that the "orange compound" precipitating from solution is actually a 1:1 mole ratio mixture of Tl 4HgI 6 and HgI 2. Pure Tl 4HgI 6, which is yellow, can be produced by heating the mixture at 100°C for several days to volatilize HgI 2 or more simply, by adding Tl(I) to a solution containing 2:1 KI:K 2HgI 4 to provide the additional iodide ions needed for Tl 4HgI 6. Tl 4HgI 6, unlike Ag 2HgI 4 and Cu 2HgI 4, has no sharp thermochromic changes and has no measurable ionic conductivity. This provides another example of the significant role the metal ion plans in determining structure and properties of metal mercury iodide compounds.

  10. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets

    PubMed Central

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2014-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  11. Formulation and optimization of potassium iodide tablets.

    PubMed

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Patel, Binit

    2015-01-01

    The use of potassium iodide (KI) as a protective agent against accidental radioactive exposure is well established. In this study, we aimed to prepare a KI tablet formulation using a direct compression method. We utilized Design of Experiment (DoE)/mixture design to define the best formulation with predetermined physical qualities as to its dissolution, hardness, assay, disintegration, and angle of repose. Based on the results from the DoE, the formulation had the following components (%w/w): Avicel 48.70%, silicon dioxide 0.27%, stearic acid (1.00%), magnesium stearate 2.45%, and dicalcium phosphate 18.69%, in addition to potassium iodide 28.89% (130 mg/tablet). This formulation was scaled-up using two tablet presses, a single-punch press and a rotary mini tablet press. The final scaled-up formulation was subjected to a variety of quality control tests, including photo-stability testing. The results indicate that potassium iodide tablets prepared by a rotary mini tablet press had good pharmaceutical characteristics and a shelf-life of 25 days when stored at room temperature protected from light. PMID:25685048

  12. Active efflux of fluoroquinolones in Mycobacterium smegmatis mediated by LfrA, a multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Takiff, H E; Nikaido, H

    1996-01-01

    The lfrA gene cloned from chromosomal DNA of quinolone-resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2-552 conferred low-level resistance to fluoroquinolones when present on multicopy plasmids. Sequence analysis suggested that lfrA encodes a membrane efflux pump of the major facilitator family (H. E. Takiff, M. Cimino, M. C. Musso, T. Weisbrod, R. Martinez, M. B. Delgado, L Salazar, B. R. Bloom, and W. R. Jacbos, Jr., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:362-366, 1996). In this work, we studied the role of LfrA in the accumulation of fluoroquinolones by M. smegmatis. The steady-state accumulation level of a hydrophilic quinolone, norfloxacin, by M. smegmatis harboring a plasmid carrying the lfrA gene was about 50% of that by the parent strain but was increased to the same level as that of the parent strain by addition of a proton conductor, carbonyl cyanide m-chorophenylhydrazone. Norfloxacin efflux mediated by LfrA was competed for strongly by ciprofloxacin but not by nalidixic acid. Furthermore, we showed that portions of norfloxacin accumulated by starved cells were pumped out upon reenergization of the cells, and the rates of this efflux showed evidence of saturation at higher intracellular concentrations of the drug. These results suggest that the LfrA polypeptide catalyzes the active efflux of several quinolones. PMID:8682782

  13. Cholesterol modulates CFTR confinement in the plasma membrane of primary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Pandzic, Elvis; Goepp, Julie; Matthes, Elizabeth; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W

    2015-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a plasma-membrane anion channel that, when mutated, causes the disease cystic fibrosis. Although CFTR has been detected in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction prepared from airway epithelial cells, suggesting that it may partition into cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts), its compartmentalization has not been demonstrated in intact cells and the influence of microdomains on CFTR lateral mobility is unknown. We used live-cell imaging, spatial image correlation spectroscopy, and k-space image correlation spectroscopy to examine the aggregation state of CFTR and its dynamics both within and outside microdomains in the plasma membrane of primary human bronchial epithelial cells. These studies were also performed during treatments that augment or deplete membrane cholesterol. We found two populations of CFTR molecules that were distinguishable based on their dynamics at the cell surface. One population showed confinement and had slow dynamics that were highly cholesterol dependent. The other, more abundant population was less confined and diffused more rapidly. Treatments that deplete the membrane of cholesterol caused the confined fraction and average number of CFTR molecules per cluster to decrease. Elevating cholesterol had the opposite effect, increasing channel aggregation and the fraction of channels displaying confinement, consistent with CFTR recruitment into cholesterol-rich microdomains with dimensions below the optical resolution limit. Viral infection caused the nanoscale microdomains to fuse into large platforms and reduced CFTR mobility. To our knowledge, these results provide the first biophysical evidence for multiple CFTR populations and have implications for regulation of their surface expression and channel function. PMID:26153705

  14. ATP-independent CFTR channel gating and allosteric modulation by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Wu, Jianping; Bernard, Karen; Li, Ge; Wang, Guangyu; Bevensee, Mark O.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel, an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter. CFTR gating is linked to ATP binding and dimerization of its two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). Channel activation also requires phosphorylation of the R domain by poorly understood mechanisms. Unlike conventional ligand-gated channels, CFTR is an ATPase for which ligand (ATP) release typically involves nucleotide hydrolysis. The extent to which CFTR gating conforms to classic allosteric schemes of ligand activation is unclear. Here, we describe point mutations in the CFTR cytosolic loops that markedly increase ATP-independent (constitutive) channel activity. This finding is consistent with an allosteric gating mechanism in which ligand shifts the equilibrium between inactive and active states but is not essential for channel opening. Constitutive mutations mapped to the putative symmetry axis of CFTR based on the crystal structures of related ABC transporters, a common theme for activating mutations in ligand-gated channels. Furthermore, the ATP sensitivity of channel activation was strongly enhanced by these constitutive mutations, as predicted for an allosteric mechanism (reciprocity between protein activation and ligand occupancy). Introducing constitutive mutations into CFTR channels that cannot open in response to ATP (i.e., the G551D CF mutant and an NBD2-deletion mutant) substantially rescued their activities. Importantly, constitutive mutants that opened without ATP or NBD2 still required R domain phosphorylation for optimal activity. Our results confirm that (i) CFTR gating exhibits features of protein allostery that are shared with conventional ligand-gated channels and (ii) the R domain modulates CFTR activity independent of ATP-induced NBD dimerization. PMID:20133716

  15. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration

    PubMed Central

    Clunes, Lucy A.; Davies, Catrin M.; Coakley, Raymond D.; Aleksandrov, Andrei A.; Henderson, Ashley G.; Zeman, Kirby L.; Worthington, Erin N.; Gentzsch, Martina; Kreda, Silvia M.; Cholon, Deborah; Bennett, William D.; Riordan, John R.; Boucher, Richard C.; Tarran, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure induces mucus obstruction and the development of chronic bronchitis (CB). While many of these responses are determined genetically, little is known about the effects CS can exert on pulmonary epithelia at the protein level. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that CS exerts direct effects on the CFTR protein, which could impair airway hydration, leading to the mucus stasis characteristic of both cystic fibrosis and CB. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that CS rapidly decreased CFTR activity, leading to airway surface liquid (ASL) volume depletion (i.e., dehydration). Further studies revealed that CS induced internalization of CFTR. Surprisingly, CS-internalized CFTR did not colocalize with lysosomal proteins. Instead, the bulk of CFTR shifted to a detergent-resistant fraction within the cell and colocalized with the intermediate filament vimentin, suggesting that CS induced CFTR movement into an aggresome-like, perinuclear compartment. To test whether airway dehydration could be reversed, we used hypertonic saline (HS) as an osmolyte to rehydrate ASL. HS restored ASL height in CS-exposed, dehydrated airway cultures. Similarly, inhaled HS restored mucus transport and increased clearance in patients with CB. Thus, we propose that CS exposure rapidly impairs CFTR function by internalizing CFTR, leading to ASL dehydration, which promotes mucus stasis and a failure of mucus clearance, leaving smokers at risk for developing CB. Furthermore, our data suggest that strategies to rehydrate airway surfaces may provide a novel form of therapy for patients with CB.—Clunes, L. A., Davies, C. M., Coakley, R. D., Aleksandrov, A. A., Henderson, A. G., Zeman, K. L., Worthington, E. N., Gentzsch, M., Kreda, S. M., Cholon, D., Bennett, W. D., Riordan, J. R., Boucher, R. C., Tarran, R. Cigarette smoke exposure induces CFTR internalization and insolubility, leading to airway surface liquid dehydration. PMID:21990373

  16. Differential regulation of single CFTR channels by PP2C, PP2A, and other phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Pato, M D; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1998-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel activity declines rapidly when excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) or human airway cells because of membrane-associated phosphatase activity. In the present study, we found that CFTR channels usually remained active in patches excised from baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing CFTR. Those patches with stable channel activity were used to investigate the regulation of CFTR by exogenous protein phosphatases (PP). Adding PP2A, PP2C, or alkaline phosphatase to excised patches reduced CFTR channel activity by > 90% but did not abolish it completely. PP2B caused weak deactivation, whereas PP1 had no detectable effect on open probability (Po). Interestingly, the time course of deactivation by PP2C was identical to that of the spontaneous rundown observed in some patches after excision. PP2C and PP2A had distinct effects on channel gating Po declined during exposure to exogenous PP2C (and during spontaneous rundown, when it was observed) without any change in mean burst duration. By contrast, deactivation by exogenous PP2A was associated with a dramatic shortening of burst duration similar to that reported previously in patches from cardiac cells during deactivation of CFTR by endogenous phosphatases. Rundown of CFTR-mediated current across intact T84 epithelial cell monolayers was insensitive to toxic levels of the PP2A inhibitor calyculin A. These results demonstrate that exogenous PP2C is a potent regulator of CFTR activity, that its effects on single-channel gating are distinct from those of PP2A but similar to those of endogenous phosphatases in CHO, BHK, and T84 epithelial cells, and that multiple protein phosphatases may be required for complete deactivation of CFTR channels. PMID:9612228

  17. Optimizing Nasal Potential Difference Analysis for CFTR Modulator Development: Assessment of Ivacaftor in CF Subjects with the G551D-CFTR Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven M.; Liu, Bo; Hill, Aubrey; Hathorne, Heather; Cohen, Morty; Beamer, John R.; Accurso, Frank J.; Dong, Qunming; Ordoñez, Claudia L.; Stone, Anne J.; Olson, Eric R.; Clancy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Nasal potential difference (NPD) is used as a biomarker of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) activity. We evaluated methods to detect changes in chloride and sodium transport by NPD based on a secondary analysis of a Phase II CFTR-modulator study. Thirty-nine subjects with CF who also had the G551D-CFTR mutation were randomized to receive ivacaftor (Kalydeco™; also known as VX-770) in four doses or placebo twice daily for at least 14 days. All data were analyzed by a single investigator who was blinded to treatment assignment. We compared three analysis methods to determine the best approach to quantify changes in chloride and sodium transport: (1) the average of both nostrils; (2) the most-polarized nostril at each visit; and (3) the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward. Parameters of ion transport included the PD change with zero chloride plus isoproterenol (CFTR activity), the basal PD, Ringer's PD, and change in PD with amiloride (measurements of ENaC activity), and the delta NPD (measuring CFTR and ENaC activity). The average and most-polarized nostril at each visit were most sensitive to changes in chloride and sodium transport, whereas the most-polarized nostril at screening carried forward was less discriminatory. Based on our findings, NPD studies should assess both nostrils rather than a single nostril. We also found that changes in CFTR activity were more readily detected than changes in ENaC activity, and that rigorous standardization was associated with relatively good within-subject reproducibility in placebo-treated subjects (±2.8 mV). Therefore, we have confirmed an assay of reasonable reproducibility for detecting chloride-transport improvements in response to CFTR modulation. PMID:23922647

  18. Determination of CFTR chloride channel activity and pharmacology using radiotracer flux methods.

    PubMed

    Norez, Caroline; Heda, Ghanshyam D; Jensen, Timothy; Kogan, Ilana; Hughes, Lauren K; Auzanneau, Céline; Dérand, Renaud; Bulteau-Pignoux, Laurence; Li, Canhui; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Li, Hongyu; Sheppard, David N; Bear, Christine E; Riordan, John R; Becq, Frédéric

    2004-08-01

    Flux studies using either radioisotopes or ion-selective electrodes are a convenient method to assay the function of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Here, we described three different protocols to study the properties, regulation and pharmacology of the CFTR Cl- channel in populations of cells and artificial vesicles. These techniques are widely used to evaluate the function of wild-type and mutant CFTR prior to detailed analyses using the patch-clamp technique. Moreover, they have proved especially valuable in the search for new drugs to treat cystic fibrosis. PMID:15463942

  19. Gastrointestinal Pathology in Juvenile and Adult CFTR-Knockout Ferrets

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xingshen; Olivier, Alicia K.; Yi, Yaling; Pope, Christopher E.; Hayden, Hillary S.; Liang, Bo; Sui, Hongshu; Zhou, Weihong; Hager, Kyle R.; Zhang, Yulong; Liu, Xiaoming; Yan, Ziying; Fisher, John T.; Keiser, Nicholas W.; Song, Yi; Tyler, Scott R.; Goeken, J. Adam; Kinyon, Joann M.; Radey, Matthew C.; Fligg, Danielle; Wang, Xiaoyan; Xie, Weiliang; Lynch, Thomas J.; Kaminsky, Paul M.; Brittnacher, Mitchell J.; Miller, Samuel I.; Parekh, Kalpaj; Meyerholz, David K.; Hoffman, Lucas R.; Frana, Timothy; Stewart, Zoe A.; Engelhardt, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multiorgan disease caused by loss of a functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel in many epithelia of the body. Here we report the pathology observed in the gastrointestinal organs of juvenile to adult CFTR-knockout ferrets. CF gastrointestinal manifestations included gastric ulceration, intestinal bacterial overgrowth with villous atrophy, and rectal prolapse. Metagenomic phylogenetic analysis of fecal microbiota by deep sequencing revealed considerable genotype-independent microbial diversity between animals, with the majority of taxa overlapping between CF and non-CF pairs. CF hepatic manifestations were variable, but included steatosis, necrosis, biliary hyperplasia, and biliary fibrosis. Gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia was commonly found in 67% of CF animals. The majority of CF animals (85%) had pancreatic abnormalities, including extensive fibrosis, loss of exocrine pancreas, and islet disorganization. Interestingly, 2 of 13 CF animals retained predominantly normal pancreatic histology (84% to 94%) at time of death. Fecal elastase-1 levels from these CF animals were similar to non-CF controls, whereas all other CF animals evaluated were pancreatic insufficient (<2 μg elastase-1 per gram of feces). These findings suggest that genetic factors likely influence the extent of exocrine pancreas disease in CF ferrets and have implications for the etiology of pancreatic sufficiency in CF patients. In summary, these studies demonstrate that the CF ferret model develops gastrointestinal pathology similar to CF patients. PMID:24637292

  20. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of Lead Iodide and Methylammonium Lead Iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkamp, Max; Lin, Ming-Fu; Ryland, Elizabeth; Vura-Weis, Josh

    Methylammonium lead iodide (perovskite) is a leading candidate for use in next-generation solar cell devices. However, the photophysics of perovskite responsible for its strong photovoltaic qualities are not fully understood. Ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy was used to investigate relaxation dynamics in perovskite and its precursor, lead iodide, with carrier-specific signals arising from transitions from a common inner-shell level (I 4d) to the valence and conduction bands. Ultrashort (30 fs) pulses of XUV radiation in a broad spectrum (40-70 eV) were obtained using high-harmonic generation in a tabletop instrument. Transient absorption measurements with visible pump (3.1 eV) and XUV probe directly observed the relaxation of charge carriers after above band excitation for both perovskite and lead iodide in the femtosecond and picosecond time ranges.

  1. Tripartite assembly of RND multidrug efflux pumps

    PubMed Central

    Daury, Laetitia; Orange, François; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Verchère, Alice; Monlezun, Laura; Gounou, Céline; Marreddy, Ravi K. R.; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle; Pos, Klaas M.; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB–OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB–TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA–MexB–TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components. PMID:26867482

  2. Tripartite assembly of RND multidrug efflux pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daury, Laetitia; Orange, François; Taveau, Jean-Christophe; Verchère, Alice; Monlezun, Laura; Gounou, Céline; Marreddy, Ravi K. R.; Picard, Martin; Broutin, Isabelle; Pos, Klaas M.; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Tripartite multidrug efflux systems of Gram-negative bacteria are composed of an inner membrane transporter, an outer membrane channel and a periplasmic adaptor protein. They are assumed to form ducts inside the periplasm facilitating drug exit across the outer membrane. Here we present the reconstitution of native Pseudomonas aeruginosa MexAB-OprM and Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC tripartite Resistance Nodulation and cell Division (RND) efflux systems in a lipid nanodisc system. Single-particle analysis by electron microscopy reveals the inner and outer membrane protein components linked together via the periplasmic adaptor protein. This intrinsic ability of the native components to self-assemble also leads to the formation of a stable interspecies AcrA-MexB-TolC complex suggesting a common mechanism of tripartite assembly. Projection structures of all three complexes emphasize the role of the periplasmic adaptor protein as part of the exit duct with no physical interaction between the inner and outer membrane components.

  3. Potentiator synergy in rectal organoids carrying S1251N, G551D, or F508del CFTR mutations.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Johanna F; Van Mourik, Peter; Vonk, Annelotte M; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Berkers, Gitte; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Janssens, Hettie M; Bronsveld, Inez; van der Ent, Cornelis K; de Jonge, Hugo R; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    The potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor/KALYDECO™) targets defective gating of CFTR and has been approved for treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects carrying G551D, S1251N or one of 8 other mutations. Still, the current potentiator treatment does not normalize CFTR-dependent biomarkers, indicating the need for development of more effective potentiator strategies. We have recently pioneered a functional CFTR assay in primary rectal organoids and used this model to characterize interactions between VX-770, genistein and curcumin, the latter 2 being natural food components with established CFTR potentiation capacities. Results indicated that all possible combinations of VX-770, genistein and curcumin synergistically repaired CFTR-dependent forskolin-induced swelling of organoids with CFTR-S1251N or CFTR-G551D, even under suboptimal CFTR activation and compounds concentrations, conditions that may predominate in vivo. Genistein and curcumin also enhanced forskolin-induced swelling of F508del homozygous organoids that were treated with VX-770 and the prototypical CFTR corrector VX-809. These results indicate that VX-770, genistein and curcumin in double or triple combinations can synergize in restoring CFTR-dependent fluid secretion in primary CF cells and support the use of multiple potentiators for treatment of CF. PMID:27160424

  4. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor.

    PubMed

    Watson, Michael J; Lee, Shernita L; Marklew, Abigail J; Gilmore, Rodney C; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F; Gray, Michael A; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR's PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  5. Potentiation of ΔF508- and G551D-CFTR-Mediated Cl- Current by Novel Hydroxypyrazolines.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhong; Khloya, Poonam; Seo, Yohan; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Ho K; Jeon, Dong-Kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Sharma, Pawan K; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The most common mutation of CFTR, affecting approximately 90% of CF patients, is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del, ΔF508). Misfolding of ΔF508-CFTR impairs both its trafficking to the plasma membrane and its chloride channel activity. To identify small molecules that can restore channel activity of ΔF508-CFTR, we synthesized and evaluated eighteen novel hydroxypyrazoline analogues as CFTR potentiators. To elucidate potentiation activities of hydroxypyrazolines for ΔF508-CFTR, CFTR activity was measured using a halide-sensitive YFP assay, Ussing chamber assay and patch-clamp technique. Compounds 7p, 7q and 7r exhibited excellent potentiation with EC50 value <10 μM. Among the compounds, 7q (a novel CFTR potentiator, CP7q) showed the highest potentiation activity with EC50 values of 0.88 ± 0.11 and 4.45 ± 0.31 μM for wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR, respectively. In addition, CP7q significantly potentiated chloride conductance of G551D-CFTR, a CFTR gating mutant; its maximal potentiation activity was 1.9 fold higher than the well-known CFTR potentiator genistein. Combination treatment with CP7q and VX-809, a corrector of ΔF508-CFTR, significantly enhanced functional rescue of ΔF508-CFTR compared with VX-809 alone. CP7q did not alter the cytosolic cAMP level and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentration showing maximum efficacy. The hydroxypyrazolines may be potential development candidates for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis. PMID:26863533

  6. Potentiation of ΔF508- and G551D-CFTR-Mediated Cl- Current by Novel Hydroxypyrazolines

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yohan; Kumar, Satish; Lee, Ho K.; Jeon, Dong-Kyu; Jo, Sungwoo; Sharma, Pawan K.; Namkung, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The most common mutation of CFTR, affecting approximately 90% of CF patients, is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (F508del, ΔF508). Misfolding of ΔF508-CFTR impairs both its trafficking to the plasma membrane and its chloride channel activity. To identify small molecules that can restore channel activity of ΔF508-CFTR, we synthesized and evaluated eighteen novel hydroxypyrazoline analogues as CFTR potentiators. To elucidate potentiation activities of hydroxypyrazolines for ΔF508-CFTR, CFTR activity was measured using a halide-sensitive YFP assay, Ussing chamber assay and patch-clamp technique. Compounds 7p, 7q and 7r exhibited excellent potentiation with EC50 value <10 μM. Among the compounds, 7q (a novel CFTR potentiator, CP7q) showed the highest potentiation activity with EC50 values of 0.88 ± 0.11 and 4.45 ± 0.31 μM for wild-type and ΔF508-CFTR, respectively. In addition, CP7q significantly potentiated chloride conductance of G551D-CFTR, a CFTR gating mutant; its maximal potentiation activity was 1.9 fold higher than the well-known CFTR potentiator genistein. Combination treatment with CP7q and VX-809, a corrector of ΔF508-CFTR, significantly enhanced functional rescue of ΔF508-CFTR compared with VX-809 alone. CP7q did not alter the cytosolic cAMP level and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentration showing maximum efficacy. The hydroxypyrazolines may be potential development candidates for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis. PMID:26863533

  7. Relationships among CFTR expression, HCO3- secretion, and host defense may inform gene- and cell-based cystic fibrosis therapies.

    PubMed

    Shah, Viral S; Ernst, Sarah; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Karp, Philip H; Parker, Connor P; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Welsh, Michael J

    2016-05-10

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. Airway disease is the major source of morbidity and mortality. Successful implementation of gene- and cell-based therapies for CF airway disease requires knowledge of relationships among percentages of targeted cells, levels of CFTR expression, correction of electrolyte transport, and rescue of host defense defects. Previous studies suggested that, when ∼10-50% of airway epithelial cells expressed CFTR, they generated nearly wild-type levels of Cl(-) secretion; overexpressing CFTR offered no advantage compared with endogenous expression levels. However, recent discoveries focused attention on CFTR-mediated HCO3 (-) secretion and airway surface liquid (ASL) pH as critical for host defense and CF pathogenesis. Therefore, we generated porcine airway epithelia with varying ratios of CF and wild-type cells. Epithelia with a 50:50 mix secreted HCO3 (-) at half the rate of wild-type epithelia. Likewise, heterozygous epithelia (CFTR(+/-) or CFTR(+/∆F508)) expressed CFTR and secreted HCO3 (-) at ∼50% of wild-type values. ASL pH, antimicrobial activity, and viscosity showed similar relationships to the amount of CFTR. Overexpressing CFTR increased HCO3 (-) secretion to rates greater than wild type, but ASL pH did not exceed wild-type values. Thus, in contrast to Cl(-) secretion, the amount of CFTR is rate-limiting for HCO3 (-) secretion and for correcting host defense abnormalities. In addition, overexpressing CFTR might produce a greater benefit than expressing CFTR at wild-type levels when targeting small fractions of cells. These findings may also explain the risk of airway disease in CF carriers. PMID:27114540

  8. Copper-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Aryl Iodides with Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Tran-Vu, Hung; Daugulis, Olafs

    2013-10-01

    A method for carboxylation of aryl iodides with carbon dioxide has been developed. The reaction employs low loadings of copper iodide/TMEDA or DMEDA catalyst, 1 atm of CO2, DMSO or DMA solvent, and proceeds at 25-70 °C. Good functional group tolerance is observed, with ester, bromide, chloride, fluoride, ether, hydroxy, amino, and ketone functionalities tolerated. Additionally, hindered aryl iodides such as iodomesitylene can also be carboxylated. PMID:24288654

  9. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal /sup 125/I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport.

  10. Inhibiting an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Protects CFTR.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Stanton, Bruce A; Hammock, Bruce D; Morisseau, Christophe; Madden, Dean R

    2015-08-17

    Opportunistic pathogens exploit diverse strategies to sabotage host defenses. Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretes the CFTR inhibitory factor Cif and thus triggers loss of CFTR, an ion channel required for airway mucociliary defense. However, the mechanism of action of Cif has remained unclear. It catalyzes epoxide hydrolysis, but there is no known role for natural epoxides in CFTR regulation. It was demonstrated that the hydrolase activity of Cif is strictly required for its effects on CFTR. A small-molecule inhibitor that protects this key component of the mucociliary defense system was also uncovered. These results provide a basis for targeting the distinctive virulence chemistry of Cif and suggest an unanticipated role of physiological epoxides in intracellular protein trafficking. PMID:26136396

  11. Coupling of CFTR Cl- channel gating to an ATP hydrolysis cycle.

    PubMed

    Baukrowitz, T; Hwang, T C; Nairn, A C; Gadsby, D C

    1994-03-01

    For cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels to open, they must be phosphorylated by protein kinase A and then exposed to a hydrolyzable nucleoside triphosphate, such as ATP. To test whether channel opening is linked to ATP hydrolysis, we applied VO4 and BeF3 to CFTR channels in inside-out patches excised from cardiac myocytes. These inorganic phosphate analogs interrupt ATP hydrolysis cycles by binding tightly in place of the released hydrolysis product, inorganic phosphate. The analogs acted only on CFTR channels opened by ATP and locked them open, increasing their mean open time by 2-3 orders of magnitude. These findings establish that opening and closing of CFTR channels are coupled to an ATP hydrolysis cycle. PMID:7512348

  12. Purification and crystallization of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Kamis, Alhaji Bukar; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Ford, Robert C; Riordan, John R

    2004-09-10

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein that is mutated in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. Here we report the purification and first crystallization of wild-type human CFTR. Functional characterization of the material showed it to be highly active. Electron crystallography of negatively stained two-dimensional crystals of CFTR has revealed the overall architecture of this channel for two different conformational states. These show a strong structural homology to two conformational states of another eukaryotic ATP-binding cassette transporter, P-glycoprotein. In contrast to P-glycoprotein, however, both conformational states can be observed in the presence of a nucleotide, which may be related to the role of CFTR as an ion channel rather than a transporter. The hypothesis that the two conformations could represent the "open" and "closed" states of the channel is considered. PMID:15247233

  13. CFTR-deficient pigs display peripheral nervous system defects at birth

    PubMed Central

    Reznikov, Leah R.; Dong, Qian; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Moninger, Thomas O.; Park, Jung Min; Zhang, Yuzhou; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Smith, Richard J. H.; Randak, Christoph O.; Stoltz, David A.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral nervous system abnormalities, including neuropathy, have been reported in people with cystic fibrosis. These abnormalities have largely been attributed to secondary manifestations of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that disruption of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene directly influences nervous system function by studying newborn CFTR−/− pigs. We discovered CFTR expression and activity in Schwann cells, and loss of CFTR caused ultrastructural myelin sheath abnormalities similar to those in known neuropathies. Consistent with neuropathic changes, we found increased transcripts for myelin protein zero, a gene that, when mutated, can cause axonal and/or demyelinating neuropathy. In addition, axon density was reduced and conduction velocities of the trigeminal and sciatic nerves were decreased. Moreover, in vivo auditory brainstem evoked potentials revealed delayed conduction of the vestibulocochlear nerve. Our data suggest that loss of CFTR directly alters Schwann cell function and that some nervous system defects in people with cystic fibrosis are likely primary. PMID:23382208

  14. Disruption of the CFTR gene produces a model of cystic fibrosis in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S; Stoltz, David A; Meyerholz, David K; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Taft, Peter J; Rogan, Mark P; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Karp, Philip H; Itani, Omar A; Kabel, Amanda C; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L; Davis, Greg J; Hanfland, Robert A; Smith, Tony L; Samuel, Melissa; Wax, David; Murphy, Clifton N; Rieke, August; Whitworth, Kristin; Uc, Aliye; Starner, Timothy D; Brogden, Kim A; Shilyansky, Joel; McCray, Paul B; Zabner, Joseph; Prather, Randall S; Welsh, Michael J

    2008-09-26

    Almost two decades after CFTR was identified as the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), we still lack answers to many questions about the pathogenesis of the disease, and it remains incurable. Mice with a disrupted CFTR gene have greatly facilitated CF studies, but the mutant mice do not develop the characteristic manifestations of human CF, including abnormalities of the pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and other organs. Because pigs share many anatomical and physiological features with humans, we generated pigs with a targeted disruption of both CFTR alleles. Newborn pigs lacking CFTR exhibited defective chloride transport and developed meconium ileus, exocrine pancreatic destruction, and focal biliary cirrhosis, replicating abnormalities seen in newborn humans with CF. The pig model may provide opportunities to address persistent questions about CF pathogenesis and accelerate discovery of strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:18818360

  15. Side chain and backbone contributions of Phe508 to CFTR folding

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Brautigam, Chad A.; Machius, Mischa; Thomas, Philip J.

    2010-12-07

    Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an integral membrane protein, cause cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common CF-causing mutant, deletion of Phe508, fails to properly fold. To elucidate the role Phe508 plays in the folding of CFTR, missense mutations at this position were generated. Only one missense mutation had a pronounced effect on the stability and folding of the isolated domain in vitro. In contrast, many substitutions, including those of charged and bulky residues, disrupted folding of full-length CFTR in cells. Structures of two mutant nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) reveal only local alterations of the surface near position 508. These results suggest that the peptide backbone plays a role in the proper folding of the domain, whereas the side chain plays a role in defining a surface of NBD1 that potentially interacts with other domains during the maturation of intact CFTR.

  16. The Formation of the cAMP/Protein Kinase A-dependent Annexin 2–S100A10 Complex with Cystic Fibrosis Conductance Regulator Protein (CFTR) Regulates CFTR Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Lee A.; Mcgaw, Jean; Conner, Gregory; Taylor, Christopher J.; Gerke, Volker; Mehta, Anil; Robson, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis results from mutations in the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator protein (CFTR), a cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP-regulated Cl− channel. CFTR is increasingly recognized as a component of multiprotein complexes and although several inhibitory proteins to CFTR have been identified, protein complexes that stimulate CFTR function remain less well characterized. We report that annexin 2 (anx 2)–S100A10 forms a functional cAMP/PKA/calcineurin (CaN)-dependent complex with CFTR. Cell stimulation with forskolin/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine significantly increases the amount of anx 2–S100A10 that reciprocally coimmunoprecipitates with cell surface CFTR and calyculin A. Preinhibition with PKA or CaN inhibitors attenuates the interaction. Furthermore, we find that the acetylated peptide (STVHEILCKLSLEG, Ac1-14), but not the nonacetylated equivalent N1-14, corresponding to the S100A10 binding site on anx 2, disrupts the anx 2–S100A10/CFTR complex. Analysis of 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and CFTRinh172-sensitive currents, taken as indication of the outwardly rectifying Cl− channels (ORCC) and CFTR-mediated currents, respectively, showed that Ac1-14, but not N1-14, inhibits both the cAMP/PKA-dependent ORCC and CFTR activities. CaN inhibitors (cypermethrin, cyclosporin A) discriminated between ORCC/CFTR by inhibiting the CFTRinh172-, but not the DIDS-sensitive currents, by >70%. Furthermore, peptide Ac1-14 inhibited acetylcholine-induced short-circuit current measured across a sheet of intact intestinal biopsy. Our data suggests that the anx 2–S100A10/CFTR complex is important for CFTR function across epithelia. PMID:17581860

  17. Antimicrobial characteristic of insoluble alkylpyridinium iodide.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Y; Yamano, Y; Tawaratani, T; Kourai, H; Horie, T; Shibasaki, I

    1982-01-01

    Insoluble and soluble alkylpyridinium iodides (C8 to C18) were synthesized. The insoluble agents were quaternized 4-vinylpyridine-divinylbenzene copolymers. The insoluble agent [C12(50)] that contained 50% divinylbenzene and had a C12 alkyl chain was selected as the most suitable insoluble agent. C12(50) showed poor durability of the antibacterial activity, but C12(50), which had lost the activity, was refreshed by washing with ethanol. This washing became ineffective after a few cycles of antibacterial treatment and refreshment. Such C12(50) recovered the activity upon 1.0 N NaOH treatment. The antibacterial activity of C12(50) depended on its surface area. It showed high antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and also showed activity against gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. But the activities of C12(50) and laurylpyridinium iodide solution were different against some microbes. The antibacterial activities of the agents were investigated against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus under various conditions. The activity of C12(50) was higher at a higher temperature or at a lower cell concentration. The activity of C12(50) decreased on addition of NaCl, glucose, or bovine albumin to the cell suspension or in 0.01 M sodium-potassium phosphate buffer. C12(50) showed less activity when cells were mixed with dead cells or the supernatant of dead cells killed in an autoclave. The mode of action of the laurylpyridinium iodide solution against E. coli and M. luteus was similar to that of C12(50) except for the influence of E. coli cell concentration. PMID:6808918

  18. Cigarette Smoke-induced Ca2+ Release Leads to Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Dysfunction*

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Julia E.; Sheridan, John T.; Polk, William; Davies, Catrin M.; Tarran, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease affects 64 million people and is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes both emphysema and chronic bronchitis, and in the case of chronic bronchitis represents an inflammatory response of the airways that is associated with mucus hypersecretion and obstruction of small airways. Recently, it has emerged that exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) leads to an inhibition of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel, causing airway surface liquid dehydration, which may play a role in the development of chronic bronchitis. CS rapidly clears CFTR from the plasma membrane and causes it to be deposited into aggresome-like compartments. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) responsible for the internalization of CFTR following CS exposure. Our studies revealed that CS triggered a rise in cytoplasmic Ca2+ that may have emanated from lysosomes. Furthermore, chelation of cytoplasmic Ca2+, but not inhibition of protein kinases/phosphatases, prevented CS-induced CFTR internalization. The macrolide antibiotic bafilomycin A1 inhibited CS-induced Ca2+ release and prevented CFTR clearance from the plasma membrane, further linking cytoplasmic Ca2+ and CFTR internalization. We hypothesize that CS-induced Ca2+ release prevents normal sorting/degradation of CFTR and causes internalized CFTR to reroute to aggresomes. Our data provide mechanistic insight into the potentially deleterious effects of CS on airway epithelia and outline a hitherto unrecognized signaling event triggered by CS that may affect the long term transition of the lung into a hyper-inflammatory/dehydrated environment. PMID:24448802

  19. Defining the defect in F508 del CFTR: a soluble problem?

    PubMed

    Deber, Charles M; Cheung, Joanne C; Rath, Arianna

    2008-01-01

    Previously reported crystal structures of CFTR F508 del-NBD1 were determined in the presence of solubilizing mutations. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Pissarra et al. (2008) show that partial rescue of the trafficking and gating defects of full-length CFTR occurs in vivo upon recapitulation of the solubilizing F494N/Q637R or F428S/F494N/Q637R substitutions in cis with F508 del. PMID:18215767

  20. Validation of a semiconductor next-generation sequencing assay for the clinical genetic screening of CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Trujillano, Daniel; Weiss, Maximilian E R; Köster, Julia; Papachristos, Efstathios B; Werber, Martin; Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Marais, Anett; Eichler, Sabrina; Creed, Jenny; Baysal, Erol; Jaber, Iqbal Yousuf; Mehaney, Dina Ahmed; Farra, Chantal; Rolfs, Arndt

    2015-01-01

    Genetic testing for cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders mostly relies on laborious molecular tools that use Sanger sequencing to scan for mutations in the CFTR gene. We have explored a more efficient genetic screening strategy based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the CFTR gene. We validated this approach in a cohort of 177 patients with previously known CFTR mutations and polymorphisms. Genomic DNA was amplified using the Ion AmpliSeq™ CFTR panel. The DNA libraries were pooled, barcoded, and sequenced using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. The combination of different robust bioinformatics tools allowed us to detect previously known pathogenic mutations and polymorphisms in the 177 samples, without detecting spurious pathogenic calls. In summary, the assay achieves a sensitivity of 94.45% (95% CI: 92% to 96.9%), with a specificity of detecting nonvariant sites from the CFTR reference sequence of 100% (95% CI: 100% to 100%), a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 100% to 100%), and a negative predictive value of 99.99% (95% CI: 99.99% to 100%). In addition, we describe the observed allelic frequencies of 94 unique definitely and likely pathogenic, uncertain, and neutral CFTR variants, some of them not previously annotated in the public databases. Strikingly, a seven exon spanning deletion as well as several more technically challenging variants such as pathogenic poly-thymidine-guanine and poly-thymidine (poly-TG-T) tracts were also detected. Targeted NGS is ready to substitute classical molecular methods to perform genetic testing on the CFTR gene. PMID:26436105

  1. Phenotypic variability of R117H-CFTR expression within monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Waller, Michael D; Simmonds, Nicholas J

    2016-08-01

    Whilst cystic fibrosis is a monogenic condition, variation in phenotype exists for the same CFTR genotype, which is influenced by multiple genetic and non-genetic (environmental) factors. The R117H-CFTR mutation has variability directly relating to in cis poly-thymidine alleles, producing a differing spectrum of disease. This paper provides evidence of extreme phenotype variability - including fertility status - in the context of male monogenetic twins, discussing mechanisms and highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges. PMID:27364092

  2. Relating the Disease Mutation Spectrum to the Evolution of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Eishita; Harvey, Stephen C.; Jordan, I. King; McCarty, Nael A.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, and accordingly the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein has perhaps the best characterized disease mutation spectrum with more than 1,500 causative mutations having been identified. In this study, we took advantage of that wealth of mutational information in an effort to relate site-specific evolutionary parameters with the propensity and severity of CFTR disease-causing mutations. To do this, we devised a scoring scheme for known CFTR disease-causing mutations based on the Grantham amino acid chemical difference matrix. CFTR site-specific evolutionary constraint values were then computed for seven different evolutionary metrics across a range of increasing evolutionary depths. The CFTR mutational scores and the various site-specific evolutionary constraint values were compared in order to evaluate which evolutionary measures best reflect the disease-causing mutation spectrum. Site-specific evolutionary constraint values from the widely used comparative method PolyPhen2 show the best correlation with the CFTR mutation score spectrum, whereas more straightforward conservation based measures (ConSurf and ScoreCons) show the greatest ability to predict individual CFTR disease-causing mutations. While far greater than could be expected by chance alone, the fraction of the variability in mutation scores explained by the PolyPhen2 metric (3.6%), along with the best set of paired sensitivity (58%) and specificity (60%) values for the prediction of disease-causing residues, were marginal. These data indicate that evolutionary constraint levels are informative but far from determinant with respect to disease-causing mutations in CFTR. Nevertheless, this work shows that, when combined with additional lines of evidence, information on site-specific evolutionary conservation can and should be used to guide site-directed mutagenesis experiments by more narrowly defining the

  3. Relating the disease mutation spectrum to the evolution of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Rishishwar, Lavanya; Varghese, Neha; Tyagi, Eishita; Harvey, Stephen C; Jordan, I King; McCarty, Nael A

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians, and accordingly the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein has perhaps the best characterized disease mutation spectrum with more than 1,500 causative mutations having been identified. In this study, we took advantage of that wealth of mutational information in an effort to relate site-specific evolutionary parameters with the propensity and severity of CFTR disease-causing mutations. To do this, we devised a scoring scheme for known CFTR disease-causing mutations based on the Grantham amino acid chemical difference matrix. CFTR site-specific evolutionary constraint values were then computed for seven different evolutionary metrics across a range of increasing evolutionary depths. The CFTR mutational scores and the various site-specific evolutionary constraint values were compared in order to evaluate which evolutionary measures best reflect the disease-causing mutation spectrum. Site-specific evolutionary constraint values from the widely used comparative method PolyPhen2 show the best correlation with the CFTR mutation score spectrum, whereas more straightforward conservation based measures (ConSurf and ScoreCons) show the greatest ability to predict individual CFTR disease-causing mutations. While far greater than could be expected by chance alone, the fraction of the variability in mutation scores explained by the PolyPhen2 metric (3.6%), along with the best set of paired sensitivity (58%) and specificity (60%) values for the prediction of disease-causing residues, were marginal. These data indicate that evolutionary constraint levels are informative but far from determinant with respect to disease-causing mutations in CFTR. Nevertheless, this work shows that, when combined with additional lines of evidence, information on site-specific evolutionary conservation can and should be used to guide site-directed mutagenesis experiments by more narrowly defining the

  4. Stable ATP binding mediated by a partial NBD dimer of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Feng; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2010-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is an ATP-gated chloride channel. Like other ABC proteins, CFTR encompasses two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), NBD1 and NBD2, each accommodating an ATP binding site. It is generally accepted that CFTR's opening-closing cycles, each completed within 1 s, are driven by rapid ATP binding and hydrolysis events in NBD2. Here, by recording CFTR currents in real time with a ligand exchange protocol, we demonstrated that during many of these gating cycles, NBD1 is constantly occupied by a stably bound ATP or 8-N(3)-ATP molecule for tens of seconds. We provided evidence that this tightly bound ATP or 8-N(3)-ATP also interacts with residues in the signature sequence of NBD2, a telltale sign for an event occurring at the NBD1-NBD2 interface. The open state of CFTR has been shown to represent a two-ATP-bound NBD dimer. Our results indicate that upon ATP hydrolysis in NBD2, the channel closes into a "partial NBD dimer" state where the NBD interface remains partially closed, preventing ATP dissociation from NBD1 but allowing the release of hydrolytic products and binding of the next ATP to occur in NBD2. Opening and closing of CFTR can then be coupled to the formation and "partial" separation of the NBD dimer. The tightly bound ATP molecule in NBD1 can occasionally dissociate from the partial dimer state, resulting in a nucleotide-free monomeric state of NBDs. Our data, together with other structural/functional studies of CFTR's NBDs, suggest that this process is poorly reversible, implying that the channel in the partial dimer state or monomeric state enters the open state through different pathways. We therefore proposed a gating model for CFTR with two distinct cycles. The structural and functional significance of our results to other ABC proteins is discussed. PMID:20421370

  5. Aggregates of mutant CFTR fragments in airway epithelial cells of CF lungs: new pathologic observations.

    PubMed

    Du, Kai; Karp, Philip H; Ackerley, Cameron; Zabner, Joseph; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2015-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene resulting in a loss of Cl(-) channel function, disrupting ion and fluid homeostasis, leading to severe lung disease with airway obstruction due to mucus plugging and inflammation. The most common CFTR mutation, F508del, occurs in 90% of patients causing the mutant CFTR protein to misfold and trigger an endoplasmic reticulum based recycling response. Despite extensive research into the pathobiology of CF lung disease, little attention has been paid to the cellular changes accounting for the pathogenesis of CF lung disease. Here we report a novel finding of intracellular retention and accumulation of a cleaved fragment of F508del CFTR in concert with autophagic like phagolysosomes in the airway epithelium of patients with F508del CFTR. Aggregates consisting of poly-ubiquitinylated fragments of only the N-terminal domain of F508del CFTR but not the full-length molecule accumulate to appreciable levels. Importantly, these undegraded intracytoplasmic aggregates representing the NT-NBD1 domain of F508del CFTR were found in ciliated, in basal, and in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells. Aggregates were found in both native lung tissues and ex-vivo primary cultures of bronchial epithelial cells from CF donors, but not in normal control lungs. Our findings present a new, heretofore, unrecognized innate CF gene related cell defect and a potential contributing factor to the pathogenesis of CF lung disease. Mutant CFTR intracytoplasmic aggregates could be analogous to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in other degenerative disorders and in pulmonary "conformational protein-associated" diseases. Consequently, potential alterations to the functional integrity of airway epithelium and regenerative capacity may represent a critical new element in the pathogenesis of CF lung disease. PMID:25453871

  6. Taming the Reactivity of Glycosyl Iodides To Achieve Stereoselective Glycosidation.

    PubMed

    Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-19

    Although glycosyl iodides have been known for more than 100 years, it was not until the 21st century that their full potential began to be harnessed for complex glycoconjugate synthesis. Mechanistic studies in the late 1990s probed glycosyl iodide formation by NMR spectroscopy and revealed important reactivity features embedded in protecting-group stereoelectronics. Differentially protected sugars having an anomeric acetate were reacted with trimethylsilyl iodide (TMSI) to generate the glycosyl iodides. In the absence of C-2 participation, generation of the glycosyl iodide proceeded by inversion of the starting anomeric acetate stereochemistry. Once formed, the glycosyl iodide readily underwent in situ anomerization, and in the presence of excess iodide, equilibrium concentrations of α- and β-iodides were established. Reactivity profiles depended upon the identity of the sugar and the protecting groups adorning it. Consistent with the modern idea of disarmed versus armed sugars, ester protecting groups diminished the reactivity of glycosyl iodides and ether protecting groups enhanced the reactivity. Thus, acetylated sugars were slower to form the iodide and anomerize than their benzylated analogues, and these disarmed glycosyl iodides could be isolated and purified, whereas armed ether-protected iodides could only be generated and reacted in situ. All other things being equal, the β-iodide was orders of magnitude more reactive than the thermodynamically more stable α-iodide, consistent with the idea of in situ anomerization introduced by Lemieux in the mid-20th century. Glycosyl iodides are far more reactive than the corresponding bromides, and with the increased reactivity comes increased stereocontrol, particularly when forming α-linked linear and branched oligosaccharides. Reactions with per-O-silylated glycosyl iodides are especially useful for the synthesis of α-linked glycoconjugates. Silyl ether protecting groups make the glycosyl iodide so reactive

  7. Production of Molecular Iodine and Tri-iodide in the Frozen Solution of Iodide: Implication for Polar Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kitae; Yabushita, Akihiro; Okumura, Masanori; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Blaszczak-Boxe, Christopher S; Min, Dae Wi; Yoon, Ho-Il; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-02-01

    The chemistry of reactive halogens in the polar atmosphere plays important roles in ozone and mercury depletion events, oxidizing capacity, and dimethylsulfide oxidation to form cloud-condensation nuclei. Among halogen species, the sources and emission mechanisms of inorganic iodine compounds in the polar boundary layer remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the production of tri-iodide (I3(-)) via iodide oxidation, which is negligible in aqueous solution, is significantly accelerated in frozen solution, both in the presence and the absence of solar irradiation. Field experiments carried out in the Antarctic region (King George Island, 62°13'S, 58°47'W) also showed that the generation of tri-iodide via solar photo-oxidation was enhanced when iodide was added to various ice media. The emission of gaseous I2 from the irradiated frozen solution of iodide to the gas phase was detected by using cavity ring-down spectroscopy, which was observed both in the frozen state at 253 K and after thawing the ice at 298 K. The accelerated (photo-)oxidation of iodide and the subsequent formation of tri-iodide and I2 in ice appear to be related with the freeze concentration of iodide and dissolved O2 trapped in the ice crystal grain boundaries. We propose that an accelerated abiotic transformation of iodide to gaseous I2 in ice media provides a previously unrecognized formation pathway of active iodine species in the polar atmosphere. PMID:26745029

  8. Large-area mercuric iodide photodectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, J.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.; Iwanczyk, J.; Dabrowski, A.

    1983-07-01

    The limits of the active area of mercuric iodide photodetectors imposed by the size of available crystals, electronic noise, and the uniformity of charge carrier collection are discussed. Theoretical calculations of the photodetector electronic noise are compared with the experimental results. Different entrance contacts were studied including semitransparent palladium films and conductive liquids. HgI2 photodetectors with active area up to 4 sq cm are matched with NaI(Tl) and CsI(Tl) scintillation crystals and are evaluated as gamma radiation spectrometers.

  9. Recent developments in thick mercuric iodide spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, K.; Beyerle, A.; Lopez, B.; Markakis, J.; Ortale, C.; Schnepple, W.; Vandenberg, L.

    Thick (approx. 1 cm) mercuric iodide gamma-ray detectors have been produced which show spectroscopic qualities at moderate detector biases (approx. 5 kV) comparable to those of thin spectrometers. Efficiency measurements indicate that the entire volume of the detectors is active. Spectra resolutions of less than 10% have been obtained for gamma-ray energies above 1 MeV. Short charge collection times have produced the best results. Measurement of crystal charge transport properties is discussed. A small amount of bias conditioning is necessary for best performance. Operating parameters of the detectors have been investigated.

  10. Mechanochromic luminescence of copper iodide clusters.

    PubMed

    Benito, Quentin; Maurin, Isabelle; Cheisson, Thibaut; Nocton, Gregory; Fargues, Alexandre; Garcia, Alain; Martineau, Charlotte; Gacoin, Thierry; Boilot, Jean-Pierre; Perruchas, Sandrine

    2015-04-01

    Luminescent mechanochromic materials are particularly appealing for the development of stimuli-responsive materials. Establishing the mechanism responsible for the mechanochromism is always an issue owing to the difficulty in characterizing the ground phase. Herein, the study of real crystalline polymorphs of a mechanochromic and thermochromic luminescent copper iodide cluster permits us to clearly establish the mechanism involved. The local disruption of the crystal packing induces changes in the cluster geometry and in particular the modification of the cuprophilic interactions, which consequently modify the emissive states. This study constitutes a step further toward the understanding of the mechanism involved in the mechanochromic luminescent properties of multimetallic coordination complexes. PMID:25755012

  11. The addition of iodine to tetramethylammonium iodide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, H.W.; Fleischer, M.

    1953-01-01

    The system tetramethylammonium iodide-iodine-toluene has been studied by the solubility method at 6 and at 25??. The compounds (CH3)4NI3, (CH3)4NI5 and (CH3)4NI11 were found to be stable phases at both temperatures. In addition, the compound (CH3)4NI10 was found at 6?? and the compound (CH3)4NI9 at 25??. The dissociation pressures of the compounds at these temperatures were calculated from the solubility data.

  12. Europium-doped barium bromide iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Gundiah, Gautam; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Hollander, Fredrick J.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    2009-10-21

    Single crystals of Ba0.96Eu0.04BrI (barium europium bromide iodide) were grown by the Bridgman technique. The title compound adopts the ordered PbCl2 structure [Braekken (1932). Z. Kristallogr. 83, 222-282]. All atoms occupy the fourfold special positions (4c, site symmetry m) of the space group Pnma with a statistical distribution of Ba and Eu. They lie on the mirror planes, perpendicular to the b axis at y = +-0.25. Each cation is coordinated by nine anions in a tricapped trigonal prismatic arrangement.

  13. Phase 2 Methyl Iodide Deep-Bed Adsorption Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear fission produces fission products (FPs) and activation products, including iodine-129, which could evolve into used fuel reprocessing facility off-gas systems, and could require off-gas control to limit air emissions to levels within acceptable emission limits. Research, demonstrations, and some reprocessing plant experience have indicated that diatomic iodine can be captured with efficiencies high enough to meet regulatory requirements. Research on the capture of organic iodides has also been performed, but to a lesser extent. Several questions remain open regarding the capture of iodine bound in organic compounds. Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has progressed according to a multi-laboratory methyl iodide adsorption test plan. This report summarizes the second phase of methyl iodide adsorption work performed according to this test plan using the deep-bed iodine adsorption test system at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), performed during the second half of Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Test results continue to show that methyl iodide adsorption using AgZ can achieve total iodine decontamination factors (DFs, ratios of uncontrolled and controlled total iodine levels) above 1,000, until breakthrough occurred. However, mass transfer zone depths are deeper for methyl iodide adsorption compared to diatomic iodine (I2) adsorption. Methyl iodide DFs for the Ag Aerogel test adsorption efficiencies were less than 1,000, and the methyl iodide mass transfer zone depth exceeded 8 inches. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to (a) expand the data base for methyl iodide adsorption under various conditions specified in the methyl iodide test plan, and (b) provide more data for evaluating organic iodide reactions and reaction byproducts for different potential adsorption conditions.

  14. Refining the continuum of CFTR-associated disorders in the era of newborn screening.

    PubMed

    Levy, H; Nugent, M; Schneck, K; Stachiw-Hietpas, D; Laxova, A; Lakser, O; Rock, M; Dahmer, M K; Biller, J; Nasr, S Z; Baker, M; McColley, S A; Simpson, P; Farrell, P M

    2016-05-01

    Clinical heterogeneity in cystic fibrosis (CF) often causes diagnostic uncertainty in infants without symptoms and in older patients with milder phenotypes. We performed a cross-sectional evaluation of a comprehensive set of clinical and laboratory descriptors in a physician-defined cohort (N = 376; Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and the American Family Children's Hospital CF centers in Milwaukee and Madison, WI, USA) to determine the robustness of categorizing CF (N = 300), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-related disorder (N = 19), and CFTR-related (CRMS) metabolic syndrome (N = 57) according to current consensus guidelines. Outcome measures included patient demographics, clinical measures, sweat chloride levels, CFTR genotype, age at diagnosis, airway microbiology, pancreatic function, infection, and nutritional status. The CF cohort had a significantly higher median sweat chloride level (105 mmol/l) than CFTR-related disorder patients (43 mmol/l) and CFTR-related metabolic syndrome patients (35 mmol/l; p ≤ 0.001). Patient groups significantly differed in pancreatic sufficiency, immunoreactive trypsinogen levels, sweat chloride values, genotype, and positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures (p ≤ 0.001). An automated classification algorithm using recursive partitioning demonstrated concordance between physician diagnoses and consensus guidelines. Our analysis suggests that integrating clinical information with sweat chloride levels, CFTR genotype, and pancreatic sufficiency provides a context for continued longitudinal monitoring of patients for personalized and effective treatment. PMID:26671754

  15. Flickery block of single CFTR chloride channels by intracellular anions and osmolytes.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P; Hanrahan, J W

    1996-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a phosphorylation- and nucleotide-dependent chloride channel. Single CFTR currents recorded on cell show slight outward rectification, which has previously been suggested to be due to an asymmetrical chloride ion gradient or to a specific interaction between permeant intracellular anions and the channel. Using a single-channel recording from Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing CFTR, we have found that both the sparingly permeant anion glutamate and the impermeant anion gluconate cause a rapid, voltage-dependent block of CFTR channels when applied to the intracellular, but not the extracellular, face of excised patches. Both the affinity and the voltage dependence of block were affected by the extracellular chloride concentration in a manner consistent with chloride ions being able to repel these blocking ions from the pore. These results are discussed in terms of previous models of CFTR current outward rectification, and it is suggested that this rectification may result from a combination of asymmetrical chloride concentrations and voltage-dependent block of the channel by large cytoplasmic anions. In addition, we find that CFTR conductance is decreased by high concentrations of intracellular sucrose, sorbitol, and urea in a manner consistent with a rapid block of the channel by these molecules. PMID:8770004

  16. Conservation of CFTR codon frequency through primates suggests synonymous mutations could have a functional effect.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Lucilla; Iriarte, Andrés; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando; Marín, Mónica

    2015-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system, with a prevalence of about 1:3000 people. Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in CFTR gene, which lead to a defective function of the chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Up-to-date, more than 1900 mutations have been reported in CFTR. However for an important proportion of them, their functional effects and the relation to disease are still not understood. Many of these mutations are silent (or synonymous), namely they do not alter the encoded amino acid. These synonymous mutations have been considered as neutral to protein function. However, more recent evidence in bacterial and human proteins has put this concept under revision. With the aim of understanding possible functional effects of synonymous mutations in CFTR, we analyzed human and primates CFTR codon usage and divergence patterns. We report the presence of regions enriched in rare and frequent codons. This spatial pattern of codon preferences is conserved in primates, but this cannot be explained by sequence conservation alone. In sum, the results presented herein suggest a functional implication of these regions of the gene that may be maintained by purifying selection acting to preserve a particular codon usage pattern along the sequence. Overall these results support the idea that several synonymous mutations in CFTR may have functional importance, and could be involved in the disease. PMID:25839760

  17. Sequential targeting of CFTR by BAC vectors generates a novel pig model of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Klymiuk, N; Mundhenk, L; Kraehe, K; Wuensch, A; Plog, S; Emrich, D; Langenmayer, M C; Stehr, M; Holzinger, A; Kröner, C; Richter, A; Kessler, B; Kurome, M; Eddicks, M; Nagashima, H; Heinritzi, K; Gruber, A D; Wolf, E

    2012-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disease in Caucasians and is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The disease is incurable and medical treatment is limited to the amelioration of symptoms or secondary complications. A comprehensive understanding of the disease mechanisms and the development of novel treatment options require appropriate animal models. Existing CF mouse models fail to reflect important aspects of human CF. We thus generated a CF pig model by inactivating the CFTR gene in primary porcine cells by sequential targeting using modified bacterial artificial chromosome vectors. These cells were then used to generate homozygous CFTR mutant piglets by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The homozygous CFTR mutants lack CFTR protein expression and display severe malformations in the intestine, respiratory tract, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and male reproductive tract. These phenotypic abnormalities closely resemble both the human CF pathology as well as alterations observed in a recently published CF pig model which was generated by a different gene targeting strategy. Our new CF pig model underlines the value of the CFTR-deficient pig for gaining new insight into the disease mechanisms of CF and for the development and evaluation of new therapeutic strategies. This model will furthermore increase the availability of CF pigs to the scientific community. PMID:22170306

  18. CFTR genotypes in patients with normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, Delphine; Couderc, Remy; Audrezet, Marie-Pierre; Ferec, Claude; Bienvenu, Thierry; Desgeorges, Marie; Claustres, Mireille; Mittre, Hervé; Blayau, Martine; Bozon, Dominique; Malinge, Marie-Claire; Monnier, Nicole; Bonnefont, Jean-Paul; Iron, Albert; Bieth, Eric; Dumur, Viviane; Clavel, Christine; Cazeneuve, Cécile; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2003-10-01

    In recent years, some patients bearing "atypical" forms of cystic fibrosis (CF) with normal sweat chloride concentrations have been described. To identify the spectrum of mutant combinations causing such atypical CF, we collected the results of CFTR (ABCC7) mutation analysis from 15 laboratories. Thirty patients with one or more typical symptoms of the disease associated with normal or borderline sweat chloride levels and bearing two CFTR mutations were selected. Phenotypes and genotypes of these 30 patients are described. A total of 18 different CFTR mutations were observed in the 60 chromosomes analysed. F508del was present in 31.6 % of the mutated chromosomes and 3849+10kbC>T in 13.3 %. R117H, D1152H, L206W, 3272-26A>G, S1235R, G149R, R1070W, S945L, and the poly-T tract variation commonly called IVS8-5T were also observed. The relative frequency of CFTR mutations clearly differed from that observed in typical CF patients or in CBAVD patients with the same ethnic origin. A mild genotype with one or two mild or variable mutations was observed in all the patients. These findings improve our understanding of the distribution of CFTR alleles in CF with normal or borderline sweat chloride concentrations and will facilitate the development of more sensitive CFTR mutation screening. PMID:12955726

  19. The relationship between cAMP, Ca(2)+, and transport of CFTR to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Chen, P; Hwang, T C; Gillis, K D

    2001-08-01

    The mechanism whereby cAMP stimulates Cl(-) flux through CFTR ion channels in secretory epithelia remains controversial. It is generally accepted that phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the open probability of the CFTR channel. A more controversial hypothesis is that cAMP triggers the translocation of CFTR from an intracellular pool to the cell surface. We have monitored membrane turnover in Calu-3 cells, a cell line derived from human airway submucosal glands that expresses high levels of CFTR using membrane capacitance and FM1-43 fluorescence measurements. Using a conventional capacitance measurement technique, we observe an apparent increase in membrane capacitance in most cells that exhibit an increase in Cl(-) current. However, after we carefully correct our recordings for changes in membrane conductance, the apparent changes in capacitance are eliminated. Measurements using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1-43 also indicate that no changes in membrane turnover accompany the activation of CFTR. Robust membrane insertion can be triggered with photorelease of caged Ca(2)+ in Calu-3 cells. However, no increase in Cl(-) current accompanies Ca(2)+-evoked membrane fusion. We conclude that neither increases in cAMP or Ca(2)+ lead to transport of CFTR to the plasma membrane in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we conclude that membrane capacitance measurements must be interpreted with caution when large changes in membrane conductance occur. PMID:11479341

  20. The Relationship between Camp, Ca2+, and Transport of Cftr to the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Gillis, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism whereby cAMP stimulates Cl− flux through CFTR ion channels in secretory epithelia remains controversial. It is generally accepted that phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase increases the open probability of the CFTR channel. A more controversial hypothesis is that cAMP triggers the translocation of CFTR from an intracellular pool to the cell surface. We have monitored membrane turnover in Calu-3 cells, a cell line derived from human airway submucosal glands that expresses high levels of CFTR using membrane capacitance and FM1–43 fluorescence measurements. Using a conventional capacitance measurement technique, we observe an apparent increase in membrane capacitance in most cells that exhibit an increase in Cl− current. However, after we carefully correct our recordings for changes in membrane conductance, the apparent changes in capacitance are eliminated. Measurements using the fluorescent membrane marker FM1–43 also indicate that no changes in membrane turnover accompany the activation of CFTR. Robust membrane insertion can be triggered with photorelease of caged Ca2+ in Calu-3 cells. However, no increase in Cl− current accompanies Ca2+-evoked membrane fusion. We conclude that neither increases in cAMP or Ca2+ lead to transport of CFTR to the plasma membrane in Calu-3 cells. In addition, we conclude that membrane capacitance measurements must be interpreted with caution when large changes in membrane conductance occur. PMID:11479341

  1. Quantitation of normal CFTR mRNA in CF patients with splice-site mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Olsen, J.C.; Silverman, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Previously we identified two mutations in introns of the CFTR gene associated with partially active splice sites and unusual clinical phenotypes. One mutation in intron 19 (3849+10 kb C to T) is common in CF patients with normal sweat chloride values; an 84 bp sequence from intron 19, which contains a stop codon, is inserted between exon 19 and exon 20 in most nasal CFTR transcripts. The other mutation in intron 14B (2789+5 G to A) is associated with elevated sweat chloride levels, but mild pulmonary disease; exon 14B (38 bp) is spliced out of most nasal CFTR transcipts. The remaining CFTR cDNA sequences, other than the 84 bp insertion of exon 14B deletion, are identical to the published sequence. To correlate genotype and phenotype, we used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the levels of normally-spliced CFTR mRNA in nasal epithelia from these patients. CFTR cDNA was amplified (25 cycles) by using primers specific for normally-spliced species, {gamma}-actin cDNA was amplified as a standard.

  2. Facilitating Structure-Function Studies of CFTR Modulator Sites with Efficiencies in Mutagenesis and Functional Screening.

    PubMed

    Molinski, Steven V; Ahmadi, Saumel; Hung, Maurita; Bear, Christine E

    2015-12-01

    There are nearly 2000 mutations in the CFTR gene associated with cystic fibrosis disease, and to date, the only approved drug, Kalydeco, has been effective in rescuing the functional expression of a small subset of these mutant proteins with defects in channel activation. However, there is currently an urgent need to assess other mutations for possible rescue by Kalydeco, and further, definition of the binding site of such modulators on CFTR would enhance our understanding of the mechanism of action of such therapeutics. Here, we describe a simple and rapid one-step PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis method to generate mutations in the CFTR gene. This method was used to generate CFTR mutants bearing deletions (p.Gln2_Trp846del, p.Ser700_Asp835del, p.Ile1234_Arg1239del) and truncation with polyhistidine tag insertion (p.Glu1172-3Gly-6-His*), which either recapitulate a disease phenotype or render tools for modulator binding site identification, with subsequent evaluation of drug responses using a high-throughput (384-well) membrane potential-sensitive fluorescence assay of CFTR channel activity within a 1 wk time frame. This proof-of-concept study shows that these methods enable rapid and quantitative comparison of multiple CFTR mutants to emerging drugs, facilitating future large-scale efforts to stratify mutants according to their "theratype" or most promising targeted therapy. PMID:26385858

  3. Functional Rescue of F508del-CFTR Using Small Molecule Correctors

    PubMed Central

    Molinski, Steven; Eckford, Paul D. W.; Pasyk, Stan; Ahmadi, Saumel; Chin, Stephanie; Bear, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screens for small molecules that are effective in “correcting” the functional expression of F508del-CFTR have yielded several promising hits. Two such compounds are currently in clinical trial. Despite this success, it is clear that further advances will be required in order to restore 50% or greater of wild-type CFTR function to the airways of patients harboring the F508del-CFTR protein. Progress will be enhanced by our better understanding of the molecular and cellular defects caused by the F508del mutation, present in 90% of CF patients. The goal of this chapter is to review the current understanding of defects caused by F508del in the CFTR protein and in CFTR-mediated interactions important for its biosynthesis, trafficking, channel function, and stability at the cell surface. Finally, we will discuss the gaps in our knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of existing correctors, the unmet need to discover compounds which restore proper CFTR structure and function in CF affected tissues and new strategies for therapy development. PMID:23055971

  4. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease. PMID:25592226

  5. Keratin K18 Increases Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Surface Expression by Binding to Its C-terminal Hydrophobic Patch*

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Ying; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Wei Kevin; Wang, Dong; Wang, Yan; Cao, Xu; Hu, Wenbao; Xie, Changyan; Cuppoletti, John; Magin, Thomas M.; Wang, Haixia; Wu, Zhenguo; Li, Ning; Huang, Pingbo

    2012-01-01

    Malfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) leads to cystic fibrosis, but the regulation of CFTR is not fully understood. Here, we identified the intermediate filament protein keratin K18 (K18) as a CFTR-binding protein by various approaches. We mapped a highly conserved “hydrophobic patch” (1413FLVI1416) in the CFTR C-terminus, known to determine plasmalemmal CFTR stability, as the K18-binding site. On the other hand, the C-terminal tail of K18 was found to be a critical determinant for binding CFTR. Overexpression of K18 in cells robustly increased the surface expression of wild-type CFTR, whereas depletion of K18 through RNA interference specifically diminished it. K18 binding increased the surface expression of CFTR by accelerating its apical recycling rate without altering CFTR biosynthesis, maturation, or internalization. Importantly, CFTR surface expression was markedly reduced in duodenal and gallbladder epithelia of K18−/− mice. Taken together, our results suggest that K18 increases the cell surface expression of CFTR by interacting with the CFTR C-terminal hydrophobic patch. These findings offer novel insights into the regulation of CFTR and suggest that K18 and its dimerization partner, K8, may be modifier genes in cystic fibrosis. PMID:23045527

  6. The patch-clamp and planar lipid bilayer techniques: powerful and versatile tools to investigate the CFTR Cl- channel.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David N; Gray, Michael A; Gong, Xiandi; Sohma, Yoshiro; Kogan, Ilana; Benos, Dale J; Scott-Ward, Toby S; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Li, Hongyu; Cai, Zhiwei; Gupta, Jyoti; Li, Canhui; Ramjeesingh, Mohabir; Berdiev, Bakhrom K; Ismailov, Iskander I; Bear, Christine E; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Linsdell, Paul; Hug, Martin J

    2004-08-01

    Using the patch-clamp (PC) and planar lipid bilayer (PLB) techniques the molecular behaviour of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel can be visualised in real-time. The PC technique is a highly powerful and versatile method to investigate CFTR's mechanism of action, interaction with other proteins and physiological role. Using the PLB technique, the structure and function of CFTR can be investigated free from the influence of other proteins. Here we discuss how these techniques are employed to investigate the CFTR Cl- channel with special emphasis on its permeation, conduction and gating properties. PMID:15463939

  7. CFTR surface expression and chloride currents are decreased by inhibitors of N-WASP and actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshan, Radhika; Nowotarski, Krzysztof; Di, Anke; Nelson, Deborah J.; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) undergoes rapid turnover at the plasma membrane in various cell types. The ubiquitously expressed N-WASP promotes actin polymerization and regulates endocytic trafficking of other proteins in response to signaling molecules such as Rho-GTPases. In the present study we investigated the effects of wiskostatin, an N-WASP inhibitor, on the surface expression and activity of CFTR. We demonstrate, using surface biotinylation methods, that the steady-state surface CFTR pool in stably transfected BHK cells was dramatically decreased following wiskostatin treatment with a corresponding increase in the amount of intracellular CFTR. Similar effects were observed for latrunculin B, a specific actin-disrupting reagent. Both reagents strongly inhibited macroscopic CFTR-mediated Cl− currents in two cell types including HT29-Cl19A colonic epithelial cells. As previously reported, CFTR internalization from the cell surface was strongly inhibited by a cyclic-AMP cocktail. This effect of cyclic-AMP was only partially blunted in the presence of wiskostatin, which raises the possibility that these two factors modulate different steps in CFTR traffic. In kinetic studies wiskostatin appeared to accelerate the initial rate of CFTR endocytosis as well as inhibit its recycling back to the cell surface over longer time periods. Our studies implicate a role for N-WASP-mediated actin polymerization in regulating CFTR surface expression and channel activity. PMID:17084917

  8. The Mitochondrial Complex I Activity Is Reduced in Cells with Impaired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Function

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Angel G.; Clauzure, Mariángeles; Marín, María C.; Taminelli, Guillermo L.; Massip Copiz, María M.; Sánchez, Francisco; Schulman, Gustavo; Teiber, María L.; Santa-Coloma, Tomás A.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a frequent and lethal autosomal recessive disease. It results from different possible mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes the CFTR chloride channel. We have previously studied the differential expression of genes in CF and CF corrected cell lines, and found a reduced expression of MTND4 in CF cells. MTND4 is a mitochondrial gene encoding the MTND4 subunit of the mitochondrial Complex I (mCx-I). Since this subunit is essential for the assembly and activity of mCx-I, we have now studied whether the activity of this complex was also affected in CF cells. By using Blue Native-PAGE, the in-gel activity (IGA) of the mCx-I was found reduced in CFDE and IB3-1 cells (CF cell lines) compared with CFDE/6RepCFTR and S9 cells, respectively (CFDE and IB3-1 cells ectopically expressing wild-type CFTR). Moreover, colon carcinoma T84 and Caco-2 cells, which express wt-CFTR, either treated with CFTR inhibitors (glibenclamide, CFTR(inh)-172 or GlyH101) or transfected with a CFTR-specific shRNAi, showed a significant reduction on the IGA of mCx-I. The reduction of the mCx-I activity caused by CFTR inhibition under physiological or pathological conditions may have a profound impact on mitochondrial functions of CF and non-CF cells. PMID:23185247

  9. CFTR interacts with ZO-1 to regulate tight junction assembly and epithelial differentiation through the ZONAB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Wang, Yan; Da Silva, Nicolas; Kim, Bongki; Diao, Rui Ying; Hill, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-10-15

    Mutations in CFTR lead to dysfunction of tubular organs, which is currently attributed to impairment of its conductive properties. We now show that CFTR regulates tight junction assembly and epithelial cell differentiation through modulation of the ZO-1-ZONAB pathway. CFTR colocalizes with ZO-1 at the tight junctions of trachea and epididymis, and is expressed before ZO-1 in Wolffian ducts. CFTR interacts with ZO-1 through the CTFR PDZ-binding domain. In a three-dimensional (3D) epithelial cell culture model, CFTR regulates tight junction assembly and is required for tubulogenesis. CFTR inhibition or knockdown reduces ZO-1 expression and induces the translocation of the transcription factor ZONAB (also known as YBX3) from tight junctions to the nucleus, followed by upregulation of the transcription of CCND1 and downregulation of ErbB2 transcription. The epididymal tubules of cftr(-/-) and cftr(ΔF508) mice have reduced ZO-1 levels, increased ZONAB nuclear expression, and decreased epithelial cell differentiation, illustrated by the reduced expression of apical AQP9 and V-ATPase. This study provides a new paradigm for the etiology of diseases associated with CFTR mutations, including cystic fibrosis. PMID:25107366

  10. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator with a shortened R domain rescues the intestinal phenotype of CFTR-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Meyerholz, David K; Vermeer, Daniel W; Karp, Philip H; Schneider, Lindsey; Sigmund, Curt D; Welsh, Michael J

    2011-02-15

    Gene transfer could provide a novel therapeutic approach for cystic fibrosis (CF), and adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a promising vector. However, the packaging capacity of AAV limits inclusion of the full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cDNA together with other regulatory and structural elements. To overcome AAV size constraints, we recently developed a shortened CFTR missing the N-terminal portion of the R domain (residues 708-759, CFTRΔR) and found that it retained regulated anion channel activity in vitro. To test the hypothesis that CFTRΔR could correct in vivo defects, we generated CFTR(-/-) mice bearing a transgene with a fatty acid binding protein promoter driving expression of human CFTRΔR in the intestine (CFTR(-/-);TgΔR). We found that intestinal crypts of CFTR(-/-);TgΔR mice expressed CFTRΔR and the intestine appeared histologically similar to that of WT mice. Moreover, like full-length CFTR transgene, the CFTRΔR transgene produced CFTR Cl(-) currents and rescued the CFTR(-/-) intestinal phenotype. These results indicate that the N-terminal part of the CFTR R domain is dispensable for in vivo intestinal physiology. Thus, CFTRΔR may have utility for AAV-mediated gene transfer in CF. PMID:21285372

  11. miR-16 rescues F508del-CFTR function in native cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Bhattacharyya, S; Peters, K W; Glover, M L; Sen, A; Cox, R T; Kundu, S; Caohuy, H; Frizzell, R A; Pollard, H B; Biswas, R

    2015-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is due to mutations in the CFTR gene, which prevents correct folding, trafficking and function of the mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. The dysfunctional effect of CFTR mutations, principally the F508del-CFTR mutant, is further manifested by hypersecretion of the pro-inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 into the airway lumen, which further contributes to morbidity and mortality. We have hypothesized that microRNA (miR)-based therapeutics could rescue the dysfunctional consequences of mutant CFTR. Here we report that a miR-16 mimic can effectively rescue F508del-CFTR protein function in airway cell lines and primary cultures, of differentiated human bronchial epithelia from F508del homozygotes, which express mutant CFTR endogenously. We also identify two other miRs, miR-1 and miR-302a, which are also active. Although miR-16 is expressed at basal comparable levels in CF and control cells, miR-1 and miR-302a are undetectable. When miR mimics are expressed in CF lung or pancreatic cells, the expression of the F508del-CFTR protein is significantly increased. Importantly, miR-16 promotes functional rescue of the cyclic AMP-activated apical F508del-CFTR chloride channel in primary lung epithelial cells from CF patients. We interpret these findings to suggest that these miRs may constitute novel targets for CF therapy. PMID:26133785

  12. 21 CFR 520.763 - Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms. 520.763 Section 520.763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dithiazanine iodide oral dosage forms....

  13. Do Phytotropins Inhibit Auxin Efflux by Impairing Vesicle Traffic?1

    PubMed Central

    Petrášek, Jan; Černá, Adriana; Schwarzerová, Kateřina; Elčkner, Miroslav; Morris, David A.; Zažímalová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Phytotropins such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) strongly inhibit auxin efflux, but the mechanism of this inhibition remains unknown. Auxin efflux is also strongly decreased by the vesicle trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). Using suspension-cultured interphase cells of the BY-2 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright-Yellow 2) cell line, we compared the effects of NPA and BFA on auxin accumulation and on the arrangement of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The inhibition of auxin efflux (stimulation of net accumulation) by both NPA and BFA occurred rapidly with no measurable lag. NPA had no observable effect on the arrangement of microtubules, actin filaments, or ER. Thus, its inhibitory effect on auxin efflux was not mediated by perturbation of the cytoskeletal system and ER. BFA, however, caused substantial alterations to the arrangement of actin filaments and ER, including a characteristic accumulation of actin in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Even at saturating concentrations, NPA inhibited net auxin efflux far more effectively than did BFA. Therefore, a proportion of the NPA-sensitive auxin efflux carriers may be protected from the action of BFA. Maximum inhibition of auxin efflux occurred at concentrations of NPA substantially below those previously reported to be necessary to perturb vesicle trafficking. We found no evidence to support recent suggestions that the action of auxin transport inhibitors is mediated by a general inhibition of vesicle-mediated protein traffic to the plasma membrane. PMID:12529533

  14. Do phytotropins inhibit auxin efflux by impairing vesicle traffic?

    PubMed

    Petrásek, Jan; Cerná, Adriana; Schwarzerová, Katerina; Elckner, Miroslav; Morris, David A; Zazímalová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Phytotropins such as 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) strongly inhibit auxin efflux, but the mechanism of this inhibition remains unknown. Auxin efflux is also strongly decreased by the vesicle trafficking inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA). Using suspension-cultured interphase cells of the BY-2 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright-Yellow 2) cell line, we compared the effects of NPA and BFA on auxin accumulation and on the arrangement of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The inhibition of auxin efflux (stimulation of net accumulation) by both NPA and BFA occurred rapidly with no measurable lag. NPA had no observable effect on the arrangement of microtubules, actin filaments, or ER. Thus, its inhibitory effect on auxin efflux was not mediated by perturbation of the cytoskeletal system and ER. BFA, however, caused substantial alterations to the arrangement of actin filaments and ER, including a characteristic accumulation of actin in the perinuclear cytoplasm. Even at saturating concentrations, NPA inhibited net auxin efflux far more effectively than did BFA. Therefore, a proportion of the NPA-sensitive auxin efflux carriers may be protected from the action of BFA. Maximum inhibition of auxin efflux occurred at concentrations of NPA substantially below those previously reported to be necessary to perturb vesicle trafficking. We found no evidence to support recent suggestions that the action of auxin transport inhibitors is mediated by a general inhibition of vesicle-mediated protein traffic to the plasma membrane. PMID:12529533

  15. Iodide sensing via electrochemical etching of ultrathin gold films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dielacher, Bernd; Tiefenauer, Raphael F.; Junesch, Juliane; Vörös, János

    2015-01-01

    Iodide is an essential element for humans and animals and insufficient intake is still a major problem. Affordable and accurate methods are required to quantify iodide concentrations in biological and environmental fluids. A simple and low cost sensing device is presented which is based on iodide induced electrochemical etching of ultrathin gold films. The sensitivity of resistance measurements to film thickness changes is increased by using films with a thickness smaller than the electron mean free path. The underlying mechanism is demonstrated by simultaneous cyclic voltammetry experiments and resistance change measurements in a buffer solution. Iodide sensing is conducted in buffer solutions as well as in lake water with limits of detection in the range of 1 μM (127 μg L-1) and 2 μM (254 μg L-1), respectively. In addition, nanoholes embedded in the thin films are tested for suitability of optical iodide sensing based on localized surface plasmon resonance.

  16. Influence of phosphorylation by protein kinase A on CFTR at the cell surface and endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Seibert, F S; Chang, X B; Aleksandrov, A A; Clarke, D M; Hanrahan, J W; Riordan, J R

    1999-12-01

    CFTR possesses a large cluster of strict dibasic consensus sites for phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) in the R-domain and an obligatory dependence on phosphorylation is a hallmark of CFTR Cl(-) channel function. Removal of as many as 11 of these sites reduces the conformational change in the R-domain and the degree of channel activation in response to PKA. However, until recently a completely PKA-unresponsive CFTR variant has not been reported, leaving open the possibility that the residual response may be mediated by associating ancillary phosphoproteins. We traced the residual PKA-catalyzed (32)P-labelling of the variant with 11 sites mutagenized (11SA) to distinct CNBr phosphopeptides within the R-domain. Mutagenesis of 4 additional monobasic sites in these segments produced a 15SA variant in which Cl(-) channel response to PKA was abolished. Therefore, it can be concluded that ancillary phosphoproteins do not contribute to CFTR activation by PKA. Notably, however, the 15SA protein did exhibit a low level of constitutive channel activity not dependent on PKA, which might have reflected a down-regulating effect of phosphorylation of one or two of the 15 sites as suggested by others. However, this did not prove to be the case.Since immature CFTR has been claimed to be active in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we also examined whether it can be phosphorylated in cells and what influence if any this might have on its susceptibility to degradation. Teleologically, activation by phosphorylation of CFTR Cl(-) channels in the ER might be undesirable to the cell. Using various phosphorylation site mutants and kinase and phosphatase inhibitors in pulse-chase experiments, we have found that although nascent CFTR can be phosphorylated at the ER, this is without effect on its ability to mature and avoid proteolysis. Furthermore, we found that microsomes from cells expressing CFTR processing mutants such as DeltaF508 do not generate Cl(-) active channels when fused

  17. Preferential Phosphorylation of R-domain Serine 768 Dampens Activation of CFTR Channels by PKA

    PubMed Central

    Csanády, László; Seto-Young, Donna; Chan, Kim W.; Cenciarelli, Cristina; Angel, Benjamin B.; Qin, Jun; McLachlin, Derek T.; Krutchinsky, Andrew N.; Chait, Brian T.; Nairn, Angus C.; Gadsby, David C.

    2005-01-01

    CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator), the protein whose dysfunction causes cystic fibrosis, is a chloride ion channel whose gating is controlled by interactions of MgATP with CFTR's two cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains, but only after several serines in CFTR's regulatory (R) domain have been phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Whereas eight R-domain serines have previously been shown to be phosphorylated in purified CFTR, it is not known how individual phosphoserines regulate channel gating, although two of them, at positions 737 and 768, have been suggested to be inhibitory. Here we show, using mass spectrometric analysis, that Ser 768 is the first site phosphorylated in purified R-domain protein, and that it and five other R-domain sites are already phosphorylated in resting Xenopus oocytes expressing wild-type (WT) human epithelial CFTR. The WT channels have lower activity than S768A channels (with Ser 768 mutated to Ala) in resting oocytes, confirming the inhibitory influence of phosphoserine 768. In excised patches exposed to a range of PKA concentrations, the open probability (Po) of mutant S768A channels exceeded that of WT CFTR channels at all [PKA], and the half-maximally activating [PKA] for WT channels was twice that for S768A channels. As the open burst duration of S768A CFTR channels was almost double that of WT channels, at both low (55 nM) and high (550 nM) [PKA], we conclude that the principal mechanism by which phosphoserine 768 inhibits WT CFTR is by hastening the termination of open channel bursts. The right-shifted Po-[PKA] curve of WT channels might explain their slower activation, compared with S768A channels, at low [PKA]. The finding that phosphorylation kinetics of WT or S768A R-domain peptides were similar provides no support for an alternative explanation, that early phosphorylation of Ser 768 in WT CFTR might also impair subsequent phosphorylation of stimulatory R-domain serines. The

  18. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps in the medicinally relevant microaerobic and anaerobic pathogens and their implications in the effort to combat drug-resistant infections. PMID:27025630

  19. Impact of the F508del mutation on ovine CFTR, a Cl− channel with enhanced conductance and ATP-dependent gating

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zhiwei; Palmai-Pallag, Timea; Khuituan, Pissared; Mutolo, Michael J; Boinot, Clément; Liu, Beihui; Scott-Ward, Toby S; Callebaut, Isabelle; Harris, Ann; Sheppard, David N

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species comparative studies are a powerful approach to understanding the epithelial Cl− channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which is defective in the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Here, we investigate the single-channel behaviour of ovine CFTR and the impact of the most common CF mutation, F508del-CFTR, using excised inside-out membrane patches from transiently transfected CHO cells. Like human CFTR, ovine CFTR formed a weakly inwardly rectifying Cl− channel regulated by PKA-dependent phosphorylation, inhibited by the open-channel blocker glibenclamide. However, for three reasons, ovine CFTR was noticeably more active than human CFTR. First, single-channel conductance was increased. Second, open probability was augmented because the frequency and duration of channel openings were increased. Third, with enhanced affinity and efficacy, ATP more strongly stimulated ovine CFTR channel gating. Consistent with these data, the CFTR modulator phloxine B failed to potentiate ovine CFTR Cl− currents. Similar to its impact on human CFTR, the F508del mutation caused a temperature-sensitive folding defect, which disrupted ovine CFTR protein processing and reduced membrane stability. However, the F508del mutation had reduced impact on ovine CFTR channel gating in contrast to its marked effects on human CFTR. We conclude that ovine CFTR forms a regulated Cl− channel with enhanced conductance and ATP-dependent channel gating. This phylogenetic analysis of CFTR structure and function demonstrates that subtle changes in structure have pronounced effects on channel function and the consequences of the CF mutation F508del. Key points Malfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a gated pathway for chloride movement, causes the common life-shortening genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Towards the development of a sheep model of CF, we have investigated the function of sheep CFTR. We found that

  20. Potentiators of Defective ΔF508-CFTR Gating that Do Not Interfere with Corrector Action.

    PubMed

    Phuan, Puay-Wah; Veit, Guido; Tan, Joseph A; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Lukacs, Gergely L; Verkman, A S

    2015-10-01

    Combination drug therapies under development for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) include a "corrector" to improve its cellular processing and a "potentiator" to improve its chloride channel function. Recently, it was reported that the approved potentiator N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Ivacaftor) reduces ∆F508-CFTR cellular stability and the efficacy of investigational correctors, including 3-(6-[([1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropyl]carbonyl) amino]-3-methyl-2-pyridinyl)-benzoic acid and 1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N-(1-[(2R)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl]-6-fluoro-2-(2-hydroxy-1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl), which might contribute to the modest reported efficacy of combination therapy in clinical trials. Here, we report the identification and characterization of potentiators that do not interfere with ∆F508-CFTR stability or corrector action. High-throughput screening and structure-activity analysis identified several classes of potentiators that do not impair corrector action, including tetrahydrobenzothiophenes, thiooxoaminothiazoles, and pyrazole-pyrrole-isoxazoles. The most potent compounds have an EC(50) for ∆F508-CFTR potentiation down to 18 nM and do not reduce corrector efficacy in heterologous ∆F508-CFTR-expressing cells or primary cultures of ∆F508/∆F508 human bronchial epithelia. The ΔF508-CFTR potentiators also activated wild-type and G551D CFTR, albeit weakly. The efficacy of combination therapy for cystic fibrosis caused by the ∆F508 mutation may be improved by replacement of Ivacaftor with a potentiator that does not interfere with corrector action. PMID:26245207

  1. Inhibition of CFTR channels by a peptide toxin of scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Matthew D; Zhang, Zhi-Ren; Cui, Guiying; Kubanek, Julia; McCarty, Nael A

    2004-11-01

    Peptide toxins have been valuable probes in efforts to identify amino acid residues that line the permeation pathway of cation-selective channels. However, no peptide toxins have been identified that interact with known anion-selective channels such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). CFTR channels are expressed in epithelial cells and are associated with several genetic disorders, including cystic fibrosis and polycystic kidney disease. Several organic inhibitors have been used to investigate the structure of the Cl- permeation pathway in CFTR. However, investigations of the wider cytoplasmic vestibule have been hindered by the lack of a high-affinity blocker that interacts with residues in this area. In this study we show that venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus reversibly inhibits CFTR, in a voltage-independent manner, by decreasing single-channel mean burst duration and open probability only when applied to the cytoplasmic surface of phosphorylated channels. Venom was able to decrease burst duration and open probability even when CFTR channels were locked open by treatment with either vanadate or adenosine 5'-(beta,gamma-imido)triphosphate, and block was strengthened on reduction of extracellular Cl- concentration, suggesting inhibition by a pore-block mechanism. Venom had no effect on ATP-dependent macroscopic opening rate in channels studied by inside-out macropatches. Interestingly, the inhibitory activity was abolished by proteinase treatment. We conclude that a peptide toxin contained in the scorpion venom inhibits CFTR channels by a pore-block mechanism; these experiments provide the first step toward isolation of the active component, which would be highly valuable as a probe for CFTR structure and function. PMID:15240343

  2. Luminal acetylcholine does not affect the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Nikolaus P; Kummer, Wolfgang; Clauss, Wolfgang G; Fronius, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Fluid homeostasis mediated by the airway epithelium is required for proper lung function, and the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) Cl(-) channel is crucial for these processes. Luminal acetylcholine (ACh) acts as an auto-/paracrine mediator to activate Cl(-) channels in airway epithelia and evidence exists showing that nicotinic ACh receptors activate CFTR in murine airway epithelia. The present study investigated whether or not luminal ACh regulates CFTR activity in airway epithelia of pigs, an emerging model for investigations of human airway disease and cystic fibrosis (CF) in particular. Transepithelial ion currents of freshly dissected pig tracheal preparations were measured with Ussing chambers. Application of luminal ACh (100 μM) induced an increase of the short-circuit current (I(SC)). The ACh effect was mimicked by muscarine and pilocarpine (100 μM each) and was sensitive to muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine, 4-DAMP, pirenzepine). No changes of the I(SC) were observed by nicotine (100 μM) and ACh responses were not affected by nicotine or mecamylamine (25 μM). Luminal application of IBMX (I, 100 μM) and forskolin (F, 10 μM), increase the I(SC) and the I/F-induced current were decreased by the CFTR inhibitor GlyH-101 (GlyH, 50 μM) indicating increased CFTR activity by I/F. In contrast, GlyH did not affect the ACh-induced current, indicating that the ACh response does not involve the activation of the CFTR. Results from this study suggest that luminal ACh does not regulate the activity of the CFTR in tracheal epithelia of pigs which opposes observation from studies using mice airway epithelium. PMID:26286842

  3. Lubiprostone Activates CFTR, but not ClC-2, via the Prostaglandin Receptor (EP4)

    PubMed Central

    Norimatsu, Yohei; Moran, Aurelia R.; MacDonald, Kelvin D.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the mechanism of lubiprostone activation of epithelial chloride transport. Lubiprostone is a bicyclic fatty acid approved for the treatment of constipation [1]. There is uncertainty, however, as to how lubiprostone increases epithelial chloride transport. Direct stimulation of ClC-2 and CFTR chloride channels as well as stimulation of these channels via the EP4 receptor has been described [2; 3; 4; 5]. To better define this mechanism, two-electrode voltage clamp was used to assay Xenopus oocytes expressing ClC-2, with or without co-expression of the EP4 receptor or β adrenergic receptor (βAR), for changes in conductance elicited by lubiprostone. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and either βAR or the EP4 receptor were also studied. In oocytes co-expressing ClC-2 and βAR conductance was stimulated by hyperpolarization and acidic pH (pH=6), but there was no response to the β adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. Oocytes expressing ClC-2 only or co-expressing ClC-2 and EP4 did not respond to the presence of 0.1, 1, or 10 µM lubiprostone in the superperfusate. Oocytes co-expressing CFTR and βAR did not respond to hyperpolarization, acidic pH, or 1µM lubiprostone. However, conductance was elevated by isoproterenol and inhibited by CFTRinh172. Co-expression of CFTR and EP4 resulted in lubiprostone-stimulated conductance, which was also sensitive to CFTRinh172. The EC50 for lubiprostone mediated CFTR activation was ~ 10 nM. These results demonstrate no direct action of lubiprostone on either ClC-2 or CFTR channels expressed in oocytes. However, the results confirm that CFTR can be activated by lubiprostone via the EP4 receptor in oocytes. PMID:22960173

  4. THERMAL INSTABILITY OF ΔF508 CFTR CHANNEL FUNCTION: PROTECTION BY SINGLE SUPPRESSOR MUTATIONS AND INHIBITING CHANNEL ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuehong; O’Donnell, Nicolette; Landstrom, Allison; Skach, William R.; Dawson, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of Phe508 from CFTR results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site, suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ΔF508 CFTR was stable at 22°C and increased at 28°C; a temperature permissive for ΔF508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37°C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ΔF508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly towards background, a phenomenon referred to here as “thermal inactivation.” Thermal inactivation of ΔF508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K and R1070W; but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (Po) of ΔF508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase Po of ΔF508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37°C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ΔF508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTRinh-172, were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ΔF508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:22680785

  5. Conformational maturation of CFTR but not its mutant counterpart (delta F508) occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and requires ATP.

    PubMed Central

    Lukacs, G L; Mohamed, A; Kartner, N; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R; Grinstein, S

    1994-01-01

    Metabolic labeling experiments followed by immunoprecipitation were performed to investigate the kinetics, location and inhibitor sensitivity of degradation of both wild-type (wt) and mutant (delta F508) cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR). At the earliest stages of the biosynthetic process, both wt and delta F508 CFTR were found to be susceptible to degradation by endogenous proteases. Virtually all delta F508 CFTR and 45-80% of wt CFTR were rapidly degraded with a similar half-life (t1/2 approximately 0.5 h). The remaining wt CFTR attained a protease-resistant configuration regardless of whether traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi was operational. Metabolic energy is required for the conformational transition, but not to maintain the stability of the protease-resistant wt CFTR. Intracellular degradation of delta F508 CFTR and of incompletely folded wt CFTR occurs in a non-lysosomal, pre-Golgi compartment, as indicated by the sensitivity of proteolysis to different inhibitors and temperature. Accordingly, products of the degradation of delta F508 CFTR could be detected by immunoblotting in isolated ER, but not in the Golgi. Together, these results suggest a dynamic equilibrium between two forms of wt CFTR in the ER: an incompletely folded, protease-sensitive form which is partially converted by an ATP-dependent process to a more mature form that is protease-resistant and capable of leaving the ER. The inability delta F508 CFTR to undergo such a transition renders it susceptible to complete and rapid degradation in a pre-Golgi compartment. Images PMID:7529176

  6. Conformational maturation of CFTR but not its mutant counterpart (delta F508) occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and requires ATP.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, G L; Mohamed, A; Kartner, N; Chang, X B; Riordan, J R; Grinstein, S

    1994-12-15

    Metabolic labeling experiments followed by immunoprecipitation were performed to investigate the kinetics, location and inhibitor sensitivity of degradation of both wild-type (wt) and mutant (delta F508) cystic fibrosis conductance transmembrane regulator (CFTR). At the earliest stages of the biosynthetic process, both wt and delta F508 CFTR were found to be susceptible to degradation by endogenous proteases. Virtually all delta F508 CFTR and 45-80% of wt CFTR were rapidly degraded with a similar half-life (t1/2 approximately 0.5 h). The remaining wt CFTR attained a protease-resistant configuration regardless of whether traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi was operational. Metabolic energy is required for the conformational transition, but not to maintain the stability of the protease-resistant wt CFTR. Intracellular degradation of delta F508 CFTR and of incompletely folded wt CFTR occurs in a non-lysosomal, pre-Golgi compartment, as indicated by the sensitivity of proteolysis to different inhibitors and temperature. Accordingly, products of the degradation of delta F508 CFTR could be detected by immunoblotting in isolated ER, but not in the Golgi. Together, these results suggest a dynamic equilibrium between two forms of wt CFTR in the ER: an incompletely folded, protease-sensitive form which is partially converted by an ATP-dependent process to a more mature form that is protease-resistant and capable of leaving the ER. The inability delta F508 CFTR to undergo such a transition renders it susceptible to complete and rapid degradation in a pre-Golgi compartment. PMID:7529176

  7. The ΔF508 mutation causes CFTR misprocessing and cystic fibrosis-like disease in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Meyerholz, David K; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Karp, Philip H; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Hanfland, Robert A; Reznikov, Leah R; Ludwig, Paula S; Rogan, Mark P; Davis, Greg J; Dohrn, Cassie L; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; Taft, Peter J; Rector, Michael V; Hornick, Emma; Nassar, Boulos S; Samuel, Melissa; Zhang, Yuping; Richter, Sandra S; Uc, Aliye; Shilyansky, Joel; Prather, Randall S; McCray, Paul B; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J; Stoltz, David A

    2011-03-16

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. The most common CF-associated mutation is ΔF508, which deletes a phenylalanine in position 508. In vitro studies indicate that the resultant protein, CFTR-ΔF508, is misprocessed, although the in vivo consequences of this mutation remain uncertain. To better understand the effects of the ΔF508 mutation in vivo, we produced CFTR(ΔF508/ΔF508) pigs. Our biochemical, immunocytochemical, and electrophysiological data on CFTR-ΔF508 in newborn pigs paralleled in vitro predictions. They also indicated that CFTR(ΔF508/ΔF508) airway epithelia retain a small residual CFTR conductance, with maximal stimulation producing ~6% of wild-type function. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) agonists were less potent at stimulating current in CFTR(Δ)(F508/)(Δ)(F508) epithelia, suggesting that quantitative tests of maximal anion current may overestimate transport under physiological conditions. Despite residual CFTR function, four older CFTR(ΔF508/ΔF508) pigs developed lung disease similar to human CF. These results suggest that this limited CFTR activity is insufficient to prevent lung or gastrointestinal disease in CF pigs. These data also suggest that studies of recombinant CFTR-ΔF508 misprocessing predict in vivo behavior, which validates its use in biochemical and drug discovery experiments. These findings help elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of the common CF mutation and will guide strategies for developing new therapeutics. PMID:21411740

  8. CFTR suppresses tumor progression through miR-193b targeting urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, C; Jiang, X H; Zhang, J T; Sun, T T; Dong, J D; Sanders, A J; Diao, R Y; Wang, Y; Fok, K L; Tsang, L L; Yu, M K; Zhang, X H; Chung, Y W; Ye, L; Zhao, M Y; Guo, J H; Xiao, Z J; Lan, H Y; Ng, C F; Lau, K M; Cai, Z M; Jiang, W G; Chan, H C

    2013-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in the epithelial cells of a wide range of organs/tissues from which most cancers are derived. Although accumulating reports have indicated the association of cancer incidence with genetic variations in CFTR gene, the exact role of CFTR in cancer development and the possible underlying mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, we report that CFTR expression is significantly decreased in both prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissue samples. Overexpression of CFTR in prostate cancer cell lines suppresses tumor progression (cell growth, adhesion and migration), whereas knockdown of CFTR leads to enhanced malignancies both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that CFTR knockdown-enhanced cell proliferation, cell invasion and migration are significantly reversed by antibodies against either urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or uPA receptor (uPAR), which are known to be involved in various malignant traits of cancer development. More interestingly, overexpression of CFTR suppresses uPA by upregulating the recently described tumor suppressor microRNA-193b (miR-193b), and overexpression of pre-miR-193b significantly reverses CFTR knockdown-enhanced malignant phenotype and abrogates elevated uPA activity in prostate cancer cell line. Finally, we show that CFTR gene transfer results in significant tumor repression in prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated a previously undefined tumor-suppressing role of CFTR and its involvement in regulation of miR-193b in prostate cancer development. PMID:22797075

  9. Enhanced Efflux Activity Facilitates Drug Tolerance in Dormant Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Yingying; Zhao, Zhilun; Li, Yingxing; Zou, Jin; Ma, Qi; Zhao, Yanna; Ke, Yuehua; Zhu, Yun; Chen, Huiyi; Baker, Matthew A.B.; Ge, Hao; Sun, Yujie; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Bai, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Summary Natural variations in gene expression provide a mechanism for multiple phenotypes to arise in an isogenic bacterial population. In particular, a sub-group termed persisters show high tolerance to antibiotics. Previously, their formation has been attributed to cell dormancy. Here we demonstrate that bacterial persisters, under β-lactam antibiotic treatment, show less cytoplasmic drug accumulation as a result of enhanced efflux activity. Consistently, a number of multi-drug efflux genes, particularly the central component TolC, show higher expression in persisters. Time-lapse imaging and mutagenesis studies further establish a positive correlation between tolC expression and bacterial persistence. The key role of efflux systems, among multiple biological pathways involved in persister formation, indicates that persisters implement a positive defense against antibiotics prior to a passive defense via dormancy. Finally, efflux inhibitors and antibiotics together effectively attenuate persister formation, suggesting a combination strategy to target drug tolerance. PMID:27105118

  10. Carrier traps and transport in mercuric iodide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, T. E.; Bao, X. J.; James, R. B.; Cheng, A. Y.; Ortale, C.; van den Berg, L.

    1992-11-01

    Thermally stimulated current spectroscopy (TSC) was performed on a variety of mercuric iodide samples and detectors to determine the nature and origin of deep traps in this material. It is shown that the trap type and concentration is a function of the metal overlayer employed as a contact material. The energy barrier height as well as the type (electron or hole) of barrier at the metal/semiconductor interface has also been determined by internal photoemission measurements. When polarization effects are not present, as is the case in most Pd contacted samples, the barrier height can be accurately determined by this technique. A value of 1.05 eV was measured for a hole barrier at the Pd/Hgl 2 interface.

  11. Stabilizing rescued surface-localized δf508 CFTR by potentiation of its interaction with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavisha; Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Penmatsa, Himabindu; Ren, Aixia; Sinha, Chandrima; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in CFTR, a plasma-membrane-localized anion channel. The most common mutation in CFTR, deletion of phenylalanine at residue 508 (ΔF508), causes misfolding of CFTR resulting in little or no protein at the plasma membrane. The CFTR corrector VX-809 shows promise for treating CF patients homozygous for ΔF508. Here, we demonstrate the significance of protein-protein interactions in enhancing the stability of the ΔF508 CFTR mutant channel protein at the plasma membrane. We determined that VX-809 prolongs the stability of ΔF508 CFTR at the plasma membrane. Using competition-based assays, we demonstrated that ΔF508 CFTR interacts poorly with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) compared to wild-type CFTR, and VX-809 significantly increased this binding affinity. We conclude that stabilized CFTR-NHERF1 interaction is a determinant of the functional efficiency of rescued ΔF508 CFTR. Our results demonstrate the importance of macromolecular-complex formation in stabilizing rescued mutant CFTR at the plasma membrane and suggest this to be foundational for the development of a new generation of effective CFTR-corrector-based therapeutics. PMID:24945463

  12. Cadmium induced potassium efflux from Scenedesmus quadricauda

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, G.N.; Prasad, M.N.V.

    1992-10-01

    Plants, algae and bacteria respond to heavy metal toxicity by inducing different enzymes, ion influx/efflux for ionic balance and synthesize small peptides such as poly({gamma}-glutamyl cysteinyl) glycines called phytochelatins (PCs) mainly consisting of glutamate, cysteine and glycine. These peptides bind metal ions and reduce toxicity. The uptake of metal ions comprises two phases. The first phase consists of a quick and nonspecific binding of the cations to negatively-charged membrane components located at the cell surface. The second phase consists of energy-dependent intracellular uptake of the metal ions. During uptake of Co{sup 2+} by yeast cells, an electroneutral 2:1 exchange with K{sup +} was found. Cd{sup 2+} uptake by yeast also caused loss of cell K{sup +}, however, there was no electroneutral exchange of K{sup +}. The molar ratio of K{sup +} released and Cd{sup 2+} accumulated by yeast in the initial stage of incubation is 22 and seems to be independent of the Cd concentration. Disruption of the cell membrane of part of the cells, according to an all-or-none process, by Cd{sup 2+} may explain the disproportional loss of cell K{sup +} during Cd{sup 2+} uptake. This paper examines the exchange of K{sup +} with Cd{sup 2+} uptake in Scenedesmus quadricauda, and whether it follows an electroneutral 2:1 exchange or an all-or-none process. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Experimental investigation of charged liquid jet efflux from a capillary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhakin, A. I.; Belov, P. A.; Kuz'ko, A. E.

    2013-03-01

    The shapes and electrical characteristics of charged liquid (water, ethanol, glycerol, castor oil) jets emitted from a metal capillary have been experimentally studied depending on the applied high voltage. A map of efflux regimes in the flow velocity-applied voltage coordinates is constructed for water. The effects of medium viscosity, surface tension, and charge relaxation time on the laws of jet efflux are analyzed.

  14. Clinically Relevant Chromosomally Encoded Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pumps in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Efflux pump genes and proteins are present in both antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Pumps may be specific for one substrate or may transport a range of structurally dissimilar compounds (including antibiotics of multiple classes); such pumps can be associated with multiple drug (antibiotic) resistance (MDR). However, the clinical relevance of efflux-mediated resistance is species, drug, and infection dependent. This review focuses on chromosomally encoded pumps in bacteria that cause infections in humans. Recent structural data provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of drug transport. MDR efflux pumps contribute to antibiotic resistance in bacteria in several ways: (i) inherent resistance to an entire class of agents, (ii) inherent resistance to specific agents, and (iii) resistance conferred by overexpression of an efflux pump. Enhanced efflux can be mediated by mutations in (i) the local repressor gene, (ii) a global regulatory gene, (iii) the promoter region of the transporter gene, or (iv) insertion elements upstream of the transporter gene. Some data suggest that resistance nodulation division systems are important in pathogenicity and/or survival in a particular ecological niche. Inhibitors of various efflux pump systems have been described; typically these are plant alkaloids, but as yet no product has been marketed. PMID:16614254

  15. Cholesterol efflux is LXRα isoform-dependent in human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nuclear receptor liver X receptor (LXR) has two isoforms: LXRα and LXRβ. LXR activation promotes cholesterol efflux in macrophages, but the relative importance of each LXR isoform in mediating cholesterol efflux remains elusive. Methods We evaluated the ability of different doses of LXRs agonist T0901317 to affect cholesterol efflux in human macrophages and its relationship with mRNA and protein levels of several well-characterized proteins involved in cholesterol efflux, including ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, LXRβ and LXRα, using quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, and siRNA techniques. Results Here we show that LXRα rather than LXRβ sustains baseline cholesterol efflux in human blood-derived macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with a non-isoform-specific LXR agonist T0901317 substantially increased HDL- and apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux, which was associated with increased mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, LXRα and LXRβ. The siRNA- mediated silencing of LXRα, but not LXRβ significantly reduced the protein levels of ABCA1,ABCG1, and SR-BI as wellas HDL- and ApoA1-mediated cholesterol in human macrophages. Conclusions These findings imply that LXRα- rather than LXRβ- specific agonists may promote reverse cholesterol transport in humans. PMID:24996838

  16. Current Advances in Developing Inhibitors of Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Hannah Y; Jamshidi, Shirin; Sutton, J Mark; Rahman, Khondaker M

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance represents a significant challenge to future healthcare provision. An acronym ESKAPEE has been derived from the names of the organisms recognised as the major threats although there are a number of other organisms, notably Neisseria gonorrhoeae, that have become equally challenging to treat in the clinic. These pathogens are characterised by the ability to rapidly develop and/or acquire resistance mechanisms in response to exposure to different antimicrobial agents. A key part of the armoury of these pathogens is a series of efflux pumps, which effectively exclude or reduce the intracellular concentration of a large number of antibiotics, making the pathogens significantly more resistant. These efflux pumps are the topic of considerable interest, both from the perspective of basic understanding of efflux pump function, and its role in drug resistance but also as targets for the development of novel adjunct therapies. The necessity to overcome antimicrobial resistance has encouraged investigations into the characterisation of resistance-modifying efflux pump inhibitors to block the mechanisms of drug extrusion, thereby restoring antibacterial susceptibility and returning existing antibiotics into the clinic. A greater understanding of drug recognition and transport by multidrug efflux pumps is needed to develop clinically useful inhibitors, given the breadth of molecules that can be effluxed by these systems. This review discusses different bacterial EPIs originating from both natural source and chemical synthesis and examines the challenges to designing successful EPIs that can be useful against multidrug resistant bacteria. PMID:26947776

  17. Genomic Analysis of ATP Efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Theodore W.; Miller, Aaron W.; Tourette, Cendrine; Agren, Hannah; Hubbard, Alan; Hughes, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) plays an important role as a primary molecule for the transfer of chemical energy to drive biological processes. ATP also functions as an extracellular signaling molecule in a diverse array of eukaryotic taxa in a conserved process known as purinergic signaling. Given the important roles of extracellular ATP in cell signaling, we sought to comprehensively elucidate the pathways and mechanisms governing ATP efflux from eukaryotic cells. Here, we present results of a genomic analysis of ATP efflux from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by measuring extracellular ATP levels in cultures of 4609 deletion mutants. This screen revealed key cellular processes that regulate extracellular ATP levels, including mitochondrial translation and vesicle sorting in the late endosome, indicating that ATP production and transport through vesicles are required for efflux. We also observed evidence for altered ATP efflux in strains deleted for genes involved in amino acid signaling, and mitochondrial retrograde signaling. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the retrograde signaling pathway potentiates amino acid signaling to promote mitochondrial respiration. This study advances our understanding of the mechanism of ATP secretion in eukaryotes and implicates TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and nutrient signaling pathways in the regulation of ATP efflux. These results will facilitate analysis of ATP efflux mechanisms in higher eukaryotes. PMID:26585826

  18. Flavonoid Rutin Increases Thyroid Iodide Uptake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function. PMID:24023911

  19. Voltage-dependent flickery block of an open cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel pore.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Hu, S; Hwang, T C

    2001-04-15

    1. Fast flickery block of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was studied with cell-attached and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from mouse NIH3T3 cells stably expressing a mutant CFTR channel, K1250A-CFTR. This mutant CFTR channel, once open, can stay open for minutes. Within a prolonged opening, the kinetics of fast flickery closures can be readily quantified. 2. Flickering block of K1250A-CFTR channels was voltage dependent since the open probability within an opening burst decreased as the membrane was hyperpolarized. 3. Mean open time (tau(o)) and mean closed time (tau(c)), obtained from single-channel kinetic analysis, were corrected for missed events. Our data show that corrected tau(c) was voltage dependent while corrected tau(o) exhibited little voltage dependence. Results from whole-cell current relaxation upon voltage jump further indicate that tau(c) at a membrane potential of -100 mV was at least 10-fold longer than that at +100 mV. 4. tau(c), but not tau(o), was sensitive to external permeant anions. After complete replacement of external Cl(-) with impermeant anions, tau(c) showed little voltage dependence and approximated a value observed under strong hyperpolarization in the presence of high external permeant anions. These results suggest that the resident time of the blocker is prolonged by conditions (i.e. hyperpolarization or the absence of external permeant anions) that deplete Cl(-) in the CFTR pore. 5. Results from macroscopic current noise analysis of both wild-type CFTR and K1250A-CFTR channels further confirm the voltage dependence and Cl(-) sensitivity of the fast flickery block observed with single-channel analysis. 6. We conclude that the voltage dependence of the flickery block in CFTR is mainly due to the voltage-dependent occupancy of an anion-binding site in the channel pore by trans-anions. The blocker acquires a voltage-dependent off rate through an electrostatic interaction with Cl(-) in the pore

  20. Voltage-dependent flickery block of an open cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel pore

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhen; Hu, Shenghui; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2001-01-01

    Fast flickery block of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was studied with cell-attached and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from mouse NIH3T3 cells stably expressing a mutant CFTR channel, K1250A-CFTR. This mutant CFTR channel, once open, can stay open for minutes. Within a prolonged opening, the kinetics of fast flickery closures can be readily quantified. Flickering block of K1250A-CFTR channels was voltage dependent since the open probability within an opening burst decreased as the membrane was hyperpolarized. Mean open time (τo) and mean closed time (τc), obtained from single-channel kinetic analysis, were corrected for missed events. Our data show that corrected τc was voltage dependent while corrected τo exhibited little voltage dependence. Results from whole-cell current relaxation upon voltage jump further indicate that τc at a membrane potential of -100 mV was at least 10-fold longer than that at +100 mV. τc, but not τo, was sensitive to external permeant anions. After complete replacement of external Cl− with impermeant anions, τc showed little voltage dependence and approximated a value observed under strong hyperpolarization in the presence of high external permeant anions. These results suggest that the resident time of the blocker is prolonged by conditions (i.e. hyperpolarization or the absence of external permeant anions) that deplete Cl− in the CFTR pore. Results from macroscopic current noise analysis of both wild-type CFTR and K1250A-CFTR channels further confirm the voltage dependence and Cl− sensitivity of the fast flickery block observed with single-channel analysis. We conclude that the voltage dependence of the flickery block in CFTR is mainly due to the voltage-dependent occupancy of an anion-binding site in the channel pore by trans-anions. The blocker acquires a voltage-dependent off rate through an electrostatic interaction with Cl− in the pore. PMID:11306662

  1. The MexJK Efflux Pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Requires OprM for Antibiotic Efflux but Not for Efflux of Triclosan

    PubMed Central

    Chuanchuen, Rungtip; Narasaki, Craig T.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2002-01-01

    Using the biocide triclosan as a selective agent, several triclosan-resistant mutants of a susceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain were isolated. Cloning and characterization of a DNA fragment conferring triclosan resistance from one of these mutants revealed a hitherto uncharacterized efflux system of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) family, which was named MexJK and which is encoded by the mexJK operon. Expression of this operon is negatively regulated by the product of mexL, a gene located upstream of and transcribed divergently from mexJK. The triclosan-resistant mutant contained a single nucleotide change in mexL, which caused an amino acid change in the putative helix-turn-helix domain of MexL. The MexL protein belongs to the TetR family of repressor proteins. The MexJK system effluxed tetracycline and erythromycin but only in the presence of the outer membrane protein channel OprM; OprJ and OprN did not function with MexJK. Triclosan efflux required neither of the outer membrane protein channels tested but necessitated the MexJ membrane fusion protein and the MexK inner membrane RND transporter. The results presented in this study suggest that MexJK may function as a two-component RND pump for triclosan efflux but must associate with OprM to form a tripartite antibiotic efflux system. Furthermore, the results confirm that triclosan is an excellent tool for the study of RND multidrug efflux systems and that this popular biocide therefore readily selects mutants which are cross-resistant with antibiotics. PMID:12193619

  2. Myosin Ia is required for CFTR brush border membrane trafficking and ion transport in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kravtsov, Dmitri V; Caputo, Christina; Collaco, Anne; Hoekstra, Nadia; Egan, Marie E; Mooseker, Mark S; Ameen, Nadia A

    2012-08-01

    In enterocytes of the small intestine, endocytic trafficking of CFTR channels from the brush border membrane (BBM) to the subapical endosomes requires the minus-end motor, myosin VI (Myo6). The subapical localization of Myo6 is dependent on myosin Ia (Myo1a) the major plus-end motor associated with the BBM, suggestive of functional synergy between these two motors. In villus enterocytes of the Myo1a KO mouse small intestine, CFTR accumulated in syntaxin-3 positive subapical endosomes, redistributed to the basolateral domain and was absent from the BBM. In colon, where villi are absent and Myo1a expression is low, CFTR exhibited normal localization to the BBM in the Myo1a KO similar to WT. cAMP-stimulated CFTR anion transport in the small intestine was reduced by 58% in the KO, while anion transport in the colon was comparable to WT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the association of CFTR with Myo1a. These data indicate that Myo1a is an important regulator of CFTR traffic and anion transport in the BBM of villus enterocytes and suggest that Myo1a may power apical CFTR movement into the BBM from subapical endosomes. Alternatively, it may anchor CFTR channels in the BBM of villus enterocytes as was proposed for Myo1a's role in BBM localization of sucrase-isomaltase. PMID:22510086

  3. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael J.; Lee, Shernita L.; Marklew, Abigail J.; Gilmore, Rodney C.; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F.; Gray, Michael A.; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR’s function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR’s PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  4. CFTR interacts with ZO-1 to regulate tight junction assembly and epithelial differentiation through the ZONAB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Ye Chun; Wang, Yan; Da Silva, Nicolas; Kim, Bongki; Diao, Rui Ying; Hill, Eric; Brown, Dennis; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in CFTR lead to dysfunction of tubular organs, which is currently attributed to impairment of its conductive properties. We now show that CFTR regulates tight junction assembly and epithelial cell differentiation through modulation of the ZO-1–ZONAB pathway. CFTR colocalizes with ZO-1 at the tight junctions of trachea and epididymis, and is expressed before ZO-1 in Wolffian ducts. CFTR interacts with ZO-1 through the CTFR PDZ-binding domain. In a three-dimensional (3D) epithelial cell culture model, CFTR regulates tight junction assembly and is required for tubulogenesis. CFTR inhibition or knockdown reduces ZO-1 expression and induces the translocation of the transcription factor ZONAB (also known as YBX3) from tight junctions to the nucleus, followed by upregulation of the transcription of CCND1 and downregulation of ErbB2 transcription. The epididymal tubules of cftr−/− and cftrΔF508 mice have reduced ZO-1 levels, increased ZONAB nuclear expression, and decreased epithelial cell differentiation, illustrated by the reduced expression of apical AQP9 and V-ATPase. This study provides a new paradigm for the etiology of diseases associated with CFTR mutations, including cystic fibrosis. PMID:25107366

  5. Transfection of wild-type CFTR into cystic fibrosis lymphocytes restores chloride conductance at G1 of the cell cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, R D; Bubien, J K; Drumm, M L; Zheng, T; Peiper, S C; Collins, F S; Kirk, K L; Frizzell, R A; Rado, T A

    1992-01-01

    We complemented the Cl- conductance defect in cystic fibrosis lymphocytes by transfection with wild-type cDNA for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Stable transfectants were selected and subjected to molecular and functional analyses. We detected expression of endogenous CFTR mRNA in several CF and non-CF lymphoid cell lines by PCR. Expression from cDNA in the transfectants was demonstrated by amplifying vector-specific sequences. Both fluorescence and patch-clamp assays showed that transfectants expressing wild-type CFTR acquired properties previously associated with Cl- conductance (GCl) regulation in non-CF lymphocytes: (i) GCl was elevated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, (ii) cells fixed at G1 increase GCl in response to increased cellular cAMP or Ca2+, (iii) agonist-induced increases in GCl were lost as the cells progressed to the S phase of the cell cycle. The cell cycle and agonist dependent regulation of GCl was not observed in CF lymphocytes transfected with CFTR cDNA containing stop codons in all reading frames at exon 6. Our findings indicate that lymphocytes express functional CFTR since wild-type CFTR corrects the defects in Cl- conductance regulation found in CF lymphocytes. Evaluation of the mechanism of this novel, CFTR-mediated regulation of GCl during cell cycling should provide further insights into the function of CFTR. Images PMID:1372253

  6. Nanomolar CFTR inhibition by pore-occluding divalent polyethylene glycol-malonic acid hydrazides.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, N D; Zhao, Dan; Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V; Verkman, A S

    2008-07-21

    Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel have potential application as antisecretory therapy in cholera. We synthesized mono- and divalent CFTR inhibitors consisting of a malonic acid hydrazide (MalH) coupled via a disulfonic stilbene linker to polyethylene glycols (PEGs; 0.2-100 kDa). IC50 values for CFTR inhibition were 10-15 microM for the monovalent MalH-PEGs, but substantially lower for divalent MalH-PEG-MalH compounds, decreasing from 1.5 to 0.3 microM with increasing PEG size and showing positive cooperativity. Whole-cell patch-clamp showed voltage-dependent CFTR block with inward rectification. Outside-out patch-clamp showed shortened single-channel openings, indicating CFTR pore block from the extracellular side. Luminally added MalH-PEG-MalH blocked by >90% cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in mouse intestinal loops (IC50 approximately 10 pmol/loop), and greatly reduced mortality in a suckling mouse cholera model. These conjugates may provide safe, inexpensive antisecretory therapy. PMID:18635008

  7. Role of Hsc70 binding cycle in CFTR folding and endoplasmic reticulum–associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Yoshihiro; David, Larry L.; Skach, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The Hsp/c70 cytosolic chaperone system facilitates competing pathways of protein folding and degradation. Here we use a reconstituted cell-free system to investigate the mechanism and extent to which Hsc70 contributes to these co- and posttranslational decisions for the membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Hsc70 binding to CFTR was destabilized by the C-terminal domain of Bag-1 (CBag), which stimulates client release by accelerating ADP-ATP exchange. Addition of CBag during CFTR translation slightly increased susceptibility of the newly synthesized protein to degradation, consistent with a profolding function for Hsc70. In contrast, posttranslational destabilization of Hsc70 binding nearly completely blocked CFTR ubiquitination, dislocation from the endoplasmic reticulum, and proteasome-mediated cleavage. This effect required molar excess of CBag relative to Hsc70 and was completely reversed by the CBag-binding subdomain of Hsc70. These results demonstrate that the profolding role of Hsc70 during cotranslational CFTR folding is counterbalanced by a dominant and essential role in posttranslational targeting to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Moreover, the degradative outcome of Hsc70 binding appears highly sensitive to the duration of its binding cycle, which is in turn governed by the integrated expression of regulatory cochaperones. PMID:21697503

  8. The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor regulates human fetal lung development via CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Sarah C.; Wilkinson, William J.; Tseng, Hsiu-Er; Finney, Brenda; Monk, Bethan; Dibble, Holly; Quilliam, Samantha; Warburton, David; Galietta, Luis J.; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Optimal fetal lung growth requires anion-driven fluid secretion into the lumen of the developing organ. The fetus is hypercalcemic compared to the mother and here we show that in the developing human lung this hypercalcaemia acts on the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor, CaSR, to promote fluid-driven lung expansion through activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, CFTR. Several chloride channels including TMEM16, bestrophin, CFTR, CLCN2 and CLCA1, are also expressed in the developing human fetal lung at gestational stages when CaSR expression is maximal. Measurements of Cl−-driven fluid secretion in organ explant cultures show that pharmacological CaSR activation by calcimimetics stimulates lung fluid secretion through CFTR, an effect which in humans, but not mice, was also mimicked by fetal hypercalcemic conditions, demonstrating that the physiological relevance of such a mechanism appears to be species-specific. Calcimimetics promote CFTR opening by activating adenylate cyclase and we show that Ca2+-stimulated type I adenylate cyclase is expressed in the developing human lung. Together, these observations suggest that physiological fetal hypercalcemia, acting on the CaSR, promotes human fetal lung development via cAMP-dependent opening of CFTR. Disturbances in this process would be expected to permanently impact lung structure and might predispose to certain postnatal respiratory diseases. PMID:26911344

  9. Small-Molecule CFTR Inhibitors Slow Cyst Growth in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Baoxue; Sonawane, Nitin D.; Zhao, Dan; Somlo, Stefan; Verkman, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    Cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) involves progressive fluid accumulation, which is believed to require chloride transport by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Herein is reported that small-molecule CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone and glycine hydrazide classes slow cyst expansion in in vitro and in vivo models of PKD. More than 30 CFTR inhibitor analogs were screened in an MDCK cell model, and near-complete suppression of cyst growth was found by tetrazolo-CFTRinh-172, a tetrazolo-derived thiazolidinone, and Ph-GlyH-101, a phenyl-derived glycine hydrazide, without an effect on cell proliferation. These compounds also inhibited cyst number and growth by >80% in an embryonic kidney cyst model involving 4-d organ culture of embryonic day 13.5 mouse kidneys in 8-Br-cAMP–containing medium. Subcutaneous delivery of tetrazolo-CFTRinh-172 and Ph-GlyH-101 to neonatal, kidney-specific PKD1 knockout mice produced stable, therapeutic inhibitor concentrations of >3 μM in urine and kidney tissue. Treatment of mice for up to 7 d remarkably slowed kidney enlargement and cyst expansion and preserved renal function. These results implicate CFTR in renal cyst growth and suggest that CFTR inhibitors may hold therapeutic potential to reduce cyst growth in PKD. PMID:18385427

  10. Cystic fibrosis growth retardation is not correlated with loss of Cftr in the intestinal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Brian R.; Mishra, Kirtishri; Cotton, Calvin U.; Drumm, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    Maldigestion due to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency leads to intestinal malabsorption and consequent malnutrition, a mechanism proposed to cause growth retardation associated with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, although enzyme replacement therapy combined with increased caloric intake improves weight gain, the effect on stature is not significant, suggesting that growth retardation has a more complex etiology. Mouse models of CF support this, since these animals do not experience exocrine pancreatic insufficiency yet are growth impaired. Cftr absence from the intestinal epithelium has been suggested as a primary source of growth retardation in CF mice, a concept we directly tested by generating mouse models with Cftr selectively inactivated or restored in intestinal epithelium. The relationship between growth and functional characteristics of the intestines, including transepithelial electrophysiology, incidence of intestinal obstruction, and histopathology, were assessed. Absence of Cftr exclusively from intestinal epithelium resulted in loss of cAMP-stimulated short-circuit current, goblet cell hyperplasia, and occurrence of intestinal obstructions but only slight and transient impaired growth. In contrast, specifically restoring Cftr to the intestinal epithelium resulted in restoration of ion transport and completely protected against obstruction and histopathological anomalies, but growth was indistinguishable from CF mice. These results indicate that absence of Cftr in the intestinal epithelium is an important contributor to the intestinal obstruction phenotype in CF but does not correlate with the observed growth reduction in CF. PMID:21659619

  11. Self-Reactive CFTR T Cells in Humans: Implications for Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Calcedo, Roberto; Griesenbach, Uta; Dorgan, Daniel J.; Soussi, Samia; Boyd, A. Christopher; Davies, Jane C.; Higgins, Tracy E.; Hyde, Stephen C.; Gill, Deborah R.; Innes, J. Alastair; Porteous, David J.; Alton, Eric W.; Wilson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive lethal disorders affecting white populations of northern European ancestry. To date there is no cure for CF. Life-long treatments for CF are being developed and include gene therapy and the use of small-molecule drugs designed to target specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. Irrespective of the type of molecular therapy for CF, which may include gene replacement, exon skipping, nonsense suppression, or molecular correctors, because all of these modulate gene expression there is an inherent risk of activation of T cells against the wild-type version of CFTR. Here we report the validation of the human interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and its application for the analysis of CFTR-specific T cell responses in patients with CF and in non-CF subjects. We found non-CF subjects with low levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in the United States and several patients with CF with low to high levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in both the United States and the United Kingdom. PMID:23790242

  12. Obligate coupling of CFTR pore opening to tight nucleotide-binding domain dimerization.

    PubMed

    Mihályi, Csaba; Töröcsik, Beáta; Csanády, László

    2016-01-01

    In CFTR, the chloride channel mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, ATP-binding-induced dimerization of two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) opens the pore, and dimer disruption following ATP hydrolysis closes it. Spontaneous openings without ATP are rare in wild-type CFTR, but in certain CF mutants constitute the only gating mechanism, stimulated by ivacaftor, a clinically approved CFTR potentiator. The molecular motions underlying spontaneous gating are unclear. Here we correlate energetic coupling between residues across the dimer interface with spontaneous pore opening/closure in single CFTR channels. We show that spontaneous openings are also strictly coupled to NBD dimerization, which may therefore occur even without ATP. Coordinated NBD/pore movements are therefore intrinsic to CFTR: ATP alters the stability, but not the fundamental structural architecture, of open- and closed-pore conformations. This explains correlated effects of phosphorylation, mutations, and drugs on ATP-driven and spontaneous activity, providing insights for understanding CF mutation and drug mechanisms. PMID:27328319

  13. Self-reactive CFTR T cells in humans: implications for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Calcedo, Roberto; Griesenbach, Uta; Dorgan, Daniel J; Soussi, Samia; Boyd, A Christopher; Davies, Jane C; Higgins, Tracy E; Hyde, Stephen C; Gill, Deborah R; Innes, J Alastair; Porteous, David J; Alton, Eric W; Wilson, James M; Limberis, Maria P

    2013-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive lethal disorders affecting white populations of northern European ancestry. To date there is no cure for CF. Life-long treatments for CF are being developed and include gene therapy and the use of small-molecule drugs designed to target specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. Irrespective of the type of molecular therapy for CF, which may include gene replacement, exon skipping, nonsense suppression, or molecular correctors, because all of these modulate gene expression there is an inherent risk of activation of T cells against the wild-type version of CFTR. Here we report the validation of the human interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay and its application for the analysis of CFTR-specific T cell responses in patients with CF and in non-CF subjects. We found non-CF subjects with low levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in the United States and several patients with CF with low to high levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in both the United States and the United Kingdom. PMID:23790242

  14. Curcumin and genistein: the combined effects on disease-associated CFTR mutants and their clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sohma, Yoshiro; Yu, Ying-Chun; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2013-01-01

    Genistein and curcumin are major components of Asian foods, soybean and curry turmeric respectively. These compounds have been intensively investigated for their chemical and biological features conferring their anti-cancer activity. Genistein and curcumin have also been investigated for their potentiation effects on disease-associated CFTR mutants such as ΔF508 and G551D. Recently, we investigated the combined effect of genistein and curcumin on G551D-CFTR, which exhibits gating defects without abnormalities in protein synthesis or trafficking using the patch-clamp technique. We found that genistein and curcumin showed additive effects on their potentiation of G551D-CFTR in high concentration range and also, more importantly, showed a significant synergistic effect in their minimum concentration ranges. These results are consistent with the idea that multiple mechanisms are involved in the action of these CFTR potentiators. In this review, we revisit the pharmacology of genistein and curcumin on CFTR and also propose new pharmaceutical implications of combined use of these compounds in the development of drugs for CF pharmacotherapy. PMID:23331029

  15. Curcumin and Genistein: the Combined Effects on Disease-associated CFTR Mutants and their Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sohma, Yoshiro; Yu, Ying-Chun; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Genistein and curcumin are major components of Asian foods, soybean and curry turmeric respectively. These compounds have been intensively investigated for their chemical and biological features conferring their anti-cancer activity. Genistein and curcumin have also been investigated for their potentiation effects on disease-associated CFTR mutants such as ΔF508 and G551D. Recently, we investigated the combined effect of genistein and curcumin on G551D-CFTR, which exhibits gating defects without abnormalities in protein synthesis or trafficking using the patch-clamp technique. We found that genistein and curcumin showed additive effects on their potentiation of G551D-CFTR in high concentration range and also, more importantly, showed a significant synergistic effect in their minimum concentration ranges. These results are consistent with the idea that multiple mechanisms are involved in the action of these CFTR potentiators. In this review, we revisit the pharmacology of genistein and curcumin on CFTR and also propose new pharmaceutical implications of combined use of these compounds in the development of drugs for CF pharmacotherapy. PMID:23331029

  16. Misassembled mutant DeltaF508 CFTR in the distal secretory pathway alters cellular lipid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gentzsch, Martina; Choudhury, Amit; Chang, Xiu-bao; Pagano, Richard E; Riordan, John R

    2007-02-01

    Most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have a single codon deletion (DeltaF508) in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) that impairs assembly of the multidomain glycoprotein. The mutant protein escapes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control at low temperature, but is rapidly cleared from the distal secretory pathway and degraded in lysosomes. CF cells accumulate free cholesterol similar to Niemann-Pick disease type C cells. We show that this lipid alteration is caused by the presence of misassembled mutant CFTR proteins, including DeltaF508, in the distal secretory pathway rather than the absence of functional CFTR. By contrast, cholesterol distribution is not changed by either D572N CFTR, which does not mature even at low temperature, or G551D, which is processed normally but is inactive. On expression of the DeltaF508 mutant, cholesterol and glycosphingolipids accumulate in punctate endosomal structures and cholesterol esters are reduced, indicating a block in the translocation of cholesterol to the ER for esterification. This is overcome by Rab9 overexpression, resulting in clearance of accumulating intracellular cholesterol. Similar but less pronounced alterations in intracellular cholesterol distribution are observed on expression of a temperature-rescued mutant variant of the related ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). Thus, on escape from ER quality control, misassembled mutants of CFTR and MRP1 impair lipid homeostasis in endocytic compartments. PMID:17213331

  17. Obligate coupling of CFTR pore opening to tight nucleotide-binding domain dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Mihályi, Csaba; Töröcsik, Beáta; Csanády, László

    2016-01-01

    In CFTR, the chloride channel mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, ATP-binding-induced dimerization of two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) opens the pore, and dimer disruption following ATP hydrolysis closes it. Spontaneous openings without ATP are rare in wild-type CFTR, but in certain CF mutants constitute the only gating mechanism, stimulated by ivacaftor, a clinically approved CFTR potentiator. The molecular motions underlying spontaneous gating are unclear. Here we correlate energetic coupling between residues across the dimer interface with spontaneous pore opening/closure in single CFTR channels. We show that spontaneous openings are also strictly coupled to NBD dimerization, which may therefore occur even without ATP. Coordinated NBD/pore movements are therefore intrinsic to CFTR: ATP alters the stability, but not the fundamental structural architecture, of open- and closed-pore conformations. This explains correlated effects of phosphorylation, mutations, and drugs on ATP-driven and spontaneous activity, providing insights for understanding CF mutation and drug mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18164.001 PMID:27328319

  18. In vivo phosphorylation of CFTR promotes formation of a nucleotide-binding domain heterodimer

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Martin; Vergani, Paola; White, Dennis M; Altberg, Gal; Nairn, Angus C; Gadsby, David C

    2006-01-01

    The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a chloride channel, whose dysfunction causes cystic fibrosis. To gain structural insight into the dynamic interaction between CFTR's nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) proposed to underlie channel gating, we introduced target cysteines into the NBDs, expressed the channels in Xenopus oocytes, and used in vivo sulfhydryl-specific crosslinking to directly examine the cysteines' proximity. We tested five cysteine pairs, each comprising one introduced cysteine in the NH2-terminal NBD1 and another in the COOH-terminal NBD2. Identification of crosslinked product was facilitated by co-expression of NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal CFTR half channels each containing one NBD. The COOH-terminal half channel lacked all native cysteines. None of CFTR's 18 native cysteines was found essential for wild type-like, phosphorylation- and ATP-dependent, channel gating. The observed crosslinks demonstrate that NBD1 and NBD2 interact in a head-to-tail configuration analogous to that in homodimeric crystal structures of nucleotide-bound prokaryotic NBDs. CFTR phosphorylation by PKA strongly promoted both crosslinking and opening of the split channels, firmly linking head-to-tail NBD1–NBD2 association to channel opening. PMID:17036051

  19. Mechanosensitivity of wild-type and G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) controls regulatory volume decrease in simple epithelia.

    PubMed

    Xie, Changyan; Cao, Xu; Chen, Xibing; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Wei Kevin; Sun, Ying; Hu, Wenbao; Zhou, Zijing; Wang, Yan; Huang, Pingbo

    2016-04-01

    Mutations of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an epithelial ligand-gated anion channel, are associated with the lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. The CFTR G551D mutation impairs ATP hydrolysis and thereby makes CFTR refractory to cAMP stimulation. Both wild-type (WT) and G551D CFTR have been implicated in regulatory volume decrease (RVD), but the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that the channel activity of both WT and G551D CFTR is directly stimulated by mechanical perturbation induced by cell swelling at the single-channel, cellular, and tissue levels. Hypotonicity activated CFTR single channels in cell-attached membrane patches and WT-CFTR-mediated short-circuit current (Isc) in Calu-3 cells, and this was independent of Ca(2+)and cAMP/PKA signaling. Genetic suppression and ablation but not G551D mutation of CFTR suppressed the hypotonicity- and stretch-inducedIscin Calu-3 cells and mouse duodena. Moreover, ablation but not G551D mutation of the CFTR gene inhibited the RVD of crypts isolated from mouse intestine; more importantly, CFTR-specific blockers markedly suppressed RVD in both WT- and G551D CFTR mice, demonstrating for the first time that the channel activity of both WT and G551D CFTR is required for epithelial RVD. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying CFTR involvement in epithelial RVD and suggest that the mechanosensitivity of G551D CFTR might underlie the mild phenotypes resulting from this mutation.-Xie, C., Cao, X., Chen, X, Wang, D., Zhang, W. K., Sun, Y., Hu, W., Zhou, Z., Wang, Y., Huang, P. Mechanosensitivity of wild-type and G551D cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) controls regulatory volume decrease in simple epithelia. PMID:26683699

  20. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    SciTech Connect

    Taulan, M. Lopez, E.; Guittard, C.; Rene, C.; Baux, D.; Altieri, J.P.; DesGeorges, M.; Claustres, M.; Romey, M.C.

    2007-09-28

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USF nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter.

  1. The Effect on Sodium/Iodide Symporter and Pendrin in Thyroid Colloid Retention Developed by Excess Iodide Intake.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Yi; Lin, Chu-Hui; Yang, Li-Hua; Li, Wang-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Zheng, Wen-Wei; Wang, Xiang; Qian, Jiang; Huang, Jia-Luan; Lei, Yi-Xiong

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that excess iodide can lead to thyroid colloid retention, a classic characteristic of iodide-induced goiter. However, the mechanism has not been fully unrevealed. Iodide plays an important role in thyroid function at multiple steps of thyroid colloid synthesis and transport among which sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and pendrin are essential. In our study, we fed female BALB/c mice with different concentrations of high-iodine water including group A (control group, 0 μg/L), group B (1500 μg/L), group C (3000 μg/L), group D (6000 μg/L), and group E (12,000 μg/L). After 7 months of feeding, we found that excess iodide could lead to different degrees of thyroid colloid retention. Besides, NIS and pendrin expression were downregulated in the highest dose group. The thyroid iodide intake function detected by urine iodine assay and thyroidal (125)I experiments showed that the urine level of iodine increased, while the iodine intake rate decreased when the concentration of iodide used in feeding water increased (all p < 0.05 vs. control group). In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated a reduction in the number of intracellular mitochondria of thyroid cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that the occurrence of thyroid colloid retention exacerbated by excess iodide was associated with the suppression of NIS and pendrin expression, providing an additional insight of the potential mechanism of action of excess iodide on thyroid gland. PMID:26660892

  2. Screening of the CFTR gene in Indian patients

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Rani R.; Ashavaid, Tester F.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) has been observed to be far more common in India, than was previously thought. Variability in CF clinical symptoms among individuals, results in diagnostic errors. Also, CF diagnostic facilities are not available at all diagnostic centers across India. Sweat test (gold standard for CF diagnosis) has some limitations. Mutation analysis, therefore, would be useful in detecting the mutant CF alleles in Indian patients. This study, aimed at identifying common CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutations, to develop a molecular diagnostic test in Indian patients, and establish genotype-phenotype correlation. Mutation identification was performed by single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) screening, followed by DNA sequencing of regions with an abnormal SSCP pattern. ∆F508 accounts for about 53% of CF alleles. A substantial proportion of these patients have rare and/or novel mutations. Eight novel and 12 known polymorphisms were also identified. Considering the high percentage of rare/novel mutations, along with ethnic history of Indian population, we can speculate that the remaining uncharacterized mutations might also not be prevalent mutations. The total number of CF disease-causing mutations in Indian patients is very large. Thus, DNA-based population screening will be complicated, and an indirect genetic diagnosis (screening entire gene) would be necessary to characterize all mutations.

  3. ΔF508 CFTR processing correction and activity in polarized airway and non-airway cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, SM; Pyle, LC; Jurkevante, A; Varga, K; Collawn, J; Sloane, PA; Woodworth, B; Mazur, M; Fulton, J; Fan, L; Li, Y; Fortenberry, J; Sorscher, EJ; Clancy, JP

    2010-01-01

    We examined the activity of ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) stably expressed in polarized cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE41o−) human airway cells and Fisher Rat Thyroid (FRT) cells following treatment with low temperature and a panel of small molecule correctors of ΔF508 CFTR misprocessing. Corr-4a increased ΔF508 CFTR-dependent Cl− conductance in both cell types, whereas treatment with VRT-325 or VRT-640 increased activity only in FRT cells. Total currents stimulated by forskolin and genistein demonstrated similar dose/response effects to Corr-4a treatment in each cell type. When examining the relative contribution of forskolin and genistein to total stimulated current, CFBE41o− cells had smaller forskolin-stimulated Isc following either low temperature or corr-4a treatment (10–30% of the total Isc produced by the combination of both CFTR agonists). In contrast, forskolin consistently contributed greater than 40% of total Isc in ΔF508 CFTR expressing FRT cells corrected with low temperature, and corr-4a treatment preferentially enhanced forskolin dependent currents only in FRT cells (60% of total Isc). ΔF508 CFTR cDNA transcript levels, ΔF508 CFTR C band levels, or cAMP signaling did not account for the reduced forskolin response in CFBE41o− cells. Treatment with non-specific inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (papaverine) or phosphatases (endothall) did not restore ΔF508 CFTR activation by forskolin in CFBE41o− cells, indicating that the Cl− transport defect in airway cells is distal to cAMP or its metabolism. The results identify important differences in ΔF508 CFTR activation in polarizing epithelial models of CF, and have important implications regarding detection of rescued of ΔF508 CFTR in vivo. PMID:20226262

  4. CFTR gene variant for patients with congenital absence of vas deferens

    SciTech Connect

    Zielenski, J.; Markiewicz, D.; Corey, M.

    1995-10-01

    Obstructive azoospermia due to congenital absence of vas deferens is a prominent clinical feature among male patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A similar autosomal recessive condition with no other CF manifestations is classified as congenital bilateral absence of vas deferens (CBAVD). Since 50%-64% of CBAVD patients have been found to be positive for at least one known CFTR mutation, it is believed that at least part of the CBAVD population represents an atypical form of CF affecting only the male reproductive system. This explanation is not completely satisfactory, however, because only {approximately}10% of CBAVD patients are found to carry known CF mutations on both chromosomes, even after exhaustive screening of the entire CFTR coding region. Here we present data to show that a previously known sequence variant in intron 8 of the CFTR gene is a specific and frequent mutation associated with CBAVD. 20 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Cross-linking of F508-CFTR promotes its trafficking to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    CFTR is a cAMP-activated chloride channel responsible for agonist stimulated chloride and fluid transport across epithelial surfaces.1 Mutations in the CFTR gene lead to cystic fibrosis (CF) which affects the function of secretory organs like the intestine, the pancreas, the airways and the sweat glands. Most of the morbidity and mortality in CF has been linked to a decrease in airway function.2 The ΔF508 mutation is the most common CF-related mutation in the Caucasian population and represents 90% of CF alleles. Homozygote carriers of this mutation present with a severe CF phenotype.3 The ΔF508 mutation causes misfolding of the nascent CFTR polypeptide, which leads to inefficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and rapid degradation by the proteasome.4 PMID:20581470

  6. Lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination for cystic fibrosis patients homozygous for Phe508del-CFTR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y H; Strokes, D C; Naren, A P

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening inherited disease caused by the loss or dysfunction of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity resulting from mutations in the CFTR gene. Phe508del is the most prevalent mutation, with approximately 90% of all CF patients carrying it on at least one allele. Over the past two or three decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of CF, and in the development of effective CF therapies. The approval of Orkambi® (lumacaftor/ivacaftor) marks another milestone in CF therapeutics development, which, with the advent of personalized medicine, could potentially revolutionize CF care and management. This article reviews the rationale, progress and future direction in the development of lumacaftor/ivacaftor combination to treat CF patients homozygous for the Phe508del-CFTR mutation. PMID:27252987

  7. Novel pore-lining residues in CFTR that govern permeation and open-channel block.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S; Davidson, N; Lester, H A; McCarty, N A

    1994-09-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is both a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and a Cl(-)-selective ion channel. We investigated the permeation pathway of human CFTR with measurements on conduction and open-channel blockade by diphenylamine-2-carboxylic acid (DPC). We used site-directed mutagenesis and oocyte expression to locate residues in transmembrane domain (TM) 6 and TM 12 that contact DPC and control rectification and single-channel conductances. Thus, TM 12 and the previously investigated TM 6 line the CFTR pore. In each TM, residues in contact with DPC are separated by two turns of an alpha helix. The contributions of TM 6 and TM 12 to DPC block and Cl- permeation, however, are not equivalent. The resulting structural model for the conduction pathway may guide future studies of permeation in other Cl- channels and ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:7522483

  8. Hsp90 cochaperone Aha1 downregulation rescues misfolding of CFTR in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Venable, John; LaPointe, Paul; Hutt, Darren M; Koulov, Atanas V; Coppinger, Judith; Gurkan, Cemal; Kellner, Wendy; Matteson, Jeanne; Plutner, Helen; Riordan, John R; Kelly, Jeffery W; Yates, John R; Balch, William E

    2006-11-17

    The pathways that distinguish transport of folded and misfolded cargo through the exocytic (secretory) pathway of eukaryotic cells remain unknown. Using proteomics to assess global cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein interactions (the CFTR interactome), we show that Hsp90 cochaperones modulate Hsp90-dependent stability of CFTR protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Cell-surface rescue of the most common disease variant that is restricted to the ER, DeltaF508, can be initiated by partial siRNA silencing of the Hsp90 cochaperone ATPase regulator Aha1. We propose that failure of DeltaF508 to achieve an energetically favorable fold in response to the steady-state dynamics of the chaperone folding environment (the "chaperome") is responsible for the pathophysiology of CF. The activity of cargo-associated chaperome components may be a common mechanism regulating folding for ER exit, providing a general framework for correction of misfolding disease. PMID:17110338

  9. Disruption of the CFTR Gene Produces a Model of Cystic Fibrosis in Newborn Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Christopher S.; Stoltz, David A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Taft, Peter J.; Rogan, Mark P.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Karp, Philip H.; Itani, Omar A.; Kabel, Amanda C.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Davis, Greg J.; Smith, Tony L.; Samuel, Melissa; Wax, David; Murphy, Clifton N.; Rieke, August; Whitworth, Kristin; Uc, Aliye; Starner, Timothy D.; Brogden, Kim A.; Shilyansky, Joel; McCray, Paul B.; Zabner, Joseph; Prather, Randall S.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Almost two decades after identification of the CFTR gene, we lack answers to many questions about the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis (CF), and it remains a lethal disease. Mice with a disrupted CFTR gene have greatly facilitated CF studies, but they fail to develop the characteristic pancreatic, lung, intestinal, liver, and other CF manifestations. Therefore, we produced pigs with a targeted disruption of both CFTR alleles. These animals exhibited defective chloride transport. They also developed meconium ileus, exocrine pancreatic destruction, and focal biliary cirrhosis, replicating abnormalities seen in newborn patients with CF. This swine model may provide opportunities to address persistent questions about CF pathogenesis and accelerate discovery of treatments and preventions. PMID:18818360

  10. Preparation and evaluation of mercuric iodide for crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, N. L.; Ortale, C.; Schieber, M. M.; Vandenberg, L.

    Large quantities, on the order of several hundred, of consistent, high quality mercuric iodide for crystal growth have not been commercially available. The hydrocarbon, anion, and cation impurity levels varied considerably, occasionally preventing crystal growth. This occurred even though the starting materials was from the same vendor and was subjected to the same purification treatment. This paper will describe an aqueous precipitation process of mercuric iodide preparation in batches of 3 kg using Hg(NO sub 3) sub 2, or HgCl and KI. Since these salts are produced in much larger quantities than mercuric iodide, more consistent quality is available. The impurity content of these batched and single crystals are compared. Some of the single crystals grown using the in-house prepared mercuric iodide have yielded a large number of spectroscopy grade nuclear radiation detectors. The influence of the major impurities are discussed.

  11. Cesium iodide crystals fused to vacuum tube faceplates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, H. G.

    1964-01-01

    A cesium iodide crystal is fused to the lithium fluoride faceplate of a photon scintillator image tube. The conventional silver chloride solder is then used to attach the faceplate to the metal support.

  12. Laboratory measurements of parameters affecting wet deposition of methyl iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Maeck, W.J.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.; Voilleque, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    The transfer of gaseous methyl iodide (CH/sub 3/I) to raindrops and the initial retention by vegetation of CH/sub 3/I in raindrops have been studied in a laboratory experimental program. The measured air-to-drop transfer parameters and initial retention factors both affect the wet deposition of methyl iodide onto vegetation. No large effects on the air-to-drop transfer due to methyl iodide concentration, temperature, acidity, or rain type were observed. Differences between laboratory measurements and theoretical values of the mass transfer coefficient were found. Pasture grass, lettuce, and alfalfa were used to study the initial retention of methyl iodide by vegetation. Only a small fraction of the incident CH/sub 3/I in raindrops was held by any of the three vegetation types.

  13. Low-conductance chloride channels in IEC-6 and CF nasal cells expressing CFTR.

    PubMed

    Bijman, J; Dalemans, W; Kansen, M; Keulemans, J; Verbeek, E; Hoogeveen, A; De Jonge, H; Wilke, M; Dreyer, D; Lecocq, J P

    1993-03-01

    The properties of the cystic fibrosis gene product (CFTR) were studied by expression of cloned cDNA in different cell systems. Infection of both simian fibroblast (Vero) cells and immortalized CF nasal polyp cells (NCF3A) with a vaccinia virus encoding CFTR induced forskolin-induced Cl- permeability and low-conductance (8 pS) Cl- channels. By stable transfection of the rat intestinal crypt-derived cell line IEC-6 we have isolated a clone, IEC-CF7, which expresses CFTR mRNA and antigen. IEC-CF7 cells, but not IEC-6, display forskolin-induced Cl- permeability and multiple linear low-conductance (+/- 8 pS) Cl- channels in cell-attached membrane patches. In excised patches of IEC-CF7 cells, low-conductance Cl- channels could be activated by addition of the catalytic subunit of the adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) plus ATP. During bath fluid replacement studies, the activated low-conductance channel remained active in the absence of ATP at room temperature and showed saturation kinetics. Rectifying (32 pS) Cl- channels were not observed in either IEC-6 cells or IEC-CF7 cells, indicating that there is no relation between CFTR expression and the incidence of this channel. Our data strongly support the conclusion that CFTR can act as a low-conductance Cl- channel, gated by PKA. The IEC-6-derived cell line IEC-CF7 may prove to be a useful model in the study of CFTR function because of the absence of 32-pS Cl- channel activity and its potential for differentiation. PMID:7681632

  14. CFTR POLYMORPHISMS OF HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS IN TWO CHINESE CITIES—CHANGCHUN AND NANJING

    PubMed Central

    JIN, CHUN XIANG; FUJIKI, KOTOYO; SONG, YING; PING, ZHANG; NAKAKUKI, MIYUKI; XIN WEI, MU; ZHANG, SU MIN; ISHIGURO, HIROSHI; NARUSE, SATORU

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background and Aim Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, which encodes a chloride channel, cause cystic fibrosis. In order to investigate the polymorphic backgrounds of CFTR genes of healthy populations in different Chinese cities (Changchun and Nanjing), we analyzed 119 blood samples (Changchun 64, Nanjing 55) of randomly selected healthy individuals for poly T, TG-repeats and M470V polymorphisms. We analyzed the differences of CFTR polymorphic distributions between the two Chinese cities from the south and the north. Methods Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood. DNA fragments of CFTR gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Poly-T and TG repeats were directly sequenced by auto sequencer (ABI 310). M470V was detected by a HphI restriction enzyme. Results The T7 allele was the most common haplotype in Changchun (0.938) and Nanjing (0.927) populations. The T5 allele was present in only 7 Changchun and 3 Nanjing subjects. The TG11 and TG12 alleles were dominant haplotypes in Changchun (TG11 0.500, TG12 0.453) and Nanjing (TG11 0.345, TG12 0.609). The frequency of the V470 allele was 0.633 in Changchun, which was higher than that in Nanjing (0.500) (p<0.05). There were three major haplotypes: T7-TG11-V470, T7-TG12-M470 and T7-TG12-V470. The T7-TG11-V470 was the most common haplotype in Changchun (0.514), while T7-TG12-M470 was the most common haplotype in Nanjing (0.500). Conclusion Though Changchun and Nanjing are in the same country, their polymorphic backgrounds of CFTR gene are very different. Most of the two populations have genotypes that cause lower CFTR function. PMID:23092102

  15. Resveratrol increases F508del-CFTR dependent salivary secretion in cystic fibrosis mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhooghe, Barbara; Bouckaert, Charlotte; Capron, Arnaud; Wallemacq, Pierre; Leal, Teresinha; Noel, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal genetic disease associated with widespread exocrine gland dysfunction. Studies have suggested activating effects of resveratrol, a naturally-occurring polyphenol compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein function. We assayed, in F508del-CFTR homozygous (CF) and in wild-type mice, the effect of resveratrol on salivary secretion in basal conditions, in response to inhibition by atropine (basal β-adrenergic-dependent component) and to stimulation by isoprenaline (CFTR-dependent component). Both components of the salivary secretion were smaller in CF mice than in controls. Two hours after intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (50 mg/kg) dissolved in DMSO, the compound was detected in salivary glands. As in both CF and in wild-type mice, DMSO alone increased the response to isoprenaline in males but not in females, the effect of resveratrol was only measured in females. In wild-type mice, isoprenaline increased secretion by more than half. In CF mice, resveratrol rescued the response to isoprenaline, eliciting a 2.5-fold increase of β-adrenergic-stimulated secretion. We conclude that the salivary secretion assay is suitable to test DMSO-soluble CFTR modulators in female mice. We show that resveratrol applied in vivo to mice reaches salivary glands and increases β-adrenergic secretion. Immunolabelling of CFTR in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that the effect is associated with increased CFTR protein expression. Our data support the view that resveratrol is beneficial for treating CF. The salivary secretion assay has a potential application to test efficacy of novel CF therapies. PMID:26092868

  16. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Avramescu, Radu G; Perdomo, Doranda; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Bagdany, Miklos; Apaja, Pirjo M; Borot, Florence; Szollosi, Daniel; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Finkbeiner, Walter E; Hegedus, Tamas; Verkman, Alan S; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2014-07-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that result in reduced anion conductance at the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D gating mutation with the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) largely restores channel activity and has shown substantial clinical benefit. However, most CF patients carry the ΔF508 mutation, which impairs CFTR folding, processing, function, and stability. Studies in homozygous ΔF508 CF patients indicated little clinical benefit of monotherapy with the investigational corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) or VX-770, whereas combination clinical trials show limited but significant improvements in lung function. We show that VX-770, as well as most other potentiators, reduces the correction efficacy of VX-809 and another investigational corrector, VX-661. To mimic the administration of VX-770 alone or in combination with VX-809, we examined its long-term effect in immortalized and primary human respiratory epithelia. VX-770 diminished the folding efficiency and the metabolic stability of ΔF508-CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and post-ER compartments, respectively, causing reduced cell surface ΔF508-CFTR density and function. VX-770-induced destabilization of ΔF508-CFTR was influenced by second-site suppressor mutations of the folding defect and was prevented by stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1)-NBD2 interface. The reduced correction efficiency of ΔF508-CFTR, as well as of two other processing mutations in the presence of VX-770, suggests the need for further optimization of potentiators to maximize the clinical benefit of corrector-potentiator combination therapy in CF. PMID:25101887

  17. Some gating potentiators, including VX-770, diminish ΔF508-CFTR functional expression

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Avramescu, Radu G.; Perdomo, Doranda; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Bagdany, Miklos; Apaja, Pirjo M.; Borot, Florence; Szollosi, Daniel; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Hegedus, Tamas; Verkman, Alan S.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) that result in reduced anion conductance at the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Treatment of CF patients carrying the G551D gating mutation with the potentiator VX-770 (ivacaftor) largely restores channel activity and has shown substantial clinical benefit. However, most CF patients carry the ΔF508 mutation, which impairs CFTR folding, processing, function, and stability. Studies in homozygous ΔF508 CF patients indicated little clinical benefit of monotherapy with the investigational corrector VX-809 (lumacaftor) or VX-770, whereas combination clinical trials show limited but significant improvements in lung function. We show that VX-770, as well as most other potentiators, reduces the correction efficacy of VX-809 and another investigational corrector, VX-661. To mimic the administration of VX-770 alone or in combination with VX-809, we examined its long-term effect in immortalized and primary human respiratory epithelia. VX-770 diminished the folding efficiency and the metabolic stability of ΔF508-CFTR at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and post-ER compartments, respectively, causing reduced cell surface ΔF508-CFTR density and function. VX-770–induced destabilization of ΔF508-CFTR was influenced by second-site suppressor mutations of the folding defect and was prevented by stabilization of the nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1)–NBD2 interface. The reduced correction efficiency of ΔF508-CFTR, as well as of two other processing mutations in the presence of VX-770, suggests the need for further optimization of potentiators to maximize the clinical benefit of corrector-potentiator combination therapy in CF. PMID:25101887

  18. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect.

    PubMed

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Lin, Sheng-Ting; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J; Hartman Iv, John L; Lukacs, Gergely L

    2016-05-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect. PMID:27168400

  19. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

    PubMed

    Flores, Alyssa M; Casey, Scott D; Felix, Christian M; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, A S; Levin, Marc H

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome, constitute a common problem in the aging population, with limited effective therapeutic options available. The cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a major prosecretory channel at the ocular surface. We investigated whether compounds that target CFTR can correct the abnormal tear film in dry eye. Small-molecule activators of human wild-type CFTR identified by high-throughput screening were evaluated in cell culture and in vivo assays, to select compounds that stimulate Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion across the ocular surface in mice. An aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine, CFTRact-K089, fully activated CFTR in cell cultures with EC50 ∼250 nM and produced an ∼8.5 mV hyperpolarization in ocular surface potential difference. When delivered topically, CFTRact-K089 doubled basal tear volume for 4 h and had no effect in CF mice. CFTRact-K089 showed sustained tear film bioavailability without detectable systemic absorption. In a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye produced by lacrimal ablation, topical administration of 0.1 nmol CFTRact-K089 3 times daily restored tear volume to basal levels, preventing corneal epithelial disruption when initiated at the time of surgery and reversing it when started after development of dry eye. Our results support the potential utility of CFTR-targeted activators as a novel prosecretory treatment for dry eye.-Flores, A. M., Casey, S. D., Felix, C. M., Phuan, P. W., Verkman, A. S., Levin, M. H. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease. PMID:26842854

  20. In vivo analysis of DNase I hypersensitive sites in the human CFTR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Moulin, D. S.; Manson, A. L.; Nuthall, H. N.; Smith, D. J.; Huxley, C.; Harris, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) shows a complex pattern of expression. The regulatory elements conferring tissue-specific and temporal regulation are thought to lie mainly outside the promoter region. Previously, we identified DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) that may contain regulatory elements associated with the CFTR gene at -79.5 and at -20.5 kb with respect to the ATG and at 10 kb into the first intron. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to evaluate these regulatory elements in vivo we examined these DHS in a human CFTR gene that was introduced on a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) into transgenic mice. The 310 kb human CFTR YAC was shown to restore the pheno-type of CF-null mice and so is likely to contain most of the regulatory elements required for tissue-specific expression of CFTR. RESULTS: We found that the YAC does not include the -79.5 kb region. The DHS at -20.5 kb is present in the chromatin of most tissues of the transgenic mice, supporting its non-tissue-specific nature. The DHS in the first intron is present in a more restricted set of tissues in the mice, although its presence does not show complete concordance with CFTR expression. The intron I DHS may be important for the higher levels of expression found in human pancreatic ducts and in lung submucosal glands. CONCLUSION: These data support the in vivo importance of these regulatory elements. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:10448643

  1. Ribosomal Stalk Protein Silencing Partially Corrects the ΔF508-CFTR Functional Expression Defect

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Oliver, Kathryn; Apaja, Pirjo M.; Perdomo, Doranda; Bidaud-Meynard, Aurélien; Guo, Jingyu; Icyuz, Mert; Sorscher, Eric J.; Hartman IV, John L.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis (CF) causing mutation, deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508 or Phe508del), results in functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) at the apical plasma membrane (PM) of secretory epithelia, which is attributed to the degradation of the misfolded channel at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of phenylalanine 670 (ΔF670) in the yeast oligomycin resistance 1 gene (YOR1, an ABC transporter) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenocopies the ΔF508-CFTR folding and trafficking defects. Genome-wide phenotypic (phenomic) analysis of the Yor1-ΔF670 biogenesis identified several modifier genes of mRNA processing and translation, which conferred oligomycin resistance to yeast. Silencing of orthologues of these candidate genes enhanced the ΔF508-CFTR functional expression at the apical PM in human CF bronchial epithelia. Although knockdown of RPL12, a component of the ribosomal stalk, attenuated the translational elongation rate, it increased the folding efficiency as well as the conformational stability of the ΔF508-CFTR, manifesting in 3-fold augmented PM density and function of the mutant. Combination of RPL12 knockdown with the corrector drug, VX-809 (lumacaftor) restored the mutant function to ~50% of the wild-type channel in primary CFTRΔF508/ΔF508 human bronchial epithelia. These results and the observation that silencing of other ribosomal stalk proteins partially rescue the loss-of-function phenotype of ΔF508-CFTR suggest that the ribosomal stalk modulates the folding efficiency of the mutant and is a potential therapeutic target for correction of the ΔF508-CFTR folding defect. PMID:27168400

  2. Stabilizing Rescued Surface-Localized ΔF508 CFTR by Potentiation of Its Interaction with Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease caused by mutations in CFTR, a plasma-membrane-localized anion channel. The most common mutation in CFTR, deletion of phenylalanine at residue 508 (ΔF508), causes misfolding of CFTR resulting in little or no protein at the plasma membrane. The CFTR corrector VX-809 shows promise for treating CF patients homozygous for ΔF508. Here, we demonstrate the significance of protein–protein interactions in enhancing the stability of the ΔF508 CFTR mutant channel protein at the plasma membrane. We determined that VX-809 prolongs the stability of ΔF508 CFTR at the plasma membrane. Using competition-based assays, we demonstrated that ΔF508 CFTR interacts poorly with Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF1) compared to wild-type CFTR, and VX-809 significantly increased this binding affinity. We conclude that stabilized CFTR–NHERF1 interaction is a determinant of the functional efficiency of rescued ΔF508 CFTR. Our results demonstrate the importance of macromolecular-complex formation in stabilizing rescued mutant CFTR at the plasma membrane and suggest this to be foundational for the development of a new generation of effective CFTR-corrector-based therapeutics. PMID:24945463

  3. First evidence for the presence of efflux pump in the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Hackenberger, Branimir K; Velki, Mirna; Stepić, Sandra; Hackenberger, Davorka K

    2012-01-01

    Efflux pumps are transport proteins involved in the extrusion of toxic substrates from cells to the external environment. Activities of efflux pumps have been found in many organisms, however such activity has not been evidenced in earthworms. Adult Eisenia andrei earthworms were exposed to efflux modulators - verapamil (a known inhibitor of efflux pump protein) and dexamethasone (a known inducer of efflux activity) - and the amount of absorbed fluorescent dye rhodamine B was measured. The results showed that verapamil inhibited efflux activity and decreased removal of rhodamine B, whereas dexamethasone induced efflux activity and increased removal of rhodamine B. This is the first evidence of the presence of efflux pump in earthworm Eisenia andrei. Since earthworms are often used as test organisms due to their sensitive reactions towards environmental influences, the discovery of efflux pump activity can contribute to the better understanding of toxicity of certain pollutants. PMID:22033226

  4. Structural diversity in hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide materials.

    PubMed

    Weber, Oliver J; Marshall, Kayleigh L; Dyson, Lewis M; Weller, Mark T

    2015-12-01

    The structural chemistry of hybrid organic-inorganic lead iodide materials has become of increasing significance for energy applications since the discovery and development of perovskite solar cells based on methylammonium lead iodide. Seven new hybrid lead iodide compounds have been synthesized and structurally characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The lead iodide units in materials templated with bipyridyl, 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane, 1,2-di(4-pyridyl)ethylene and imidazole adopt one-dimensional chain structures, while crystallization from solutions containing piperazinium cations generates a salt containing isolated [PbI6](4-) octahedral anions. Templating with 4-chlorobenzylammonium lead iodide adopts the well known two-dimensional layered perovskite structure with vertex shared sheets of composition [PbI4](2-) separated by double layers of organic cations. The relationships between the various structures determined, their compositions, stability and hydrogen bonding between the protonated amine and the iodide ions of the PbI6 octahedra are described. PMID:26634723

  5. Rare CFTR mutation 1525-1G>A in a Pakistani patient.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Abdul; Al Thani, G; Dawod, S T; Kambouris, M; Al Hamed, M

    2004-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is rare in non-Caucasian populations, and in such populations little is known about the spectrum of mutations and polymorphisms in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance (CFTR) gene. We report the detection of a very rare CFTR mutation 1525-1G>A in intron 9 in a 5-year-old Pakistani child with typical clinical features of CF. It remains to be seen whether mutation 1525-1G>A is characteristic of Pakistani ethnicity with CF or associated with severe phenotypic features. PMID:15088804

  6. Abnormal spatial diffusion of Ca2+ in F508del-CFTR airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Antigny, Fabrice; Norez, Caroline; Cantereau, Anne; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2008-01-01

    Background In airway epithelial cells, calcium mobilization can be elicited by selective autocrine and/or paracrine activation of apical or basolateral membrane heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors linked to phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation, which generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) and induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores. Methods In the present study, we monitored the cytosolic Ca2+ transients using the UV light photolysis technique to uncage caged Ca2+ or caged IP3 into the cytosol of loaded airway epithelial cells of cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF origin. We compared in these cells the types of Ca2+ receptors present in the ER, and measured their Ca2+ dependent activity before and after correction of F508del-CFTR abnormal trafficking either by low temperature or by the pharmacological corrector miglustat (N-butyldeoxynojirimycin). Results We showed reduction of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R) dependent-Ca2+ response following both correcting treatments compared to uncorrected cells in such a way that Ca2+ responses (CF+treatment vs wild-type cells) were normalized. This normalization of the Ca2+ rate does not affect the activity of Ca2+-dependent chloride channel in miglustat-treated CF cells. Using two inhibitors of IP3R1, we observed a decrease of the implication of IP3R1 in the Ca2+ response in CF corrected cells. We observed a similar Ca2+ mobilization between CF-KM4 cells and CFTR-cDNA transfected CF cells (CF-KM4-reverted). When we restored the F508del-CFTR trafficking in CFTR-reverted cells, the specific IP3R activity was also reduced to a similar level as in non CF cells. At the structural level, the ER morphology of CF cells was highly condensed around the nucleus while in non CF cells or corrected CF cells the ER was extended at the totality of cell. Conclusion These results suggest reversal of the IP3R dysfunction in F508del-CFTR epithelial cells by correction of

  7. Role of Mutant CFTR in Hypersusceptibility of Cystic Fibrosis Patients to Lung Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pier, Gerald B.; Grout, Martha; Zaidi, Tanweer S.; Olsen, John C.; Johnson, Larry G.; Yankaskas, James R.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    1996-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are hypersusceptible to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections. Cultured human airway epithelial cells expressing the ΔF508 allele of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were defective in uptake of P. aeruginosa compared with cells expressing the wild-type allele. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-core oligosaccharide was identified as the bacterial ligand for epithelial cell ingestion; exogenous oligosaccharide inhibited bacterial ingestion in a neonatal mouse model, resulting in increased amounts of bacteria in the lungs. CFTR may contribute to a host-defense mechanism that is important for clearance of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract.

  8. Junctional abnormalities in human airway epithelial cells expressing F508del CFTR.

    PubMed

    Molina, Samuel A; Stauffer, Brandon; Moriarty, Hannah K; Kim, Agnes H; McCarty, Nael A; Koval, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) has a profound impact on airway physiology. Accumulating evidence suggests that intercellular junctions are impaired in CF. We examined changes to CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function, tight junctions, and gap junctions in NuLi-1 (CFTR(wt/wt)) and CuFi-5 (CFTR(ΔF508/ΔF508)) cells. Cells were studied at air-liquid interface (ALI) and compared with primary human bronchial epithelial cells. On the basis of fluorescent lectin binding, the phenotype of the NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells at week 8 resembled that of serous, glycoprotein-rich airway cells. After week 7, CuFi-5 cells possessed 130% of the epithelial Na(+) channel activity and 17% of the CFTR activity of NuLi-1 cells. In both cell types, expression levels of CFTR were comparable to those in primary airway epithelia. Transepithelial resistance of NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells stabilized during maturation in ALI culture, with significantly lower transepithelial resistance for CuFi-5 than NuLi-1 cells. We also found that F508del CFTR negatively affects gap junction function in the airway. NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells express the connexins Cx43 and Cx26. While both connexins were properly trafficked by NuLi-1 cells, Cx43 was mistrafficked by CuFi-5 cells. Cx43 trafficking was rescued in CuFi-5 cells treated with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), as assessed by intracellular dye transfer. 4-PBA-treated CuFi-5 cells also exhibited an increase in forskolin-induced CFTR-mediated currents. The Cx43 trafficking defect was confirmed using IB3-1 cells and found to be corrected by 4-PBA treatment. These data support the use of NuLi-1 and CuFi-5 cells to examine the effects of F508del CFTR expression on tight junction and gap junction function in the context of serous human airway cells. PMID:26115671

  9. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  10. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M. Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  11. Brain Efflux Index To Investigate the Influence of Active Efflux on Brain Distribution of Pemetrexed and Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Agarwal, Sagar

    2013-01-01

    Antifolates, in particular methotrexate (MTX), have been widely used in the treatment of primary and secondary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Pemetrexed (PMX) is a novel antifolate that also exhibits potent antitumor activity against CNS malignancies. Studies have shown that brain distribution of both antifolates is significantly restricted, possible due to active efflux transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study characterizes the brain-to-blood transport of PMX and MTX and examines the role of several efflux transporters in brain distribution of the antifolates by use of the intracerebral microinjection technique (brain efflux index). The results from this study show that both PMX and MTX undergo saturable efflux transport across the BBB, with elimination half-lives of approximately 39 minutes and 29 minutes, respectively. Of the various efflux transporters this study investigated, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) does not play an important role in the brain distribution of the two antifolate drugs. Interestingly, breast-cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) makes a significant contribution to the brain elimination of MTX but not PMX. In addition, the brain-to-blood transport of both antifolates was inhibited by probenecid and benzylpenicillin, suggesting the involvement of organic anion transporters in the efflux of these compounds from the brain, with organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) being a possibility. Our results suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms behind the limited brain distribution of PMX and MTX is active efflux transport processes at the BBB, including a benzylpenicillin-sensitive transport system and/or the active transporter Bcrp. PMID:23297298

  12. Effects of neurotransmitters on calcium efflux from cultured glioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lazarewicz, J.W.; Kanje, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of various neurotransmitters and cyclic nucleotides on 45Ca2+ efflux in cultured human glioma cells were investigated. Glutamate and glycine, but not GABA, stimulated 45Ca2+ release from the cells. Stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors but not alpha-adrenergic receptors also increased 45Ca2+ efflux. Cholinergic receptor stimulation by carbachol had the same effect. The stimulatory effect of carbachol was abolished in the presence of either atropine or hexamethonium. C-AMP and c-GMP increased the 45Ca2+ efflux, suggesting that these agents are involved in the transmitter-stimulated release of 45Ca2+ from the cell. Kinetic analysis of the efflux revealed four calcium compartments. The carbachol-stimulated efflux represented a net release of calcium and could be ascribed to the slowest compartment. The physiological role of the transmitter-stimulated calcium release is discussed in terms of calcium-regulated stimulus-response coupling in glial-neural interaction during excitation.

  13. Multidrug Efflux Pumps in Staphylococcus aureus: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sofia Santos; Viveiros, Miguel; Amaral, Leonard; Couto, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of infections caused by multi- or pan-resistant bacteria in the hospital or in the community settings is an increasing health concern. Albeit there is no single resistance mechanism behind multiresistance, multidrug efflux pumps, proteins that cells use to detoxify from noxious compounds, seem to play a key role in the emergence of these multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. During the last decades, experimental data has established their contribution to low level resistance to antimicrobials in bacteria and their potential role in the appearance of MDR phenotypes, by the extrusion of multiple, unrelated compounds. Recent studies suggest that efflux pumps may be used by the cell as a first-line defense mechanism, avoiding the drug to reach lethal concentrations, until a stable, more efficient alteration occurs, that allows survival in the presence of that agent. In this paper we review the current knowledge on MDR efflux pumps and their intricate regulatory network in Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen, responsible from mild to life-threatening infections. Particular emphasis will be given to the potential role that S. aureus MDR efflux pumps, either chromosomal or plasmid-encoded, have on resistance towards different antimicrobial agents and on the selection of drug - resistant strains. We will also discuss the many questions that still remain on the role of each specific efflux pump and the need to establish appropriate methodological approaches to address all these questions. PMID:23569469

  14. Arsenic Efflux from Microcystis aeruginosa under Different Phosphate Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Changzhou; Wang, Zhenhong; Luo, Zhuanxi

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton plays an important role in arsenic speciation, distribution, and cycling in freshwater environments. Little information, however, is available on arsenic efflux from the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa under different phosphate regimes. This study investigated M. aeruginosa arsenic efflux and speciation by pre-exposing it to 10 µM arsenate or arsenite for 24 h during limited (12 h) and extended (13 d) depuration periods under phosphate enriched (+P) and phosphate depleted (−P) treatments. Arsenate was the predominant species detected in algal cells throughout the depuration period while arsenite only accounted for no greater than 45% of intracellular arsenic. During the limited depuration period, arsenic efflux occurred rapidly and only arsenate was detected in solutions. During the extended depuration period, however, arsenate and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were found to be the two predominant arsenic species detected in solutions under −P treatments, but arsenate was the only species detected under +P treatments. Experimental results also suggest that phosphorus has a significant effect in accelerating arsenic efflux and promoting arsenite bio-oxidation in M. aeruginosa. Furthermore, phosphorus depletion can reduce arsenic efflux from algal cells as well as accelerate arsenic reduction and methylation. These findings can contribute to our understanding of arsenic biogeochemistry in aquatic environments and its potential environmental risks under different phosphorus levels. PMID:25549253

  15. Efflux Pump Control Alters Synthetic Gene Circuit Function.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junchen; Charlebois, Daniel A; Nevozhay, Dmitry; Bódi, Zoltán; Pál, Csaba; Balázsi, Gábor

    2016-07-15

    Synthetic biology aims to design new biological systems for predefined purposes, such as the controlled secretion of biofuels, pharmaceuticals, or other chemicals. Synthetic gene circuits regulating an efflux pump from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family could achieve this. However, ABC efflux pumps can also drive out intracellular inducer molecules that control the gene circuits. This will introduce an implicit feedback that could alter gene circuit function in ways that are poorly understood. Here, we used two synthetic gene circuits inducible by tetracycline family molecules to regulate the expression of a yeast ABC pump (Pdr5p) that pumps out the inducer. Pdr5p altered the dose-responses of the original gene circuits substantially in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. While one aspect of the change could be attributed to the efflux pumping function of Pdr5p, another aspect remained unexplained. Quantitative modeling indicated that reduced regulator gene expression in addition to efflux pump function could fully explain the altered dose-responses. These predictions were validated experimentally. Overall, we highlight how efflux pumps can alter gene circuit dynamics and demonstrate the utility of mathematical modeling in understanding synthetic gene circuit function in new circumstances. PMID:27111147

  16. Posttranscriptional regulation of sodium-iodide symporter mRNA expression in the rat thyroid gland by acute iodide administration.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Nascimento, Caroline; Calil-Silveira