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Sample records for chaga mushroom inonotus

  1. Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

    2014-06-01

    Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms. PMID:23149251

  2. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

  3. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

  4. Mushrooms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Mushrooms KidsHealth > Teens > Drugs & Alcohol > Drugs > Mushrooms Print A ... Can Someone Quit? Avoiding Mushrooms What Are Hallucinogenic Mushrooms? We think of mushrooms as a food. But ...

  5. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  6. Chagas disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is an illness spread by insects. It is common in South and Central America. ... Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is spread by the bite of reduviid bugs ...

  7. Furlough Mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine. Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (...

  8. Mushroom Poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU ... can't tell for sure if a mushroom is poisonous by looking at it, unless you are an expert at identifying mushrooms. There are no tests to help you tell a poisonous mushroom from a nonpoisonous mushroom. Does it help to see how the wild ...

  9. Chagas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

  10. Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7?mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32??g/mL and 2??g/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

  11. Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema; Goyal, Arun

    2012-03-01

    From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The last decade has witnessed the overwhelming interest of western research fraternity in pharmaceutical potential of mushrooms. The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. The mushrooms credited with success against cancer belong to the genus Phellinus, Pleurotus, Agaricus, Ganoderma, Clitocybe, Antrodia, Trametes, Cordyceps, Xerocomus, Calvatia, Schizophyllum, Flammulina, Suillus, Inonotus, Inocybe, Funlia, Lactarius, Albatrellus, Russula, and Fomes. The anti-cancer compounds play crucial role as reactive oxygen species inducer, mitotic kinase inhibitor, anti-mitotic, angiogenesis inhibitor, topoisomerase inhibitor, leading to apoptosis, and eventually checking cancer proliferation. The present review updates the recent findings on the pharmacologically active compounds, their anti-tumor potential, and underlying mechanism of biological action in order to raise awareness for further investigations to develop cancer therapeutics from mushrooms. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention. PMID:22582152

  12. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

    1992-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

  13. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

  14. [Mushroom poisoning].

    PubMed

    Trueb, L; Carron, P-N; Saviuc, P

    2013-08-14

    Mushroom poisoning is a regular complaint for consultation in emergency facilities. These situations are usually benign and symptomatic treatment is sufficient. However, severe damage can occur, potentially life-threatening. We review the various syndromes associated with the toxins involved, their management and the major signs that are suggestive of serious injury and requiring hospitalization. PMID:24024391

  15. Treatment of Chagas Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Botoni, Fernando A.; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Marinho, Carolina Coimbra; Lima, Marcia Maria Oliveira; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Rocha, Manoel Otávio C.

    2013-01-01

    Chagas' disease (ChD), caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), was discovered and described by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas in 1909. After a century of original description, trypanosomiasis still brings much misery to humanity and is classified as a neglected tropical disease prevalent in underdeveloped countries, particularly in South America. It is an increasing worldwide problem due to the number of cases in endemic areas and the migration of infected subjects to more developed regions, mainly North America and Europe. Despite its importance, chronic chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) pathophysiology is yet poorly understood, and independently of its social, clinical, and epidemiological importance, the therapeutic approach of CCC is still transposed from the knowledge acquired from other cardiomyopathies. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy with emphasis on its peculiarities. PMID:24350293

  16. Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vector is a triatomine bug that carries the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi which causes the disease. Chagas disease ... potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) . It is found mainly ...

  17. Carlos Chagas: biographical sketch.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Carlos Chagas was born on 9 July 1878 in the farm "Bon Retiro" located close to the City of Oliveira in the interior of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. He started his medical studies in 1897 at the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. In the late XIX century, the works by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch induced a change in the medical paradigm with emphasis in experimental demonstrations of the causal link between microbes and disease. During the same years in Germany appeared the pathological concept of disease, linking organic lesions with symptoms. All these innovations were adopted by the reforms of the medical schools in Brazil and influenced the scientific formation of Chagas. Chagas completed his medical studies between 1897 and 1903 and his examinations during these years were always ranked with high grades. Oswaldo Cruz accepted Chagas as a doctoral candidate and directed his thesis on "Hematological studies of Malaria" which was received with honors by the examiners. In 1903 the director appointed Chagas as research assistant at the Institute. In those years, the Institute of Manguinhos, under the direction of Oswaldo Cruz, initiated a process of institutional growth and gathered a distinguished group of Brazilian and foreign scientists. In 1907, he was requested to investigate and control a malaria outbreak in Lassance, Minas Gerais. In this moment Chagas could not have imagined that this field research was the beginning of one of the most notable medical discoveries. Chagas was, at the age of 28, a Research Assistant at the Institute of Manguinhos and was studying a new flagellate parasite isolated from triatomine insects captured in the State of Minas Gerais. Chagas made his discoveries in this order: first the causal agent, then the vector and finally the human cases. These notable discoveries were carried out by Chagas in twenty months. At the age of 33 Chagas had completed his discoveries and published the scientific articles that gave him world recognition and a deserved high place in medical history. After the publication of his classic article the world paid homage to Chagas who was elected member of the National Academy of Medicine of Brazil on 26 October 1910, and at the age of 31, of other National Academies of the continent. The Committee of Hygiene of the Society of Nations, precursor of the World Health Organization, was created in 1929. Chagas was elected member of this Committee from its inception until 1933. The example of Chagas' life can be summarized in his interest that medical research should be translated into concrete benefits for human beings because he was convinced that disease had not only biological but social determinants as well. Carlos Chagas was a laboratory researcher, a clinician and a health administrator. For all these accomplishments he deserves our respect and admiration. PMID:19895782

  18. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].

    PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

  19. Mushroom Book List Mushroom distributions are local; therefore, mushroom books from areas near

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Mushroom Book List Mushroom distributions are local; therefore, mushroom books from areas near more species here than are covered in any of these books. Regional: Barron, G. L., Mushrooms of Northeast North America, 1999, Lone Pine Publ. Co., Renton, WA. Huffman, D.M. et al., Mushrooms and Other

  20. Mushroom Use by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

  1. Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

    2014-06-01

    The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. PMID:24980757

  2. Nutrient compositions of culinary-medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.

    PubMed

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2011-01-01

    Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Sparassis, Termitomyces, Tremella, and Tricholoma. Based on the proximate composition, most fruiting bodies and mycelia are low in fat and rich in protein and dietary fiber (DF); however, some are rich in soluble polysaccharides and others are rich in crude fiber. Due to the high amount of DF present, the energy provided by 100 g of dry fruiting bodies and mycelia is 46.96-292.37 kcal and 195.84-373.22 kcal, respectively. The energy (100 g) is classified into four levels: first level of >300 kcal, second level of 200-300 kcal, third level of 100-200 kcal, and fourth level of <100 kcal. Most fruiting bodies are listed in the third level; nine mycelia are listed in the first level and ten in the second level. Overall, the information about the proximate composition and energy are of great interest for fruiting bodies and mycelia to be used as foods or food-flavoring materials or in the formulation of health foods. PMID:22164764

  3. About Imperfect Mushroom Billiards

    E-print Network

    W. P. Karel Zapfe; Francois Leyvraz; Thomas H. Seligman

    2008-05-23

    Imperfections of Bunimovich mushroom Billiards are analyzed. Any experiment will be affected by such imperfections, and it will be necessary to estimate their influence. In particular some of the corners will be rounded and small deviations of the angle of the underside of the mushroom head will be considered. The analysis displayed some unexpected non-generic features. The latter leads to a transition from a perfect mushroom behavior to either an ordinary KAM scenario or an abrupt transition to complete chaos, depending on the sign of the perturbation. The former produces a fractal area of islands and chaos, in fact a KAM scenario, not associated to the large island of stability of the mushroom billiard.

  4. The history of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region. PMID:25011546

  5. Antioxidants of Edible Mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Kozarski, Maja; Klaus, Anita; Jakovljevic, Dragica; Todorovic, Nina; Vunduk, Jovana; Petrovi?, Predrag; Niksic, Miomir; Vrvic, Miroslav M; van Griensven, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by an imbalanced metabolism and an excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS) lead to a range of health disorders in humans. Our endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms and our dietary intake of antioxidants potentially regulate our oxidative homeostasis. Numerous synthetic antioxidants can effectively improve defense mechanisms, but because of their adverse toxic effects under certain conditions, preference is given to natural compounds. Consequently, the requirements for natural, alternative sources of antioxidant foods identified in edible mushrooms, as well as the mechanistic action involved in their antioxidant properties, have increased rapidly. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms have been intensively studied. Edible mushrooms might be used directly in enhancement of antioxidant defenses through dietary supplementation to reduce the level of oxidative stress. Wild or cultivated, they have been related to significant antioxidant properties due to their bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins, carotenoids and minerals. Antioxidant and health benefits, observed in edible mushrooms, seem an additional reason for their traditional use as a popular delicacy food. This review discusses the consumption of edible mushrooms as a powerful instrument in maintaining health, longevity and life quality. PMID:26516828

  6. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

  7. Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible for Parasitology Inc. Keywords: Myocarditis; Chagas heart disease Myosin; Autoimmunity 1. Introduction After

  8. Mushroom Poisoning in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lough, John; Kinnear, D. G.

    1970-01-01

    At least 150 cases of mushroom poisoning occur in Canada each year, 75% in the Province of Ontario. Eighty per cent of the total are in children under the age of 9, and most do not require hospitalization. Amanita virosa poisoning is a potentially fatal medical emergency which presents as an acute gastroenteritis, progressing to hepatorenal failure. Treatment consists of elimination of undigested mushrooms, rapid rehydration, management of acute liver and renal failure, and prevention of infection during the recovery phase. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5445050

  9. Cap mushroom poisonings.

    PubMed

    Gromysz-Ka?kowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa; Wójcik, Kazimiera

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents species of fungi of high toxicity. Their consumption might have serious consequences for health and in many cases it might lead to death. Toxic compounds present in fungi have also been characterised, mechanisms of their toxic activity have been presented and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have also been mentioned as they have recently become a serious problem: many people use them to intoxicate themselves. There are also species of mushrooms that can be consumed under certain conditions since they can occasionally trigger off serious disturbances for the functioning of organisms. PMID:16145968

  10. Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited

    E-print Network

    Carl P. Dettmann; Orestis Georgiou

    2010-11-12

    We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system $\\rho$, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control parameter values $\\rho\\in(0,1)$ for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function $P(t)$ are calculated for mushrooms with triangular and rectangular stems.

  11. Chagas Heart Disease: An Update.

    PubMed

    Malik, Lindsey H; Singh, Gagan D; Amsterdam, Ezra A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, results from infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and is a major cause of cardiac disease worldwide. Until recently, Chagas disease was confined to those areas of South and Central America where Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic. With the migration of infected individuals, however, the disease has spread, and it is estimated that 6-7 million people worldwide are infected. In the US alone, more than 7 million people from Trypanosoma cruzi-endemic countries became legal US residents by the turn of the century, resulting in a surge of Chagas disease in this country. According to preliminary estimates, the US now ranks seventh in the Western Hemisphere in number of individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, and the disease has become a major public health concern due to limited awareness in the medical community. PMID:26052027

  12. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident. PMID:24890137

  13. Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

    2013-04-01

    White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

  14. Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

    2014-07-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  15. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Detailed FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have Chagas disease. In what parts of the world is Chagas disease found? People who have Chagas disease can be found anywhere in the world. However, vectorborne transmission is confined to the Americas, ...

  16. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. PMID:25417842

  17. THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION July 2, 2015 Agaricus abruptibulbus/11/87 #12;The Pennsylvania State University Mushroom Culture Collection -- Page 2 Agaricus subfloccosus 781

  18. Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited

    E-print Network

    Dettmann, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system $\\rho$, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control parameter values $\\rho\\in(0,1)$ for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function $P(t)$ are ca...

  19. Stickiness in mushroom billiards

    E-print Network

    Eduardo G. Altmann; Adilson E. Motter; Holger Kantz

    2005-06-03

    We investigate dynamical properties of chaotic trajectories in mushroom billiards. These billiards present a well-defined simple border between a single regular region and a single chaotic component. We find that the stickiness of chaotic trajectories near the border of the regular region occurs through an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits. These orbits have zero measure, thus not affecting the ergodicity of the chaotic region. Notwithstanding, they govern the main dynamical properties of the system. In particular, we show that the marginally unstable periodic orbits explain the periodicity and the power-law behavior with exponent $\\gamma=2$ observed in the distribution of recurrence times.

  20. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  1. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  2. Unearthing the Secret Lives of Aiaska's Mushrooms

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Lee

    Feature Unearthing the Secret Lives of Aiaska's Mushrooms SONYA SENKOWSKY here is a reason people refer to "hunting" mushrooms instead of "picking" them. Mushrooms may not move fast to the hunt: They're collecting mushrooms and other fungi they can't see. Using the same techniques

  3. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  4. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  5. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  6. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  7. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  8. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  9. MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    #12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE 3.0 MUSHROOM PRODUCTION 2 3.1 STATE OF INDUSTRY IN B.C. 2 3.2 MUSHROOM PRODUCTION PROCESS 12 #12;iii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Mushroom Farm Locations (Lower Fraser Valley) 10 Figure 2

  10. 7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1437.307 Section 1437.307 Agriculture... Coverage Using Value § 1437.307 Mushrooms. (a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as...

  11. 21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food and... mushrooms. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from the caps and stems of succulent mushrooms conforming to the characteristics of the species Agaricus...

  12. Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Troncon, L.E.; Rezende Filho, J.; Iazigi, N.

    1988-10-01

    Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after (99mTc)HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux.

  13. Heterologous Infection During Chagas' Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Cossi Isasi, S.

    2007-05-01

    Human populations are often infected with more than one parasite strain. This is frequently the case with ChagasŠ disease, which is endemic to large regions of Latin America. In the present work we study the dynamics of the heterologous infection for this disease, using a model for the interaction between the trypanosoma cruzi parasite and the immune system. We find the dependence of the nature of the post-acute stage on the parameters characterizing the inoculated infectious strains.

  14. Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Troncon, L E; Rezende Filho, J; Iazigi, N

    1988-10-01

    Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after [99mTc]HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux. PMID:3139377

  15. The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

  16. Focusing properties of mushroom microlenses

    E-print Network

    Boriskin, A V; Benson, T; Sewell, P; Nosich, A I

    2010-01-01

    Focusing properties of a novel type photoresist microlens are studied. A specific character of the microlens is its mushroom shape. Recently it was predicted and experimentally revealed that such a lens integrated with a light-emitting diode is capable of enhancing its output efficiency and directivity. In our paper we describe the true electromagnetic performance of a mushroom lens by applying a mathematically rigorous method of boundary integral equations. Numerical results are presented for the mushroom lens illuminated with a plane E-polarized wave and include figures describing the evolution of the lens focal spot and near field maps.

  17. Quantum mushroom billiards

    E-print Network

    A. H. Barnett; T. Betcke

    2007-09-07

    We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. Bunimovich in this journal, vol. 11, 802 (2001). The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly-regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E^{-1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and such high mode numbers orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

  18. The Vasculature in Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Cibele M.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Weiss, Louis M.; Factor, Stephen M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Rossi, Marcos A.

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular manifestations of Chagas disease are well known. However, the contribution of the vasculature and specifically the microvasculature has received little attention. This chapter reviews the evidence supporting the notion that alterations in the microvasculature especially in the heart contribute to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. These data may also be important in understanding the contributions of the microvasculature in the aetiologies of other cardiomyopathies. The role of endothelin-1 and of thromboxane A2 vascular spasm and platelet aggregation is also discussed. Further, these observations may provide target(s) for intervention. PMID:21884888

  19. [Globalization, inequity and Chagas disease].

    PubMed

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto

    2007-01-01

    Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) bears a close relationship to multiple social and political aspects involving issues of globalization and inequity. Such relations concern the process of disease production and control in parallel with medical management. Despite the poverty in Latin America and various problems related to inequities and globalization, Chagas disease has been controlled in several areas, a fact that reinforces the countries' self-reliance. Several problems and challenges related to the disease can be expected in the future, mainly concerning medical care for already infected individuals and the sustainability of effective epidemiological surveillance. Both points depend heavily on improved performance by the national health systems, principally in terms of their efficiency and their capacity to overcome inequity. A particularly important role has been attributed to the Latin American scientific and academic community in the implementation and sustainability of efficient control policies. Control activities have now evolved towards internationally shared initiatives, a major new stride forward in the region's political context. PMID:17308713

  20. Methods for Mushroom Collecting Preparing voucher specimens of mushrooms involves removing the

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Methods for Mushroom Collecting Preparing voucher specimens of mushrooms involves removing to close the tube; these are especially useful for fleshy mushrooms. Plastic bags provide no support for the specimen and can promote rotting. Small mushrooms can be collected in plastic or glass vials or metal

  1. Travelers' Health: Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chagas Disease) Susan Montgomery INFECTIOUS AGENT The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi . TRANSMISSION Typically through feces of an ... in immunocompromised patients. DIAGNOSIS During the acute phase, parasites may be detectable in fresh preparations of buffy ...

  2. Quantum mushroom billiards

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo

    2007-12-15

    We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

  3. Fatal muscarinic syndrome after eating wild mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Pauli, John L; Foot, Carole L

    2005-03-21

    Death from mushroom poisoning in Australia is rare and usually due to liver failure produced by Amanita phalloides. We report a 53-year-old woman in Queensland who died from an acute muscarinic syndrome 10 hours after eating mushrooms belonging to the genus Rubinoboletus. To our knowledge, this is the first death in Australia caused by non-amatoxin-producing mushrooms. It highlights the need for awareness of non-amatoxin-producing mushrooms as potentially lethal. PMID:15777146

  4. [Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].

    PubMed

    Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed. PMID:23878898

  5. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  6. MUSHROOM SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION FORM Schutter Diagnostic Lab

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    MUSHROOM SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION FORM Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana of the cap in inches (approximate): largest cap smallest cap Height of the mushroom in inches (approximate): tallest smallest ***WHAT IS YOUR PURPOSE IN KNOWING THE IDENTIFICATION OF THIS MUSHROOM (DO YOU WANT

  7. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  8. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  9. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  10. 7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions §...

  11. Chagas disease and gynecologic neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Dominical, Venina Marcela; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Rocha, Laura Penna; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Pereira, Gilberto de Araújo; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2010-10-01

    The inflammation caused by Trypanosoma cruzi produces irritation and cell proliferation and may contribute to the development of cancer. The objective was to determine the occurrence of gynecologic neoplasia (GN) and demographic characteristics in patients with Chagas disease (CD). We used protocols of 671 autopsies between 1976 and 2008. The patients were divided into 3 groups: with GN and CD, only with CD, and only with GN. The 2 diseases were observed in 4.5% of patients with a mean age of 47.6 years and who were predominantly white. The megaesophagus and megacolon were more frequent in the group with only CD. The most common benign neoplasm was uterine leiomyoma, and malignant, carcinoma of the cervix. We conclude that the epidemiological profile of patients with CD and GN was similar to the other groups, and the CD was found not to be a risk factor or protective against the development of GN. PMID:20850696

  12. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Diagnosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Trypansoma cruzi parasite ... thin blood smear. (CDC Photo) The diagnosis of Chagas disease can be made by observation of the parasite ...

  13. Leon and Engman The Contribution of Autoimmunity to Chagas Heart

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    proposed hypothesis is that Chagas disease is an autoimmune disease (reviewed in Eisen and Kahn, 1991 that Chagas disease is an autoimmune disease, tissue inflammation or cellular damage must be shownLeon and Engman The Contribution of Autoimmunity to Chagas Heart Disease J. S. Leon and D. M

  14. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  15. The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

    2013-01-01

    A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

  16. Mushrooms and Health Summit Proceedings123

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M.; Milner, John A.; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B.; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T.; Castlebury, Lisa A.; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Haytowitz, David B.; Hubbard, Van S.; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S.; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D.; Woteki, Catherine E.; Wu, Dayong

    2014-01-01

    The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9–10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

  17. Developments in the management of Chagas cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Tanowitz, Herbert B; Machado, Fabiana S; Spray, David C; Friedman, Joel M; Weiss, Oren S; Lora, Jose N; Nagajyothi, Jyothi; Moraes, Diego N; Garg, Nisha Jain; Nunes, Maria Carmo P; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P

    2015-12-01

    Over 100 years have elapsed since the discovery of Chagas disease and there is still much to learn regarding pathogenesis and treatment. Although there are antiparasitic drugs available, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, they are not totally reliable and often toxic. A recently released negative clinical trial with benznidazole in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy further reinforces the concerns regarding its effectiveness. New drugs and new delivery systems, including those based on nanotechnology, are being sought. Although vaccine development is still in its infancy, the reality of a therapeutic vaccine remains a challenge. New ECG methods may help to recognize patients prone to developing malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The management of heart failure, stroke and arrhythmias also remains a challenge. Although animal experiments have suggested that stem cell based therapy may be therapeutic in the management of heart failure in Chagas cardiomyopathy, clinical trials have not been promising. PMID:26496376

  18. Nontimber Forest Products Ecosystem Management Economics Mushrooms andTimber

    E-print Network

    Nontimber Forest Products Ecosystem Management Economics Mushrooms andTimber Managing,theAmericanmatsutake (·icholomamagnivelare)isthemost valuable mushroom harvested in the Pacific Northwest becauseit is similar to the, rapidlyincreasingnumbersoftransient mushroom harvesters have collected thismushroomfromreliablyproduc

  19. American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Petana, W B

    1978-01-01

    Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) is endemic in nearly all Central and South American countries facing the Caribbean basin. Since 1960, reports from the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Jamaica, and Trinidad have confirmed the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi, blood-sucking triatomine bugs, and wild animals infected with the parasite. It was also established that T. cruzi, triatomine bugs, infected wild animal reservoirs, and people with a positive serologic test for T. cruzi antibodies are to be found in Belize, the last country in Central America once thought to be free of Chagas' disease. PMID:96895

  20. Developmental organization of the mushroom bodies of Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae): insights into mushroom body

    E-print Network

    Farris, Sarah M.

    Developmental organization of the mushroom bodies of Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae): insights into mushroom body evolution from a basal insect Sarah M. Farris Department of Biology, West The mushroom bodies of the insect brain are sensory integration centers best studied for their role in learning

  1. Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

  2. [Mushroom poisoning by brunneoincarnata: about two cases].

    PubMed

    Roux, X; Labadie, P; Morand, C; Fontaine, B; Coutant, G

    2008-05-01

    Amatoxin poisoning constitutes the main cause of death due to mushroom intoxication in Europe. This one was initially reported for the ingestion of Amanita phalloides with frequently fatal outcome. Prognosis of amatoxin poisoning initialy depends on the acute deshydratation and secondarily of the liver failure. Emergency liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. With the knowledge of mushroom, most of them involved other species which can often be linked to edible mushroom. We report a collective intoxication by Lepiota brunneoincarnata. PMID:18440193

  3. Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

  4. Chagas’ Disease and the Autoimmunity Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Kierszenbaum, Felipe

    1999-01-01

    The notion that the pathology of Chagas’ disease has an autoimmune component was initially based on the finding of circulating antibodies binding heart tissue antigens in patients and mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Later, T lymphocytes reactive with heart or nerve tissue antigens were found in chagasic mice and patients, extending the concept to include cell-mediated immunity. However, there is disagreement about whether the observed immunologic autoreactivities are triggered by T. cruzi epitopes and then affect host tissue antigens by virtue of molecular mimicry or are elicited by host antigens exposed to lymphocytes after tissue damage caused by the parasite. There is also disagreement about the relevance of immunologic autoreactivities to the pathogenesis of Chagas’ disease because of the lack of reproducibility of some key reports supporting the autoimmunity hypothesis, conflicting data from independent laboratories, conclusions invalidated by advances in our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms underlying cell lysis, and, last but not least, a lack of direct, incontrovertible evidence that cross-reacting antibodies or autoreactive cells mediate the typical pathologic changes associated with human Chagas’ disease. The data and views backing and questioning the autoimmunity hypothesis for Chagas’ disease are summarized in this review. PMID:10194457

  5. Could Carlos Chagas' assumption on the relationship between goiter and chronic Chagas heart disease be correct? A historical reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto; Restini, Carolina B A; Couto, Lucelio B

    2016-01-01

    In 1910, Chagas divided the clinical manifestations of the chronic form of Chagas disease according to heart, Central Nervous System, and thyroid involvement, particularly the presence of goiter. Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with poor houses infested with kissing bugs, the similarity of the clinical picture with that of patients underwent partial thyroidectomy, and with the presence of thyroid sclerosis (inflammation) on histological examination. In addition, Chagas observed that all people living in poor houses infested by sucking bugs had goiter, contrasting with persons who lived in the same region, drinking the same water, but living in good houses, which did not have goiter. Furthermore, Chagas stressed the fact that people without any evidence of thyroid disease that migrated to live in poor houses in areas infested by sucking bugs developed thyroid disease some time later. Finally, and more importantly, Chagas emphasized the association of goiter with cardiac abnormalities in 80% of patients with chronic Chagas heart disease. Despite this, other authors working in different regions did not confirm such an association. A reappraisal of data from a work published in 1949 clearly shows that the presence of goiter was statistically associated with chronic Chagas heart disease and with chronic Chagas disease. Our paper highlights once more the grandiosity of Chagas' work, which has been proved to be correct even in the history of goiter, and justifies our claim for a posthumous Nobel Prize inasmuch as his work was not perceived by the Karolinska Institute. PMID:26433162

  6. The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

    2012-12-01

    An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

  7. Dynamical tunneling in mushroom billiards

    E-print Network

    A. Bäcker; R. Ketzmerick; S. Löck; M. Robnik; G. Vidmar; R. Höhmann; U. Kuhl; H. -J. Stöckmann

    2008-05-05

    We study the fundamental question of dynamical tunneling in generic two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems by considering regular-to-chaotic tunneling rates. Experimentally, we use microwave spectra to investigate a mushroom billiard with adjustable foot height. Numerically, we obtain tunneling rates from high precision eigenvalues using the improved method of particular solutions. Analytically, a prediction is given by extending an approach using a fictitious integrable system to billiards. In contrast to previous approaches for billiards, we find agreement with experimental and numerical data without any free parameter.

  8. Common Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Salt Point, California

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Common Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Salt Point, California PP 135 Field Identification of Mushrooms to be used with Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora (Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, Second Edition, 1986). Where the common genera of mushrooms and other fungi found in December near Salt Point, California, and on the UC

  9. Effects of mushroom harvest technique on subsequent American matsutake production

    E-print Network

    Effects of mushroom harvest technique on subsequent American matsutake production Daniel L. Luoma a for sustainable mushroom production is uncertain and concerns remain about the cumulative effects of picking mushrooms will reduce subsequent fruiting. Here, we evaluate the effects of several mushroom harvest

  10. Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

    1986-01-01

    College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

  11. [Mushroom consumption and toxicity, state of the art].

    PubMed

    Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; De Giglio, Osvalda; Quaranta, Alessia; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Mushroom consumption is widespread throughout the world and mushroom foraging is often seen as a recreational activity. However, mushroom hunters, especially if inexperienced, may not fully perceive the risks associated with ingesting potentially toxic mushroom species. It is fundamental that mushrooms must be professionally inspected and their quality and safety approved before being ingested. This article analyzes the main scientific documents and current regulations regarding this topic. PMID:23903039

  12. Use of a Novel Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) for Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Sánchez, Gerardo; Valencia Ayala, Edward; Liotta, Lance; Bern, Caryn; Luchini, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission is considered one of the pillars of control programs of Chagas disease. Congenital transmission accounts for 25% of new infections with an estimated 15,000 infected infants per year. Current programs to detect congenital Chagas disease in Latin America utilize microscopy early in life and serology after 6 months. These programs suffer from low sensitivity by microscopy and high loss to follow-up later in infancy. We developed a Chagas urine nanoparticle test (Chunap) to concentrate, preserve and detect T. cruzi antigens in urine for early, non-invasive diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a proof-of-concept study of Chunap for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Poly N-isopropylacrylamide nano-particles functionalized with trypan blue were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and characterized with photon correlation spectroscopy. We evaluated the ability of the nanoparticles to capture, concentrate and preserve T. cruzi antigens. Urine samples from congenitally infected and uninfected infants were then concentrated using these nanoparticles. The antigens were eluted and detected by Western Blot using a monoclonal antibody against T. cruzi lipophosphoglycan. The nanoparticles concentrate T. cruzi antigens by 100 fold (western blot detection limit decreased from 50 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml). The sensitivity of Chunap in a single specimen at one month of age was 91.3% (21/23, 95% CI: 71.92%–98.68%), comparable to PCR in two specimens at 0 and 1 month (91.3%) and significantly higher than microscopy in two specimens (34.8%, 95% CI: 16.42%–57.26%). Chunap specificity was 96.5% (71/74 endemic, 12/12 non-endemic specimens). Particle-sequestered T. cruzi antigens were protected from trypsin digestion. Conclusion/Significance Chunap has the potential to be developed into a simple and sensitive test for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. PMID:25275534

  13. [Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in France].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Dejour, D; Blanchet, D; Aznar, C; La Ruche, G; Jeannel, D; Gastellu-Etchegorry, M

    2012-08-01

    Chagas disease is an anthropozoonotic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted by a hematophagous triatomine insect vector belonging to the Reduviidae family, while taking a blood meal. There is a large reservoir of wild and domestic mammals. Human contamination may come via vectorial, transplacental, and digestive routes, blood transfusion, organ or tissue transplantation, and by accident. The disease has two phases. The acute phase, oligosymptomatic, is frequently undiagnosed. It is followed by a chronic phase. Most of the infected patients remain asymptomatic all life-long. But 10 or 25 years later, one third of infected patients present with cardiac or digestive complications. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina. In French Guyana, the prevalence of the infection was estimated at 0.25% and 0.5% (from 500 to 1000 infected patients) on blood samples collected from 1992 to 1998. In 2000 and 2009, 192 cases were diagnosed. In this district, there is no established domestic vector and the transmission risk is low. The vector is very easily found in forest habitats and even in the peridomestic persistent forest, with an infection rate of 46 to 86%. Vectorial eradication is impossible. Fighting against Chagas disease in French Guyana relies more on individual protection, control of blood transfusion, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of infected patients than on vectorial control. PMID:22591727

  14. Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Barbato, M P

    1993-06-21

    Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

  15. Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression

    E-print Network

    Small, Dylan

    , 9 Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GeorgiaRetracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression Michael Z. Levy1 *, Dylan S, United States of America Abstract Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem

  16. [Congenital Chaga?Disease: epidemiology, laboratorial diagnosis, prognosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Reiche, E M; Inouye, M M; Bonametti, A M; Jankevicius, J V

    1996-01-01

    The authors review studies about epidemiology, clinical aspects and methods used in laboratorial diagnosis of congenital Chagas'disease, emphasizing the limitations in their specificity and sensibility, and suggest alternative methods to improve the accuracy and the quality of the laboratorial diagnosis of congenital Chaga?disease, essential to an efficient treatment. PMID:14688943

  17. Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

  18. [Recent trends of mushroom poisoning in Japan].

    PubMed

    Yamaura, Yoshio

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of mushroom poisoning was studied statistically from 2001 to 2010 in Japan. The total incident of mushroom poisoning was 569 cases, which involved 1,920 patients and 10 deaths. The average incident was 56.9 cases per year, involving 192 patients and 1 death. On regional differences, the mushroom poisoning was more frequent in the northeastern part of Japan. The rate of total incidents for each type of poisoning, which were classified according to symptoms caused, 54.6% in the type of gastro-intestinal disorder, 11.6% in the type of neurological symptoms, and 2.4% in the type of intracellular disorder (violent vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration and hepato-nephrosis, or rhabdomyolysis, or erroneous perception, etc.), respectively. Two species of poisonous mushrooms with gastro-intestinal disorder, Lampteromyces japonicus and Rhodophyllus rhodopolius caused the majority (52%) of all poisonings in Japan. PMID:23600266

  19. The molecular genetics of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, J R; Thurston, C F

    2000-01-01

    The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to those found in GenBank by August 1999. The gene sequences isolated from the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the shiitake Lentinula edodes, the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp., the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea and the enotake Flammulina velutipes are described. The largest group are genes from A. bisporus, which includes 29 for intracellular proteins and 12 for secreted proteins. In comparison, only a total of 26 sequences can be reported for the other cultivated species. A. bisporus is also the only cultivated species for which molecular karyotyping is already supported by reliable markers for all 13 of its chromosomes. PMID:10907549

  20. Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

  1. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999) (Mushroom Antidumping Duty Order), remains dispositive... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period...

  2. Detection of Calcium Transients in Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons with Camgaroo Reporters

    E-print Network

    Tsien, Roger Y.

    Detection of Calcium Transients in Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons with Camgaroo Reporters Dinghui mushroom bodies using the galactosidase-4 (GAL4) system. Potassium depolar of mushroom body neurons. Acetylcholine applied near the dendrites of the mushroom body neurons induces

  3. ADAPTED PEER REVIEWED The mushroom forming fungus, Armillaria bulbosa, is one of

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    ADAPTED PEER REVIEWED LITERATURE The mushroom forming fungus, Armillaria bulbosa, is one forms mushrooms related to the "honey mushroom", and members of this group act as necrotrophic parasites. used RAPD DNA fingerprinting to identify genetically identical clones from Armillaria mushrooms

  4. Spectral properties of Bunimovich mushroom billiards

    E-print Network

    B. Dietz; T. Friedrich; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter; F. Schaefer

    2007-03-13

    Properties of a quantum mushroom billiard in the form of a superconducting microwave resonator have been investigated. They reveal unexpected nonuniversal features such as, e.g., a supershell effect in the level density and a dip in the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. Theoretical predictions for the quantum properties of mixed systems rely on the sharp separability of phase space - an unusual property met by mushroom billiards. We however find deviations which are ascribed to the presence of dynamic tunneling.

  5. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.

    PubMed

    Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit

    2012-08-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account. PMID:22329454

  6. Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

    2014-09-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  7. Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

    2013-01-01

    Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

  8. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology

    E-print Network

    Laudal, Arnfinn

    Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology Håvard Kauseruda,1 , Einar Heegaardb-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom

  9. Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

  10. Therapy of cytotoxic mushroom intoxication.

    PubMed

    Vesconi, S; Langer, M; Iapichino, G; Costantino, D; Busi, C; Fiume, L

    1985-05-01

    Poisoning by cytotoxic mushrooms (Amanita phalloides and related species) is associated with severe morbidity and a high mortality rate. Due to the difficulty of performing controlled studies and to the poor knowledge of the pharmacodynamics of toxins in human poisoning, there is considerable debate about appropriate treatment, particularly the feasibility and the efficacy of detoxification. Because circulating amatoxins can be detected in the serum of poisoned patients as long as 30 h after ingestion, a detoxification treatment should ideally increase the rate of toxin elimination in order to minimize the toxic exposure of highly susceptible cells, such as hepatocytes. We found forced diuresis to be the most effective procedure for toxin removal. Other techniques, such as plasmapheresis and peritoneal dialysis, proved much less useful for this purpose. The administration of cathartics, adsorbent agents, and gastroduodenal lavage, are indicated for preventing further absorption of toxins from the gut. An important part of therapy is early and vigorous volume replacement, to correct the severe hypovolemia which results from massive fluid loss during the cholera-like phase of intoxication. Use of this therapeutic approach in 53 patients with amatoxin poisoning resulted in a high survival rate and a low incidence of severe liver injury. PMID:3987318

  11. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Shinpei Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-26

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200?nm was achieved by isotropic XeF{sub 2} etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  12. Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

  13. Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Güven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality. PMID:20535367

  14. Mushroom fruiting and climate change Hvard Kauserud*, Leif Christian Stige

    E-print Network

    Laudal, Arnfinn

    Mushroom fruiting and climate change Håvard Kauserud*, Leif Christian Stige , Jon Olav Vik , Rune H fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940­2006. We show

  15. PMB113 California Mushrooms F2007 Course control number 70968

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    PMB113 California Mushrooms F2007 Course control number 70968 Credits: 3 Monday 2-5 lab 209 GPBB will be on laboratory work with fresh and dried fungi. Lectures on Wednesday focus on mushroom systematics, collection to cover. Mon 8/27/07 lab Using the microscope, sectioning and examining mushrooms Wed 8/29/07 lect

  16. Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited Carl P. Dettmann 1

    E-print Network

    Dettmann, Carl

    Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited Carl P. Dettmann 1 and Orestis Georgiou 1 1 School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, United Kingdom We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control

  17. synthesis in the mushroom bodies upon robust and chronic

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    synthesis in the mushroom bodies upon robust and chronic developmental expression as one would. A control experiment performed to test the potency of RICINCS in blocking mushroom-body protein synthesis. In addition, the inhibition of KAEDE expression was monitored only in the cell bodies of the mushroom bodies

  18. Synaptogenesis in the Mushroom Body Calyx During Metamorphosis in the

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Synaptogenesis in the Mushroom Body Calyx During Metamorphosis in the Honeybee Apis mellifera synaptogenesis and morpho- genesis within the mushroom body calyx of the honeybee Apis mellifera and to find out- phosis. We show that synaptogenesis in the mushroom body calycal neuropile starts in early metamorphosis

  19. Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom

    E-print Network

    Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom Production David Pilz, Randy Molina, nontimber forest products E dible chanterelle mushrooms that grow wild in the moist coniferous forests west of the Cascade Range in Oregon and Washington are avidly sought each summer and autumn by mushroom hunters

  20. Nonperiodic echoes from mushroom billiard hats

    E-print Network

    B. Dietz; T. Friedrich; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter; T. H. Seligman; K. Zapfe

    2006-11-07

    Mushroom billiards have the remarkable property to show one or more clear cut integrable islands in one or several chaotic seas, without any fractal boundaries. The islands correspond to orbits confined to the hats of the mushrooms, which they share with the chaotic orbits. It is thus interesting to ask how long a chaotic orbit will remain in the hat before returning to the stem. This question is equivalent to the inquiry about delay times for scattering from the hat of the mushroom into an opening where the stem should be. For fixed angular momentum we find that no more than three different delay times are possible. This induces striking nonperiodic structures in the delay times that may be of importance for mesoscopic devices and should be accessible to microwave experiments.

  1. Chagas disease: coming to a place near you.

    PubMed

    Parker, Eva Rawlings; Sethi, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is a parasitic infection caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, an organism that is endemic to Latin America. While Chagas disease is primarily a vector-borne illness, new cases are emerging in non-endemic areas due to globalization of immigration and non-vectorial transmission routes. This article discusses the mode of transmission, evolving epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention and control of the disease. PMID:21095528

  2. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  3. Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease

    SciTech Connect

    da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

    1981-04-01

    Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

  4. [Shiitake dermatitis: flagellate dermatitis after eating mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Vogt, R; Sterry, W

    2001-02-01

    The name of flagellate dermatitis originates from self-flagellating medieval people. This dermatitis is not rare as a drug eruption following bleomycin therapy. An identical skin eruption caused by the mushroom shiitake Lentinus edodes is more common but reported mostly from Japan. We saw a 67-year-old patient who presented with the typical linear scratch marks after a dinner in a Chinese restaurant. The basic mechanism is a toxic epidermal damage. Since it is not clear why the dermatitis does not occur frequently since Shiitake is the second most popular mushroom in the world, we discuss possible cofactors that may trigger the toxic reaction. PMID:11244891

  5. Old and new challenges in Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, Jose A; Perez, Angela Martinez; Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a neglected disease, which can lead to cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, megaviscera, and more rarely, polyneuropathy in up to 30-40% of patients around 20 to 30 years after acute infection. Although it is endemic in the Americas, global population movements mean that it can be located wherever migrants from endemic areas settle. The disease was first described 100 years ago and still challenges clinicians worldwide, since diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic methods remain insufficient. Furthermore, factors such as HIV co-infection, immunosuppressive drugs, transplantation, and neoplastic disease can alter the natural course of the infection. We present the case of a Bolivian woman with chronic T cruzi infection diagnosed at our clinic in Madrid, Spain, who subsequently developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Our report illustrates the challenges of an increasingly common infection seen in non-endemic countries, and highlights both daily management dilemmas and associated difficulties that arise. PMID:26231478

  6. Chagas Disease: Still Many Unsolved Issues

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, José M.; Fonseca, Raissa; Borges da Silva, Henrique; Marinho, Cláudio R. F.; Bortoluci, Karina R.; Sardinha, Luiz R.; Epiphanio, Sabrina; D'Império Lima, Maria Regina

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the immune effector mechanisms involved in the control of Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as the receptors participating in parasite recognition by cells of the innate immune system, have been largely described. However, the main questions on the physiopathology of Chagas disease remain unanswered: “Why does the host immune system fail to provide sterile immunity?” and “Why do only a proportion of infected individuals develop chronic pathology?” In this review, we describe the mechanisms proposed to explain the inability of the immune system to eradicate the parasite and the elements that allow the development of chronic heart disease. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that the inability of infected cardiomyocytes to sense intracellular T. cruzi contributes to parasite persistence in the heart and the development of chronic pathology. PMID:25104883

  7. Chagas disease: still many unsolved issues.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, José M; Fonseca, Raissa; Borges da Silva, Henrique; Marinho, Cláudio R F; Bortoluci, Karina R; Sardinha, Luiz R; Epiphanio, Sabrina; D'Império Lima, Maria Regina

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the immune effector mechanisms involved in the control of Trypanosoma cruzi, as well as the receptors participating in parasite recognition by cells of the innate immune system, have been largely described. However, the main questions on the physiopathology of Chagas disease remain unanswered: "Why does the host immune system fail to provide sterile immunity?" and "Why do only a proportion of infected individuals develop chronic pathology?" In this review, we describe the mechanisms proposed to explain the inability of the immune system to eradicate the parasite and the elements that allow the development of chronic heart disease. Moreover, we discuss the possibility that the inability of infected cardiomyocytes to sense intracellular T. cruzi contributes to parasite persistence in the heart and the development of chronic pathology. PMID:25104883

  8. Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

    Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

  9. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

  10. Suspected muscarinic mushroom intoxication in a cat.

    PubMed

    Herreria-Bustillo, Vicente J; Saiz-Alvarez, Rocio; Jasani, Shailen

    2013-02-01

    A 3-year-old domestic shorthair cat was witnessed ingesting mushrooms and developed signs of muscarine intoxication. After stabilisation and treatment with atropine the cat recovered well and was discharged from hospital in 2 days. This report describes the features and successful management of this unusual toxicosis in cats. PMID:23048076

  11. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

    2014-01-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  12. Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, Agnieszka B; Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch

    2014-06-01

    Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

  13. Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches

    SciTech Connect

    Reason, J.

    1984-03-01

    A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

  14. [Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Attema-de Jonge, M E; Portier, C B; Franssen, E J F

    2007-12-29

    Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used as mind-altering drugs. These drugs may sometimes induce 'bad trips', a psychotic reaction accompanied by fear, panic, and dangerous behaviour, especially when used in combination with other drugs and alcohol or by psychiatrically unstable patients. During a bad trip, patients may hurt themselves. Because the duration of the psychotic and sympathicomimetic effects of psilocybin after ingestion of mushrooms is short (up to 6 h), and since psilocin itself causes no permanent organ toxicity, the treatment of psilocybin intoxication is only symptomatic. The diagnosis ofpsilocybin intoxication is hampered by the lack of routinely available, rapid and sensitive, analytical methods for the quantification ofpsilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin. PMID:18257429

  15. Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

    2012-11-01

    Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is ?-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by ?-(1?3)-glycosidic bonds with attached ?-(1?6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. ?-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

  16. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in Mexico: an update.

    PubMed

    Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; González-Vázquez, María Cristina; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Baylón-Pacheco, Lidia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Reyes-López, Pedro Antonio; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2013-08-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellated organism that is transmitted mainly to humans through the infected feces of triatomine kissing bugs (vector transmission in endemic areas) or by transfusion of infected blood, donations of infected organ, or transmission from an infected mother to her child at birth. Chagas disease was first described in 1909 by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, and due to the parasite's distribution throughout North, Central and South America, the disease is commonly known as American trypanosomiasis. However, this disease is now present in non-endemic countries such as Canada, the United States of America, and several countries in Europe (principally Spain). Moreover, Chagas disease was recently designated by the World Health Organization as one of the main neglected tropical diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize the research efforts recently described in studies conducted in Mexico on Chagas disease. In this country, there are no existing vector control programs. In addition, there is no consensus on the diagnostic methods for acute and chronic Chagas disease in maternity wards and blood banks, and trypanocidal therapy is not administered to chronic patients. The actual prevalence of the disease is unknown because no official reporting of cases is performed. Therefore, the number of people infected by different routes of transmission (vector, congenital, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or oral) is unknown. We believe that by promoting education about Chagas disease in schools starting at the basic elementary level and including reinforcement at higher education levels will ensure that the Mexican population would be aware of this health problem and that the control measures adopted will have more acceptance and success. We hope that this review sensitizes the relevant authorities and that the appropriate measures to reduce the risk of infection by T. cruzi are undertaken to provide the Mexican people a better quality of life. PMID:23643518

  17. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an “on-farm” disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  18. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-15

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  19. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mushroom Body Output Neurons Encode OdorReward

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Mushroom Body Output Neurons Encode Odor­Reward Associations Martin understood. Mushroom bodies these questions by focus- ing on a defined morphological class of neurons in the honeybee brain, the mushroom body

  20. Edible Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) Extract Inhibits Melanosis in Kuruma Shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus)

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    1 Edible Mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) Extract Inhibits Melanosis in Kuruma Shrimp (Marsupenaeus: antimelanosic compounds, ergothioneine, Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus), melanosis, mushroom (Flammulina and antidiscoloration efficacy of ergothioneine in mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to beef and fish meats

  1. Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects

    E-print Network

    Farris, Sarah M.

    Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects Sarah M adaptive pressures. Convoluted cortical gyri-like structures characterize the mushroom body calyces correlates of this morphology in the Scarabaeidae (scarab beetles). ``Gyrencephalic'' mushroom bodies

  2. Craterellus fallax, a Black Trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad host range

    E-print Network

    Matheny, P. Brandon

    SHORT NOTE Craterellus fallax, a Black Trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad Trumpet mushrooms) supports the taxonomic separation of Craterellus fallax apart from C. cornucopioides . Cantharellales . Ecology. Ectomycorrhizas . Pinus virginiana . Systematics Introduction Black Trumpet mushrooms

  3. 75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  4. 78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

  5. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...A-560-802, A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's...the antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the...

  6. 77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is...

  7. 78 FR 69817 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether imported whole, sliced,...

  8. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  9. Gustatory learning and processing in the Drosophila mushroom bodies.

    PubMed

    Kirkhart, Colleen; Scott, Kristin

    2015-04-15

    The Drosophila mushroom bodies are critical association areas whose role in olfactory associative learning has been well characterized. Recent behavioral studies using a taste association paradigm revealed that gustatory conditioning also requires the mushroom bodies (Masek and Scott, 2010; Keene and Masek, 2012). Here, we examine the representations of tastes and the neural sites for taste associations in the mushroom bodies. Using molecular genetic approaches to target different neuronal populations, we find that the gamma lobes of the mushroom bodies and a subset of dopaminergic input neurons are required for taste associative learning. Monitoring responses to taste compounds in the mushroom body calyx with calcium imaging reveals sparse, taste-specific and organ-specific activation in the Kenyon cell dendrites of the main calyx and the dorsal accessory calyx. Our work provides insight into gustatory representations in the mushroom bodies, revealing the essential role of gustatory inputs not only as rewards and punishments but also as adaptive cues. PMID:25878268

  10. Mushroom poisoning. Case reports and a review of therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, J P; Gordon, M A

    1984-02-24

    Four incidents of mushroom poisoning, representing four of the seven established groups of toxic mushrooms, are presented. These case reports illustrate the range of gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms caused by mushroom poisoning and reflect a nationwide increase in reports of serious poisonings in recent years. Severity of poisonings often parallels the time span between consumption and onset of symptoms, with serious poisonings having longer incubation periods. New therapies for amatoxin poisoning may reduce mortality caused by these poisonings. PMID:6420582

  11. Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology. PMID:24473801

  12. Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

  13. Lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of edible mushroom fungi.

    PubMed

    Buswell, J A; Cai, Y J; Chang, S T; Peberdy, J F; Fu, S Y; Yu, H S

    1996-09-01

    One of the most economically-viable processes for the bioconversion of many types of lignocellulosic wastes is represented by edible mushroom cultivation. Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus sajor-caju are three important commercially cultivated mushrooms which exhibit varying abilities to utilise different lignocellulosics as growth substrate. Examination of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of the three species show this diversity to be reflected in qualitative variations in the major enzymic determinants (i.e. cellulases, ligninases) required for substrate bioconversion. For example, L. edodes, which is cultivated on highly lignified substrates such as wood or sawdust, produces two extracellular enzymes which have been associated with lignin depolymerisation in other fungi, (manganese peroxidase and laccase). Conversely, V. volvacea, which prefers high cellulose-, low lignin-containing substrates produces a family of cellulolytic enzymes including at least five endoglucanases, five cellobiohydrolases and two ?-glucosidases, but none of the recognised lignin-degrading enzymes. PMID:24415386

  14. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    PubMed

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients. PMID:11363369

  15. Escape time statistics for mushroom billiards

    E-print Network

    T. Miyaguchi

    2006-12-27

    Chaotic orbits of mushroom billiards display intermittent behaviors. We investigate statistical properties of this system by constructing an infinite partition on the chaotic part of a Poincar\\'e surface which illustrates details of chaotic dynamics. Each piece of the infinite partition has an unique escape time from the half disk region, and from this result it is shown that, for fixed values of the system parameters, the escape time distribution obeys power law $1/t_{\\rm esc}^3$.

  16. Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

  17. Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?

    PubMed

    Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

  18. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Solomon P

    2014-01-01

    The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25179726

  19. Supplementary Online Information 1. Photographs of Octopus and Mushroom Spring. See Supplementary Figure 1.

    E-print Network

    Supplementary Online Information 1. Photographs of Octopus and Mushroom Spring. See Supplementary the effluent channel of Mushroom Spring and Octopus Spring, as shown in Supplementary Figure 3. Pyrosequencing

  20. Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

  1. Chagas parasite detection in blood images using AdaBoost.

    PubMed

    Uc-Cetina, Víctor; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Visual detection of such parasite through microscopic inspection is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper, we provide an AdaBoost learning solution to the task of Chagas parasite detection in blood images. We give details of the algorithm and our experimental setup. With this method, we get 100% and 93.25% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A ROC comparison with the method most commonly used for the detection of malaria parasites based on support vector machines (SVM) is also provided. Our experimental work shows mainly two things: (1) Chagas parasites can be detected automatically using machine learning methods with high accuracy and (2) AdaBoost + SVM provides better overall detection performance than AdaBoost or SVMs alone. Such results are the best ones known so far for the problem of automatic detection of Chagas parasites through the use of machine learning, computer vision, and image processing methods. PMID:25861375

  2. Experimental Vaccines against Chagas Disease: A Journey through History

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Monteón-Padilla, Víctor; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C.; Rios-Castro, Martha; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is primarily a vector disease endemic in 21 Latin American countries, including Mexico. Although many vector control programs have been implemented, T. cruzi has not been eradicated. The development of an anti-T. cruzi vaccine for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes may significantly contribute to the transmission control of Chagas disease. Immune protection against experimental infection with T. cruzi has been studied since the second decade of the last century, and many types of immunogens have been used subsequently, such as killed or attenuated parasites and new DNA vaccines. This primary prevention strategy appears feasible, effective, safe, and inexpensive, although problems remain. The objective of this review is to summarize the research efforts about the development of vaccines against Chagas disease worldwide. A thorough literature review was conducted by searching PubMed with the terms “Chagas disease” and “American trypanosomiasis” together with “vaccines” or “immunization”. In addition, reports and journals not cited in PubMed were identified. Publications in English, Spanish, and Portuguese were reviewed. PMID:26090490

  3. Chagas Parasite Detection in Blood Images Using AdaBoost

    PubMed Central

    Uc-Cetina, Víctor; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Visual detection of such parasite through microscopic inspection is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper, we provide an AdaBoost learning solution to the task of Chagas parasite detection in blood images. We give details of the algorithm and our experimental setup. With this method, we get 100% and 93.25% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A ROC comparison with the method most commonly used for the detection of malaria parasites based on support vector machines (SVM) is also provided. Our experimental work shows mainly two things: (1) Chagas parasites can be detected automatically using machine learning methods with high accuracy and (2) AdaBoost + SVM provides better overall detection performance than AdaBoost or SVMs alone. Such results are the best ones known so far for the problem of automatic detection of Chagas parasites through the use of machine learning, computer vision, and image processing methods. PMID:25861375

  4. Lead identification to clinical candidate selection: drugs for Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Neitz, R Jeffrey; Chen, Steven; Supek, Frantisek; Yeh, Vince; Kellar, Danielle; Gut, Jiri; Bryant, Clifford; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Molteni, Valentina; Roach, Steven L; Khare, Shilpi; Stinson, Monique; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Robertson, Stephanie; Renslo, Adam R; Arkin, Michelle; Glynne, Richard; McKerrow, James; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease affects 8 million people worldwide and remains a main cause of death due to heart failure in Latin America. The number of cases in the United States is now estimated to be 300,000, but there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs available for patients with Chagas disease. To fill this gap, we have established a public-private partnership between the University of California, San Francisco and the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) with the goal of delivering clinical candidates to treat Chagas disease. The discovery phase, based on the screening of more than 160,000 compounds from the GNF Academic Collaboration Library, led to the identification of new anti-Chagas scaffolds. Part of the screening campaign used and compared two screening methods, including a colorimetric-based assay using Trypanosoma cruzi expressing ?-galactosidase and an image-based, high-content screening (HCS) assay using the CA-I/72 strain of T. cruzi. Comparing molecules tested in both assays, we found that ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors had greater potency in the colorimetric assay than in the HCS assay. Both assays were used to inform structure-activity relationships for antiparasitic efficacy and pharmacokinetics. A new anti-T. cruzi scaffold derived from xanthine was identified, and we describe its development as lead series. PMID:25281737

  5. Amatoxin-containing mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) familial poisoning.

    PubMed

    Varvenne, David; Retornaz, Karine; Metge, Prune; De Haro, Luc; Minodier, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Mushroom picking finally requires experience and caution. PMID:25831030

  6. Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

  7. NUTRIENT CONTENT AND NUTRIENT RETENTION OF SELECTED MUSHROOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003 Americans consumed 2.6 pounds per capita of mushrooms. While the white button mushroom remains a frequent component of many recipes, other varieties such as shiitake, enoki, maitake, oyster, portabella, and shiitake are also growing in popularity. To improve and expand the data in the US...

  8. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-12-01

    From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  9. Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

  10. Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Piqueras, J

    1989-02-01

    Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed in some points: Symptomatic and supportive measures, toxin removal and extraction procedures, and the possibility of using antidotes. Some parameters with prognostic significance are commented on. Finally, the mortality rate and its evolution throughout the present century is also considered. PMID:2664527

  11. Local perceptions of Matsutake mushroom management, in NW Yunnan China Anthony Amend a,*, Zhendong Fang b

    E-print Network

    Amend, Anthony S.

    Local perceptions of Matsutake mushroom management, in NW Yunnan China Anthony Amend a,*, Zhendong Available online xxxx Keywords: Matsutake mushrooms Harvest affects NTFP NW Yunnan Conservation perceptions Sustainable use a b s t r a c t Matsutake mushrooms are among the most prized and expensive mushrooms on earth

  12. Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards Jonathan Andreasen,1

    E-print Network

    Cao, Hui

    Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards Jonathan Andreasen,1 Hui (Received 25 May 2009; published 8 October 2009) Optical mushroom-shaped billiards offer a unique this property, no other is attracting as much attention as the mushroom-shaped billiards [4]. Mushroom billiards

  13. Wild mushroom poisoning in north India: case series with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K; Chawla, Yogesh K

    2014-12-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  14. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  15. Chagas Disease, Migration and Community Settlement Patterns in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Robert H.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent seasonal migration by residents of peri-urban shantytowns provides a path of entry of vectors into these communities. Changing demographic dynamics of traditional towns are also leading to favorable conditions for Chagas disease transmission. Control programs must include surveillance for infestation in communities assumed to be free of vectors. PMID:20016830

  16. Dissecting slander and crying for justice: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-10-01

    Chagas disease was discovered by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Chagas worked at Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the bases of experimental medicine were settled in Brazil, and that had no connection with the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. Chagas had several enemies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute mainly because of his election to Head of Service in 1910, and for the position of Oswaldo Cruz Directorship in 1917. Furthermore, Chagas gained enemies at Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, which did not like to see the economical political autonomy of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. This allowed the Institute not only to perform top experimental research, but also to take the leadership of research in the country. Chagas was nominated to the Nobel Prize of 1921 in December, 1920. None was awarded the Nobel Prize in that year. He seems to have been evaluated by the Noble Committee of Karolinska Institute from March to May of 1921. At that time, his enemies were denying his discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi, a key point in Chagas' nomination by Karolinska Institute, and giving no epidemiological importance for the disease. By the same way, the obligation of small pox vaccination was tarnishing his public image. Having taken into account the epidemiologic importance of Chagas disease, the strong historical mistake in the process of Chagas evaluation, and the inequity behind all these facts, we insist on a posthumous Nobel Prize for the man who made the most complete medical-scientist discovery of all time. PMID:23410487

  17. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. PMID:24139877

  18. Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ismail; Kaya, Ertugrul; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Bayram, Recep; Surmen, Mustafa Gani; Colakoglu, Serdar

    2014-09-01

    Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Amatoxins, on the other hand, are very toxic and they primarily consist of alpha-amanitin (AA), beta-amanitin (BA) and gamma-amanitin (GA). Toxin levels can vary among various species, even among varieties of the same species, of Amanita mushroom family. Revealing the differences between the toxin compositions of the Amanita species that grow in our region may contribute to the clinics of poisonings. Our study aims at showing in detail the toxin levels in various parts of Amanita verna mushroom. A. verna mushrooms needed for toxin analysis were collected from Kozak Plateau near Ayvalik county of Bal?kesir, Turkey in April 2013. The mushrooms were divided into their parts as pileus, gills, stripe and volva. Following the procedures required before the analysis, the AA, BA, GA, PHN and PCN levels were measured using the RP-HPLC method. While the lowest level of amatoxin was in the volva of the mushroom, the highest was measured in the gills. This was followed by pileus and stripe where the levels were close to each other. Similarly, the highest level of phallotoxin was measured in the gills. Gamma toxin and phalloidin were at lower amounts than the other toxins. A. verna is frequently confused with edible mushrooms with white caps due to its macroscopic similarity. If just one of them is eaten by mistake by an adult person with no mushroom experience, it can easily poison them. The amount of amatoxin is more as compared to Amanita phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba. Particularly, the AA and BA levels are approximately three times higher, whereas GA levels are lower. Similarly, the level of PCN is approximately four times higher as compared to A. phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba; by contrast, the level of PNH is about a half of theirs. In summary, it can be said that A. verna is a more toxic mushroom than A. phalloides and has a higher rate of mortality. With our study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations and distribution in A. verna mushrooms were shown in detail for the first time and it would be useful to carry out more similar studies with other members of Amanita family growing in various parts of the world. PMID:24911374

  19. Wild growing mushrooms for the Edible City? Cadmium and lead content in edible mushrooms harvested within the urban agglomeration of Berlin, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schlecht, Martin Thomas; Säumel, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Health effects by consuming urban garden products are discussed controversially due to high urban pollution loads. We sampled wild edible mushrooms of different habitats and commercial mushroom cultivars exposed to high traffic areas within Berlin, Germany. We determined the content of cadmium and lead in the fruiting bodies and analysed how the local setting shaped the concentration patterns. EU standards for cultivated mushrooms were exceeded by 86% of the wild mushroom samples for lead and by 54% for cadmium but not by mushroom cultures. We revealed significant differences in trace metal content depending on species, trophic status, habitat and local traffic burden. Higher overall traffic burden increased trace metal content in the biomass of wild mushrooms, whereas cultivated mushrooms exposed to inner city high traffic areas had significantly lower trace metal contents. Based on these we discuss the consequences for the consumption of mushrooms originating from urban areas. PMID:26016949

  20. Rapid Chagas diagnosis in clinical settings using a multiparametric assay.

    PubMed

    Pierimarchi, Pasquale; Cerni, Laura; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyolé; Nicotera, Giuseppe; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Angheben, Andrea; Scacciatelli, Daria; Zonfrillo, Manuela; Recinelli, Giuliano; Serafino, Annalucia

    2013-04-01

    The development of an immunoassay for detecting circulating antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi with a good performance appears to be crucial in clinical settings for the management of Chagas disease. Here we propose a new automated ELISA test performed on serum samples using 2 different T. cruzi antigens (a recombinant protein and a T. cruzi whole extract) placed in parallel in separate solid phases. This automated diagnostic tool allows the simultaneous analysis of a large number of sera, by determining the presence of antibodies against both antigens by a single run test, with high sensitivity and specificity. The simultaneous analysis of the reactivity against the 2 antigens in a biparametric modality reduces the percentage of false-negative sera and allows a more accurate diagnosis. Using this multiparametric approach, we propose an effective algorithm for the first step of Chagas diagnosis by performing a single test, with time and cost savings. PMID:23375530

  1. Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case

    PubMed Central

    Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed the causes that underlie this phenomenon. This approach can be used in cross-cultural studies because it brings a list with the relative position of species among a cultural significance gradient. This list is suitable for comparisons and also it is flexible because cultural variables can be included or removed to adjust it to the nature of the different cultures or resources under study. PMID:17217539

  2. Challenges and perspectives of Chagas disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and affects an estimated 8 to 10 million people worldwide. In Latin America, 25 million people live in risk areas, while in 2008 alone, 10,000 CD-related deaths were reported. This review aimed to evaluate the challenges of CD control, future perspectives, and actions performed worldwide to control expansion of the disease and its impact on public health in Latin America. PMID:24354455

  3. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J; Montgomery, Susan P

    2011-10-01

    Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

  5. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  6. Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

  7. Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

    2010-07-01

    Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

  8. Mushroom Lectins: Specificity, Structure and Bioactivity Relevant to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W.; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell–cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  9. The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

  10. INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  11. Mushroom lectins: specificity, structure and bioactivity relevant to human disease.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Ali Abol; Rouf, Razina; Tiralongo, Evelin; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell-cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. Given that only 10% of mushroom species are known and have been taxonomically classified, mushrooms represent an enormous unexplored source of potentially useful and novel lectins. In this review we provide an up-to-date summary on the biochemical, molecular and structural properties of mushroom lectins, as well as their versatile applications specifically focusing on mushroom lectin bioactivity. PMID:25856678

  12. [Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].

    PubMed

    Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

    2009-05-01

    Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for children. We discuss possible approaches. PMID:19401986

  13. Productivity and diversity of morel mushrooms in healthy, burned, and insect-damaged forests of northeastern Oregon

    E-print Network

    Productivity and diversity of morel mushrooms in healthy, burned, and insect-damaged forests; Mushrooms; Fire; Species diversity; Genetics; Disturbance; Nontimber forest products Forest Ecology- mercially harvested, wild edible mushrooms. In 1992, approximately 590 metric tonnes of morels were har

  14. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from India. EFFECTIVE DATE: April 9...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from India covering the period of...

  15. Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

    2010-09-01

    Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  16. A Reservoir Model of Chagas Disease Sara Krueger, May Boggess, and Jay Walton

    E-print Network

    Rowell, Eric C.

    by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi[1]. This parasite is found in the feces of the Triatoma sp. insect, commonly bug, it can also be contracted from blood, for example being born of a woman with the T.cruzi parasite, blood transfusions, organ transplant, working in a lab dealing with Chagas disease testing[2]. Chagas

  17. Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

  18. 77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...other species of mushroom, including straw mushrooms; (2) all fresh and chilled...Land Rent Comment 3: Valuation of Rice Straw Comment 4: Valuation of Manure Comment...Surrogate Values to Value Manure and Straw Comment 6: Valuation of Coal...

  19. Tropical diseases encountered in Canada: 1. Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, H.; McClarty, B. M.; McRuer, K. E.; Nash, R. A.; Penney, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    Chagas' disease, or South American trypanosomiasis, is an endemic South American disease now being seen in Canada in both acute and chronic forms. It is characterized by an initial parasitemia that elicits a brisk immune response. Evidence is mounting that the debilitating chronic form, which is characterized by cardiac and visceral organ failure, results from antigenic cross-reactivity between the parasite and the human host, which generates an aberrant, destructive, cell-mediated immune response. Diagnosis, treatment and potential areas for investigation are discussed. PMID:6767543

  20. Ecologic niche modeling and potential reservoirs for Chagas disease, Mexico

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Sá nchez-Cordero, Ví ctor; Beard, C. Ben; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2002-07-01

    of the Triatominae (Hemiptera: Redu- vidae) of Mexico. International Journal of Entomology 1985;27:102–27. 11. Vidal-Acosta V, Ibañez-Bernal S., Martínez-Campos C. Infección natural de chinches Triatominae con Trypanosoma cruzi asociadas a la vivienda humana en... cruzi and transmitted by blood-feeding insects in the family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. Chagas disease is an important cause of illness and death throughout the Americas, affecting 16–18 million persons. While an esti- mated 100 million persons...

  1. Diagnosis of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Non-invasive techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Valecillos, R.; Hirschhaut, E.; Giordano, H.; Boccalandro, I.; Suárez, C.; Aparicio, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The natural history of Chagas' disease and its manifestations when the heart is involved are detailed clinically and pathologically. Three phases are recognized: the acute phase, lasting from 1-3 months, the latent phase, which may last from 10-20 years, and the chronic phase, which has the most serious manifestations. This phase is subdivided into three clinical stages. An analysis of the varied cardiac manifestations on 235 patients is included. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:412174

  2. Cuticular hydrocarbons of Chagas disease vectors in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Juarez, M Patricia; Carlson, David A; Salazar Schettino, Paz María; Mijailovsky, Sergio; Rojas, Gloria

    2002-09-01

    Capillary gas-liquid chromatography was used to analyse the cuticular hydrocarbons of three triatomine species, Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi and Dipetalogaster maxima, domestic vectors of Chagas disease in Mexico. Mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons of straight and methyl-branched chains were characteristic of the three species, but quantitatively different. Major methylbranched components mostly corresponded to different saturated isomers of monomethyl, dimethyl and trimethyl branched hydrocarbons ranging from 29 to 39 carbon backbones. Sex-dependent, quantitative differences in certain hydrocarbons were apparent in T. dimidiata. PMID:12386703

  3. Aerodynamics of puffball mushroom spore dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Barberie, Alex; Hu, David

    2012-11-01

    Puffball mushrooms Lycoperdon are spherical fungi that release a cloud of spores in response to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we elucidate the aerodynamics of this unique impact-based spore-dispersal. We characterize live puffball ejections by high speed video, the geometry and elasticity of their shells by cantilever experiments, and the packing fraction and size of their spores by scanning electron microscope. We build a dynamically similar puffball mimic composed of a tied-off latex balloon filled with baby powder and topped with a 1-cm slit. A jet of powder is elicited by steady lateral compression of the mimic between two plates. The jet height is a bell-shaped function of force applied, with a peak of 18 cm at loads of 45 N. We rationalize the increase in jet height with force using Darcy's Law: the applied force generates an overpressure maintained by the air-tight elastic membrane. Pressure is relieved as the air travels through the spore interstitial spaces, entrains spores, and exits through the puffball orifice. This mechanism demonstrates how powder-filled elastic shells can generate high-speed jets using energy harvested from rain.

  4. [Emergent drugs (III): hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Burillo-Putze, G; López Briz, E; Climent Díaz, B; Munné Mas, P; Nogue Xarau, S; Pinillos, M A; Hoffman, R S

    2013-01-01

    An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses. Several deaths from its consumption have been detected. The consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms appears in cyclic form, although there has been increase in their online offer. They are consumed in search of their hallucinogenic effects, above all those belonging to the family of psilocybes, which contain tryptamines with a hallucinogenic effect similar to LSD. Peyote (Lophophora psilocybes), a cactus rich in mescaline (trimetoxifeniletilamina), produces hallucinations of the five senses, and forms part of the religious culture of the North American Indians. Daturas, which are ubiquitous, produce anticholinergic symptoms and effects on the central nervous system (delirium, hallucinations, etc.), due to their high atropine and scopolamine content. Other substances used for their hallucinogenic effects include the drink known as ayahuasca, and seeds for preparing infusions like Ololiuqui, Morning Glory (Ipomoea violacea), Hawaian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) and Iboga Rootbark (Tabernanthe iboga). PMID:24406363

  5. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  6. Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

    2014-01-15

    Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. PMID:24054262

  7. Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

  8. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümü?çü, Hasan Hüseyin; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazo?lu, Orhan Kür?at

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  9. Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümü?çü, Hasan Hüseyin; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazo?lu, Orhan Kür?at

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

  10. Integrative Properties of the Pe1 Neuron, a Unique Mushroom Body Output Neuron

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Integrative Properties of the Pe1 Neuron, a Unique Mushroom Body Output Neuron Ju¨rgen Rybak1 Institut fu¨r Neurobiologie Freie Universita¨t Berlin D-14195 Berlin, Germany Abstract A mushroom body extrinsic neuron, the Pe1 neuron, connects the peduncle of the mushroom body (MB) with two areas

  11. MONDAY Sample Halls Menu MAIN MEAL BEEF, MUSHROOM AND ALE PIE

    E-print Network

    Huang, Xun

    MONDAY Sample Halls Menu MAIN MEAL BEEF, MUSHROOM AND ALE PIE MAIN MEAL VEGETABLE GOULASH CHILLI CON CARNE MAIN MEAL FIELD MUSHROOM AND VEGETABLE STROGANOFF JACKET POTATO CHOICE OF HOT, SCRAMBLED EGG, TOMATO, MUSHROOMS, SAUTÉ POTATOES, BAPS, TOAST CEREALS JACKET POTATO FILLING OF CHEFS

  12. The mushroom family Psathyrellaceae: Evidence for large-scale polyphyly of the genus Psathyrella

    E-print Network

    Matheny, P. Brandon

    The mushroom family Psathyrellaceae: Evidence for large-scale polyphyly of the genus Psathyrella 2007 Abstract Psathyrella is the archetypal little brown mushroom genus with few easily discernable­600 species of mushrooms (Hawksworth et al., 1995; Kirk et al., 2001; Vasutova´, 2006). Species of Psathyrella

  13. American Journal of Botany 84(8): 981991. 1997. FOSSIL MUSHROOMS FROM MIOCENE AND CRETACEOUS

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    981 American Journal of Botany 84(8): 981­991. 1997. FOSSIL MUSHROOMS FROM MIOCENE AND CRETACEOUS Two species of fossil mushrooms that are similar to extant Tricholomataceae are described from to hypotheses that the cosmopolitan distributions of certain mushroom taxa could be due to fragmentation

  14. eople have harvested mushrooms from the wild for thousands of years for food and

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    1 P eople have harvested mushrooms from the wild for thousands of years for food and medicines. Of the estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, about 10,000 produce the fruiting bodies we call mushrooms. While commercial harvesting of wild mushrooms continues today, most of the world's supply comes from commer- cial

  15. SpongeBob, the mushroom, discovered in Borneo David Perlman, Chronicle Science Writer

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    SpongeBob, the mushroom, discovered in Borneo David Perlman, Chronicle Science Writer Monday, June, spongy, egg-size mushroom Spongiforma squarepantsii. IMAGES View Larger Images You can find all the porcini you want in your supermarket, but don't go looking for the mushroom's distant cousin, Spongiforma

  16. Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom Martin P. A. Coetzee1

    E-print Network

    Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom Martin P. A. Coetzee1 *, Paulette Bloomer2 pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts Pathogenic Mushroom. PLoS ONE 6(12): e28545. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028545 Editor: Dee A. Carter

  17. Developmental and Dominance-Associated Differences in Mushroom Body Structure in the

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Sean

    Developmental and Dominance-Associated Differences in Mushroom Body Structure in the Paper Wasp of subregions of the mushroom bodies (MB) of female Mischocyttarus mastigophorus queens and workers. We found; division of labor; Kenyon cells; mushroom bodies; neural plasticity INTRODUCTION Division of labor

  18. Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe sensu lato (Agaricales)

    E-print Network

    Matheny, P. Brandon

    ARTICLE Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe, molecular systematics, psilocybin, psychedelic mushrooms. Résumé : Le genre Psilocybe comporte des espèces and iconic group of mushroom-forming fungi famous for its neurotropic use, especially in sacred religious

  19. Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 date of collection

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date of collection: Location by: Identified by: Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date of collection) collected by: Identified by: Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date

  20. Early Development of Mushroom Bodies in the Brain of the Honeybee Apis mellifera

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Early Development of Mushroom Bodies in the Brain of the Honeybee Apis mellifera as Revealed by Brd Berlin, Germany Abstract In the honeybee the mushroom bodies are prominent neuropil structures arranged as pairs in the dorsal protocerebrum of the brain. Each mushroom body is composed of a medial and a lateral

  1. Morphology of Feedback Neurons in the Mushroom Body of the Honeybee,

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Morphology of Feedback Neurons in the Mushroom Body of the Honeybee, Apis mellifera BERND GRU The anatomy of -aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive, recurrent feedback neu- rons in the mushroom body (MB The mushroom bodies (MB) are central neuropil struc- tures in the protocerebrum of the insect brain

  2. Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important ``Big Red Mushroom'' from Southern China

    E-print Network

    James, Timothy

    Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important ``Big Red Mushroom'' from Southern China's Republic of China Abstract Background: In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called ``Dahongjun'' or ``Big Red Mushroom'' by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported

  3. Characterization of a mycovirus associated with the brown discoloration of edible mushroom, Flammulina velutipes.

    E-print Network

    Huang, Ching-Tsan

    Characterization of a mycovirus associated with the brown discoloration of edible mushroom. Viruses associated with die-back disease of cultivated mushrooms. Nature 196: 962-965, 1962. 2. Grogan HM. Presence of polyhedral virus like particle in shiitake mushroom, Lentinus edodes. Rep Tottori Mycol Ins

  4. Ground Plan of the Insect Mushroom Body: Functional and Evolutionary Implications

    E-print Network

    Farris, Sarah M.

    Ground Plan of the Insect Mushroom Body: Functional and Evolutionary Implications NICHOLAS J possesses a mushroom body equipped with calyces supplied by olfactory projection neurons. Kenyon cells pro, there is a loss of the antennal lobes and attenuation or loss of the calyces. Such taxa retain mushroom body lobes

  5. Optimization of liquid culture conditions of Philippine wild edible mushrooms as potential source of bioactive lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With remarkable bioactivities and delightful taste, mushrooms have been a commercial nutraceutical around the world. Mushrooms are cultivated on solid materials. Here we report the successful cultivation of four Philippine edible mushrooms in liquid medium. This work highlights the optimal liquid cu...

  6. Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread

    E-print Network

    James, Timothy

    Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals-Sik Kong1 * 1 Mushroom Research Division, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei

  7. Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L.

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis Toulouse cedex 04, France Keywords: brain lesion, cognition, honeybee, hydroxyurea, mushroom bodies, olfactory learning Abstract The mushroom bodies (MBs) are central structures in the insect brain that have

  8. Age, Sex, and Dominance-Related Mushroom Body Plasticity in the Paperwasp Mischocyttarus

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Sean

    Age, Sex, and Dominance-Related Mushroom Body Plasticity in the Paperwasp Mischocyttarus demonstrated experience-dependent changes in central and primary sensory centers in the brain. The mushroom success. ' 2008 Wiley Periodi- cals, Inc.* Develop Neurobiol 68: 950­959, 2008 Keywords: mushroom bodies

  9. Sticky and Non-sticky open Mushrooms {Orestis Georgiou, Carl P. Dettmann} School of Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Goussev, Arseni O.

    Sticky and Non-sticky open Mushrooms {Orestis Georgiou, Carl P. Dettmann} School of Mathematics and specular reflections from a boundary. The mushroom billiard forms a class of dynam- ical systems for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is non-sticky. The open mushroom (billiard

  10. 2006 Nature Publishing Group A dynamic role for the mushroom bodies in

    E-print Network

    Allada, Ravi

    © 2006 Nature Publishing Group A dynamic role for the mushroom bodies in promoting sleep with shared expression in the mushroom bodies, a neural locus central to learning and memory3 . Chemical ablation of the mushroom bodies also resulted in reduced sleep. These studies highlight a central role

  11. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...: Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, 63 FR 66529 (December 2, 1998); Notice of Amendment of Final... India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19, 1999); Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms... foreseeable time. See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations, 75 FR...

  12. Limits on Volume Changes in the Mushroom Bodies of the Honey Bee Brain

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Gene E.

    Limits on Volume Changes in the Mushroom Bodies of the Honey Bee Brain Susan E. Fahrbach,1,2 Sarah hormone (JH), and is temporally correlated with an increase in the volume of the neuropil of the mushroom expansion and its possible dependence on JH. We stud- ied the volume of the mushroom bodies in adult bees

  13. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Learning-Related Plasticity in PE1 and Other Mushroom

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Learning-Related Plasticity in PE1 and Other Mushroom Body probability of behavioral responses, our data suggest that the mushroom bodies exert general inhibition over; associative plasticity; mushroom body; olfactory learning; extracellular recording; PE1 neuron Introduction

  14. Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation of Science, University of Swansea, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom; r Plant Research International-Mushrooms 200 y and worldwide cultivation of the "button mushroom" forms a multibillion dollar industry. We

  15. Small Scale Mushroom Production WHEN: February 5, 2016 (8:15am--4:30pm)

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Small Scale Mushroom Production WHEN: February 5, 2016 · (8:15am--4:30pm) WHERE: Suwannee Valley. To register online, visit: 2016mushroom.eventbrite.com To register by mail, send form and payment to: (checks An Equal Opportunity Institution Small Scale Mushroom Production--February 5 Name(s): (Primary Participant

  16. The Backdrop EAT ME Hookahs and Mushrooms The Mad t Party Jabberwocky Base 18, Quaternions,

    E-print Network

    Lega, Joceline

    The Backdrop EAT ME Hookahs and Mushrooms The Mad t Party Jabberwocky Base 18, Quaternions, Markov #12;The Backdrop EAT ME Hookahs and Mushrooms The Mad t Party Jabberwocky Outline 1 The Backdrop 2 EAT ME 3 Hookahs and Mushrooms 4 The Mad t Party 5 Jabberwocky Jordan Schettler Department of Mathematics

  17. After the gold rush, or before the flood? Evolutionary morphology of mushroom-forming fungi

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    After the gold rush, or before the flood? Evolutionary morphology of mushroom-forming fungi t Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes, approx. syn.: Homobasidiomycetes) produce a diverse array, such as stinkhorns and veiled agarics. The 19th century Friesian system divided the mushroom-forming fungi according

  18. Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

    1996-01-01

    An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

  19. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Preserved Mushrooms: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012, 77 FR 66580... Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India, 64 FR 8311 (February 19... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping...

  20. Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights Sarah M. Farris*

    E-print Network

    Farris, Sarah M.

    Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights Sarah M. Farris* Department of Biology Received 20 October 2004; accepted 7 January 2005 Abstract The mushroom bodies are a morphologically, of which those of insects are the best described. Insect mushroom bodies are composed of numerous tiny

  1. 75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ...Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

  2. 76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  3. 75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period February...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

  4. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...the antidumping duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be likely...

  5. 76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

  6. 75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

  7. 77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

  8. 76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of...

  9. Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushroom on immune function of C57BL mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, no information is available on the effect of dietary intake of white mushrooms, which represent ...

  10. Ice-binding proteins from enoki and shiitake mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Raymond, James A; Janech, Michael G

    2009-04-01

    Fungi have developed a variety of mechanisms for tolerating cold, including production of proteins that bind to ice, as shown by their ability to slightly lower the freezing point. At present, only one of these proteins, from the snow mold Typhula ishikariensis, and partial transcripts of a similar protein from shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes, have been identified. Here, we report the full sequences of ice-binding proteins from shiitake and another mushroom, the cold-adapted Flammulina populicola (enoki mushroom), and show that the recombinant proteins have ice-binding activity. The three proteins share 50-55% identities and are similar to other ice-binding proteins recently identified in ice bacteria and sea ice diatoms. The possibility that ice-binding protein genes have spread among these phyla by horizontal transfer is discussed. PMID:19121299

  11. Mushroom spore dispersal by convectively-driven winds

    E-print Network

    Dressaire, Emilie; Song, Boya; Roper, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of fungal species rely on mushroom spores to spread across landscapes. It has long been thought that spores depend on favorable airflows for dispersal -- that active control of spore dispersal by the parent fungus is limited to an impulse delivered to the spores to carry them clear of the gill surface. Here we show that evaporative cooling of the air surrounding the mushroom pileus creates convective airflows capable of carrying spores at speeds of centimeters per second. Convective cells can transport spores from gaps that may be only a centimeter high, and lift spores ten centimeters or more into the air. The work reveals how mushrooms tolerate and even benefit from crowding, and provides a new explanation for their high water needs.

  12. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  13. A Multi-species Bait for Chagas Disease Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Theo; Vitta, Ana C. R.; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N.; Barezani, Carla P.; Zani, Carlos L.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Jeffares, Lynne; Bohman, Björn; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatomine bugs are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. These insects are known to aggregate inside shelters during daylight hours and it has been demonstrated that within shelters, the aggregation is induced by volatiles emitted from bug feces. These signals promote inter-species aggregation among most species studied, but the chemical composition is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, feces from larvae of the three species were obtained and volatile compounds were identified by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). We identified five compounds, all present in feces of all of the three species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma brasiliensis. These substances were tested for attractivity and ability to recruit insects into shelters. Behaviorally active doses of the five substances were obtained for all three triatomine species. The bugs were significantly attracted to shelters baited with blends of 160 ng or 1.6 µg of each substance. Conclusions/Significance Common compounds were found in the feces of vectors of Chagas disease that actively recruited insects into shelters, which suggests that this blend of compounds could be used for the development of baits for early detection of reinfestation with triatomine bugs. PMID:24587457

  14. Squalene Synthase As a Target for Chagas Disease Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A.; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A.; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

  15. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C)

    PubMed Central

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna

    2015-01-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38?). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the world, milky white mushroom could play an important role in satisfying the growing market demands for edible mushrooms in the near future. PMID:26539033

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Tropical Milky White Mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C).

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Krishnamoorthy Akkanna; Balan, Venkatesh

    2015-09-01

    A compressive description of tropical milky white mushroom (Calocybe indica P&C var. APK2) is provided in this review. This mushroom variety was first identified in the eastern Indian state of West Bengal and can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates, at a high temperature range (30~38?). However, no commercial cultivation was made until 1998. Krishnamoorthy 1997 rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world. This edible mushroom has a long shelf life (5~7 days) compared to other commercially available counterparts. A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz., pH, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, best carbon source, best nitrogen source, growth period, growth promoters for mycelia biomass production; substrate preparation; spawn inoculation; different supplementation and casing requirements to increase the yield of mushrooms has been outlined. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms. Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity and shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the world, milky white mushroom could play an important role in satisfying the growing market demands for edible mushrooms in the near future. PMID:26539033

  17. PREPARATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM BAGS Developed by Carolyn Saft, Horticulture Agent II, UF/IFAS Suwannee County Extension

    E-print Network

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    PREPARATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM BAGS Developed by Carolyn Saft, Horticulture Agent II, UF tightly. Step 9 - Place filled bag in a cool, dark room. Step 10 - The mycelium of the oyster mushroom) and the mushrooms start to "pin" (mushroom heads start to form), cut small "x"'s all around the bag to allow

  18. [Two different outcomes after Death Cap mushroom intoxication].

    PubMed

    Agerlund Petersen, Marianne; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

    2013-06-10

    Death Cap is one of the most lethal mushrooms in Denmark and may be mistaken for a non-toxic Asian mushroom. We report on two accidental cases admitted 12 and 17 hours after ingestion presenting with gastroenteritis and decline in liver function. The patient who arrived after 12 hours responded well to intensive treatment of liver failure and was discharged after 18 days. The other patient deteriorated in spite of intensive treatment and underwent liver transplantation. She was later discharged. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential. PMID:23763927

  19. Two Cases of Mushroom Poisoning by Podostroma Cornu-Damae

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin Young; Seok, Soon Ja; Song, Je Eun; Choi, Jung Ho; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Chang Oh; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

    2013-01-01

    Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare fungus that houses a fatal toxin in its fruit body. In this case report, two patients collected and boiled the wild fungus in water, which they drank for one month. One patient died, presenting with desquamation of the palms and soles, pancytopenia, severe sepsis and multiple organ failure. The other patient recovered after one month of conservative care after admission. We found a piece of Podostroma cornu-damae in the remaining clusters of mushrooms. Mushroom poisoning by Podostroma cornu-damae has never been previously reported in Korea. PMID:23225831

  20. On palms, bugs, and Chagas disease in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Martín, María; Calzada, José; Saldaña, Azael; Monteiro, Fernando A; Palomeque, Francisco S; Santos, Walter S; Angulo, Victor M; Esteban, Lyda; Dias, Fernando B S; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Bar, María Esther; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Palms are ubiquitous across Neotropical landscapes, from pristine forests or savannahs to large cities. Although palms provide useful ecosystem services, they also offer suitable habitat for triatomines and for Trypanosoma cruzi mammalian hosts. Wild triatomines often invade houses by flying from nearby palms, potentially leading to new cases of human Chagas disease. Understanding and predicting triatomine-palm associations and palm infestation probabilities is important for enhancing Chagas disease prevention in areas where palm-associated vectors transmit T. cruzi. We present a comprehensive overview of palm infestation by triatomines in the Americas, combining a thorough reanalysis of our published and unpublished records with an in-depth review of the literature. We use site-occupancy modeling (SOM) to examine infestation in 3590 palms sampled with non-destructive methods, and standard statistics to describe and compare infestation in 2940 palms sampled by felling-and-dissection. Thirty-eight palm species (18 genera) have been reported to be infested by ?39 triatomine species (10 genera) from the USA to Argentina. Overall infestation varied from 49.1-55.3% (SOM) to 62.6-66.1% (dissection), with important heterogeneities among sub-regions and particularly among palm species. Large palms with complex crowns (e.g., Attalea butyracea, Acrocomia aculeata) and some medium-crowned palms (e.g., Copernicia, Butia) are often infested; in slender, small-crowned palms (e.g., Euterpe) triatomines associate with vertebrate nests. Palm infestation tends to be higher in rural settings, but urban palms can also be infested. Most Rhodnius species are probably true palm specialists, whereas Psammolestes, Eratyrus, Cavernicola, Panstrongylus, Triatoma, Alberprosenia, and some Bolboderini seem to use palms opportunistically. Palms provide extensive habitat for enzootic T. cruzi cycles and a critical link between wild cycles and transmission to humans. Unless effective means to reduce contact between people and palm-living triatomines are devised, palms will contribute to maintaining long-term and widespread, albeit possibly low-intensity, transmission of human Chagas disease. PMID:26196330

  1. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Berenstein, Ada; Tarlovsky, Ana; Siniawski, Susana; Biancardi, Miguel; Ballering, Griselda; Moroni, Samanta; Schwarcz, Marta; Hernández, Susana; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Cozzi, Andrés Espejo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate. PMID:26222020

  2. Chagas disease and transfusion medicine: a perspective from non-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Angheben, Andrea; Boix, Lucia; Buonfrate, Dora; Gobbi, Federico; Bisoffi, Zeno; Pupella, Simonetta; Gandini, Giorgio; Aprili, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, increasing international migration and travel from Latin America to Europe have favoured the emergence of tropical diseases outside their “historical” boundaries. Chagas disease, a zoonosis endemic in rural areas of Central and South America represents a clear example of this phenomenon. In the absence of the vector, one of the potential modes of transmission of Chagas disease in non-endemic regions is through blood and blood products. As most patients with Chagas disease are asymptomatic and unaware of their condition, in case of blood donation they can inadvertently represent a serious threat to the safety of the blood supply in non-endemic areas. Since the first cases of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease were described in the last years, non-endemic countries began to develop ad hoc strategies to prevent and control the spread of the infection. United States, Spain, United Kingdom and France first recognised the need for Trypanosoma cruzi screening in at-risk blood donors. In this review, we trace an up-to-date perspective on Chagas disease, describing its peculiar features, from epidemiological, pathological, clinical and diagnostic points of view. Moreover, we describe the possible transmission of Chagas disease through blood or blood products and the current strategies for its control, focusing on non-endemic areas. PMID:26513769

  3. Low prevalence of Chagas parasite infection in a nonhuman primate colony in Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Patricia L; Daigle, Megan E; Combe, Crescent L; Tate, Ashley H; Stevens, Lori; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M

    2012-07-01

    Chagas disease, an important cause of heart disease in Latin America, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which typically is transmitted to humans by triatomine insects. Although autochthonous transmission of the Chagas parasite to humans is rare in the United States, triatomines are common, and more than 20 species of mammals are infected with the Chagas parasite in the southern United States. Chagas disease has also been detected in colonies of nonhuman primates (NHP) in Georgia and Texas, and heart abnormalities consistent with Chagas disease have occurred at our NHP center in Louisiana. To determine the level of T. cruzi infection, we serologically tested 2157 of the approximately 4200 NHP at the center; 34 of 2157 primates (1.6%) tested positive. Presence of the T. cruzi parasite was confirmed by hemoculture in 4 NHP and PCR of the cultured parasites. These results strongly suggest local transmission of T. cruzi, because most of the infected NHP were born and raised at this site. All 3 species of NHP tested yielded infected animals, with significantly higher infection prevalence in pig-tailed macaques, suggesting possible exploration of this species as a model organism. The local T. cruzi strain isolated during this study would enhance such investigations. The NHP at this center are bred for use in scientific research, and the effects of the Chagas parasite on infected primates could confuse the interpretation of other studies. PMID:23043809

  4. Heart transplant recipient with history of Chagas disease and elevated panel-reactive antibodies.

    PubMed

    Davalos-Krebs, Gleidys

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is caused by a protozoan named Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted to humans by reduviid bugs. Severe dilated cardiomyopathy from chronic T cruzi infection is the most common finding, leading to end-stage heart failure. Heart transplant is an effective treatment for Chagas heart disease. However, T cruzi reactivation is of great concern, predisposing patients to episodes of myocarditis and rejection. A 56-year-old woman with a history of Chagas disease and elevated calculated panel reactive antibodies (CPRAs) underwent induction therapy and desensitization strategies aimed at lowering CPRAs, as elevated CPRAs have been implicated in the development of antibody-mediated rejection and reduced allograft survival. Clinical phases and signs and symptoms of Chagas disease are briefly described in an attempt to promote awareness of the disease among clinicians. In addition, serology assays approved in the United States as well as recommendations of experts on Chagas disease to assess tissues and blood specimens from endemic areas are outlined. Ultimately, the importance of ongoing surveillance is emphasized, as the future of heart transplant recipients with Chagas disease is unpredictable and the presence or reactivation of the disease requires prompt attention in an effort to prevent graft failure and death. PMID:26645921

  5. Urban Chagas disease in children and women in primary care centres in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Moscatelli, Guillermo; Berenstein, Ada; Tarlovsky, Ana; Siniawski, Susana; Biancardi, Miguel; Ballering, Griselda; Moroni, Samanta; Schwarcz, Marta; Hernández, Susana; García-Bournissen, Facundo; Cozzi, Andrés Espejo; Freilij, Héctor; Altcheh, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this disease in women of childbearing age and children treated at health centres in underserviced areas of the city of Buenos Aires. Demographic and Chagas disease status data were collected. Samples for Chagas disease serology were obtained on filter paper and the reactive results were confirmed with conventional samples. A total of 1,786 subjects were screened and 73 positive screening results were obtained: 17 were from children and 56 were from women. The Trypanosoma cruzi infection risk was greater in those individuals who had relatives with Chagas disease, who remember seeing kissing bugs, who were of Bolivian nationality or were born in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero. The overall prevalence of Chagas disease was 4.08%. Due to migration, Chagas disease is currently predominantly urban. The observed prevalence requires health programme activities that are aimed at urban children and their mothers. Most children were infected congenitally, which reinforces the need for Chagas disease screening of all pregnant women and their babies in Argentina. The active search for new cases is important because the appropriate treatment in children has a high cure rate. PMID:26222020

  6. Genealogical correspondence of mushroom bodies across invertebrate phyla.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Except in species that have undergone evolved loss, paired lobed centers referred to as "mushroom bodies" occur across invertebrate phyla. Unresolved is the question of whether these centers, which support learning and memory in insects, correspond genealogically or whether their neuronal organization suggests convergent evolution. Here, anatomical and immunohistological observations demonstrate that across phyla, mushroom body-like centers share a neuroanatomical ground pattern and proteins required for memory formation. Paired lobed or dome-like neuropils characterize the first brain segment (protocerebrum) of mandibulate and chelicerate arthropods and the nonganglionic brains of polychaete annelids, polyclad planarians, and nemerteans. Structural and cladistic analyses resolve an ancestral ground pattern common to all investigated taxa: chemosensory afferents supplying thousands of intrinsic neurons, the parallel processes of which establish orthogonal networks with feedback loops, modulatory inputs, and efferents. Shared ground patterns and their selective labeling with antisera against proteins required for normal mushroom body function in Drosophila are indicative of genealogical correspondence and thus an ancestral presence predating arthropod and lophotrochozoan origins. Implications of this are considered in the context of mushroom body function and early ecologies of ancestral bilaterians. PMID:25532890

  7. Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

  8. 3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  9. The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

  10. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1997-09-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

  11. High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

    1998-07-01

    The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina

    2008-08-14

    Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

  13. Renal involvement in mushroom poisoning: The case of Orellanus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Pasquale; La Porta, Edoardo; Calatroni, Marta; Bianzina, Stefania; Libetta, Carmelo; Gregorini, Marilena; Rampino, Teresa; Dal Canton, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Although mushroom poisoning is a rare cause of acute renal injury, in some cases it may lead to the development of a severe and irreversible renal failure. Orellanus syndrome is the most important example of organic renal damage related to mushroom consumption. It is caused by the ingestion of orellanine, the main toxin of different types of Cortinarius mushrooms (Cortinarius speciosissimus, C.?orellanus, C.?orellanoides, etc.), and it is characterized by progressive clinical phases with a predominant kidney involvement, finally requiring renal replacement therapy in about 10% of cases. Renal damage is often late and associated with a histological picture of interstitial nephritis. Diagnosis is essentially clinical and no specific therapy has been shown to be effective in preventing and treating renal damage. Here, we describe the case of a patient with mixed wild mushroom poisoning, presenting the typical clinical signs and course of the Orellanus syndrome. This case offers us the opportunity to review the main clinical features of this severe and little-known intoxication. PMID:25649895

  14. Mushroom lectin protects arsenic induced apoptosis in hepatocytes of rodents.

    PubMed

    Rana, Tanmoy; Bera, Asit Kumar; Das, Subhashree; Bhattacharya, Debasis; Pan, Diganta; Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish; De, Sumanta; Das, Subrata Kumar

    2011-04-01

    Acute and chronic arsenic exposure result in toxicity both in human and animal beings and cause many hepatic and renal manifestations. The present study stated that mushroom lectin prevents arsenic-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was measured by morphological alterations, cell proliferation index (CPI), phagocytic activity (nitro blue tetrazolium index; NBT), nitric oxide (NO) production, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. Arsenic exposure at 5 ?M in the form of sodium arsenite resulted in significant elevation of deformed cells, NO production, TUNEL stained nuclei of hepatocytes, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity. But the CPI and NBT index were significantly declined in arsenic-treated hepatocytes. The beneficial effect of mushroom lectin at 10 ?g/mL, 20 ?g/mL and 50 ?g/mL) showed increased CPI and phagocytic activity. Mushroom lectin at those concentrations reduced deformed cells, NO production, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity of hepatocytes. But significant better protection was observed in 50 ?g/mL mushroom lectin-treated hepatocytes. This finding may be of therapeutic benefit in people suffering from chronic arsenic exposure. PMID:20507870

  15. Historical Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Human Chagas Disease in Texas and Recommendations for Enhanced Understanding of Clinical Chagas Disease in the Southern United States.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Melissa N; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Aguilar, David; Hotez, Peter J; Murray, Kristy O

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) has recently been identified as an important neglected tropical disease in the United States. Anecdotally referred to as a "silent killer," it leads to the development of potentially fatal cardiac disease in approximately 30% of those infected. In an attempt to better understand the potential of Chagas disease as a significant underlying cause of morbidity in Texas, we performed a historical literature review to assess disease burden. Human reports of triatomine bites and disease exposure were found to be prevalent in Texas. Despite current beliefs that Chagas disease is a recently emerging disease, we report historical references dating as far back as 1935. Both imported cases and autochthonous transmission contribute to the historical disease burden in Texas. We end by discussing the current knowledge gaps, and recommend priorities for advancing further epidemiologic studies and their policy implications. PMID:26540273

  16. Historical Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Human Chagas Disease in Texas and Recommendations for Enhanced Understanding of Clinical Chagas Disease in the Southern United States

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Melissa N.; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Aguilar, David; Hotez, Peter J.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) has recently been identified as an important neglected tropical disease in the United States. Anecdotally referred to as a “silent killer,” it leads to the development of potentially fatal cardiac disease in approximately 30% of those infected. In an attempt to better understand the potential of Chagas disease as a significant underlying cause of morbidity in Texas, we performed a historical literature review to assess disease burden. Human reports of triatomine bites and disease exposure were found to be prevalent in Texas. Despite current beliefs that Chagas disease is a recently emerging disease, we report historical references dating as far back as 1935. Both imported cases and autochthonous transmission contribute to the historical disease burden in Texas. We end by discussing the current knowledge gaps, and recommend priorities for advancing further epidemiologic studies and their policy implications. PMID:26540273

  17. Modeling the Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

    2009-04-01

    A recent model for Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation is extended for a three-dimensional multi-agent-based model. The computational model includes six different types of autonomous agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor- ?, Trypanosoma cruzi, and bone marrow stem cell. Only fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move randomly through the empty spaces using the three-dimensional Moore neighborhood. Bone marrow stem cells can promote apoptosis in inflammatory cells, fibrosis regression and can differentiate in cardiomyocyte. T. cruzi can increase the number of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells and tumor necrosis factor- ? can increase the quantity of fibrosis. Our results were compared with experimental data giving a fairly fit and they suggest that the inflammatory cells are important for the development of fibrosis.

  18. Reactivation of Chagas Disease: Implications for Global Health.

    PubMed

    Perez, Catherine J; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Reactivation of Chagas Disease (CD) is a global public health issue. Reactivation of disease can affect the management of CD and its clinical outcome, adding pressure to global health systems because it exacerbates symptoms, leading to misdiagnosis and delays in the administration of correct treatments. Concurrent infections complicate the issue of reactivation, because there are various parasites and disease treatment regimens that are able to influence or suppress the immune system of the host, reactivating disease within infected individuals. The effect of delayed symptoms of chronic CD and the potential for disease reactivation are of great importance to nonendemic regions of the world, where knowledge about CD is lacking and the potential for vectorial transmission is not known. PMID:26458782

  19. Agrochemicals against Malaria, Sleeping Sickness, Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

    2012-01-01

    In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

  20. Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasi?ska, Gra?yna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ?100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze ??gi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe. PMID:25035918

  1. Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID:25438017

  2. SQ109, a New Drug Lead for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Li, Kai; Lameira, Lilianne; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; Huang, Guozhong; Galizzi, Melina; Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Benaim, Gustavo; Guo, Rey-Ting; Urbina, Julio A.; Docampo, Roberto; de Souza, Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    We tested the antituberculosis drug SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, for its in vitro activity against the trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. SQ109 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the trypomastigote form of the parasite, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for cell killing of 50 ± 8 nM, but it had little effect (50% effective concentration [EC50], ?80 ?M) in a red blood cell hemolysis assay. It also inhibited extracellular epimastigotes (IC50, 4.6 ± 1 ?M) and the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes (IC50, ?0.5 to 1 ?M), with a selectivity index of ?10 to 20. SQ109 caused major ultrastructural changes in all three life cycle forms, as observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It rapidly collapsed the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in succinate-energized mitochondria, acting in the same manner as the uncoupler FCCP [carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone], and it caused the alkalinization of internal acidic compartments, effects that are likely to make major contributions to its mechanism of action. The compound also had activity against squalene synthase, binding to its active site; it inhibited sterol side-chain reduction and, in the amastigote assay, acted synergistically with the antifungal drug posaconazole, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.48, but these effects are unlikely to account for the rapid effects seen on cell morphology and cell killing. SQ109 thus most likely acts, at least in part, by collapsing ??/?pH, one of the major mechanisms demonstrated previously for its action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall, the results suggest that SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, may also have potential as a drug lead against Chagas disease. PMID:25583723

  3. Epicuticular lipids induce aggregation in Chagas disease vectors

    PubMed Central

    Figueiras, Alicia N Lorenzo; Girotti, Juan R; Mijailovsky, Sergio J; Juárez, M Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Background The triatomine bugs are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Aggregation behavior plays an important role in their survival by facilitating the location of refuges and cohesion of aggregates, helping to keep them safely assembled into shelters during daylight time, when they are vulnerable to predators. There are evidences that aggregation is mediated by thigmotaxis, by volatile cues from their faeces, and by hexane-extractable contact chemoreceptive signals from their cuticle surface. The epicuticular lipids of Triatoma infestans include a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, free and esterified fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols. Results We analyzed the response of T. infestans fifth instar nymphs after exposure to different amounts either of total epicuticular lipid extracts or individual lipid fractions. Assays were performed in a circular arena, employing a binary choice test with filter papers acting as aggregation attractive sites; papers were either impregnated with a hexane-extract of the total lipids, or lipid fraction; or with the solvent. Insects were significantly aggregated around papers impregnated with the epicuticular lipid extracts. Among the lipid fractions separately tested, only the free fatty acid fraction promoted significant bug aggregation. We also investigated the response to different amounts of selected fatty acid components of this fraction; receptiveness varied with the fatty acid chain length. No response was elicited by hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), the major fatty acid component. Octadecanoic acid (C18:0) showed a significant assembling effect in the concentration range tested (0.1 to 2 insect equivalents). The very long chain hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) was significantly attractant at low doses (? 1 equivalent), although a repellent effect was observed at higher doses. Conclusion The detection of contact aggregation pheromones has practical application in Chagas disease vector control. These data may be used to help design new tools against triatomine bugs. PMID:19173716

  4. Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

    2012-12-01

    Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p?mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p?mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p?mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms. PMID:23175781

  5. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. PMID:25124478

  6. Outbreak of fatal mushroom poisoning with Amanita franchetii and Ramaria rufescens

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liang; Liu, Xue Lan; Cao, Chun Shui; Ying, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Mushroom poisoning continues to occur worldwide. We report a cluster of sudden death in two villages of the Gan County, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China in September 2005. Extensive investigations on the clinical presentation, epidemiological features, food and water sources have led to the identification of mushroom poisoning. Each of the 10 patients ate wild mushrooms, identified as Amanita franchetii and Ramaria rufescens, and suffered gastrointestinal symptoms prior to sudden deaths. PMID:21686856

  7. Indian medicinal mushrooms as a source of antioxidant and antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    A Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil; K Janardhanan, Kainoor

    2007-05-01

    Medicinal mushrooms occurring in South India namely Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus pulmonaris possessed profound antioxidant and antitumor activities. This indicated that these mushrooms would be valuable sources of antioxidant and antitumor compounds. Investigations also revealed that they had significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Thus, Indian medicinal mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, intensive and extensive investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic use. PMID:18398492

  8. Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, Mark W. F.; MONEY, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of freestanding lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

  9. Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area

    SciTech Connect

    Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.; Pozo-Lora, R.

    1986-05-01

    Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the present paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).

  10. Transparent and Superamphiphobic Surfaces from Mushroom-Like Micropillar Arrays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Yeon; Rahmawan, Yudi; Yang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Transparent, superamphiphobic surfaces that repel both water and oils are prepared from mushroom-like micropillar arrays consisting of nanoparticles only at the top of the pillars by controlled compartment filling of silica nanoparticles into the bottom of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold, followed by infiltration of epoxy and UV curing. Because silica nanoparticle decorated pillar heads are more resistant to O2 plasma than the polymer pillars, we can precisely control the head size of micropillars and nanoroughness on top of the pillar heads by varying the O2 plasma time. The combination of nanoroughness and mushroom-like micropillars leads to superhydrophobicity and oil repellency to different organic solvents. High transparency is achieved by increasing the spacing ratio of micropillars. Last, we demonstrate anisotropic wetting on the hierarchical surface can be achieved by combining photolithography, replica molding, and self-assembly techniques. PMID:26474491

  11. Amphiphilic Pickering Emulsifiers Based on Mushroom-Type Janus Particles.

    PubMed

    Passas-Lagos, E; Schüth, F

    2015-07-21

    Iron-based mushroom-type Janus particles consisting of a poly(sytrene-co-divinylbenzene) and a silica moiety both with controllable morphologies were successfully synthesized on the gram scale and investigated as surfactants for Pickering emulsions. Two oil-water model systems, namely toluene-water and vegetable oil-water, were stabilized, giving mainly water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. By varying several parameters, including Janus particle morphologies and the oil-water ratio, fine-tuning of the emulsion systems was possible; it was even possible to invert the continuous phase to an oil-in-water (o/w) system. Furthermore, the emulsions were stable against coalescence and sedimentation and could be easily separated by centrifugation or a strong magnet. The synthesized mushroom-type Janus particles are suitable for creating Pickering emulsions and can be used as building blocks for creating nanostructures with tailored properties for specific applications. PMID:26152905

  12. BET 1: Silibinin in suspected amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Guillaume; St-Onge, Maude

    2016-01-01

    A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether silibinin is better than conservative management at reducing liver transplantation and death after poisoning with amatoxin-containing mushrooms. Thirty-eight papers were found in Medline and 86 in EMBASE using the reported searches. Of these, five presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses of these best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that the evidence is limited, but given the lack of alternative treatments in patients with suspected amatoxin-containing mushroom poisoning and the relatively few adverse effects, silibinin should be considered in some patients. PMID:26699189

  13. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  14. Translational challenges of animal models in Chagas disease drug development: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Eric; Konar, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi parasite infection is endemic in Latin America and presents an increasing clinical challenge due to migrating populations. Despite being first identified over a century ago, only two drugs are available for its treatment, and recent outcomes from the first clinical trials in 40 years were lackluster. There is a critical need to develop new drugs to treat Chagas disease. This requires a better understanding of the progression of parasite infection, and standardization of animal models designed for Chagas disease drug discovery. Such measures would improve comparison of generated data and the predictability of test hypotheses and models designed for translation to human disease. Existing animal models address both disease pathology and treatment efficacy. Available models have limited predictive value for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies and need to more confidently predict the efficacy of new drug candidates in clinical trials. This review highlights the overall lack of standardized methodology and assessment tools, which has hampered the development of efficacious compounds to treat Chagas disease. We provide an overview of animal models for Chagas disease, and propose steps that could be undertaken to reduce variability and improve predictability of drug candidate efficacy. New technological developments and tools may contribute to a much needed boost in the drug discovery process. PMID:26316715

  15. Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473

  16. Fatal mushroom poisoning in Barcelona, 1986-1988.

    PubMed

    Sanz, P; Reig, R; Piqueras, J; Marti, G; Corbella, J

    1989-12-01

    In 1986-88, 46 poisonings (4 of which were fatal) caused by amatoxin mushroom were reported. The fatalities were males aged between 7 and 65 years. They all had gastrointestinal symptoms and three of the patients died of acute hepatic insufficiency. The fourth died as a result of an intestinal perforation. The clinical and pathological alterations are compared with the findings of other authors. PMID:2615807

  17. Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

    2008-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) within two compost production yards for some parameters, therefore, for the most part, the uniformity of SMC within each yard is relatively consistent. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were evident when comparing SMC obtained from growers supplied with compost from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:17306529

  18. Oscillating mushrooms: adiabatic theory for a non-ergodic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfreich, V.; Rom-Kedar, V.; Turaev, D.

    2014-10-01

    Can elliptic islands contribute to sustained energy growth as parameters of a Hamiltonian system slowly vary with time? In this paper we show that a mushroom billiard with a periodically oscillating boundary accelerates the particle inside it exponentially fast. We provide an estimate for the rate of acceleration. Our numerical experiments corroborate the theory. We suggest that a similar mechanism applies to general systems with mixed phase space.

  19. Temporary left ventricular dysfunction in mushroom poisoning: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Altintepe, Lutfullah; Yazici, Raziye; Yazici, Mehmet; Solak, Yalcin; Topal, Mustafa; Isik, Ayse; Guney, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Mushroom poisoning can result in acute kidney injury and fulminant hepatic failure as well as gastrointestinal and neurological disorders. The effects of mushroom poisoning on cardiac functions have not been known well. Only a few case reports have been published to date (1-3). We report 3 patients out of 45 patients who were followed due to acute kidney injury and hepatic injury secondary to naturally growing mushroom ingestion between 2009 and 2012. These three cases suffered from transient impairment in cardiac systolic function in addition to other manifestations of mushroom poisoning. PMID:24986358

  20. Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

    1994-11-01

    In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

  1. Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

  2. Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important “Big Red Mushroom” from Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mochan; Liang, Junfeng; Li, Yanchun; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; James, Timothy Y.; Xu, Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Background In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called “Dahongjun” or “Big Red Mushroom” by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. Conclusion and Significance The ectomycorrhizal mushroom “Dahongjun” from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately. PMID:20502696

  3. Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela

    2011-10-03

    The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

  4. Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Young; Seguin, Philippe; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Jong-Jin; Chun, Se-Chul; Kim, Eun-Hye; Seo, Su-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Young; Kim, Sun-Lim; Park, Yool-Jin; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chung, Ill-Min

    2008-08-27

    A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential. PMID:18616260

  5. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

  6. 5-Year analysis of mushroom exposures in California

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Sean Patrick; Manoguerra, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate outcomes following toxic mushroom ingestions. Design Retrospective data analysis. Methods We analyzed American Association of Poison Control Center data for California from 1993 through 1997. Results A total of 6,317 exposures occurred during the study period. Most (n = 6,229 [99.7%]) were acute exposures, and the rest (0.3%) were chronic; 87.6% (n = 5,536) were unintentional. Most (n = 4,235 [67.0%]) were in children younger than 6 years, and of these, only 6.0% experienced any clinical effects. The most common symptoms in patients aged 6 years and older were vomiting in 588 patients (28.2%), nausea in 307 patients (14.7%), diarrhea in 263 patients (12.6%), and abdominal pain in 221 patients (10.6%). No effects were seen in 3,131 (49.6% of all patients). Major effects were seen in only 17 patients (0.3%). Only 61 patients (1.0%) were admitted to a critical care unit. Death occurred in a 32-year-old adult who ate foraged mushrooms. Of all patients, 1,375 (21.8%) received no therapy or were observed only. Conclusions Most mushroom exposures were acute and unintentional and occurred in children younger than 6 years. Major toxic reactions or death was uncommon. PMID:11069864

  7. Ribosomal Biosynthesis of the Cyclic Peptide Toxins of Amanita Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Jonathan D.; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Luo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as ?- and ?-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and phallotoxins are synthesized as proproteins on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The proproteins are 34–35 amino acids in length and have no predicted signal peptides. The genes for ?-amanitin (AMA1) and phallacidin (PHA1) are members of a large family of related genes, characterized by highly conserved amino acid sequences flanking a hypervariable “toxin” region. The toxin regions are flanked by invariant proline (Pro) residues. An enzyme that could cleave the proprotein of phalloidin was purified from the phalloidin-producing lawn mushroom Conocybe apala. The enzyme is a serine protease in the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) subfamily. The same enzyme cuts at both Pro residues to release the linear hepta- or octapeptide. PMID:20564017

  8. Analysis of hallucinogenic constituents in Amanita mushrooms circulated in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsujikawa, Kenji; Mohri, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Iwata, Yuko; Gohda, Akinaga; Fukushima, Sunao; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

    2006-12-20

    The constituents of seven mushrooms sold as Amanita muscaria or Amanita pantherina (five A. muscaria and two A. pantherina) and four "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products that are currently circulated in Japan were determined. All mushroom samples were identified as A. muscaria or A. pantherina by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The dissociative constituents, ibotenic acid (IBO) and muscimol (MUS), were extracted with 70% methanol twice and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The IBO (as the hydrate)/MUS contents were in the range of <10-2845ppm/46-1052ppm in the cap of A. muscaria and 188-269ppm/1554-1880ppm in the cap of A. pantherina. In the caps, these compounds had a tendency to be more concentrated in the flesh than in the cuticle. On the other hand, the IBO/MUS contents in the stem were far lower than in the caps. In the "extracts purported to contain A. muscaria" products, IBO/MUS were detected below the lower limit of calibration curve (<10ppm/<25ppm) or not detected. However, these samples contained other psychoactive compounds, such as psychoactive tryptamines (5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine), reversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (harmine and harmaline) and tropane alkaloids (atropine and scopolamine), which were not quantified. This is the first report of the chemical analysis of Amanita mushrooms that are circulated in the drug market. PMID:16464551

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of wild growing mushrooms and toadstools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moha?ek-Grošev, Vlasta; Božac, Romano; Puppels, Gerwin J.

    2001-12-01

    Recently, there has been increase of general interest in fungi because of the possible medical applications of their polysaccharide constituents called glucans, some of which are reported to have immunomodulatory properties. Since an extraction method can change the chemical composition of a substance, especially a delicate one such as fungal thallus, it is necessary and useful to know more about the studied matter in advance in order to choose the chemical procedure properly. We demonstrated the usefulness of vibrational spectroscopy in identifying different glucan types in various parts of intact fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycetes. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of spores and fruiting bodies of more than 70 species belonging to 37 different genera of wild growing mushrooms. The list of the bands in 750-950 cm -1 interval, assigned to ?- and ?-glucans, is provided for all species studied. Vibrational spectra in the interval 1000-1200 cm -1 could serve as an indicator of mushroom genus, although particular species cannot be identified spectroscopically. Great similarities in spectra of spores of the same genus, but different species, e.g. Tricholoma album and Trichloma sulphureum, were observed. On the other hand, spectra of cap, stalk and spores of the same mushroom show great differences, indicating variety in the chemical composition of different parts of the same fruiting body.

  10. Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitative results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.

  11. Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

    1988-10-01

    The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

  12. Mushrooms as Rainmakers: How Spores Act as Nuclei for Raindrops

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of tons of fungal spores are dispersed in the atmosphere every year. These living cells, along with plant spores and pollen grains, may act as nuclei for condensation of water in clouds. Basidiospores released by mushrooms form a significant proportion of these aerosols, particularly above tropical forests. Mushroom spores are discharged from gills by the rapid displacement of a droplet of fluid on the cell surface. This droplet is formed by the condensation of water on the spore surface stimulated by the secretion of mannitol and other hygroscopic sugars. This fluid is carried with the spore during discharge, but evaporates once the spore is airborne. Using environmental electron microscopy, we have demonstrated that droplets reform on spores in humid air. The kinetics of this process suggest that basidiospores are especially effective as nuclei for the formation of large water drops in clouds. Through this mechanism, mushroom spores may promote rainfall in ecosystems that support large populations of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic basidiomycetes. Our research heightens interest in the global significance of the fungi and raises additional concerns about the sustainability of forests that depend on heavy precipitation. PMID:26509436

  13. [Evaluation of commercial kits used for Chagas disease diagnosis in blood banks in Chile. II. Routine application].

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Child, R; García, A; Silva, M; Martínez, L; Jerez, G; Toledo, I; Mezzano, D

    1994-08-01

    Aiming to study the applicability and reproducibility of four commercial kits used for the serological detection of Chagas disease (Chagatest-Inst Invest Paraguay, Ortho Chagas, Abbott Chagas (ELISA tests) and Estabilgen Hemo Chagas (indirect hemagglutination test)), a comparative serological study was performed in 256 sera samples coming from a highly endemic area, 249 samples from a low endemic area, 180 reference sera and 2264 samples coming from three blood banks. Specificity of the kits was excellent and sensitivity ranged from 60 to 100%. The indirect hemagglutination test has the lower sensitivity. Some disagreements in the results were observed in the three blood banks, probably due to an unsatisfactory reactive management. We conclude that ELISA tests should be recommended for routine detection of Chagas disease and that for this purpose, a net of laboratories under the direction of a national reference center should exist. This center should assess new commercial products, train technicians and supervise the laboratories. PMID:7761723

  14. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  15. Lack of Segregation between Two Species of Chagas Disease Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Theo; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus are relevant Chagas disease vectors. An apparent segregation among these triatomine species inside human households was suggested to rely on mutual repellence between them. However, P. megistus and T. infestans show aggregation responses to chemical signals emitted by the other species. These findings do not rule out the possibility that stimuli other than chemical signals could mediate repellence when these species exploit shelters simultaneously. In the present study, we investigated how P. megistus and T. infestans exploit shelters in controlled laboratory conditions and how insect density and environmental illumination modulate this behavior. We evaluated whether these species aggregate inside shelters or mutually repel each other. Panstrongylus megistus and T. infestans show specific patterns of shelter exploitation, which are differentially affected by insect density and environment illumination. In particular, P. megistus is more sensitive to insect density than T. infestans, whereas T. infestans shows higher sensitivity to illumination than P. megistus. Nevertheless, these species exploit shelters randomly without any apparent repellence. PMID:22764300

  16. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-08-22

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  17. Dermatophytosis diagnosed at the Evandro Chagas Institute, Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; de Oliveira, Elaina Ferreira; Nepomuceno, Lívia Barreto; Pimentel, Rosiane Ferreira; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena; Mesquita-da-Costa, Maurimélia

    2013-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is caused by a dermatophyte fungus that affects the stratum corneum and keratinized tissue. Dermatophyte fungus has been reported worldwide as the causative agent of dermatophytosis, but the etio-epidemiological aspects of these mycoses in the state of Pará remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the etio-epidemiological profile of dermatophytosis diagnosed in patients at the Evandro Chagas Institute from May 2005 to June 2006. A total of 494 patients were admitted, and their samples were collected, submitted for direct microscopic examination using 20% KOH and cultured in Sabouraud and Mycosel medium. The identification was based in macro and microscopic characteristics. Direct examinations were positive in 13% (66/494) of the patients, and agent isolation by cultivation of the biological sample was successful in 4% (20/494), with a high prevalence of T. mentagrophytes (40%; 8/20). Dermatophytosis was more frequent in women (58%; 38/66). Fifty-two percent (21/38) of the cases were children with an average age of 8 years. The most frequent clinical presentation was Tinea corporis (55%, 36/66). For the cases in which the dermatophyte agent was not isolated, we discuss the factors that may be interfering with isolation. Tinea corporis occurred more frequently observed when T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were the major etiologic agents. PMID:24294235

  18. Karyotype and spermatogenesis in Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae), a potential Chagas vector.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Mendonça, P P; Succi, M; Pereira, N P; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2012-01-01

    All species of Triatominae are susceptible to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and consequently, potential insect vectors of Chagas disease. Currently, there are 140 known species of triatomine bugs, which can be grouped into specific species complexes. The species Triatoma lenti (Hemiptera: Triatominae) is found only in Brazil and is considered a potential vector of Chagas disease. We karyotyped male T. lenti and examined its spermatogenesis in detail. The karyotype was found to be 2n = 20A + XY, demonstrating that this organism has the modal chromosome set found in triatomines. This new information concerning males of this species contributed to biological data that will be useful for understanding this potentially important Chagas disease vector. PMID:23315807

  19. Mushroom polysaccharides and lipids synthesized in liquid agitated and static cultures. Part I: screening various mushroom species.

    PubMed

    Diamantopoulou, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kapoti, Maria; Komaitis, Michael; Aggelis, George; Philippoussis, Antonios

    2012-06-01

    The effect of four synthetic media containing glucose (initial concentration 30 g?l(-1)) on mycelial growth, exopolysaccharides (EPS) and cellular lipids production was examined in 11 mushroom species after 12 and 16 days of culture in static- and shake-flasks. Fatty acid analysis of cellular lipids produced was also performed. Agitation had a positive effect on biomass production, glucose consumption and lipid biosynthesis. Media that favoured the production of biomass were not suitable for EPS biosynthesis and vice versa. Biomass values varied from ~1.0 g?l(-1) (Lentinula edodes) to ~19 g?l(-1) (Pleurotus ostreatus), while the highest EPS quantity achieved ranged between 1.6 and 1.8 g?l(-1) (for Ganoderma lucidum and L. edodes, respectively). Quantities of total cellular lipids varied between 2.5 and 18.5 % w/w, in dry mycelial mass for the fungi tested. Lipid in dry weight values were influenced by the medium composition. Cellular lipids presented noticeable quantities of poly-unsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid. Compared to most of the mushrooms tested, lipids of Volvariella volvacea were more saturated. The ability of several mushroom species of our study to produce in notable quantities the above-mentioned added-value compounds renders these fungi worthy for further investigations. PMID:22573010

  20. 75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 67 FR..., 73 FR 30051 (May 23, 2008). Subsequent to the CIT's judgment upholding Commerce's remand... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final...

  1. 76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

  2. Last chance to know? Using literature to explore the biogeography and invasion biology of the death cap mushroom Amanita phalloides

    E-print Network

    cap mushroom Amanita phalloides (Vaill. ex Fr. :Fr.) Link Anne Pringle1, * & Else C. Vellinga2 1 April 2005; accepted in revised form 6 October 2005 Key words: exotic or invasive mushroom or fungi a current biogeography. Amanita phalloides, the death cap mushroom, is deadly. It is a notorious fungus

  3. Mushroom body structural change is associated with division of labor in eusocial wasp workers (Polybia aequatorialis, Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    E-print Network

    O'Donnell, Sean

    Mushroom body structural change is associated with division of labor in eusocial wasp workers with neuroanatomical changes in the mushroom bodies (MB) of honey bee (Apis) and ant (Camponotus) workers. We asked workers are associated with major neuroanatomical reorganization in the mushroom bodies. q 2003 Elsevier

  4. In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

  5. Phylogenetic Evidence for Horizontal Transmission of Group I Introns in the Nuclear Ribosomal DNA of Mushroom-Forming Fungi

    E-print Network

    Hibbett, David S.

    of Mushroom-Forming Fungi David S. Hibbett Harvard University Herbaria, Department of Organismic in the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA (nuc- ssu-rDNA) in several species of homobasidiomycetes (mushroom of intron sequences suggest that the mushroom introns are monophyletic, and are nested within a clade

  6. Open mushrooms: stickiness revisited This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Goussev, Arseni O.

    Open mushrooms: stickiness revisited This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please) doi:10.1088/1751-8113/44/19/195102 Open mushrooms: stickiness revisited Carl P Dettmann and Orestis Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysA/44/195102 Abstract We investigate mushroom billiards, a class

  7. Leachate Chemistry of Field-Weathered Spent Mushroom Substrate Mingxin Guo, Jon Chorover,* Rex Rosario, and Richard H. Fox

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    Leachate Chemistry of Field-Weathered Spent Mushroom Substrate Mingxin Guo, Jon Chorover,* Rex to trations of organic carbon, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, and SO4treat piles of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) before its 2.5 cm thick over a corn field three times per Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an organic waste

  8. Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 2nd Data Mining on a Mushroom Database

    E-print Network

    Tappert, Charles

    on a Mushroom Database Clara Eusebi, Cosmin Gliga, Deepa John, Andre Maisonave Seidenberg School of CSIS, Pace to increase the accuracy of machine learning. To this end, the study will use a nominal data set, the Mushroom Database, and the data mining tool Weka. Various data mining algorithms are used against the Mushroom

  9. Experience-and Age-Related Outgrowth of Intrinsic Neurons in the Mushroom Bodies of the Adult Worker Honeybee

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Gene E.

    Experience- and Age-Related Outgrowth of Intrinsic Neurons in the Mushroom Bodies of the Adult associated with the mushroom bodies, a brain region involved in learning, memory, and sensory integration. We report here that growth of the mushroom body neuropil in adult bees occurs throughout adult life

  10. White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

  11. Development and evolution of the insect mushroom bodies: towards the understanding of conserved developmental mechanisms in a

    E-print Network

    Farris, Sarah M.

    Development and evolution of the insect mushroom bodies: towards the understanding of conserved Received 6 January 2003; accepted 10 March 2003 Abstract The insect mushroom bodies are prominent higher as centers for intelligence and other higher functions; at present, the mushroom bodies are regarded

  12. Vadose Zone Processes and Chemical Transport Effects of Spent Mushroom Substrate Weathering on the Chemistry of Underlying Soils

    E-print Network

    Chorover, Jon

    Vadose Zone Processes and Chemical Transport Effects of Spent Mushroom Substrate Weathering on the Chemistry of Underlying Soils Mingxin Guo, Jon Chorover,* and Richard H. Fox ABSTRACT mushroom production mushroom substrate (SMS) before its reuse. During the weathering process, leachate containing high

  13. The mushroom bodies (MB) of the insect brain are higher-order integration centers that are involved in sensory

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    4317 The mushroom bodies (MB) of the insect brain are higher- order integration centers and the formation of memory traces can be assigned to the mushroom body's intrinsic neurons, the Kenyon cells (K of the mushroom bodies were studied with respect to their plasticity by electrically stimulating their presynaptic

  14. 76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  15. 75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  16. 75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2003. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

  17. 76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

  18. Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity in C57BL/6 Mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, majority of these studies evaluated the effect of administering extracts of exotic mushrooms thr...

  19. In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

  20. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in the Laccase Gene of Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinula edodes)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Jung Won; Jeon, Bong-Kyun; Yun, Jung-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the laccase gene to establish a line-diagnostic system for shiitake mushrooms. A total of 89 fungal isolates representing four lines, including Korean registered, Korean wild type, Chinese, and Japanese lines, were analyzed. The results suggest that SNP markers in the laccase gene can be useful for line typing in shiitake mushrooms. PMID:25892919

  1. Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers in the Laccase Gene of Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinula edodes).

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hwan; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Kang, Ji Hyoun; Kim, Sangil; Lee, Jung Won; Jeon, Bong-Kyun; Yun, Jung-Kuk; Park, Sang Rul; Lee, Hyuk Je

    2015-03-01

    We identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the laccase gene to establish a line-diagnostic system for shiitake mushrooms. A total of 89 fungal isolates representing four lines, including Korean registered, Korean wild type, Chinese, and Japanese lines, were analyzed. The results suggest that SNP markers in the laccase gene can be useful for line typing in shiitake mushrooms. PMID:25892919

  2. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  3. 77 FR 13264 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 60280 (October 17, 2005). The most recently... Review, 74 FR 50946, 50950 (October 2, 2009), unchanged in Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's... People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999) (``the Order''). \\2\\ See Antidumping...

  4. A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

  5. Modelling the influence of time and temperature on the respiration rate of fresh oyster mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Sílvia; Cunha, Luís M; Fonseca, Susana C

    2015-12-01

    The respiration rate of mushrooms is an important indicator of postharvest senescence. Storage temperature plays a major role in their rate of respiration and, therefore, in their postharvest life. In this context, reliable predictions of respiration rates are critical for the development of modified atmosphere packaging that ultimately will maximise the quality of the product to be presented to consumers. This work was undertaken to study the influence of storage time and temperature on the respiration rate of oyster mushrooms. For that purpose, oyster mushrooms were stored at constant temperatures of 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18?? under ambient atmosphere. Respiration rate data were measured with 8-h intervals up to 240?h. A decrease of respiration rate was found after cutting of the carpophores. Therefore, time effect on respiration rate was modelled using a first-order decay model. The results also show the positive influence of temperature on mushroom respiration rate. The model explaining the effect of time on oyster mushroom's respiration rate included the temperature dependence according to the Arrhenius equation, and the inclusion of a parameter describing the decrease of the respiration rate, from the initial time until equilibrium. These yielded an overall model that fitted well to the experimental data. Moreover, results show that the overall model is useful to predict respiration rate of oyster mushrooms at different temperatures and times, using the initial respiration rate of mushrooms. Furthermore, predictive modelling can be relevant for the choice of an appropriate packaging system for fresh oyster mushrooms. PMID:25339381

  6. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  7. 76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...However, those comments were deemed to have new information and were returned to Blue...mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis...order are the following: (1) All other species of mushroom, including straw...

  8. Poisoning by amatoxin-containing mushrooms in suburban New York--report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Feinfeld, D A; Mofenson, H C; Caraccio, T; Kee, M

    1994-01-01

    We report four cases of poisoning with amatoxin-producing mushrooms in suburban Long Island. All occurred when amateur mushroom hunters picked mushrooms from neighboring lawns. Two patients presented 30 hours post ingestion with evidence of acute hepatic dysfunction. One survived, after treatment with charcoal and penicillin; the other, a 90-year-old woman with prior cardiac disease soon developed shock and subsequently died. The other two patients were admitted 18 hours after ingestion of Lepiota chlorophyllum and received prompt charcoal hemoperfusion. Both did well, although one had a mild elevation of transaminases. Although most reports of amatoxin poisoning originate in Europe, these cases confirm that amatoxin-producing mushrooms, including Lepiota chlorophyllum, may be found in northeastern American suburbs. Such patients who present prior to 24 hours after ingestion should receive charcoal hemoperfusion if a lethal dose (> 50 g of mushroom) has been eaten. PMID:7966529

  9. Formation of mushrooms and lignocellulose degradation encoded in the genome sequence of Schizophyllum commune

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W.; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.M.R.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han A.B.

    2010-07-12

    The wood degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is a model system for mushroom development. Here, we describe the 38.5 Mb assembled genome of this basidiomycete and application of whole genome expression analysis to study the 13,210 predicted genes. Comparative analyses of the S. commune genome revealed unique wood degrading machinery and mating type loci with the highest number of reported genes. Gene expression analyses revealed that one third of the 471 identified transcription factor genes were differentially expressed during sexual development. Two of these transcription factor genes were deleted. Inactivation of fst4 resulted in the inability to form mushrooms, whereas inactivation of fst3 resulted in more but smaller mushrooms than wild-type. These data illustrate that mechanisms underlying mushroom formation can be dissected using S. commune as a model. This will impact commercial production of mushrooms and the industrial use of these fruiting bodies to produce enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Mushroom heteropolysaccharides: A review on their sources, structure and biological effects.

    PubMed

    Ruthes, Andrea C; Smiderle, Fhernanda R; Iacomini, Marcello

    2016-01-20

    Mushrooms have been largely studied not only by their d-glucans, but also because they present a class of more complex polymers: the heteropolysaccharides. Heteropolysaccharides show variability on their monosaccharide composition, anomeric configuration, linkage and branching type, besides some of these molecules can present natural methylated monosaccharides and also acid monosaccharides, which enhance the difficulty of the purification and characterization of their structure. As a result of such complexity, mushroom heteropolysaccharides can be considered an interesting source of molecules with medicinal and industrial applications. Consequently a plenty of new researches has been published in the past 12 years about the isolation, chemical characterization and biological activities of heteropolysaccharides from mushrooms, especially from Basidiomycetes. Therefore, this review intends to organize and classify the information described up to now about such polysaccharides obtained from different sources of mushroom-forming fungi, Basidiomycetes, Ascomycetes and Hybrid mushrooms, and provides a brief reflection on how the chemical studies have been carried out. PMID:26572366

  11. Fumigation with essential oils improves sensory quality and enhanced antioxidant ability of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjia; Luo, Zisheng; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-04-01

    Several naturally occurring essential oils were evaluated for their effectiveness in maintaining sensory quality and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. Freshly harvested mushrooms were fumigated with 5 ?l l(-)(1) clove, cinnamaldehyde and thyme oils at 10 °C for 1.5h and the antioxidant activities determined using assays of H2O2 content, O2(-) production rate, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the antioxidant activities of the mushrooms fumigated with cinnamaldehyde were significantly increased when compared to the controls. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde fumigation significantly delayed losses of phenolic compounds and enhanced flavonoid content. The essential oil fumigation treatment also increased the antioxidant enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, APX and GR throughout the storage periods. All the fumigation treatments were effective in retarding mushroom sensory deterioration. These results indicate that postharvest application of essential oil fumigation can extend the shelf life and enhance the antioxidant capacity of shiitake mushrooms. PMID:25442609

  12. The mushroom body of adult Drosophila characterized by GAL4 drivers.

    PubMed

    Aso, Yoshinori; Grübel, Kornelia; Busch, Sebastian; Friedrich, Anja B; Siwanowicz, Igor; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2009-01-01

    The mushroom body is required for a variety of behaviors of Drosophila melanogaster. Different types of intrinsic and extrinsic mushroom body neurons might underlie its functional diversity. There have been many GAL4 driver lines identified that prominently label the mushroom body intrinsic neurons, which are known as "Kenyon cells." Under one constant experimental condition, we analyzed and compared the the expression patterns of 25 GAL4 drivers labeling the mushroom body. As an internet resource, we established a digital catalog indexing representative confocal data of them. Further more, we counted the number of GAL4-positive Kenyon cells in each line. We found that approximately 2,000 Kenyon cells can be genetically labeled in total. Three major Kenyon cell subtypes, the gamma, alpha'/beta', and alpha/beta neurons, respectively, contribute to 33, 18, and 49% of 2,000 Kenyon cells. Taken together, this study lays groundwork for functional dissection of the mushroom body. PMID:19140035

  13. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M

    2007-05-28

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

  14. Assessment of arsenic bioaccessibility in raw and cooked edible mushrooms by a PBET method.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Mirandes, Toni; Llorens-Muñoz, Mariona; Funes-Collado, Virginia; Sahuquillo, Àngels; López-Sánchez, José Fermín

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports arsenic analysis in Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus before and after being cooked. Furthermore, arsenic in raw and cooked mushroom was determined in the gastric and gastrointestinal bioaccessible fractions obtained after simulating human digestion by means of an in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET). Several certified reference materials (SRM 1568a, SRM 1570a, CRM 7503-a, BC211 and IPE-120) were analysed to evaluate the proposed methods. Total arsenic content was 1393, 181 and 335?gAskg(-1) for L. edodes, A. bisporus and P. ostreatus, respectively, and decreased by between 53% and 71% in boiled mushroom and less than 11% in griddled mushroom. High bioaccessibility was observed in raw, boiled and griddled mushroom, ranging from 74% to 89% and from 80% to 100% for gastric and gastrointestinal extracts, respectively, suggesting the need to consider the potential health risk of consumption of the mushrooms analysed. PMID:26471627

  15. Characterization of the key odorants in pan-fried white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) by means of molecular sensory science: comparison with the raw mushroom tissue.

    PubMed

    Grosshauser, Sonja; Schieberle, Peter

    2013-04-24

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on the volatile fraction isolated from pan-fried white mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus L.) revealed 40 odor-active compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-8192, among which the caramel-like smelling 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one showed the highest FD factor of 8192, followed by 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one (seasoning-like). A total of 36 compounds are reported for the first time in processed mushrooms, and 25 odorants showing the highest FD factors were then quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratio of their concentrations to their odor thresholds. Among them, 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-(methylthio)propanal (cooked potato), and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (popcorn-like) showed the highest OAVs (>100) in the pan-fried mushrooms, followed by 1-octen-3-one, 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylfuran-3(2H)-one, phenylacetaldehyde, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-one with OAVs >10. An aqueous aroma recombinate containing 13 odorants (OAV > 1) in their actual concentrations in the fried mushrooms showed a good similarity to the original aroma profile. The quantitation of the key odorants in raw mushrooms, identified with high FD factors during the AEDA, revealed that numerous odorants were quantitatively changed by the frying process, but in particular the concentrations of 2-phenylacetaldehyde and 3-methylbutanal were higher by factors of ?40 and 6, respectively, compared to the amounts in the processed mushrooms. The data suggested an enzymatic formation of both Strecker aldehydes by the cut mushroom tissue. In total, 26 odorants were newly identified in raw mushrooms. PMID:23581517

  16. Environmental Changes Can Produce Shifts in Chagas Disease Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cordovez, Juan M; Sanabria, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types) in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network) that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM) approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection. PMID:25574142

  17. Barriers to Treatment Access for Chagas Disease in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Jennifer M.; Snively, Callae S.; Ramsey, Janine M.; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Bärnighausen, Till; Reich, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to World Health Organization (WHO) prevalence estimates, 1.1 million people in Mexico are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease (CD). However, limited information is available about access to antitrypanosomal treatment. This study assesses the extent of access in Mexico, analyzes the barriers to access, and suggests strategies to overcome them. Methods and Findings Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 key informants and policymakers at the national level in Mexico. Data on CD cases, relevant policy documents and interview data were analyzed using the Flagship Framework for Pharmaceutical Policy Reform policy interventions: regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data showed that 3,013 cases were registered nationally from 2007–2011, representing 0.41% of total expected cases based on Mexico's national prevalence estimate. In four of five years, new registered cases were below national targets by 11–36%. Of 1,329 cases registered nationally in 2010–2011, 834 received treatment, 120 were pending treatment as of January 2012, and the treatment status of 375 was unknown. The analysis revealed that the national program mainly coordinated donation of nifurtimox and that important obstacles to access include the exclusion of antitrypanosomal medicines from the national formulary (regulation), historical exclusion of CD from the social insurance package (organization), absence of national clinical guidelines (organization), and limited provider awareness (persuasion). Conclusions Efforts to treat CD in Mexico indicate an increased commitment to addressing this disease. Access to treatment could be advanced by improving the importation process for antitrypanosomal medicines and adding them to the national formulary, increasing education for healthcare providers, and strengthening clinical guidelines. These recommendations have important implications for other countries in the region with similar problems in access to treatment for CD. PMID:24147169

  18. Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolón, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

    2011-01-01

    Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies. PMID:21713022

  19. FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1: A Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Method for Differential Serological Diagnosis of Chagas Disease and Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Caldas, Rafaella Gaiotti; Freitas, Carolina Renata Camargos; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific recombinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new serological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluorescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites, and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance), underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite suspensions were stable during storage at room temperature, 4°C, and –20°C for 1 year. In addition, two different lots of parasite suspensions showed equivalent antigen recognition; that is, the two lots showed equivalent categorical segregation of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity at selected serum dilutions. In conclusion, we have developed a sensitive and selective method for differential diagnosis of Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25875961

  20. FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1: a multiplexed flow cytometry method for differential serological diagnosis of chagas disease and leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Caldas, Rafaella Gaiotti; Freitas, Carolina Renata Camargos; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2015-01-01

    Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific recombinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new serological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluorescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites, and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance), underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite suspensions were stable during storage at room temperature, 4 °C, and -20 °C for 1 year. In addition, two different lots of parasite suspensions showed equivalent antigen recognition; that is, the two lots showed equivalent categorical segregation of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity at selected serum dilutions. In conclusion, we have developed a sensitive and selective method for differential diagnosis of Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25875961

  1. Buried treasure: Unlocking the secrets of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Walton, Emma L

    2014-01-01

    In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we investigate the potential of plants and fungi as a source of beneficial molecules for human health. We explore the weird and wonderful world of the mushroom and examine how Western medicine still has a lot to learn from Eastern practices dating back thousands of years. We also discuss a study further supporting claims that flaxseed, the plant kingdom's richest source of omega-3 fatty acids, can have lipid-lowering and fat-busting properties in the right physiological context. Finally, this issue also includes several validation studies of medical procedures or devices that define optimal conditions for their use in Asian populations. PMID:25510923

  2. Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards

    E-print Network

    Andreasen, Jonathan; Wiersig, Jan; Motter, Adilson E

    2009-01-01

    Optical mushroom shaped billiards offer a unique opportunity to isolate and study non-dispersive, marginally unstable periodic orbits. Here we show that the openness of the cavity to external fields presents unanticipated consequences for the far-field distribution, including directional emission. This is mediated by interactions of marginally unstable periodic orbits with chaotic modes and is potentially relevant for the design of microcavity lasers. We also show that such orbits are robust against perturbations to the shape of the cavity, despite the non-generic character of the classical counterpart and the lack of structural stability of the corresponding classical orbits.

  3. Integrated Microcalorimeters Using Ir TES And Sn Mushroom Absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.; Bogorin, D.; Galeazzi, M.

    2006-09-07

    Cryogenic microcalorimeters have the potential to meet the requirements of future x-ray missions. The University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays. We deposit high purity iridium thin film as Transition Edge Sensors (TES). We chose iridium because it has a bulk transition temperature of 112 mK and we expect single layer TES to have good reproducibility and long term stability. Also we use integrated tin film in a mushroom geometry as the absorbers to get high filling factor, low heat capacity and easy array manufacturing process. We present here our preliminary results in both areas.

  4. Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards

    E-print Network

    Jonathan Andreasen; Hui Cao; Jan Wiersig; Adilson E. Motter

    2009-08-22

    Optical mushroom shaped billiards offer a unique opportunity to isolate and study non-dispersive, marginally unstable periodic orbits. Here we show that the openness of the cavity to external fields presents unanticipated consequences for the far-field distribution, including directional emission. This is mediated by interactions of marginally unstable periodic orbits with chaotic modes and is potentially relevant for the design of microcavity lasers. We also show that such orbits are robust against perturbations to the shape of the cavity, despite the non-generic character of the classical counterpart and the lack of structural stability of the corresponding classical orbits.

  5. Current Technologies and Related Issues for Mushroom Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sinil; Ha, Byeong-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom transformation requires a series of experimental steps, including generation of host strains with a desirable selective marker, design of vector DNA, removal of host cell wall, introduction of foreign DNA across the cell membrane, and integration into host genomic DNA or maintenance of an autonomous vector DNA inside the host cell. This review introduces limitations and obstacles related to transformation technologies along with possible solutions. Current methods for cell wall removal and cell membrane permeabilization are summarized together with details of two popular technologies, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and restriction enzyme-mediated integration. PMID:25892908

  6. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    PubMed Central

    BRAVO-TOBAR, Iván Darío; NELLO-PÉREZ, Carlota; FERNÁNDEZ, Alí; MOGOLLÓN, Nora; PÉREZ, Mary Carmen; VERDE, Juan; CONCEPCIÓN, Juan Luis; RODRIGUEZ-BONFANTE, Claudina; BONFANTE-CABARCAS, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ? 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  7. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    PubMed Central

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  8. Sustainable vector control and management of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco, Argentina

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    Sustainable vector control and management of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco, Argentina Ricardo E age. Because no effective surveillance and control actions followed the first campaign by Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), and 40­120 million people are at risk of infection (2

  9. Association of the Functional MICA-129 Polymorphism With the Severity of Chronic Chagas Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Ayo, Christiane Maria; de Oliveira, Amanda Priscila; Camargo, Ana Vitória da Silveira; Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; Bestetti, Reinaldo Bulgarelli; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2015-10-15

    MICA-129 polymorphism affects the binding affinity of MICA molecules with the NKG2D receptor and influences effector cell function. The genotype met/met was associated with the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in patients with chronic Chagas heart disease, while the val/val genotype was associated with the absence of LVSD. PMID:26129751

  10. Induction of cardiac autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: A case for molecular mimicry

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    . Keywords: Chagas disease cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity, cardiomyocyte, Trypanosoma cruzi, molecular mimicry estimates that 16­18 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, with about 100 million people, Illinois, USA Abstract Up to 18 million of individuals are infected by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma

  11. Integrated control of Chagas disease for its elimination as public health problem - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Segura, Elsa Leonor

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is, together with geohelminths, the neglected disease that causes more loss of years of healthy life due to disability in Latin America. Chagas disease, as determined by the factors and determinants, shows that different contexts require different actions, preventing new cases or reducing the burden of disease. Control strategies must combine two general courses of action including prevention of transmission to prevent the occurrence of new cases (these measures are cost effective), as well as opportune diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals in order to prevent the clinical evolution of the disease and to allow them to recuperate their health. All actions should be implemented as fully as possible and with an integrated way, to maximise the impact. Chagas disease cannot be eradicated due because of the demonstrated existence of infected wild triatomines in permanent contact with domestic cycles and it contributes to the occurrence of at least few new cases. However, it is possible to interrupt the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in a large territory and to eliminate Chagas disease as a public health problem with a dramatic reduction of burden of the disease. PMID:25993503

  12. Investigation of the role of IL17A gene variants in Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Leon Rodriguez, D A; Echeverría, L E; González, C I; Martin, J

    2015-12-01

    Human host genetic factors have been suggested to be determinants of the prevalence and clinical forms of Chagas disease. In this regard, IL-17A is believed to control parasitemia and protect against heart disease. In this work, we assessed whether IL17A gene polymorphisms are related to infection and/or development of the cardiac form of Chagas disease by genotyping for five IL17A SNPs (rs4711998, rs8193036, rs3819024, rs2275913 and rs7747909) in 1171 individuals from a Colombian region endemic for Chagas disease, classified as seronegative (n=595), seropositive asymptomatic (n=175) and chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (n=401). Our results showed that SNP rs8193036, which is located upstream of the coding region of the gene, was slightly associated with protection against T. cruzi infection (P=0.0170, PFDR=0.0851, odds ratio (OR)=0.80, confidence interval (CI)=0.66-0.96) and associated with protection against the development of cardiomyopathy (P=0.0065, PFDR=0.0324, OR=0.75, CI=0.60-0.92). This finding suggests that this IL17A polymorphism could be associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the development of chronic cardiomyopathy due to differential expression of cytokine IL-17A. PMID:26468780

  13. Behavioural alterations are independent of sickness behaviour in chronic experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre de Souza; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-12-01

    The existence of the nervous form of Chagas disease is a matter of discussion since Carlos Chagas described neurological disorders, learning and behavioural alterations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals. In most patients, the clinical manifestations of the acute phase, including neurological abnormalities, resolve spontaneously without apparent consequence in the chronic phase of infection. However, chronic Chagas disease patients have behavioural changes such as psychomotor alterations, attention and memory deficits, and depression. In the present study, we tested whether or not behavioural alterations are reproducible in experimental models. We show that C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of T. cruzi (150 days post-infection) exhibit behavioural changes as (i) depression in the tail suspension and forced swim tests, (ii) anxiety analysed by elevated plus maze and open field test sand and (iii) motor coordination in the rotarod test. These alterations are neither associated with neuromuscular disorders assessed by the grip strength test nor with sickness behaviour analysed by temperature variation sand weight loss. Therefore, chronically T. cruzi-infected mice replicate behavioural alterations (depression and anxiety) detected in Chagas disease patients opening an opportunity to study the interconnection and the physiopathology of these two biological processes in an infectious scenario. PMID:26676323

  14. Dynamics of the antibody-T.cruzi competition during Chagas infection: Prognostic relevance of intracellular replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Isasi, S. Cossy

    2005-02-01

    A recently proposed model for the competitive parasite-antibody interactions in Chagas disease is extended by separately describing the parasitic intracellular and extracellular phases. The model solutions faithfully reproduce available population data and yield predictions for parasite-induced cardiac cell damage.

  15. Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1 Juan S. It has been difficult to determine the contribution of autoimmunity to tissue inflammation, because other severe autoimmune myocarditis. In this case, myosin-specific DTH and Ab production were significantly

  16. Preclinical stem cell therapy in Chagas Disease: Perspectives for future research

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Ferreira, Reginaldo Justino; Irioda, Ana Carolina; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Chagas cardiomyopathy still remains a challenging problem that is responsible for high morbidity and mortality in Central and Latin America. Chagas disease disrupts blood microcirculation via various autoimmune mechanisms, causing loss of cardiomyocytes and severe impairment of heart function. Different cell types and delivery approaches in Chagas Disease have been studied in both preclinical models and clinical trials. The main objective of this article is to clarify the reasons why the benefits that have been seen with cell therapy in preclinical models fail to translate to the clinical setting. This can be explained by crucial differences between the cellular types and pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease, as well as the differences between human patients and animal models. We discuss examples that demonstrate how the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of myocardial regeneration therapies. Future research should focus, not only on studying the best cell type to use but, very importantly, understanding the levels of safety and cellular interaction that can elicit efficient therapeutic effects in human tissue. Addressing the challenges associated with future research may ensure the success of stem cell therapy in improving preclinical models and the treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:24392316

  17. Short report: Increasing access to treatment for Chagas disease: the case of Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Ramsey, Janine M; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Wirtz, Veronika J; Reich, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected vector-borne disease with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million cases in Mexico. Recent research showed that access to treatment of Chagas disease is limited in Mexico, with < 0.5% of infected cases treated. This brief report used quantitative data from the Morelos Program on Chagas disease and qualitative analysis of key informant interviews to examine strategies to increase treatment access for infected patients in Morelos, Mexico. From 2007 to 2011, 263 (9.2%) of the registered cases of Chagas disease in Mexico occurred in Morelos. Among these, 152 (57.8%) were treated and 97.3% of those treated received benznidazole. The assessment finds that state officials decided to directly purchase benznidazole from the distributor to increase access and improve clinical quality of treatment of patients in their state. They also faced significant barriers, especially in regulation and health system organization, which limited efforts to make high quality treatment available. PMID:25266353

  18. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches.

    PubMed

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana's signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  19. Certifying achievement in the control of Chagas disease native vectors: what is a viable scenario?

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ken; Yoshioka, Kota

    2014-09-01

    As an evaluation scheme, we propose certifying for "control", as alternative to "interruption", of Chagas disease transmission by native vectors, to project a more achievable and measurable goal and sharing good practices through an "open online platform" rather than "formal certification" to make the key knowledge more accumulable and accessible. PMID:25317713

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi strain TcI is associated with chronic Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease in the Amazon region is considered an emerging anthropozoonosis with a predominance of the discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI and TcIV. These DTUs are responsible for cases of acute disease associated with oral transmission. Chronic disease cases have been detected through serological surveys. However, the mode of transmission could not be determined, or any association of chronic disease with a specific T. cruzi DTU’s. The aim of this study was to characterize Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with chronic Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Methods Blood culture and xenodiagnosis were performed in 36 patients with positive serology for Chagas disease who participated in a serological survey performed in urban and rural areas of Manaus, Amazonas. DNA samples were extracted from the feces of triatomines used for xenodiagnosis, and the nontranscribed spacer of the mini-exon gene and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Blood culture and xenodiagnosis were negative in 100% of samples; however, molecular techniques revealed that in 13 out of 36 (36%) fecal samples from xenodiagnosis, T. cruzi was characterized as the DTU TcI, and different haplotypes were identified within the same DTU. Conclusion The DTU TcI, which is mainly associated with acute cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon region, is also responsible for chronic infection in patients from a region in the State of Amazonas. PMID:24916362

  1. Brown mushroom symptom expression following infection of an Agaricus bisporus crop with MVX associated dsRNAs.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Archibald, Caoimhe; Ruggiero, Angela; Grogan, Helen M

    2015-12-01

    Mushroom Virus X (MVX) is associated with a range of symptoms observed in mushroom crops. The most prominent symptom in Ireland is the occurrence of 'brown' or 'off-white' mushrooms in white strain crops. The browning symptoms are associated with the presence of four low molecular weight dsRNAs: MVX(0.6), MVX(0.8), MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0), however viral dsRNAs also occur in non-symptomatic mushrooms. Three virus-infected mushroom cultures containing MVX(1.8) and MVX(2.0) were used to infect experimental crops at different rates and at different times in the crop cycle to test the effect on symptom expression. Mushroom colour was measured by chromometer, and the ?E value calculated. RT-PCR was used to test for the presence of MVX(1.8) dsRNA in harvested mushrooms. Results indicate that following infection, browning symptom expression is variable both within and between crops. Control mushrooms from 1st and 2nd flush had ?E values of 7-12, with most being <10. In contrast, 1st flush mushrooms from virus infected treatments had ?E values of 6-25, with most being >10 while 2nd flush mushrooms had ?E values similar to controls. Only mushrooms with ?E > 15 appeared visibly brown or off colour. The transient and inconsistent nature of MVX-associated browning symptoms is discussed. PMID:26615746

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase inhibitors: phenothiazines and related compounds modify experimental Chagas' disease evolution.

    PubMed

    Rivarola, H W; Paglini-Oliva, P A

    2002-06-01

    Chagas' disease affects about 18 million people and 25% of the population of Latin America is at risk of acquiring Chagas' disease. The chemotherapy of Chagas' disease is still an open field and remains as an unsolved problem. Nifurtimox and benznidazole are currently used to treat this disease, however, both drugs have high toxicity and are mutagenic with the result that the patients frequently fail to follow treatment. T. cruzi enzimes such as trypanothione reductase, represent potential drug targets because they play an essential role in the life of this organism. This enzyme has been isolated, purified and studied by X ray crystallography. Phenothiazines and related compounds inhibit trypanothione reductase and a specially favoured fit is a phenothiazine with a 2- substitued with 2- chloro and 2- trifluoromethyl with a remote hydrophobic patch. The essential phenothiazine nucleus can adopt more than one inhibitory orientation in its binding site. Phenothiazines and related compounds are drugs used in psychiatric treatments. These anti-depressants inhibit trypanothione reductase through the peroxidase/ H2O2/ system, and also exert other trypanocidal effects upon epimastigotes and tripomastigotes forms: clomipramine through an anticalmodulin action; trifluopherazine and thioridazine induced disruption of mitochondria and prometazine provoked serious cell membrane disorganization. Clomipramine and thioridazine were also effective in treatment of mice with experimental Chagas' disease, significantly modifying the natural evolution of the infection; cardiac function and survival of infected and treated animals were not different from non infected animals. Phenothiazines and related compounds are promising trypanocidal agents for treatment of Chagas' disease. Other trypanocidal agents as nifurtimox, benznidazol,Allopurinol, cystein protease inhibitors and others, are also discussed. PMID:12769656

  3. Assessment of Galectin-3 Polymorphism in Subjects with Chronic Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Gabriela da Silva; Angelo, Ana Luiza Dias; Larocca, Ticiana Ferreira; Macedo, Carolina Thé; Noya- Rabelo, Márcia; Correia, Luís Claudio Lemos; Torreão, Jorge Andion; Souza, Bruno Solano de Freitas; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background Galectin-3, a ?-galactoside binding lectin, has been described as a mediator of cardiac fibrosis in experimental studies and as a risk factor associated with cardiovascular events in subjects with heart failure. Previous studies have evaluated the genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease in humans, including the polymorphisms of cytokine genes, demonstrating correlations between the genetic polymorphism and cardiomyopathy development in the chronic phase. However, the relationship between the galectin-3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and phenotypic variations in Chagas disease has not been evaluated. Objective The present study aimed to determine whether genetic polymorphisms of galectin-3 may predispose to the development of cardiac forms of Chagas disease. Methods Fifty-five subjects with Chagas disease were enrolled in this observational study. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for genotyping the variants rs4644 and rs4652 of the galectin-3 gene. Results For the SNP rs4644, the relative risk for the cardiac form was not associated with the genotypes AA (OR = 0.79, p = 0.759), AC (OR = 4.38, p = 0.058), or CC (OR = 0.39, p = 0.127). Similarly, for the SNP rs4652, no association was found between the genotypes AA (OR = 0.64, p = 0.571), AC (OR = 2.85, p = 0.105), or CC (OR = 0.49, p = 0.227) and the cardiac form of the disease. Conclusion Our results showed no association between the different genotypes for both SNPs of the galectin-3 gene and the cardiac form of Chagas disease. PMID:26312551

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by using Ganoderma-mushroom extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekar, S. U.; Khollam, Y. B.; Koinkar, P. M.; Mirji, S. A.; Mane, R. S.; Naushad, M.; Jadhav, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    Present study reports the biochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from aqueous medium by using the extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma, as a reducing and stabilizing agents. The Ag-NPs are prepared at room temperature by the reduction of Ag+ to Ag in aqueous solution of AgNO3. The resultant particles are characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement techniques. The formation of Ag-NPs is confirmed by recording the UV-visible absorption spectra for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) where peak around 427 nm. The prominent changes observed in FTIR spectra supported the reduction of Ag+ to Ag. The morphological features of Ag-NPs are evaluated from HRTEM. The spherical Ag-NPs are observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The particle size distribution is found to be nearly uniform with average particle size of 2 nm. The Ag-NPs aged for 15, 30, 60 and 120 days showed no profound effect on the position of SPR peak in UV-visible studies, indicating the protecting/capping ability of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma in the synthesis of Ag-NPs.

  5. A meiotic DNA polymerase from a mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed Central

    Takami, K; Matsuda, S; Sono, A; Sakaguchi, K

    1994-01-01

    A meiotic DNA polymerase [DNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), EC 2.7.7.7], which likely has a role in meiotic DNA repair, was isolated from a mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The purified fraction displays three bands in SDS/PAGE, at molecular masses of 72 kDa, 65 kDa and 36 kDa. Optimal activity is at pH 7.0-8.0 in the presence of 5 mM Mg2+ and 50 mM KCl and at 28-30 degrees C, which is the temperature for meiosis. This enzyme is resistant to N-ethylmaleimide and sensitive to 2',3'-dideoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate, suggesting that it is a beta-like DNA polymerase. These characteristics are similar to those of Coprinus DNA polymerase beta [Sakaguchi and Lu (1982) Mol. Cell. Biol. 2, 752-757]. In Western-blot analysis, the antiserum against the Coprinus polymerase reacts only with the 65 kDa band, which coincides with the molecular mass of the Coprinus polymerase. Western-blot analysis also showed that the antiserum could react with crude extracts not only from the Agaricales family, to which Agaricus and Coprinus belong, but also from different mushroom families and Saccharomyces. The Agaricus polymerase activity can be found only in the meiotic-cell-rich fraction, but the enzyme is also present in the somatic cells in an inactive state. Images Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8172591

  6. Serious mushroom poisonings in California requiring hospital admission, 1990 through 1994.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J; Von Behren, J; Kreutzer, R

    1996-01-01

    Hunting and consuming wild mushrooms is an increasingly popular avocation, as well as a means of subsistence for certain groups in the United States. Consuming wild mushrooms is relatively safe for persons with the necessary expert knowledge. Each year, however, tragic deaths or illnesses occur when unsuspecting persons ingest toxic mushrooms. We conjectured that there may be vulnerable subgroups that should be targeted for public service announcements and education about mushrooms. Therefore, we reviewed California's hospital discharge database from 1990 through 1994 to ascertain demographic characteristics and outcomes of "serious" mushroom exposures requiring a hospital admission. Children younger than 5 years have a higher rate of hospital admission for "serious" poisonings. Therefore, parents should be reminded of the need for supervising children in areas with wild mushrooms. We did not find evidence that poisoning rates differed significantly between ethnic or racial groups, but this finding may be limited by a failure of these groups to seek care after becoming ill. We discuss briefly the symptoms and treatment of cases of possibly lethal ingestion of amatoxin-containing species of mushrooms. PMID:8993198

  7. Serious mushroom poisonings in California requiring hospital admission, 1990 through 1994.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J; Von Behren, J; Kreutzer, R

    1996-11-01

    Hunting and consuming wild mushrooms is an increasingly popular avocation, as well as a means of subsistence for certain groups in the United States. Consuming wild mushrooms is relatively safe for persons with the necessary expert knowledge. Each year, however, tragic deaths or illnesses occur when unsuspecting persons ingest toxic mushrooms. We conjectured that there may be vulnerable subgroups that should be targeted for public service announcements and education about mushrooms. Therefore, we reviewed California's hospital discharge database from 1990 through 1994 to ascertain demographic characteristics and outcomes of "serious" mushroom exposures requiring a hospital admission. Children younger than 5 years have a higher rate of hospital admission for "serious" poisonings. Therefore, parents should be reminded of the need for supervising children in areas with wild mushrooms. We did not find evidence that poisoning rates differed significantly between ethnic or racial groups, but this finding may be limited by a failure of these groups to seek care after becoming ill. We discuss briefly the symptoms and treatment of cases of possibly lethal ingestion of amatoxin-containing species of mushrooms. PMID:8993198

  8. Detection limit of Clostridium botulinum spores in dried mushroom samples sourced from China.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Aldus, Clare F; Xing, Zengtao; Zhao, Yong; Peck, Michael W

    2013-08-16

    A survey of dried mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) and Auricularia auricula (Wood Ear)) sourced from China was carried out to determine the natural contamination of these mushrooms with spores of proteolytic Clostridium botulinum and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. The mushrooms were collected from supermarkets and retailers in 21 cities in China during October 2008. Spore loads of C. botulinum in mushrooms have a degree of uncertainty and variability and this study contributes valuable data for determining prevalence of spores of C. botulinum in mushrooms. An optimized detection protocol that combined selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR was used to test for spores of proteolytic and non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Detection limits were calculated, using a maximum likelihood protocol, from mushroom samples inoculated with defined numbers of spores of proteolytic C. botulinum or non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Based on the maximum likelihood detection limit, it is estimated that dried mushroom A. auricula contained <550spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum, and <350spores/kg of non-proteolytic C. botulinum. Dried L. edodes contained <1500spores/kg of proteolytic C. botulinum and it was not possible to determine reliable detection limits for spores of non-proteolytic C. botulinum using the current detection protocol. PMID:23838282

  9. Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

  10. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.

    PubMed

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable. PMID:22468005

  11. Macro and trace mineral constituents and radionuclides in mushrooms: health benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Borovi?ka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews and updates data on macro and trace elements and radionuclides in edible wild-grown and cultivated mushrooms. A huge biodiversity of mushrooms and spread of certain species over different continents makes the study on their multi-element constituents highly challenging. A few edible mushrooms are widely cultivated and efforts are on to employ them (largely Agaricus spp., Pleurotus spp., and Lentinula edodes) in the production of selenium-enriched food (mushrooms) or nutraceuticals (by using mycelia) and less on species used by traditional medicine, e.g., Ganoderma lucidum. There are also attempts to enrich mushrooms with other elements than Se and a good example is enrichment with lithium. Since minerals of nutritional value are common constituents of mushrooms collected from natural habitats, the problem is however their co-occurrence with some hazardous elements including Cd, Pb, Hg, Ag, As, and radionuclides. Discussed is also the problem of erroneous data on mineral compounds determined in mushrooms. PMID:23179616

  12. Higher order visual input to the mushroom bodies in the bee, Bombus impatiens

    PubMed Central

    Paulk, Angelique C.; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2008-01-01

    To produce appropriate behaviors based on biologically relevant associations, sensory pathways conveying different modalities are integrated by higher-order central brain structures, such as insect mushroom bodies. To address this function of sensory integration, we characterized the structure and response of optic lobe neurons projecting to the calyces of the mushroom bodies in bees. Bees are well known for their visual learning and memory capabilities and their brains possess major direct visual input from the optic lobes to the mushroom bodies. To functionally characterize these visual inputs to the mushroom bodies, we recorded intracellularly from neurons in bumblebees (Apidae: Bombus impatiens) and a single neuron in a honeybee (Apidae: Apis mellifera) while presenting color and motion stimuli. All of the mushroom body input neurons were color sensitive while a subset was motion sensitive. Additionally, most of the mushroom body input neurons would respond to the first, but not to subsequent, presentations of repeated stimuli. In general, the medulla or lobula neurons projecting to the calyx signaled specific chromatic, temporal, and motion features of the visual world to the mushroom bodies, which included sensory information required for the biologically relevant associations bees form during foraging tasks. PMID:18635397

  13. [Investigation of vectors and reservoirs in an acute Chagas outbreak due to possible oral transmission in Aguachica, Cesar, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Soto, Hugo; Tibaduiza, Tania; Montilla, Marleny; Triana, Omar; Suárez, Diana Carolina; Torres Torres, Mariela; Arias, María Teresa; Lugo, Ligia

    2014-04-01

    Colombia recorded 11 cases of acute Chagas disease and 80 cases of oral contamination with Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study analyzes the entomological and parasitological characteristics of the outbreak in Aguachica, Cesar Department, in 2010. An interdisciplinary group of health professionals and regional university personnel conducted the laboratory tests in the patients and the investigation of the transmission focus. Eleven cases of acute Chagas diseases were detected in a single family in a dwelling with domiciliated triatomines and Rhodnius pallescens, Pantrongylus geniculatus, Eratyrus cuspidatus, and two Didelphis marsupialis opossums infected with T. cruzi in Attalea butyracea and Elaeis oleifera palm trees in the urban area of Aguachica. The study analyzes the role of R. pallescens and palm trees in the wild cycle of T. cruzi and in oral transmission of Chagas disease. Sporadic incursions by wild R. pallescens, P. geniculatus, and E. cuspidatus from the nearby palm trees into human dwellings may cause increasingly frequent outbreaks of oral Chagas disease. PMID:24896050

  14. Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

    2006-01-01

    Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

  15. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4? for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  16. Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae; Kang, Hee-Wan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4? for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

  17. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  18. EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

    2010-12-01

    The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

  19. From respiratory sensitization to food allergy: Anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Marta F.; González-Delgado, Purificación; Postigo, Idoia; Fernández, Javier; Soriano, Victor; Cueva, Begoña; Martínez, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 38-year-old mold-allergic patient who developed episodes of generalized urticaria and systemic anaphylactic shock immediately after ingesting button mushrooms. A manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and a NADP-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase (MtDH) from Agaricus bisporus mushroom were identified as patient-specific IgE-binding proteins. Cross-reactivity between A. bisporus MnSOD and mold aeroallergens was confirmed. We conclude that prior sensitization to mold aeroallergens might explain severe food reactions to cross-reacting homologs mushroom proteins. PMID:25750856

  20. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission. PMID:25022923

  1. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus).

    PubMed

    Hoa, Ha Thi; Wang, Chun-Li

    2015-03-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28?. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  2. The Effects of Temperature and Nutritional Conditions on Mycelium Growth of Two Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and Pleurotus cystidiosus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoa, Ha Thi

    2015-01-01

    The influences of temperature and nutritional conditions on the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (PO) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (PC) were investigated in laboratory experiment during the summer season of 2014. The results of the experiment indicated that potato dextrose agar (PDA) and yam dextrose agar (YDA) were the most suitable media for the mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO while four media (PDA, YDA, sweet potato dextrose agar, and malt extract agar medium) were not significantly different in supporting mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC. The optimal temperature for mycelium growth of both oyster mushroom species was obtained at 28?. Mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PO was improved by carbon sources such as glucose, molasses, and at 1~5% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO was achieved the highest value. Whereas glucose, dextrose, and sucrose as carbon sources gave the good mycelium growth of oyster mushroom PC, and at 1~3% sucrose concentration, mycelium colony diameter of PC was achieved the maximum value. Ammonium chloride concentrations at 0.03~0.09% and 0.03~0.05% also gave the greatest values in mycelium colony diameter of mushroom PO and PC. Brown rice was found to be the most favourable for mycelium growth of two oyster mushroom species. In addition, sugarcane residue, acasia sawdust and corn cob were selected as favourable lignocellulosic substrate sources for mycelium growth of both oyster mushrooms. PMID:25892910

  3. Single-mode operation of mushroom structure surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.J.; Dziura, T.G.; Wang, S.C. ); Du, G.; Wang, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Mushroom structure vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with a 0.6 {mu}m GaAs active layer sandwiched by two Al{sub 0.6{sup {minus}}}Ga{sub 0.4}As-Al{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}As multilayers as top and bottom mirrors exhibit 15 mA pulsed threshold current at 880 nm. Single longitudinal and single transverse mode operation was achieved on lasers with a 5 {mu}m diameter active region at current levels near 2 {times} I{sub th}. The light output above threshold current was linearly polarized with a polarization ratio of 25:1.

  4. Detection of irradiated mushrooms and kiwi fruits by thermoluminescence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangl, Th.; Leitner-Wild, E.; Hille, P.; Nowotny, R.

    1993-03-01

    Control methods for the detection of irradiated food are needed since exposure to ionizing radiation is a new technique of commercial food processing applied in many countries. A simple and rapid method for the identification of irradiated fresh kiwi fruits and mushrooms is presented. Thermoluminescence (TL) signals of irradiated dried herbs and spices are known to be due to inorganic dust particles adherent to the surface and may be used for the detection of radiation exposure. In the technique described here the discrimination between radiation exposed food samples and unirradiated samples was improved by the preparation of TL samples enriched in extraneous inorganic material and further by the determination of the optimal integration interval giving the highest signal to background ratios. This method yields a more reliable discrimination than whole sample TL techniques.

  5. A novel nucleoside from the edible mushroom, Tricholoma japonicum.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Akane; Kinoshita, Kaoru; Fukai, Miyuki; Koyama, Kiyotaka

    2015-10-01

    A novel nucleoside, 9-?-D-ribopyranosylpurine (2), along with three known nucleosides, adenosine (1), uridine (3) and nebularine (4), were isolated from the edible mushroom, Tricholoma japonicum. The structure of 2 was determined as 9-?-D-ribopyranosylpurine by comparing the reported spectral data of 2 with that of a synthetic compound. Isolation of the glycoside, which contains the sugar ribopyranose, from natural resources is very unusual. There are reports on the synthesis of 9-?-D-ribopyranosylpurine (2), but this is the first report on the isolation from natural resources. The antiproliferative activity of compounds 1-4 was evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Compound 4 showed the highest inhibitory activity. PMID:25976547

  6. Metal concentrations of wild edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Solak, Mehmet Halil; Cetinkaya, Serap

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the contents of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Co, Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, Al, Ca, Mg, and K in Agaricus campestris, Agrocybe cylindracea, Collybia dryophila, Helvella leucopus, Russula delica, Tricholoma auratum, Amanita ovoidea, Melanoleuca excissa, Rhizopogon roseolus, Russula chloroides, Volvoriella gloiocephala, Lyophyllum decastes, Morcella angusticeps, Morchella esculenta and Morcella eximia collected from Isparta, Mugla, and Osmaniye provinces (Turkey) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion. The intake of heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and other metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) by consumption of 30 g dry weight of mushrooms daily poses no risk at all except in A. cylindracea and H. leucopus (for Cd) for the consumer. PMID:22794131

  7. Inhibition kinetics of chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazones on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Cong; Chen, Liang-Hua; Yu, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Yong-Hua; Song, Kang-Kang; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-01

    2-Chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (2-Cl-BT) and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (4-Cl-BT) were synthesized, and their inhibitory kinetics on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. Results showed that these compounds exhibited significant inhibitory potency on both monophenolase activity and diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. For the monophenolase activity, both compounds could decrease the steady-state activity of the enzyme sharply, without any influence on the lag period. The IC50 values of them were estimated to be 15.4 ?M and 6.7 ?M, respectively. For the diphenolase activity, both compounds belonged to reversible inhibitors, but their mechanisms were different: 2-Cl-BT was a noncompetitive type inhibitor, while 4-Cl-BT was a mixed-type inhibitor. Their inhibition constants were determined and compared. PMID:21062043

  8. Irreversible competitive inhibitory kinetics of cardol triene on mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jiang-Xing; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yang, Mei-Hua; Liu, Feng-Jiao; Qiu, Ling; Zhou, Xing-Wang; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2010-12-22

    Cardol triene was first purified from cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut shell liquid and identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The effects of this compound on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were studied. The results of the kinetic study showed that cardol triene was a potent irreversible competitive inhibitor and the inactivation was of the complexing type. Two molecules of cardol triene could bind to one molecule of tyrosinase and lead to the complete loss of its catalytic activity. The microscopic rate constants were determined for the reaction of cardol triene with the enzyme. The anti-tyrosinase kinetic research of this study provides a comprehensive understanding of inhibitory mechanisms of resorcinolic lipids and is beneficial for the future design of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. PMID:21121650

  9. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

  10. 78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...Department) published in the Federal Register the preliminary rescission of this new shipper review (NSR) of Shandong Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) under the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic...

  11. 78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The NSR covers Shandong Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) for the period of review (POR) February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. The...

  12. Mushroom ?-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Sherwin; Liu, Chi-Feng; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-? mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-? production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-? mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-? mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides. PMID:26167490

  13. Mushroom ?-Glucan May Immunomodulate the Tumor-Associated Macrophages in the Lewis Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wan-Jhen; Wu, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Sherwin; Liu, Chi-Feng; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The present study showed that oral mushroom beta-glucan treatment significantly increased IFN-? mRNA expression but significantly reduced COX-2 mRNA expression within the lung. For LLC tumor model, oral Ganoderma lucidum or Antrodia camphorata polysaccharides treatments significantly reduced TGF-? production in serum. In addition, IL-12 and IFN-? mRNA expression were significantly increased, but IL-6, IL-10, COX-2, and TGF-? mRNA expression were substantially following oral mushroom polysaccharides treatments. The study highlights the efficacious effect of mushroom polysaccharides for ameliorating the immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. Increased M1 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages and attenuated M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages could be achieved by ingesting mushroom polysaccharides. PMID:26167490

  14. A Mushroom-shaped Structure from the Impact of a Cloud with the Galactic Disk

    E-print Network

    Kudoh, T

    2004-01-01

    We propose that the mushroom-shaped structure of the Galactic worm GW 123.4--1.5 is created by a cloud collision with the Galactic gas disk. A hydrodynamic simulation shows that a mushroom-shaped structure is created after the cloud crosses the Galactic midplane. The lifetime of the mushroom-shaped structure is of order the dynamical time scale of the disk, \\sim 10^7 years. We find that the velocities across the cap of the mushroom-shaped structure in the simulation are consistent with the observed values. The simulation also predicts a structure on the opposite side of the Galactic plane which is created by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability after the cloud passes through the disk.

  15. A Mushroom-shaped Structure from the Impact of a Cloud with the Galactic Disk

    E-print Network

    Takahiro Kudoh; Shantanu Basu

    2004-05-08

    We propose that the mushroom-shaped structure of the Galactic worm GW 123.4--1.5 is created by a cloud collision with the Galactic gas disk. A hydrodynamic simulation shows that a mushroom-shaped structure is created after the cloud crosses the Galactic midplane. The lifetime of the mushroom-shaped structure is of order the dynamical time scale of the disk, \\sim 10^7 years. We find that the velocities across the cap of the mushroom-shaped structure in the simulation are consistent with the observed values. The simulation also predicts a structure on the opposite side of the Galactic plane which is created by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability after the cloud passes through the disk.

  16. An experimental study of mushroom shaped stall cells. [on finite wings with separated flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Surface patterns characterized by a pair of counter-rotating swirls have been observed in connection with the conduction of surface flow visualization experiments involving test geometries with separated flows. An example of this phenomenon occurring on a finite wing with trailing edge stall has been referred to by Winkelmann and Barlow (1980) as 'mushroom shaped'. A description is presented of a collection of experimental results which show or suggest the occurrence of mushroom shaped stall cells on a variety of test geometries. Investigations conducted with finite wings, airfoil models, and flat plates are considered, and attention is given to studies involving the use of bluff models, investigations of shock induced boundary layer separation, and mushroom shaped patterns observed in a number of miscellaneous cases. It is concluded that the mushroom shaped stall cell appears commonly in separated flow regions.

  17. 78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis...Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews 74 FR 14772 (April 1...China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews 74 FR 28882 (June...

  18. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ...and (5) ``marinated,'' ``acidified'' or ``pickled'' mushrooms, which are prepared or preserved by means of vinegar or acetic acid, but may contain oil or other additives. The merchandise subject to this order is currently classifiable...

  19. 78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...and (5) ``marinated,'' ``acidified,'' or ``pickled'' mushrooms, which are prepared or preserved by means of vinegar or acetic acid, but may contain oil or other additives. The merchandise subject to this order is classifiable under...

  20. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).

    PubMed

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushrooms were used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals. PMID:22135882

  1. Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Elsayed A.; El Enshasy, Hesham; Wadaan, Mohammad A. M.; Aziz, Ramlan

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25505823

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle during experimental Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Báez, Alejandra L; Reynoso, María N; Lo Presti, María S; Bazán, Paola C; Strauss, Mariana; Miler, Noemí; Pons, Patricia; Rivarola, Héctor W; Paglini-Oliva, Patricia

    2015-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi invasion and replication in cardiomyocytes and other tissues induce cellular injuries and cytotoxic reactions, with the production of inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide, both sources of reactive oxygen species. The myocyte response to oxidative stress involves the progression of cellular changes primarily targeting mitochondria. Similar alterations could be taking place in mitochondria from the skeletal muscle; if that is the case, a simple skeletal muscle biopsy would give information about the cardiac energetic production that could be used as a predictor of the chagasic cardiopathy evolution. Therefore, in the present paper we studied skeletal muscle mitochondrial structure and the enzymatic activity of citrate synthase and respiratory chain complexes I to IV (CI-CIV), in Albino Swiss mice infected with T. cruzi, Tulahuen strain and SGO Z12 and Lucky isolates, along the infection. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were detected in 100% of the mitochondria analyzed from the infected groups: they all presented at least 1 significant abnormality such as increase in their matrix or disorganization of their cristae, which are probably related to the enzymatic dysfunction. When we studied the Krebs cycle functionality through the measurement of the specific citrate synthase activity, we found it to be significantly diminished during the acute phase of the infection in Tulahuen and SGO Z12 infected groups with respect to the control one; citrate synthase activity from the Lucky group was significantly increased (p<0.05). The activity of this enzyme was reduced in all the infected groups during the chronic asymptomatic phase (p<0.001) and return to normal values (Tulahuen and SGO Z12) or increased its activity (Lucky) by day 365 post-infection (p.i.). When the mitochondrial respiratory chain was analyzed from the acute to the chronic phase of the infection through the measurement of the activity of complexes I to IV, the activity of CI remained similar to control in Tulahuen and Lucky groups, but was significantly augmented in the SGO Z12 one in the acute and chronic phases (p<0.05). CII increased its activity in Tulahuen and Lucky groups by day 75 p.i. and in SGO Z12 by day 365 p.i. (p<0.05). CIII showed a similar behavior in the 3 infected groups, remaining similar to control values in the first two stages of the infection and significantly increasing later on (p<0.0001). CIV showed an increase in its activity in Lucky throughout all stages of infection (p<0.0001) and an increase in Tulahuen by day 365days p.i. (p<0.0001); SGO Z12 on the other hand, showed a decreased CIV activity at the same time. The structural changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria and their altered enzyme activity began in the acute phase of infection, probably modifying the ability of mitochondria to generate energy; these changes were not compensated in the rest of the phases of the infection. Chagas is a systemic disease, which produces not only heart damage but also permanent skeletal muscle alterations. PMID:25835781

  3. Amanita bisporigera-Induced Hepatic Failure: A Fatal Case of Mushroom Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Nici, Anthony; Kim, Sang

    2011-01-01

    Wild mushroom poisoning from the genus Amanita is a medical emergency, with Amanita phalloides being the most common offender. Patients may complain of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and/or abdominal pain. If not aggressively treated, fulminant hepatic failure may develop within several days of ingestion. In this case report, a patient poisoned with Amanita bisporigera is described, along with the typical clinical presentation, patient outcomes, and treatment options for dealing with an Amanita mushroom poisoning. PMID:25954548

  4. The cultural significance of wild mushrooms in San Mateo Huexoyucan, Tlaxcala, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We performed an ethnomycological study in a community in Tlaxcala, Central Mexico to identify the most important species of wild mushrooms growing in an oak forest, their significance criteria, and to validate the Cultural Significance Index (CSI). Methods Thirty-three mestizo individuals were randomly selected in San Mateo Huexoyucan and were asked seven questions based on criteria established by the CSI. Among the 49 mushroom species collected in the oak forest and open areas, 20 species were mentioned most often and were analyzed in more detail. Ordination and grouping techniques were used to determine the relationship between the cultural significance of the mushroom species, according to a perceived abundance index, frequency of use index, taste score appreciation index, multifunctional food index, knowledge transmission index, and health index. Results The mushrooms with highest CSI values were Agaricus campestris, Ramaria spp., Amanita aff. basii, Russula spp., Ustilago maydis, and Boletus variipes. These species were characterized by their good taste and were considered very nutritional. The species with the lowest cultural significance included Russula mexicana, Lycoperdon perlatum, and Strobylomyces strobilaceus. The ordination and grouping analyses identified four groups of mushrooms by their significance to the people of Huexoyucan. The most important variables that explained the grouping were the taste score appreciation index, health index, the knowledge transmission index, and the frequency of use index. Conclusions A. aff. basii and A. campestris were the most significant wild mushrooms to the people of San Mateo. The diversity of the Russula species and the variety of Amanita and Ramaria species used by these people was outstanding. Environments outside the forest also produced useful resources. The CSI used in Oaxaca was useful for determining the cultural significance of mushrooms in SMH, Tlaxcala. This list of mushrooms can be used in conservation proposals for the Quercus forests in the area. PMID:24597704

  5. Structural and phase transitions of one and two polymer mushrooms in poor solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang

    2014-05-01

    Using the recently proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations and the corresponding lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations based on the same model system, where multiple occupancy of lattice sites is allowed [Q. Wang, Soft Matter 5, 4564 (2009); Q. Wang, Soft Matter 5, 6206 (2010)], we studied the coil-globule transition (CGT) of one-mushroom systems and the fused-separated transition (FST) of two-mushroom systems, where a polymer mushroom is formed by a group of n homopolymer chains each of N segments end-grafted at the same point onto a flat substrate and immersed in a poor solvent. With our soft potential that allows complete particle overlapping, LSCF theory neglecting the system fluctuations/correlations becomes exact in the limit of n ? ?, and FLMC results approach LSCF predictions with increasing n. Using LSCF calculations, we systematically constructed the phase diagrams of one- and two-mushroom systems. A second-order symmetric-asymmetric transition (SAT) was found in the globule state of one-mushroom systems, where the rotational symmetry around the substrate normal passing through the grafting point is broken in each individual configuration but preserved by the degeneracy of different orientations of these asymmetric configurations. Three different states were also found in two-mushroom systems: separated coils, separated globules, and fused globule. We further studied the coupling between FST in two-mushroom systems and CGT and SAT of each mushroom. Finally, direct comparisons between our simulation and theoretical results, without any parameter-fitting, unambiguously and quantitatively revealed the fluctuation/correlation effects on these phase transitions.

  6. DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.

    PubMed

    Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

    2014-10-15

    Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. PMID:25130907

  7. A case of vertical transmission of Chagas disease contracted via blood transfusion in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fearon, Margaret A; Scalia, Vito; Huang, Mary; Dines, Irene; Ndao, Momar; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in many countries in Latin America, where infected bugs of the Triatominea subfamily carry the parasite in the gut and transmit it to humans through fecal contamination of a bite. However, vertical transmission and transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation is well documented. Increasing immigration from endemic countries to North America has prompted blood operators, including Canadian Blood Services and Hema Quebec, to initiate blood donor testing for Chagas antibody. In the present report, an unusual case of vertical transmission from a mother, most likely infected through blood transfusion, and detected as part of a concurrent seroprevalence study in blood donors is described. PMID:24421790

  8. A case of vertical transmission of Chagas disease contracted via blood transfusion in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fearon, Margaret A; Scalia, Vito; Huang, Mary; Dines, Irene; Ndao, Momar; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic in many countries in Latin America, where infected bugs of the Triatominea subfamily carry the parasite in the gut and transmit it to humans through fecal contamination of a bite. However, vertical transmission and transmission through blood transfusion and organ transplantation is well documented. Increasing immigration from endemic countries to North America has prompted blood operators, including Canadian Blood Services and Hema Quebec, to initiate blood donor testing for Chagas antibody. In the present report, an unusual case of vertical transmission from a mother, most likely infected through blood transfusion, and detected as part of a concurrent seroprevalence study in blood donors is described. PMID:24421790

  9. Sperm Morphological Features Associated with Chronic Chagas Disease in the Semen of Experimentally Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010

  10. Radionuclide evaluation of left-ventricular function in chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Arreaza, N.; Puigbo, J.J.; Acquatella, H. Casal, H.; Giordano, H.; Valecillos, R.; Mendoza, I.; Perez, J.F.; Hirschhaut, E.; Combellas, I.

    1983-07-01

    Left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and abnormalities of regional wall motion (WMA) were studied by means of radionuclide ventriculography in 41 patients prospectively diagnosed as having chronic Chagas' disease. Thirteen patients were asymptomatic (ASY), 16 were arrhythmic (ARR), and 12 had congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean LVEF was normal in ASY but markedly depressed in CHF. Regional WMAs were minimal in ASY and their severity increased in ARR. Most CHFs (75%) had diffuse hypokinesia of the left ventricle. Seven patients had a distinct apical aneurysm. Correlation between radionuclide and contrast ventriculography data was good in 17 patients. Selective coronary arteriography showed normal arteries in all patients. Therefore, chronic Chagas' heart disease joins ischemic heart disease as a cause of regional WMA.

  11. Rational modification of a candidate cancer drug for use against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Kraus, James M; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Karimi, Mandana; Lepesheva, Galina I; Gelb, Michael H; Buckner, Frederick S

    2009-03-26

    Chagas disease is one of the major neglected diseases of the world. Existing drug therapies are limited, ineffective, and highly toxic. We describe a novel strategy of drug discovery of adapting an existing clinical compound with excellent pharmaceutical properties to target a pathogenic organism. The protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) inhibitor tipifarnib, now in phase III anticancer clinical trials, was previously found to kill Trypanosoma cruzi by blocking sterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM). We rationally developed tipifarnib analogues that display reduced affinity for human PFT to reduce toxicity while increasing affinity for parasite 14DM. The lead compound has picomolar activity against cultured T. cruzi and is efficacious in a mouse model of acute Chagas disease. PMID:19239254

  12. Rational Modification of a Candidate Cancer Drug for Use Against Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, James M; Verlinde, Christophe LMJ; Karimi, Mandana; Lepesheva, Galina I.; Gelb, Michael H; Buckner, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the major neglected diseases of the world. Existing drug therapies are limited, ineffective and highly toxic. We describe a novel strategy of drug discovery of adapting an existing clinical compound with excellent pharmaceutical properties to target a pathogenic organism. The protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) inhibitor tipifarnib, now in phase III anti-cancer clinical trials, was previously found to kill Trypanosoma cruzi by blocking sterol 14?-demethylase (14DM). We rationally developed tipifarnib analogs that display reduced affinity for human PFT to reduce toxicity, while increasing affinity for parasite 14DM. The lead compound has picomolar activity against cultured T. cruzi and is efficacious in a mouse model of acute Chagas disease. PMID:19239254

  13. Nanomedicines against Chagas disease: an update on therapeutics, prophylaxis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder Lilia

    2015-02-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. After a mostly clinically silent acute phase, the disease becomes a lifelong chronic condition that can lead to chronic heart failure and thromboembolic phenomena followed by sudden death. Antichagasic treatment is only effective in the acute phase but fails to eradicate the intracellular form of parasites and causes severe toxicity in adults. Although conventional oral benznidazol is not a safe and efficient drug to cure chronic adult patients, current preclinical data is insufficient to envisage if conventional antichagasic treatment could be realistically improved by a nanomedical approach. This review will discuss how nanomedicines could help to improve the performance of therapeutics, vaccines and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:25707979

  14. Study of heavy metal concentrations in wild edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Borui; Huang, Qing; Cai, Huajie; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Tingting; Gui, Mingying

    2015-12-01

    Contamination with heavy metals in several species of edible mushrooms from the Yunnan Province in China was determined. Samples were collected from 16 locations in the Yunnan Province, and the contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the mushrooms were at typical levels. The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Pb and Cd) were higher than the national standard values of China (1.0 mg/kg for As, 0.2 mg/kg for Cd, and 2.0 mg/kg for Pb) in most cases. Bio-concentration factors suggested that it was easier for As and Cd to be accumulated in mushrooms than Pb, and a Health Risk Index assessment also suggested that As and Cd are greater risks to health than Pb. In conclusion, heavy metal pollution in wild edible mushrooms is a serious problem in the Yunnan Province. Among the toxic metals, As and Cd in the edible mushrooms in the area are the main sources of risk, as they may cause severe health problems. The local government needs to take measures in the form of concrete policies to protect the wild edible mushroom resources in the Yunnan Province. PMID:26041195

  15. Relationship between uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms and its catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Naito, M.

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms (Shiitake) artifically grown on an oak tree and the uptake in vitro by catalase extracts prepared from mushroom Hay Bacillus and spinach are reported. Mushrooms were exposed to 1.4 mg/Hg/cu m for 11 days. Measurement of total mercury was as previously described (Ogata et al. 1978, 1979). Levels in mushrooms ranged from 0.4 +/- 0.1 ..mu..g/g at 0.5 days to 4.6 +/- 0.2 ..mu..g/g at 10.5 days and steady-state thereafter. In in vitro studies Hy uptake by mushroom catalase extract was estimated by the perborate method. Uptake was found to parallel catalase activity and was inhibited by potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. Similar results were obtained with Hay Bacillus and spinach catalase extracts. Results suggest that the level of mercury in the mushroom can be used as an indicator of mercury pollution in the environment. It is also suggested that catalase has an important role in uptake of mercury vapor in the plant. 2 tables (JMT)

  16. Co-ingestion of amatoxins and isoxazoles-containing mushrooms and successful treatment: A case report.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera M; Costa, Ana Elisa; Andrade, Sérgio; Carneiro, Ana Cristina; Conceição, Filipe; Paiva, José Artur; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Baptista, Paula; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-09-01

    Mushroom poisonings occur when ingestion of wild mushrooms containing toxins takes place, placing the consumers at life-threatening risk. In the present case report, an unusual multiple poisoning with isoxazoles- and amatoxins-containing mushrooms in a context of altered mental state and poorly controlled hypertension is presented. A 68-year-old female was presented to São João hospital (Portugal) with complaints of extreme dizziness, hallucinations, vertigo and imbalance, 3 h after consuming a stew of wild mushrooms. The first observations revealed altered mental state and elevated blood pressure. The examination of cooked mushroom fragments allowed a preliminary identification of Amanita pantherina. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the presence of muscimol in urine. Moreover, through high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) analysis of the gastric juice, the presence of ?-amanitin was found, showing that amatoxins-containing mushrooms were also included in the stew. After 4 days of supportive treatment, activated charcoal, silybin and N-acetylcysteine, the patient recovered being discharged 10 days post-ingestion with no organ complications. The prompt and appropriate therapy protocol for life-threatening amatoxins toxicity probably saved the patient's life as oral absorption was decreased and also supportive care was immediately started. PMID:26091874

  17. Extension of mushroom shelf-life by ultrasound treatment combined with high pressure argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagnika, Camel; Zhang, Min; Nsor-Atindana, John; Tounkara, Fatoumata

    2014-03-01

    Effects of ultrasound, high pressure argon, and treatments comprising their combinations on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of white mushrooms were studied during 9 days of storage at 4°C. High pressure argon treatments were relatively effective in retaining firmness and were found to maintain the cell integrity. White mushrooms firmness after 9 days of storage was increased from 2.79 N for untreated mushrooms up to 3.01, 3.24, 3.58 N for ultrasound, treatments comprising ultrasound and high pressure argon, high pressure argon, respectively. Similarly, the loss of water, ascorbic acid and total soluble solid in fresh mushroom was also greatly reduced by the high pressure argon treatment. The ultrasound treatment followed by treatments comprising ultrasound and high pressure argon and high pressure argon, respectively exhibited a pronounced effect on retarding browning and in delaying mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, yeasts and moulds growth in white mushroom, compared to the control during 9 days of cold storage. Treatments comprising ultrasound and high pressure argon treatment delayed pseudomonas growth, implying that it could extend shelf life of white mushrooms to 9 days at 4°C.

  18. Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA?sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hibbett, David S.; Pine, Elizabeth M.; Langer, Ewald; Langer, Gitta; Donoghue, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Homobasidiomycete fungi display many complex fruiting body morphologies, including mushrooms and puffballs, but their anatomical simplicity has confounded efforts to understand the evolution of these forms. We performed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of homobasidiomycetes, using sequences from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA, with an emphasis on understanding evolutionary relationships of gilled mushrooms and puffballs. Parsimony-based optimization of character states on our phylogenetic trees suggested that strikingly similar gilled mushrooms evolved at least six times, from morphologically diverse precursors. Approximately 87% of gilled mushrooms are in a single lineage, which we call the “euagarics.” Recently discovered 90 million-year-old fossil mushrooms are probably euagarics, suggesting that (i) the origin of this clade must have occurred no later than the mid-Cretaceous and (ii) the gilled mushroom morphology has been maintained in certain lineages for tens of millions of years. Puffballs and other forms with enclosed spore-bearing structures (Gasteromycetes) evolved at least four times. Derivation of Gasteromycetes from forms with exposed spore-bearing structures (Hymenomycetes) is correlated with repeated loss of forcible spore discharge (ballistospory). Diverse fruiting body forms and spore dispersal mechanisms have evolved among Gasteromycetes. Nevertheless, it appears that Hymenomycetes have never been secondarily derived from Gasteromycetes, which suggests that the loss of ballistospory has constrained evolution in these lineages. PMID:9342352

  19. A Scientometric Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme of the PAHO and TDR

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Yadón, Zaida E.

    2013-01-01

    The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP) to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO). This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997–2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity. PMID:24244761

  20. Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, Gabriel A; Yadon, Zaida E

    2010-01-01

    Political repression and/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In Canada in 2006, 3.5% of the 156,960 immigrants from Latin America whose country of origin was identified were estimated to have been infected. In Japan in 2007, there were 80,912 immigrants from Brazil, 15,281 from Peru, and 19,413 from other South American countries whose country of origin was not identified, a portion of whom may have been also infected. In 15 countries of Europe in 2005, excluding Spain, 2.9% of the 483,074 legal Latin American immigrants were estimated to be infected with T. cruzi. By 2008, Spain had received 1,678,711 immigrants from Latin American endemic countries; of these, 5.2% were potentially infected with T. cruzi and 17,390 may develop Chagas disease. Further, it was estimated that 24-92 newborns delivered by South American T. cruzi infected mothers in Spain may have been congenitally infected with T. cruzi in 2007. In the USA we estimated that 1.9% of approximately 13 million Latin American immigrants in 2000, and 2% of 17 million in 2007, were potentially infected with T. cruzi. Of these, 49,157 and 65,133 in 2000 and 2007 respectively, may have or may develop symptoms and signs of chronic Chagas disease. Governments should implement policies to prevent donations of blood and organs from T. cruzi infected donors. In addition, an infrastructure that assures detection and treatment of acute and chronic cases as well as congenital infection should be developed. PMID:19932071

  1. Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Bilac, Daniele; de Araújo, Vitor Antônio Louzada; Neto, Sócrates Fraga da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. Methodology/Principal Findings The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães) that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI). This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. Conclusion/Significance These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as “Distantiae transmission”. PMID:24854494

  2. Human Chagas Disease and Migration in the Context of Globalization: Some Particular Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Dias, João Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries. PMID:23606862

  3. Positive deviance study to inform a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Nieto-Sanchez, Claudia; Baus, Esteban G; Guerrero, Darwin; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by the faeces of triatomine insects that find favourable environments in poorly constructed houses. Previous studies have documented persistent triatomine infestation in houses in the province of Loja in southern Ecuador despite repeated insecticide and educational interventions. We aim to develop a sustainable strategy for the interruption of Chagas disease transmission by promoting living environments that are designed to prevent colonisation of rural houses by triatomines. This study used positive deviance to inform the design of an anti-triatomine prototype house by identifying knowledge, attitudes and practices used by families that have remained triatomine-free (2010-2012). Positive deviants reported practices that included maintenance of structural elements of the house, fumigation of dwellings and animal shelters, sweeping with "insect repellent" plants and relocation of domestic animals away from the house, among others. Participants favoured construction materials that do not drastically differ from those currently used (adobe walls and tile roofs). They also expressed their belief in a clear connection between a clean house and health. The family's economic dynamics affect space use and must be considered in the prototype's design. Overall, the results indicate a positive climate for the introduction of housing improvements as a protective measure against Chagas disease in this region. PMID:25807468

  4. [American human trypanosomiasis 90 years after its discovery by Carlos Chagas. I. Epidemiology and control].

    PubMed

    Pays, J F

    1998-01-01

    It was in 1909 that Carlos Chagas described the disease which now bears his name. During the ensuing 90 years, our knowledge of this apparently whimsical, protozoan disease has grown enormously but many points remain unclear. Epidemiologically speaking, current knowledge is poor about the mechanisms and markers of variability of Trypanosoma cruzi, mechanisms allowing the organism to survive in the host, and susceptibility of infected individuals to disabling or fatal late complications. With regard to vector control, it is increasingly obvious that success will be more difficult than previously thought due to the likelihood that, as domestic species are exterminated, they will be replaced by semi-domesticated or wild species. Two other factors that have significantly changed the conventional epidemiological profile of Chagas'disease on the subcontinent over the past 50 years are human intervention in the environment and population migration from rural to urban zones. Despite the breakthroughs achieved in the last decade. Chagas'disease, with its multiple modes of transmission (vector-borne, congenital, and transfusional to name but the most important), diverse reservoir involving over 175 species, and potential for course of the disease in man, will remain a major health problem in Latin America countries for many years to come. PMID:10399701

  5. Access to care for Chagas disease in the United States: a health systems analysis.

    PubMed

    Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Reich, Michael R; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2015-07-01

    There are 300,000 estimated cases of Chagas disease in the United States but limited data on access to care. This study analyzed trends in access to care for Chagas disease in the United States and assessed the national and state barriers to access. Data on cases in blood donors and drug releases were obtained from the AABB (formerly American Association of Blood Banks) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), respectively. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 key informants at the national level and in five states where treatment had been released. Interview responses were analyzed according to the health systems dimensions of regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data indicate that 1,908 cases were identified in the blood donation system from 2007 to 2013 and that CDC released 422 courses of benznidazole or nifurtimox during this period. The barriers to access at the national level include limited diagnostic and institutionalized referral and care processes, lack of financing for patient-care activities, and limited awareness and training among providers. This study demonstrates that access to treatment of Chagas disease in the United States is limited. The lack of licensing is only one of several barriers to access, highlighting the need for a health systems perspective when scaling up access to these essential medicines. PMID:25986581

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chagas Disease in Pregnant Women in Casanare, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Flórez, Astrid C.; Cárdenas, Ángela; Pavía, Paula; Montilla, Marleny; Aldana, Rodrigo; Villamizar, Katherine; Ríos, Lyda C.; Nicholls, Rubén S.; Puerta, Concepción J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence and risk factors associated with maternal infection is the first step to develop a surveillance system for congenital transmission of Chagas disease. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Casanare, a disease-endemic area in Colombia. A total of 982 patients were enrolled in the study. A global prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of 4.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8–5.3%) was found. Multivariate analysis showed that the most important risk-associated factors were age > 29 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4, 95% CI = 0.9–12.4), rural residency (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.6), low education level (aOR = 10.2, 95% CI = 1.6–82.7), and previous knowledge of the vector (aOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0–4.9). Relatives and siblings of infected mothers showed a prevalence of 9.3%. These findings may help physicians to investigate congenital cases, screen Chagas disease in siblings and relatives, and provide early treatment to prevent the chronic complications of Chagas disease. PMID:23033397

  7. Positive deviance study to inform a Chagas disease control program in southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Sanchez, Claudia; Baus, Esteban G; Guerrero, Darwin; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, which is mainly transmitted by the faeces of triatomine insects that find favourable environments in poorly constructed houses. Previous studies have documented persistent triatomine infestation in houses in the province of Loja in southern Ecuador despite repeated insecticide and educational interventions. We aim to develop a sustainable strategy for the interruption of Chagas disease transmission by promoting living environments that are designed to prevent colonisation of rural houses by triatomines. This study used positive deviance to inform the design of an anti-triatomine prototype house by identifying knowledge, attitudes and practices used by families that have remained triatomine-free (2010-2012). Positive deviants reported practices that included maintenance of structural elements of the house, fumigation of dwellings and animal shelters, sweeping with "insect repellent" plants and relocation of domestic animals away from the house, among others. Participants favoured construction materials that do not drastically differ from those currently used (adobe walls and tile roofs). They also expressed their belief in a clear connection between a clean house and health. The family's economic dynamics affect space use and must be considered in the prototype's design. Overall, the results indicate a positive climate for the introduction of housing improvements as a protective measure against Chagas disease in this region. PMID:25807468

  8. The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

  9. Chagas disease and housing improvement in northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marli M; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Toma, Helena K; Borges-Pereira, José; de Oliveira, Tiago Guedes; Sarquis, Otília

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease was investigated in two new settlements of landless rural workers inhabiting prefabricated, triatomine-proof houses and in four neighboring older communities where mud huts were still well suitable for vectors. Through a cross-sectional survey and entomological assessment, we surveyed 148 houses/families in the two new settlements and in 47 houses/families in the four older localities. We determined seroprevalence of Chagas disease through IFI and Elisa (eluates) assays and searched for vectors in the domestic and peridomestic environments. Seroprevalence reached 0.6% (3/466) in the new settlements and 0.8% (1/115) in the older communities. Triatomines were not found in the new settlements, while 7 Triatoma brasiliensis, 4 T. pseudomaculata, 1 Panstrongylus lutzi, and 145 Rhodnius nasutus were collected in the older localities. In addition, a colony of T. brasiliensis (n?=?55) was encountered inside a school attended by children of the region. Parasite strains isolated from the insects were characterized as T. cruzi I. Despite the low prevalence of Chagas disease in both scenarios, entomological surveillance must be strengthened and housing improvement reinforced in order to control vector transmission. The risk of infection by the vectors was lower in the settlements of improved homes, where conditions for colonization of the peridomestic environment by transmitting insects were not observed. PMID:25673077

  10. Mycophilic or Mycophobic? Legislation and Guidelines on Wild Mushroom Commerce Reveal Different Consumption Behaviour in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peintner, Ursula; Schwarz, Stefanie; Meši?, Armin; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Moreno, Gabriel; Saviuc, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Mycophiles forage for and pick vast quantities of a wide variety of wild mushroom species. As a result, mushroom intoxications are comparatively frequent in such countries with mycophiles. Thus, national governments are forced to release guidelines or enact legislation in order to ensure the safe commerce of wild mushrooms due to food safety concerns. It is in these guidelines and laws that one can observe whether a country is indeed mycophobic or mycophilic. Furthermore, these laws and guidelines provide valuable information on mushroom preferences and on the consumption habits of each country. As such we were interested in the questions as to whether mushroom consumption behaviour was different within Europe, and if it was possible to discover the typical or distinctive culinary preferences of Slavic or Romanic speaking people, people from special geographical regions or from different zones. This work is based on the analysis of edible mushroom lists available in specific guidelines or legislation related to the consumption and commerce of mushrooms in 27 European countries. The overall diversity of edible mushrooms authorised to be commercialised in Europe is very high. However, only 60 out of a total 268 fungal species can be cultivated. This highlights the importance of guidelines or legislation for the safe commerce of wild mushrooms. The species richness and composition of the mushrooms listed for commerce is very heterogeneous within Europe. The consumption behaviour is not only language-family-related, but is strongly influenced by geographical location and neighbouring countries. Indicator species were detected for different European regions; most of them are widespread fungi, and thus prove culture-specific preferences for these mushrooms. Our results highlight tradition and external input such as trade and cultural exchange as strong factors shaping mushroom consumption behaviour. PMID:23704957

  11. Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Kazuki; Suzuki, Naoya; Saito, Hiroki; Akamatsu, Daisuke

    2009-12-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the interface in an immiscible two-component Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated using the mean field and Bogoliubov theories. Rayleigh-Taylor fingers are found to grow from the interface and mushroom patterns are formed. Quantized vortex rings and vortex lines are then generated around the mushrooms. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability and mushroom-pattern formation can be observed in a trapped system.

  12. Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

  13. Antibacterial, Antiradical Potential and Phenolic Compounds of Thirty-One Polish Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Los, Renata; Malm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background Among many sources of natural bioactive substances, mushrooms constitute a huge and almost unexplored group. Fungal compounds have been repeatedly reported to exert biological effects which have prompted their use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was analysis of chemical composition and biological activity of 31 wild growing mushroom species (including saprophytic and parasitic) from Poland. Methods Qualitative and quantitative LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of fourteen phenolic acids in the mushrooms analysed was performed. Moreover, total phenolic content was determined by the modified Folin-Ciocalteau method. Antioxidative activity of ethanolic extracts towards DPPH• free radical was examined. Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, B. subtilis, M. luteus) and Gram-negative (E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis) microbial strains was analyzed. Results As a result, the first such broad report on polyphenolic composition, antiradical and antimicrobial potential of wild growing Polish mushrooms was developed. Mushroom extracts were found to contain both benzoic (protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, syringic) and cinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic). Total phenolic content in mushrooms ranged between 2.79 and 53.13 mg gallic acid equivalent /g of dried extract in Trichaptum fuscoviolaceum and Fomes fomentarius, respectively. Fungi showed much differentiated antiradical activity, from highly active F. fomentarius to poorly effective Russula fragilis (IC50 1.39 to 120.54 mg per mg DPPH•, respectively). A quite considerable relationship between phenolic content and antiradical activity has been demonstrated. Mushrooms varied widely in antimicrobial potential (MIC from 0.156 to 5 mg/ml). Generally, a slightly higher activity against Gram-positive than Gram-negative strains was observed. This is the first study concerning the chemical composition and biological activity of the majority of investigated species. PMID:26468946

  14. Intensive hemodialysis and hemoperfusion treatment of Amanita mushroom poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sabeel, A I; Kurkus, J; Lindholm, T

    1995-08-01

    Over a period of fifteen years, 41 patients including 23 males and 18 females with Amanita mushroom poisoning were treated at the University Hospital of Lund, Sweden. The intensity of poisoning was graded according to serum transaminase elevations and prothrombin time reductions. Severity was mild in 16 patients (Group A), moderate in 14 (Group B) and severe in 11 (Group C). Members of Group C reported shorter latency periods before the onset of symptoms, (10 +/- 1 hours, P < 0.05) and longer delays in treatment, (34 +/- 4 hours), than did the other patients. Intensive treatment was begun before the results of urine amatoxin assay were reported. Treatment consisted of: fluid and electrolyte replacement, oral activated charcoal and lactulose, i.v. penicillin, combined hemodialysis and hemoperfusion in two 8 hour sessions, some received i.v. thioctic acid, other i.v. silibinin, all received a special diet. This combination of treatment modalities was used to accelerate the elimination of amatoxin from the patients' bodies. The longest period of hospitalization, 13 +/- 2 days, was required by the patients of Group C (p < 0.01). All patients improved and were discharged from the hospital asymptomatic. No sequelae were later reported for the majority of those moderately and severely poisoned. We have concluded that intensive combined treatment applied in these cases is effective in relieving patients with both moderate and severe amanitin poisoning. PMID:8532053

  15. Gene family encoding the major toxins of lethal Amanita mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Hallen, Heather E; Luo, Hong; Scott-Craig, John S; Walton, Jonathan D

    2007-11-27

    Amatoxins, the lethal constituents of poisonous mushrooms in the genus Amanita, are bicyclic octapeptides. Two genes in A. bisporigera, AMA1 and PHA1, directly encode alpha-amanitin, an amatoxin, and the related bicyclic heptapeptide phallacidin, a phallotoxin, indicating that these compounds are synthesized on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. alpha-Amanitin and phallacidin are synthesized as proproteins of 35 and 34 amino acids, respectively, from which they are predicted to be cleaved by a prolyl oligopeptidase. AMA1 and PHA1 are present in other toxic species of Amanita section Phalloidae but are absent from nontoxic species in other sections. The genomes of A. bisporigera and A. phalloides contain multiple sequences related to AMA1 and PHA1. The predicted protein products of this family of genes are characterized by a hypervariable "toxin" region capable of encoding a wide variety of peptides of 7-10 amino acids flanked by conserved sequences. Our results suggest that these fungi have a broad capacity to synthesize cyclic peptides on ribosomes. PMID:18025465

  16. Gene family encoding the major toxins of lethal Amanita mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Hallen, Heather E.; Luo, Hong; Scott-Craig, John S.; Walton, Jonathan D.

    2007-01-01

    Amatoxins, the lethal constituents of poisonous mushrooms in the genus Amanita, are bicyclic octapeptides. Two genes in A. bisporigera, AMA1 and PHA1, directly encode ?-amanitin, an amatoxin, and the related bicyclic heptapeptide phallacidin, a phallotoxin, indicating that these compounds are synthesized on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. ?-Amanitin and phallacidin are synthesized as proproteins of 35 and 34 amino acids, respectively, from which they are predicted to be cleaved by a prolyl oligopeptidase. AMA1 and PHA1 are present in other toxic species of Amanita section Phalloidae but are absent from nontoxic species in other sections. The genomes of A. bisporigera and A. phalloides contain multiple sequences related to AMA1 and PHA1. The predicted protein products of this family of genes are characterized by a hypervariable “toxin” region capable of encoding a wide variety of peptides of 7–10 amino acids flanked by conserved sequences. Our results suggest that these fungi have a broad capacity to synthesize cyclic peptides on ribosomes. PMID:18025465

  17. Development of mushrooms for thrombosis prevention by protoplast fusion.

    PubMed

    Okamura, T; Takeno, T; Dohi, M; Yasumasa, I; Hayashi, T; Toyoda, M; Noda, H; Fukuda, S; Horie, N; Ohsugi, M

    2000-01-01

    With thrombosis a major cause of death in Japan and the Western world, thrombin-inhibitory agents that constrain the formation of fibrin are sought. We screened for basidiomycetes showing anti-thrombin activity and isolated Laetiporus sulphureus. However, it was difficult to cultivate and its form was not satisfactory. We therefore used protoplast fusion between L. sulphureus and the commonly cultivated basidiomycete Hypsizygus marmoreaus to obtain cultivable basidiomycetes that produced an anti-thrombin substance. For the protoplast fusion of L. sulphureus and H. marmoreaus, the protoplast concentration, alternating electric field intensity, dielectrophoresis duration, and field pulse intensity used were of 1 x 10(7) protoplasts/ml, 100 V/cm.1 MHz, 60 s, and 8 kV/cm, respectively. The number of regenerated colonies obtained was 4961, from which 43 strains were selected for electrophoretic analysis. Four of the fusants were found to have a band from each parent in isozyme patterns obtained using their crude extract. The fruiting bodies of the fusants were very similar to those of H. marmoreaus. Crude extract from each of the fusants and from L. sulphureus showed anti-coagulative activity in terms of the thrombin clotting time. We thus obtained improved basidiomycetes that produce an anti-thrombin substance, are easily cultivated, and whose form resembles H. marmoreaus, a commonly used culinary mushroom. PMID:16232780

  18. Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology

    PubMed Central

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2012-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

  19. Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ayesha S.; Ali, Sharique A.

    2014-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19?U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95?kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933?mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. PMID:25197562

  20. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium

    PubMed Central

    Nickrent, Daniel L; Der, Joshua P; Anderson, Frank E

    2005-01-01

    Background Although recent molecular phylogenetic studies have identified the photosynthetic relatives of several enigmatic holoparasitic angiosperms, uncertainty remains for the last parasitic plant order, Balanophorales, often considered to include two families, Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. The nonphotosynthetic (holoparasitic) flowering plant Cynomorium coccineum has long been known to the Muslim world as "tarthuth" and to Europeans as the "Maltese mushroom"; C. songaricum is known in Chinese medicine as "suo yang." Interest in these plants is increasing and they are being extensively collected from wild populations for use in herbal medicines. Results Here we report molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial matR sequence data that strongly support the independent origin of Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. Analyses of single gene and combined gene data sets place Cynomorium in Saxifragales, possibly near Crassulaceae (stonecrop family). Balanophoraceae appear related to Santalales (sandalwood order), a position previously suggested from morphological characters that are often assumed to be convergent. Conclusion Our work shows that Cynomorium and Balanophoraceae are not closely related as indicated in all past and present classifications. Thus, morphological features, such as inflorescences bearing numerous highly reduced flowers, are convergent and were attained independently by these two holoparasite lineages. Given the widespread harvest of wild Cynomorium species for herbal medicines, we here raise conservation concerns and suggest that further molecular phylogenetic work is needed to identify its photosynthetic relatives. These relatives, which will be easier to cultivate, should then be examined for phytochemical activity purported to be present in the more sensitive Cynomorium. PMID:15969755

  1. Screening of inhibitors for mushroom tyrosinase using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sushama; Sistla, Srinivas; Jadhav, Jyoti

    2014-11-26

    Tyrosinase inhibitors have been used as whitening or antihyperpigment agents because of their ability to suppress dermal-melanin production. In the present study, screening and kinetic evaluation of various small molecules were performed on mushroom tyrosinase (MT) using surface plasmon resonance. The binding constant KD (M) values obtained for tannic acid, phloroglucinol, saffron, catechol, and pyrogallol are 1.213 × 10(-4), 7.136 × 10(-5), 3.111 × 10(-5), 1.557 × 10(-5), and 7.981 × 10(-6) M, respectively. Pyrogallol has been found to display high affinity for MT, whereas catechol, saffron, and phloroglucinol have been found to bind with low affinity. MT shows considerable changes in the secondary structure in the presence of inhibitors. The study reveals the Biacore/SPR sensor's ability in the rapid identification and characterization of inhibitors for MT. The methodology described here can be used to rapidly screen and optimize various lead compounds for other enzymes and elucidate structure function inter-relationships between various enzymes. PMID:25402844

  2. Structurally simple inhibitors of lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase are efficacious in a rodent model of acute Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Lockman, Jeffrey W; Ohkanda, Junko; Karimi, Mandana; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Kraus, James M; Schoepe, Jan; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Hamilton, Andrew D; Buckner, Frederick S; Gelb, Michael H

    2009-06-25

    We report structure-activity studies of a large number of dialkyl imidazoles as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi lanosterol-14alpha-demethylase (L14DM). The compounds have a simple structure compared to posaconazole, another L14DM inhibitor that is an anti-Chagas drug candidate. Several compounds display potency for killing T. cruzi amastigotes in vitro with values of EC(50) in the 0.4-10 nM range. Two compounds were selected for efficacy studies in a mouse model of acute Chagas disease. At oral doses of 20-50 mg/kg given after establishment of parasite infection, the compounds reduced parasitemia in the blood to undetectable levels, and analysis of remaining parasites by PCR revealed a lack of parasites in the majority of animals. These dialkyl imidazoles are substantially less expensive to produce than posaconazole and are appropriate for further development toward an anti-Chagas disease clinical candidate. PMID:19463001

  3. Structurally Simple Inhibitors of Lanosterol 14?-Demethylase Are Efficacious In a Rodent Model of Acute Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Lockman, Jeffrey W.; Ohkanda, Junko; Karimi, Mandana; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Kraus, James M.; Schoepe, Jan; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    We report structure-activity studies of a large number of dialkyl imidazoles as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi lanosterol-14?-demethylase (L14DM). The compounds have a simple structure compared to posaconazole, another L14DM inhibitor that is an anti-Chagas drug candidate. Several compounds display potency for killing T. cruzi amastigotes in vitro with values of EC50 in the 0.4–10 nM range. Two compounds were selected for efficacy studies in a mouse model of acute Chagas disease. At oral doses of 20–50 mg/kg given after establishment of parasite infection, the compounds reduced parasitemia in the blood to undetectable levels, and analysis of remaining parasites by PCR revealed a lack of parasites in the majority of animals. These dialkyl imidazoles are substantially less expensive to produce than posaconazole and are appropriate for further development toward an anti-Chagas disease clinical candidate. PMID:19463001

  4. Coronary Microvascular Disease in Chronic Chagas Cardiomyopathy Including an Overview on History, Pathology, and Other Proposed Pathogenic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Marcos A.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Malvestio, Lygia M.; Celes, Mara R.; Campos, Erica C.; Blefari, Valdecir; Prado, Cibele M.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease. PMID:20824217

  5. Accidental mushroom poisoning mimicking stroke. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Ivan; Lippi, Giuseppe; De Blasio, Attilio; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2013-12-01

    We describe here a paradigmatic case of mushroom poisoning mimicking a stroke. A 64-year old male was referred to the emergency department (ED) for a car accident. He was found diaphoretic, hypotensive, bradycardic, and slightly confused at presentation. No signs of trauma were observed on physical examination. The patient had weakness of the right limbs and bilateral severe myosis. The lab tests were normal, except for leukocytosis, mild hyperglycemia, mild hyperazotemia and moderate hypokalemia. The clinical picture, with the exception of miosis, was thereby suggestive for a stroke, which was also considered the cause of the car accident. The patients' wife, who was brought later to the ED, reported that the husband had suffered a stroke 4 years earlier, with residual right hemiparesis. She also referred that the patient showed signs of diaphoresis and confusion, and the car was intentionally driven into the ditch. Among other details, she referred that the husband ate mushrooms that she had personally collected 2 hours before taking the drive. Two mg of atropine, intravenous rehydration and potassium were hence administered in the suspicion of a cholinergic toxydrome, and complete clinical remission was rapidly obtained. Among the mixture of mushrooms eaten by the patient, a mycologist identified Armillaria Mellea (an edible mushroom) and notably Inocybe Fastigiata, a toxic muscarine-containing mushroom, easily confounded with Armillaria. After observation and oral rehydration, the patient was discharged. PMID:24458168

  6. Chemical and toxicological investigations of a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom Tricholoma terreum.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xia; Feng, Tao; Shang, Jian-Hua; Zhao, Yun-Li; Wang, Fang; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Luo, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2014-06-01

    The established tradition of consuming and marketing wild mushrooms has focused attention on mycotoxicity, which has become a global issue. In the present study, we describe the toxins found in a previously unknown poisonous European mushroom Tricholoma terreum. Fifteen new triterpenoids terreolides?A-F (1-6) and saponaceolides?H-P (8-16) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of the toxic mushroom T. terreum. Terreolides?A-C (1-3) possessed a unique 5/6/7 trioxaspiroketal system, whereas terreolides D-F (4-6) possessed an unprecedented carbon skeleton. Two abundant compounds in the mushroom, saponaceolide?B (7) and saponaceolide?M (13), displayed acute toxicity, with LD50 values of 88.3 and 63.7?mg?kg(-1) when administered orally in mice. Both compounds were found to increase serum creatine kinase levels in mice, indicating that T. terreum may be the cause of mushroom poisoning ultimately leading to rhabdomyolysis. PMID:24753190

  7. Mushroom toxicosis in dogs in general practice causing gastroenteritis, ptyalism and elevated serum lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Hall, J; Barton, L

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom toxicosis is rarely diagnosed in dogs and is poorly reported in the veterinary literature. This report suggests that mushroom toxicosis is a potentially under-diagnosed condition in first opinion practice in the UK. Nine dogs with clinical signs consistent with mushroom toxicosis were identified from the records of an out-of-hours emergency service between August 2010 and January 2011. Four dogs were later excluded because of clinical inconsistencies. Clinical signs included acute profuse ptyalism (5/5), diarrhoea (5/5), vomiting (4/5), hypovolaemia (4/5), stuporous (3/5) or obtunded mentation (1/5), miosis (2/5) and hypothermia (2/5). Serum lipase activity was elevated in 4/4 dogs; canine-specific pancreatic lipase was elevated in the remaining dog. Four dogs recovered with aggressive intravenous fluid therapy, analgesia and supportive care; the remaining dog was euthanased due to severe clinical signs and financial constraints. Mushroom toxicosis is an important differential diagnosis for acute gastroenteritis and one possible cause of some cases of "Seasonal Canine Illness". Affected dogs may demonstrate elevated pancreatic enzymes and mushroom toxicosis should be considered in cases of elevated lipase or abnormal semi-quantitative canine-specific pancreatic lipase activities. PMID:23398481

  8. Acute Hepatorenal Failure in a Patient Following Consumption of Mushrooms: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Farzad; Ebrahimi Bakhtavar, Hanieh; Ghavidel, Atefeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: One of the highly toxic mushrooms that are common in the northwest region of Iran is Amanita phalloides, which might result in renal or liver failure. Case Presentation: This is a case report of a patient referred a few days after consumption of wild mushrooms to emergency department having gastrointestinal complaint whose experiments indicated liver and renal failure. The supportive treatment was given to the patient prescribing N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and Livergol (silymarin) along with hemodialysis. A few days after admission to the hospital, the patient died due to severe clinical symptoms. Conclusions: The patient was poisoned by A. phalloides complaining gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea; vomiting and watery diarrhea about six hours after consumption and then, amatoxin in the mushroom caused damage to hepatocytes and renal cells and finally led to hepatorenal failure. Deaths caused by this type of mushroom are extremely high and necessary trainings should be provided to the people by the health system not to consume wild mushrooms, especially in spring and summer. PMID:26019894

  9. Biasing effects on the characteristics and the optimization of mushroom waveguide photodetectors (WGPDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Youssef, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    Waveguide photodetectors (WGPDs) are considered a leading candidate to overcome the bandwidth-quantum efficiency trade-off as the flow of the photon and carrier fluxes are perpendicular to each other enabling high date rate applications. Mushroom-WGPD was proposed to overcome the trade-off between the capacitance of the photodetector and the contact resistance. In this paper, an extended calibrated circuit model for mushroom-WGPD, including the effect of the biasing of the photodetector, is presented so resulting in the feasibility of a complete circuit simulation of the entire photoreceiver circuit. The effects of the biasing over the performance of Mushroom-WGPDs have been explored for different loads and different dimensions of the device. Based on the studies of different parameters for design and materials, optimization has been performed for the mushroom-WGPD. With this optimization, the optimal values of the thickness of the absorption layer to produce the highest bandwidth of the photodetector are obtained for different biasing values. These optimizations are performed for different areas of the photodetector and also for different load resistors, and they result in a significant improvement in the performance of the mushroom-WGPDs.

  10. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Seku?a, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Methods Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequences were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological identification of mushrooms was also performed for 57 samples of clinical material. Results Of 221 samples, positive sequencing results were obtained for 152 (69%). The highest percentage of positive results was obtained for samples of dried mushrooms (96%) and food remains (91%). Comparison with GenBank sequences enabled identification of all samples at least at the genus level. Most samples (90%) were identified at the level of species or a group of closely related species. Sporological and molecular identification were consistent at the level of species or genus for 30% of analyzed samples. Conclusion Molecular analysis identified a larger number of species than sporological method. It proved to be suitable for analysis of evidential material (dried hallucinogenic mushrooms) in forensic genetic laboratories as well as to complement classical methods in the analysis of clinical material. PMID:25727040

  11. Biomimetic mushroom-shaped microfibers for dry adhesives by electrically induced polymer deformation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hong; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Hongzhong; An, Ningli

    2014-08-27

    The studies on bioinspired dry adhesion have demonstrated the biomimetic importance of a surface arrayed with mushroom-shaped microfibers among other artificially textured surfaces. The generation of a mushroom-shaped microfiber array with a high aspect ratio and a large tip diameter remains to be investigated. In this paper we report a three-step process for producing mushroom-shaped microfibers with a well-controlled aspect ratio and tip diameter. First, a polymer film coated on an electrically conductive substrate is prestructured into a low-aspect-ratio micropillar array by hot embossing. In the second step, an electrical voltage is applied to an electrode pair composed of the substrate and another conductive planar plate, sandwiching an air clearance. The Maxwell force induced on the air-polymer interface by the electric field electrohydrodynamically pulls the preformed micropillars upward to contact the upper electrode. Finally, the micropillars spread transversely on this electrode due to the electrowetting effect, forming the mushroom tip. In this paper we have demonstrated a polymer surface arrayed with mushroom-shaped microfibers with a large tip diameter (3 times the shaft diameter) and a large aspect ratio (above 10) and provided the testing results for dry adhesion. PMID:25102359

  12. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  13. Hypoglycemia and Death in Mice Following Experimental Exposure to an Extract of Trogia venenata Mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tao; Fontaine, Robert E.; Yang, Lin; Zhou, ZhongYu; Gao, Hong; Xu, YanFeng; Qin, Chuan; Yang, ZhuLiang; Liu, JiKai; Huang, WenLi; Zeng, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Background Clusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD) in Yunnan Province, China, have been linked to eating Trogia venenata mushrooms. We evaluated the toxic effect of this mushroom on mice. Methods We prepared extracts of fresh T. venenata and Laccaria vinaceoavellanea mushrooms collected from the environs of a village that had SUD. We randomly allocated mice into treatment groups and administered mushroom extracts at doses ranging from 500 to 3500 mg/kg and water (control) via a gavage needle. We observed mice for mortality for 7 days after a 3500 mg/kg dose and for 24 hours after doses from 500 to 3000 mg/kg. We determined biochemical markers from serum two hours after a 2000 mg/kg dose. Results Ten mice fed T. venenata extract (3500 mg/kg) died by five hours whereas all control mice (L. vinaceoavellanea extract and water) survived the seven-day observation period. All mice died by five hours after exposure to single doses of T. venenata extract ranging from 1500 to 3000 mg/kg, while the four mice exposed to a 500 mg/kg dose all survived. Mice fed 2000 mg/kg of T. venenata extract developed profound hypoglycemia (median ?=?0.66 mmol/L) two hours after exposure. Discussion Hypoglycemia and death within hours of exposure, a pattern unique among mushroom toxicity, characterize T. venenata poisoning. PMID:22745677

  14. Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    Sudheep, Naga M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the nutritional qualities of two wild mushrooms (Agaricus abruptibulbus and Termitomyces globulus) commonly consumed by the tribals of Kaiga forests of the Western Ghats of India. Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. Potassium and selenium contents were high, while sodium, calcium and phosphorus contents were low. Except for three essential amino acids (EAAs: leucine, tyrosine and lysine), the rest of the amino acids in both mushrooms were comparable to soybean and wheat. Based on the EAA standards of FAO-WHO, these mushrooms composed of high quantity of threonine, isoleucine and histidine. The EAA score of isoleucine in cooked A. abruptibulbus and threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine and sulphur amino acids in cooked T. globulus were substantially high. Oleic acid constitutes a major unsaturated fatty acid in these mushrooms, which was significantly increased in cooked A. abruptibulbus. Cooking also increased the ratio of TUFA/TSFA in A. abruptibulbus, while it was opposite in T. globulus. Cooking significantly increased the linoleic acid in A. abruptibulbus and eicosadienoic acid in T. globulus. PMID:24999438

  15. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferation activities of polysaccharides from eight species of medicinal mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiying; Yong, Yangyang; Gu, Yifan; Wang, Zeliang; Zhang, Shizhu; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharides from mushrooms including Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. nebrodensis, Lentinus edodes, Hypsizygus marmoreus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma lucidum, and Hericium erinaceus were isolated by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. Our results suggest that all tested polysaccharides have the significant antioxidant capacities of scavenging free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radicals). Among them, the H. erinaceus polysaccharide exhibits the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, whereas the L. edodes polysaccharide shows the strongest scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and HeLa cells, all 8 selected polysaccharides are able to inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, but the strength of inhibition varied depending on the mushroom species and the concentration used. Notably, G. lucidum polysaccharide shows the highest inhibition activity on MCF-7 cells. By comparison, H. erinaceus polysaccharide has the strongest inhibitory effect on HeLa cells. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with a carbohydrate analysis column showed significant differences in polysaccharide components among these mushrooms. Thus our data suggest that the different species of mushrooms have the variable functions because of their own specific polysaccharide components. The 8 mushroom polysaccharides have the potential to be used as valuable functional food additives or sources of therapeutic agents for antioxidant and cancer treatments, especially polysaccharides from H. erinaceus, L. edodes, and G. lucidum. PMID:25954912

  16. ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

    2006-11-05

    During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.

  17. Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.

    PubMed

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

  18. Comparative evaluation of polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and yacon as inhibitors of ?-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Zhang, Jing-Yi; Chen, Li-Jing; Liu, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wan-Xiao; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of diabetes has increased considerably, and become the third serious chronic disease following cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Though acarbose, metformin, and 1-deoxynojirimycin have good efficacy for clinical application as hypoglycemic drugs, their expensive costs and some degree of side effects have limited their clinical application. Recently, increasing attention has concentrated on the polysaccharides from natural plant and animal sources for diabetes. In order to illustrate the pharmaceutical activity of polysaccharides as natural hypoglycemic agents, polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, oyster mushroom, and Yacon were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase. Polysaccharides were extracted and purified from Astragalus, Oyster mushroom, and Yacon with hot water at 90 °C for 3 h, respectively. The total sugar content of the polysaccharide was determined by the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity was measured by the glucose oxidase method. The results exhibited that the inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase were in decreasing order, Astragalus > oyster mushroom > Yacon. The ?-glucosidase inhibition percentage of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were over 40% at the polysaccharide concentration of 0.4 mg·mL(-1). The IC50 of Astragalus polysaccharide and oyster mushroom polysaccharide were 0.28 and 0.424 mg·mL(-1), respectively. The information obtained from this work is beneficial for the use polysaccharides as a dietary supplement for health foods and therapeutics for diabetes. PMID:24863354

  19. Composition and antioxidant properties of wild mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius prepared for consumption.

    PubMed

    Jaworska, Gra?yna; Pogo?, Krystyna; Skrzypczak, Aleksandra; Berna?, Emilia

    2015-12-01

    Wild edible mushrooms Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius were prepared for consumption by braising with 10 % canola oil (half of the batch was blanched prior to braising). Fresh X.badius had comparable to B.edulis amounts of proximate components and higher levels of most B-group vitamins and antioxidants. Analyzed mushrooms prepared for consumption fulfilled 7-14 % RDA of vitamin B1 for healthy adults and 15-35, 18-37 and 1 % RDA of B2, B3 and B3 respectively. Prepared for consumption mushrooms were rich in antioxidants containing in 100 g dry weight 164,601 mg total polyphenols, 19-87 mg total flavonoids, 22.1-27.4 mg L-ascorbic acid, 0.531-1.031 mg ?-carotene, 0.325-0.456 mg lycopene and 38.64-44.49 mg total tocopherols and presented high antioxidant activity against ABTS (4.9-36.5 mmol TE), against DPPH (7.8-21.3 mmol TE) and in FRAP assay (15.0-28.1 mmol Fe(2+)). Mushrooms prepared for consumption with blanching prior to culinary treatment showed lower antioxidant properties and vitamin content in comparison to mushrooms braised raw. PMID:26604366

  20. Characteristics of a Hydrated, Alginate-Based Delivery System for Cultivation of the Button Mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Romaine, C. P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.

    1992-01-01

    The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms. Images PMID:16348774

  1. The genetic structure and diversity of the A and B mating-type genes from the tropical oyster mushroom, Pleurotus djamor

    E-print Network

    James, Timothy

    mushroom, Pleurotus djamor Timothy Y. James,* Shian-Ren Liou,1 and Rytas Vilgalys Department of Biology Available online 9 April 2004 Abstract In most heterothallic mushroom species, inbreeding is avoided). In this study we investigated the genetic structure of the mating-type loci in the tropical oyster mushroom

  2. TE Scattering from Mushroom-type EBG Structures in Parallel Plate Sang-Ho Lim, Ho Lim, Se-Young Kim, Noh-Hoon Myung

    E-print Network

    Myung, Noh-Hoon

    TE Scattering from Mushroom-type EBG Structures in Parallel Plate Waveguide Sang-Ho Lim, Ho Lim, Se Mushroom-type Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) structures which have a high impedance characteristic are used and efficient for computation. Theory and Numerical Result Consider a TEs-mode incident on a mushroom-type EBG

  3. To use the cards: The file, mushroom cards.pdf, is full set of the current cards used at the Joint University

    E-print Network

    To use the cards: The file, mushroom cards.pdf, is full set of the current cards used at the Joint University Mendocino Foray. The file, mushroom_cards (no lichens).pdf, is the same set minus about 30 cards: If you would like to help correct and improve these download the excel file Mushroom_cards.xls. Each card

  4. Modal propagation and interaction in the smooth transition from a metal mushroom structure to a bed-of-nails-type wire medium

    E-print Network

    Hanson, George

    Modal propagation and interaction in the smooth transition from a metal mushroom structure to a bed://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Modal propagation and interaction in the smooth transition from a metal mushroom structure of a metamaterial mushroom structure are studied as the patch material transitions from being a perfect conductor

  5. Evidence against Barium in the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths. PMID:23042168

  6. Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2015-01-01

    Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed. PMID:24654802

  7. INHIBITION OF GROWTH AND INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES BY AN ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION FROM SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shiitake mushrooms have been reported to have cancer preventing properties, and polysaccharides isolated from shiitake mushrooms are being used in some parts of the world as an adjuvant in cancer chemtherapy. However, little research has been conducted verifying the antitumor activities of "mycoche...

  8. 75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 16075 (March 31, 2010). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China... preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1, 2009, to...

  9. 76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ...: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR 62108 (October 7, 2010). The current... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period...

  10. Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

  11. 75 FR 63440 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 15679 (March 30, 2010). The current deadline for the preliminary... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's ] Republic of China, covering the period of February 1,...

  12. 76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011). The current deadline for the... International Trade Administration Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of... certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the period of February 1,...

  13. Compton Scattering by Internal Shields Based on Melanin-Containing Mushrooms Provides Protection of Gastrointestinal Tract from Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Revskaya, Ekaterina; Chu, Peter; Howell, Robertha C.; Schweitzer, Andrew D.; Bryan, Ruth A.; Harris, Matthew; Gerfen, Gary; Jiang, Zewei; Jandl, Thomas; Kim, Kami; Ting, Li-Min; Sellers, Rani S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract There is a need for radioprotectors that protect normal tissues from ionizing radiation in patients receiving high doses of radiation and during nuclear emergencies. We investigated the possibility of creating an efficient oral radioprotector based on the natural pigment melanin that would act as an internal shield and protect the tissues via Compton scattering followed by free radical scavenging. CD-1 mice were fed melanin-containing black edible mushrooms Auricularia auricila-judae before 9?Gy total body irradiation. The location of the mushrooms in the body before irradiation was determined by in vivo fluorescent imaging. Black mushrooms protected 80% of mice from the lethal dose, while control mice or those given melanin-devoid mushrooms died from gastrointestinal syndrome. The crypts of mice given black mushrooms showed less apoptosis and more cell division than those in control mice, and their white blood cell and platelet counts were restored at 45 days to preradiation levels. The role of melanin in radioprotection was proven by the fact that mice given white mushrooms supplemented with melanin survived at the same rate as mice given black mushrooms. The ability of melanin-containing mushrooms to provide remarkable protection against radiation suggests that they could be developed into oral radioprotectors. PMID:23113595

  14. A Pilot Study to Compare a Mushroom-Soy-Beef Burger to an All-Beef Burger in School Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Amber C.; Smith, Paul; Ezike, Adaora; Frutchey, Robin; Fahle, Jenna; DeVries, Eva; Taylor, Jarrett; Cheskin, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if mushroom blended recipes are an acceptable option for use in the school food program. The palatability and acceptance of mushroom-soy-beef blend burgers among school-aged children was tested. Methods: Students in grades 2 through 8 were invited to participate in a taste test.…

  15. Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry in Chagas’ Disease: Compounds at The Final Stage of “Hit-To-Lead” Phase

    PubMed Central

    Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Chagas’ disease, or American trypanosomosiasis, has been the most relevant illness produced by protozoa in Latin America. Synthetic medicinal chemistry efforts have provided an extensive number of chemodiverse hits at the “active-to-hit” stage. However, only a more limited number of these have been studied in vivo in models of Chagas’ disease. Herein, we survey some of the cantidates able to surpass the “hit-to-lead” stage discussing their limitations or merit to enter in clinical trials in the short term.

  16. Effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation on the physico-chemical and nutritional properties of mushrooms: a review.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ângela; Antonio, Amilcar L; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-11-15

    The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an obstacle to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Thus, prolonging postharvest storage, while preserving their quality, would benefit the mushroom industry as well as consumers. There has been extensive research on finding the most appropriate technology for mushrooms preservation. Gamma, electron-beam and UV irradiation have been shown to be potential tools in extending the postharvest shelf-life of fresh mushrooms. Studies evaluating the effects of ionizing radiation are available mainly in cultivated species such as Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. This review comprises a comprehensive study of the effects of irradiation on physico-chemical parameters (weight, colour, texture and pH), chemical compounds including nutrients (proteins, sugars and vitamins) and non-nutrients (phenolics, flavonoids and flavour compounds), and on biochemical parameters such as enzymatic activity of mushrooms for different species and from different regions of the world. PMID:22868140

  17. Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Shilpi; Roach, Steven L.; Barnes, S. Whitney; Hoepfner, Dominic; Walker, John R.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Arkin, Michelle R.; McNamara, Case W.; Ballard, Jaime; Lai, Yin; Fu, Yue; Molteni, Valentina; Yeh, Vince; McKerrow, James H.; Glynne, Richard J.; Supek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Clones from this culture bore a mutation coding for a substitution of leucine by phenylalanine at amino acid position 197 in cytochrome b. Cytochrome b is a component of complex III (cytochrome bc1) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism that utilizes two distinct catalytic sites, QN and QP. The L197F mutation is located in the QN site and confers resistance to GNF7686 in both parasite cell growth and biochemical cytochrome b assays. Additionally, the mutant cytochrome b confers resistance to antimycin A, another QN site inhibitor, but not to strobilurin or myxothiazol, which target the QP site. GNF7686 represents a promising starting point for Chagas disease drug discovery as it potently inhibits growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.15 µM, and is highly specific for T. cruzi cytochrome b. No effect on the mammalian respiratory chain or mammalian cell proliferation was observed with up to 25 µM of GNF7686. Our approach, which combines T. cruzi chemical genetics with biochemical target validation, can be broadly applied to the discovery of additional novel drug targets and drug leads for Chagas disease. PMID:26186534

  18. Cultivation-Independent Methods Reveal Differences among Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Triatomine Vectors of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Methodology/Principal Findings Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. Conclusions/Significance The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus. PMID:22563511

  19. Design or screening of drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease: what shows the most promise?

    PubMed Central

    Lepesheva, Galina I.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Endemic in Latin America, Chagas disease is now becoming a serious global health problem, and yet has no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry and remains incurable. In 2012, two antimycotic drugs inhibitors of fungal sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) – posaconazole and ravuconazole – entered clinical trials. Availability of the X-ray structure of the orthologous enzyme from the causative agent of the disease, protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, determined in complexes with posaconazole as well as with several experimental protozoa-specific CYP51 inhibitors opens an excellent opportunity to improve the situation. Areas covered This article summarizes the information available in PubMed and Google on the outcomes of treatment of the chronic Chagas disease. It also outlines the major features of the T. cruzi CYP51 structure and the possible structure-based strategies for rational design of novel T. cruzi specific drugs. Expert opinion There is no doubt that screenings for alternative drug-like molecules as well as mining the T. cruzi genome for novel drug targets are of great value and might eventually lead to groundbreaking discoveries. However, all newly identified molecules must proceed through the long, expensive and low-yielding drug optimization process, and all novel potential drug targets must be validated in terms of their essentiality and druggability. CYP51 is already a well-validated and highly successful target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. With minimal investments into the final stages of their development/trials, T. cruzi-specific CYP51 inhibitors can provide an immediate treatment for Chagas disease, either on their own or in combination with the currently available drugs. PMID:24079515

  20. Traditional knowledge about mushrooms in a Nahua community in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Montoya, A; Hernández-Totomoch, O; Estrada-Torres, A; Kong, A; Caballero, J

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional mycological knowledge of the Nahua of San Isidro Buensuceso, on the slopes of La Malinche Volcano National Park, in the state of Tlaxcala, México. The results described in this paper were obtained through interviews with villagers selected at random; a free-listing technique was used to determine the cultural significance of the mushrooms of the region. A total of 48 species, which had 65 Náhuatl names and 40 in Spanish, were identified. Although San Isidro villagers consider mushrooms to be a natural resource mainly used for food, they also use them for medicine, insecticides and trade. This paper presents traditional information on the morphology, ecology, fenology and consistency of the mushrooms found around San Isidro. It proposes that, from a cultural perspective, Gomphus flocossus, Ramaria spp. and Boletus spp. are the most important species of the region. PMID:21148986