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1

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated

Seung-Shi Ham; Soo-Hyun Kim; Sun-Young Moon; Mi Ja Chung; Cheng-Bi Cui; Eun-Kyung Han; Cha-Kwon Chung; Myeon Choe

2009-01-01

2

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 ?g/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 ?g/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 ?g/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 ?g/plate) and B(?)P (10 ?g/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(?)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(?)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

2009-01-01

3

A comparative study of analytical methods for alkali-soluble ?-glucan in medicinal mushroom, Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ?-glucan content in the medicinal mushroom Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) was measured by different extraction and analytical methods, and the results were compared. The alkali extraction (AE) method or enzymatic digestion (ED) method followed by a gravimetric analysis was employed to determine the crude ?-glucan content. The amount of crude ?-glucan in Chaga obtained by either AE or ED was

Sook Jong Rhee; Seung Yong Cho; Ki Myong Kim; Dong-Su Cha; Hyun-Jin Park

2008-01-01

4

Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791

Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-12-01

5

Effect of steam treatment on soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the Chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of steam treatment on free phenolic acids in Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) was investigated. Untreated and steam-treated (120°C, 3h) samples of I. obliquus were extracted with organic solvents and free phenolic acid-containing fractions were isolated. Free phenolic acids were determined by LC\\/PDA (liquid chromatography\\/photodiode array), ESI LC\\/MS (electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry), and GC\\/MS (gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry). After

Hyun Kyoung Ju; Ha Wook Chung; Soon-Sun Hong; Jeong Hill Park; Jeongmi Lee; Sung Won Kwon

2010-01-01

6

Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

2010-11-01

7

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

2008-01-01

8

Antioxidant Activity of Subcritical Water Extracts from Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcritical water (SCW) extraction of Chaga mushroom (CM) was carried out at various temperatures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C) and times (10, 30, and 60 min), and then antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power (RP), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and total

Hye-Kyung Seo; Seung-Cheol Lee

2010-01-01

9

[A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus].  

PubMed

The chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains a wide range of excellent bioactive compounds. However, limited information exists on the antiviral activity of the compounds extracted from chaga. A number of subfractions of chaga were obtained using different solvents and different procedures. The subfractions of chaga extracted with water, alcohol, alkali were tested for their toxicity for the Vero cell culture and antiviral effect in the Vero cells infected with the Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Type 1. It was shown that most of the subfractions were not toxic for the Vero cells and had protective effect on the Vero cells infected with HSV. The subfraction IV in the concentration 5 microg/ml protected the Vero cells from cytodestructive action of HSV and no viral DNA was detected in infected cells treated with chaga extracts. Best protective effect was observed when compound was added before or within one hour after the Vero cells were infected with HSV. PMID:25069286

Polkovnikova, M V; Nosik, N N; Garaev, T M; Kondrashina, N G; Finogenova, M P; Shibnev, V A

2014-01-01

10

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and

In-Kyoung Lee; Young-Sook Kim; Yoon-Woo Jang; Jin-Young Jung; Bong-Sik Yun

2007-01-01

11

Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines. PMID:24380885

Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

2014-01-01

12

Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 ?g/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 ?g/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics. PMID:23510282

Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

2013-01-01

13

Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:22135889

Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

14

Preparation of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus-fermented rice using solid-state fermentation and its taste quality and antioxidant property.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilat, was inoculated into cooked embryo rice and the mycelial growth in I. obliquus-fermented embryo rice (IER) was monitored. Besides, nonvolatile taste components and antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, IER, and embryo rice were studied. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were determined to be: 30°C, an inoculation rate of 1 mL/15 g, water supplementation of 60%, and no extra nitrogen source added. IER showed similar proximate composition to embryo rice but contained a substantial amount of ergothioneine (101 mg/kg dry weight). IER contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and polyols, and umami taste components, including monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like components and flavor 5'-nucleotides, than embryo rice. Besides, IER showed a second level of equivalent umami concentrations (223.73 g MSG/100 g). Fruiting bodies did not contain umami components but showed the most effective antioxidant properties. Although some of EC50 values of IER were less than those of mycelia and embryo rice, IER still showed effective antioxidant properties. Based on the results obtained, IER will be a novel functional food. PMID:23510252

Lin, Shin-Yi; Yeh, Chan-Chun; Liang, Chih-Hung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

15

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.  

PubMed

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

2010-06-01

16

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells  

PubMed Central

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

2010-01-01

17

Review on Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes): Realm of Medicinal Applications and Approaches on Estimating its Resource Potential.  

PubMed

This paper presents a review of the realm of medicinal applications of Inonotus obliquus raw materials, sterile conks I. obliquus, based on the bibliographies of chemical studies of the fungus. The experimental part of the paper is devoted to the presentation of methods of estimating the resource potential of this fungus based on data obtained in the comfort zone of ththis species. A new form, I. obliquus f. sterilis, is formally described. PMID:25746615

Balandaykin, Mikhail E; Zmitrovich, Ivan V

2015-01-01

18

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in

Yoo Kyoung Park; Hyang Burm Lee; Eun-Jae Jeon; Hack Sung Jung; Myung-Hee Kanga

2004-01-01

19

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular

Yuki Nakajima; Hiroshi Nishida; Yutaka Nakamura; Tetsuya Konishi

2009-01-01

20

Inhibitory effects of a polysaccharide extract from the Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), on the proliferation of human neurogliocytoma cells.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory roles of a polysaccharide extract from Inonotus obliquus on U251 human neurogliocytoma cells cultured in vitro. After administering the polysaccharide extract from I. obliquus to U251 cells cultivated in vitro, methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay was performed to measure the inhibitory effects of the extract on tumor cell proliferation. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. Different concentrations of I. obliquus extract (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 µg/mL) were added to U251 cells at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay showed that the inhibition ratio increased with increased extract concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract sharply decreased the expression of Bcl-2 but dramatically increased the expression of caspase-3. This function was gradually enhanced with increased drug concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. This inhibition function is closely related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and the upregulation of caspase-3. PMID:24940902

Ning, Xianbin; Luo, Qi; Li, Chuang; Ding, Zhaoyi; Pang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Changfu

2014-01-01

21

In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus. PMID:22135888

Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2011-01-01

22

Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study. PMID:17666849

Nakajima, Yuki; Sato, Yuzo; Konishi, Tetsuya

2007-08-01

23

Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-06-01

24

Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].  

PubMed

Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells. PMID:19627197

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-06-01

25

Tetracyclic triterpenes from Inonotus Obliquus (Pers.) Pil. (Chaga) growing in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetracyclic triterpene content of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) growing in Russia was investigated for the first time. Lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol were isolated from the\\u000a non-phenolic fraction. In addition, trametenolic acid was isolated from fraction III, which was prepared by extraction from\\u000a diethylether solution with 5% NaOH.

E. N. Zhukovich; M. Yu. Semenova; L. A. Sharikova; T. F. Pribytkova

2010-01-01

26

Acute Toxicity Evaluation and Compositional Analysis of a Polysaccharide from the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (IOPS) was isolated from the Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat, which was a medicinal mushroom with many health-benefiting functions. The chemical composition and acute toxicity of IOPS was investigated in order to determine the possibility of using them for human consumption. Chemical analysis of IOPS showed that it was a nonstarch protein bounded acidic polysaccharide. The protein, neutral

Haixia Chen; Lingling Fu; Peng Dong; Xin Zhang; Xueming Lu

2009-01-01

27

Effect of different drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus is a kind of mushroom which has long been used as a folk remedy for curing various diseases such as cancers, heart disease and diabetes in Russian and Eastern Europe. Polysaccharides are one of the main bioactive constituents of Inonotus obliquus with health functions. Three drying methods, freeze drying, hot air drying and vacuum drying methods were comparatively

Lishuai Ma; Haixia Chen; Wenchai Zhu; Zhaoshuai Wang

28

Effect of drying method on the moisture sorption isotherms for Inonotus obliquus mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sorption isotherms of Inonotus obliquus mushroom were studied over a selected temperature range (20–50°C). Sigmoid sorption isotherms were observed for these samples. The sorption data were analyzed using various conventional models. The Oswin model was found to be the best model for predicting the equilibrium moisture content of mushroom in the range of water activity 0.08–0.96. The monolayer moisture

Jun Ho Lee; Min Ji Lee

2008-01-01

29

Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-? was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-? related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

2005-01-01

30

Inhibitory effect of chaga mushroom extract on compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock and IgE production in mice.  

PubMed

Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) are hypothesised to exhibit general immune-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, but their anti-allergic activities are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether a chaga mushroom extract (C-HE) might have anti-allergic activity. This activity was assessed through the levels of the IgE Ab produced in response to an allergen (OVA). The administration of C-HE prophylactically inhibited the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice. The oral administration of C-HE significantly reduced the total IgE levels in mice and slightly affected the production of IgG1. Furthermore, spleen cell cultures harvested from OVA-sensitised mice that had received C-HE orally showed a significant increase in Th1-derived responses (IFN-? production). Therefore, our results suggest that the chaga mushroom extract may be used as an anti-allergic functional food. PMID:23535020

Yoon, Taek Joon; Lee, Sue Jung; Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Eun Hee; Kang, Tae Bong; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo

2013-04-01

31

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat).  

PubMed

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress and subsequent damage of cellular and nuclear components. Chaga extracts and the phenolic ingredients, 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and caffeic acid (CA), effectively suppressed intracellular ROS level in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. The H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was more pronounced, effectively prevented in the cells treated with DBL than in cells treated with CA. In addition, ROS activate various signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Therefore, we examined the potentially beneficial effects of DBL on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-MAPK signaling activated by H(2)O(2) stimulation. DBL selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, without affecting JNK and ERK. PMID:19647072

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-10-15

32

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

33

Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-?B luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

2013-08-15

34

Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

2015-01-01

35

Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

2013-01-01

36

Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe purpose of the study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Polygala senega (Senega) and Viburnum trilobum (Cranberry) bark extract fractions from locally produced materials in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced murine macrophage RAW 164.7 cells.

Q. Van; B. N. Nayak; M. Reimer; P. J. H. Jones; R. G. Fulcher; C. B. Rempel

2009-01-01

37

Comparison of Hypoglycemic Activity of Fermented Mushroom of Inonotus obliquus Rich in Vanadium and Wild-Growing I. obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg\\/g\\u000a in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1\\/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg\\/g level\\u000a is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those

Yibing Zhang; Yong Zhao; Haifeng Cui; Chunyu Cao; Jianyou Guo; Sha Liu

38

Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.  

PubMed

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p?

Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

2011-12-01

39

Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the extraction and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from Inonotus obliquus. Ethanol extract from I. obliquus ASI 74006 mycelia showed the highest platelet aggregation inhibitory activity (81.2%). The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of I. obliquus ASI 74006 was extracted with ethanol at 80°C for 12h. The platelet aggregation inhibitor

Kwang Wook Hyun; Seung Chan Jeong; Dae Hyoung Lee; Jeong Sik Park; Jong Soo Lee

2006-01-01

40

Comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from chaga ( Inonotus obliquus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional extraction of biologically active compounds from a chaga shred has been carried out after completion of the aqueous\\u000a extraction. The extraction was carried out using ethanol. We have shown that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts\\u000a and their components is higher than that of the aqueous extracts.

M. A. Sysoeva; L. R. Yumaeva; V. S. Gamayurova; G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; F. G. Khalitov

2010-01-01

41

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells, and exposure to the EE resulted in the induction of apoptosis, whereas no apoptosis was observed in DLD-1 cells exposed to the hot water extracts (HWEs). HWE at 70 degrees C (HWE70) exhibited the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (EC50, 126 microg/ml), whereas the EE showed the weakest activity (EC50, 224 microg/ml). The different biological activities among the four extracts may be attributed to differences in their chemical composition, partially supported by polysaccharide, protein and phenolic content, and the 1H-NMR spectra. PMID:19147108

Hu, Honghai; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Sugiura, Norio

2009-01-01

42

Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

2012-06-20

43

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The mushroom Inonotus obliquus(Fr.) Pil ´ at (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic

Yong Cui; Dong-seok Kim; Kyoung-chan Park

2005-01-01

44

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had

Yong Cui; Dong-Seok Kim; Kyoung-Chan Park

2005-01-01

45

[Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].  

PubMed

Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

2013-01-01

46

Terpenoids with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotolactones A and B, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid, inotolactone C, and five known terpenoids 6?-hydroxy-trans-dihydroconfertifolin, inotodiol, 3?,22-dihydroxyanosta-7,9(11),24-triene, 3?-hydroxycinnamolide, and 17-hydroxy-ent-atisan-19-oic acid, were isolated from the submerged culture of chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, including MS and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic techniques. Inotolactones A and B, examples of lanostane-type triterpenoids bearing ?,?-dimethyl, ?,?-unsaturated ?-lactone side chains, exhibited more potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the positive control acarbose. This finding might be related to the anti-hyperglycemic properties of the fungus and to its popular role as a diabetes treatment. In addition, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid and an atisane-type diterpenoid were isolated from I. obliquus. PMID:25446238

Ying, You-Min; Zhang, Lin-Yan; Zhang, Xia; Bai, Hai-Bo; Liang, Dong-E; Ma, Lie-Feng; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhan, Zha-Jun

2014-12-01

47

Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds". PMID:20635536

Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

2010-01-01

48

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely\\u000a forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called ‘Chaga’. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an

Weifa Zheng; Kangjie Miao; Yubing Liu; Yanxia Zhao; Meimei Zhang; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai

2010-01-01

49

Characterization of two water-soluble lignin metabolites with antiproliferative activities from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus has long been recognized as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones since the 16th century. Herein we reported the identification of two homogenous biological macromolecules, designated as IOW-S-1 and IOW-S-2 with anti-tumor activities from the hot-water extract of I. obliquus. Their molecular weights were determined to be 37.9 and 24.5kDa by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) respectively. Chemical and spectral analysis indicated that both IOW-S-1 and IOW-S-2 were predominant in lignin, along with ?20% carbohydrates. Examination of cytotoxicity showed that these two lignin-carbohydrate complexes induced cell death in a concentration dependent manner, while this apoptosis induction was largely cell-cycle independent. Further investigation demonstrated that IOW-S-1 or IOW-S-2 inhibited the activation of the nuclear transcription factor in cancer cells. These findings implied that soluble lignin derivatives were one of bioactive components in I. obliquus, and further provided insights into the understanding of molecular basis for diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:25583019

Wang, Qingjie; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Lin; Dong, Dongqi; Zhang, Wuxia; Duan, Jinyou

2015-03-01

50

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200mg\\/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute

Young-Mi Park; Jong-Heon Won; Yang-Hee Kim; Jong-Won Choi; Hee-Juhn Park; Kyung-Tae Lee

2005-01-01

51

Chemical and medicobiological properties of chaga (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of chaga (Inonotus obliquus) are reviewed. The possible mechanisms of action and factors responsible for the discrepancy of data available in the literature\\u000a are discussed. The physical and chemical characteristics of melanin (polyphenolic chromogenic humin-like complex present in\\u000a chaga) and its role in the regulation of physiological processes are considered.

M. Ya. Shashkina; P. N. Shashkin; A. V. Sergeev

2006-01-01

52

Enhanced phenolic antioxidants production in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. It is currently ascribed to a number of phenolic compounds as well as triterpenoids and polysaccharides responsible for significant biological and pharmacological properties. A study was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion of lignocellulosic material, in this case corn stover

Xiangqun Xu; Jinwei Zhu

2011-01-01

53

Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.  

PubMed

The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture. PMID:22484608

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-06-01

54

Effect of the Inonotus Obliquus Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress of Rats Fed High-Fat Diet In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus Obliquus is a medicinal mushroom that is widely used in folk medicine in Russia, North Europe and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic capacities of Inonotus Obliquus polysaccharides(IOP). In vivo, the hyperlipidemic rats, induced by high-fat diet, were provided 100, 200, 500 mg\\/kg day of IOP for 8 weeks to evaluate their

Liya Liang; Zesheng Zhang; Wei Sun; Yuben Wang

2009-01-01

55

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS, attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in order to make Inonotus obliquus obtain effective exploitation and satisfy people's demands. PMID:19407959

Zhong, Xiu-hong; Ren, Kuang; Lu, Shi-jie; Yang, Shu-yan; Sun, Dong-zhi

2009-04-01

56

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS,\\u000a attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition\\u000a and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in

Xiu-hong Zhong; Kuang Ren; Shi-jie Lu; Shu-yan Yang; Dong-zhi Sun

2009-01-01

57

New lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsutriols D, and E, from Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsutriols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. (Japanese name: kabanoanatake; Russian name: chaga). Their structures were determined to be lanost-8-ene-3?,22R,24R-triol (1) and lanost-8-ene-3?,22R,24S-triol (2) on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR analysis. In addition, major compounds, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), 3?-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-al (5), 21-hydroxylanosterol

Reiko Tanaka; Misaki Toyoshima; Takeshi Yamada

2011-01-01

58

Styrylpyrone-class compounds from medicinal fungi Phellinus and Inonotus spp., and their medicinal importance.  

PubMed

Members of the genera Phellinus and Inonotus, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus are well-known medicinal fungi (mushrooms) and have been used in treatment of cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections and ulcer. Adverse effects of these medicinal mushrooms have not yet been reported, indicating the safe nature of these mushrooms. Polysaccharides, particularly ?-glucan, are considered the compounds responsible for the biological activity of medicinal mushrooms. However, there is only a limited amount of evidence to indicate that polysaccharides are in fact responsible for the biological effects of these medicinal mushrooms. Recently, many research groups have begun identification of active low-MW compounds in medicinal mushrooms, with a focus on the yellow polyphenol pigments, which are composed of a styrylpyrone class of compounds. Interestingly, a representative group of medicinal fungi, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus were shown to produce a large and diverse range of styrylpyrone-type polyphenol pigments that exhibited various biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-diabetic, anti-dementia and anti-viral effects. Styrylpyrone pigments in mushrooms are thought to have a role similar to that of flavonoids in plants. The unique and unprecedented carbon skeleton of fused styrylpyrone might be an attractive molecular scaffold for pharmacological applications. In this review, the structural diversity, biological effects and biogenesis of styrylpyrone-class polyphenols from medicinal fungi are described. PMID:21304532

Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

2011-05-01

59

Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria CS226359 Chagas Disease Fact Sheet What is Chagas disease? ? A disease that can cause serious heart ... benchuca,” “vinchuca,” “chinche,” or “barbeiro” Who can get Chagas disease? Anyone. However, people have a greater chance ...

60

Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

2012-01-01

61

Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1?-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

2012-01-01

62

ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method.

WITOLD MAZURKIEWICZ

2006-01-01

63

Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

Chagas disease is caused by a parasite. It is common in Latin America but not in the United States. ... nose, the bite wound or a cut. The disease can also spread through contaminated food, a blood ...

64

Chagas disease  

MedlinePLUS

... help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ... discarded if the donor tests positive. Most blood banks in the United States began screening for Chagas ...

65

Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungusInonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesized high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical\\u000a properties. It was shown that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated melanogenesis.\\u000a The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis ofo- andp-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects.

V. G. Babitskaya; V. V. Shcherba; N. V. Lkonnikova

2000-01-01

66

Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been used as a folk remedy for a long time in Russia and East-European countries to treat gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (ISP2a) was successfully purified from I. obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vivo ISP2a had not only shown antitumor activity, but also could significantly enhance the immune response of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, ISP2a significantly enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation and increased the production of TNF-?. Results of these studies demonstrated that ISP2a had a potential application as natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22840014

Fan, Liuping; Ding, Shaodong; Ai, Lianzhong; Deng, Kequan

2012-10-01

67

Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3?,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3?,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal

Tomoko Nakata; Takeshi Yamada; Sayaka Taji; Hirofumi Ohishi; Shun-ichi Wada; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuo Sakuma; Reiko Tanaka

2007-01-01

68

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-01

69

Mushroom Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will be amateur mycologists--collecting and analyzing various mushrooms. Through observation and discussion, students will gain knowledge of the basic anatomy of mushrooms, their life cycle, and their method of reproduction through spores. Students will learn to create spore prints of mushrooms and label and preserve their spore prints, just like a mycologist. Students also will learn that by comparing spore prints, they can identify different mushroom species.

70

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

2010-07-01

71

Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective.  

PubMed

This review highlights some of the recently isolated and identified substances of higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms origin that express promising antitumor, immune modulating, cardiovascular and hypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects. Medicinal mushrooms have a long history of use in folk medicine. In particular, mushrooms useful against cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lungs, etc. are known in China, Russia, Japan, Korea, as well as the U.S.A. and Canada. There are about 200 species of mushrooms that have been found to markedly inhibit the growth of different kinds of tumors. Searching for new antitumor and other medicinal substances from mushrooms and to study the medicinal value of these mushrooms have become a matter of great significance. However, most of the mushroom origin antitumor substances have not been clearly defined. Several antitumor polysaccharides such as hetero-beta-glucans and their protein complexes (e.g., xyloglucans and acidic beta-glucan-containing uronic acid), as well as dietary fibers, lectins, and terpenoids have been isolated from medicinal mushrooms. In Japan, Russia, China, and the U.S.A. several different polysaccharide antitumor agents have been developed from the fruiting body, mycelia, and culture medium of various medicinal mushrooms (Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Inonotus obliquus, and Flammulina velutipes). Both cellular components and secondary metabolites of a large number of mushrooms have been shown to effect the immune system of the host and therefore could be used to treat a variety of disease states. PMID:9987601

Wasser, S P; Weis, A L

1999-01-01

72

Chapter 11 Chagas Disease  

E-print Network

Chagas disease, named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas who first described it in 1909, exists only on the American continent (Chagas 1909). It is caused by a flagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs and by blood

A Moncayo

73

Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images PMID:1423218

Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

1992-01-01

74

Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H?O?-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE?, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

2013-01-01

75

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS STRAINS BY RAPD GENETSKA ANALIZA NIZOVA INONOTUS OBLIQUUSA POMO)U METODE RAPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: RAPD profiling of eight Inonotus obliquus strains isolated from sclerotia collected from different areas of China was conducted to determine the genetic variabili- ty within this important medicinal fungus and to better define relationships between the genotype and geographi- cal origins of isolation. Twelve 10-mer primers generated a total of 167 stable and reproducible DNA fragments, of which 101

Yan-Qiu Chen; Xiao-Fan Guo; Chang-Tian Li

2007-01-01

76

Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7?mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32??g/mL and 2??g/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2014-01-01

77

[Mushroom poisoning].  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is a regular complaint for consultation in emergency facilities. These situations are usually benign and symptomatic treatment is sufficient. However, severe damage can occur, potentially life-threatening. We review the various syndromes associated with the toxins involved, their management and the major signs that are suggestive of serious injury and requiring hospitalization. PMID:24024391

Trueb, L; Carron, P-N; Saviuc, P

2013-08-14

78

Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their biological activities.  

PubMed

Seven new triterpenes, inonotusol A-G (1-7), one new diterpene, inonotusic acid (8), and 22 known compounds were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments. In in vitro assays, compounds 6 and 8-16 showed hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine-induced WB-F344 cell damage, with inhibitory effects from 34.4% to 81.2%. Compounds 7, 17, and 18 exhibited selective cytotoxicities against KB, Bel-7402, or A-549 cell lines. Compounds 16 and 17 showed inhibitory effects against protein tyrosine kinases, with IC50 values of 24.6 and 7.7 ?M, respectively. PMID:24359303

Liu, Chao; Zhao, Cui; Pan, Hong-Hui; Kang, Jie; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Bao-Ming; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Ruo-Yun

2014-01-24

79

Mushroom lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants, animals, and microorganisms contain lectins, but relatively few studies have been conducted on lectins from mushrooms. Some lectins have been isolated from the fruiting bodies of Basidio?mycetes fungi. Among the species studied are: Ischchnoderma res?inosum lectin (IRA), Grifola fondosa lectin (GFL), Forties fomen?tarius lectin (FFL), Ganoderma lucidum lectin (GLL), etc. Some properties of these lectins are presented in

Hirokazu KaWagishi

1995-01-01

80

JAMA Patient Page: Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Chagas Disease C hagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is ... or an organ transplanted from an infected donor. Chagas disease occurs mainly in Latin America, where an ...

81

Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

82

Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides fractions from mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. We first reported the enhancement in production and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides by I. obliquus culture under lignocellulose decomposition. In this study, the two different sources of exopolysaccharides from the control medium and the lignocellulose (corn stover) containing medium by I. obliquus in submerged fermentation were fractionated and purified by chromatography. The exopolysaccharides from the corn stover-containing medium presented significantly stronger hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than the control. Three fractions from the control medium and the corn stover-containing medium were isolated respectively. The fraction of DEPL3 from the corn stover-containing medium with the highest protein content (38.3%), mannose content (49.6%), and the lowest molecular weight (29 kDa) had the highest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 values. In conclusion, lignocellulose decomposition changed the chemical characterisation and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions. PMID:23442636

Xiang, Yuling; Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan

2012-10-15

83

Bioassay-guided isolation of DPP-4 inhibitory fractions from extracts of submerged cultured of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom used in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the mycelium powders of I. obliquus possess significant antihyperglycemic effects in a mouse model of diabetic disease induced by alloxan. However, the active ingredients of mycelium powders responsible for the diabetes activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of I. obliquus mycelium powders by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the mechanism of action of these active ingredients by using a well-established DPP-4 (an important enzyme as a new therapeutic target for diabetes) inhibitory assay model. The results showed the chloroform extract of mycelium was potential inhibitory against DPP-4. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the identification of 19 compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecular docking between the compounds and DPP-4 revealed that compounds 5, 8, 9, 14, 15 may be the active components responsible for the DPP-4 inhibitory activity. PMID:23325103

Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2013-01-01

84

Src kinase-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of davallialactone from Inonotus xeranticus in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Mushrooms are popular both as food and as a source of natural compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. Some mushroom-derived compounds such as ?-glucan have been shown to be immunostimulatory; this study explores the anti-inflammatory properties of hispidin analogues derived from the mushroom, Inonotus xeranticus. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism of action of these hispidin analogues by determining their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in a macrophage cell line. Experimental approach: The production of inflammatory mediators was determined by Griess assay, reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA. The inhibitory effect of davalliactone on LPS-induced activation of signalling cascades was assessed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation and direct kinase assay. Key results: In activated RAW264.7 cells, davallialactone strongly downregulated LPS-mediated inflammatory responses, including NO production, prostaglandin E2 release, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cell surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Davallialactone treatment did not alter cell viability or morphology. Davallialactone was found to exert its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting a signalling cascade that activates nuclear factor kappa B via PI3K, Akt and IKK, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. Treatment with davallialactone affected the phosphorylation of these signalling proteins, but not their level of expression. These inhibitory effects were not due to the interruption of toll-like receptor 4 binding to CD14. In particular, davallialactone strongly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation and kinase activity of Src, implying that Src may be a potential pharmacological target of davallialactone. Conclusions and implications: Our data suggest that davallialactone, a small molecule found in edible mushrooms, has anti-inflammatory activity. Davallialactone can be developed as a pharmaceutically valuable anti-Src kinase agent. PMID:18454171

Lee, Y G; Lee, W M; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, I-K; Yun, B-S; Rhee, M H; Cho, J Y

2008-01-01

85

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquusBELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquusBELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily

Yong Ook Kim; Sang Bae Han; Hong Woen Lee; Hyo Jung Ahn; Yeo Dae Yoon; Joon Ki Jung; Hwan Mook Kim; Chul Soo Shin

2005-01-01

86

Immunology of Chagas' disease*  

PubMed Central

After reviewing present knowledge of the morphology, multiplication, and transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, this Memorandum discusses the animal models that may be of value in understanding the immune mechanisms operating in Chagas' disease. The role of both circulating antibody and cell-mediated immunity in protection against the parasite is discussed, together with the possibility that immunopathological mechanisms may be responsible for some of the lesions found in patients with Chagas' disease. The immunodiagnostic methods at present available are also reviewed, and the possibility of producing a vaccine for human use is considered in the light of recent findings in experimental animals. A series of recommendations for further research is included. PMID:4218137

1974-01-01

87

Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.  

PubMed

The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2013-01-01

88

Cells Immortal - Chagas disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fortieth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Chagas disease, a dangerous condition, results from infection with the T. cruzi parasite that somehow avoids natural cell death and can remain in a person's body for decades before symptoms appear.

2010-09-06

89

Antioxidant activities of five polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Five polysaccharides (IOP1b, IOP2a, IOP2c, IOP3a and IOP4) were isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and SepharoseCL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that five polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities, and the higher content of uronic acid and proteinous substances, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. IOP3a and IOP4 showed higher antioxidant properties than IOP1b, IOP2a and IOP2c. PMID:22484729

Huang, Sheng-quan; Ding, Shaodong; Fan, Liuping

2012-06-01

90

Antioxidant activities of extracts and subfractions from Inonotus Obliquus.  

PubMed

The ethanolic crude extracts and three subfractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, and aqueous fraction) from Inonotus Obliquus were obtained by sequential partitioning and their antioxidant activities were investigated in the present study. The methods of the total antioxidant capacity measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, reducing power assay, scavenging activities towards DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical employed in this study were established in in vitro systems. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids were also determined by spectrophotometer. The results showed that the crude extracts and subfractions exhibited antioxidant activities in different evaluating system. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities is ethyl acetate fraction >n-butanol fraction >crude extract>aqueous fraction. A similar order of the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids in extract and subfractions was found. The results showed that the extent of antioxidant activities is in accordance with the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids existing in extracts and subfractions. PMID:19585318

Liang, Liya; Zhang, Zesheng; Wang, Hao

2009-01-01

91

Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Korean Indigenous Mushroom Extracts and Isolation of an Active Compound from Phellinus baumii  

PubMed Central

We investigated a total of 335 samples of Korean native mushroom extracts as part of our lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor screening program. Among the mushroom-methanolic extracts we investigated, 35 exhibited an inhibitory activity greater than 30% against LOX at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Especially, Collybia maculata, Tylopilus neofelleus, Strobilomyces confusus, Phellinus gilvus, P. linteus, P. baumii, and Inonotus mikadoi exhibited relatively potent LOX inhibitory activities of 73.3%, 51.6%, 52.4%, 66.7%, 59.5%, 100.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of inoscavin A from the methanolic extract of P. baumii, which showed the most potent activity and was identified by spectroscopic methods. Specifically, inoscavin A exhibited potent LOX inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 6.8 µM. PMID:25071389

Lee, Seung Woong; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Hwang, Byung Soon; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Yoon-Ju; Woo, E-Eum; Kim, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Kyoung

2014-01-01

92

Modeling Mushroom Fairy Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes in a forest or yard, mushrooms seem magically to grow in circles, which we call "fairy rings". In this module, we develop simulations for the expansion and interactions of such mushroom fairy rings. After analyzing the system, formulating the model, and considering appropriate rules for the spreading of mushrooms, we create a simulation using the graphical computer algebra system Mathematica. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

Angela B. Shiflet

93

Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting  

E-print Network

Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting in Khabarovsk #12;Chaga and Other Fungal Resources Assessment of Sustainable Commercial Harvesting in Khabarovsk....................................................................................................5 About Chaga

94

Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4 µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed. PMID:23799608

Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2013-08-01

95

Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.  

PubMed

The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. PMID:24980757

Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

2014-06-01

96

Accumulation of antioxidant phenolic constituents in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic compounds in different culture media and whether these compounds possess antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of

Weifa Zheng; Meimei Zhang; Yanxia Zhao; Yao Wang; Kangjie Miao; Zhiwen Wei

2009-01-01

97

Absolute stereostructures of inoterpenes A–F from sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new lanostane-type triterpenes, inoterpenes A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), and F (6), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus together with six known constituents. The chemical structures of new triterpenes 1–6 were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence including the application of the modified Mosher's method.

Seikou Nakamura; Junko Iwami; Hisashi Matsuda; Shuichi Mizuno; Masayuki Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

98

Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia and cultured mycelia stimulate cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and their chemical characterization.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is an edible and medicinal mushroom to treat many diseases. In the present study, polysaccharides and fractions were isolated and purified by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography from I. obliquus wild sclerotia, culture broth and cultured mycelia under submerged fermentation. The extracts and fractions could significantly induce the secretion of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-2 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and showed no toxicity to PBMCs. The stimulation effect of the six extracts and eight fractions on the four-cytokine production was dose-dependent. Sclerotial polysaccharides were more effective in the four-cytokine production at 150 ?g/ml while exopolysaccharides and endopolysacchrides showed a much better effect on IL-1? production at 30 ?g/ml. Purified fractions from exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides were more effective than the fraction from sclerotia in most cytokine production. These heteropolysaccharide-protein conjugates mainly contained glucose, galactose, and mannose. Protein content, molecular weight, monosaccharide molar ratio, and anomeric carbon configuration differed from each other and had effects on the cytokine induction activity of the polysaccharides to some extent. PMID:24867795

Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan; Hu, Yan

2014-08-01

99

The history of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region. PMID:25011546

2014-01-01

100

The history of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region. PMID:25011546

Steverding, Dietmar

2014-01-01

101

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged\\u000a culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase\\u000a in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g\\/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a

Hui Chen; Mingchao Yan; Jinwei Zhu; Xiangqun Xu

2011-01-01

102

Oxidative stress response of Inonotus obliquus induced by hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

While the medicinal fungus Inonotus obliquus produces polyphenols as one of its main metabolites in natural habitats, it accumulates less polyphenols under laboratory conditions. In this study we found that the continuous addition of 1 mM H(2)O(2) at a rate of 1.6 ml/h into a submerged culture of the fungus enhanced its production of mycelia, melanins, flavonoids and hispidin analogs (HA). Simultaneous exposure of the fungus to both H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in reduced production of mycelia, glycosylated flavonoids (GF) and HA, and inhibition of melanogenesis. However, superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were enhanced following the addition of H(2)O(2) or H(2)O(2) plus arbutin. The maximum levels of SOD and CAT activities reached 355.2 U/mg protein and 39.8 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2)-added medium, and 264 U/mg protein and 35.9 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2) plus arbutin medium. Thus, detoxification of H(2)O(2) is conducted mainly by polyphenols under normal physiological conditions, and by both polyphenols and antioxidant enzymes under oxidative stress when melanogenesis is inhibited. Although enhanced HA production occurred after melanogenesis inactivation, total extracellular polyphenol levels were reduced. These findings suggest that enzymatic activities convert superoxide to H(2)O(2), and non-enzymatic mechanisms are largely responsible for detoxifying H(2)O(2). Enhanced production of melanins is the most important non-enzymatic response of this fungus against oxidative stress. PMID:19184774

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Wei, Zhiwen; Miao, Kangjie; Sun, Weiguo

2009-12-01

103

[Comparison of component from different species of Inonotus obliquus].  

PubMed

In this paper, water content, mineral element and active ingredient concentration on fifteen Inonotus obliquus which comes from all over the world were studied. In the aspect of water content, the free water content of Finnish birch was the highest, reaching 77.21%, significantly better than that of other strains. The free water content of JL04 is the lowest, only 54.6%. The bound water content of HLJ01 which from Heilongjiang is the highest, reaching 10. 74% , significant differences among other strains. The bound water content of Birch Russia was the lowest. In the aspect of mineral element, the calcium content of NBRC9788 was the high- est (3.49 mg · g(-1)), significantly better than other strains. The second was Finnish birch. The lowest was CX02. The phosphorus content of NBRC9788 was the highest (210.12 ?g · g(-1)), significantly superior to other strains. The lowest was JL04. In the aspect of active ingredient concentration, the triterpenoids content of HLJ01 was highest (23.7 mg · g(-1)), significantly better than other strains. It was good strains for biological products research and development and then was Finnish birch. The betulin content of MAFF420165 and MAFF420308 was low, they were not suitable for production. The polysaccharide content of Finnish birch was the highest (9.7%), significantly better than the other strains, it is one of the most ideal and good strains to develop polysaccharide. The polysaccharide content from MAFF420308 and MAFF420256 was 1.2%, lower than other strains. We suggest that avoid using these strains in the study of polysaccharide product development. PMID:25751946

Guo, Xiao-Fan; Piao, Zhong-Yun

2014-10-01

104

Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease  

E-print Network

Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University of Chagas heart disease is controversial. In this paper, we address the following questions regarding the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible

Engman, David M.

105

The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly. PMID:16136207

2005-01-01

106

Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result,\\u000a I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In\\u000a addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin

Jong Seok Yun; Jung Woon Pahk; Jong Seok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Shin Young Lee; Eock Kee Hong

2011-01-01

107

Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage\\u000a cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO\\/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?\\/IL-4 secretion in

Dong Pil Won; Jong Seok Lee; Duck Soo Kwon; Keun Eok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Eock Kee Hong

2011-01-01

108

Optimization of betulin extraction process from Inonotus Obliquus with pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the extraction of betulin from Inonotus Obliquus applying high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied. To extract non-polar compound, 75% ethanol solution was used. The effect of PEF on betulin yield was discussed compared with conventional extracting method. A set of optimal parameters (PEF strength=40 kV\\/cm, pulse number=2, ethanol concentration=75%, and solid-to-solvent ratio=1:25) were tested and analyzed.

Yongguang Yin; Yanru Cui; Hongwei Ding

2008-01-01

109

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and Analysis of Antioxidation and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific\\u000a community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail’s pace. The methods of strain\\u000a identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous

Yana Song; Jing Hui; Wei Kou; Ru Xin; Fei Jia; Ning Wang; Fengqing Hu; Huili Zhang; Hongsheng Liu

2008-01-01

110

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures.\\u000a We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type\\u000a triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin

Weifa Zheng; Yanxia Zhao; Xin Zheng; Yubing Liu; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai; Fuming Liu

2011-01-01

111

Involvements of S -nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with\\u000a higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and\\u000a higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

Weifa Zheng; Yubing Liu; Shenyuan Pan; Weihua Yuan; Yucheng Dai; Jiangchun Wei

2011-01-01

112

Control of Chagas disease vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Latin American countries are making dramatic pro- gress in controlling Chagas disease, through a series of na- tional and international initiatives focusing on elimination of domestic populations of Triatominae, improved screening of blood donors, and clinical support and treatment of per- sons infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Some countries, parti- cularly Uruguay, Chile and Brazil, are sufficiently advanced in their

JM Ramsey; CJ Schofield

2003-01-01

113

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Detailed FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... have Chagas disease. In what parts of the world is Chagas disease found? People who have Chagas disease can be found anywhere in the world. However, vectorborne transmission is confined to the Americas, ...

114

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control In ... triatomine bugs has significantly decreased the spread of Chagas disease. Further, screening of blood donations for Chagas ...

115

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

116

Selenium in Edible Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to

Jerzy Falandysz

2008-01-01

117

Selenium in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (< 1 microg Se/g dry weight). The fruitbody of some species of wild-grown edible mushrooms is naturally rich in selenium; their occurrence data are reviewed, along with information on their suitability as a dietary source of selenium for humans, the impact of cooking and possible leaching out, the significance of traditional mushroom dishes, and the element's absorption rates and co-occurrence with some potentially problematic elements. The Goat's Foot (Albatrellus pes-caprae) with approximately 200 microg Se/g dw on average (maximum up to 370 microg/g dw) is the richest one in this element among the species surveyed. Several other representatives of the genus Albatrellus are also abundant in selenium. Of the most popular edible wild-grown mushrooms, the King Bolete (Boletus edulis) is considered abundant in selenium as well; on average, it contains approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (maximum up to 70 microg/g dw). Some species of the genus Boletus, such as B. pinicola, B. aereus, B. aestivalis, B. erythropus, and B. appendiculus, can also accumulate considerable amounts of selenium. Some other relatively rich sources of selenium include the European Pine Cone Lepidella (Amanita strobiliformis), which contains, on average, approximately 20 microg Se/g dw (up to 37 microg/g dw); the Macrolepiota spp., with an average range of approximately 5 to < 10 microg/g dw (an exception is M. rhacodes with < 10 microg/g dw); and the Lycoperdon spp., with an average of approximately 5 microg Se/g dw. For several wild-grown species of the genus Agaricus, the selenium content ( approximately 5 microg/g dw) is much greater than that from cultivated Champignon Mushroom; these include A. bisporus, A. bitorquis, A. campestris, A. cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review. PMID:18781538

Falandysz, Jerzy

2008-01-01

118

Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.  

PubMed

The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

2014-07-01

119

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

120

Antitumor activity of water extract of a mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

In the current study, it was demonstrated that the hot water extract of I. obliquus (IOWE) exerts inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29). The inhibitory effect of IOWE on the growth of HT-29 cancer cells was evaluated by treating cells with IOWE at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL for 24 or 48 h. The IOWE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was accompanied by apoptotic cell death. The maximum inhibitory effect (56%) was observed when IOWE was treated at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for 48 h. The apoptotic effect of IOWE on HT-29 cells was also confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, the apoptotic cell percentage was closely associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3. The results suggest that IOWE would be useful as an antitumor agent via the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the growth of cancer cells through up-regulation of the expression of proapoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:19367670

Lee, Sung Hak; Hwang, Hee Sun; Yun, Jong Won

2009-12-01

121

Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered. PMID:25417842

Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

2014-12-16

122

Heterologous Infection During Chagas' Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations are often infected with more than one parasite strain. This is frequently the case with ChagasŠ disease, which is endemic to large regions of Latin America. In the present work we study the dynamics of the heterologous infection for this disease, using a model for the interaction between the trypanosoma cruzi parasite and the immune system. We find the dependence of the nature of the post-acute stage on the parameters characterizing the inoculated infectious strains.

Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Cossi Isasi, S.

2007-05-01

123

Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after (99mTc)HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux.

Troncon, L.E.; Rezende Filho, J.; Iazigi, N.

1988-10-01

124

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8?9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3?,11?-diol (2), and (22R)-3?,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D (1H–1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1–3 showed moderate

Noriko Handa; Takeshi Yamada; Reiko Tanaka

2010-01-01

125

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3?,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3?,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV–EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2

Sayaka Taji; Takeshi Yamada; Shun-ichi Wada; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuo Sakuma; Reiko Tanaka

2008-01-01

126

Identification and First Report of Inonotus (Phellinus) tropicalis as an Etiologic Agent in a Patient with Chronic Granulomatous Disease  

PubMed Central

Although isolates of filamentous basidiomycetes can usually be recognized in a clinical laboratory setting, identification is problematic, as they seldom exhibit diagnostic morphological features formed in nature. This paper is the first report of Inonotus (Phellinus) tropicalis inciting human disease and describes the methods used to support the identification. PMID:15695724

Sutton, D. A.; Thompson, E. H.; Rinaldi, M. G.; Iwen, P. C.; Nakasone, K. K.; Jung, H. S.; Rosenblatt, H. M.; Paul, M. E.

2005-01-01

127

Identification and first report of Inonotus (Phellinus) tropicalis as an etiologic agent in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease.  

PubMed

Although isolates of filamentous basidiomycetes can usually be recognized in a clinical laboratory setting, identification is problematic, as they seldom exhibit diagnostic morphological features formed in nature. This paper is the first report of Inonotus (Phellinus) tropicalis inciting human disease and describes the methods used to support the identification. PMID:15695724

Sutton, D A; Thompson, E H; Rinaldi, M G; Iwen, P C; Nakasone, K K; Jung, H S; Rosenblatt, H M; Paul, M E

2005-02-01

128

Physicochemical Properties of Melanins Produced by the Sterile Form of Inonotus obliquus(“Chagi”) in Natural and Cultivated Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical properties of pigments isolated from the naturally occurring sterile form of Inonotus obliquus(Fr.) Pil. known as Chagi and comprising the major constituent of the medicine befungin were compared with those of melanins synthesized by this fungus in the culture in order to develop a new medicine. Elemental and functional group analyses, as well as UV-visible, IR, and EPR spectra,

T. A. Kukulyanskaya; N. V. Kurchenko; V. P. Kurchenko; V. G. Babitskaya

2002-01-01

129

Aqueous Extract of Inonotus bliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) Significantly Inhibits the Growth of Sarcoma 180 by Inducing Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various cancers in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries for literally more than four centuries. However, in spite of its therapeutic significance for cancers, this fungus has not been studied systematically for the mechanisms of antitumor activity. In this study, we report the effects

Caifa Chen; Weifa Zheng; Xiaowen Gao; Xiaoyan Xiang; Dongxu Sun; Jiangchun Wei; Chengcai Chu

2007-01-01

130

REVIEW PAPER Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity and productivity--an indicator of forest health? Simon and productivity of wild mushrooms. Mycorrhizal fungi depend on photosynthetically fixed carbon produced raise the question of whether mycorrhizal fungi can be used as indicators for tree health. & Discussion

Boyer, Edmond

131

ASSOCIATION OF UTERINE LEIOMYOMA AND CHAGAS ’ DISEASE  

E-print Network

Abstract. With the aim of studying the frequency of Chagas ’ disease among sufferers of uterine leiomyoma, we analyzed women older than 35 years who underwent surgery and presented with leiomyoma on anatomicopathological examination. The diagnosis of Chagas infection was based on positivity to at

Eddie Fernando; Candido Murta; Gustavo Paludetto Oliveira; Fernando De; Oliveira Prado; Maria Azniv; Hazarabedian De Souza; Beatriz Martins; Tavares Murta; Sheila; Jorge Adad

132

Chagas Disease Etiology: Autoimmunity or Parasite Persistence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the cause and the mechanisms of disease in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection continues to attract debate. Chagas disease, characterized by cardiomyopathy and\\/or megasyndrome involving the esophagus or colon, occurs in ?30% of individuals with chronic T. cruzi infections. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas disease is often attributed to autoimmune mechanisms, definitive proof of anti-self responses as the

R. L. Tarleton; L. Zhang

1999-01-01

133

The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

2009-01-01

134

Quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study describes the method of quantitative determination of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied to separate these steroids. The procedure was carried out on a reversed-phase C, column, using a stepwise gradient of water-methanol as mobile phase with the following profile: 0-10 min, 10% water, 90% methanol; 10-40 min, 3% water, 97% methanol. The flow rate was 1.4 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 202 nm. The analysis was completed within 40 min. The results showed that this method has good reproducibility and satisfactory recoveries for the determination of steroids. The relative standard deviations of the peak areas were less than 2.94% (n = 5) for intraday assays. A good linear correlation was obtained in a range of 0.4-4.8 microg. The recoveries of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol were 100.05%-100.72%, 99.31%-101.04%, 97.52%-101.63%, 96.61%-100.08%, 96.21%-100.76% and 100.04%-100.51%, respectively. This method can be applied to evaluate real samples, and it is rapid, accurate and suitable for the quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. PMID:20352924

Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hongyu; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong

2009-11-01

135

[Mushroom poisoning in Portugal].  

PubMed

The renewed interest in mycology has been reflected in growing use of wild mushrooms in culinary, driven by its nutritional, organoleptic and commercial value. However, the international scientific literature describes several syndromes of poisoning by mushrooms. We live, therefore, a paradigm conducive to an increase of mycetism, whose diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and knowledge of clinical profiles. In Portugal, the real dimension of this problem is unknown. Although some mycetisms, such as the hepatotoxic syndrome, have high morbidity and mortality, their relative incidences are unknown. Add up to the shortage of international scientific literature, often outdated and inappropriate to clinical practice. In this context, this article provides an updated epidemiological and clinical perspective emphasizing a narrative and descriptive information on the forms of presentation, differential diagnosis and therapeutic approach, with the ultimate goal of the elaboration of a national diagram-oriented approach to decision-making diagnosis. We analyzed all the clinical records of patients admitted into ten hospitals between 1990 and 2008, notified with the code 988.1 of GDH (acute poisoning by mushrooms). There were registered demographic data, way of presentation, time between ingestion and onset of symptoms, the annual distribution, clinical profile, clinical and analytical treatment performed and complications. We identified 93 cases of acute poisoning by mushrooms, with equal gender distribution and inclusion of individuals of all age groups (from 1 to 85 years), but with greater representation from 21 to 50 years. There was a bimodal seasonal pattern, with a higher peak between September and December and a second in the spring. The hepatotoxic profile presentation corresponded to 63.4% and 31.7% of the cases to gastroenteritis syndrome. The mortality in cases of hepatotoxicity was 11.8%. The developmental profile of the rate of prothrombin time (PT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin, was an important setting for diagnosis and prognosis. TGO increases early, always within 48 hours, having an essential role in the diagnosis of hepatotoxicity. Despite the late elevation of bilirubin, the cases of death revealed that there was an earlier increase, reaching higher values, which seems to have a prognostic value, to be evaluated with further studies. Finally, we propose a diagram of diagnostic performance, considerating the generalized lack of mycological diagnosis in Portugal, which emphasizes the need for a careful history, focused on quantifying the latency period. PMID:22849912

Brandão, José Luís; Pinheiro, J; Pinho, D; Correia da Silva, D; Fernandes, E; Fragoso, G; Costa, M I; Silva, A

2011-12-01

136

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

137

Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. PMID:22870201

Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

2012-01-01

138

[Peripheral neurological changes in chronic Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The authors review the literature about the cronic nervous form of Chagas' disease, directing their attention toward peripheral neurological aspects. Specifically, they analyse the results obtained from a "bind" research realized in a small community in the countryside of the state of Bahia, Brazil, where a high frequency of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi is reported. From 99 individuals examined, 50 showed a positive sorological test for Chagas' disease. The most frequent neurological findings in the total of 99 individuals were sensory loss and impairment of the deep reflexes. Among those with abolition of deep reflexes, there were 18 cases carrying a positive sorology for Chagas' disease, being that 15 from these 18 cases additionally presented a mild sensory deficit, characterizing a polyneuritic syndrome. In conclusion, they suggest that there is a neuritic form, as subdivision of a nervous form of Chagas' disease, particularly identified as a mixed polyneuritis. PMID:6773510

Fortes-Rêgo, J; Macedo, V O; Prata, A

1980-03-01

139

Chagas' disease as a foodborne illness.  

PubMed

Various researchers have studied the importance of the oral transmission of Chagas' disease since the mid-20th century. Only in recent years, due to an outbreak that occurred in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina in 2005 and to various outbreaks occurring during the last 3 years in the Brazilian Amazon basin, mainly associated with the consumption of Amazonian palm berry or açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice, has this transmission route aroused the attention of researchers. Nevertheless, reports published in the 1960s already indicated the possibility of Chagas' disease transmission via food in Brazil, mainly in the Amazonian region. Recently, in December 2007, an outbreak of Chagas' disease occurred in Caracas, Venezuela, related to ingestion of contaminated fruit juices. The objective of this article is to point out the importance of foodborne transmission in the etiology of Chagas' disease, on the basis of published research and Brazilian epidemiology data. PMID:19350996

Pereira, Karen Signori; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Guaraldo, Ana M A; Franco, Regina M B; Dias, Viviane L; Passos, Luiz A C

2009-02-01

140

Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (IOP40, IOP60 and IOP80) were isolated by using different concentrations of alcohol precipitation from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia. Their physicochemical properties, including total sugar content, protein content, monosaccharide composition and percentage were analyzed. And their in vitro antioxidant capacities were investigated in terms of reducing power assay and scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In general, three polysaccharide fractions exhibited increasing antioxidant activity with increasing concentration at the ranges of tested dosage. The orders of reducing power, DPPH-scavenging capacity, H2O2-scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl-scavenging activity were all IOP60>IOP40>IOP80. These findings demonstrated that three polysaccharide fractions extracted from I. obliquus, especially IOP60, could be employed as natural ingredients in functional food and pharmaceutical industry to alleviate the oxidative stress. PMID:24145301

Du, XiuJu; Mu, HongMei; Zhou, Shuai; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, XiaoLi

2013-11-01

141

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8-->9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3beta,11beta-diol (2), and (22R)-3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate activity against cultured P388, L1210, HL-60 and KB cells. PMID:20691456

Handa, Noriko; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

2010-10-01

142

Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

2013-03-01

143

Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

144

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity.  

PubMed

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3beta,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3beta,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 were stronger than the positive control, oleanolic acid. The most abundant compound 4 was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 4 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:18387711

Taji, Sayaka; Yamada, Takeshi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

2008-11-01

145

Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-05-01

146

Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: Immunopathology and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects ca. 10 million people worldwide. About 30% of Chagas disease patients develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a particularly lethal inflammatory cardiomyopathy that occurs decades after the initial infection, while most patients remain asymptomatic. Mortality rate is higher than that of noninflammatory cardiomyopathy. CCC heart lesions present a Th1 T-cell-rich myocarditis, with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and prominent fibrosis. Data suggest that the myocarditis plays a major pathogenetic role in disease progression. Major unmet goals include the thorough understanding of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targets and identification of prognostic genetic factors. Chagas disease thus remains a neglected disease, with no vaccines or antiparasitic drugs proven efficient in chronically infected adults, when most patients are diagnosed. Both familial aggregation of CCC cases and the fact that only 30% of infected patients develop CCC suggest there might be a genetic component to disease susceptibility. Moreover, previous case-control studies have identified some genes associated to human susceptibility to CCC. In this paper, we will review the immunopathogenesis and genetics of Chagas disease, highlighting studies that shed light on the differential progression of Chagas disease patients to CCC. PMID:25210230

Chevillard, Christophe

2014-01-01

147

Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?  

PubMed

Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. PMID:24518310

Guillén, J; Baeza, A

2014-07-01

148

Comparative antioxidative characteristics of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential antioxidant property of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from the natural fungal sclerotia and the cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus was evaluated using three antioxidant assays. The extracts from both the natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia including extra- and intra-cellular extracts were effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The content and

Xiangqun Xu; Yongde Wu; Hui Chen

2011-01-01

149

Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

2011-09-01

150

Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from

Yong Ook Kim; Hae Woong Park; Jong Hoon Kim; Jae Young Lee; Seong Hoon Moon; Chul Soo Shin

2006-01-01

151

Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract  

PubMed Central

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-01-01

152

Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.  

PubMed

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-06-01

153

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission of ... have the disease after all. Will the blood bank let me know if my blood tests positive ...

154

Lawn Clippings for Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer, can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates containing lignin and cellulose. Oyster mushroom cultivation can play an important role in managing organic waste. Oyster mushroom was grown on five substrates: sedge (Carex remota L.), lawn clippings (mix of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], ryegrass [Lolium persicum L.], meadow

J. A. Olfati; Gh. Peyvast

2008-01-01

155

Cultivation of Polypore Mushroom ( Ganoderma resinaceum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypore mushroom was found to be rich in protein, fiber and cellulose. Polypore mushroom is found to grow on rotting hard wood logs. So, attempt was made to cul- tivate the species in laboratory condition. The present paper describes the process of cultivation of polypore mushroom in laboratory condition. The selected substrates (e.g. mango saw dust, rice hull, different kinds

Fauzia Hafiz; Fauzia Begum; Sahana Parveen; Majeda Begum; Zaibun Nessa; Motahar Hossain; John Liton Munshi

2007-01-01

156

Immunosuppression and Chagas Disease: A Management Challenge  

PubMed Central

Immunosuppression, which has become an increasingly relevant clinical condition in the last 50 years, modifies the natural history of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in most patients with Chagas disease. The main goal in this setting is to prevent the consequences of reactivation of T. cruzi infection by close monitoring. We analyze the relationship between Chagas disease and three immunosuppressant conditions, including a description of clinical cases seen at our center, a brief review of the literature, and recommendations for the management of these patients based on our experience and on the data in the literature. T. cruzi infection is considered an opportunistic parasitic infection indicative of AIDS, and clinical manifestations of reactivation are more severe than in acute Chagas disease. Parasitemia is the most important defining feature of reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole and/or nifurtimox is strongly recommended in such cases. It seems reasonable to administer trypanocidal treatment only to asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients with detectable parasitemia, and/or patients with clinically defined reactivation. Specific treatment for Chagas disease does not appear to be related to a higher incidence of neoplasms, and a direct role of T. cruzi in the etiology of neoplastic disease has not been confirmed. Systemic immunosuppressive diseases or immunosuppressants can modify the natural course of T. cruzi infection. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids have not been associated with higher rates of reactivation of Chagas disease. Despite a lack of evidence-based data, treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox should be initiated before immunosuppression where possible to reduce the risk of reactivation. Timely antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole and nifurtimox (or with posaconazole in cases of therapeutic failure) has proven to be highly effective in preventing Chagas disease reactivation, even if such treatment has not been formally incorporated into management protocols for immunosuppressed patients. International consensus guidelines based on expert opinion would greatly contribute to standardizing the management of immunosuppressed patients with Chagas disease. PMID:23349998

Pinazo, María-Jesús; Espinosa, Gerard; Cortes-Lletget, Cristina; Posada, Elizabeth de Jesús; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Oliveira, Inés; Muñoz, Jose; Gállego, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim

2013-01-01

157

Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in  

E-print Network

International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7 % among 72

Yves Jackson; Catherine Myers; Ro Diana; Hans-peter Marti; Hans Wolff; Louis Loutan; Alain Gervaix

158

Leon and Engman The Contribution of Autoimmunity to Chagas Heart  

E-print Network

Leon and Engman The Contribution of Autoimmunity to Chagas Heart Disease J. S. Leon and D. M pathology in human Chagas disease or even in mouse models of the disease. Therefore, public health infections. INTRODUCTION Chagas disease encompasses three main, largely non-coincident, pathologies

Engman, David M.

159

Chronic Chagas ’ heart disease – From pathogenesis to treatment regimes1  

E-print Network

Chagas ’ disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, was discovered nearly 100 years ago (1909) by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas. Chronic Chagas ’ disease is still ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Infected patients remain lifelong parasite carri-ers. With a

Silvia Gilka Munoz-saravia; Annekathrin Haberl; Gerd Wallukat; Ingolf Schimke

160

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: involvement Cunha-Neto1,2,6 and Christophe Chevillard7* Abstract Background: Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic in Latin America. Thirty percent of infected individuals develop chronic Chagas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

161

Parasympathetic dysautonomia precedes left ventricular systolic dysfunction in Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Parasympathetic dysautonomia is an established feature of advanced Chagas cardiomyopathy. However, in the absence of cardiac involvement, the presence of vagal dysfunction remains controversial. In a cross-sectional study, we compared patients with Chagas disease without cardiac involvement and healthy individuals by three different methods to determine whether vagal dysfunction is present in the early phase of Chagas disease. Methods

Antonio L. P. Ribeiro; Ruy S. Moraes; Jorge P. Ribeiro; Elton L. Ferlin; Rosália M. Torres; Enilce Oliveira; Manoel O. C. Rocha

2001-01-01

162

Captopril Ameliorates Myocarditis in Acute Experimental Chagas Disease  

E-print Network

Captopril Ameliorates Myocarditis in Acute Experimental Chagas Disease Juan S. Leon, BA; Kegiang, is commonly prescribed to patients with Chagas heart disease (CHD). There are few human studies and no animal collagen myosin Chagas heart disease (CHD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a significant

Engman, David M.

163

Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression  

E-print Network

Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression Michael Z. Levy1 *, Dylan S, United States of America Abstract Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence

Small, Dylan

164

Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

López-Vélez, Rogelio

2013-01-01

165

Effects of inotodiol extracts from inonotus obliquus on proliferation cycle and apoptotic gene of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To observe the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation cycle of human lung carcinoma cell line A549 treated\\u000a with Inotodiol extracts from Inonotus obliquus and explore the possibility of Inotodiol extracts from Inonotus obliquus as\\u000a a new tumor chemopreventive drug.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human lung cancer cell line A549 was treated with different concentrations of Inotodiol, the effects of Inotodiol on cell\\u000a apoptosis,

Xiu-hong Zhong; Li-bo Wang; Dong-zhi Sun

2011-01-01

166

WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS OF MEGHALAYA  

PubMed Central

Different flesh mushrooms grow widely in Meghalaya. Altogether fie edible species were collected and identified which were found abundantly in forest and are known to be consumed by local people for time immemorial, The species identified are lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing., Boletus edulis Bull ex Fr., Clavaria cinerea (Fr.) Schroet, Clavaria aurea (F) Quet and cantharellus floccosus Juss. PMID:22556840

Barua, Paran; Adhikary, R.K; Kalita, Pabitra; Bordoloi, Dalimi; Gogoi, P.; Singh, R.S.; Ghosh, A.C.

1998-01-01

167

The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

2013-01-01

168

Synthesis and characterization of a new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.  

PubMed

A new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex (IOPS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. The preparation conditions of IOPS-iron(III) were optimized and the physicochemical properties were characterized by physicochemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The highest iron content of IOPS-iron(III) complex (19.40%) was obtained at the conditions: the ratio of IOPS and FeCl3•6H2O was 3:5 (w/w), the pH value of alkali solution was 10, the reaction temperature was 30°C and the reaction time was 6h. The iron(III) was shown to be bound through the binding sites of the polysaccharide IOPS and it could form spatially separated iron centers on the polysaccharide backbone. IOPS-iron(III) complex was found to have good digestive availability and antioxidant activities in the in vitro assays, which suggested the IOPS-iron(III) complex might be used as a new iron supplement candidate. PMID:25643995

Wang, Jia; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha

2015-04-01

169

Immunostimulating Activity by Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

170

Involvements of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). This homeostasis was breached by GSNOR or TrxR inhibitors. Inhibiting GSNOR boosted TrxR activity, but reduced SNO formation, coinciding with an enhanced production of polyphenols. Likewise, inhibiting TrxR increased GSNOR activity and SNO production, but downregulated accumulation of polyphenols. Inhibiting GSNOR or TrxR also modified the polyphenolic profiles of I. obliquus. Suppressing GSNOR-enhanced biosynthesis of phelligridins C and H, inoscavin C and methyl inoscavin B, but reduced that of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone and methyl davallialactone, the typical polyphenols in I. obliquus. Similarly, downregulating TrxR increased production of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone, and methyl davallialactone, but shrinking that of phelligridins C and H, methyl inoscavin B and inoscavin C. Thus, in I. obliquus, the state of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation affects not only the accumulation of polyphenols, but also their metabolic profiles. PMID:21468702

Zheng, Weifa; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Yuan, Weihua; Dai, Yucheng; Wei, Jiangchun

2011-06-01

171

[Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

2012-05-01

172

Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-02-01

173

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus.  

PubMed

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures. We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, inoscavin B, davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-en, lanosta-7,9(11),23-triene-3?,22,25-triol, and inotodisaccharide and melanins. Metabolites from coculture also showed an increased potential for scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, and minor phenolic components are the major contributors for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical in monoculture, and phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, and inotodisaccharide are those for scavenging the tested radicals in coculture. Lanostane-type triterpenoids indicated limited roles in scavenging free radicals. Nearly all the detected metabolites correlate positively with inhibiting proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Thus, coculture of I. obliquus with other fungi seems to be a cost-effective strategy for upregulating biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites. PMID:20830471

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng; Liu, Fuming

2011-01-01

174

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail's pace. The methods of strain identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous molds from fruit body which was collected from birch wood on Changbai Mountain, cultivated mycelia on an inclined plane, and examined its micromorphology based on macroscopic examination. The strain was identified as I. obliquus by sequencing its ITS (internal transcribed spacer) domain. We subsequently investigated some of the mycelium polysaccharides' biological activities. The strain used in this study as the producers of antioxidation and anticancer polysaccharides was LNUF008. After fermentation in a 30-L fermenter, mycelia were obtained. The polysaccharides were extracted by transonic recirculation and ethanol precipitation. In order to identify the antioxidation effect, we designed an assay to test the inhibition of endogenous and Fe(2+)-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation as well as ferrous sulfate/ascorbate (Fe(2+)-VC)-induced mitochondrial swelling. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method was used to study the antiproliferation activity of the polysaccharides on SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. The results indicate that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. The submerged culture method of growing I. obliquus will enable large-scale production of the polysaccharides. PMID:18795365

Song, Yana; Hui, Jing; Kou, Wei; Xin, Ru; Jia, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hu, Fengqing; Zhang, Huili; Liu, Hongsheng

2008-11-01

175

Accumulation of antioxidant phenolic constituents in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic compounds in different culture media and whether these compounds possess antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of melanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and small phenolics. Their accumulation was affected by adding H(2)O(2) to the medium, where increased levels of total intracellular phenols (TIP) and melanins, but less total extracellular phenol (TEP) occurred. Simultaneous exposure to H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in a further increase in TIP production and reduced accumulation of TEP. Both TIP and TEP obtained at different culture ages and media were active in scavenging superoxide anion and DPPH radicals. Therefore, production of phenolic compounds by I. obliquus is enhanced by imposing oxidative stress, which might allow it to be exploited as a reliable source of pharmaceutically important phenolic compounds. PMID:18824349

Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Yao; Miao, Kangjie; Wei, Zhiwen

2009-02-01

176

Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

177

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate  

PubMed Central

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7?±?1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

178

Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.  

PubMed

Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2014-12-01

179

Chagas disease vector control in Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the Southern Cone Initiative proceeds steadily towards eradication of Triatoma infestans, there is increasing interest in applying similar approaches to control Chagas disease vectors in Mexico, Central America and countries of the Andean Pact. Here, Chris Schofield and Jean-Pierre Dujardin discuss the technical feasibility of such an approach.

C. J Schofield; J-P Dujardin

1997-01-01

180

The Southern Cone Initiative against Chagas Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease (also known as American trypanosomiasis) is now ranked as the most serious parasitic disease of the Americas, with an economic impact far outranking the combined effects of other parasitic diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Although the chronic infection remains virtually incurable, transmission can be halted by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and screening blood donors to

C. J. Schofield; J. C. P. Dias

1999-01-01

181

A Critical Review on Chagas Disease Chemotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, affecting 16-18 million people, with more than 100 million exposed to the risk of infection (WHO 1997). Its etiological agent is Trypanosoma cruzi, an hemoflagellate protozoan (family Trypanosomatidae, order Kinetoplastida) (Hoare & Wallace 1966), whose life cycle involves obligatory pas- sage through vertebrate (mammals, including man) and invertebrate (hematophagous triatomine bugs) hosts,

José Rodrigues Coura; Solange L de Castro

2002-01-01

182

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the

José Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles

2002-01-01

183

Induction of cardiac autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: A case for molecular mimicry  

E-print Network

Induction of cardiac autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: A case for molecular mimicry EDECIO cruzi in Latin America, one third of whom will develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) up. Keywords: Chagas disease cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity, cardiomyocyte, Trypanosoma cruzi, molecular mimicry

Engman, David M.

184

Antifungal activity of cysteine, its effect on C-21 oxygenated lanosterol derivatives and other lipids in Inonotus obliquus , in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of cysteine (2-amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid) on mycelial growth and the production of lanosterol, 3,ß-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, 3,ß-21,dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-diene, trametenolic acid and ergosterol were investigated in solid and liquid cultures of Inonotus obliquus at cysteine concentrations of 0.9 and 9.0 mM by means of thin-layer chromatography densitometry. Cysteine elicited the production of ergosterol in all the cultures and at a concentration of

K. Kahlos; V. H. Tikka

1994-01-01

185

Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon  

PubMed Central

The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future. PMID:22228952

Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

2010-01-01

186

210Po bioaccumulation by mushrooms from Poland.  

PubMed

The paper presents results on 210Po activity concentration measured in mushroom samples collected in northern Poland (Bia?ogard and Elblag areas). Among 20 species of wild mushrooms, King Bolete (Boletus edulis), accumulated 210Po in the highest degree. Therefore this species of higher mushrooms is an excellent bioindicator for 210Po radioactivity in the land environment. Finally, the effective dose of polonium emission was calculated for a consumer of King Bolete. Wild mushroom consumption contributed up to 37 microSv to the effective dose in an individual consuming about 5 kg (fresh weight) of heavily contaminated Boletus edulis species per year. PMID:14587851

Skwarzec, B; Jakusik, A

2003-10-01

187

NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using 1H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited

Weifa Zheng; Meimei Zhang; Yanxia Zhao; Kangjie Miao; Hong Jiang

2009-01-01

188

Optimization of ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were

Yiyong Chen; Xiaohong Gu; Sheng-quan Huang; Jinwei Li; Xin Wang; Jian Tang

2010-01-01

189

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition.  

PubMed

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a basal medium to 1.38 ± 0.02 g/l and 82.7 ± 0.5% in a corn straw-containing medium was obtained. A synchronized effect between lignocellulose decomposition and malondialdehyde presenting hydroxyl radical concentration in the fermentation broth was identified. The adding of thiourea, a hydroxyl radical-scavenging reagent, suppressed malondialdehyde generation and lowered the lignocellulose decomposition rate. Correspondingly, the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity decreased to 1.26 g/l and 74%. The EPS obtained from the corn straw-containing medium also presented the strongest superoxide radical scavenging activity. The monosaccharide components of the EPS from the corn straw-containing medium are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with molar proportions at 3.0, 3.0, 0.9, 46.6, 11.4, and 35.1%, respectively, which are largely different from the molar proportions of the EPS from the basal medium. PMID:20628784

Chen, Hui; Yan, Mingchao; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Xiangqun

2011-02-01

190

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

191

Spinach and Mushroom Enchilada Lasagna Ingredients  

E-print Network

Spinach and Mushroom Enchilada Lasagna Ingredients: 2 teaspoons olive oil 1 onion 2 cloves garlic 3 Jack cheese, shredded Directions 1. Preheat the oven to 350ºF. Heat oil in a large non-stick skillet. 2 vegetables are cooking, squeeze water out of spinach. Add mushrooms to skillet and cook about 15 to 20

Liskiewicz, Maciej

192

Lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of edible mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most economically-viable processes for the bioconversion of many types of lignocellulosic wastes is represented by edible mushroom cultivation. Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus sajor-caju are three important commercially cultivated mushrooms which exhibit varying abilities to utilise different lignocellulosics as growth substrate. Examination of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of the three species show this diversity to be

J. A. Buswell; Y. J. Cai; S. T. Chang; J. F. Peberdy; S. Y. Fu; H.-S. Yu

1996-01-01

193

Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of extending knowledge on chemical and nutritional characteristics of commercial mushrooms widely consumed in Italy, fresh and processed mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Boletus group) were analysed fresh or after cooking. Results show that botanical variety, processing and cooking are all effective determinants of mushroom proximate composition. Dried mushrooms (Boletus group) after cooking show the highest

Pamela Manzi; Altero Aguzzi; Laura Pizzoferrato

2001-01-01

194

New bioactive compounds from korean native mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including ?-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

2013-12-01

195

Use of a Novel Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) for Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission is considered one of the pillars of control programs of Chagas disease. Congenital transmission accounts for 25% of new infections with an estimated 15,000 infected infants per year. Current programs to detect congenital Chagas disease in Latin America utilize microscopy early in life and serology after 6 months. These programs suffer from low sensitivity by microscopy and high loss to follow-up later in infancy. We developed a Chagas urine nanoparticle test (Chunap) to concentrate, preserve and detect T. cruzi antigens in urine for early, non-invasive diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a proof-of-concept study of Chunap for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Poly N-isopropylacrylamide nano-particles functionalized with trypan blue were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and characterized with photon correlation spectroscopy. We evaluated the ability of the nanoparticles to capture, concentrate and preserve T. cruzi antigens. Urine samples from congenitally infected and uninfected infants were then concentrated using these nanoparticles. The antigens were eluted and detected by Western Blot using a monoclonal antibody against T. cruzi lipophosphoglycan. The nanoparticles concentrate T. cruzi antigens by 100 fold (western blot detection limit decreased from 50 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml). The sensitivity of Chunap in a single specimen at one month of age was 91.3% (21/23, 95% CI: 71.92%–98.68%), comparable to PCR in two specimens at 0 and 1 month (91.3%) and significantly higher than microscopy in two specimens (34.8%, 95% CI: 16.42%–57.26%). Chunap specificity was 96.5% (71/74 endemic, 12/12 non-endemic specimens). Particle-sequestered T. cruzi antigens were protected from trypsin digestion. Conclusion/Significance Chunap has the potential to be developed into a simple and sensitive test for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. PMID:25275534

Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Sánchez, Gerardo; Valencia Ayala, Edward; Liotta, Lance; Bern, Caryn; Luchini, Alessandra

2014-01-01

196

POPULATION BIOLOGY/GENETICS The Chagas Vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera:Reduviidae),  

E-print Network

POPULATION BIOLOGY/GENETICS The Chagas Vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera, the hemoÃ?agellate parasite and cause of Chagas disease in Latin America, is carried by Triatomine vectors villages. KEY WORDS Triatoma dimidiata, population genetics, Chagas, Guatemala, vector control CHAGAS

Dorn, Patricia

197

Tolerance of benznidazole in a United States chagas disease clinic.  

PubMed

The US-based Center of Excellence for Chagas Disease performed an observational study on the safety and tolerance of benznidazole 5 mg/kg/day for 60 days in 30 adults with chronic Chagas disease. The side-effect profile was suboptimal, including 5 cases of debilitating neuropathy and an unusually high angioedema rate. PMID:25601454

Miller, David A; Hernandez, Salvador; Rodriguez De Armas, Lissette; Eells, Samantha J; Traina, Mahmoud M; Miller, Loren G; Meymandi, Sheba K

2015-04-15

198

Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

Segovia, Maikell; Martínez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

2013-01-01

199

REVIEW THE CHRONIC GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CHAGAS DISEASE  

E-print Network

Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease

Nilce Mitiko Matsuda; I Steven; M. Miller

200

Neuropathy of Gastrointestinal Chagas’ Disease: Immune Response to Myelin Antigens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most reports of autoimmune response during infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi have dealt with the cardiomyopathic form of Chagas’ disease, but little is known about the mechanisms of tissue damage involved in the gastrointestinal form, which was studied here. Chronically infected patients with a severe gastrointestinal form of Chagas’ disease present increased antibody production and proliferative responses to peripheral

Elaine C. Oliveira; Márcia M. Fujisawa; Dannie E. M. Hallal Longo; Alessandro S. Farias; Juliana Contin Moraes; Maria Elena Guariento; Eros Antônio de Almeida; Mario José A. Saad; Francesco Langone; Marcos H. Toyama; Nelson A. Andreollo; Leonilda M. B. Santos

2009-01-01

201

Uses of mushrooms by Finns and Karelians.  

PubMed

Finns have adopted two traditions of mushroom use: one, the old Roman tradition, came through France and Sweden to the educated, mostly Swedish speaking people of southwest Finland; the other came from the east via Karelia and was adopted by ordinary country folk. This eastern tradition is still maintained among the Karelinas living in Tver government in Russia. Even the use of Amanita muscaria for killing flies is still utilized there. The western tradition favoured chanterelles and Boletus edulis, the eastern acrid milk caps, the Lactarius species. During the famines in the 1860's and after the World War II the government authorities tried to promote the use of wild mushrooms, but the real impulse to a more versatile mushroom use was initiated after the war when 400,000 evacuees from that part of Karelia conquered by the Soviet Union were resettled among farming families all over Finland. In 1969 the National Board of Forestry began to train mushroom advisors, a programme which still continues. In 1981 Finland passed a statute on edible mushrooms and drew up a list of commercial species. Even today the largest percentage of marketed mushrooms comes from Eastern Finland and the Lactarius tivialis species sells best. Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel is considered a delicacy. Today picking mushrooms is a passionate hobby for many Finns. PMID:9567575

Härkönen, M

1998-01-01

202

78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...certain preserved mushrooms, whether imported...The preserved mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus...Preserved Mushrooms'' refers to mushrooms...Shandong Fengyu Edible Fungus...

2013-03-12

203

75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic...preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic...antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...

2010-04-28

204

Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic ?-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic ?-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

Diao, Bao-zhong; Jin, Wei-rong; Yu, Xue-jing

2014-01-01

205

Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic ?-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic ?-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

Diao, Bao-Zhong; Jin, Wei-Rong; Yu, Xue-Jing

2014-01-01

206

Chemical constituents of Inonotus obliquus II: a new triterpene, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3 ? ,21,25-triol-8-ene from sclerotium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lanostane-type triterpene with a cyclopentanol partial structure in the side chain was isolated from the sclerotium\\u000a of the wood rotting fungusInonotus obliquus along with four known compounds: lanosterol, inotodiol, trametenolic acid, and 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dienlanosta-21,23-lactone. The new compound was determined to be 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-ene by spectroscopic analyses.

Yusoo Shin; Yutaka Tamai; Minoru Terazawa

2001-01-01

207

[Chemical composition of eight edible mushrooms].  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of crude protein, crude ash, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) contents of 57 samples of eight common edible mushroom species was made. The most important protein sources were: Marasmius oreades and Lepista nebularis. Species of the Boletaceae formed an intermediate group, while relatively proteinless species were: Armillariella mellea and Cratarellus cornucopioides. The lowest crude protein content was established in Cantharellus cibarius. The ash contents varied more widely. The greatest P contents were measured in Lepista nebularis and Marasmius oreades but most mushrooms contained 6-7 gP/kg. The analysed mushroom samples contained 30-40 gK/kg dry weight and 0,2-0,3 gCa/kg. These analyses are important from the point of view of the nutritional role of mushrooms. PMID:8465607

Vetter, J

1993-03-01

208

Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

2014-01-01

209

Antioxidant properties of several specialty mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four specialty mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these specialty mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities at 1.2 mg ml?1 were in the order of basket stinkhorn>lion's mane>maitake>white matsutake. Basket stinkhorn showed an excellent

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Si-Fu Song

2002-01-01

210

Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.  

PubMed

Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs. PMID:12053246

Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

2002-07-01

211

Melatonin in Chagas' disease. Possible therapeutic value.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is a severe health problem in Latin America, causing approximately 50 000 deaths a year, with approximately 18 million infected people. About 25-30% of the patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi develop the chronic form of the disease. The protective response against T. cruzi depends on both innate and acquired immunity involving macrophages, natural killer cells, T and B lymphocytes, and the production of proinflammatory Th-1 cytokines. In addition, an increased nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages leading to effective microbicidal action is needed to control parasitemia. Melatonin is detectable in T. cruzi and may play a role in promoting infection whereas, when administered in high doses during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection, it can decrease parasitemia while reducing NO production. During chronic disease progression, the sustained oxidative stress concomitant to myocardial damage could be reduced by administering melatonin. It is hypothesized that the coordinated administration of a melatonin agonist like the MT1 /MT2 agonist ramelteon, that lacks antioxidant activity and may not affect NO production during the acute phase, and of melatonin in doses high enough to decrease oxidative damage, to preserve mitochondrial and to prevent cardiomyopathy during the chronic phase, could be a novel add-on treatment of Chagas' disease. PMID:22057179

Cardinali, Daniel P; Alvarez, Carlos B

2011-01-01

212

FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR CHAGAS' DISEASE CHEMOTHERAPY 179 MEDICINA (Buenos Aires) 1999; 59 (Supl. II): 179-187PROBLEMATICA DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS  

E-print Network

FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR CHAGAS' DISEASE CHEMOTHERAPY 179 MEDICINA (Buenos Aires) 1999; 59 (Supl. II): 179-187PROBLEMATICA DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS Simposio internacional. Academia Nacional de Medicina Buenos Aires, 19-20 abril 1999 ISSN 0325-951X FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR THE CHEMOTHERAPY OF CHAGAS' DISEASE

Schnaufer, Achim

213

Pharmacological Characterization, Structural Studies, and In Vivo Activities of Anti-Chagas Disease Lead Compounds Derived from  

E-print Network

Pharmacological Characterization, Structural Studies, and In Vivo Activities of Anti-Chagas Disease, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USAg Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan pathogen, are promising candidates for development as anti-Chagas disease drugs. Posaconazole is under clinical

Gelb, Michael

214

Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

215

Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

2014-01-01

216

Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

2014-09-01

217

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.  

PubMed

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account. PMID:22329454

Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit

2012-08-01

218

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment Treatment ... patients may be referred to a specialist, such as a cardiologist, gastroenterologist, or infectious disease specialist. In ...

219

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Trypansoma ... made after consideration of the patient's clinical findings, as well as by the likelihood of being infected, ...

220

Ecologic niche modeling and potential reservoirs for Chagas disease, Mexico  

E-print Network

Ecologic niche modeling may improve our understanding of epidemiologically relevant vector and parasitereservoir distributions. We used this tool to identify host relationships of Triatoma species implicated in transmission of Chagas disease...

Peterson, A. Townsend; Sá nchez-Cordero, Ví ctor; Beard, C. Ben; Ramsey, J. M.

2002-07-01

221

Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23770163

Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira; Dones, Wistremundo; Morillo, Carlos A; Encina, Juan Justiniano; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz

2013-08-27

222

Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

Goncalves da Rocha, A.F. (Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

1981-04-01

223

Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

1981-04-01

224

Paratransgenic Strategies for the Control of Chagas Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of insecticides in the elimination of Chagas disease vectors and therefore in the control of Chagas disease has limitations\\u000a that have prompted the development of new control approaches. Paratransgenesis utilizes the genetic modification of symbiotic\\u000a actinomycete bacteria found in the gut of triatomine bugs as a means to modify the gut environment of the bug, rendering it\\u000a unfavorable

E. M. Dotson; C. B. Beard

225

Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms

S. P. Wasser

2002-01-01

226

Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

2015-01-01

227

Structures of One and Two Polymer Mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer mushroom here is referred to as a group of chains end- grafted at the same point on a flat and impenetrable substrate. Using lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations with the Kronecker ?-function interactions (instead of the commonly used nearest-neighbor interactions), we have studied the structures of one and two polymer mushrooms in an explicit solvent as a function of the polymer volume fraction in the system, solvent quality characterized by the Flory-Huggins ? parameter, and distance between the two mushrooms. Since LSCF results are exact only in the limit of number of chains n ->?, we also use fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulationsootnotetextQ. Wang, Soft Matter, 5, 4564 (2009). with the same Hamiltonian as in LSCF theory to examine how this limit is approached with increasing n. Direct comparisons between LSCF and FLMC results without any parameter-fitting quantify the fluctuation/correlation effects neglected in LSCF theory.

Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang

2011-03-01

228

Nonperiodic echoes from mushroom billiard hats  

E-print Network

Mushroom billiards have the remarkable property to show one or more clear cut integrable islands in one or several chaotic seas, without any fractal boundaries. The islands correspond to orbits confined to the hats of the mushrooms, which they share with the chaotic orbits. It is thus interesting to ask how long a chaotic orbit will remain in the hat before returning to the stem. This question is equivalent to the inquiry about delay times for scattering from the hat of the mushroom into an opening where the stem should be. For fixed angular momentum we find that no more than three different delay times are possible. This induces striking nonperiodic structures in the delay times that may be of importance for mesoscopic devices and should be accessible to microwave experiments.

B. Dietz; T. Friedrich; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter; T. H. Seligman; K. Zapfe

2006-11-07

229

The Mushroom Genus Laccaria in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Botanist Gregory Mueller of The Field Museum (Chicago) has put together this spectacular resource on mushrooms in the genus Laccaria. Complete with a lengthy scientific introduction, the site contains a colorful, photo-illustrated species identification section (20+ species), an evolutionary tree for the genus, a pictorial key to aid in identification, an additional key for identifying Laccaria in Costa Rica, documentation of specimens examined, and a substantial Literature Cited section. For researchers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in these mushrooms, this is an excellent, information-rich, yet fully accessible, resource.

Mueller, Gregory M.

230

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

231

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation  

PubMed Central

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

2014-01-01

232

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation.  

PubMed

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

2014-01-01

233

Effects of bioglycans isolated from birch fungi inonotus obliquus on electric activity of venous sinus cells in frog heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioglycans isolated from chaga in a concentration of 0.0001% reduced frequency of action potential in venous sinus cells of\\u000a frog heart during the first 15–30 min of exposure, then this parameter increased by 10% per hour over 3.5 h, and was 41±3\\u000a min?1 from the 4th to the 20th hour of incubation. The frequency of action potentials in heart strips

V. A. Golovko

1999-01-01

234

Severity of chronic Chagas disease is associated with cytokine/antioxidant imbalance in chronically infected individuals  

E-print Network

Severity of chronic Chagas disease is associated with cytokine/antioxidant imbalance in chronically the pathogenic mechanisms in chronic Chagas disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America of Chagas disease is a consequence of a long-term and complex relationship between parasite persistence

Roche, Benjamin

235

In vivo detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in hearts of patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart is the most commonly affected organ in chronic Chagas' disease, and lymphocytic myocarditis is often observed. However, the pathogenesis of chronic Chagas' heart disease is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether in vivo T. cruzi antigens could be detected in hearts from patients with chronic Chagas' disease and to investigate whether a correlation between

Giovanni Belloti; Edimar Alcides Bocchi; Alvaro Villela de Moraes; Maria de Lourdes Higuchi; Miguel Barbero-Marcial; Eduardo Sosa; Antonio Esteves-Filho; Roberto Kalil; Robert Weiss; Adib Jatene; Fulvio Pileggi

1996-01-01

236

A panel of ten microsatellite loci for the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

E-print Network

A panel of ten microsatellite loci for the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera of Chagas disease in Venezuela, where it is found colonising rural housing consisting of unplastered adobe.66. The microsatellite markers presented here will contribute to the control of Chagas disease in Venezuela and Colombia

Steve Kemp

237

Public Street Lights Increase House Infestation by the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata  

E-print Network

Public Street Lights Increase House Infestation by the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata, United States of America Abstract Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We, Gourbie`re S, Dumonteil E (2012) Public Street Lights Increase House Infestation by the Chagas Disease

Boyer, Edmond

238

UNDERSTANDING RISK DETERMINANTS OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN PERI-Megan L. Christenson  

E-print Network

UNDERSTANDING RISK DETERMINANTS OF CHAGAS DISEASE IN PERI- URBAN PERU by Megan L. Christenson Infestation of homes with Triatoma infestans, an important vector of Chagas disease in southern Peru, is common in the peri-urban shantytown communities of Arequipa, Peru. Prevalence rates of Chagas disease

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

239

Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.  

PubMed

White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

2013-04-01

240

Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. PMID:24615848

Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

2014-09-01

241

Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident. PMID:24890137

Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

2014-12-01

242

Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%. PMID:20467262

Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

2010-04-01

243

Nitric oxide mediates the fungal-elicitor-enhanced biosynthesis of antioxidant polyphenols in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

A fungal elicitor prepared from the cell debris of the plant-pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria alternata induces multiple responses by Inonotus obliquus cells, including an increase in generation of nitric oxide (NO), activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and accumulation of total mycelial phenolic compounds (TMP), but does not trigger production of oxylipins or jasmonic acid (JA). The role of NO in TMP production was investigated via the effects of the NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). TMP profiles were assayed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. Pretreatment of I. obliquus mycelia with cPITO or AG suppressed not only elicitor-enhanced NO generation and PAL activity, but also the elicitor-induced increase in TMP production. This TMP reduction by either a NO scavenger or a NOS inhibitor was reversed by exogenous addition of either a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, or JA separately. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of TMP profiles showed that the induced TMP were hispidin analogues including inoscavins, phelligridins, davallialactone and methyldavallialactone, which possess high antioxidant activities. Thus, NO mediates an elicitor-induced increase in production of antioxidant polyphenols in I. obliquus via a signalling pathway independent of oxylipins or JA, a mechanism which differs from those in some higher plants. PMID:19556296

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Zhang, Yanxia; Pan, Shenyuan; Zhang, Meimei; Jiang, Hong

2009-10-01

244

Chagas disease is independently associated with brain atrophy.  

PubMed

Chagas disease (CD) remains a major cause of cardiomyopathy and stroke in developing countries. Brain involvement in CD has been attributed to left ventricular dysfunction, resulting in chronic brain ischemia due to hypoperfusion and/or embolic infarcts. However, cognitive impairment in CD may occur independently of cardiac disease. Therefore, we aimed to investigate head computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CDC) in comparison with other cardiomyopathies (OC). We studied 73 patients with CDC (n = 41) or OC (n = 32) matched for age and gender. These patients underwent head CT, rated by an investigator blinded to all clinical information. Head CT was rated for the presence of lacunar or territorial infarcts, as well as for measuring the total volumes of the brain, cerebellum and ventricles. Total brain volume was smaller in CDC as compared to OC patients (1,135 +/- 150 vs. 1,332 +/- 198 cm(3), P < 0.001). Cerebellar and ventricular volumes did not differ between the groups. The prevalence of brain infarcts did not differ significantly between the groups. Chagas disease was the only independent predictor of brain atrophy in the multivariable analysis (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.06-1.79, P = 0.017). Chagas disease is associated with brain atrophy independent of structural cardiac disease related to cardiomyopathy. Brain atrophy, rather than multiple infarcts, may represent the main anatomical substrate of cognitive impairment in Chagas disease. PMID:19363636

Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Vieira-de-Melo, Rodrigo M; Reis, Paulo S O; Lacerda, Amanda M; Neville, Iuri S; Cincura, Carolina; Menezes, Daniela F; Viana, Leila C; Jesus, Pedro A P; Lopes, Antonio A; Reis, Francisco J F B; Furie, Karen L

2009-08-01

245

Suspected myotoxicity of edible wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

Recently, the widely consumed yellow tricholoma Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis and fatalities in humans in France and Poland and triggered elevated plasma creatine kinase activities in mice. Furthermore, the highly appreciated king boletus (Boletus edulis) caused similar responses in experimental mice. Because of this, it was hypothesized that other fungi could also contain chemical compounds that would cause similar myotoxic effects. To test the suspected myotoxicity of other wild mushrooms consumed by tradition, 86 mice were exposed for 5 days to 3, 6, or 9 g/kg body mass/day of edible mushrooms representing diverse genera (Russula spp, Cantharellus cibarius, Albatrellus ovinus, and Leccinium versipelle) mixed with regular laboratory rodent diet. The plasma creatine kinase activity increased with all studied mushroom species at 9 g/kg body mass/day, whereas the histologic appearance of muscle and liver samples was unaffected. The results support the hypothesis that the previously observed toxic effects are not specific to T. flavovirens, but probably represent an unspecific response requiring individual sensitivity and a significant amount of ingested mushroom to manifest itself. PMID:16446499

Nieminen, Petteri; Kirsi, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

2006-02-01

246

Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms.  

PubMed

Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

Czarnecka, Agnieszka B; Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch

2014-06-01

247

Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

2014-01-01

248

76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC...NSR of Zhangzhou Long Mountain Foods Co., Ltd. (Long Mountain...Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64...

2011-03-31

249

76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission...from Zhangzhou Long Mountain Foods Co., Ltd. (Long Mountain...preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC...Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China:...

2011-05-18

250

75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations...duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be...2010), entitled Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia:...

2010-04-15

251

75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY...duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would...

2010-01-22

252

Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors.  

PubMed

Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology. PMID:24473801

Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

2013-01-01

253

Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors  

PubMed Central

Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology. PMID:24473801

Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

2013-01-01

254

Acquired Cell-Mediated Immunodepression in Acute Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

In this study two groups of patients with acute Chagas' disease were identified. Group one consisted of five patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease. These patients showed symptoms and signals of an acute illness, such as high fever and enlarged spleen. One of these patients developed severe myocarditis and heart failure. Group two consisted of seven patients with inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This was a nonclinical entity, not perceived by the patient who did not seek medical care. The diagnosis was made by the shift of a serologic test which indicates the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. The patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease showed positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen. Also, their leukocytes showed significant inhibition of migration in the presence of this antigen. By contrast, the patients with the inapparent acute Chagas' disease did not show positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen and no significant inhibition was observed when their cells migrated in the presence of this antigen. Of interest, none of these patients was capable of developing contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. However, three out of five patients with the apparent acute disease and all the normal control subjects showed positive contact reaction after sensitization to this drug. The results of these experiments would suggest that the thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function is depressed in patients with the clinically inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This immunodepression seems to be acquired in the course of the T. cruzi infection because all patients showed positive delayed-type skin response to at least one ubiquitous microbial extract, thus indicating previously normal T-cell function. We hypothesize that T. cruzi antigens may directly stimulate T cells with the concomitant release of factors that might become supressive for T-cell responses. Furthermore, the suppressive effect might interfere with the T-cell response to other antigens, such as to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Images PMID:107195

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Teixeira, Glória; Macêdo, Vanize; Prata, Aluizio

1978-01-01

255

The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martínez, Mónica Flórez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

2008-01-01

256

Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially ?-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties. PMID:23735479

Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

2013-01-01

257

Supplementary Online Information 1. Photographs of Octopus and Mushroom Spring. See Supplementary Figure 1.  

E-print Network

Supplementary Online Information 1. Photographs of Octopus and Mushroom Spring. See Supplementary the effluent channel of Mushroom Spring and Octopus Spring, as shown in Supplementary Figure 3. Pyrosequencing

258

Interactions of Pseudomonads with Mushrooms and Other Eukaryotic Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonads are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria with the potential to interact with diverse organisms in the environment.\\u000a We are investigating the molecular basis of pathogenesis in mushroom-pathogenic Pseudomonas (NZ strains) and also evaluating\\u000a NZ interactions with other organisms found in the mushroom environment, notably the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the\\u000a amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Strain Pseudomonas sp. NZI7 is a tolaasinproducing mushroom

P. Burlinson; J. Knaggs; J. Hodgkin; C. Pears; G. M. Preston

259

Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).  

PubMed

Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease. PMID:22806203

Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

2012-08-01

260

Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

2015-01-01

261

Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?  

PubMed

Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

2013-01-01

262

Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?  

PubMed Central

Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

2013-01-01

263

Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.  

PubMed

The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25179726

Wasser, Solomon P

2014-01-01

264

Lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of edible mushroom fungi.  

PubMed

One of the most economically-viable processes for the bioconversion of many types of lignocellulosic wastes is represented by edible mushroom cultivation. Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus sajor-caju are three important commercially cultivated mushrooms which exhibit varying abilities to utilise different lignocellulosics as growth substrate. Examination of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of the three species show this diversity to be reflected in qualitative variations in the major enzymic determinants (i.e. cellulases, ligninases) required for substrate bioconversion. For example, L. edodes, which is cultivated on highly lignified substrates such as wood or sawdust, produces two extracellular enzymes which have been associated with lignin depolymerisation in other fungi, (manganese peroxidase and laccase). Conversely, V. volvacea, which prefers high cellulose-, low lignin-containing substrates produces a family of cellulolytic enzymes including at least five endoglucanases, five cellobiohydrolases and two ?-glucosidases, but none of the recognised lignin-degrading enzymes. PMID:24415386

Buswell, J A; Cai, Y J; Chang, S T; Peberdy, J F; Fu, S Y; Yu, H S

1996-09-01

265

Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. PMID:25128776

Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

2014-11-01

266

Mushrooms as possible antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.  

PubMed

The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 ?g/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 ?g/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 ?g/mL) and ?-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 ?g/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

Kosani?, Marijana; Rankovi?, Branislav; Daši?, Marko

2012-01-01

267

Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 ?g/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 ?g/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 ?g/mL) and ?-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 ?g/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

Kosani?, Marijana; Rankovi?, Branislav; Daši?, Marko

2012-01-01

268

Chagas Parasite Detection in Blood Images Using AdaBoost  

PubMed Central

The Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. Visual detection of such parasite through microscopic inspection is a tedious and time-consuming task. In this paper, we provide an AdaBoost learning solution to the task of Chagas parasite detection in blood images. We give details of the algorithm and our experimental setup. With this method, we get 100% and 93.25% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A ROC comparison with the method most commonly used for the detection of malaria parasites based on support vector machines (SVM) is also provided. Our experimental work shows mainly two things: (1) Chagas parasites can be detected automatically using machine learning methods with high accuracy and (2) AdaBoost + SVM provides better overall detection performance than AdaBoost or SVMs alone. Such results are the best ones known so far for the problem of automatic detection of Chagas parasites through the use of machine learning, computer vision, and image processing methods. PMID:25861375

Uc-Cetina, Víctor; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo

2015-01-01

269

Update on Chagas disease in Venezuela – a review. Mem  

E-print Network

The present article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Venezuela based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections both in referred patients with clinical presumptive diagnosis (1988-2002) and in individuals sampled from rural localities representative of the different geographical

Néstor Añez; Gladys Crisante; Agustina Rojas

2004-01-01

270

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA SEQUENCE VARIATION AMONG TRIATOMINE VECTORS OF CHAGAS' DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kissing bugs or triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) are vectors of the Chagas' disease agent Try- panosoma cruzi. There is a current need for more sensitive tools for use in discrimination of different bug populations and species, thus allowing a better understanding of these insects as it relates to disease transmission and control. In a preliminary analysis of the mitochondrial large subunit

DANIEL F. LYMAN; FERNANDO A. MONTEIRO; ANANIAS A. ESCALANTE; CELIA CORDON-ROSALES; DAWN M. WESSON; JEAN-PIERRE DUJARDIN; CHARLES B. BEARD

1999-01-01

271

Letter Chagas disease: an emerging food-borne entity?  

E-print Network

of Carlos Chagas ’ discovery of a disease that continues to endanger the lives of a significant number of people in the Americas, despite major successes in controlling its transmission and recent achievements in experimental specific chemotherapy against its etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi [1

Alfonso J. Rodriguez-morales

2008-01-01

272

The Noble Enigma: Chagas Nominations for the Nobel Prize  

E-print Network

remarkable discoveries of those days, his work helped to articulate the insect-vector theory and other theoretical guidelines in tropical medicine. Unlike all other discoveries, all the stages of this work were accomplished in a few months and by a single man. Chagas ’ discovery was widely

Marilia Coutinho; Olival Freire; Joªo Carlos; Pinto Dias

273

• This Month on EpiCom Chagas Disease in Florida  

E-print Network

As many as eight to eleven million people in Mexico, Central America, and South America have Chagas disease. Most people are asymptomatic and do not know they are infected. However, approximately 20 % to 30 % of those with chronic infection will develop clinically apparent disease, making it a

unknown authors

2009-01-01

274

Oral Transmission of Chagas Disease by Consumption of  

E-print Network

In 2006, a total of 178 cases of acute Chagas disease were reported from the Amazonian state of Pará, Brazil. Eleven occurred in Barcarena and were confi rmed by visualization of parasites on blood smears. Using cohort and case–control studies, we implicated oral transmission by consumption of açaí

Açaí Palm; Aglaêr A. Nóbrega; Marcio H. Garcia; Erica Tatto; Marcos T. Obara; Elenild Costa; Jeremy Sobel; Wildo N. Araujo

275

Autoimmunity in chagas disease cardiomyopathy: Fulfilling the criteria at last?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, Jorge Kalil and Edécio Cunha-Neto review the recent evidence for autoimmunity in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) involving molecularly defined antigens and immunopathological mechanisms. They also discuss the criteria for assignment of CCC as an organ-specific autoimmune disease.

J Kalil; E Cunha-Neto

1996-01-01

276

The dog as model for chemotherapy of the Chagas’ disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the role of dogs as experimental models for acute and chronic phases of Chagas’ disease, before and after therapeutic treatments. Dogs were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi strains of different susceptibilities to benznidazole (Bz) and treated with the same therapeutic scheme as used for human chagasic. The treatment with Bz was able to prevent death

Paulo Marcos da Matta Guedes; Vanja Maria Veloso; Washington Luiz Tafuri; Lúcia Maria da Cunha Galvão; Cláudia Martins Carneiro; Marta de Lana; Egler Chiari; Killarney Ataide Soares; Maria Terezinha Bahia

2002-01-01

277

Lead identification to clinical candidate selection: drugs for Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease affects 8 million people worldwide and remains a main cause of death due to heart failure in Latin America. The number of cases in the United States is now estimated to be 300,000, but there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs available for patients with Chagas disease. To fill this gap, we have established a public-private partnership between the University of California, San Francisco and the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) with the goal of delivering clinical candidates to treat Chagas disease. The discovery phase, based on the screening of more than 160,000 compounds from the GNF Academic Collaboration Library, led to the identification of new anti-Chagas scaffolds. Part of the screening campaign used and compared two screening methods, including a colorimetric-based assay using Trypanosoma cruzi expressing ?-galactosidase and an image-based, high-content screening (HCS) assay using the CA-I/72 strain of T. cruzi. Comparing molecules tested in both assays, we found that ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors had greater potency in the colorimetric assay than in the HCS assay. Both assays were used to inform structure-activity relationships for antiparasitic efficacy and pharmacokinetics. A new anti-T. cruzi scaffold derived from xanthine was identified, and we describe its development as lead series. PMID:25281737

Neitz, R Jeffrey; Chen, Steven; Supek, Frantisek; Yeh, Vince; Kellar, Danielle; Gut, Jiri; Bryant, Clifford; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Molteni, Valentina; Roach, Steven L; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Robertson, Stephanie; Renslo, Adam R; Arkin, Michelle; Glynne, Richard; McKerrow, James; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L

2015-01-01

278

Specific chemotherapy of Chagas disease: controversies and advances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health problem in Latin America, where it constitutes one of the largest parasitic disease burdens. Specific treatment of this condition has been controversial, but there is a growing consensus that elimination of T. cruzi could be a prerequisite to arrest the evolution of the disease. Currently available chemotherapy, based on

Julio A. Urbina; Roberto Docampo

2003-01-01

279

Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

2011-01-01

280

Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi,

Michael Z. Levy; Dylan S. Small; Daril A. Vilhena; Natalie M. Bowman; Vivian Kawai; Juan G. Cornejo del Carpio; Eleazar Cordova-Benzaquen; Robert H. Gilman; Caryn Bern; Joshua B. Plotkin

2011-01-01

281

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed Central

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, José Rodrigues

2013-01-01

282

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, José Rodrigues

2013-12-01

283

Chagas' disease: trends in immunological research and prospects for immunoprophylaxis  

PubMed Central

Acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi usually subsides spontaneously but the mortality rate encountered in individuals with the chronic infection is high. Much evidence has accumulated in the last five years that autoimmunity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the myocarditis that is common in the chronic phase. A negative relationship has been observed between the demonstrable parasitaemia and the presence of severe cardiac lesions. This myocarditis is characterized by lymphocytic infiltrates and destruction of normal heart cells, in the absence of the parasite in situ. Furthermore, the demonstration in vitro of heart cell lysis by T. cruzi-sensitized T lymphocytes is strong evidence of autoimmunity in Chagas' disease. Acquired immunity plays a major role in the course that T. cruzi infections may run in the mammalian host. As a result of the immune mechanisms induced by the parasite, the infection is controlled at subpatent levels, and the immune host does not develop acute T. cruzi infection again. At present there are several means of achieving immunoprotection against experimental T. cruzi infections, but it is not known whether vaccinated animals might develop chronic Chagas' disease and die many months or years later. Studies on immunoprotection against Chagas' disease should therefore not be limited only to the acute phase of the infection. Furthermore, the involvement of autoimmunity in the production of the lesions of Chagas' disease indicates that research in this area should be conducted with caution. The definition of an animal model for chronic Chagas' disease is essential to further development of immunological research devoted to immunoprophylaxis. PMID:120233

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

1979-01-01

284

Further genetic characterization of the two Trypanosoma cruzi Berenice strains (Be62 and Be78) isolated from the first human case of Chagas disease (Chagas, 1909)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here an extension of a previous genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi strains (Be-62 and Be-78) isolated from the patient Berenice, the first human case of Chagas disease [Chagas, C., 1909. Nova Tripanomíase humana. Estudos sobre morfologia e o ciclo evolutivo do Schizotrypanum cruzi, n. gen., n. sp., agente etiolójico da nova entidade morbida do homem. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo

R. E. Cruz; A. M. Macedo; C. Barnabé; J. M. Freitas; E. Chiari; V. M. Veloso; C. M. Carneiro; M. T. Bahia; Washington L Tafuri; M. Lana

2006-01-01

285

Justice where justice is due: A posthumous Nobel Prize to Carlos Chagas (1879–1934), the discoverer of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working in the Brazilian backland, Chagas described a new disease. He discovered the etiologic agent, the vector, the reservoir, the acute stage, the several clinical aspects of the chronic stage (particularly the heart disease), role of autoimmunity in its pathogenesis, and anticipated the social impact of the disease. Chagas was nominated to Nobel Prize twice: in 1913, and in 1921.

Reinaldo B. Bestetti; Cláudia A. Martins; Augusto Cardinalli-Neto

2009-01-01

286

Amatoxin-Containing Mushroom (Lepiota brunneoincarnata) Familial Poisoning.  

PubMed

Serious to fatal toxicity may occur with amanitin-containing mushrooms ingestions. A Lepiota brunneoincarnata familial poisoning with hepatic toxicity is reported. In such poisonings, acute gastroenteritis may be firstly misdiagnosed leading to delay in preventing liver dysfunction by silibinin or penicillin G. Mushroom picking finally requires experience and caution. PMID:25831030

Varvenne, David; Retornaz, Karine; Metge, Prune; De Haro, Luc; Minodier, Philippe

2015-04-01

287

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

288

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared.

Ruihong Zhang; Xiujin Li; J. G Fadel

2002-01-01

289

STATUS OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION AND RESEARCH IN MAURITIUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are cultivated for their nutritive and medicinal values. In Mauritius, they are highly appreciated for their taste and flavour and are consumed both in fresh and processed forms. In 2001, the annual value of mushroom imports (including fresh, preserved and dried produce) attained MUR 21 Millions while the annual local Pleurotus production is estimated at more than 15 tons

P Huzar Futty

290

Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

291

Crocipodin, a benzotropolone pigment from the mushroom Leccinum crocipodium (Boletales)  

E-print Network

of crocipodin, the orange-red pigment responsible for the yellow appearance of this mushroom. 2. Results t Crocipodin, an unusual benzotropolone pigment, has been isolated from the fruit bodies of the mush- room trees. The mushroom is easily recognized by its bright yellow pores and the darkening of its flesh where

Trauner, Dirk

292

Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom  

E-print Network

the development of late- successional habitat. The commercial har- vest of forest products (timber and nontim- ber mushrooms that is large and multifaceted (Boa 2004). Al- though timber production has long been in- tegralEffects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom Production David Pilz, Randy Molina

293

Improvement of Strains of Two Oyster Mushroom Cultivars Using Duel Culture Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sri Lanka, only a few mushroom species are popular among growers and among these, Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) are cultivated widely at present. There is a growing demand for new and improved mushroom strains with better characters including yield. The present study was conducted with the objective of improving mushroom strains using duel culture hybridization technique. Hybridization was achieved

K. L. Wasantha Kumar

2009-01-01

294

Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights Sarah M. Farris*  

E-print Network

Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights Sarah M. Farris* Department of Biology, of which those of insects are the best described. Insect mushroom bodies are composed of numerous tiny into mechanisms of mushroom body evolution. Comparisons of mushroom body organization in different insect lineages

Farris, Sarah M.

295

Identification of Amanita mushrooms by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amanita is one of cosmopolitan genera of basidiomycetes. This genus contains some of the most poisonous toadstools, as well as several species of the most favorite edible mushrooms. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the fruiting bodies of wild growing Amanita mushrooms. The results show that the mushrooms exhibit characteristic spectra, whose strong absorption bands appear at about 1655, 1076, and 1040 cm -1. The vibrational spectra indicate that the main compositions of the Amanita mushrooms are proteins and polysaccharides. The observed spectral differences might be used to discriminate different species of Amanita. It is showed that FTIR spectroscopic method is a valuable tool for rapid and nondestructive identification of Amanita mushrooms.

Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

2006-09-01

296

[Identification of edible mushrooms by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy].  

PubMed

In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to identify edible mushrooms belonging to Auriculariales, Aphyllophorales, and Agaricales of Basidiomycotina. Vibrational spectra of fruiting bodies of ten species belonging to nine different genera of mushrooms (one is cultivated, and the others are wild growing) were recorded. The spectra were divided into five regions, i.e. 3 050 to 2 800 cm(-1), 1 750 to 1 500 cm(-1), 1 500 to 1 200 cm(-1), 1 200 to 950 cm(-1), and 950 to 700 cm(-1). These regions contain characteristic bands among different mushrooms. According to the characteristic bands in the five regions, different species of mushrooms can be identified. Vibrational spectra in the interval between 950 and 700 cm(-1) could serve as fingerprints to discriminate different genera of mushrooms. PMID:15766114

Liu, Gang; Liu, Jian-Hong; Yang, Ai-Ming; Dong, Qin; Song, Ding-Shan

2004-08-01

297

Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors. PMID:23030443

Mleczek, Miros?aw; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goli?ski, Piotr

2013-01-01

298

ACTUALIDADES SOBRE LA EPIDEMIOLOGA DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS EN MXICO  

E-print Network

85 ACTUALIDADES SOBRE LA EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS EN M�XICO J.M. RAMSEY, R. ORDO�EZ, A.TELLO LOPEZ, J.L. POHLS, V. SANCHEZ, A.T. PETERSON* INTRODUCCI�N La Enfermedad de Chagas es la epidemiológicos sobre la mortalidad por Chagas, debido a la falta de experiencia en la elaboración del diagnóstico

Hammerton, James

299

The selenium content of edible mushrooms in Finland.  

PubMed

In this investigation the selenium contents of 142 mushroom samples were determined. The majority of the samples were wild Finnish mushroom species generally used for human consumption. The selenium contents of some cultivated mushrooms were also determined. In all, the material analyzed consisted of 38 different mushroom species. Selenium concentrations were assayed after modified wet and dry ashing, by atomic-absorption spectrometry using the hydride technique and the standard-addition procedure. The reliability of the method was tested with certified standard reference materials. The results of analysis obtained indicate that selenium contents vary considerably between different mushroom species. Of the species investigated, by far the highest selenium contents were found in Boletus edulis (mean 17 mg/kg dry weight). Other mushrooms having considerable selenium contents included Macrolepiota (5.0 mg/kg), wild Agaricus spp. (2.7 mg/kg), Gasteromycetes (1.9 mg/kg), Lactarius torminosus (1.9 mg/kg) and Marasmius oreades (1.6 mg/kg). The contents in these mushrooms are sufficient to provide an amount of selenium that is nutritionally significant in relation to the total daily intake of selenium of the Finnish population. Other edible mushrooms generally used in Finnland, e.g. species belonging to Cantharellaceae, Russula, Boletaceae (other than B. edulis) and Lactarius (other than L. torminosus) contained only small amounts of selenium. The importance of these mushrooms as a source of selenium is therefore marginal. The selenium content of Lactarius torminosus decreased by an average of 32% during the blanching necessary before consumption of these mushrooms. PMID:6685955

Piepponen, S; Liukkonen-Lilja, H; Kuusi, T

1983-01-01

300

Semiflexible polymer brushes and the brush-mushroom crossover.  

PubMed

Semiflexible polymers end-grafted to a repulsive planar substrate under good solvent conditions are studied by scaling arguments, computer simulations, and self-consistent field theory. Varying the chain length N, persistence length lp, and grafting density ?g, the chain linear dimensions and distribution functions of all monomers and of the free chain ends are studied. Particular attention is paid to the limit of very small ?g, where the grafted chains behave as "mushrooms" no longer interacting with each other. Unlike a flexible mushroom, which has a self-similar structure from the size (a) of an effective monomer up to the mushroom height (h/a ? N(v), ? ? 3/5), a semiflexible mushroom (like a free semiflexible chain) exhibits three different scaling regimes, h/a ? N for contour length L = Na < lp, a Gaussian regime, h/a ? (Llp)(1/2)/a for lp ? L ? R* ? (lp(2)/a), and a regime controlled by excluded volume, h/a ? (lp/a)(1/5)N(?). The semiflexible brush is predicted to scale as h/a ? (lpa?g)(1/3)N in the excluded volume regime, and h/a ? (lpa(3)?(2))(1/4)N in the Gaussian regime. Since in the volume taken by a semiflexible mushroom excluded-volume interactions are much weaker in comparison to a flexible mushroom, there occurs an additional regime where semiflexible mushrooms overlap without significant chain stretching. Moreover, since the size of a semiflexible mushroom is much larger than the size of a flexible mushroom with the same N, the crossover from mushroom to brush behavior is predicted to take place at much smaller densities than for fully flexible chains. The numerical results, however, confirm the scaling predictions only qualitatively; for chain lengths that are relevant for experiments, often intermediate effective exponents are observed due to extended crossovers. PMID:25687784

Egorov, Sergei A; Hsu, Hsiao-Ping; Milchev, Andrey; Binder, Kurt

2015-03-18

301

Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

2014-01-01

302

NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited biosynthesis of davallialactone and phelligridins and other hispidin analogs. Continuous darkness enhanced the formation of phelligridins, davallialactone and inoscavins. Phelligridins and davallialactone also occurred in the mycelia grown in blue and red light with levels lower than those found in darkness. In addition, polyphenols synthesized under daylight conditions showed less potential antioxidant activity than those determined with other light regimes. These findings demonstrate that light regulates biosynthesis of polyphenols in I. obliquus and their subsequent antioxidant activities, and (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling is a cost-effective approach for evaluating light effects on fungal metabolisms. PMID:19433352

Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Miao, Kangjie; Jiang, Hong

2009-10-01

303

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy: the mushroom plug repair.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy was performed on 76 patients with a total of 82 hernias. A modified Schultz repair was done using a mushroom-shaped mesh plug. The flat piece of this plug acts as a stopper to prevent migration of the plug into the inguinal canal or the subcutaneous tissue (in the direct hernia, primary or recurrent). Average operative time was 69 min (range 42-140 min). Short-term follow-up of 1 to 7 months showed no recurrence and good acceptance of the repair by patients. PMID:1341514

Hawasli, A

1992-06-01

304

Current situation and perspectives regarding human Chagas disease in midwestern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Recognising the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil, Bambuí set up epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in 1974 and was the first municipality to do so. To ascertain the current epidemiology of Chagas disease in this municipality, 1.782 blood samples from the general population were analysed; 7.7% of samples were found to be seropositive for Chagas disease. A strong positive correlation between increasing age and Chagas disease was evident in both genders, with the highest prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years. Clinically, the cardiodigestive form of Chagas disease was the most common in these samples. These data confirm the interruption of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, in parallel with a still important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the county, thus supporting political decisions that will prioritise epidemiological surveillance and medical treatment of Chagas disease in the coming years. PMID:24831551

Matos, Christiane Santos; dos Santos, José Eloy; Medeiros, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso; Furtado, Eliana; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

2014-01-01

305

Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

Montgomery, Susan P; Starr, Michelle C; Cantey, Paul T; Edwards, Morven S; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-05-01

306

Modeling the economic value of a Chagas’ disease therapeutic vaccine  

PubMed Central

The health burden of Chagas’ disease (resulting from Trypanosoma cruzi infection) in Latin America (estimated to outweigh that of malaria by 5-fold and affect 2–6 million people in Mexico alone) has motivated development of therapeutic vaccines to prevent infection progression to severe disease. Our economic model for a Chagas’ therapeutic vaccine in Mexico suggests that a vaccine would be highly cost-effective and in many cases economically dominant (providing both cost savings and health benefits) throughout a range of protection durations, severe adverse event risk, and dosing regimens and would be most likely to provide a positive return on investment if the vaccine prevented (rather than delayed) the onset of cardiomyopathy. PMID:22894964

Lee, Bruce Y.; Bacon, Kristina M.; Wateska, Angela R.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric; Hotez, Peter J.

2012-01-01

307

Precordial chest pain in patients with chronic Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Precordial chest pain affects about 15% to 33% of patients with chronic Chagas disease. In the absence of megaesophagus, it should be ascribed to chronic Chagas heart disease. Precordial chest pain is atypical because it can usually neither be associated to physical exercise nor be alleviated by nitroglycerin. However, in certain circumstances, precordial chest pain can masquerade as acute coronary syndrome. Although obstructive coronary artery disease can occasionally be found, microvascular angina seems to be the mechanism behind such phenomenon. Precordial chest pain not always has a benign clinical course; sometimes, it can herald a dismal prognosis. On the basis of cases previously reported, it seems that nitrates, betablockers and/or calcium channel blockers can be of value in the treatment of this condition. PMID:25127335

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A

2014-09-20

308

Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on the antioxidant defence system and regeneration of pancreatic ?-cells in experimental diabetes in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycaemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth (DMCB) of Inonotus obliquus were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and the possible mechanism of action was also discussed. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, treatment with the ethanol extract from DMCB of I. obliquus (30 and 60 mg kg body weight (b.w.) for 21

Hong-Yu Xu; Jun-En Sun; Zhen-Ming Lu; Xiao-Mei Zhang; Wen-Fang Dou; Zheng-Hong Xu

2010-01-01

309

Challenges and perspectives of Chagas disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease (CD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and affects an estimated 8 to 10 million people worldwide. In Latin America, 25 million people live in risk areas, while in 2008 alone, 10,000 CD-related deaths were reported. This review aimed to evaluate the challenges of CD control, future perspectives, and actions performed worldwide to control expansion of the disease and its impact on public health in Latin America. PMID:24354455

2013-01-01

310

CHARITY: Chagas cardiomyopathy bisoprolol intervention study: a randomized double-blind placebo force-titration controlled study with Bisoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to Chagas cardiomyopathy [NCT00323973  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chagas' disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults from Latin America, and around 20 million people are currently infected by T. cruzi. Heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy is the main clinical presenation in Colombia. Heart failure due to Chagas' disease may respond to digoxin, diuretics and vasodilator therapy. Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonism seems

Franklin R Quiros; Carlos A Morillo; Juan P Casas; Luz A Cubillos; Federico A Silva

2006-01-01

311

Evolution, Discovery, and Interpretations of Arthropod Mushroom Bodies  

PubMed Central

Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils found in annelids and in all arthropod groups except crustaceans. First explicitly identified in 1850, the mushroom bodies differ in size and complexity between taxa, as well as between different castes of a single species of social insect. These differences led some early biologists to suggest that the mushroom bodies endow an arthropod with intelligence or the ability to execute voluntary actions, as opposed to innate behaviors. Recent physiological studies and mutant analyses have led to divergent interpretations. One interpretation is that the mushroom bodies conditionally relay to higher protocerebral centers information about sensory stimuli and the context in which they occur. Another interpretation is that they play a central role in learning and memory. Anatomical studies suggest that arthropod mushroom bodies are predominately associated with olfactory pathways except in phylogenetically basal insects. The prominent olfactory input to the mushroom body calyces in more recent insect orders is an acquired character. An overview of the history of research on the mushroom bodies, as well as comparative and evolutionary considerations, provides a conceptual framework for discussing the roles of these neuropils. PMID:10454370

Strausfeld, Nicholas J.; Hansen, Lars; Li, Yongsheng; Gomez, Robert S.; Ito, Kei

1998-01-01

312

Prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-like particles capable of inducing both a humoral and cellular specific immune response. This type of immunization has been successfully used in preclinical studies and there are diverse models for viral, bacterial and/or parasitic diseases, allergies, tumors and other diseases. Therefore, several research groups have been given the task of designing a DNA vaccine against experimental infection with T. cruzi. In this review we explain what DNA vaccines are and the most recent studies that have been done to develop them with prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against Chagas disease. PMID:25779274

Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia Del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

2015-12-01

313

Pathogenesis of Chagas disease: time to move on  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The contributions of parasite and immune system for disease pathogenesis remain unresolved and controversial. The possibility that Chagas disease was an autoimmune progression triggered by T. cruzi infection led some to question the benefit of treating chronically T. cruzi-infected persons with drugs. Furthermore, it provided the rationale for not investing in research aimed at a vaccine which might carry a risk of inducing autoimmunity or exacerbating inflammation. This viewpoint was adopted by cash-strapped health systems in the developing economies where the disease is endemic and has been repeatedly challenged by researchers and clinicians in recent years and there is now a considerable body of evidence and broad consensus that parasite persistence is requisite for pathogenesis and that antiparasitic immunity can be protective against T. cruzi pathogenesis without eliciting autoimmune pathology. Thus, treatment of chronically infected patients is likely to yield positive outcomes and efforts to understand immunity and vaccine development should be recognized as a priority area of research for Chagas disease. PMID:22201990

Machado, Fabiana S.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Brant, Fatima; Esper, Lisia; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2012-01-01

314

Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

2011-01-01

315

Prophylactic and therapeutic DNA vaccines against Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a zoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi in which the most affected organ is the heart. Conventional chemotherapy has a very low effectiveness; despite recent efforts, there is currently no better or more effective treatment available. DNA vaccines provide a new alternative for both prevention and treatment of a variety of infectious disorders, including Chagas disease. Recombinant DNA technology has allowed some vaccines to be developed using recombinant proteins or virus-like particles capable of inducing both a humoral and cellular specific immune response. This type of immunization has been successfully used in preclinical studies and there are diverse models for viral, bacterial and/or parasitic diseases, allergies, tumors and other diseases. Therefore, several research groups have been given the task of designing a DNA vaccine against experimental infection with T. cruzi. In this review we explain what DNA vaccines are and the most recent studies that have been done to develop them with prophylactic or therapeutic purposes against Chagas disease. PMID:25885641

Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Rios-Castro, Martha; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia Del Carmen; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

2015-01-01

316

Structurally Simple Inhibitors of Lanosterol 14r-Demethylase Are Efficacious In a Rodent Model of Acute Chagas Disease  

E-print Network

of Acute Chagas Disease Praveen Kumar Suryadevara,, Srinivas Olepu,, Jeffrey W. Lockman,, Junko Ohkanda that is an anti-Chagas drug candidate. Several compounds display potency for killing T. cruzi amastigotes in vitro of acute Chagas disease. At oral doses of 20-50 mg/kg given after establishment of parasite infection

Gelb, Michael

317

XXIII Congresso Brasileiro em Engenharia Biomdica XXIII CBEB IDENTIFICAO DA DOENA DE CHAGAS BASEADA EM ANLISE DE  

E-print Network

XXIII Congresso Brasileiro em Engenharia Biomédica ­ XXIII CBEB 1 IDENTIFICA��O DA DOEN�A DE CHAGAS-DF, Brasil joaoluiz@pgea.unb.br Abstract: Chagas' disease severely affects autonomic function, specially through the analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). This work aims at identifying Chagas' disease

Carvalho, João Luiz

318

Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.  

PubMed

Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Amatoxins, on the other hand, are very toxic and they primarily consist of alpha-amanitin (AA), beta-amanitin (BA) and gamma-amanitin (GA). Toxin levels can vary among various species, even among varieties of the same species, of Amanita mushroom family. Revealing the differences between the toxin compositions of the Amanita species that grow in our region may contribute to the clinics of poisonings. Our study aims at showing in detail the toxin levels in various parts of Amanita verna mushroom. A. verna mushrooms needed for toxin analysis were collected from Kozak Plateau near Ayvalik county of Bal?kesir, Turkey in April 2013. The mushrooms were divided into their parts as pileus, gills, stripe and volva. Following the procedures required before the analysis, the AA, BA, GA, PHN and PCN levels were measured using the RP-HPLC method. While the lowest level of amatoxin was in the volva of the mushroom, the highest was measured in the gills. This was followed by pileus and stripe where the levels were close to each other. Similarly, the highest level of phallotoxin was measured in the gills. Gamma toxin and phalloidin were at lower amounts than the other toxins. A. verna is frequently confused with edible mushrooms with white caps due to its macroscopic similarity. If just one of them is eaten by mistake by an adult person with no mushroom experience, it can easily poison them. The amount of amatoxin is more as compared to Amanita phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba. Particularly, the AA and BA levels are approximately three times higher, whereas GA levels are lower. Similarly, the level of PCN is approximately four times higher as compared to A. phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba; by contrast, the level of PNH is about a half of theirs. In summary, it can be said that A. verna is a more toxic mushroom than A. phalloides and has a higher rate of mortality. With our study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations and distribution in A. verna mushrooms were shown in detail for the first time and it would be useful to carry out more similar studies with other members of Amanita family growing in various parts of the world. PMID:24911374

Yilmaz, Ismail; Kaya, Ertugrul; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Bayram, Recep; Surmen, Mustafa Gani; Colakoglu, Serdar

2014-09-01

319

Heart Rate Recovery in Asymptomatic Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB) have diverse clinical presentation and prognosis, depending on left ventricular (LV) function. Autonomic disorder can be an early marker of heart involvement. The heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise may identify autonomic dysfunction, with impact on therapeutic strategies. This study was designed to assess the HRR after symptom-limited exercise testing in asymptomatic Chagas disease patients with RBBB without ventricular dysfunction compared to patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease and healthy controls. Methods One hundred and forty-nine subjects divided into 3 groups were included. A control group was comprised of healthy individuals; group 1 included patients in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and group 2 included patients with complete RBBB with or without left anterior hemiblock, and normal ventricular systolic function. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed and heart rate (HR) response to exercise was assessed. HRR was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and 1 min following test termination. Results There were no differences in heart-rate profile during exercise between healthy individuals and patients in indeterminate form, whereas patients with RBBB had more prevalence of chronotropic incompetence, lower exercise capacity and lower HRR compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. A delayed decrease in the HR after exercise was found in 17 patients (15%), 9% in indeterminate form and 24% with RBBB, associated with older age, worse functional capacity, impaired chronotropic response, and ventricular arrhythmias during both exercise and recovery. By multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of a delayed decrease in the HRR were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.21; p?=?0.010) and presence of RBBB (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.05 to 15.01; p?=?0.042). Conclusions A small proportion (15%) of asymptomatic Chagas patients had attenuated HRR after exercise, being more prevalent in patients with RBBB compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. PMID:24979699

de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rocha, Manoel Otávio da Costa; Lima, Márcia Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Carneiro, Renata de Carvalho Bicalho; Silva, Guilherme Canabrava Rodrigues; Brandão, Fernando Vieira; Kreuser, Lucas Jordan; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

2014-01-01

320

The Crystal Structure of Cruzain: A Therapeutic Target for Chagas' Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosoma cruzia protozoan parasite, is the etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis or Chagas' disease. Chagas' disease afflicts more than 24 million individuals in South and Central America producing a debilitating life-long disease. It is the leading cause of heart failure in many Latin American countries. Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment for this parasitic infection. Cruzain (also known as cruzipain,

Mary E. McGrath; Ann E. Eakin; Juan C. Engel; James H. McKerrow; Charles S. Craik; Robert J. Fletterick

1995-01-01

321

Chagas disease: what is known and what is needed - A background article  

E-print Network

Chagas disease began millions of years ago as an enzootic disease of wild animals and started to be transmitted to man accidentally in the form of an anthropozoonosis when man invaded wild ecotopes. Endemic Chagas disease became established as a zoonosis over the last 200-300 years through forest

José Rodrigues Coura

322

Epidemiology of Mortality Related to Chagas ’ Disease in Brazil, 1999–2007  

E-print Network

Background: Chagas ’ disease is an important neglected public health problem in many Latin American countries, but population-based epidemiological data are scarce. Here we present a nationwide analysis on Chagas-associated mortality, and risk factors for death from this disease. Methodology

Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-melo; Carlos Henrique Alencar; Alberto Novaes

323

Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Predicting Death in Chagas' Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Chagas' disease is an important health problem in Latin America, and cardiac involve- ment is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We developed a model to predict the risk of death in patients with Chagas' heart disease. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated 424 outpatients from a regional Brazilian cohort. The association of potential risk factors with death was tested by

Anis Rassi; William C. Little; Sérgio S. Xavier; Sérgio G. Rassi; Alexandre G. Rassi; Gustavo G. Rassi; Alejandro Hasslocher-Moreno; Andrea S. Sousa; Maurício I. Scanavacca

2006-01-01

324

The potential for emergence of Chagas disease in the United States  

E-print Network

Abstract. To determine the risk for Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in the United States, the characteristics that make the triatomine vector effective and the areas most at risk for transmission were delineated. In addition, the status of Chagas disease awareness among physicians in

Rebecca Click Lambert; Korine N. Kolivras; Lynn M. Resler; Carlyle C. Brewster; L. Paulson

325

A Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Cures Chagas' Disease in an Immunodeficient-Mouse Model of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, remains the leading cause of cardiopathy in Latin America with about 12 million people infected. Classic clinical manifestations derive from infection of muscle cells leading to progressive cardiomyopathy, while some patients develop megacolon or megaesophagus. A very aggressive clinical course including fulminant meningoencephalitis has been reported in patients who contract Chagas' disease

Patricia S. Doyle; Yuan M. Zhou; Juan C. Engel; James H. McKerrow

2007-01-01

326

Small fiber neuropathy in the chronic phase of Chagas disease: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the occurrence of small fiber neuropathy in a patient affected by Chagas disease in the indeterminate phase. After the exclusion of all the possible etiologies of small fiber neuropathy, the disorder was considered related to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Although a peripheral involvement has been described in Chagas disease, this is the first report of a selective involvement of small fibers. PMID:23475268

Nolano, Maria; Provitera, V; Manganelli, F; Pagano, A; Perretti, A; Santoro, L

2013-06-01

327

Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

2014-01-01

328

Acute chagas disease: new global challenges for an old neglected disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

Andrade, Daniela V; Gollob, Kenneth J; Dutra, Walderez O

2014-07-01

329

synthesis in the mushroom bodies upon robust and chronic  

E-print Network

using the KAEDE reporter is questionable for two reasons. It remains unknown whether KAEDE expression. In addition, the inhibition of KAEDE expression was monitored only in the cell bodies of the mushroom bodies

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

330

Bioavailability of selenium in mushrooms, Boletus edulis, to young women.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of selenium (Se) in mushrooms, Boletus edulis, to young Finnish women was studied by giving them 150 micrograms Se as mushrooms for 4 weeks. The indicators of body selenium status were plasma and erythrocyte Se levels and plasma and platelet glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity. The Se level in erythrocytes increased significantly (26%), while only slight enhancement were found in plasma Se and plasma or platelet GSH-Px activity. The results indicate that the metabolism of mushroom-Se is different from that of wheat-Se or sodium selenate. However, by the criteria of plasma Se level or plasma and platelet GSH-Px activity the bioavailability of mushroom-Se is reasonably low. PMID:3781756

Mutanen, M

1986-01-01

331

Understanding cultural significance, the edible mushrooms case  

PubMed Central

Background Cultural significance is a keystone in quantitative ethnobiology, which offers the possibility to make inferences about traditional nomenclature systems, use, appropriation and valuing of natural resources. In the present work, using as model the traditional mycological knowledge of Zapotecs from Oaxaca, Mexico, we analyze the cultural significance of wild edible resources. Methods In 2003 we applied 95 questionnaires to a random sample of informants. With this data we integrated the Edible Mushroom Cultural Significance Index. This index included eight variables: frequency of mention, perceived abundance, use frequency, taste, multifunctional food use, knowledge transmission, health and economy. Data were analyzed in an inductive perspective using ordination and grouping techniques to reveal the behavior of species in a cultural multivariate dimension. Results In each variable the species had different conducts. Cantharellus cibarius s.l. was the species with most frequency of mention. Pleurotus sp. had the highest perceived abundance. C. cibarius s.l. was the most frequently consumed species. Gomphus clavatus was the most palatable species and also ranked highest in the multifunctional food index. Cortinarius secc.Malacii sp. had the highest traditional importance. Only Tricholoma magnivelare was identified as a health enhancer. It also had the most economic importance. According to the compound index, C. cibarius s.l., the Amanita caesarea complex, Ramaria spp. and Neolentinus lepideus were the mushrooms with highest cultural significance. Multivariate analysis showed that interviewees identify three main groups of mushrooms: species with high traditional values, frequent consumption and known by the majority; species that are less known, infrequently consumed and without salient characteristics; and species with low traditional values, with high economic value and health enhancers. Conclusion The compound index divided the cultural significance into several cultural domains and showed the causes that underlie this phenomenon. This approach can be used in cross-cultural studies because it brings a list with the relative position of species among a cultural significance gradient. This list is suitable for comparisons and also it is flexible because cultural variables can be included or removed to adjust it to the nature of the different cultures or resources under study. PMID:17217539

Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Caballero, Javier; Estrada-Torres, Arturo; Cifuentes, Joaquín

2007-01-01

332

Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential. PMID:22164763

Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Ma?gorzata E; Miro?czuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

2011-01-01

333

Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

1997-01-01

334

Microbial community structure changes during oyster mushroom substrate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is a valuable food, cultivated worldwide on an industrial scale, still very little is known about the microbial dynamics\\u000a during oyster mushroom substrate preparation. Therefore, the characterization of the microbial dynamics by chemical and biological\\u000a tools was the objective of this study. During substrate preparation, enzymatic digestibility of the substrate improved by\\u000a 77%, whereas the

Balázs Vajna; Adrienn Nagy; Enik? Sajben; László Manczinger; Nóra Szijártó; Zsófia Kádár; Diána Bordás; Károly Márialigeti

2010-01-01

335

CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Pleurotus flabellatus) ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam M. Z., Rahman M. H. and Hafiz F. 2009. Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on Different Substrates. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):45-48 The study was conducted at the laboratory of Food Microbiology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, BCSIR, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205 during July 2000 to May 2001 to find suitable sawdust as substrate for growing Mushroom. Seven

M. Z. ISLAM; M. H. RAHMAN; F. HAFIZ

336

Structural and phase transitions of one and two polymer mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer mushroom here refers to a group of n homopolymer chains end-grafted at the same point on a flat, impenetrable and homogeneous substrate. Using lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations with the Kronecker ?-function interactions (instead of the commonly used nearest-neighbor interactions), we have studied the structures of one and two polymer mushrooms in an explicit solvent as a function of the polymer volume fraction, the solvent quality characterized by the Flory-Huggins ? parameter, and the distance between the two mushrooms. We have constructed phase diagrams of these systems showing the coil-globule transition (CGT) of one mushroom and how it is coupled with the fused-separated transition (FST) of two mushrooms. Since LSCF results are exact only in the limit of n->?, we also use the newly proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations^1 with the same Hamiltonian as in LSCF theory to examine how this limit is approached with increasing n. Direct comparisons between LSCF and FLMC results without any parameter-fitting quantify the fluctuation/correlation effects neglected in LSCF theory. We also find a second-order symmetric-asymmetric transition (SAT) for one-mushroom system in the globule state, and examine its coupling with CGT and FST. [1] Q. Wang, Soft Matter, 5, 4564 (2009); 6, 6206 (2010).

Yang, Delian; Wang

2012-02-01

337

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune  

SciTech Connect

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

2010-09-01

338

Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

2014-03-01

339

Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-07-01

340

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

341

[Knowledge of students of tourism and recreation Academy of Physical Education on wild mushrooms].  

PubMed

Prophylaxis of acute poisoning with mushrooms is justified because of the relatively high risk of death associated with these intoxications. Mushrooming in Poland has a long tradition and knowledge about mushrooms is usually passed on in families. In recent years the mushrooming becomes an organized form of recreation. Graduates of tourism and recreation should have a minimum of reliable knowledge about mushrooms, to ensure the safety of persons entrusted to their care. The knowledge of wild mushrooms among students of tourism and recreation was tested by means of questionnaire. Mushrooms gathered 108 out of 125 respondents. The primary source of knowledge about mushrooms for 84% of the mushrooms pickers were the parents. Up to 70% of respondents considered at least one of irrational methods useful to distinguish edible mushrooms from the poisonous. Thirteen percent of those polled believed that by simple means mushrooms may be deprived of their toxic properties. Knowledge of the only one deadly poisonous mushrooms growing in Poland was 53%. The tourism and recreation students must pass basic knowledge about mushrooms and identify reliable sources of knowledge in this field. PMID:22010432

Chwaluk, Pawe?; Parnicki, Florian

2011-01-01

342

Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traducción al español disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1 PMID:21935346

Levy, Michael Z.; Small, Dylan S.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B.

2011-01-01

343

Chagas’ disease: an update on immune mechanisms and therapeutic strategies  

PubMed Central

Abstract The final decade of the 20th century was marked by an alarming resurgence in infectious diseases caused by tropical parasites belonging to the kinetoplastid protozoan order. Among the pathogenic trypanosomatids, some species are of particular interest due to their medical importance. These species include the agent responsible for Chagas’ disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. Approximately 8 to 10 million people are infected in the Americas, and approximately 40 million are at risk. In the present review, we discuss in detail the immune mechanisms elicited during infection by T. cruzi and the effects of chemotherapy in controlling parasite proliferation and on the host immune system. PMID:20070438

Boscardin, Silvia Beatriz; Torrecilhas, Ana Claudia Troccoli; Manarin, Romina; Revelli, Silvia; Rey, Elena Gonzalez; Tonelli, Renata Rosito; Silber, Ariel Mariano

2010-01-01

344

[Congenital Chagas disease in Geneva: diagnostic and clinical aspects].  

PubMed

Chagas disease, a parasitic infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, recently emerged in Europe and in Switzerland. Mother-to-child infection represents a major mode of transmission in non endemic areas. In 2008, 305 Latin American pregnant women consulting at the Geneva University Hospitals were screened by serology. Overall prevalence was 2% and 8.8% in Bolivian women. All infected women were in the indeterminate form of the chronic phase. Two newborns were congenitally infected. Considering the potential for vertical transmission and the risk of long-term complications, screening programs for persons at risk need to be implemented. PMID:19947451

Martinez de Tejada, B; Jackson, Y; Paccolat, C; Irion, O

2009-10-21

345

Tropical diseases encountered in Canada: 1. Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease, or South American trypanosomiasis, is an endemic South American disease now being seen in Canada in both acute and chronic forms. It is characterized by an initial parasitemia that elicits a brisk immune response. Evidence is mounting that the debilitating chronic form, which is characterized by cardiac and visceral organ failure, results from antigenic cross-reactivity between the parasite and the human host, which generates an aberrant, destructive, cell-mediated immune response. Diagnosis, treatment and potential areas for investigation are discussed. PMID:6767543

Schipper, H.; McClarty, B. M.; McRuer, K. E.; Nash, R. A.; Penney, C. J.

1980-01-01

346

Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).  

PubMed

In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. PMID:15544548

Sliva, Daniel

2004-10-01

347

Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L.  

E-print Network

Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis Toulouse cedex 04, France Keywords: brain lesion, cognition, honeybee, hydroxyurea, mushroom bodies been associated with olfactory learning and memory. Here we used hydroxyurea (HU) to treat honeybee

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

348

Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.  

PubMed

Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-11-01

349

Hypoglycemia and Death in Mice Following Experimental Exposure to an Extract of Trogia venenata Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundClusters of sudden unexplained death (SUD) in Yunnan Province, China, have been linked to eating Trogia venenata mushrooms. We evaluated the toxic effect of this mushroom on mice.MethodsWe prepared extracts of fresh T. venenata and Laccaria vinaceoavellanea mushrooms collected from the environs of a village that had SUD. We randomly allocated mice into treatment groups and administered mushroom extracts at

GuoQing Shi; Jun He; Tao Shen; Robert E. Fontaine; Lin Yang; ZhongYu Zhou; Hong Gao; YanFeng Xu; Chuan Qin; ZhuLiang Yang; JiKai Liu; WenLi Huang; Guang Zeng

2012-01-01

350

Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects  

E-print Network

correlates of this morphology in the Scarabaeidae (scarab beetles). ``Gyrencephalic'' mushroom bodies smaller ``lissencephalic'' mushroom bodies are found in more specialist dung-feeding scarab beetles. Such changes are not unique to scarabs or herbivores, because the mushroom bodies of predatory beetles display

Farris, Sarah M.

351

Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümü?çü, Hasan Hüseyin; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazo?lu, Orhan Kür?at

2013-01-01

352

enok encodes a Drosophila putative histone acetyltransferase required for mushroom body neuroblast proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom bodies in the Drosophila brain are centers for olfactory learning and memory. We have previously shown that the mushroom bodies comprise three types of neurons with distinct axonal projections. These three types of neurons are generated sequentially from common neuroblasts [1]. We report here the identification of a gene that we have named enoki mushroom (enok), which when it

Ethan K. Scott; Tzumin Lee; Liqun Luo

2001-01-01

353

75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...remand in Gerber Food (Yunnan) Co...assessment rate for Gerber Food (Yunnan) Co...mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...2010. See Gerber Food (Yunnan) Co...Mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

2010-04-06

354

75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia for the period of review (POR), February...order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia with respect to these companies....

2010-06-03

355

Submerged Culture of Mushrooms in Bioreactors - Challenges, Current State-of-the-Art, and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Medicinal mushrooms have profound health-promoting benefits. Recently, a number of substances of mushroom origin have been isolated, identified and shown to have physi- ological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulating, cardiovascular, antihypercholes- terolemia, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Currently, commercial products from medicinal mushrooms are mostly obtained through the field-cultivation of the fruiting body. However, in this case

Ya-Jie Tang; Li-Wen Zhu; Hong-Mei Li; Dong-Sheng Li

2007-01-01

356

Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms. PMID:24294010

Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kübra; Karagöz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gümü?çü, Hasan Hüseyin; Ba?ak, Mustafa; Çetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazo?lu, Orhan Kür?at

2013-01-01

357

Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushroom on immune function of C57BL mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, no information is available on the effect of dietary intake of white mushrooms, which represent ...

358

A Multi-species Bait for Chagas Disease Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Triatomine bugs are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. These insects are known to aggregate inside shelters during daylight hours and it has been demonstrated that within shelters, the aggregation is induced by volatiles emitted from bug feces. These signals promote inter-species aggregation among most species studied, but the chemical composition is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, feces from larvae of the three species were obtained and volatile compounds were identified by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). We identified five compounds, all present in feces of all of the three species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma brasiliensis. These substances were tested for attractivity and ability to recruit insects into shelters. Behaviorally active doses of the five substances were obtained for all three triatomine species. The bugs were significantly attracted to shelters baited with blends of 160 ng or 1.6 µg of each substance. Conclusions/Significance Common compounds were found in the feces of vectors of Chagas disease that actively recruited insects into shelters, which suggests that this blend of compounds could be used for the development of baits for early detection of reinfestation with triatomine bugs. PMID:24587457

Mota, Theo; Vitta, Ana C. R.; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N.; Barezani, Carla P.; Zani, Carlos L.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Jeffares, Lynne; Bohman, Björn; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.

2014-01-01

359

Risedronate metal complexes potentially active against Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

In the search for new metal-based drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease, the most widespread Latin American parasitic disease, novel complexes of the bioactive ligand risedronate (Ris, (1-hydroxy-1-phosphono-2-pyridin-3-yl-ethyl)phosphonate), [MII(Ris)2]·4H2O, where M Cu, Co, Mn and Ni, and [NiII(Ris)2(H2O)2]·H2O were synthesized and characterized by using analytical measurements, thermogravimetric analyses, cyclic voltammetry and infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Crystal structures of [CuII(Ris)2]·4H2O and [NiII(Ris)2(H2O)2]·H2O were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The complexes, as well as the free ligand, were evaluated in vitro against epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the parasite T. cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. Results demonstrated that the coordination of risedronate to different metal ions improved the antiproliferative effect against Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibiting growth inhibition values against the intracellular amastigotes ranging the low micromolar levels. In addition, this strong activity could be related to high inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase enzyme. On the other hand, protein interaction studies showed that all the complexes strongly interact with albumin thus providing a suitable means of transporting them to tissues in vivo. PMID:20817265

Demoro, Bruno; Caruso, Francesco; Rossi, Miriam; Benítez, Diego; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Parajón-Costa, Beatriz; Castiglioni, Jorge; Galizzi, Melina; Docampo, Roberto; Otero, Lucía; Gambino, Dinorah

2010-01-01

360

Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from several ear mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five kinds of ear mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears. Methanolic extracts were prepared from these ear mushrooms, and their antioxidant properties were studied. For all methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms, the antioxidant activities in the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate (38.6 approximately 74.6%) at 1.0-5.0 mg/mL. Methanolic extracts from red, jin, and snow ears showed excellent antioxidant activities in the conjugated diene method at 5.0 mg/mL. At 5.0 mg/mL, reducing powers of methanolic extracts were in the descending order of snow > black approximately red approximately jin > silver ears. The scavenging effect of methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was excellent except for that from silver ears. Ear mushroom extracts were not good scavengers for hydroxyl free radicals but were good chelators for ferrous ions. Naturally occurring antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and total phenols, were found in the methanolic extracts. However, beta-carotene was not detected. Total antioxidant components were 15.69, 30.09, 27.83, 49.17, and 31.70 mg/g for black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears, respectively. PMID:11714344

Mau, J L; Chao, G R; Wu, K T

2001-11-01

361

Nucleotide sequencing and identification of some wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

2013-01-01

362

Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushrooms as mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

2013-01-01

363

Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. PMID:24054262

Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

2014-01-15

364

Optimization of ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were 90W microwave power, 50W ultrasonic power together with 40kHz ultrasonic frequency, solid/water ratio was 1:20 (W/V) and the extracting time was 19min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the yield and purity of polysaccharides were 3.25% and 73.16%, respectively, which are above that of traditional hot water extraction and close to the predicted value (3.07% and 72.54%, respectively). These results confirmed that ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides had great potential and efficiency compared with traditional hot water extraction. At the same time, the anti-tumor activities of the polysaccharides from I. obliquus with UMAE were evaluated. The results suggested that polysaccharides from I. obliquus exhibited obvious anti-tumor activities. PMID:20149817

Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Sheng-quan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jian

2010-05-01

365

Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO) are known to possess various pharmacological properties including antitumor activity. However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) in A549 cells. These results suggested that PFIO could suppress the invasion and migration of human lung carcinoma by reducing the expression levels and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-?B signaling pathways. PMID:25270791

Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Jeong Eun; Ha, Suk Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

2014-12-01

366

Effect of environmental factors on the yield of selected mushroom species growing in two different agro ecological zones of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are a rich source of protein and vitamins as human food. In view of the growing importance of mushroom in Pakistan, a research study was initiated with the objective to examine the suitability of Oyster mushroom cultivation and to compare the growth and yield of Oyster mushroom in two different areas (Peshawar and Swat, North-West region of Pakistan) with

Hassan Sher; Mohammad Al-Yemeni; Ali H. A. Bahkali; Hazrat Sher

2010-01-01

367

White Button Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Exhibits Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Properties and Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth in Athymic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

White button mushrooms are a widely consumed food containing phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of white button mushroom extract and its major component, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and mushroom extract in vivo. In all cell lines tested, mushroom inhibited cell proliferation in a

Lynn S. Adams; Shiuan Chen; Sheryl Phung; Xiwei Wu; Lui Ki

2008-01-01

368

[Emergent drugs (III): hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms].  

PubMed

An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses. Several deaths from its consumption have been detected. The consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms appears in cyclic form, although there has been increase in their online offer. They are consumed in search of their hallucinogenic effects, above all those belonging to the family of psilocybes, which contain tryptamines with a hallucinogenic effect similar to LSD. Peyote (Lophophora psilocybes), a cactus rich in mescaline (trimetoxifeniletilamina), produces hallucinations of the five senses, and forms part of the religious culture of the North American Indians. Daturas, which are ubiquitous, produce anticholinergic symptoms and effects on the central nervous system (delirium, hallucinations, etc.), due to their high atropine and scopolamine content. Other substances used for their hallucinogenic effects include the drink known as ayahuasca, and seeds for preparing infusions like Ololiuqui, Morning Glory (Ipomoea violacea), Hawaian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) and Iboga Rootbark (Tabernanthe iboga). PMID:24406363

Burillo-Putze, G; López Briz, E; Climent Díaz, B; Munné Mas, P; Nogue Xarau, S; Pinillos, M A; Hoffman, R S

2013-01-01

369

Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine. PMID:25496192

Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

2015-05-01

370

Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological NicheModeling  

E-print Network

Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission...

Gurgel-Gonç alves, Rodrigo; Galvã o, Cleber; Costa, Jane; Peterson, A. Townsend

2011-01-01

371

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-01-01

372

Increased plasma creatine kinase activities triggered by edible wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

The consumption of wild mushrooms is mostly based on tradition and not scientific evidence. Recently the widely consumed Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis in humans. In this study, 42 mice and 4 humans consumed T. flavovirens mixed with regular food items. In mice, the plasma creatine kinase activity increased at 9 g kg(-1)day(-1). However, the same was observed with the well-known and commercially important Boletus edulis. The observed effect is probably not species-specific but represents an unspecific response and requires individual sensitivity and a great amount of ingested mushroom to manifest itself. A screening program of wild mushrooms is recommended to clarify how widespread this effect is. PMID:15582205

Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Kirsi, Markku

2005-01-01

373

Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field  

SciTech Connect

There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

1998-12-01

374

[Selenium in selected species of mushrooms from Poland].  

PubMed

The selenium was quantified in the caps, stalks or a whole fruiting bodies of king bolete (Boletus edulis), brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) and poison pax (Paxillus involutus) collected at the various regions of Poland in 1998-2001. King bolete, parasol mushroom and fly agaric were a much more abundant in selenium than brown birch scaber stalk or poison pax. Some differences were observed between the selenium content of the particular species collected at different sites as well as depending on anatomical part of the fruiting body. PMID:14755851

Falandysz, Jerzy

2003-01-01

375

Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.  

PubMed

In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

2013-01-01

376

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are abundant sources of a wide range of useful natural products. Nowadays, commercial mushroom products are from mushrooms collected from field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on cost compared with existing technology. Increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this new technology will certainly facilitate expansion. This article outlines the major valuable metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation and advances in submerged culture of mushrooms, taking Ganoderma lucidum, a popular folk and an oriental medicine used to treat many diseases, as a typical example. Our latest data on mushroom cultivation for efficient production of bioactive ganoderic acids and Ganoderma polysaccharides in bioreactors are presented. PMID:15217103

Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2004-01-01

377

Chagas disease: a proposal for testing policy for solid-organ transplant in the United States.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease is difficult to detect because of the asymptomatic pathogenesis after infection. Chagas disease is endemic throughout much of Mexico, Central America, and South America, but human migration patterns are bringing the pathogen to the United States. The disease currently affects 16 to 18 million people with approximately 50 000 deaths annually in these countries. In the United States, national screening of the blood supply was instituted in early 2007, and more than 1000 donors with T cruzi infection have been identified within the past 3 years of testing. It was observed that out of the 58 organ procurement organizations in the United States, only 4 required mandatory testing of every donor for Chagas disease. It was estimated that as of 2009, approximately 409 000 residents are living with Chagas disease, and in a 22-year span, approximately 300 patients may have contracted Chagas disease through transplant. Proposed solutions to the current testing method include automatic testing based on the medical social history questionnaire, testing of all recipients for Chagas disease, testing all persons of Latin descent, or testing of all organ donors. PMID:23996948

Wallace, James A; Miller, Linda; Beavis, Andrew; Baptista, Carlos A C

2013-09-01

378

Low Prevalence of Chagas Parasite Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Colony in Louisiana  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, an important cause of heart disease in Latin America, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which typically is transmitted to humans by triatomine insects. Although autochthonous transmission of the Chagas parasite to humans is rare in the United States, triatomines are common, and more than 20 species of mammals are infected with the Chagas parasite in the southern United States. Chagas disease has also been detected in colonies of nonhuman primates (NHP) in Georgia and Texas, and heart abnormalities consistent with Chagas disease have occurred at our NHP center in Louisiana. To determine the level of T. cruzi infection, we serologically tested 2157 of the approximately 4200 NHP at the center; 34 of 2157 primates (1.6%) tested positive. Presence of the T. cruzi parasite was confirmed by hemoculture in 4 NHP and PCR of the cultured parasites. These results strongly suggest local transmission of T. cruzi, because most of the infected NHP were born and raised at this site. All 3 species of NHP tested yielded infected animals, with significantly higher infection prevalence in pig-tailed macaques, suggesting possible exploration of this species as a model organism. The local T. cruzi strain isolated during this study would enhance such investigations. The NHP at this center are bred for use in scientific research, and the effects of the Chagas parasite on infected primates could confuse the interpretation of other studies. PMID:23043809

Dorn, Patricia L; Daigle, Megan E; Combe, Crescent L; Tate, Ashley H; Stevens, Lori; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M

2012-01-01

379

Low levels of vasoactive intestinal peptide are associated with Chagas disease cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

The interconnection between immune and neuroendocrine systems influences regulation of inflammatory responses. The possible relevance that this integrative response may have during the course of Chagas disease remains poorly characterized. In this context, our study was designed to determine the expression of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a neuropeptide with anti-inflammatory properties, in blood from the indeterminate and cardiac polarized forms of Chagas disease. Moreover, we determined whether the differential expression of VIP is associated with the development of cardiomyopathy in individuals infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Finally, we analyzed gene polymorphisms of VIP receptors, VPAC1 and VPAC2, and performed correlation analysis of these polymorphisms with the different clinical forms of Chagas disease. Our results demonstrated that low plasma levels of VIP were associated with the cardiac morbidity in Chagas disease. Accordingly, correlation analysis showed that low plasma levels of VIP were associated with worse cardiac function, as determined by left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular diastolic diameter values. Polymorphism analysis showed a significant association between VPAC1 and the indeterminate form of Chagas disease development. Our data indicate that VIP expression and its receptors' polymorphism may be important in determining susceptibility to progression from mild to severe forms of Chagas disease. PMID:23800435

Corrêa, Marielle Valério; da Costa Rocha, Manoel Otávio; de Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; do Carmo Pereira Nunes, Maria; Gollob, Kenneth J; Dutra, Walderez O; da Silva Menezes, Cristiane Alves

2013-10-01

380

Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing. PMID:23557365

Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

2013-01-01

381

Modeling the Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent model for Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation is extended for a three-dimensional multi-agent-based model. The computational model includes six different types of autonomous agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor- ?, Trypanosoma cruzi, and bone marrow stem cell. Only fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move randomly through the empty spaces using the three-dimensional Moore neighborhood. Bone marrow stem cells can promote apoptosis in inflammatory cells, fibrosis regression and can differentiate in cardiomyocyte. T. cruzi can increase the number of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells and tumor necrosis factor- ? can increase the quantity of fibrosis. Our results were compared with experimental data giving a fairly fit and they suggest that the inflammatory cells are important for the development of fibrosis.

Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

2009-04-01

382

Agrochemicals against Malaria, Sleeping Sickness, Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

2012-01-01

383

SQ109, a New Drug Lead for Chagas Disease.  

PubMed

We tested the antituberculosis drug SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, for its in vitro activity against the trypanosomatid parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. SQ109 was found to be a potent inhibitor of the trypomastigote form of the parasite, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for cell killing of 50 ± 8 nM, but it had little effect (50% effective concentration [EC50], ?80 ?M) in a red blood cell hemolysis assay. It also inhibited extracellular epimastigotes (IC50, 4.6 ± 1 ?M) and the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes (IC50, ?0.5 to 1 ?M), with a selectivity index of ?10 to 20. SQ109 caused major ultrastructural changes in all three life cycle forms, as observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It rapidly collapsed the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in succinate-energized mitochondria, acting in the same manner as the uncoupler FCCP [carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone], and it caused the alkalinization of internal acidic compartments, effects that are likely to make major contributions to its mechanism of action. The compound also had activity against squalene synthase, binding to its active site; it inhibited sterol side-chain reduction and, in the amastigote assay, acted synergistically with the antifungal drug posaconazole, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.48, but these effects are unlikely to account for the rapid effects seen on cell morphology and cell killing. SQ109 thus most likely acts, at least in part, by collapsing ??/?pH, one of the major mechanisms demonstrated previously for its action against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Overall, the results suggest that SQ109, which is currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant tuberculosis, may also have potential as a drug lead against Chagas disease. PMID:25583723

Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Li, Kai; Lameira, Lilianne; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; Huang, Guozhong; Galizzi, Melina; Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Vanessa; Benaim, Gustavo; Guo, Rey-Ting; Urbina, Julio A; Docampo, Roberto; de Souza, Wanderley; Oldfield, Eric

2015-04-01

384

Chagas' disease in the Amazon basin: V. Periurban palms as habitats of Rhodnius robustus and Rhodnius pictipes--triatomine vectors of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi infected Rhodnius robustus and/or Rhodnius pictipes were commonly found, in large numbers, in the Brazilian Amazonian palms Maximiliana regia ("inajá"), Acrocomia sclerocarpa ("mucajá") and Orbignya speciosa ("babaçu"). The common opossum, Didelphis marsupialis, was the animal most frequently associated with triatomine infested palms. R. pictipes, frequently light-attracted into houses from palm trees, was the probable source of an acute case of Chagas' disease in the vicinity of Belém. It is considered that triatomine infested palms are likely to cause some cases of acute Chagas' disease in the States of Amazonas and Rondônia. Possible control methods are suggested. PMID:6443629

Miles, M A; Arias, J R; de Souza, A A

1983-01-01

385

Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta

Fatih Kalyoncu; Mustafa Oskay; Hüsniye Kayalar

2010-01-01

386

Genome Sequence of Mushroom Soft-Rot Pathogen Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum.  

PubMed

Janthinobacterium agaricidamnosum causes soft-rot disease of the cultured button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and is thus responsible for agricultural losses. Here, we present the genome sequence of J. agaricidamnosum DSM 9628. The 5.9-Mb genome harbors several secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters, which renders this neglected bacterium a promising source for genome mining approaches. PMID:25883287

Graupner, Katharina; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

2015-01-01

387

Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Myophage Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Over the past two decades, strains resistant to antibiotics have begun to emerge, highlighting the need for alternative treatment strategies such as bacteriophage therapy. Here, we present the complete genome of Mushroom, an S. Typhimurium myophage.

Tolen, Tamra N.; Xie, Yicheng; Hernandez, Adriana C.

2015-01-01

388

Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

389

Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom on Different Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on the cultivation of oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (local & exotic strains) and P. sajarcaju were conducted to find out the growth and yield performance on different substrates. Results regarding the time required for completion of spawn running, formation of pin-heads and maturation of fruiting bodies on different substrates showed that in all the three cases, they appeared earlier

MUHAMMAD IQBAL; C. H. ABDUL RAUF; M. IQBAL SHEIKH

390

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

391

Original Contribution ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF AMANITA PHALLOIDES MUSHROOM TOXINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Alpha amanitin and phalloidin are powerful hepatotoxins that belong to the main classes of toxins namely, amatoxins and phallotoxins, isolated from the deadly poisonous mushroom Amanita phalloides. It is well known that disruptions of antioxidant enzyme defense that include superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase lead to generation of reactive oxygen species, followed by increase in the products of

A. Zheleva; V. Gadjeva; S. Popova

2004-01-01

392

Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical approaches to discover anticancer drugs and cancer treatments have made limited progress in the past several decades in finding a cure for cancer. The expanded knowledge of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and metastasis, together with the inherently vast structural diversity of natural compounds found in mushrooms, provided unique opportunities for discovering new drugs that rationally target the abnormal

Ben-Zion Zaidman; Majed Yassin; Jamal Mahajna; Solomon P. Wasser

2005-01-01

393

The Use of Mushroom Glucans and Proteoglycans in Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC)

Parris M. Kidd

394

Utilization of lignocellulosic waste by the edible mushroom, Pleurotus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lignocellulosic waste represents huge amounts of unutilized renewable resource. The use of the polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic complex is limited due to their high lignin content. White rot fungi are capable of selectively degrading lignin, thereby upgrading it. The focus of this article is on the potential utilization of edible mushrooms of the genus Pleurotus, via solid state fermentation, using

Yitzhak Hadar; Zohar Kerem; Barbara Gorodecki; Orly Ardon

1992-01-01

395

Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).  

PubMed

Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p?mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p?mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p?mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms. PMID:23175781

Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

2012-12-01

396

Ten-Year Incidence of Chagas Cardiomyopathy Among Asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–Seropositive Former Blood Donors  

PubMed Central

Background Very few studies have measured disease penetrance and prognostic factors of Chagas cardiomyopathy among asymptomatic Trypanosoma cruzi–infected persons. Methods and Results We performed a retrospective cohort study among initially healthy blood donors with an index T cruzi–seropositive donation and age-, sex-, and period-matched seronegatives in 1996 to 2002 in the Brazilian cities of São Paulo and Montes Claros. In 2008 to 2010, all subjects underwent medical history, physical examination, ECGs, and echocardiograms. ECG and echocardiogram results were classified by blinded core laboratories, and records with abnormal results were reviewed by a blinded panel of 3 cardiologists who adjudicated the outcome of Chagas cardiomyopathy. Associations with Chagas cardiomyopathy were tested with multivariate logistic regression. Mean follow-up time between index donation and outcome assessment was 10.5 years for the seropositives and 11.1 years for the seronegatives. Among 499 T cruzi seropositives, 120 (24%) had definite Chagas cardiomyopathy, and among 488 T cruzi seronegatives, 24 (5%) had cardiomyopathy, for an incidence difference of 1.85 per 100 person-years attributable to T cruzi infection. Of the 120 seropositives classified as having Chagas cardiomyopathy, only 31 (26%) presented with ejection fraction <50%, and only 11 (9%) were classified as New York Heart Association class II or higher. Chagas cardiomyopathy was associated (P<0.01) with male sex, a history of abnormal ECG, and the presence of an S3 heart sound. Conclusions There is a substantial annual incidence of Chagas cardiomyopathy among initially asymptomatic T cruzi–seropositive blood donors, although disease was mild at diagnosis. PMID:23393012

Sabino, Ester C.; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Salemi, Vera M.C.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudio; Antunes, Andre P.; Menezes, Marcia M.; Ianni, Barbara M.; Nastari, Luciano; Fernandes, Fabio; Patavino, Giuseppina M.; Sachdev, Vandana; Capuani, Ligia; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, David; Kavounis, Katherine; Goncalez, Thelma T.; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Edward L.

2013-01-01

397

Wild mushroom extracts as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition-almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID:25438017

Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

2014-01-01

398

Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID:25438017

Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

2014-01-01

399

[Frontiers in Bioscience 8, e315-322, May 1,2003] THE SIGNIFICANCE OF AUTOIMMUNITY IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF CHAGAS HEART DISEASE  

E-print Network

IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF CHAGAS HEART DISEASE Juan S. Leon and David M. Engman Departments of Microbiology. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. Chagas heart disease is caused by persistent T. cruzi and T. cruzi-specific immunity 4. Chagas heart disease is caused by autoimmunity 5. Potential mechanisms of T. cruzi

Engman, David M.

400

( IRD / S. Herder) Ferme d'levage de zbus en Thalande. Hormis la maladie du sommeil en Afrique et la maladie de Chagas en Amrique latine, les  

E-print Network

et la maladie de Chagas en Amérique latine, les trypanosomoses sont des maladies parasitaires qui. cruzi qui entraîne la maladie de Chagas en Amérique latine. Hormis ces trois parasites, les trypanosomes maladie du sommeil et la maladie de Chagas, sont endé- miques en Afrique et en Amérique latine. Plusieurs

401

Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.  

PubMed

The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. PMID:25124478

Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

2014-09-01

402

Identificac~ao da Doenca de Chagas Baseada em Analise de Sinais de Variabilidade da Frequ^encia Cardiaca  

E-print Network

Identifica¸c~ao da Doen¸ca de Chagas Baseada em An´alise de Sinais de Variabilidade da Frequ¸c~ao A doen¸ca de Chagas afeta severamente a funcionalidade do sistema nervoso. A an´alise de sinais da

Carvalho, João Luiz

403

Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

2014-01-01

404

Further comments on oral transmission of Chagas' disease in Brazil: Epidemiology, geographical distribution and viability of the infective parasite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, Brazilian government received the international certificate of interruption of the vectorial transmission of Chagas' disease. However, outbreaks reported in Brazilian Amazon rainforest bear a regular occurrence and represents a relevant regional epidemiological gauge. The wild life cycle of the Chagas' disease transmission (i.e., triatomine-marsupial cycle) is present outside the previously reported endemic belt, ubiquitously, as infective triatomines can

Paulo R. Benchimol-Barbosa

2010-01-01

405

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

406

[Rhabdomyolysis as an unspecyfic symptom of mushroom poisoning--a case report].  

PubMed

Since 2001 a number of cases of mushroom poisoning with concomitant rhabdomyolysis have been described. Among the edible mushrooms growing in Europe, these reports concerned only Tricholoma equestre. The results of animal studies suggest that rhabdomyolysis could be a consequence of consumption of other edible fungi, and its occurrence depends on the amount of ingested mushrooms and individual sensitivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of rhabdomyolysis associated with the consumption of edible mushrooms from Leccinum and Boletus species. A 57-years old man was admitted to the hospital due to severe pain and weakness of thigh muscles with a high serum creatine kinase activity -3811 U/L. Within two days before hospitalization he consumed repeatedly large quantities of stewed Leccinum and Boletus mushrooms. Clinical signs of toxicity and biochemical changes subsided after several days of hospitalization. Rhabdomyolysis after ingestion of a large amount of mushrooms can be an unspecific symptom, unrelated to fungi species. PMID:24466721

Chwaluk, Pawe?

2013-01-01

407

[The composition of volatile components of cepe (Boletus edulis) and oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus)].  

PubMed

The composition of aroma compounds in cooked and canned cepe (Boletus edulis) and in cooked oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) is studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is found that unsaturated alcohols and ketones containing eight atoms of carbon determine the aroma of raw mushrooms and take part in the formation of the aroma of cooked mushrooms as well. The content of these compounds was the highest in canned cepes. In oyster mushrooms, the concentration of these alcohols and ketones was lower in comparison with cepes. The content of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes was much higher in oyster mushrooms. Volatile aliphatic and heterocyclic Maillard reaction products and isomeric octenols and octenones formed the aroma of cooked and canned mushrooms. PMID:19382709

Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

2009-01-01

408

Inhibiting Effect of Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Mushroom Cultivation on Bacterial Quorum Sensing-Regulated Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. Methods: The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation.

Hu Zhu; Shou-xian Wang; Shuai-shuai Zhang; Chun-xu Cao

2011-01-01

409

Insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity of Agaricus campestris (mushroom)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agaricus campestris (mushroom) has been documented as a traditional treatment for diabetes. Here the administration of mushroom in the diet (62·5 g\\/kg) and drinking water (2·5 g\\/l) countered the hyperglycaemia of streptozotocin- diabetic mice. An aqueous extract of mushroom (1 mg\\/ ml) stimulated 2-deoxyglucose transport (2·0-fold), glucose oxidation (1·5-fold) and incorporation of glucose into glycogen (1·8-fold) in mouse abdominal muscle.

A M Gray; P R Flatt

1998-01-01

410

Indian Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents  

PubMed Central

Medicinal mushrooms occurring in South India namely Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus pulmonaris possessed profound antioxidant and antitumor activities. This indicated that these mushrooms would be valuable sources of antioxidant and antitumor compounds. Investigations also revealed that they had significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Thus, Indian medicinal mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, intensive and extensive investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic use. PMID:18398492

A. Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil; K. Janardhanan, Kainoor

2007-01-01

411

Phenolic compound concentration and antioxidant activities of edible and medicinal mushrooms from Korea.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the content of phenolic compounds and the antioxidative activity of five edible and five medicinal mushrooms commonly cultivated in Korea. Phenolic compounds were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity. A total of 28 phenolic compounds were detected in the mushrooms studied. The average total concentration of phenolic compounds was 326 microg/g, the average being of 174 microg/g in edible mushrooms and 477 microg/g in medicinal mushrooms. The average total flavonoids concentration was 49 microg/g, with averages of 22 and 76 microg/g in edible and medicinal mushrooms, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged between 15 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 70% (Ganoderma lucidum) when reaction time was for 1 min. When reaction time was 30 min, the values ranged between 5 (Pleurotus eryngii) and 78% (Agaricus bisporus). The SOD activity averaged 28% among the 10 mushroom species, averages for edible and medicinal mushrooms being comparable. DPPH activities was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total content of phenolic compounds in edible mushrooms, while in medicinal mushrooms there was a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between SOD activity and total concentration of phenolic compounds. Numerous significant positive correlations were observed between phenolic compounds detected and antioxidative potential. PMID:18616260

Kim, Min-Young; Seguin, Philippe; Ahn, Joung-Kuk; Kim, Jong-Jin; Chun, Se-Chul; Kim, Eun-Hye; Seo, Su-Hyun; Kang, Eun-Young; Kim, Sun-Lim; Park, Yool-Jin; Ro, Hee-Myong; Chung, Ill-Min

2008-08-27

412

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important “Big Red Mushroom” from Southern China  

PubMed Central

Background In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called “Dahongjun” or “Big Red Mushroom” by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. Conclusion and Significance The ectomycorrhizal mushroom “Dahongjun” from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately. PMID:20502696

Li, Mochan; Liang, Junfeng; Li, Yanchun; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; James, Timothy Y.; Xu, Jianping

2010-01-01

413

Delignification of Wheat Straw by Pleurotus spp. under Mushroom-Growing Conditions †  

PubMed Central

Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. PMID:16347363

Tsang, Linda J.; Reid, Ian D.; Coxworth, Ewen C.

1987-01-01

414

Production of edible mushrooms in forests: trends in development of a mycosilviculture.  

PubMed

Developing the production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushrooms in forest has become a challenge. Only a few ECM species are currently cultivable. Controlled mycorrhization practices offer promising advance to produce currently uncultivable ECM mushrooms. The persistence of the production of edible species, either cultivated or wild, depends on both the tree and the ecological environment (fungal communities, climate, soil, tree development). Developing adapted forest management practices appears to be means to improve production of edible ECM mushrooms. This review summarises current knowledge on the development of a science-based mycosilviculture for the production of edible ECM mushrooms. PMID:21132290

Savoie, Jean-Michel; Largeteau, Michèle L

2011-02-01

415

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian [Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Popescu, Ion V. [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientist, Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Gabriela [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnologies, Environmental Engineering Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania)

2011-10-03

416

Acute Chagas Disease Induces Cerebral Microvasculopathy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyopathy is the main clinical form of Chagas disease (CD); however, cerebral manifestations, such as meningoencephalitis, ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment, can also occur. The aim of the present study was to investigate functional microvascular alterations and oxidative stress in the brain of mice in acute CD. Acute CD was induced in Swiss Webster mice (SWM) with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Cerebral functional capillary density (the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries), leukocyte rolling and adhesion and the microvascular endothelial-dependent response were analyzed over a period of fifteen days using intravital video-microscopy. We also evaluated cerebral oxidative stress with the thiobarbituric acid reactive species TBARS method. Compared with the non-infected group, acute CD significantly induced cerebral functional microvascular alterations, including (i) functional capillary rarefaction, (ii) increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion, (iii) the formation of microvascular platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and (iv) alteration of the endothelial response to acetylcholine. Moreover, cerebral oxidative stress increased in infected animals. We concluded that acute CD in mice induced cerebral microvasculopathy, characterized by a reduced incidence of perfused capillaries, a high number of microvascular platelet-leukocyte aggregates, a marked increase in leukocyte-endothelium interactions and brain arteriolar endothelial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress. These results suggest the involvement of cerebral microcirculation alterations in the neurological manifestations of CD. PMID:25010691

Nisimura, Lindice Mitie; Estato, Vanessa; de Souza, Elen Mello; Reis, Patricia A.; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro

2014-01-01

417

Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

2014-08-22

418

Advances and challenges towards a vaccine against Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is major public health problem, affecting nearly 10 million people, characterized by cardiac alterations leading to congestive heart failure and death of 20-40% of the patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite responsible for the disease. A vaccine would be key to improve disease control and we review here the recent advances and challenges of a T. cruzi vaccine. There is a growing consensus that a protective immune response requires the activation of a Th1 immune profile, with the stimulation of CD8+ T cells. Several vacines types, including recombinant proteins, DNA and viral vectors, as well as heterologous prime-boost combinations, have been found immunogenic and protective in mouse models, providing proof-of-concept data on the feasibility of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine to control a T. cruzi infection. However, several challenges such as better end-points, safety issues and trial design need to be addressed for further vaccine development to proceed. PMID:22048121

Quijano-Hernandez, Israel

2011-01-01

419

A Model for Chagas Disease with Oral and Congenital Transmission  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new mathematical model for the domestic transmission of Chagas disease, a parasitic disease affecting humans and other mammals throughout Central and South America. The model takes into account congenital transmission in both humans and domestic mammals as well as oral transmission in domestic mammals. The model has time-dependent coefficients to account for seasonality and consists of four nonlinear differential equations, one of which has a delay, for the populations of vectors, infected vectors, infected humans, and infected mammals in the domestic setting. Computer simulations show that congenital transmission has a modest effect on infection while oral transmission in domestic mammals substantially contributes to the spread of the disease. In particular, oral transmission provides an alternative to vector biting as an infection route for the domestic mammals, who are key to the infection cycle. This may lead to high infection rates in domestic mammals even when the vectors have a low preference for biting them, and ultimately results in high infection levels in humans. PMID:23840647

Coffield, Daniel J.; Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Shillor, Meir; Mema, Ensela; Pell, Bruce; Pruzinsky, Amanda; Zetye, Alexandra

2013-01-01

420

[Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

2013-09-01

421

Chagas disease: don't forget it in Latin American patients with heart block!  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and mostly affects poor rural populations of central and south America. It is mainly acquired by bugs (triatoma) but also by ingestion of the parasite (fresh fruit juices) or by foetal-maternal blood passing. Despite an important decrease in transmission during the last decades in several countries, millions of patients are still chronically infected and most of them are asymptomatic. In 2012-2013, two cases were admitted in our cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) with heart block due to Chagas cardiomyopathy. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography and positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi. This report underlines that in cases of heart failure and conduction abnormalities of unclear aetiology, Chagas disease should be taken into consideration, even in patients originating from non-endemic countries. PMID:24783476

Bimbi, Baby Jean-Marc Bantu; Unger, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc; Silance, Paul-Gaël; Van Laethem, Yves

2014-04-01

422

Genetic transformation of a Corynebacterial symbiont from the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans  

PubMed Central

Insect-borne diseases have experienced a troubling resurgence in recent years. Emergence of resistance to pesticides greatly hampers control efforts. Paratransgenesis, or the genetic transformation of bacterial symbionts of disease vectors, is an alternative to traditional approaches. Previously, we developed paratransgenic lines of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease in Central America. Here, we report identification of a Corynebacterial species as a symbiont of Triatoma infestans, a leading vector of Chagas disease in South America. We have modified this bacterium to produce an immunologically active single chain antibody fragment, termed rDB3. This study establishes the basis for generating paratransgenic T. infestans as a strategy for control of Chagas disease. PMID:18331732

Durvasula, Ravi V.; Sundaram, Ranjini K.; Kirsch, Philipp; Hurwitz, Ivy; Crawford, Carl V.; Dotson, Ellen; Beard, Charles B.

2009-01-01

423

Field evaluation of a diagnostic protocol for Chagas' disease and rangeliosis.  

PubMed

The present paper evaluates the protocol for the diagnosis of Chagas' diseases and rangeliosis that is suitable for use in remote and scarcely populated rural areas. Beginning with a blood sample taken by venipuncture in the rural dispensary from 350 inhabitants of Caserío La Sierra, Cojedes State, Venezuela, samples were analyzed at a laboratory located at a distance of 150 Km. Each blood sample was analyzed for blood and clot culture, artificial xenodiagnosis, inoculation into mice, complement fixation reaction (CFR), and indirect fluorescent antibodies test (IFA). Nine isolates of trypanosomes were obtained and identified as Trypanosoma rangeli, 29.4% of the blood samples showed seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi, 7.1% of total of persons between 6 and 18 years were found infected with T. rangeli, suggesting active transmission of this trypanosome in an endemic area for Chagas' disease. Results indicate that this protocol of study is reliable, economical and sufficiently versatile to study both rangeliosis and Chagas' disease. PMID:9460249

Araque, W; Plasencia, E; Cortés, C; Contreras, V

1996-01-01

424

Silver content of wild-grown mushrooms from northern Poland.  

PubMed

Wild-grown and mostly edible species of higher mushrooms collected in 1989-1992 from the districts of Gda?sk, Elblag and Pi?a (northern part of Poland) have been investigated with regard to their silver content. In total, 527 samples including 25 mushroom species of six families (Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Coprinaceae and Russulaceae) were examined. Among the fungi examined only Agaricus campestris and A. augustus were heavy bioaccumulating species and showed the highest concentrations of 35 mg Ag/kg dry weight (1.1-150) and 2.0-6.9 mg/kg, respectively. Silver concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/kg dry weight were noted in Boletus aestivalis, Lepista nuda, L. personata, and in some specimens of B. edulis, Leccinum scrabum, L. vulpinum, Cantharellus cibarius and Coprinus comatus. PMID:7975911

Falandysz, J; Bona, H; Danisiewicz, D

1994-09-01

425

Ingestive and inhalative allergy to the mushroom Boletus edulis.  

PubMed

This is the first report on inhalative and ingestive allergy to the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (Be) (English, edible boletus; German, Steinpilz; French, bolet; Italian, porcino or boleto) belonging to the class Basidiomycetes. Four cases observed in our allergy unit are presented, showing different clinical manifestations of this rare allergy: as an occupational problem or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions after eating Be. In all cases, skin prick-to-prick tests with raw Be were strongly positive: in three cases, specific IgE against Be could be found. The symptoms were reproducible after an inhalation challenge test. It is noteworthy that not only can Basidiomycetes cause airborne allergy but also that edible mushrooms from this class can cause inhalative and intestinal allergy. The two patients with strong anaphylactic reactions demonstrate that Be may have great allergenic potential. PMID:9265990

Torricelli, R; Johansson, S G; Wüthrich, B

1997-07-01

426

Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.  

PubMed

A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:22044136

Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

2012-05-01

427

Degradation of soil humus by the fairy ring mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Except when cultures were well aerated by shaking,Marasmius oreades (Bolt.) Fr., the fairy ring mushroom, was able to utilize, in pure culture studies, fractions of humus from sources as divergent\\u000a as the A horizon of a chernozemic soil and the Bh horizon of a Podzol. The importance of this ability to soil infestation\\u000a was discussed and it was suggested that

S. P. Mathur

1970-01-01

428

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

429

Oscillating mushrooms: adiabatic theory for a non-ergodic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can elliptic islands contribute to sustained energy growth as parameters of a Hamiltonian system slowly vary with time? In this paper we show that a mushroom billiard with a periodically oscillating boundary accelerates the particle inside it exponentially fast. We provide an estimate for the rate of acceleration. Our numerical experiments corroborate the theory. We suggest that a similar mechanism applies to general systems with mixed phase space.

Gelfreich, V.; Rom-Kedar, V.; Turaev, D.

2014-10-01

430

Cultivation of oyster mushrooms ( Pleurotus spp.) on various lignocellulosic wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of speciality mushrooms on lignocellulosic wastes represents one of the most economically and cost-effective organic recycling processes. Three species of Pleurotus, namely P. columbinus, P. sajor-caju and P. ostreatus were experimentally evaluated on untreated organic wastes including chopped office papers, cardboard, sawdust and plant fibres. Production studies were carried out in polyethylene bags of about 1?kg wet weight with

Q. A. Mandeel; A. A. Al-Laith; S. A. Mohamed

2005-01-01

431

Evaluation of Lignocellulosic Wastes for Production of Edible Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during\\u000a solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55–65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%)\\u000a for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase,

P. Rani; N. Kalyani; K. Prathiba

2008-01-01

432

Production of Mushrooms Using AgroIndustrial Residues as Substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom cultivation as a prominent biotechnological process for the valorization of agro-industrial residues generated as\\u000a a result of agro-forestry and agro-industrial production. A huge amount of lignocellulosic agricultural crop residues and\\u000a agro-industrial by-products are annually generated, rich in organiccompounds that are worthy of being recovered and transformed.\\u000a A number of these residues have been employed as feedstocks in solid state

Antonios N. Philippoussis

433

Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer) was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw\\/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was

Ahmad Norouzi; Gholamali Peyvast; Jamalali Olfati

434

Microwave-assisted air dehydration of apple and mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hot-air dehydration of apple and mushroom was performed with low-power microwave energy. The purpose of the investigation was to compare hot-air drying and microwave-assisted hot-air drying. The air velocity, the microwave output power and the air temperature were the variables in the experiments. The microwave energy was supplied by either microwave applicators with transverse magnetic (TM) modes as dominant

Tomas Funebo; Thomas Ohlsson

1998-01-01

435

Non-volatile taste components of several speciality mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four speciality mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Protein contents ranged from 14.6 to 22.3%. Carbohydrate contents were high in basket stinkhorn and white matsutake (67.0 and 70.1%) and low in maitake and lion's mane (58.8 and 57.2%, respectively). Contents of total soluble

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jung-Tsun Ma; Si-Fu Song

2001-01-01

436

RECYCLING OF SPENT OYSTER MUSHROOM SUBSTRATE TO RECOVER ADDITIONAL VALUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the cultivation of Pleurotus eous, possibilities of reutilization of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was carried out in form of ingredient for the cultivation of three oyster species, viz., Pleurotus sajor-caju Strain- Malasia, Pleurotus florida Strain-P1 and Pleurotus flabellatus and as fertilizer for growing Spinacea oleracea. As an ingredient, it was mixed properly with fresh wheat straw @ 10,15 and

C. S. Singh

437

Cardiac Autonomic Control Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Chagas' Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Primary abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system had been postulated as the pathogenic mechanisms of myocardial damage, in patients with Chagas disease. However, recent investigations indicate that these abnormalities are secondary and amenable to treatment with beta-adrenergic blockers. Moreover, muscarinic cardiac autoantibodies appear to enhance parasympathetic activity on the sinus node. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze how knowledge on Chagas' disease evolved from being initially considered as a primary cardioneuromyopathy to the current status of a congestive cardiomyopathy of parasitic origin. PMID:23091486

Dávila, Diego F.; Donis, Jose H.; Arata de Bellabarba, Gabriela; Villarroel, Vanesa; Sanchez, Francisco; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Das Neves, Barbara

2012-01-01

438

Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity  

PubMed Central

This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape. PMID:25317712

Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Moraes, Carolina B; Luquetti, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe; Schijman, Alejandro G; Ribeiro, Isabela

2014-01-01

439

Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission  

PubMed Central

Insecticide-impregnated nets can kill triatomine bugs, but it remains unclear whether they can protect against Chagas disease transmission. In a field trial in Quequeña, Peru, sentinel guinea pigs placed in intervention enclosures covered by deltamethrin-treated nets showed significantly lower antibody responses to saliva of Triatoma infestans compared with animals placed in pre-existing control enclosures. Our results strongly suggest that insecticide-treated nets prevent triatomine bites and can thereby protect against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Anti-salivary immunoassays are powerful new tools to evaluate intervention strategies against Chagas disease. PMID:21426907

Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, Jenny Ancca; Richards, Jean; Rath, Bruno; Machaca, Victor Quispe; Castro, Yagahira E.; Málaga, Edith S.; Levy, Katelyn; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Levy, Michael Z.

2011-01-01

440

Epidemiology of Mortality Related to Chagas' Disease in Brazil, 1999–2007  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease is an important neglected public health problem in many Latin American countries, but population-based epidemiological data are scarce. Here we present a nationwide analysis on Chagas-associated mortality, and risk factors for death from this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed all death certificates of individuals who died between 1999 and 2007 in Brazil, based on the nationwide Mortality Information System (a total of 243 data sets with about 9 million entries). Chagas' disease was mentioned in 53,930 (0.6%) of death certificates, with 44,537 (82.6%) as an underlying cause and 9,387 (17.4%) as an associated cause of death. Acute Chagas' disease was responsible for 2.8% of deaths. The mean standardized mortality rate was 3.36/100.000 inhabitants/year. Nationwide standardized mortality rates reduced gradually, from 3.78 (1999) to 2.78 (2007) deaths/year per 100,000 inhabitants (?26.4%). Standardized mortality rates were highest in the Central-West region, ranging from 15.23 in 1999 to 9.46 in 2007 (?37.9%), with a significant negative linear trend (p?=?0.001; R2?=?82%). Proportional mortality considering multiple causes of death was 0.60%. The Central-West showed highest proportional mortality among regions (2.17%), with a significant linear negative trend, from 2.28% to 1.90% (?19.5%; p?=?0.001; R2?=?84%). There was a significant increase in the Northeast of 38.5% (p?=?0.006; R2?=?82%). Bivariable analysis on risk factors for death from Chagas' disease showed highest relative risks (RR) in older age groups (RR: 10.03; 95% CI: 9.40–10.70; p<0.001) and those residing in the Central-West region (RR: 15.01; 95% CI: 3.90–16.22; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, age ?30 years (adjusted OR: 10.81; 95% CI: 10.03–10.65; p<0.001) and residence in one of the three high risk states Minas Gerais, Goiás or the Federal District (adjusted OR: 5.12; 95% CI: 5.03–5.22, p<0.001) maintained important independent risk factors for death by Chagas' disease. Conclusions/Significance This is the first nationwide population-based study on Chagas mortality in Brazil, considering multiple causes of death. Despite the decline of mortality associated with Chagas' disease in Brazil, the disease remains a serious public health problem with marked regional differences. PMID:22348163

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

2012-01-01

441

Isolation of chitosan from Ganoderma lucidum mushroom for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

Chitin biopolymer production and its by-product chitosan show great potential. These biomaterials have great applicability in various fields because they are non-toxic, biodegradable, biocompatible, and have antimicrobial effects. The most common source of chitin and chitosan is the crustaceous shell; however, mushrooms are an alternative source for isolating these biopolymers because their cellular wall has a high content of chitin, which may be transformed into chitosan through a deacetylation reaction. The main objective of this research was to obtain chitosan through the deacetylation of chitin isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum basidiomycetes mushroom, which is obtained through biotechnological culture. The material characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and an evaluation of cytotoxicity comparing the results obtained with results for commercial chitosan. Protocol results showed that chitosan obtained from this mushroom had a significant similitude with commercial chitosan, yet the one obtained using P2 protocol was the one that rendered the best results: including diffractogram peaks, characteristic infrared analysis bands, and an 80.29 % degree of deacetylation. Cytotoxicity in vitro testing showed that the material was non-toxic; furthermore, it rendered very promising information regarding the evaluation of future applications of this biomaterial in the field of biomedicine. PMID:25716022

Mesa Ospina, Natali; Ospina Alvarez, Sandra Patricia; Escobar Sierra, Diana Marcela; Rojas Vahos, Diego Fernando; Zapata Ocampo, Paola Andrea; Ossa Orozco, Claudia Patricia

2015-03-01

442

Proteomic analysis of antihypertensive proteins in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are high in protein content, which makes them potentially a good source of antihypertensive peptides. Among the mushrooms tested, protein extracts from Pleurotus cystidiosus (E1Pc and E5Pc) and Agaricus bisporus (E1Ab and E3Ab) had high levels of antihypertensive activity. The protein extracts were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) into six fractions. Fraction 3 from E5Pc (E5PcF3) and fraction 6 from E3Ab (E3AbF6) had the highest antihypertensive activities. SDS-PAGE analysis showed E5PcF3 consisted mainly of low molecular weight proteins, whereas E3AbF6 contained a variety of high to low molecular weight proteins. There were 22 protein clusters detected by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis with five common peaks found in E5PcF3 and E3AbF6, which had m/z values in the range of 3940-11413. This study suggests that the antihypertensive activity in the two mushroom species could be due to proteins with molecular masses ranging from 3 to 10 kDa. PMID:23190208

Lau, Ching-Ching; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Aminudin, Norhaniza

2012-12-19

443

Structural long-term changes at mushroom body input synapses.  

PubMed

How does the sensory environment shape circuit organization in higher brain centers? Here we have addressed the dependence on activity of a defined circuit within the mushroom body of adult Drosophila. This is a brain region receiving olfactory information and involved in long-term associative memory formation. The main mushroom body input region, named the calyx, undergoes volumetric changes correlated with alterations of experience. However, the underlying modifications at the cellular level remained unclear. Within the calyx, the clawed dendritic endings of mushroom body Kenyon cells form microglomeruli, distinct synaptic complexes with the presynaptic boutons of olfactory projection neurons. We developed tools for high-resolution imaging of pre- and postsynaptic compartments of defined calycal microglomeruli. Here we show that preventing firing of action potentials or synaptic transmission in a small, identified fraction of projection neurons causes alterations in the size, number, and active zone density of the microglomeruli formed by these neurons. These data provide clear evidence for activity-dependent organization of a circuit within the adult brain of the fly. PMID:20951043

Kremer, Malte C; Christiansen, Frauke; Leiss, Florian; Paehler, Moritz; Knapek, Stephan; Andlauer, Till F M; Förstner, Friedrich; Kloppenburg, Peter; Sigrist, Stephan J; Tavosanis, Gaia

2010-11-01

444

Evaluation of lignocellulosic wastes for production of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

The degradation of lignocellulosic wastes such as paddy straw, sorghum stalk, and banana pseudostem was investigated during solid-state fermentation by edible mushrooms Pleurotus eous and Lentinus connotus. Biological efficiency of 55-65% was observed in paddy straw followed by sorghum stalk (45%) and banana pseudostem (33%) for both fungal species. The activity of extracellular enzymes, namely cellulase, polyphenol oxidase, and laccase, together with the content of cellulose, lignin, and phenols, was studied in spent substrates on seventh, 17th, and 27th days of spawning, and these values were used as indicators of the extent of lignocellulosic degradation by mushroom. Both the mushroom species proved to be efficient degraders of lignocellulosic biomass of paddy straw and sorghum stalk, and the extent of cellulose degradation was 63-72% of dry weight (d.w.), and lignin degradation was 23-30% of the d.w. In banana pseudostem, the extent of the degradation was observed to be only 15-22% of the d.w. for both lignin and cellulose. Preferential removal of cellulose during initial growth period and delayed degradation of lignin were observed in all three substrates. This is associated with decrease in activity of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase and increase in laccase activity with spawn aging in spent substrates. Thus, bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass by P. eous and L. connotus offers a promising way to convert low-quality biomass into an improved human food. PMID:18327544

Rani, P; Kalyani, N; Prathiba, K

2008-12-01

445

Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of wild growing mushrooms and toadstools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been increase of general interest in fungi because of the possible medical applications of their polysaccharide constituents called glucans, some of which are reported to have immunomodulatory properties. Since an extraction method can change the chemical composition of a substance, especially a delicate one such as fungal thallus, it is necessary and useful to know more about the studied matter in advance in order to choose the chemical procedure properly. We demonstrated the usefulness of vibrational spectroscopy in identifying different glucan types in various parts of intact fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycetes. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of spores and fruiting bodies of more than 70 species belonging to 37 different genera of wild growing mushrooms. The list of the bands in 750-950 cm -1 interval, assigned to ?- and ?-glucans, is provided for all species studied. Vibrational spectra in the interval 1000-1200 cm -1 could serve as an indicator of mushroom genus, although particular species cannot be identified spectroscopically. Great similarities in spectra of spores of the same genus, but different species, e.g. Tricholoma album and Trichloma sulphureum, were observed. On the other hand, spectra of cap, stalk and spores of the same mushroom show great differences, indicating variety in the chemical composition of different parts of the same fruiting body.

Moha?ek-Grošev, Vlasta; Božac, Romano; Puppels, Gerwin J.

2001-12-01

446

Toxicological screening of lyophilized extract of some Nigerian wild mushrooms in mice.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are macrofungi widely consumed as food. However, many mushrooms rot away in the wild because of fear of toxicity. Therefore, lyophilized aqueous extracts of 6 mushroom species collected from Zaria, Nigeria and taxonomically identified as Chlorophyllum molybdites, Panaeolus subalteatus, Macrolepiota procera, Leucopaxillus albissmus, Hygrophoropsis aurantiacus and Pholiota aurea were screened for toxicity in mice. Lyophilized aqueous extract of each of these mushrooms was administered to three groups of 3 mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 100, 1000 and 10, 000 mg kg(-1), respectively. Another group of three mice given distilled water served as control. The mice were examined for clinical signs of toxicity over a period of 72 h and pathological examinations conducted on dead animals. The severity of clinical signs, onset of death and pathological lesions were dose dependent. Death occurred within 10 min in all the mice dosed at 10,000 mg kg(-1) with the lyophilized extracts of all the mushrooms screened, with the exception of that of H. aurantiacus, which produced death 21-23 h post administration. This result showed that all the screened mushrooms, including the popular edible M. procera were found toxic. Therefore, since all the mushrooms screened were found toxic, it is recommended that extreme caution should be exercised in their consumption. Furthermore, in view of the regional differences in the toxicity of mushrooms, there is the need to screen more wild mushrooms found in Nigeria for toxicity. This will boost mushroom mycophagy, reduce poisoning incidence and reduce wastage of edible mushrooms in the wild. PMID:18817162

Ambali, S F; Mamman, M; Adaudi, A O; Esievo, K A N; Ibrahim, N D G; Abubakar, M S

2008-02-01

447

White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

448

In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

449

75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...remand in Gerber Food (Yunnan) Co...remands); and Gerber Food (Yunnan) Co...mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...respondent Gerber Food (Yunnan)...

2010-01-25

450

Comparative Study on Cultivation and Yield Performance of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on Different Substrates (Wheat Straw, Leaves, Saw Dust)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research experiment was carried out to investigate the cultivation of Oyster mushroom on different substrates. Mushroom cultivation is a profitable agribusiness. Incorporation of non conventional crops in existing agricultural system can improve the economic status of the farmer. Mushrooms are the source of protein, vitamins and minerals and are anticancerous, anticholesteral, and antitumorous. Sawdust produced highest yield, biological efficiency

2004-01-01

451

Environmental Changes Can Produce Shifts in Chagas Disease Infection Risk  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types) in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network) that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM) approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection. PMID:25574142

Cordovez, Juan M; Sanabria, Camilo

2014-01-01

452

Environmental changes can produce shifts in chagas disease infection risk.  

PubMed

An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types) in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network) that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R 0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R 0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM) approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection. PMID:25574142

Cordovez, Juan M; Sanabria, Camilo

2014-01-01

453

Fexinidazole: A Potential New Drug Candidate for Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background New safe and effective treatments for Chagas disease (CD) are urgently needed. Current chemotherapy options for CD have significant limitations, including failure to uniformly achieve parasitological cure or prevent the chronic phase of CD, and safety and tolerability concerns. Fexinidazole, a 2-subsituted 5-nitroimidazole drug candidate rediscovered following extensive compound mining by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and currently in Phase I clinical study for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, was evaluated in experimental models of acute and chronic CD caused by different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods and Findings We investigated the in vivo activity of fexinidazole against T. cruzi, using mice as hosts. The T. cruzi strains used in the study were previously characterized in murine models as susceptible (CL strain), partially resistant (Y strain), and resistant (Colombian and VL-10 strains) to the drugs currently in clinical use, benznidazole and nifurtimox. Our results demonstrated that fexinidazole was effective in suppressing parasitemia and preventing death in infected animals for all strains tested. In addition, assessment of definitive parasite clearance (cure) through parasitological, PCR, and serological methods showed cure rates of 80.0% against CL and Y strains, 88.9% against VL-10 strain, and 77.8% against Colombian strain among animals treated during acute phase, and 70% (VL-10 strain) in those treated in chronic phase. Benznidazole had a similar effect against susceptible and partially resistant T. cruzi strains. Fexinidazole treatment was also shown to reduce myocarditis in all animals infected with VL-10 or Colombian resistant T. cruzi strains, although parasite eradication was not achieved in all treated animals at the tested doses. Conclusions Fexinidazole is an effective oral treatment of acute and chronic experimental CD caused by benznidazole-susceptible, partially resistant, and resistant T. cruzi. These findings illustrate the potential of fexinidazole as a drug candidate for the treatment of human CD. PMID:23133682

Bahia, Maria Terezinha; de Andrade, Isabel Mayer; Martins, Tassiane Assíria Fontes; do Nascimento, Álvaro Fernando da Silva; Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Talvani, André; Trunz, Bernadette Bourdin; Torreele, Els; Ribeiro, Isabela

2012-01-01

454

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

455

Barriers to Treatment Access for Chagas Disease in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background According to World Health Organization (WHO) prevalence estimates, 1.1 million people in Mexico are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease (CD). However, limited information is available about access to antitrypanosomal treatment. This study assesses the extent of access in Mexico, analyzes the barriers to access, and suggests strategies to overcome them. Methods and Findings Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 key informants and policymakers at the national level in Mexico. Data on CD cases, relevant policy documents and interview data were analyzed using the Flagship Framework for Pharmaceutical Policy Reform policy interventions: regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data showed that 3,013 cases were registered nationally from 2007–2011, representing 0.41% of total expected cases based on Mexico's national prevalence estimate. In four of five years, new registered cases were below national targets by 11–36%. Of 1,329 cases registered nationally in 2010–2011, 834 received treatment, 120 were pending treatment as of January 2012, and the treatment status of 375 was unknown. The analysis revealed that the national program mainly coordinated donation of nifurtimox and that important obstacles to access include the exclusion of antitrypanosomal medicines from the national formulary (regulation), historical exclusion of CD from the social insurance package (organization), absence of national clinical guidelines (organization), and limited provider awareness (persuasion). Conclusions Efforts to treat CD in Mexico indicate an increased commitment to addressing this disease. Access to treatment could be advanced by improving the importation process for antitrypanosomal medicines and adding them to the national formulary, increasing education for healthcare providers, and strengthening clinical guidelines. These recommendations have important implications for other countries in the region with similar problems in access to treatment for CD. PMID:24147169

Manne, Jennifer M.; Snively, Callae S.; Ramsey, Janine M.; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Bärnighausen, Till; Reich, Michael R.

2013-01-01

456

Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies. PMID:21713022

Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolón, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

2011-01-01

457

FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1: A Multiplexed Flow Cytometry Method for Differential Serological Diagnosis of Chagas Disease and Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

Differential serological diagnosis of Chagas disease and leishmaniasis is difficult owing to cross-reactivity resulting from the fact that the parasites that cause these pathologies share antigenic epitopes. Even with optimized serological assays that use parasite-specific recombinant antigens, inconclusive test results continue to be a problem. Therefore, new serological tests with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. In the present work, we developed and evaluated the performance of a new flow cytometric serological method, referred to as FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1, for the all-in-one classification of inconclusive tests. The method uses antigens for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis, localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease and is based on an inverted detuned algorithm for analysis of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity. First, parasites were label with fluorescein isothiocyanate or Alexa Fluor 647 at various concentrations. Then serum samples were serially diluted, the dilutions were incubated with suspensions of mixed labeled parasites, and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine percentages of positive fluorescent parasites. Using the new method, we obtained correct results for 76 of 80 analyzed serum samples (95% overall performance), underscoring the outstanding performance of the method. Moreover, we found that the fluorescently labeled parasite suspensions were stable during storage at room temperature, 4°C, and –20°C for 1 year. In addition, two different lots of parasite suspensions showed equivalent antigen recognition; that is, the two lots showed equivalent categorical segregation of anti-Trypanosomatidae IgG1 reactivity at selected serum dilutions. In conclusion, we have developed a sensitive and selective method for differential diagnosis of Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis, and localized cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25875961

Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Geiger, Stefan Michael; Rocha, Roberta Dias Rodrigues; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Vitelli-Avelar, Danielle Marquete; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Lemos, Elenice Moreira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Caldas, Rafaella Gaiotti; Freitas, Carolina Renata Camargos; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

2015-01-01

458

On the run: free-living mushroom corals avoiding interaction with sponges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia fralinae moved away when placed in contact with fragments of the toxic haplosclerid sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru. This reaction was not evoked by three other sponge species. The experiment demonstrated that mobility of mushroom corals helps them to flee from organisms that secrete secondary metabolites in competition for space.

Hoeksema, B. W.; de Voogd, N. J.

2012-06-01

459

Nutritional Composition of Three Domesticated Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms: Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba.  

PubMed

The nutritional composition of three recently domesticated culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Oudemansiella sudmusida, Lentinus squarrosulus, and Tremella aurantialba) was evaluated for contents of protein, fiber, fat, total sugar content, amino acid, carbohydrate, and nucleotide components. The data indicated that fruiting bodies of these three mushroom species contained abundant nutritional substances. The protein contents of L. squarrosulus and O. submucida were 26.32% and 14.70%, which could be comparable to other commercially cultivated species. T. aurantialba contained 74.11% of carbohydrate, of which soluble polysaccharide was 40.55%. Oudemansiella sudmusida contained 15.95% of arabitol as the highest sugar alcohol in three mushrooms. These mushrooms also possessed distinct taste by their flavor component composition. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained 10.68% and 9.25% of monosodium glutamate-like and sweet amino acids, which were higher than the other two mushrooms. However, the nucleotide amounts of the three mushrooms were all lower than those of other commercially cultivated mushrooms. Among them, L. squarrosulus contained the highest amount of flavor nucleotides, which was 1.01%o. Results revealed that these three mushroom species are potentially suitable resources for commercial cultivation and healthy food. PMID:25746405

Zhou, Shuai; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhang, Zhong; Li, Chuan-Hua; Cao, Hui; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong

2015-01-01

460

Cholesterol-Lowering Effect of the Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in Hereditary Hypercholesterolemic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effect of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (4% in diet containing 1 % of cholesterol) on serum and liver lipids in female rats with hereditary enhanced sensitivity to alimentary cholesterol. We found that the consumption of the mushroom-containing diet prevented serum cholesterol increase which was manifested at the end of the 4th week of the experiment. At

P. Bobek; E. Ginter; L. Kuniak

1991-01-01

461

Influence of spatio-temporal resource availability on mushroom mite diversity.  

PubMed

Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects). PMID:23613030

Okabe, Kimiko

2013-11-01

462

Mushroom-Like High-Impedance Surface (HIS) with Slanted VIAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new high-impedance surface with slanted vias. The vias used in conventional mushroom like structures are made slanted at an angle from the center of each patch and connecting to the ground plane. Numerical simulation on reflection phase response indicates that there is a dual band frequency of operation compared with that from the conventional mushroom structures

S. Tse; Yang Hao; C. Parini

2007-01-01

463

Screening and Optimal Extraction of a New Antidementia ?-Secretase Inhibitor-Containing Mushroom  

PubMed Central

To produce a potent antidementia ?-secretase inhibitor from a mushroom, the ?-secretase inhibitory activities of various mushroom extracts were determined. Methanol extracts of Lentinula edodes exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (40.1%). The inhibitor was maximally extracted when a fruiting body of L. edodes was treated with 50% methanol at 40? for 24 h. PMID:23997625

Seo, Dong-Soo; Lee, Eun-Na; Seo, Geon-Sik

2008-01-01

464

In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

465

Protective Effect of Ganoderma (a Mushroom with Medicinal Properties) Against Various Liver Injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants represent one approach in the management of liver injuries due to various factors such as infection, toxification, and immune damage in