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1

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 ?g/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 ?g/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 ?g/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 ?g/plate) and B(?)P (10 ?g/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(?)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(?)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

2008-10-17

2

Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791

Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-12-01

3

Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

2010-11-01

4

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma.

Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

2008-01-01

5

Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. PMID:17012771

Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

2006-01-01

6

Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 ?g/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 ?g/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics. PMID:23510282

Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

2013-01-01

7

Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:22135889

Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

8

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion. PMID:17980585

Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

2007-10-25

9

Preparation of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus-fermented rice using solid-state fermentation and its taste quality and antioxidant property.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilat, was inoculated into cooked embryo rice and the mycelial growth in I. obliquus-fermented embryo rice (IER) was monitored. Besides, nonvolatile taste components and antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, IER, and embryo rice were studied. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were determined to be: 30°C, an inoculation rate of 1 mL/15 g, water supplementation of 60%, and no extra nitrogen source added. IER showed similar proximate composition to embryo rice but contained a substantial amount of ergothioneine (101 mg/kg dry weight). IER contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and polyols, and umami taste components, including monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like components and flavor 5'-nucleotides, than embryo rice. Besides, IER showed a second level of equivalent umami concentrations (223.73 g MSG/100 g). Fruiting bodies did not contain umami components but showed the most effective antioxidant properties. Although some of EC50 values of IER were less than those of mycelia and embryo rice, IER still showed effective antioxidant properties. Based on the results obtained, IER will be a novel functional food. PMID:23510252

Lin, Shin-Yi; Yeh, Chan-Chun; Liang, Chih-Hung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

10

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.  

PubMed

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

2010-06-29

11

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells  

PubMed Central

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

2010-01-01

12

Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study. PMID:17666849

Nakajima, Yuki; Sato, Yuzo; Konishi, Tetsuya

2007-08-01

13

In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus. PMID:22135888

Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2011-01-01

14

Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-06-06

15

Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].  

PubMed

Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells. PMID:19627197

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-06-01

16

Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.  

PubMed

Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms. PMID:23149251

Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

2012-11-14

17

Acute Toxicity Evaluation and Compositional Analysis of a Polysaccharide from the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (IOPS) was isolated from the Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat, which was a medicinal mushroom with many health-benefiting functions. The chemical composition and acute toxicity of IOPS was investigated in order to determine the possibility of using them for human consumption. Chemical analysis of IOPS showed that it was a nonstarch protein bounded acidic polysaccharide. The protein, neutral

Haixia Chen; Lingling Fu; Peng Dong; Xin Zhang; Xueming Lu

2009-01-01

18

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.  

PubMed

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2. PMID:15630179

Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Burm; Jeon, Eun-Jae; Jung, Hack Sung; Kang, Myung-Hee

2004-01-01

19

Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-? was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-? related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

Kim, Yeon-Ran

2005-09-30

20

Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-? was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-? related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy.

2005-01-01

21

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat).  

PubMed

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress and subsequent damage of cellular and nuclear components. Chaga extracts and the phenolic ingredients, 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and caffeic acid (CA), effectively suppressed intracellular ROS level in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. The H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was more pronounced, effectively prevented in the cells treated with DBL than in cells treated with CA. In addition, ROS activate various signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Therefore, we examined the potentially beneficial effects of DBL on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-MAPK signaling activated by H(2)O(2) stimulation. DBL selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, without affecting JNK and ERK. PMID:19647072

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-07-30

22

Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.  

PubMed

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p?

Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

2011-04-05

23

Highly oxygenated and unsaturated metabolites providing a diversity of hispidin class antioxidants in the medicinal mushrooms Inonotus and Phellinus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new highly oxygenated and unsaturated metabolites named interfungins A (1), B (2), and C (3), which provide a diversity of hispidin class compounds in the fungi Inonotus and Phellinus, were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruiting body of the fungus Inonotus xeranticus (Hymenochaetaceae). Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. The existence of these functionalized metabolites implies

In-Kyoung Lee; Bong-Sik Yun

2007-01-01

24

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in lymphocytes of patients with inflammatory bowel disease.  

PubMed

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is partly caused by oxidative stress from free radicals and reduced antioxidant levels. Using hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress in vitro in peripheral lymphocytes we investigated the induction of DNA damage supplemented with ethanolic extract of Chaga mushroom as a protective antioxidant. Lymphocytes were obtained from 20 IBD patients and 20 healthy volunteers. For treatment, a constant H_{2}O_{2 } dose (50 microg/ml) was used with variable doses of Chaga extract (10-500 microg/ml). DNA damage was evaluated in 50 cells per individual and dose using the Comet assay (making 1000 observations per experimental point ensuring appropriate statistical power). Chaga supplementation resulted in a 54.9% (p < 0.001) reduction of H_{2}O_{2 } induced DNA damage within the patient group and 34.9% (p < 0.001) within the control group. Lymphocytes from Crohn's disease (CD) patients had a greater basic DNA damage than Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients (p < 0.001). Conclusively, Chaga extract reduces oxidative stress in lymphocytes from IBD patients and also healthy individuals when challenged in vitro. Thus, Chaga extract could be a possible and valuable supplement to inhibit oxidative stress in general. PMID:18997282

Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Reynolds, P Dominic; Baumgartner, Adolf; Jerwood, David; Anderson, Diana

2007-01-01

25

Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds". PMID:20635536

Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

26

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely\\u000a forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called ‘Chaga’. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an

Weifa Zheng; Kangjie Miao; Yubing Liu; Yanxia Zhao; Meimei Zhang; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai

2010-01-01

27

Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.  

PubMed

The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture. PMID:22484608

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-03-30

28

Analysis of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method. PMID:17438866

Mazurkiewicz, Witold

29

Production of peroxidase by Inonotus weirii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white rot fungus Inonotus weirii produced an extracellular peroxidase which was excreted in association with cell growth and in the absence of an inducer. Production of peroxidase was greatly influenced by the carbon and nitrogen source. The highest activities were obtained on glucose-and xylose-based media containing a combination of ammonium nitrate, yeast extract and distiller's spent grain as nitrogen

Annikka Mustranta

1987-01-01

30

Three new species of Inonotus (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetaceae) from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Inonotus are described and illustrated. Inonotus acutus sp. nov. is characterized by having small, thin basidiocarps with a strongly contracted base, a sharp and undulate pileus\\u000a margin, ventricose hymenial setae, and ellipsoid, yellowish to yellow-brown, slightly thick-walled basidiospores. Inonotus chrysomarginatus sp. nov. differs in having an annual to perennial growth habit, pileate basidiocarps with a distinctly

Bao-Kai Cui; Ping Du; Yu-Cheng Dai

2011-01-01

31

Potential anticancer properties of the water extract of Inontus obliquus by induction of apoptosis in melanoma B16-F10 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceInonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom), one of the widely known medicinal mushrooms, has been used to treat various cancers in Russia and most of Baltic countries for many centuries.

Myung-Ja Youn; Jin-Kyung Kim; Seong-yeol Park; Yunha Kim; Channy Park; Eun Sook Kim; Kie-In Park; Hong Seob So

2009-01-01

32

DNA polymorphism and molecular diagnosis in Inonotus spp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were developed for the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA gene of Inonotus tomentosus, the causal agent of tomentosus root rot of conifers. The primers were designed to specifically amplify DNA from I. tomentosus and allow its differentiation from Inonotus leporinus and from Phellinus pini s.l., which are morphologically very similar to

Hugo Germain; Gaston Laflamme; Louis Bernier; Bruno Boulet; Richard C. Hamelin

2002-01-01

33

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-31

34

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

2010-06-08

35

Chagas Disease: Detailed FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... have Chagas disease. In what parts of the world is Chagas disease found? People who have Chagas disease can be found anywhere in the world. However, vectorborne transmission is confined to the Americas, ...

36

Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H?O?-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE?, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

2013-08-02

37

Treatment for Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... usa.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Add this to... ... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Treatment Treatment for Chagas disease is recommended for all people diagnosed with ...

38

Chagas Disease (American trypanosomiasis)  

MedlinePLUS

... cruzi (T. cruzi). It is found mainly in endemic areas of 21 Latin American countries 1 , where ... mostly in Latin America where Chagas disease is endemic. The cost of treatment for Chagas disease remains ...

39

Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci

2007-01-01

40

Mushroom Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

... if vomiting has not already occurred. The person's temperature, heart rate and blood pressure will be checked. He or she will be watched closely for severe symptoms and complications due to mushroom poisoning. In severe cases that are caused by ...

41

Immunity in Chagas' Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report on the immunity in Chagas' disease contract and it summarizes the results of a diversity of studies directed toward understanding the immunology of this dreaded affliction. Among the achievements mentioned are the development of a...

D. E. Wood

1976-01-01

42

Chagas disease in prehistory.  

PubMed

The classical hypothesis proposes that Chagas disease has been originated in the Andean region among prehistoric people when they started domesticating animals, changing to sedentary habits, and adopting agriculture. These changes in their way of life happened nearly 6,000 years ago. However, paleoparasitological data based on molecular tools showed that Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease were commonly found both in South and North American prehistoric populations long before that time, suggesting that Chagas disease may be as old as the human presence in the American continent. The study of the origin and dispersion of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among prehistoric human populations may help in the comprehension of the clinical and epidemiological questions on Chagas disease that still remain unanswered. PMID:21739083

Ferreira, Luiz F; Jansen, Ana M; Araújo, Adauto

2011-07-01

43

Mushroom Cultivation in Thailand,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lucid handbook is designed for volunteers of all backgrounds seeking to understand mushroom culture. Topics include mushroom cultivation in beds, logs, and plastic bags; mushroom spawn propagation; and control of pests. Appendices provide examples of ...

D. A. Pottebaum

1987-01-01

44

Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review.  

PubMed

From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The last decade has witnessed the overwhelming interest of western research fraternity in pharmaceutical potential of mushrooms. The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. The mushrooms credited with success against cancer belong to the genus Phellinus, Pleurotus, Agaricus, Ganoderma, Clitocybe, Antrodia, Trametes, Cordyceps, Xerocomus, Calvatia, Schizophyllum, Flammulina, Suillus, Inonotus, Inocybe, Funlia, Lactarius, Albatrellus, Russula, and Fomes. The anti-cancer compounds play crucial role as reactive oxygen species inducer, mitotic kinase inhibitor, anti-mitotic, angiogenesis inhibitor, topoisomerase inhibitor, leading to apoptosis, and eventually checking cancer proliferation. The present review updates the recent findings on the pharmacologically active compounds, their anti-tumor potential, and underlying mechanism of biological action in order to raise awareness for further investigations to develop cancer therapeutics from mushrooms. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention. PMID:22582152

Patel, Seema; Goyal, Arun

2011-11-25

45

Cells Immortal - Chagas disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fortieth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Chagas disease, a dangerous condition, results from infection with the T. cruzi parasite that somehow avoids natural cell death and can remain in a person's body for decades before symptoms appear.

2010-09-06

46

Chagas' disease and AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is an opportunistic infection in the setting of HIV\\/AIDS. Some individuals with HIV and chronic T. cruzi infection may experience a reactivation, which is most commonly manifested by meningoencephalitis. A reactivation myocarditis is the second most common manifestation. These presentations may be difficult to distinguish from toxoplasmosis in individuals with HIV\\/AIDS. The overlap of

Anil K Vaidian; Louis M Weiss; Herbert B Tanowitz

2004-01-01

47

Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds except for 2 were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The most abundant triterpene, inotodiol (3), was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 3 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:17049251

Nakata, Tomoko; Yamada, Takeshi; Taji, Sayaka; Ohishi, Hirofumi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

2006-09-30

48

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged\\u000a culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase\\u000a in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g\\/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a

Hui Chen; Mingchao Yan; Jinwei Zhu; Xiangqun Xu

2011-01-01

49

Gastrointestinal aspects of Chagas' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease is an endemic infectious disease caused by a trypanosome prevalent in South America. An acute illness occurs in childhood (1) and, if the patient survives, an enlarged heart, dilated colon and megaesophagus (2) may develop 30 to 40 years later as manifestations of chronic Chagas' disease. The majority of those infected will always have a positive comple.ment fixation

Richard J. Earlam

1972-01-01

50

Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.  

PubMed

The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2013-07-01

51

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and Analysis of Antioxidation and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific\\u000a community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail’s pace. The methods of strain\\u000a identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous

Yana Song; Jing Hui; Wei Kou; Ru Xin; Fei Jia; Ning Wang; Fengqing Hu; Huili Zhang; Hongsheng Liu

2008-01-01

52

DRYING BEHAVIOR OF MUSHROOM SLICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying of mushroom slices is an unsteady-state process under the control of diffusion race of water through the mushroom hyphae. Therefore, temperature, thickness of the mushroom slices and the ratio of the air film to mushroom resistance toward the diffusion of water control the drying rate. In this work, the initial thickness of mushroom slices was kept constant at 2 mm

S. Yapar; S. ?. Helvaci; S. Peker

1990-01-01

53

Prevention & Control of Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Prevention & Control In endemic areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America ... Chagas disease is now found but is not endemic, control strategies are focused on preventing transmission from ...

54

Modeling Mushroom Fairy Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes in a forest or yard, mushrooms seem magically to grow in circles, which we call "fairy rings". In this module, we develop simulations for the expansion and interactions of such mushroom fairy rings. After analyzing the system, formulating the model, and considering appropriate rules for the spreading of mushrooms, we create a simulation using the graphical computer algebra system Mathematica. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

Shiflet, Angela B.; Shiflet, George W.

55

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

56

Acute Chagas disease in a returning traveler.  

PubMed

Acute Chagas disease is rarely recognized, and the risk for acquiring the disease is undefined in travelers to Central America. We describe a case of acute Chagas disease in a traveler to Costa Rica and highlight the need for increased awareness of this infection in travelers to Chagas-endemic areas. PMID:23091192

Carter, Yvonne L; Juliano, Jonathan J; Montgomery, Susan P; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

2012-10-22

57

Mushroom-Growing Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is related to and has among its objects the provision of novel mushroom-growing media and novel methods of making the same. A cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms is disclosed. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and ni...

R. H. Kurtzman

1980-01-01

58

Mushroom Use by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

Thompson, John P.; And Others

1985-01-01

59

Mushroom Use by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

Thompson, John P.; And Others

1985-01-01

60

7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...environment utilizing good mushroom growing practices...environment for eligible mushrooms must include primary...systems for: (1) Temperature and humidity controls...treatment. (d) Good mushroom growing...

2010-01-01

61

7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...environment utilizing good mushroom growing practices...environment for eligible mushrooms must include primary...systems for: (1) Temperature and humidity controls...treatment. (d) Good mushroom growing...

2009-01-01

62

Chagas disease and gynecologic neoplasias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inflammation caused by Trypanosoma cruzi produces irritation and cell proliferation and may contribute to the development of cancer. The objective was to determine the occurrence of gynecologic neoplasia (GN) and demographic characteristics in patients with Chagas disease (CD). We used protocols of 671 autopsies between 1976 and 2008. The patients were divided into 3 groups: with GN and CD,

Venina Marcela Dominical; Camila Lourencini Cavellani; Laura Penna Rocha; Rosana Rosa Miranda Corrêa; Gilberto de Araújo Pereira; Vicente de Paula Antunes Teixeira

2010-01-01

63

The mushroom message.  

PubMed

A basic law of ecology is that living things are tightly dependent on one another, often in ways that are not easy to imagine. Who, for example, would have predicted that when the last dodo was killed in 1675, that death would lead to the slow extermination of the tambalocoque tree, whose fruits germinate only after passing through the dodo's digestive system? Now no natural strands of tambalocoque younger than 300 years can be found. Or who would have predicted that clear-cutting tropical rainforests would so significantly alter local weather patterns that the tropical rainforest biome itself and its vast diversity of life might not survive? Such interactions are worth noting because of the possible ramifications of a phenomenon that ecologists have just begun to document. Mushrooms worldwide appear to be in a catastrophic state of decline. Throughout Europe, in countries with terrains as diverse as Holland, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland and England, wild mushrooms are becoming increasingly difficult to find. Those fungi that are found are significantly smaller than those found years ago. Preliminary data suggest that the same troubling situation is occurring throughout North American as well. The decline has been so precipitous that biologists have begun to refer to it as a mass extinction. The 2 obvious explanations for the demise of the mushrooms--habitat destruction and overpicking of edible types by an ever growing human population--have been ruled out. Sophisticated sampling schemes designed by ecologists control for the fact that there is less land available for wild mushrooms; they have been declining at a rate that far exceeds the rate at which land is being developed. The fact that the decline has affected both edible and inedible mushrooms equally indicates that humans hunting for tasty treats are not the main cause of the problem. The loss of wild mushrooms worldwide might not seem like that big a deal, but the consequences may well be grave because of the way those fungi interact with other life forms. If the mushrooms die off, ecologists fear that our forests may not be far behind. Many mushrooms live in close association with trees; the mushrooms provide the trees with water and minerals while the trees supply the mushrooms with carbohydrates. The mushrooms' underground filaments often extend much deeper into the soil than do the roots of trees, thus making available to trees resources that would otherwise be unusable. Ecologists have found that trees lacking mushrooms are significantly more susceptible to environmental stress than those growing with the fungi. Eef Arnolds, an ecologist specializing in mushrooms at the Agricultural University of the Netherlands thinks that "severe frost or drought could lead to a mass dying of trees." Although the cause of the decline has not be pinpointed, most experts believe that the mushrooms are responding to abnormal atmospheric levels of nitrogen, sulfur, and ozone. Dr. Arnolds suggests that in Holland the main culprit appears to be excessive nitrogen applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Once again it appears that we are seeing the unpredicted effects of our wanton pollution of our environment. If the experts are correct about the cause of the decrease in mushroom populations, the mushrooms can provide us with some very critical information and insight like the canaries that miners used to bring into mine shafts to warn of a lack of breathable air, these small indicator species are warning us about the state of our planet. We can only hope that collectively we have enough sense to begin to pay attention. PMID:12285642

Zimmerman, M

1992-04-28

64

Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity.  

PubMed

Medicinal properties have been attributed to mushrooms for thousands of years. Mushroom extracts are widely sold as nutritional supplements and touted as beneficial for health. Yet, there has not been a critical review attempting to integrate their nutraceutical potential with basic science. Relatively few studies are available on the biologic effects of mushroom consumption, and those have been performed exclusively in murine models. In this paper, we review existing data on the mechanism of whole mushrooms and isolated mushroom compounds, in particular (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, and the means by which they modulate the immune system and potentially exert tumor-inhibitory effects. We believe that the antitumor mechanisms of several species of whole mushrooms as well as of polysaccharides isolated from Lentinus edodes, Schizophyllum commune, Grifola frondosa, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are mediated largely by T cells and macrophages. Despite the structural and functional similarities of these glucans, they differ in their effectiveness against specific tumors and in their ability to elicit various cellular responses, particularly cytokine expression and production. Unfortunately, our data base on the involvement of these important mediators is still rather limited, as are studies concerning the molecular mechanisms of the interactions of glucans with their target cells. As long as it remains unclear what receptors are involved in, and what downstream events are triggered by, the binding of these glucans to their target cells, it will be difficult to make further progress in understanding not only their antitumor mechanisms but also their other biological activities. PMID:10460691

Borchers, A T; Stern, J S; Hackman, R M; Keen, C L; Gershwin, M E

1999-09-01

65

A Guide to Mushroom Cultivation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The booklet deals with the indoor cultivation of the mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, which can be grown best under temperature conditions. It is concerned mainly with the requirements of small to medium sized mushroom houses built on cottage scale. All aspec...

E. F. K. Mantel R. K. Agarwala P. K. Seth

1972-01-01

66

Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after (99mTc)HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux.

Troncon, L.E.; Rezende Filho, J.; Iazigi, N.

1988-10-01

67

Heterologous Infection During Chagas' Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations are often infected with more than one parasite strain. This is frequently the case with ChagasŠ disease, which is endemic to large regions of Latin America. In the present work we study the dynamics of the heterologous infection for this disease, using a model for the interaction between the trypanosoma cruzi parasite and the immune system. We find the dependence of the nature of the post-acute stage on the parameters characterizing the inoculated infectious strains.

Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Cossi Isasi, S.

2007-05-01

68

Open mushrooms: stickiness revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system ?, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit quasi-regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well-known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe for the first time a zero measure set of control parameter values ? in (0, 1) for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky, leading to a different power law exponent for the Poincaré recurrence time distribution statistics. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited due to MUPOs and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function P(t)\\sim {C}/t are calculated for mushrooms with triangular and rectangular stems. Numerical simulations are also performed which confirm our predictions for both sticky and less sticky mushrooms.

Dettmann, Carl P.; Georgiou, Orestis

2011-05-01

69

[The chemotherapy of Chagas disease].  

PubMed

To date, Chagas disease has defied all attempts to develop an efficient and safe chemotherapy. Drugs effective on T. cruzi as trypanocidal agents may be classified as (a) drugs of extensive clinical use: Nifurtimox and Benznidazole; (b) drugs of restricted clinical use: azoles (e.g. Ketoconazole, Econazole; Miconazole); Amphotericin B; Allopurinol, Allopurinol ribosides and Primaquine; (d) drugs effective on T. cruzi and in experimental Chagas disease (murine model): alkyllysophospholipids; 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamides; bisbenzyl-isoquinolines; cruzipain (crucein) inhibitors; Gossipol; phenothiazines; d) drugs effective in vitro without other reported effects, acridines, actinomycin D, Crystal Violet (gentian violet), diterpenes (Mikania obtusata); N,N'-dimethyl-2-propen-1-amine, epoxidienthiol carbamates, Fe-chelators, guanyl hydrazones, o-naphthoquinones (beta-lapachone); quinoids (miconidine; tingenone); Olivacine, phenazine methosulfate, phenoxi-phenoxyl drugs, Proadifen, pyridinium azolate betaines, sesquiterpenes (Lychophora sp), sesquiterpene lactones, tetrahydrocarbazoles, DL-alpha-trifluoromethylarginine, triphenylmetane dyes. It is generally agreed that Nifurtimox and Benznidazole (a) are effective on acute Chagas' disease, but may not be effective in the chronic phase; (b) their effect depends on the susceptibility of T. cruzi strains to the drug; (c) they produce adverse effects in patients that may prevent prolonged treatments; they are genotoxic and produce biochemical damage in the mammalian tissues. Redox-cycling of Nifurtimox and Benznidazolee generates "reactive oxygen species" which explain the biological effects. At variance with the mammalian host, T. cruzi is deficient in antioxidant enzymes which are essential to prevent oxidative damage. Azoles are effective inhibitors of T. cruzi growth in vitro and in vivo since they inhibit sterol C14-delta 24(25) demethylase, an enzyme catalysing ergosterol production. Azoles reduce parasitemia and extend the survival of infected mice but do not produce parasitological cure and their clinical effectiveness is questionable. Allopurinol allopurinol ribosides and related compounds inhibit T. cruzi hypoxantine-guanine ribosyl transferase, thus preventing the synthesis of adenylic and guanylic acids and also DNA. They reduce parasitemia and negativize xenodiagnosis but these effects may not be permanent, which invalidates their clinical use. Cysteine-protease inhibitors recognize T. cruzi protease (cruzipain, crucein) active site, thus allowing a covalent linkage with the inhibitor. These peptide inhibitors are effective in acute and chronic murine models. Phenothiazines inhibit trypanothione reductase and a specially favoured fit is a small 2-substitued 2-chloro and 2-trifluoromethyl with a remote hydrophobic patch. The essential phenotiazine nucleus can adopt more than one inhibitory orientation in its binding site. Phenothiazines are promising trypanocidal agents for the treatment of Chagas' disease. The methodology for developing new drugs for the treatment of Chagas' disease is discussed. PMID:10668258

Stoppani, A O

1999-01-01

70

Mushroom-Growing Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention describes a cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and nitrogen is fermented and mixed with cellulosic material. The so-treated cellulosic material is held at a temperature and for a ti...

R. H. Kurtzman

1982-01-01

71

The Vasculature in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular manifestations of Chagas disease are well known. However, the contribution of the vasculature and specifically the microvasculature has received little attention. This chapter reviews the evidence supporting the notion that alterations in the microvasculature especially in the heart contribute to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. These data may also be important in understanding the contributions of the microvasculature in the aetiologies of other cardiomyopathies. The role of endothelin-1 and of thromboxane A2 vascular spasm and platelet aggregation is also discussed. Further, these observations may provide target(s) for intervention.

Prado, Cibele M.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Weiss, Louis M.; Factor, Stephen M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Rossi, Marcos A.

2013-01-01

72

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-07-11

73

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2010-01-01

74

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2009-01-01

75

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2013-01-01

76

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2012-01-01

77

Acute and congenital Chagas disease.  

PubMed

The acute phase of Chagas disease lasts 4-8 weeks and is characterized by microscopically detectable parasitaemia. Symptoms are usually mild with severe acute disease occurring in less than 1% of patients. Orally transmitted Trypanosoma cruzi outbreaks can have more severe acute morbidity and higher mortality than vector-borne infection. Congenital T. cruzi infection occurs in 1-10% of infants of infected mothers. Most congenital infections are asymptomatic or cause non-specific signs, requiring laboratory screening for detection. A small proportion of congenital infections cause severe morbidity with hepatosplenomegaly, anaemia, meningoencephalitis and/or respiratory insufficiency, with an associated high mortality. Infected infants are presumed to carry the same 20-30% lifetime risk of cardiac or gastrointestinal disease as other infected individuals. Most control programs in Latin America employ prenatal serological screening followed by microscopic examination of cord blood from infants of seropositive mothers. Recent data confirm that polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is more sensitive and detects congenital infections earlier than conventional techniques. For infants not diagnosed at birth, conventional serology is recommended at at 6 to 9 months of age. In programs that have been evaluated, less than 20% of at risk infants completed all steps of the screening algorithm. A sensitive, specific and practical screening test for newborns is needed to enable Chagas disease to be added to newborn screening programs. PMID:21820550

Bern, Caryn; Martin, Diana L; Gilman, Robert H

2011-01-01

78

Chagas' disease as a foodborne illness.  

PubMed

Various researchers have studied the importance of the oral transmission of Chagas' disease since the mid-20th century. Only in recent years, due to an outbreak that occurred in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina in 2005 and to various outbreaks occurring during the last 3 years in the Brazilian Amazon basin, mainly associated with the consumption of Amazonian palm berry or açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice, has this transmission route aroused the attention of researchers. Nevertheless, reports published in the 1960s already indicated the possibility of Chagas' disease transmission via food in Brazil, mainly in the Amazonian region. Recently, in December 2007, an outbreak of Chagas' disease occurred in Caracas, Venezuela, related to ingestion of contaminated fruit juices. The objective of this article is to point out the importance of foodborne transmission in the etiology of Chagas' disease, on the basis of published research and Brazilian epidemiology data. PMID:19350996

Pereira, Karen Signori; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Guaraldo, Ana M A; Franco, Regina M B; Dias, Viviane L; Passos, Luiz A C

2009-02-01

79

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate  

PubMed Central

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7?±?1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells.

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

80

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus.  

PubMed

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures. We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, inoscavin B, davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-en, lanosta-7,9(11),23-triene-3?,22,25-triol, and inotodisaccharide and melanins. Metabolites from coculture also showed an increased potential for scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, and minor phenolic components are the major contributors for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical in monoculture, and phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, and inotodisaccharide are those for scavenging the tested radicals in coculture. Lanostane-type triterpenoids indicated limited roles in scavenging free radicals. Nearly all the detected metabolites correlate positively with inhibiting proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Thus, coculture of I. obliquus with other fungi seems to be a cost-effective strategy for upregulating biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites. PMID:20830471

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng; Liu, Fuming

2010-09-10

81

Chagas disease: criteria of cure and prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapeutic protocols for treating the acute and recent-chronic phases of Chagas disease were unanimously agreed upon by participants of the Symposium on the Specific Treatment of Chagas Disease n 1985. However, long-term clinical trials among patients treated (cured and uncured) for the indeterminate-chronic and initial-cardiac disease forms were recommended to better evaluate the curative action of drugs and to study

Eliane Dias Gontijo; Lúcia MC Galvão; Silvana Eloi-Santos

1999-01-01

82

Cell Therapy in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease which is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is an important cause of cardiomyopathy in Latin America. In later stages chagasic cardiomyopathy is associated with congestive heart failure which is often refractory to medical therapy. In these individuals heart transplantation has been attempted. However, this procedure is fraught with many problems attributable to the surgery and the postsurgical administration of immunosuppressive drugs. Studies in mice suggest that the transplantation of bone-marrow-derived cells ameliorates the inflammation and fibrosis in the heart associated with this infection. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging reveals that bone marrow transplantation ameliorates the infection induced right ventricular enlargement. On the basis of these animal studies the safety of autologous bone marrow transplantation has been assessed in patients with chagasic end-stage heart disease. The initial results are encouraging and more studies need to be performed.

Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Goldenberg, Regina C. S.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Soares, Milena B. P.; dos Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro; Spray, David C.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2009-01-01

83

Mushrooms (Released August 20, 2012).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sales of the 2011-2012 United States mushroom crop totaled 900 million pounds, up 4 percent from the 2010-2011 season. Value of sales for the 2011-2012 United States mushroom crop is $1.10 billion, up 8 percent from the previous season. The number of grow...

2012-01-01

84

Mushrooms (Released August 23, 2007).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sales of the 2006-07 U.S. mushroom crop are 827 million pounds, down 2 percent from the 2005-06 season and 3 percent below two years ago. Value of sales for the 2006-07 U.S. mushroom crop is $956 million, up 7 percent from the previous season and 5 percen...

2007-01-01

85

Mushrooms (Released August 20, 2009).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sales of the 2008-09 U.S. mushroom crop are 817 million pounds, up 1 percent from the 2007-08 season. Value of sales for the 2008-09 U.S. mushroom crop is $957 million, down 1 percent from the previous season. The number of growers, at 285, is up 6 from l...

2009-01-01

86

Mushrooms (Released August 22, 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sales of the 2007-08 U.S. mushroom crop are 809 million pounds, down 2 percent from the 2006-07 season and 4 percent below two years ago. Value of sales for the 2007-08 U.S. mushroom crop is $964 million, virtually unchanged from the previous season but 8...

2008-01-01

87

Mushroom Industry Technical Assistance Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates various ways that the industry can help itself - both growers and processors. The study looked into new marketing areas, new ways to process and can mushrooms, the nutritional value of mushrooms, an energy audit study for the growe...

1982-01-01

88

Contact dermatitis to Shiitake mushroom.  

PubMed

A 44-year-old woman with occupational allergic contact dermatitis to Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes), sawdust and thiuram. She presented with an 8-month history of hand and face dermatitis that developed after working for 2.5 years in a mushroom farm. Within 3 months of ceasing work at the farm, her symptoms resolved completely. PMID:12752194

Curnow, Paul; Tam, Mei

2003-05-01

89

Immunosuppression and Chagas Disease: A Management Challenge  

PubMed Central

Immunosuppression, which has become an increasingly relevant clinical condition in the last 50 years, modifies the natural history of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in most patients with Chagas disease. The main goal in this setting is to prevent the consequences of reactivation of T. cruzi infection by close monitoring. We analyze the relationship between Chagas disease and three immunosuppressant conditions, including a description of clinical cases seen at our center, a brief review of the literature, and recommendations for the management of these patients based on our experience and on the data in the literature. T. cruzi infection is considered an opportunistic parasitic infection indicative of AIDS, and clinical manifestations of reactivation are more severe than in acute Chagas disease. Parasitemia is the most important defining feature of reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole and/or nifurtimox is strongly recommended in such cases. It seems reasonable to administer trypanocidal treatment only to asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients with detectable parasitemia, and/or patients with clinically defined reactivation. Specific treatment for Chagas disease does not appear to be related to a higher incidence of neoplasms, and a direct role of T. cruzi in the etiology of neoplastic disease has not been confirmed. Systemic immunosuppressive diseases or immunosuppressants can modify the natural course of T. cruzi infection. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids have not been associated with higher rates of reactivation of Chagas disease. Despite a lack of evidence-based data, treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox should be initiated before immunosuppression where possible to reduce the risk of reactivation. Timely antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole and nifurtimox (or with posaconazole in cases of therapeutic failure) has proven to be highly effective in preventing Chagas disease reactivation, even if such treatment has not been formally incorporated into management protocols for immunosuppressed patients. International consensus guidelines based on expert opinion would greatly contribute to standardizing the management of immunosuppressed patients with Chagas disease.

Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Espinosa, Gerard; Cortes-Lletget, Cristina; Posada, Elizabeth de Jesus; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Oliveira, Ines; Munoz, Jose; Gallego, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim

2013-01-01

90

Mushroom compost worker's lung.  

PubMed Central

This study draws attention to difficulties in the diagnosis and the understanding of the mechanism of action of mushroom compost worker's lung. Descriptions are given of 4 workers in one factory who developed acute respiratory failure within a 6-month period; 13 others who were unaffected were also studied. Serological investigation appears to be largely unhelpful, and the evidence against the condition being included amongst the extrinsic allergic alveolitides is discussed. A detailed clinical and occupational history is essential for diagnosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Phillips, M S; Robinson, A A; Higenbottam, T W; Calder, I M

1987-01-01

91

Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract  

PubMed Central

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods.

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-01-01

92

Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding.  

PubMed

Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

Norman, Francesca F; López-Vélez, Rogelio

2013-10-01

93

[Institutional insertion of Chagas' disease control].  

PubMed

After the starting of the Center for studies and prophylaxis of Chagas disease in 1943, with the help of Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, in the city of Bambuí, state of Minas Gerais, technological and methodological basis for the extensive control of the disease were conceived. A main step to achieve success was the introduction of a new insecticide (gammexane, P 530) and the demonstration of its efficacy in the vector control. A consequence of these improvements was the official inauguration of the first prophylactic campaign for Chagas disease in Brazil, held in Uberaba in May, 1950. Even with the knowledge of how to control the vectorial transmission, financial resources were not available by this time, at a necessary degree to make it both regularly and in all the affected area. The institutional allocation of these activities is useful to understand the low priority given to them at that time. Several national services were created in 1941, for diseases as malaria, pest, smallpox, among others, but Chagas was included in a group of diseases with lower importance, inside a Division of Sanitary Organization. In 1956, the National Department of Rural endemies (DNERu) allocate all the major endemic diseases in a single institution, however this was not translated in an implementation program for the control of Chagas disease. After profound changes at the Ministry of Health, in 1970, the Superintendência de Campanhas de Saúde Pública (SUCAM) was in charge of all rural endemies including Chagas disease, which now could compete with other diseases transmitted by vectors, formerly priorities, included in the National Division. With this new status, more funds were available, as well as redistribution of personnel and expenses from the malaria program to the vectorial control of Chagas disease. In 1991 the Health National foundation was created to substitute SUCAM in the control of endemic diseases and it included all the units of the Ministry of Health related to epidemiology and disease control. By this time a new tendency for decentralization of these programs was clear. In the case of diseases transmitted by vectors, this was a major difference from the campaign model so far employed. At the same time, the Initiative for the South Cone countries for the control of Chagas disease started, sharing techniques among the countries of this region, as well as establishing similar objectives and trends, what possible helped to maintain Chagas disease as a priority among all the public health issues. From 2003 on, all activities for control of the disease at a national level are under responsibility of the Secretary of Health Surveillance of the Ministry of Health. PMID:21584353

Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Pimenta Jr, Fabiano

2011-01-01

94

American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) is endemic in nearly all Central and South American countries facing the Caribbean basin. Since 1960, reports from the islands of Aruba, Curaçao, Jamaica, and Trinidad have confirmed the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi, blood-sucking triatomine bugs, and wild animals infected with the parasite. It was also established that T. cruzi, triatomine bugs, infected wild animal reservoirs, and people with a positive serologic test for T. cruzi antibodies are to be found in Belize, the last country in Central America once thought to be free of Chagas' disease. PMID:96895

Petana, W B

1978-01-01

95

Quantum mushroom billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E-1/3 (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers (~105) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo

2007-12-01

96

[Diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease].  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi infection, or Chagas disease, was discovered more than 100 years ago by Carlos Chagas. Although the infection kills more than 15,000 people each year, it is still classified as a neglected tropical disease. Today, this disease affects eight million people in 21 Latin American countries and, due to immigration, is also present in non-endemic countries. In recent years, the size of the immigrant population with chronic imported forms of Chagas disease has increased in Spain. In addition, several cases of congenital transmission have been reported. Some patients have severe infection and require specialized treatment such as pacemaker implantation or even heart transplantation, representing a considerable clinical, social and economic burden, particularly in areas with a large immigrant population. Since the 1960s, the only drugs available for the etiological treatment of this infection have been benznidazole and nifurtimox. Although new, more effective and better tolerated compounds are urgently needed, treatment with these trypanocidal drugs is recommended in both the acute and chronic stages of Chagas disease. New strategies for diagnosis and infection control in chronically infected patients have recently been reported, allowing the effectiveness of treatments to be assessed. PMID:23453228

Murcia, Laura; Carrilero, Bartolomé; Saura, Daniel; Iborra, M Asunción; Segovia, Manuel

2013-02-01

97

Studies on the Volatile Compounds in Mushrooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication summarizes studies on volatile natural compounds, especially those in fresh mushrooms. Using a combined GLC-MS method, an average of 50 volatile compounds were identified in each of the seven fresh mushrooms Cantharellus cibarius, Gyromit...

H. Pyysalo

1975-01-01

98

Chagas disease in the Amazon region.  

PubMed

The risk that Chagas disease becomes established as a major endemic threat in Amazonia (the world's largest tropical biome, today inhabited by over 30 million people) relates to a complex set of interacting biological and social determinants. These include intense immigration from endemic areas (possibly introducing parasites and vectors), extensive landscape transformation with uncontrolled deforestation, and the great diversity of wild Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir hosts and vectors (25 species in nine genera), which maintain intense sylvatic transmission cycles. Invasion of houses by adventitious vectors (with infection rates > 60%) is common, and focal adaptation of native triatomines to artificial structures has been reported. Both acute (approximately 500) and chronic cases of autochthonous human Chagas disease have been documented beyond doubt in the region. Continuous, low-intensity transmission seems to occur throughout the Amazon, and generates a hypoendemic pattern with seropositivity rates of approximately 1-3%. Discrete foci also exist in which transmission is more intense (e.g., in localized outbreaks probably linked to oral transmission) and prevalence rates higher. Early detection-treatment of acute cases is crucial for avoiding further dispersion of endemic transmission of Chagas disease in Amazonia, and will require the involvement of malaria control and primary health care systems. Comprehensive eco-epidemiological research, including prevalence surveys or the characterization of transmission dynamics in different ecological settings, is still needed. The International Initiative for Chagas Disease Surveillance and Prevention in the Amazon provides the framework for building up the political and scientific cooperation networks required to confront the challenge of preventing Chagas disease in Amazonia. PMID:17891274

Aguilar, Hugo Marcelo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Junqueira, Angela Cristina Veríssimo; Coura, José Rodrigues

2007-11-05

99

Report of wood decay fungus Inonotus tropicalis (phylum Basidiomycota) from a dog with a granulomatous mediastinal mass.  

PubMed

A 75.9-kg, 3.5-year-old male Irish Wolfhound dog with a 2-3-week history of gagging and eating difficulties was referred to the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Hospital (Gainesville, Florida) for evaluation of a large cranial mediastinal mass suspected to be a thymoma or lymphosarcoma. The patient had 4 months of nearly 10 kg progressive weight loss with severe flank sensitivity and radiographically apparent lumbar vertebral changes interpreted as discospondylitis. Lab work revealed hyperglobulinemia, mild proteinuria, normal T4, negative Brucella canis titer, and negative blood and urine bacterial cultures. A thoracotomy revealed a nonresectable, destructive, space-occupying mediastinal mass resulting in euthanasia without surgical recovery. Biopsies from the mass were collected during surgery for histology. Microscopic examination revealed extensive granulomatous cellulitis and lymphadenitis characterized by central cavitated necrotic areas containing debris and degenerate neutrophils, intermediate zones of fibrovascular proliferation with marked mixed inflammation, peripheral fibrosis, frequent multinucleated macrophages, and scattered mineralization. The necrotic material contained dense mats of 2 µm wide by 8-15 µm long fungal hyphae with parallel walls, acute angle branching, frequent septae, and occasional bulb-like dilations. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed the presence of a fungus in the Inonotus tropicalis group. Inonotus tropicalis is primarily a wood decay fungus that is found on dead wood from angiosperms in tropical and subtropical habitats. Isolates of the I. tropicalis group have been detected a few times from immunosuppressed human beings with X-linked granulomatous disease. PMID:23929678

Sheppard, Barbara J; McGrath, Elizabeth; Giuffrida, Michelle; Craft, Serena L M; Kung, Chung Yee; Smith, Matthew E

2013-08-08

100

7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as a commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing...

2008-01-01

101

7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as a commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing...

2013-01-01

102

7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Eligible mushrooms is a value loss crop and is only compensable in accord with the restrictions of this section. To be eligible, the mushrooms must be grown as a commercial crop in a facility with a controlled environment utilizing good mushroom growing...

2006-01-01

103

21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food...Canned Vegetables § 155.201 Canned mushrooms. (a) Identity â(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from...

2010-04-01

104

21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food...Canned Vegetables § 155.201 Canned mushrooms. (a) Identity â(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from...

2013-04-01

105

21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Canned mushrooms. 155.201 Section 155.201 Food...Canned Vegetables § 155.201 Canned mushrooms. (a) Identity â(1) Definition. Canned mushrooms is the food properly prepared from...

2009-04-01

106

Proceedings towards a natural classification of the worldwide taxa Phellinus s.l. and Inonotus s.l., and phylogenetic relationships of allied genera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classification of Phellinus s.l., Inonotus s.l. and the phylogenetic relationships of allied gen- era were studied using nuc-lsu rDNA sequence data. The worldwide taxon sampling comprised 107 spe- cies, 99 of them belonging to the Hymenochaetales. The phylogenetic trees were discussed in relation to morphological and anatomical features of the fruit bodies. The Hymenochaetales formed no monophy- letic group

Tobias Wagner

107

Quantum mushroom billiards  

SciTech Connect

We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo [Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2007-12-15

108

Mushroom keratoplasty in pediatric patients?  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the outcome of mushroom keratoplasty for the treatment of full thickness corneal disease in pediatric patients with healthy endothelium. Methods A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who underwent mushroom keratoplasty. The medical records of pediatric patients suffering from full thickness corneal stromal disease with normal endothelium who underwent mushroom keratoplasty at our Institution were included. A two-piece donor graft consisting of a large anterior stromal lamella (9.0 mm in diameter and ±250 ?m in thickness) and a small posterior lamella (5–6.5 mm in diameter) including deep stroma and endothelium, prepared with the aid of a microkeratome had been transplanted in all cases. Ophthalmic examination including slit lamp examination, best corrected visual acuity, and corneal topography was performed preoperatively and at each postoperative visit on all patients. The endothelial cells were assessed by specular microscopy in these patients. Results Six eyes of six patients (five males and one female) were included. The mean age was 9.3 years (range 5–15 years). Average follow-up was 17.8 months (range 9–48 months). There were no early or late complications recorded. All corneas were clear at the last follow up visit. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was worse than 20/70 in all six eyes. Postoperatively, four eyes achieved BCVA of 20/40 or better. Endothelial cell loss (n eyes = 3 averaged 24% (range 19–31%). The mean endothelial cell loss was 24% (range 19–31%) among these patients. Conclusions Microkeratome assisted mushroom keratoplasty is a viable surgical option for pediatric eyes with full thickness corneal stromal disease and healthy endothelium. Mushroom keratoplasty combines the refractive advantage of a large penetrating keratoplasty with the survival advantage of a small penetrating keratoplasty. Furthermore, mushroom keratoplasty exhibits the mechanical advantage of a shaped keratoplasty.

Busin, Massimo; Beltz, Jacqueline; Scorcia, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

109

[Chagas Carlos Justiniano Ribeiro (1879-1934)].  

PubMed

The story of the life of Carlos Chagas is closely associated with the discovery of American Human Trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Indeed, he worked on this for almost all of his life. Nowadays he is considered as a national hero, but, when he was alive, he was criticised more severely in his own country than elsewhere, often unjustly and motivated by jealousy, but sometimes with good reason. Cases of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries became such a concern that public health measures have had to be taken. In this article we give a short account of the scientific journey of this man, who can be said to occupy his very own place in the history of Tropical Medicine. PMID:20131419

Pays, J F

2009-12-01

110

Non-volatile taste components of several commercial mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Taichung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were collected from commercial sources. Strain yellow contained 26.7% of proteins (higher than other mushrooms). Shiitake and the two oyster mushrooms contained more than 60% of carbohydrates. Arabitol was found in the highest amounts only in winter mushrooms. Glucose, mannitol and

Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau

2001-01-01

111

[Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in France].  

PubMed

Chagas disease is an anthropozoonotic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted by a hematophagous triatomine insect vector belonging to the Reduviidae family, while taking a blood meal. There is a large reservoir of wild and domestic mammals. Human contamination may come via vectorial, transplacental, and digestive routes, blood transfusion, organ or tissue transplantation, and by accident. The disease has two phases. The acute phase, oligosymptomatic, is frequently undiagnosed. It is followed by a chronic phase. Most of the infected patients remain asymptomatic all life-long. But 10 or 25 years later, one third of infected patients present with cardiac or digestive complications. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina. In French Guyana, the prevalence of the infection was estimated at 0.25% and 0.5% (from 500 to 1000 infected patients) on blood samples collected from 1992 to 1998. In 2000 and 2009, 192 cases were diagnosed. In this district, there is no established domestic vector and the transmission risk is low. The vector is very easily found in forest habitats and even in the peridomestic persistent forest, with an infection rate of 46 to 86%. Vectorial eradication is impossible. Fighting against Chagas disease in French Guyana relies more on individual protection, control of blood transfusion, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of infected patients than on vectorial control. PMID:22591727

Salamanca-Dejour, D; Blanchet, D; Aznar, C; La Ruche, G; Jeannel, D; Gastellu-Etchegorry, M

2012-05-14

112

The Mushroom Place. Part III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

Schlichter, Carol

1978-01-01

113

The Mushroom Place. Part III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

Schlichter, Carol

1978-01-01

114

Molecular epidemiologic source tracking of orally transmitted Chagas disease, Venezuela.  

PubMed

Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

Segovia, Maikell; Carrasco, Hernán J; Martínez, Clara E; Messenger, Louisa A; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

2013-07-01

115

Stress Testing and Working Capacity in Chagas’ Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EKG response to exercise and the working capacity in a group of 70 patients with positive serology for Chagas’ disease has been determined by stress testing on a bicycle-ergometer, in order to establish the usefulness of such a test in the early diagnosis of Chagas’ cardiomyopathy. The exercise EKG provides information which cannot be obtained by other diagnostic procedures,

Eduardo Hirschhaut; Jose M. Aparicio

1978-01-01

116

Distribution and characterization of canine Chagas disease in Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although acute and chronic cases of canine Chagas disease have been reported from multiple areas in the southern region of the United States, little data are available on current disease occurrence patterns in endemic areas. Therefore, a study to assess frequency, geographic distribution, signalment, and clinical spectrum of Chagas disease in domestic dogs from Texas was conducted. Serology, histopathology, and

S. A. Kjos; K. F. Snowden; T. M. Craig; B. Lewis; N. Ronald; J. K. Olson

2008-01-01

117

Mushroom Culture: A New Potential for Fishery Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fish solubles were successfully substituted for other organic nitrogen supplements commonly used in mushroom composting and subsequent mushroom culture. These experiments performed in 1971-1972, indicated that in certain situations larger mushrooms were p...

J. H. Green

1974-01-01

118

Bad Bug Book Poisonous mushrooms and their edible look ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Galerina autumnalis (Autumn Skullcap), LBM, "Little Brown Mushrooms," including Gymnopilus spectabilis (Big Laughing Mushroom) and other ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/causesofillnessbadbugbook

119

Isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from retail mushrooms.  

PubMed Central

Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 3 (1.5%) of 200 retail, polyvinyl chloride film-wrapped, fresh mushrooms. These results indicate that fresh mushrooms may indeed be a source of C. jejuni and support previously reported epidemiological data (Seattle-King County Department of Public Health, Surveillance of the Flow of Salmonella and Campylobacter in a Community, 1984) which revealed an an elevated relative risk of developing campylobacter enteritis in individuals who consume mushrooms.

Doyle, M P; Schoeni, J L

1986-01-01

120

Antioxidant properties of several commercial mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Tainung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were obtained commercially and methanolic extracts were prepared from these mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities by the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate to high at 1.2 mg ml?1. Reducing powers were excellent (and higher than 1.28

Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau

2002-01-01

121

Beta-glucans in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible mushrooms contain interesting functional components. In particular beta glucans, homo- and hetero-glucans with ?(1?3), ?(1?4) and ?(1?6) glucosidic linkages, are supposed to be responsible for some healthy properties of mushrooms. In this research the amount of beta glucans in different edible mushroom species has been evaluated and their distribution within the soluble and insoluble fractions of dietary fibre has

Pamela Manzi; Laura Pizzoferrato

2000-01-01

122

Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.  

PubMed

White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

2013-02-14

123

Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini,

Katherine M. Phillips; Ronald L. Horst; Nicholas J. Koszewski; Ryan R. Simon

2012-01-01

124

Mushroom fruiting and climate change  

PubMed Central

Many species of fungi produce ephemeral autumnal fruiting bodies to spread and multiply. Despite their attraction for mushroom pickers and their economic importance, little is known about the phenology of fruiting bodies. Using ?34,500 dated herbarium records we analyzed changes in the autumnal fruiting date of mushrooms in Norway over the period 1940–2006. We show that the time of fruiting has changed considerably over this time period, with an average delay in fruiting since 1980 of 12.9 days. The changes differ strongly between species and groups of species. Early-fruiting species have experienced a stronger delay than late fruiters, resulting in a more compressed fruiting season. There is also a geographic trend of earlier fruiting in the northern and more continental parts of Norway than in more southern and oceanic parts. Incorporating monthly precipitation and temperature variables into the analyses provides indications that increasing temperatures during autumn and winter months bring about significant delay of fruiting both in the same year and in the subsequent year. The recent changes in autumnal mushroom phenology coincide with the extension of the growing season caused by global climate change and are likely to continue under the current climate change scenario.

Kauserud, Havard; Stige, Leif Christian; Vik, Jon Olav; ?kland, Rune H.; H?iland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

2008-01-01

125

Diagnosis and management of Chagas disease and cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most severe and life-threatening manifestation of human Chagas disease--a 'neglected' tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease is endemic in all continental Latin American countries, but has become a worldwide problem because of migration of infected individuals to developed countries, mainly in Europe and North America. Chagas cardiomyopathy results from the combined effects of persistent parasitism, parasite-driven tissue inflammation, microvascular and neurogenic dysfunction, and autoimmune responses triggered by the infection. Clinical presentation varies widely according to the extent of myocardial damage, and manifests mainly as three basic syndromes that can coexist in an individual patient: heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, and thromboembolism. NYHA functional class, left ventricular systolic function, and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia are important prognostic markers of the risk of death. Management of Chagas cardiomyopathy focuses on the treatment of the three main syndromes. The use of ?-blockers in patients with Chagas disease and heart failure is safe, well tolerated, and should be encouraged. Most specialists and international institutions now recommend specific antitrypanosomal treatment of patients with chronic Chagas disease, even in the absence of evidence obtained from randomized clinical trials. Further research on the management of patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy is necessary. PMID:22847166

Ribeiro, Antonio L; Nunes, Maria P; Teixeira, Mauro M; Rocha, Manoel O C

2012-07-31

126

The controversy on the early history of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Recently historians of medicine have proposed three distinctive accounts of early history of Chagas disease (American trypasonomiasis). According to the first the disease, described by the Brazilian researcher Carlos Chagas in 1909, was "deconstructed" in the 1920s and disappeared for about twenty years, then was recovered in the 1940s, mainly through the epidemiological studies of Emmanuel Dias and his colleagues in Minas Gerais (Brazil). According to the second Chagas disease could not be "deconstructed" in the 1920s because it did not exist at that time. Chagas observations were inaccurate and unreliable and did not define a new human pathology. The entity called today "Chagas disease" appeared in the 1930, principally as the result of investigations of Cecilio Romaña in Argentina. Finally, a third view assumes that "Chagas disease" was constructed gradually between 1909 and the 1950s through the collective efforts of numerous Latino-American researchers. This paper juxtaposes different histories of Chagas disease, and argues that their divergences stems from allegiance to distinct, partly incommensurable epistemological "thought styles". The co-existence of divergent styles of historical investigation, this text proposes, should be perceived as potential source of enrichment of our understanding of the past. PMID:16866038

Löwy, I

2005-12-01

127

NMR and Mushrooms : imaging post harvest senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study described in this thesis was to explore the potentials of NMR for the study of water relations in harvested mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus ). Since harvested mushrooms tend to continue their growth after harvest, their morphogenesis is heavily influenced by the external climatic conditions. Their respirative resources as well as their internal water can not

H. C. W. Donker

1999-01-01

128

Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic intervention in the fly Drosophila melanogaster has provided strong evidence that the mushroom bodies of the insect brain act as the seat of a memory trace for odours. This localization gives the mushroom bodies a place in a network model of olfactory memory that is based on the functional anatomy of the olfactory system. In the model, complex odour

Martin Heisenberg

2003-01-01

129

Development of fermented oyster-mushroom sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project addressed the consumer driven need for the development of a healthier substitute to the Thai fermented pork sausage; a traditional popular product which, however, contains very high levels of saturated fat. Oyster mushrooms were used as a substitute for pork and the optimal ratio of mushroom to rice was revealed through a two-stage recipe optimisation process. Using this

Suwimol Chockchaisawasdee; Supawat Namjaidee; Singdong Pochana

130

Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity: an update.  

PubMed

There is significant interest in the use of mushrooms and/or mushroom extracts as dietary supplements based on theories that they enhance immune function and promote health. To some extent, select mushrooms have been shown to have stimulatory action on immune responsiveness, particularly when studied in vitro. However, despite their widespread use for potential health benefits, there is a surprising paucity of epidemiologic and experimental studies that address the biologic activities of mushrooms after oral administration to animals or humans. There have been a number of studies that have addressed the ability of mushrooms to modulate mononuclear cell activation and the phenotypic expression of cytokines and their cognate receptors. There have also been a number of attempts to determine antitumor activities of mushrooms. Such studies are important because many of the components of mushrooms do potentially have significant biologic activity. All data, however, should be tempered by the possibility that there are toxic levels of metals, including arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury as well as the presence of radioactive contamination with 137Cs. In this review, we will present the comparative biology with respect to both immunological and antitumor activities of mushroom extracts and also highlight the need for further evidence-based research. PMID:15096651

Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

2004-05-01

131

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

132

Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of extending knowledge on chemical and nutritional characteristics of commercial mushrooms widely consumed in Italy, fresh and processed mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Boletus group) were analysed fresh or after cooking. Results show that botanical variety, processing and cooking are all effective determinants of mushroom proximate composition. Dried mushrooms (Boletus group) after cooking show the highest

Pamela Manzi; Altero Aguzzi; Laura Pizzoferrato

2001-01-01

133

Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

1986-01-01

134

Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

1986-01-01

135

V350 Mushrooms: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

eating the mushroom, but mushrooms are found in the pet's environment. Clinical signs associated with mushroom poisoning are varied, depending on toxin and dose, and are not unique. There are few laboratories that actually test for the toxins present in mushrooms, and many of the toxins have short half-lives. In addition, specimen preservation is critical to accurate identification by a

Patricia A. Talcott; WA Pullman

136

The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-?. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-? production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively) induced TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-1? while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-? response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-? and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food.

Yu, Sanhong; Weaver, Veronika; Martin, Keith; Cantorna, Margherita T

2009-01-01

137

Chagas disease: an overview of clinical and epidemiological aspects.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America and is an emerging disease in non-endemic countries. In recent decades, the epidemiological profile of the disease has changed due to new patterns of immigration and successful control in its transmission, leading to the urbanization and globalization of the disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most important and severe manifestation of human chronic Chagas disease and is characterized by heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias, heart blocks, thromboembolic phenomena, and sudden death. This article will present an overview of the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease. It will focus on several clinical aspects of the disease, such as chronic Chagas disease without detectable cardiac pathology, as well as dysautonomia, some specific features, and the principles of treatment of chronic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23770163

Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira; Dones, Wistremundo; Morillo, Carlos A; Encina, Juan Justiniano; Ribeiro, Antônio Luiz

2013-06-13

138

Dynamical Tunneling in Mushroom Billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the fundamental question of dynamical tunneling in generic two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems by considering regular-to-chaotic tunneling rates. Experimentally, we use microwave spectra to investigate a mushroom billiard with adjustable foot height. Numerically, we obtain tunneling rates from high precision eigenvalues using the improved method of particular solutions. Analytically, a prediction is given by extending an approach using a fictitious integrable system to billiards. In contrast to previous approaches for billiards, we find agreement with experimental and numerical data without any free parameter.

Bäcker, A.; Ketzmerick, R.; Löck, S.; Robnik, M.; Vidmar, G.; Höhmann, R.; Kuhl, U.; Stöckmann, H.-J.

2008-05-01

139

Antibodies to laminin in Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

We have found that sera from humans with Chagas' disease and Rhesus monkeys infected with Trypanosoma cruzi contain IgM and IgG antibodies, which react with structures in a variety of connective tissues. These antibodies react with laminin but not with various other purified connective tissue components like collagen types I, III, IV, and V, fibronectin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, or chondronectin. The tissue-reacting antibodies were isolated by absorption to a laminin- Sepharose column. The bound fraction contained all the tissue-reacting antibodies. These antibodies strongly stained trypomastigotes and amastigotes, but weakly stained epimastigotes. These studies show that sera from T. cruzi-infected primates contain antilaminin antibodies, which may be produced by those host in response to a laminin-like molecule present in the parasite.

1982-01-01

140

HLA and ?-myosin heavy chain do not influence susceptibility to Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy occurs in 30% of Chagas' disease patients, chronically infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, while the remaining infected individuals are asymptomatic. Studies have indicated a role for genetic factors in the susceptibility to Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy. In an attempt to identify the genetic factors influencing the development and outcome of Chagas' cardiomyopathy, we compared the frequencies of alleles

Kellen C. Faé; Sandra A. Drigo; Edécio Cunha-Neto; Bárbara Ianni; Charles Mady; Jorge Kalil; Anna C. Goldberg

2000-01-01

141

The molecular genetics of cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to those found in GenBank by August 1999. The gene sequences isolated from the white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus, the shiitake Lentinula edodes, the oyster mushrooms Pleurotus spp., the paddy straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea and the enotake Flammulina velutipes are described. The largest group are genes from A. bisporus, which includes 29 for intracellular proteins and 12 for secreted proteins. In comparison, only a total of 26 sequences can be reported for the other cultivated species. A. bisporus is also the only cultivated species for which molecular karyotyping is already supported by reliable markers for all 13 of its chromosomes. PMID:10907549

Whiteford, J R; Thurston, C F

2000-01-01

142

7 CFR 1437.307 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...filtration. (c) The growing medium must consist of a substrate (a habitat and nutrient base) sterilized by heat treatment. (d) Good mushroom growing practices must be used, and they consist of proper and adequate insect and...

2012-01-01

143

Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.  

PubMed

Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of ?-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-11-08

144

Spectral properties of Bunimovich mushroom billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properties of a quantum mushroom billiard in the form of a superconducting microwave resonator have been investigated. They reveal unexpected nonuniversal features such as, e.g., a supershell effect in the level density and a dip in the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. Theoretical predictions for the quantum properties of mixed systems rely on the sharp separability of phase space—an unusual property met by mushroom billiards. We however find deviations which are ascribed to the presence of dynamic tunneling.

Dietz, B.; Friedrich, T.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Schäfer, F.

2007-03-01

145

Thin layer convection-drying of mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydration characteristics of the Oyster Pleurotus variety of mushroom were studied. Both untreated and treated (steam blanching followed by sulphiting and citric acid pretreatment before drying) mushrooms were dried in the thin layer drying experimental equipment at each of the drying air temperatures of 45, 50 and 60°C with air velocities of 0.9 and 1.6 m\\/s. Studies on the equilibrium

A. Chakraverty

1997-01-01

146

Chagas disease in Italy: breaking an epidemiological silence.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease that due to population movements is no longer limited to Latin America, threatens a wide spectrum of people(travellers, migrants, blood or organ recipients,newborns, adoptees) also in non-endemic countries where it is generally underdiagnosed. In Italy, the available epidemiological data about Chagas disease have been very limited up to now, although the country is second in Europe only to Spain in the number of residents from Latin American. Among 867 at-risk subjectsscreened between 1998 and 2010, the Centre for Tropical Diseases in Negrar (Verona) and the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, University of Florence found 4.2% patients with positive serology for Chagas disease (83.4% of them migrants, 13.8% adoptees).No cases of Chagas disease were identified in blood donors or HIV-positive patients of Latin American origin. Among 214 Latin American pregnant women,three were infected (resulting in abortion in one case).In 2005 a case of acute Chagas disease was recorded in an Italian traveller. Based on our observations, we believe that a wider assessment of the epidemiological situation is urgently required in our country and public health measures preventing transmission and improving access to diagnosis and treatment should be implemented. PMID:21944554

Angheben, A; Anselmi, M; Gobbi, F; Marocco, S; Monteiro, G; Buonfrate, D; Tais, S; Talamo, M; Zavarise, G; Strohmeyer, M; Bartalesi, F; Mantella, A; Di Tommaso, M; Aiello, Kh; Veneruso, G; Graziani, G; Ferrari, Mm; Spreafico, I; Bonifacio, E; Gaiera, G; Lanzafame, M; Mascarello, M; Cancrini, G; Albajar-Vinas, P; Bisoffi, Z; Bartoloni, A

2011-09-15

147

Mushroom poisoning cases in dogs and cats: diagnosis and treatment of hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, gastroenterotoxic, nephrotoxic, and muscarinic mushrooms.  

PubMed

Of the several thousand species of mushrooms found in North America, less than 100 are toxic. Species in the genus Amanita are responsible for the vast majority of reported mushroom poisonings. In general, the number of reported mushroom poisonings in animals is low, most likely because toxicology testing is available for a limited number of mushroom toxins and thus many cases are not confirmed or reported. Also, only a limited number of mushrooms are submitted for identification purposes. Mushroom intoxications require tremendous efforts from clinicians and toxicologists in terms of making a diagnosis and treatment, and management is challenging. PMID:22381186

Puschner, Birgit; Wegenast, Colette

2011-12-30

148

Highly Effective Serodiagnosis for Chagas' Disease ?  

PubMed Central

Many proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, contain characteristic arrays of highly repetitive immunogenic amino acid motifs. Diagnostic tests using these motifs in monomeric or dimeric form have proven to provide markedly improved specificity compared to conventional tests based on crude parasite extracts. However, in many cases the available tests still suffer from limited sensitivity. In this study we produced stable synthetic genes with maximal codon variability for the four diagnostic antigens, B13, CRA, TcD, and TcE, each containing between three and nine identical amino acid repeats. These genes were combined by linker sequences encoding short proline-rich peptides, giving rise to a 24-kDa fusion protein which was used as a novel diagnostic antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay setup. Validation of the assay with a large number of well-characterized patient sera from Bolivia and Brazil revealed excellent diagnostic performance. The high sensitivity of the new test may allow future studies to use blood collected by finger prick and dried on filter paper, thus dramatically reducing the costs and effort for the detection of T. cruzi infection.

Hernandez, Pilar; Heimann, Michael; Riera, Cristina; Solano, Marco; Santalla, Jose; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Beck, Ewald

2010-01-01

149

Left ventricular malposition of pacemaker lead in Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

A 52-year-old Argentinian woman presented with third-degree AV block due to seropositive chronic stage of Chagas' disease. Subsequently, a DDD pacemaker was implanted. Interestingly, a postoperative chest X ray suggested left ventricular lead misplacement, an ECG showed a paced RBBB. Echocardiography confirmed suspected lead malposition in the left ventricle with perforation of a large aneurysm of the interatrial septum that might be related to Chagas' disease. The ventricular lead was successfully repositioned in the right ventricle. Therefore, to avoid lead malposition in Chagas' disease structural cardiac defects should always be ruled out before operation. If a paced RBBB indicates malposition, different fluoroscopic projections should be used to verify lead position. PMID:15613133

Chun, Julian K R; Bode, Frank; Wiegand, Uwe K H

2004-12-01

150

Biologic and Genetics Aspects of Chagas Disease at Endemic Areas  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agent of Chagas Disease is the Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted through blood-sucking insect vectors of the Triatominae subfamily, representing one of the most serious public health concerns in Latin America. There are geographic variations in the prevalence of clinical forms and morbidity of Chagas disease, likely due to genetic variation of the T. cruzi and the host genetic and environmental features. Increasing evidence has supported that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are responsible for the generation of the inflammatory infiltrate and tissue damage. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms, protein expression levels, and genomic imbalances are associated with disease progression. This paper discusses these key aspects. Large surveys were carried out in Brazil and served as baseline for definition of the control measures adopted. However, Chagas disease is still active, and aspects such as host-parasite interactions, genetic mechanisms of cellular interaction, genetic variability, and tropism need further investigations in the attempt to eradicate the disease.

Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Silistino-Souza, Rosana; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercilia Vilela; Silva, Ana Elizabete

2012-01-01

151

Acquired Cell-Mediated Immunodepression in Acute Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

In this study two groups of patients with acute Chagas' disease were identified. Group one consisted of five patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease. These patients showed symptoms and signals of an acute illness, such as high fever and enlarged spleen. One of these patients developed severe myocarditis and heart failure. Group two consisted of seven patients with inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This was a nonclinical entity, not perceived by the patient who did not seek medical care. The diagnosis was made by the shift of a serologic test which indicates the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. The patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease showed positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen. Also, their leukocytes showed significant inhibition of migration in the presence of this antigen. By contrast, the patients with the inapparent acute Chagas' disease did not show positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen and no significant inhibition was observed when their cells migrated in the presence of this antigen. Of interest, none of these patients was capable of developing contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. However, three out of five patients with the apparent acute disease and all the normal control subjects showed positive contact reaction after sensitization to this drug. The results of these experiments would suggest that the thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function is depressed in patients with the clinically inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This immunodepression seems to be acquired in the course of the T. cruzi infection because all patients showed positive delayed-type skin response to at least one ubiquitous microbial extract, thus indicating previously normal T-cell function. We hypothesize that T. cruzi antigens may directly stimulate T cells with the concomitant release of factors that might become supressive for T-cell responses. Furthermore, the suppressive effect might interfere with the T-cell response to other antigens, such as to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Images

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Teixeira, Gloria; Macedo, Vanize; Prata, Aluizio

1978-01-01

152

The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare.

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martinez, Monica Florez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

2008-01-01

153

Muscarinic toxicity among family members after consumption of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care. PMID:23833447

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

154

Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

155

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis induced by Shiitake mushroom spores.  

PubMed

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is a pulmonary granulomatosis involving an immunoallergic mechanism caused by chronic inhalation of antigens, most frequently organic substances, as well as chemicals. We report the first European case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to the inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores. A 37-year-old French Caucasian man with a one-month history of persistent dry cough, shortness of breath and loss of weight was admitted to our hospital on December 2010. Anamnesis showed he was involved in mushroom production beginning in the summer of 2010. His temperature on admission was 36.6°C and he had a normal blood pressure (135/90 mmHg). Bilateral fine crackles were audible in the base of both lungs. Pulmonary function tests showed a mild restrictive pattern with decreased DLco and a PaO(2) of 65 mmHg, Chest CT scan revealed reticulo-nodular shadows, slight ground glass opacities, liner atelectasis, and subpleural opacities in both lung fields. Bronchoscopy was normal but cytological examination of BAL revealed a predominant lymphocytosis (55%). Serum precipitins to the Shiitake mushroom spores were positive (3 precipitins arcs with high intensity) and as a result we advised the patient to cease his mushroom production activities. The diagnosis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to inhalation of Shiitake mushroom spores was established as a result of the improvement of all of his clinical symptoms, i.e., cough, weight loss, bilateral fine crackles, mild restrictive pattern of pulmonary function, and reticulo-nodular shadows on chest CT, once exposure was eliminated. Recent interest in exotic mushrooms varieties, e.g., Shiitake, in developed countries because of their possible medicinal properties might increase the potential risk of HP among mushrooms workers. Therefore, healthcare professionals have to take this new potential respiratory disease into account. PMID:22329454

Ampere, Alexandre; Delhaes, Laurence; Soots, Jacques; Bart, Frederic; Wallaert, Benoit

2012-02-14

156

Vitamins B 1 and B 2 contents in cultivated mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms have long been treated as a delicacy. Nowadays however, many researchers consider them to be nutraceutical foods, which has stimulated new and existing Brazilian producers to search for more productive techniques and to introduce other species. The objective of this study was to determine the vitamin B1 and B2 contents in mushrooms. The main species of mushroom cultivated in

Regina Prado Zanes Furlani; Helena Teixeira Godoy

2008-01-01

157

Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding contin- ues to be the principal method,

Leifa Fan; Huijuan Pan; Andrea Thomaz Soccol; Ashok Pandey; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2006-01-01

158

Development of an Automatic Electrical Stimulator for Mushroom Sawdust Bottle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In is well known among mushroom farmers that many mushrooms extraordinarily grow within several tens of meters around the spot where lightning strikes. It is supposed that the electrical stimulus of thunderbolts into myceliated logs accelerates the generation or development of mushrooms. Unfortunately, we cannot control natural thunderbolts but we can create artificial thunderbolts such as the pulsed high voltages

S. Tsukamoto; H. Kudoh; S. Ohga; K. Yamamoto; H. Akiyama

2005-01-01

159

Kinetics of the conversion of ergosterol in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 has been investigated in cultivated edible mushrooms. It was observed that the rates of conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 were varied in different types of mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) showed the highest conversion rate followed by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and Abalone (Pleurotus cystidus) whereas the lowest conversion rate was observed

Viraj J. Jasinghe; Conrad O. Perera; Shyam S. Sablani

2007-01-01

160

LOW TEMPERATURE MUSHROOM (A. bisporus) DRYING WITH DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFIERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) slices of 2·5 and 5 mm thick were dried with dehumidified air at 20°, 30° and 40°C. Rehydration ability of dried mushrooms was used as criteria for the evaluation and determination of optimum conditions. Drying mechanism of the mushroom slices was expressed by unsteady state diffusion and the results were interpreted by Fickian model. Drying temperatures lower

F. Gurtas Seyhan; Ö Evranuz

2000-01-01

161

Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms

S. P. Wasser

2002-01-01

162

Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentinus edodes (Berk.), the shiitake mushroom, is worldwide one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms. Sawdust is the most popular basal ingredient used in synthetic substrate formulations for producing shiitake spawn. However, the best sawdust for this uses needs to be determined. Shiitake mushroom was cultivated on sawdust from the woody plants Babla (Acacia nilotica L.), Champa (Michelia champaca L.),

M. Ashrafuzzaman; A. K. M. Kamruzzaman; M. Razi; S. M. Shahidullah

163

Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality.

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

2010-01-01

164

Nonperiodic echoes from mushroom billiard hats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mushroom billiards have the remarkable property to show one or more clear cut integrable islands in one or several chaotic seas, without any fractal boundaries. The islands correspond to orbits confined to the hats of the mushrooms, which they share with the chaotic orbits. It is thus interesting to ask how long a chaotic orbit will remain in the hat before returning to the stem. This question is equivalent to the inquiry about delay times for scattering from the hat of the mushroom into an opening where the stem should be. For fixed angular momentum we find that no more than three different delay times are possible. This induces striking nonperiodic structures in the delay times that may be of importance for mesoscopic devices and should be accessible to microwave experiments.

Dietz, B.; Friedrich, T.; Miski-Oglu, M.; Richter, A.; Seligman, T. H.; Zapfe, K.

2006-11-01

165

Structures of One and Two Polymer Mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer mushroom here is referred to as a group of chains end- grafted at the same point on a flat and impenetrable substrate. Using lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations with the Kronecker ?-function interactions (instead of the commonly used nearest-neighbor interactions), we have studied the structures of one and two polymer mushrooms in an explicit solvent as a function of the polymer volume fraction in the system, solvent quality characterized by the Flory-Huggins ? parameter, and distance between the two mushrooms. Since LSCF results are exact only in the limit of number of chains n ->?, we also use fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulationsootnotetextQ. Wang, Soft Matter, 5, 4564 (2009). with the same Hamiltonian as in LSCF theory to examine how this limit is approached with increasing n. Direct comparisons between LSCF and FLMC results without any parameter-fitting quantify the fluctuation/correlation effects neglected in LSCF theory.

Yang, Delian; Wang, Qiang

2011-03-01

166

PROGRESSIVE CHAGAS' CARDIOMYOPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW SELENIUM LEVELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium (Se) deficiency is linked with some cardiomyopathies. Its status was determined in 170 patients with chronic Chagas' disease from 2 Brazilian regions (Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte), clinically stratified into groups as follows: indeterminate or asymptomatic (IND); cardiac asymptomatic (CARDa); cardiac symptomatic with moderate to severe heart dysfunction (CARDb); and healthy adults (HA), used for comparison. In most

MARIA TERESA RIVERA; ANDRÉA P. DE SOUZA; ALEJANDRO HASSLOCHER M. MORENO; SERGIO S. XAVIER; JULIANA A. S. GOMES; MANOEL OTÁVIO C. ROCHA; RODRIGO CORREA-OLIVEIRA; JEAN NÈVE; JEAN VANDERPAS; TANIA C. ARAÚJO-JORGE

167

Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States  

PubMed Central

A high proportion of triatomine insects, vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi trypanosomes, collected in Arizona and California and examined using a novel assay had fed on humans. Other triatomine insects were positive for T. cruzi parasite infection, which indicates that the potential exists for vector transmission of Chagas disease in the United States.

Dorn, Patricia L.; Hobson, Julia; de la Rua, Nicholas M.; Lucero, David E.; Klotz, John H.; Schmidt, Justin O.; Klotz, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

168

Global economic burden of Chagas disease: a computational simulation model  

PubMed Central

Summary Background As Chagas disease continues to expand beyond tropical and subtropical zones, a growing need exists to better understand its resulting economic burden to help guide stakeholders such as policy makers, funders, and product developers. We developed a Markov simulation model to estimate the global and regional health and economic burden of Chagas disease from the societal perspective. Methods Our Markov model structure had a 1 year cycle length and consisted of five states: acute disease, indeterminate disease, cardiomyopathy with or without congestive heart failure, megaviscera, and death. Major model parameter inputs, including the annual probabilities of transitioning from one state to another, and present case estimates for Chagas disease came from various sources, including WHO and other epidemiological and disease-surveillance-based reports. We calculated annual and lifetime health-care costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for individuals, countries, and regions. We used a discount rate of 3% to adjust all costs and DALYs to present-day values. Findings On average, an infected individual incurs US$474 in health-care costs and 0·51 DALYs annually. Over his or her lifetime, an infected individual accrues an average net present value of $3456 and 3·57 DALYs. Globally, the annual burden is $627·46 million in health-care costs and 806 170 DALYs. The global net present value of currently infected individuals is $24·73 billion in health-care costs and 29 385 250 DALYs. Conversion of this burden into costs results in annual per-person costs of $4660 and lifetime per-person costs of $27 684. Global costs are $7·19 billion per year and $188·80 billion per lifetime. More than 10% of these costs emanate from the USA and Canada, where Chagas disease has not been traditionally endemic. A substantial proportion of the burden emerges from lost productivity from cardiovascular disease-induced early mortality. Interpretation The economic burden of Chagas disease is similar to or exceeds those of other prominent diseases globally (eg, rotavirus $2·0 billion, cervical cancer $4·7 billion) even in the USA (Lyme disease $2·5 billion), where Chagas disease has not been traditionally endemic, suggesting an economic argument for more attention and efforts towards control of Chagas disease. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study.

Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

2013-01-01

169

Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  

PubMed

An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R

2012-02-15

170

The Mushroom Genus Laccaria in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Botanist Gregory Mueller of The Field Museum (Chicago) has put together this spectacular resource on mushrooms in the genus Laccaria. Complete with a lengthy scientific introduction, the site contains a colorful, photo-illustrated species identification section (20+ species), an evolutionary tree for the genus, a pictorial key to aid in identification, an additional key for identifying Laccaria in Costa Rica, documentation of specimens examined, and a substantial Literature Cited section. For researchers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in these mushrooms, this is an excellent, information-rich, yet fully accessible, resource.

Mueller, Gregory M.

171

Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery. A systemic review.  

PubMed

Although Chagas disease was only discovered in 1909, it began millions of years ago as an enzootic disease among wild animals. Its transmission to man began accidentally as an anthropozoonosis when mankind invaded wild ecotopes. Endemic Chagas disease became established as a zoonosis over the last 200-300 years through deforestation for agriculture and livestock rearing and adaptation of triatomines to dwellings and to humans and domestic animals as food sources. When T. cruzi is transmitted to man, it invades the bloodstream and lymphatic system and lodges in muscle and heart tissue, the digestive system and phagocytic cells. Through this, it causes inflammatory lesions and an immune response, particularly mediated by CD4(+), CD8(+), IL2 and IL4, with cell and neuron destruction and fibrosis. These processes lead to blockage of the heart's conductive system, arrhythmias, heart failure, aperistalsis and dilatation of hollow viscera, especially the esophagus and colons. Chagas disease is characterized by an acute phase with or without symptoms, with (or more often without) T. cruzi penetration signs (inoculation chagoma or Romaña's sign), fever, adenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly and patent parasitemia; and a chronic phase: indeterminate (asymptomatic, with normal electrocardiogram and heart, esophagus and colon X-rays) or cardiac, digestive or cardiac/digestive forms. There is great regional variation in the morbidity caused by Chagas disease: severe cardiac or digestive forms may occur in 10-50%, and indeterminate forms in the remaining, asymptomatic cases. The epidemiological and control characteristics of Chagas disease vary according to each country's ecological conditions and health policies. PMID:20382097

Coura, José Rodrigues; Borges-Pereira, José

2010-04-09

172

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

173

Analysis, circuit modeling, and optimization of mushroom waveguide photodetector (mushroom-WGPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waveguide photodetector (WGPD) is considered a leading candidate to overcome the bandwidth\\/quantum-efficiency tradeoff in conventional photodetectors (PDs). To overcome the tradeoff between the capacitance and contact resistance, the mushroom-WGPD was proposed. A calibrated circuit model for mushroom-WGPD, including all parasitics, is presented so that a complete circuit simulation of the entire photoreceiver circuit with WGPD now becomes feasible. Both

Yasser M. El-Batawy; M. Jamal Deen

2005-01-01

174

Analysis, Circuit Modeling,and Optimization of Mushroom Waveguide Photodetector (Mushroom-WGPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The waveguide photodetector (WGPD) is considered a leading candidate to overcome the bandwidth\\/quantum-efficiency tradeoff in conventional photodetectors (PDs). To overcome the tradeoff between the capacitance and contact resistance,the mushroom-WGPD was proposed. In this paper, a calibrated circuit model for mushroom-WGPD, including all parasitics, is presented so that a complete circuit simulation of the entire photoreceiver circuit with WGPD now becomes

Yasser M. El-Batawy; M. Jamal Deen

2005-01-01

175

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 Ç Agriculture Ç 10 Ç 2003-01-01 Ç 2003-01-01 Ç false Ç Mushrooms. Ç 1209.11 Ç Section 1209.11 Ç Agriculture Ç Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) Ç AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2003-01-01

176

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

7 Ç Agriculture Ç 10 Ç 2005-01-01 Ç 2005-01-01 Ç false Ç Mushrooms. Ç 1209.11 Ç Section 1209.11 Ç Agriculture Ç Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) Ç AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2005-01-01

177

The edible and medicinal button mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Netherlands is the largest exporter of button mushrooms [Agaricus bisporus (J. Lge.) Imbach] in the world and the third largest producer after China and the United States of America. The production volume has increased dramatically over the last 30 years, from an annual production of 30,000 tonnes in 1970 to an expected 300,000 tonnes in the year 2001. This

Griensven van L. J. L. D

2001-01-01

178

The molecular genetics of cultivated mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The types, economic significance and methods of production of the principal cultivated mushrooms are described in outline. These organisms are all less than ideal for conventional genetic analysis and breeding, so molecular methods afford a particular opportunity to advance our understanding of their biology and potentially give the prospect of improvement by gene manipulation. The sequences described are limited to

J. R. Whiteford; C. F. Thurston

2000-01-01

179

Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.  

PubMed

Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is ?-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by ?-(1?3)-glycosidic bonds with attached ?-(1?6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. ?-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

2012-11-01

180

Determination of thermal conductivity of shiitake mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk thermal conductivity of shiitake mushroom as affected by moisture content and temperature was studied. Measurements were taken of moisture content between 25 and 85% wet basis and the temperature range of 30-90?C. Bulk thermal conductivity was determined using a line heat source probe apparatus. The results revealed that bulk thermal conductivity increased with an increase in moisture content

Hataichanok Kantrong; Ampawan Tansakul; Gauri S. Mittal

181

Rating of Cesium Contamination of Wild Mushrooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

'Rating' means here a 5-fold scale with the ranges: more than 100 nCi/kg raw weight - 'very high'; 300 - 100; 3 - 30; 1 - 3; less than 1 nCi/kg - 'very low'. A list of some 50 - 60 different kinds of mushrooms are listed and evaluated in this scale, as fr...

E. Henrich M. Zapletal M. Friedrich W. Haider

1988-01-01

182

Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

Reason, J.

1984-03-01

183

MUSHROOMS: SOURCES FOR MODERN WESTERN MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungi and especially mushrooms are rich sources of many things that are important to our health. They are a good source of proteins that are important to all body functions. Their proteins are of very high quality and are rich in the most important protein building blocks, the essential amino acids. They are an excellent source of most B- vitamins

R. H. KURTZMAN

2005-01-01

184

Compounds from wild mushrooms with antitumor potential.  

PubMed

For thousands of years medicine and natural products have been closely linked through the use of traditional medicines and natural poisons. Mushrooms have an established history of use in traditional oriental medicine, where most medicinal mushroom preparations are regarded as a tonic, that is, they have beneficial health effects without known negative side-effects and can be moderately used on a regular basis without harm. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of compounds which are modulators of tumour cell growth. Furthermore, they may have potential as functional foods and sources of novel molecules. We will review the compounds with antitumor potential identified so far in mushrooms, including low-molecular-weight (LMW, e.g. quinones, cerebrosides, isoflavones, catechols, amines, triacylglycerols, sesquiterpenes, steroids, organic germanium and selenium) and high-molecular-weight compounds (HMW, e.g. homo and heteroglucans, glycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, proteoglycans, proteins and RNA-protein complexes). PMID:20545620

Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Vaz, Josiana A; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Martins, Anabela

2010-06-01

185

Chagas Disease, Migration and Community Settlement Patterns in Arequipa, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent seasonal migration by residents of peri-urban shantytowns provides a path of entry of vectors into these communities. Changing demographic dynamics of traditional towns are also leading to favorable conditions for Chagas disease transmission. Control programs must include surveillance for infestation in communities assumed to be free of vectors.

Gilman, Robert H.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

2009-01-01

186

Dissecting slander and crying for justice: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.  

PubMed

Chagas disease was discovered by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Chagas worked at Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the bases of experimental medicine were settled in Brazil, and that had no connection with the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. Chagas had several enemies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute mainly because of his election to Head of Service in 1910, and for the position of Oswaldo Cruz Directorship in 1917. Furthermore, Chagas gained enemies at Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, which did not like to see the economical political autonomy of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. This allowed the Institute not only to perform top experimental research, but also to take the leadership of research in the country. Chagas was nominated to the Nobel Prize of 1921 in December, 1920. None was awarded the Nobel Prize in that year. He seems to have been evaluated by the Noble Committee of Karolinska Institute from March to May of 1921. At that time, his enemies were denying his discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi, a key point in Chagas' nomination by Karolinska Institute, and giving no epidemiological importance for the disease. By the same way, the obligation of small pox vaccination was tarnishing his public image. Having taken into account the epidemiologic importance of Chagas disease, the strong historical mistake in the process of Chagas evaluation, and the inequity behind all these facts, we insist on a posthumous Nobel Prize for the man who made the most complete medical-scientist discovery of all time. PMID:23410487

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

2013-02-11

187

77 FR 55808 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2012-09-11

188

78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

2013-05-06

189

75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

2010-01-22

190

76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-11-10

191

75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-10-07

192

77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is...

2012-11-06

193

76 FR 56732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-09-14

194

78 FR 34037 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...1\\ See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2013-06-06

195

Modeling the economic value of a Chagas' disease therapeutic vaccine.  

PubMed

The health burden of Chagas' disease (resulting from Trypanosoma cruzi infection) in Latin America (estimated to outweigh that of malaria by 5-fold and affect 2-6 million people in Mexico alone) has motivated development of therapeutic vaccines to prevent infection progression to severe disease. Our economic model for a Chagas' therapeutic vaccine in Mexico suggests that a vaccine would be highly cost-effective and in many cases economically dominant (providing both cost savings and health benefits) throughout a range of protection durations, severe adverse event risk, and dosing regimens and would be most likely to provide a positive return on investment if the vaccine prevented (rather than delayed) the onset of cardiomyopathy. PMID:22894964

Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Wateska, Angela R; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric; Hotez, Peter J

2012-08-16

196

Transmission of chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) by food.  

PubMed

In April 2009, the centenary of the discovery of the American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, was celebrated. A hundred years after the discovery, little has been invested in diagnostics and treatment because the disease affects mainly poor people in developing countries. However, some changes in the epidemiology of the disease are of great importance today. Chagas disease transmitted through food is a public health concern in all areas where there is a reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi in wild animals (e.g., mammals and marsupials) and/or where infected triatomine bugs are in contact with human food source items (especially fruits and vegetables). Recently, several outbreaks of illness related to the ingestion of food contaminated with T. cruzi have been recorded in Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. PMID:20610174

Pereira, Karen Signori; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Barbosa, Rodrigo L; Guaraldo, Ana M A; Franco, Regina M B; Dias, Viviane L; Passos, Luiz A C

2010-06-24

197

Recent Developments in Sterol 14-demethylase Inhibitors for Chagas Disease.  

PubMed

The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, causes the most prevalent parasitic infection in the American continent. It gives rise to life-long infection in humans and results in severe cardiomyopathy or other life-threatening manifestations (Chagas disease) in ~30% of those infected. Animal models and clinical studies indicate that etiological treatment of the infection reduces the risk of developing the disease manifestations. Unfortunately, the existing chemotherapeutics have suboptimal antiparasitic activity and cause significant side effects in many patients, thus better anti-trypanosomal drugs are greatly needed. The sterol biosynthesis pathway has received attention as a target for the development of new drugs for Chagas disease. In particular, inhibitors of sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) are shown to be extremely active on Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in animal models. Antifungal drugs (i.e. azoles) in clinical use or in clinical studies have been extensively tested preclinically on Trypanosoma cruzi with posaconazole and ravuconazole demonstrating the most promising activity. As a result, posaconazole and a pro-drug of ravuconazole (E1224) are currently being evaluated in Phase II studies for Chagas disease. Additional CYP51 inhibitors that are specifically optimized for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity are in development by academia. These represent an alternative to proprietary antifungal drugs if the latter fall short in clinical trials or are too expensive for widespread clinical use in disease endemic countries. The research over the next few years will help define the role of CYP51 inhibitors, alone or in combination with other drugs, for managing patients with Chagas disease. PMID:23277882

Buckner, Frederick S; Urbina, Julio A

2012-12-01

198

Update on Chagas disease in Venezuela: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Venezuela based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections both in referred patients with clinical presumptive diagnosis (1988-2002) and in individuals sampled from rural localities representative of the different geographical regions of the country (1995-2002). In the former group from 306 individuals examined, 174 (56.8%) were seropositive to T. cruzi;

Néstor Añez; Gladys Crisante; Agustina Rojas

2004-01-01

199

Methodological advances in drug discovery for Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chagas disease is the highest impact human infectious disease in Latin America, and the leading worldwide cause of myocarditis. Despite the availability of several compounds that have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the effects of T. cruzi, these compounds are rarely used due to their variable efficacy, substantial side effects and the lack of methodologies for confirming their effectiveness. Furthermore, the development of more efficacious compounds is challenged by limitations of systems for assessing drug efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Areas covered Herein, the authors review the development of Chagas disease drug discovery methodology, focusing on recent developments in high throughput screening, in vivo testing methods and assessments of efficacy in humans. Particularly, this review documents the significant progress that has taken place over the last 5 years that have paved the way for both target-focused and high-throughput screens of compound libraries. Expert opinion The tools for in vitro and in vivo screening of anti-T. cruzi compounds have improved dramatically in the last few years and there are now a number of excellent in vivo testing models available; this somewhat alleviates the bottleneck issue of quickly and definitively demonstrating in vivo efficacy in a relevant host animal system. These advances emphasize the potential for additional progress resulting in new treatments for Chagas disease in the coming years. That being said, national and international agencies must improve the coordination of research and development efforts in addition to cultivating the funding sources for the development of these new treatments.

Bustamante, Juan M.; Tarleton, Rick L.

2011-01-01

200

Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century.

Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

2011-01-01

201

Status of Mushroom Nematodes and their Management in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are grown in almost all parts of India and the annual production is approximately 40,000?t. Several species of naturally occurring edible mushrooms are being harvested and consumed locally in tribal and interior forest areas. However, commercially only white button and oyster mushrooms are popular. They are being cultivated under semi-scientific conditions (use of partially sterilized media and casing soil,

M. Nagesh; P. Parvatha Reddy

2000-01-01

202

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a contribution for the research and development of new pharmaceutical products from mushrooms. A brief overview of the metabolic diversity and bioactive compounds of mushrooms produced by submerged cultures is also given. PMID:22577974

Elisashvili, Vladimir

2012-01-01

203

Drying kinetics of whole and sliced shiitake mushrooms ( Lentinus edodes )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotherms of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) at 25 and 40°C were determined and drying kinetics of whole and sliced shiitake mushrooms were tested using a convective air drying method at different drying temperature of 40, 50, 60, and 70°C. The monolayer\\u000a moisture contents of the mushroom were 7.23 and 5.44 g water\\/100 g of dry solids at 25 and 40°C,

Jong-Whan Rhim; Jun Ho Lee

2011-01-01

204

Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol and water crude extracts from Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) were investigated for their antioxidant capacity in three different assays, namely, the ?-carotene and linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of hemolysis of rat erythrocyte induced by peroxyl radicals. Among the four mushroom extracts, the water extract from L. edodes showed

L. M. Cheung; Peter C. K. Cheung; Vincent E. C. Ooi

2003-01-01

205

Interactions of Pseudomonads with Mushrooms and Other Eukaryotic Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonads are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria with the potential to interact with diverse organisms in the environment.\\u000a We are investigating the molecular basis of pathogenesis in mushroom-pathogenic Pseudomonas (NZ strains) and also evaluating\\u000a NZ interactions with other organisms found in the mushroom environment, notably the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the\\u000a amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Strain Pseudomonas sp. NZI7 is a tolaasinproducing mushroom

P. Burlinson; J. Knaggs; J. Hodgkin; C. Pears; G. M. Preston

206

The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.  

PubMed

Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia. PMID:23334043

Hatvani, Lóránt; Saboli?, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivi?, Dario; ?ermi?, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

2012-12-01

207

[Acute hepatic failure after ingestion of mushrooms].  

PubMed

This report is about a married couple who were admitted to hospital suffering from gastrointestinal complaints after eating mushrooms. With the suspicion of poisoning with Amanita phalloides treatment started with elimination of the toxins, symptomatic therapy and specific therapy with silibinin. After quantitative determination of the Amanita toxins the patients were immediately transferred to a university hospital.Poisoning by the death cap mushroom is responsible for acute hepatic and often also renal failure and is accompanied by a high mortality. Clinical symptoms follow a three-phase course with gastrointestinal complaints, an asymptomatic interval and finally the hepatorenal phase. Even in suspected cases of intoxication, treatment should be started by antidote therapy with silibinin. PMID:22527661

Oeckinghaus, R; Cuneo, A; Brockmeier, J; Oeckinghaus, G S; Drewek-Platena, S; Hochreuther, St; Götz, J; Tebbe, U

2012-05-01

208

Heart rate turbulence and left ventricular ejection fraction in Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Chagas disease patients often present premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), depression of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and autonomic dysfunction, which is generally evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. As frequent PVCs may complicate HRV computation, we measured heart rate turbulence (HRT) and evaluated the correlation between ejection fraction and HRT or HRV in Chagas disease. Methods We studied

Fabrizio Tundo; Federico Lombardi; Manoel C. Rocha; Fernando Botoni; Georg Schmidt; Vladimir C. Barros; Braulio Muzzi; Murilo Gomes; Airandes Pinto; Antonio L. Ribeiro

2005-01-01

209

A cost-benefit analysis of Chagas disease control in north-western Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease has been controlled in the Department of Anta, Province of Salta, Argentina, through a series of vector control interventions beginning in 1983. Based on data from this programme, together with estimates of the value of benefits accruing to the programme due to avoidance of new cases of Chagas disease, we present an analysis of costs and benefits of

M. A. Basombrío; C. J. Schofield; C. L. Rojas; E. C. del Rey

1998-01-01

210

Evidence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection (Chagas' Disease) Among Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background— Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas' heart disease, is transmitted by triatomine insects and by blood transfusion. The emigration of several million people from T cruzi- endemic countries to the United States has raised concerns regarding a possible increase in cases of Chagas' heart disease here, as well as an increased risk of transfusion-transmitted T cruzi. To investigate these

David A. Leiby; Francisco J. Rentas; Kenrad E. Nelson; Veronica A. Stambolis; Paul M. Ness; Cheryl Parnis; Hugh A. McAllister; David H. Yawn; Robert J. Stumpf; Louis V. Kirchhoff

211

Escape time statistics for mushroom billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chaotic orbits of the mushroom billiards display intermittent behaviors. We investigate statistical properties of this system by constructing an infinite partition on the chaotic part of a Poincaré surface, which illustrates details of chaotic dynamics. Each piece of the infinite partition has a unique escape time from the half disk region, and from this result it is shown that, for fixed values of the system parameters, the escape time distribution obeys a power law 1/tesc3 .

Miyaguchi, Tomoshige

2007-06-01

212

A review of edible mushroom radioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review deals mainly with the situation in Europe where wild-growing mushrooms are widely consumed as a delicacy and some species have been found to be extensively contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. The natural isotope 40K usually causes activities of 0.8–1.5 kBq kg?1 dry matter. Activities of 137Cs, from nuclear weapons testing, below 1 kBq

Pavel Kala?

2001-01-01

213

A botulism outbreak from roasted canned mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Food-borne botulism is a rare disease that results from ingestion of the toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. The most common cause of the disease is the consumption of home-canned foods prepared under inappropriate conditions, especially in rural environments. In this report, a food-borne botulism outbreak potentially caused by roasted home-canned mushrooms is evaluated and the major reasons for delayed diagnosis

Melike Cengiz; Murat Yilmaz; Levent Dosemeci; Atilla Ramazanoglu

2006-01-01

214

Productivity of hydrolytic enzymes by mycorrhizal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survey the potential for production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by mycorrhizal mushrooms, productivities of these exo-enzymes from mycelia on potato-dextrose liquid medium were determined.Tricholoma matsutake produced relatively high levels of CM-cellulase and avicelase activities in all test strains. It also produced higher activity of acid proteinase than neutral proteinase. Its xylanase activities seemed to be higher than those of

Takao Terashita; Matashi Kono; Kentaro Yoshikawa; Jiko Shishiyama

1995-01-01

215

A New, Mushroom-shaped Budding Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom-shaped budding bacterium, isolated from fresh pond water, is unlike any previously described aquatic budding bacteria (Whittenbury & McLee, I 967 ; Hirsch & Rheinheimer, 1968 ; Staley, 1968). Its morphological 'life-cycle' and other properties are described. METHODS Media. The organism was grown routinely in glucose-salts medium (pH 6.9) of the follow- ing composition: (NH4)2S04, 0.1 % (w\\/v); NaCI,

R. WHITTENBURY; JUDITH M. NICOLL

1971-01-01

216

Sexual selection in mushroom-forming basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

We expect that sexual selection may play an important role in the evolution of mushroom-forming basidiomycete fungi. Although these fungi do not have separate sexes, they do play female and male roles: the acceptance and the donation of a nucleus, respectively. The primary mycelium (monokaryon) of basidiomycete fungi, growing from a germinating sexual spore, is hermaphroditic, but it loses female function upon the acceptance of a second nucleus. The resulting dikaryon with two different nuclei in each cell retains a male potential as both nuclei can fertilize receptive mycelia. We tested the occurrence of sexual selection in the model species of mushroom-forming basidiomycetes, Schizophyllum commune, by pairing monokaryons with fully compatible dikaryons. In most pairings, we found a strong bias for one of the two nuclei although both were compatible with the monokaryon when paired alone. This shows that sexual selection can occur in mushroom-forming basidiomycetes. Since the winning nucleus of a dikaryon occasionally varied depending on the receiving monokaryon, we infer that sexual selection can operate through choosiness of the receiving individual (analogous to female choice). However, in other cases the same nucleus won, irrespective of the receiving monokaryon, suggesting that competition between the two nuclei of the donating mycelium (analogous to male–male competition) might also play a role.

Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Aanen, Duur K.

2011-01-01

217

Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom bodies are a morphologically diverse sensory integration and learning and memory center in the brains of various invertebrate species, of which those of insects are the best described. Insect mushroom bodies are composed of numerous tiny intrinsic neurons (Kenyon cells) that form calyces with their dendrites and a pedunculus and lobes with their axons. The identities of conserved

Sarah M. Farris

2005-01-01

218

Breeding and strain protection in the button mushroom agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is one of the most widely cultivated edible mushroom species in the world. Being the main species cultivated in the Western hemisphere, its popularity also increases in Eastern Countries such as China and Korea. The world production level for 2009 is estimated at ca. 4 million tons with an economic value of ca. 4.7 \\\\$

A. S. M. Sonnenberg; J. J. P. Baars; P. M. Hendrickx; B. Lavrijssen; W. Gao; A. Weijn; J. J. Mes

2011-01-01

219

Lipid Components of a Malaysian Edible Mushroom, Termitomyces heimii Natarajan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termitomyces heimii is highly priced due to its unique taste unlike many other cultivated mushrooms. Termitomyces heimii, an edible mushroom, has high nutritive value. It is a fungus that usually lives in termite hills. There are limited reports on the chemical investigations of Termitomyces heimii. This may be due to difficulty in obtaining wild fruit bodies, as these are seasonal

Sri Nurestri Abd Malek; Gowri Kanagasabapathy; Vikineswary Sabaratnam; Noorlidah Abdullah; Hashim Yaacob

2012-01-01

220

Lipid Components of a Malaysian Edible Mushroom, Termitomyces Heimii Natarajan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termitomyces heimii is highly priced due to its unique taste unlike many other cultivated mushrooms. Termitomyces heimii, an edible mushroom, has high nutritive value. It is a fungus that usually lives in termite hills. There are limited reports on the chemical investigations of Termitomyces heimii. This may be due to difficulty in obtaining wild fruit bodies, as these are seasonal

Sri Nurestri Abd Malek; Gowri Kanagasabapathy; Vikineswary Sabaratnam; Noorlidah Abdullah; Hashim Yaacob

2011-01-01

221

Maitake Mushrooms as an Anti-Cancer Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: The audience will be able to assess current research and study outcomes on the maitake mushroom; be aware of what forms are presently under development for the lay and healthcare market.Currently intense research is focused on plant-based compounds for cancer prevention and treatment. An area of highly exciting study are the medicinal mushrooms used for millennia within the

S. Asanovic

1996-01-01

222

Morphological and chemical analysis of magic mushrooms in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and toxicological analyses were performed on hallucinogenic mushrooms that are currently circulated in Japan. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a three-dimensional microstructures in the mushrooms. The complementary use of SEM with an optical microscope was effective for observing characteristic tissues, such as basidiomycetes, spores, cystidia and basidia. Hallucinogenic alkaloids were extracted with methanol and determined by high performance liquid

Kenji Tsujikawa; Tatsuyuki Kanamori; Yuko Iwata; Yoshihito Ohmae; Ritsuko Sugita; Hiroyuki Inoue; Tohru Kishi

2003-01-01

223

Effect of Drying Condition on Shiitake Mushroom Flavor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Lenthionine of Shiitake mushroom at chosen drying conditions with the influence of two different parameters: moisture and temperature of the mushroom. The results showed that the exponential models used for predicting of moisture and temperature fit reasonably well with the experimental data. The similar pattern of the changes in

Kitti Saengow; Yutana Katipun; Worawan Suttithanalert; Tipaporn Yoovidhya; Naphaporn Rattanasomboon

224

Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on various components of nutritional interest, such as water, protein, total amino acids, ash and minerals, in mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius and Lentinula edodes) was carried out. Mushrooms were cultivated on the same compost (wheat straw added with 15% of sugar beet) and analysed immediately after harvest to avoid any interfering

Pamela Manzi; Loretta Gambelli; Stefania Marconi; Vittorio Vivanti; Laura Pizzoferrato

1999-01-01

225

Myo and hepatotoxic effects of cultivated mushrooms in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are currently examined for their potential as functional foods. At the same time, novel types of mushroom intoxications, such as rhabdomyolysis after prolonged consumption, have been described in edible species. The aim of the present study was to perform an acute toxicity test to establish if the most commonly cultivated species would have myo- or hepatotoxic effects. Mice (n=6\\/group)

Petteri Nieminen; Vesa Kärjä; Anne-Mari Mustonen

2009-01-01

226

Data on sodium content of common edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium contents of fruit bodies of some common edible mushroom species were analysed from the samples (total number: 153) gathered from different habitats of Hungary. The average sodium content of the different mushroom taxa varies between 100 and 400 ppm, and seems to be practically independent of habitat, nutrition type (saprotrophic, xylophagous, or mycorrhizal) and of the taxonomic position of

Janos Vetter

2003-01-01

227

Review: on published data and methods for selenium in mushrooms.  

PubMed

Selected data published on selenium in several species of mushrooms are outlined and discussed in light of performance of analytical methods employed. Data was shown to be either dubious or concentrations too high to be credible and valid in some data reported by authors. Examples of methods and specifically the measurement techniques of Se as reported by authors studying mushrooms are outlined. Also examples of valid and incorrect data on Se in a given mushroom species with data by two or more analytical methods are illustrated. Excessive values reported due to selection of improper method of determination of Se in mushrooms relate largely to improper use of flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The biased analytical data published gave a false picture on the composition and nutritional value of mushrooms with respect to selenium. PMID:23265483

Falandysz, Jerzy

2012-11-08

228

Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements. PMID:22522306

Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

2012-04-20

229

Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors. PMID:23030443

Mleczek, Miros?aw; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goli?ski, Piotr

2013-01-01

230

Evaluation of Aflatoxins and Pesticide Residues in Fresh and Different Processed Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are becoming popular to us due to their nutritional, medicinal and therapeutic values. Toxicity of aflatoxins, presence of DDT and heptachlor as pesticide residue are rare in edible mushrooms but not non-existent. So an attempt has been made to determine its pres- ence and to the same quantify using HPLC and GC. Total seven categories of mushrooms and mushroom-based

Abu Saleh Mostafa Kamal; Abul Khair; Mamtaz Dawlatana; M Tariqul Hassan; Fauzia Begum; Matiur Rahim

2009-01-01

231

78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India. The period of review is...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India.\\1\\ We...

2013-02-21

232

Economic Analysis of Using Soybean Meal as a Mushroom Growing Substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms have been grown commercially on many different substrates for years, usually agricultural by-products such as straw or stover. Increased popularity for specialty mushrooms with consumers has led to increased production and great demand for economic substrates. Oyster mushrooms are easier to grow relative to other types of mushrooms and their production has increased dramatically in recent years. This study

Jason E. Fewell; Cole R. Gustafson

2007-01-01

233

Retracing micro-epidemics of Chagas disease using epicenter regression.  

PubMed

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traducción al español disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1. PMID:21935346

Levy, Michael Z; Small, Dylan S; Vilhena, Daril A; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B

2011-09-15

234

Retracing Micro-Epidemics of Chagas Disease Using Epicenter Regression  

PubMed Central

Vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease has become an urban problem in the city of Arequipa, Peru, yet the debilitating symptoms that can occur in the chronic stage of the disease are rarely seen in hospitals in the city. The lack of obvious clinical disease in Arequipa has led to speculation that the local strain of the etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has low chronic pathogenicity. The long asymptomatic period of Chagas disease leads us to an alternative hypothesis for the absence of clinical cases in Arequipa: transmission in the city may be so recent that most infected individuals have yet to progress to late stage disease. Here we describe a new method, epicenter regression, that allows us to infer the spatial and temporal history of disease transmission from a snapshot of a population's infection status. We show that in a community of Arequipa, transmission of T. cruzi by the insect vector Triatoma infestans occurred as a series of focal micro-epidemics, the oldest of which began only around 20 years ago. These micro-epidemics infected nearly 5% of the community before transmission of the parasite was disrupted through insecticide application in 2004. Most extant human infections in our study community arose over a brief period of time immediately prior to vector control. According to our findings, the symptoms of chronic Chagas disease are expected to be absent, even if the strain is pathogenic in the chronic phase of disease, given the long asymptomatic period of the disease and short history of intense transmission. Traducción al español disponible en Alternative Language Text S1/A Spanish translation of this article is available in Alternative Language Text S1

Levy, Michael Z.; Small, Dylan S.; Vilhena, Daril A.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Plotkin, Joshua B.

2011-01-01

235

Expression of Drosophila Mushroom Body Mutations in Alternative Genetic Backgrounds: A Case Study of the Mushroom Body Miniature Gene (mbm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations in 12 genes regulating Drosophila melanogaster mushroom body (MB) development were each studied in two genetic backgrounds. In all cases, brain structure was qualitatively or quantitatively different after replacement of the ``original'' genetic background with that of the Canton Special wild-type strain. The mushroom body miniature gene (mbm) was investigated in detail. mbm supports the maintenance of MB Kenyon

J. Steven de Belle; Martin Heisenberg

1996-01-01

236

Mortality Related to Chagas Disease and HIV/AIDS Coinfection in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease in patients with HIV infection represents a potentially serious event with high case fatality rates. This study describes epidemiological and clinical aspects of deaths related to Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection in Brazil, 1999–2007. We performed a descriptive study based on mortality data from the nationwide Mortality Information System. Of a total of about 9 million deaths, Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS were mentioned in the same death certificate in 74 cases. AIDS was an underlying cause in 77.0% (57) and Chagas disease in 17.6% (13). Males (51.4%), white skin color (50%), age group 40–49 years (29.7%), and residents in the Southeast region (75.7%) were most common. Mean age at death was significantly lower in the coinfected (47.1 years [SD ± 14.6]), as compared to Chagas disease deaths (64.1 years [SD ± 14.7], P < 0.001). Considering the lack of data on morbidity related to Chagas disease and AIDS coinfection, the use of mortality data may be an appropriate sentinel approach to monitor the occurrence of this association. Due to the epidemiological transition in Brazil, chronic Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection will be further complicated and require the development of evidence-based preventive control measures.

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

2012-01-01

237

Ultraviolet irradiation: The generator of Vitamin D 2 in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes), Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), and Abalone mushrooms (Pleurotus cystidus) were irradiated with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A; wavelength 315–400nm), Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; wavelength 290–315nm), and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C; wavelength 190–290nm). Irradiation of each side of the mushrooms for 1h, was found to be the optimum period of irradiation in this conversion. The conversions of ergosterol to

Viraj J. Jasinghe; Conrad O. Perera

2006-01-01

238

Advances in Chagas disease drug development: 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The need for better drugs to treat patients with Chagas disease remains urgent. This review summarizes the advancements in drug development over the past two years. Recent Findings Drug development efforts are almost exclusively occurring as preclinical research. The exceptions being Phase I safety studies for the cruzain inhibitor, K-777, and potential Phase II studies for the antifungal drug, posaconazole, and a prodrug of ravuconazole. Several recent laboratory investigations demonstrate anti-T. cruzi activity of novel small molecules in animal models. These include nonpeptidic cruzain inhibitors, novel inhibitors of the sterol 14?-demethylase enzyme, new compounds (arylimidamides) related to pentamidine, derivatives of nifurtimox, compounds using ruthenium complexes, and several natural products. The recent implementation of a high-throughput screen of >300,000 compounds against intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes done at the Broad Institute is an important development, yielding ~300 selective inhibitors, many of which may serve as leads for medicinal chemistry efforts. Summary Progress is slow, but recent advancements in both drug development and advocacy for research on neglected diseases are encouraging. Efforts to define a target product profile and to harmonize methodologies for testing drugs for Chagas disease are described herein.

Buckner, Frederick S.; Navabi, Nazlee

2013-01-01

239

Risedronate metal complexes potentially active against Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

In the search for new metal-based drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease, the most widespread Latin American parasitic disease, novel complexes of the bioactive ligand risedronate (Ris, (1-hydroxy-1-phosphono-2-pyridin-3-yl-ethyl)phosphonate), [MII(Ris)2]·4H2O, where M Cu, Co, Mn and Ni, and [NiII(Ris)2(H2O)2]·H2O were synthesized and characterized by using analytical measurements, thermogravimetric analyses, cyclic voltammetry and infrared and Raman spectroscopies. Crystal structures of [CuII(Ris)2]·4H2O and [NiII(Ris)2(H2O)2]·H2O were solved by single crystal X-ray diffraction methods. The complexes, as well as the free ligand, were evaluated in vitro against epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of the parasite T. cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease. Results demonstrated that the coordination of risedronate to different metal ions improved the antiproliferative effect against Trypanosoma cruzi, exhibiting growth inhibition values against the intracellular amastigotes ranging the low micromolar levels. In addition, this strong activity could be related to high inhibition of farnesyl diphosphate synthase enzyme. On the other hand, protein interaction studies showed that all the complexes strongly interact with albumin thus providing a suitable means of transporting them to tissues in vivo.

Demoro, Bruno; Caruso, Francesco; Rossi, Miriam; Benitez, Diego; Gonzalez, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo; Parajon-Costa, Beatriz; Castiglioni, Jorge; Galizzi, Melina; Docampo, Roberto; Otero, Lucia; Gambino, Dinorah

2010-01-01

240

Trifluralin toxicity in a Chagas disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Even though trifluralin (alpha,alpha,alpha-2,6-dinitro-N-N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) is effective for the treatment of experimental Chagas disease, more preclinical toxicity studies need to be performed. Cell toxicity of trifluralin was studied in Hep-G2 and Vero C76 cells treated with 50 and 150 microM trifluralin. The results show that duplication time, amount of cellular protein and cell protein/DNA values were normal. Histological, haematological and chemical parameters were measured in CF1 mice after oral trifluralin administration. Acute toxic effects were assayed by administration of 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days, and chronic effects by administration of 200 mg/kg body weight once a week for 90 days (n = 20). In the acute scheme treatment, hepatic (glutamic-pyruvic, glutamic-oxalacetic and alkaline phosphatase activities; proteins and albumin plasma concentrations) and pancreatic (amylase, glycaemia) functions were normal. Mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin and haematocrit decreased. Creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutamic-oxalacetic activity increased, suggesting lesion in myocardial tissue. Histology was normal, excepting for the heart (mild myocarditis). Similar results were observed in acutely treated animals. There were no differences in body weight gain for treated mice compared to controls. In view of the published therapeutic effects of trifluralin on CF1 Chagas disease model and considering the present results, trifluralin seems to be a moderately toxic drug with a potential selective effect on the myocardium. PMID:17651308

Zaidenberg, Aníbal; Marra, Carlos; Luong, Tai; Gómez, Pedro; Milani, Laura; Villagra, Sergio; Drut, Ricardo

2007-08-01

241

Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms. The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the literature on physical or psychological dependence, acute and chronic toxicity, risk for public health and criminal aspects related to the consumption of magic mushrooms. In the Netherlands, the prevalence of magic mushroom use was declining since 2000 (last year prevalence of 6.3% in 2000 to 2.9% in 2005), and further declined after possession and use became illegal in December 2008. The CAM concluded that the physical and psychological dependence potential of magic mushrooms was low, that acute toxicity was moderate, chronic toxicity low and public health and criminal aspects negligible. The combined use of mushrooms and alcohol and the quality of the setting in which magic mushrooms are used deserve, however, attention. In conclusion, the use of magic mushrooms is relatively safe as only few and relatively mild adverse effects have been reported. The low prevalent but unpredictable provocation of panic attacks and flash-backs remain, however, a point of concern. PMID:21256914

van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim

2011-01-21

242

Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).  

PubMed

In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. PMID:15544548

Sliva, Daniel

2004-10-01

243

Lanostane triterpenoids from the mushroom Naematoloma fasciculare.  

PubMed

In our continuing search for structurally interesting and bioactive metabolites from Korean wild mushrooms, bioassay-guided fractionation and a chemical investigation of the MeOH extracts of the fruiting bodies of the mushroom Naematoloma fasciculare resulted in the isolation of four new lanostane triterpenoids (1-4), together with 11 known compounds (5-15). The structures of 1-5 were determined by a combination of 1D and 2D NMR and HRMS. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl group as a side chain in 1 and 2 was determined by the alkaline methanolysis method. The full NMR data assignment of the known compound fasciculol G (5) is reported for the first time. Compounds 1-15 were tested for their antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15) and evaluated for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in a lipopolysaccharide-activated murine microglial cell line. PMID:23634786

Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

2013-05-01

244

Metabolic acidosis during treatment of mushroom poisoning: a diagnostic pitfall.  

PubMed

Metabolic acidosis is a frequently encountered acid-base disturbance in hospitalized patients that occasionally develops in the course of treatment with medications used in everyday clinical practice, including propylene glycol-containing drugs (lorazepam, diazepam, etomidate, pentobarbital). Disruption of enterohepatic circulation with activated charcoal is a common practice for several intoxications, including mushroom poisoning. Herein, we present a patient who was hospitalized due to mushroom intoxication and developed severe metabolic acidosis as a treatment side effect rather than from the mushroom poisoning. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on propylene glycol-containing activated charcoal-induced metabolic acidosis. PMID:22576391

Gatselis, Nikolaos K; Liamis, George; Makaritsis, Konstantinos P; Dalekos, George N

2012-04-29

245

Chagas disease: A Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political repression and\\/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with

Gabriel A. Schmunis; Zaida E. Yadon

2010-01-01

246

Low Prevalence of Chagas Parasite Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Colony in Louisiana  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, an important cause of heart disease in Latin America, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which typically is transmitted to humans by triatomine insects. Although autochthonous transmission of the Chagas parasite to humans is rare in the United States, triatomines are common, and more than 20 species of mammals are infected with the Chagas parasite in the southern United States. Chagas disease has also been detected in colonies of nonhuman primates (NHP) in Georgia and Texas, and heart abnormalities consistent with Chagas disease have occurred at our NHP center in Louisiana. To determine the level of T. cruzi infection, we serologically tested 2157 of the approximately 4200 NHP at the center; 34 of 2157 primates (1.6%) tested positive. Presence of the T. cruzi parasite was confirmed by hemoculture in 4 NHP and PCR of the cultured parasites. These results strongly suggest local transmission of T. cruzi, because most of the infected NHP were born and raised at this site. All 3 species of NHP tested yielded infected animals, with significantly higher infection prevalence in pig-tailed macaques, suggesting possible exploration of this species as a model organism. The local T. cruzi strain isolated during this study would enhance such investigations. The NHP at this center are bred for use in scientific research, and the effects of the Chagas parasite on infected primates could confuse the interpretation of other studies.

Dorn, Patricia L; Daigle, Megan E; Combe, Crescent L; Tate, Ashley H; Stevens, Lori; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M

2012-01-01

247

Chagas disease: a proposal for testing policy for solid-organ transplant in the United States.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease is difficult to detect because of the asymptomatic pathogenesis after infection. Chagas disease is endemic throughout much of Mexico, Central America, and South America, but human migration patterns are bringing the pathogen to the United States. The disease currently affects 16 to 18 million people with approximately 50 000 deaths annually in these countries. In the United States, national screening of the blood supply was instituted in early 2007, and more than 1000 donors with T cruzi infection have been identified within the past 3 years of testing. It was observed that out of the 58 organ procurement organizations in the United States, only 4 required mandatory testing of every donor for Chagas disease. It was estimated that as of 2009, approximately 409 000 residents are living with Chagas disease, and in a 22-year span, approximately 300 patients may have contracted Chagas disease through transplant. Proposed solutions to the current testing method include automatic testing based on the medical social history questionnaire, testing of all recipients for Chagas disease, testing all persons of Latin descent, or testing of all organ donors. PMID:23996948

Wallace, James A; Miller, Linda; Beavis, Andrew; Baptista, Carlos A C

2013-09-01

248

Low prevalence of Chagas parasite infection in a nonhuman primate colony in Louisiana.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, an important cause of heart disease in Latin America, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which typically is transmitted to humans by triatomine insects. Although autochthonous transmission of the Chagas parasite to humans is rare in the United States, triatomines are common, and more than 20 species of mammals are infected with the Chagas parasite in the southern United States. Chagas disease has also been detected in colonies of nonhuman primates (NHP) in Georgia and Texas, and heart abnormalities consistent with Chagas disease have occurred at our NHP center in Louisiana. To determine the level of T. cruzi infection, we serologically tested 2157 of the approximately 4200 NHP at the center; 34 of 2157 primates (1.6%) tested positive. Presence of the T. cruzi parasite was confirmed by hemoculture in 4 NHP and PCR of the cultured parasites. These results strongly suggest local transmission of T. cruzi, because most of the infected NHP were born and raised at this site. All 3 species of NHP tested yielded infected animals, with significantly higher infection prevalence in pig-tailed macaques, suggesting possible exploration of this species as a model organism. The local T. cruzi strain isolated during this study would enhance such investigations. The NHP at this center are bred for use in scientific research, and the effects of the Chagas parasite on infected primates could confuse the interpretation of other studies. PMID:23043809

Dorn, Patricia L; Daigle, Megan E; Combe, Crescent L; Tate, Ashley H; Stevens, Lori; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M

2012-07-01

249

Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus as functional foods.  

PubMed

Mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are noted for their pharmacological and culinary properties. In this study, it was performed a critical literature review, focusing primarily on aspects of the chemical composition of these mushrooms whose pharmacological properties and nutritional composition characterize them as functional foods. It was also discussed articles conducted in vitro and in vivo proving the high antioxidant potential of the Agaricaceae family, in addition to articles which emphasize the toxicity characteristics and safety for its use in therapy or in human nutrition. These mushrooms exhibit numerous bioactive substances as well as safety regarding toxicity, which characterize them as functional foods. Despite the countless beneficial effects on human health, mushrooms of the genus Agaricus are little known by the population, making it necessary partnership and combined efforts among producers, industries and researchers in order to disseminate, research and consumption of these foods. PMID:23165537

Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Vinhal da Costa, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Ma R

250

Integrated microcalorimeters using Ir TES and Sn mushroom absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays using iridium thin films as Transition Edge Sensors (TES) and tin mushroom absorbers. We present our preliminary results in both areas.

Galeazzi, M.; Bogorin, D.; Chen, C.

2006-04-01

251

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized.

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

252

Ecology and Management of Commercially Harvested Chanterelle Mushrooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last two decades, the chanterelle mushroom harvest from Pacific Northwest forests has become a multimillion dollar industry, yet managers, harvesters, and scientists lack a current synthesis of information about chanterelles. We define chantere...

D. Pilz L. Norvell E. Danell R. Molina

2003-01-01

253

Heavy metals intake by cultured mushrooms growing in model system.  

PubMed

Micro element and heavy metal contents of mushrooms were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was seen an increase in the heavy metal contents (except Cu and Zn) of the mushrooms until the second dose. A decrease was seen in heavy metal intake of the mushroom in the application of the third dose. The highest accumulation occurred from the upper soils treated with the second dose. Amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were accumulated in the mushroom after the application of this dose, were detected as 5.7, 23.1, 75.7, 62.8 and 99.3 ppm, respectively. PMID:23591676

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

2013-04-17

254

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)|

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

255

INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

256

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

257

Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found. PMID:12623649

Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

2003-03-01

258

Microbial community structure changes during oyster mushroom substrate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is a valuable food, cultivated worldwide on an industrial scale, still very little is known about the microbial dynamics\\u000a during oyster mushroom substrate preparation. Therefore, the characterization of the microbial dynamics by chemical and biological\\u000a tools was the objective of this study. During substrate preparation, enzymatic digestibility of the substrate improved by\\u000a 77%, whereas the

Balázs Vajna; Adrienn Nagy; Enik? Sajben; László Manczinger; Nóra Szijártó; Zsófia Kádár; Diána Bordás; Károly Márialigeti

2010-01-01

259

[Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].  

PubMed

Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for children. We discuss possible approaches. PMID:19401986

Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

2009-05-01

260

Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

1997-01-01

261

CULTIVATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (Pleurotus flabellatus) ON DIFFERENT SUBSTRATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Islam M. Z., Rahman M. H. and Hafiz F. 2009. Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus flabellatus) on Different Substrates. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 4(1):45-48 The study was conducted at the laboratory of Food Microbiology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, BCSIR, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1205 during July 2000 to May 2001 to find suitable sawdust as substrate for growing Mushroom. Seven

M. Z. ISLAM; M. H. RAHMAN; F. HAFIZ

262

Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.  

PubMed

In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

2012-10-25

263

Agrochemicals against Malaria, Sleeping Sickness, Leishmaniasis and Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively.

Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

2012-01-01

264

Modeling the Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent model for Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation is extended for a three-dimensional multi-agent-based model. The computational model includes six different types of autonomous agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-?, Trypanosoma cruzi, and bone marrow stem cell. Only fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move randomly through the empty spaces using the three-dimensional Moore neighborhood. Bone marrow stem cells can promote apoptosis in inflammatory cells, fibrosis regression and can differentiate in cardiomyocyte. T. cruzi can increase the number of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells and tumor necrosis factor-? can increase the quantity of fibrosis. Our results were compared with experimental data giving a fairly fit and they suggest that the inflammatory cells are important for the development of fibrosis.

Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

2009-04-01

265

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

266

A botulism outbreak from roasted canned mushrooms.  

PubMed

Food-borne botulism is a rare disease that results from ingestion of the toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. The most common cause of the disease is the consumption of home-canned foods prepared under inappropriate conditions, especially in rural environments. In this report, a food-borne botulism outbreak potentially caused by roasted home-canned mushrooms is evaluated and the major reasons for delayed diagnosis are emphasized. The clinical features, symptoms and prognosis of the five botulism patients involved in this outbreak are presented. The clinical progressions, treatments, durations of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stays and hospital stays of the three patients admitted to Akdeniz University Hospital are reported. PMID:16758770

Cengiz, Melike; Yilmaz, Murat; Dosemeci, Levent; Ramazanoglu, Atilla

2006-05-01

267

Treatment of experimental chronic chagas disease with trifluralin.  

PubMed

We tested trifluralin against Trypanosoma cruzi in a model of chronic Chagas disease in mice. CF1 mice (n=148) were intraperitoneally infected with 10(5) trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, H510C8C3 clone. One hundred mice were partially treated with benznidazole. Mortality was 100% at day 41 in the control group (n=48). At day 90 of the chronic disease (74% survival) mice were divided into three groups and treated orally with trifluralin (50 mg/kg/day, n=26), benznidazole (50 mg/kg/day, n=25) and vehicle (peanut oil; control group, n=23) for 60 days. Electrocardiography (under pentobarbital anaesthesia, 30 mg/kg/dose), serologic immunofluorescence and microstrout were performed at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Mice were sacrificed at day 10 after treatment; cardiac tissue was studied histopathologically and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. Spontaneous mortality was 30.43%, 3.85% and 4% in the control, trifluralin and benznidazole groups, respectively (significant survival, P=0.03). Microstrouts were negative in all three groups. Negative immunofluorescence titers were 0%, 16% (P=0.05) and 29% (P<0.02) in the control, trifluralin and benznidazole groups, respectively. The prevailing electrocardiographic disorder was prolongation of the PR interval in the control group, which was not significantly altered in trifluralin- and benznidazole-treated mice, suggesting that trifluralin and benznidazole improve or even stop the damage caused by the disease on the conduction system. Trifluralin- and benznidazole-treated animals showed similar histologic patterns of myocarditis. PCR results were negative for benznidazole and trifluralin (100% and 70.8%, respectively). These results show the therapeutic potential of trifluralin in the treatment of chronic Chagas disease. PMID:16623857

Zaidenberg, Anibal; Luong, Tai; Lirussi, Darío; Bleiz, Jorge; Del Buono, María Beatriz; Quijano, Graciela; Drut, Ricardo; Kozubsky, Leonora; Marron, Adriana; Buschiazzo, Héctor

2006-04-01

268

Epicuticular lipids induce aggregation in Chagas disease vectors  

PubMed Central

Background The triatomine bugs are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Aggregation behavior plays an important role in their survival by facilitating the location of refuges and cohesion of aggregates, helping to keep them safely assembled into shelters during daylight time, when they are vulnerable to predators. There are evidences that aggregation is mediated by thigmotaxis, by volatile cues from their faeces, and by hexane-extractable contact chemoreceptive signals from their cuticle surface. The epicuticular lipids of Triatoma infestans include a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, free and esterified fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols. Results We analyzed the response of T. infestans fifth instar nymphs after exposure to different amounts either of total epicuticular lipid extracts or individual lipid fractions. Assays were performed in a circular arena, employing a binary choice test with filter papers acting as aggregation attractive sites; papers were either impregnated with a hexane-extract of the total lipids, or lipid fraction; or with the solvent. Insects were significantly aggregated around papers impregnated with the epicuticular lipid extracts. Among the lipid fractions separately tested, only the free fatty acid fraction promoted significant bug aggregation. We also investigated the response to different amounts of selected fatty acid components of this fraction; receptiveness varied with the fatty acid chain length. No response was elicited by hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), the major fatty acid component. Octadecanoic acid (C18:0) showed a significant assembling effect in the concentration range tested (0.1 to 2 insect equivalents). The very long chain hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) was significantly attractant at low doses (? 1 equivalent), although a repellent effect was observed at higher doses. Conclusion The detection of contact aggregation pheromones has practical application in Chagas disease vector control. These data may be used to help design new tools against triatomine bugs.

Figueiras, Alicia N Lorenzo; Girotti, Juan R; Mijailovsky, Sergio J; Juarez, M Patricia

2009-01-01

269

Structural and phase transitions of one and two polymer mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A polymer mushroom here refers to a group of n homopolymer chains end-grafted at the same point on a flat, impenetrable and homogeneous substrate. Using lattice self-consistent field (LSCF) calculations with the Kronecker ?-function interactions (instead of the commonly used nearest-neighbor interactions), we have studied the structures of one and two polymer mushrooms in an explicit solvent as a function of the polymer volume fraction, the solvent quality characterized by the Flory-Huggins ? parameter, and the distance between the two mushrooms. We have constructed phase diagrams of these systems showing the coil-globule transition (CGT) of one mushroom and how it is coupled with the fused-separated transition (FST) of two mushrooms. Since LSCF results are exact only in the limit of n->?, we also use the newly proposed fast lattice Monte Carlo (FLMC) simulations^1 with the same Hamiltonian as in LSCF theory to examine how this limit is approached with increasing n. Direct comparisons between LSCF and FLMC results without any parameter-fitting quantify the fluctuation/correlation effects neglected in LSCF theory. We also find a second-order symmetric-asymmetric transition (SAT) for one-mushroom system in the globule state, and examine its coupling with CGT and FST. [1] Q. Wang, Soft Matter, 5, 4564 (2009); 6, 6206 (2010).

Yang, Delian; Wang

2012-02-01

270

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune  

SciTech Connect

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

2010-09-01

271

Growth potential of Clostridium botulinum in fresh mushrooms packaged in semipermeable plastic film.  

PubMed Central

Fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were inoculated in the stem, gill, or cap with Clostridium botulinum spores. They were placed with uninoculated mushrooms in paper board trays, which were then covered and sealed in a polyvinyl chloride stretch film to simulate prepackaged mushrooms available at retail stores. When incubated at 20 C, botulinum toxin could be detected as early as day 3, or 4, when the mushrooms still appear edible. Mushrooms inoculated in the stem with 1,000 type A spores frequently became botulinogenic; higher spore levels were needed if gills or caps were inoculation sites. Type B spores were less apt to produce toxic mushrooms. Respiration of the fresh mushrooms used up O2 more rapidly than could enter through the semipermeable wrapping film, so that the equilibrium O2 concentration became low enough for growth of C. botulinum. Inoculated mushrooms did not become botulinogenic when held at 4 C.

Sugiyama, H; Yang, K H

1975-01-01

272

Characterization of aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.).  

PubMed

The characteristic aroma-active compounds in raw and cooked pine-mushrooms (Tricholoma matsutake Sing.) were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry using aroma extract dilution analysis. 1-Octen-3-one (mushroom-like) was the major aroma-active compound in raw pine-mushrooms; this compound had the highest flavor dilution factor, followed by ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (floral and sweet), linalool (citrus-like), methional (boiled potato-like), 3-octanol (mushroom-like and buttery), 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom-like), (E)-2-octen-1-ol (mushroom-like), and 3-octanone (mushroom-like and buttery). By contrast, methional, 2-acetylthiazole (roasted), an unknown compound (chocolate-like), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (buttery), and phenylacetaldehyde (floral and sweet), which could be formed by diverse thermal reactions during the cooking process, together with C8 compounds, were identified as the major aroma-active compounds in cooked pine-mushrooms. PMID:16910727

Cho, In Hee; Kim, Se Young; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Young-Suk

2006-08-23

273

Physicochemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Organic Acid-Treated Button Mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporous )  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effort was made to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acids to improve the quality and shelf life of button mushroom\\u000a (Agaricus bisporous). Shelf life of malic acid-treated mushrooms was improved to a significant level (p?mushrooms remained unaltered. Antioxidant levels of treated mushrooms

Richu Singla; Abhijit Ganguli; Moushumi Ghosh

274

Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the possibility of using waste mushroom logs as a biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical and physical characteristics of normal wood and waste mushroom logs were examined. Size reduction of normal wood (145kWh\\/tone) required significantly higher energy consumption than waste mushroom logs (70kWh\\/tone). The crystallinity value of waste mushroom logs was dramatically lower (33%)

Jae-Won Lee; Bon-Wook Koo; Joon-Weon Choi; Don-Ha Choi; In-Gyu Choi

2008-01-01

275

Postharvest Hardness and Color Evolution of White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality evaluation of mushrooms was studied by storing fresh white\\u000a button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) for 6 to 8 d, at various\\u000a controlled temperature conditions (3.5 to 15 degrees C) and measuring\\u000a the instrumental textural hardness and color of the mushroom cap for\\u000a different product batches. A nonlinear mixed effect Weibull model was\\u000a used to describe mushroom cap texture and

Debabandya Mohapatra; Zuberi M. Bira; Joseph Kerry; Jesus Maria Frias; Fernanda A. Rodrigues

2010-01-01

276

Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development\\u000a of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if\\u000a not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and\\u000a cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are

Solomon P. Wasser

2011-01-01

277

An Evidence-based Perspective of Lentinus Edodes (Shiitake Mushroom) for Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Lentinus edodes, known as shiitake mushroom in Japan and Xiang Gu or fragrant mushroom in China, is an edible mushroom that is commonly cultivated\\u000a worldwide. This mushroom has been consumed for centuries as a delicacy and for its beneficial effects on human health. Early\\u000a in the fourteenth century, the Chinese physician Wu Rui recorded that shiitake was beneficial for the

Jiao Shen; Jia-fei Yao; Mamoru Tanida; Yuko Horii; Katsuya Nagai

278

Concentration of vitamin D 2 in white button mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) exposed to pulsed UV light  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enrichment of vitamin D2 in Agaricus bisporus white button mushroom (WBM) using continuous UV light needs a longer exposure time, which can lead to discoloration. Using a Xenon pulsed UV light source, the yield of vitamin D2 was evaluated in freshly harvested button mushrooms and mushroom slices after exposure to 2.5, 3, 6 and 9 pulses of UV light at

Sundar Rao Koyyalamudi; Sang-Chul Jeong; Gerald Pang; Anthony Teal; Tony Biggs

2011-01-01

279

Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are reported to possess antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, a majority of these studies evaluated the effect of administering extracts of exotic mushrooms through parental routes, whereas little is known about the immu- nological effect ofa dietary intake of white button

Dayong Wu; Munkyong Pae; Zhihong Ren; Zhuyan Guo; Donald Smith

280

Mushroom chemical defense: Food aversion learning induced by hallucinogenic toxin, muscimol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild animals eat fungi, yet mushroom poisonings in nature are unknown. The opossumDidelphis virginiana readily consumed the toxic mushroomAmanita muscaria, became ill, and then developed an aversion to the fungus. Both the illness and the aversion were due, in part at least, to the toxin muscimol. This appears to be the first demonstration of a mushroom chemical defense against fungivores

Scott Camazine

1983-01-01

281

Poisoning from wild mushrooms in Eastern Anatolia region: analyses of 5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical features of patients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED) due to wild mushroom poisoning and to point the importance of mushroom poisonings in our area. This study was performed by examining the files of wild mushroom poisoning patients who were admitted to the ED of Firat

P. Durukan; M. Yildiz; Y. Cevik; I. Ikizceli; C. Kavalci; S. Celebi

2007-01-01

282

Forensic analysis of hallucinogenic mushrooms and khat ( Catha edulis Forsk) using cation-exchange liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hallucinogenic mushrooms (e.g. Psilocybe and Panaeolus species) as well as leaves and young shoots of the khat tree (Catha edulisForsk) are illicit drugs in many countries. The exact concentration of the hallucinogenic alkaloids psilocin and psilocybin in mushrooms and the sympathomimetic alkaloids cathinone and cathine in khat is usually essential for jurisdiction. Facing an increasing number of mushroom and khat

Tim Laussmann; Sigrid Meier-Giebing

2010-01-01

283

Antioxidant Activities and Polyphenolic Properties of Raw and Osmotically Dehydrated Dried Mushroom (Agaricus bisporous) Snack Food  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total polyphenolics and free radical scavenging properties of extracts obtained from osmotically dehydrated, and spiced mushroom snack food with raw unprocessed mushrooms were studied. Sensorially acceptable mushroom snack was prepared in the laboratory by osmotically dehydrating Agaricus bisporous in 5% salt solution followed by addition of an adequate combination of spices and vacuum drying. The extracts of raw and dry

Richu Singla; Abhijit Ganguli; Moushumi Ghosh

2010-01-01

284

Effects of Heating Conditions on the Thermal Denaturation of White Mushroom Suitable for Dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

White mushrooms suitable for drying are thermolabile materials. At present, the determination of thermal denaturation of dehydrated white mushroom mainly depends on the drying technology. To choose the appropriate dehydration technology for thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for determining the denaturing temperature range. White mushrooms at five different moisture content levels were chosen for the DSC tests.

Zhang Min; Li Chunli; Ding Xiaolin

2005-01-01

285

Microwave-drying of sliced mushroom. Analysis of temperature control and pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying of sliced mushroom by microwave energy is studied for different operational conditions related to temperature control position and pressure and their effects on drying kinetics and quality. Thinly sliced mushrooms were dried in a guide cavity by applying microwave energy at 2.45GHz. The influence on the quality of the dehydrated mushrooms was studied by two different techniques: sorption

J. I. Lombraña; R. Rodríguez; U. Ruiz

2010-01-01

286

Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

1996-01-01

287

77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

2012-06-04

288

76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-05-18

289

Subdivision of the drosophila mushroom bodies by enhancer-trap expression patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetically conserved brain centers known as mushroom bodies are implicated in insect associative learning and in several other aspects of insect behavior. Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of mushroom bodies, have been generally considered to be disposed as homogenous arrays. Such a simple picture imposes constraints on interpreting the diverse behavioral and computational properties that mushroom bodies are supposed to

Ming Yao Yang; J. Douglas Armstrong; Ilya Vilinsky; Nicholas J. Strausfeld; Kim Kaiser

1995-01-01

290

76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2011-07-20

291

75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period February...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

2010-04-06

292

75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...the antidumping duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be likely...

2010-04-15

293

75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2010-06-23

294

76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of...

2011-03-31

295

75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration (A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2010-06-03

296

A Competitive Market Analysis of the United States Shiitake Mushroom Marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. Lentinus edodes, Porter's five forces model, agroforestry, forest farming, log-grown mushrooms SUMMARY. Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) have many nutritional and medicinal benefits. The cultivation of log-grown shiitake mushrooms encourages forest farming and can be an opportunity for farmers interested in developing an additional enterprise. In 2006, the University of Missouri Center for Agroforestry conducted a nationwide survey

Michael A. Gold; Mihaela M. Cernusca; Larry D. Godsey

297

Submerged Culture of Mushrooms in Bioreactors - Challenges, Current State-of-the-Art, and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Medicinal mushrooms have profound health-promoting benefits. Recently, a number of substances of mushroom origin have been isolated, identified and shown to have physi- ological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulating, cardiovascular, antihypercholes- terolemia, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Currently, commercial products from medicinal mushrooms are mostly obtained through the field-cultivation of the fruiting body. However, in this case

Ya-Jie Tang; Li-Wen Zhu; Hong-Mei Li; Dong-Sheng Li

2007-01-01

298

Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

1996-01-01

299

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach.

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascon, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Munoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

300

The effect of beta-blockade on myocardial remodelling in Chagas' cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Chagas' disease has spread throughout Latin America because of the high rate of migration among these countries. Approximately 30% of Chagas' patients will develop cardiomyopathy, and 10% of these will develop severe cardiac damage leading to heart failure. Beta-blockade improves symptoms and survival in heart failure patients; however, its efficacy has not been well established in Chagas' disease. We evaluated the role of carvedilol in cardiac remodeling and mortality in a Chagas' cardiomyopathy animal model. METHODS: We studied Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 55 Syrian hamsters that were divided into three groups: control (15), infected (20), and infected + carvedilol (20). Animals underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and morphometry for collagen evaluation in ventricles stained with picrosirius red. RESULTS: The left ventricular diastolic diameter did not change between groups, although it was slightly larger in infected groups, as was left ventricular systolic diameter. Fractional shortening also did not change between groups, although it was slightly lower in infected groups. Collagen accumulation in the interstitial myocardial space was significantly higher in infected groups and was not attenuated by carvedilol. The same response was observed in the perivascular space. The survival curve showed significantly better survival in the control group compared with the infected groups; but no benefit of carvedilol was observed during the study. However, in the acute phase (up to 100 days of infection), carvedilol did reduce mortality. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol did not attenuate cardiac remodeling or mortality in this model of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. The treatment did improve survival in the acute phase of the disease.

de Souza Pimentel, Walace; Ramires, Felix Jose Alvarez; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Bilate, Angelina Morand Bianchi; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; de Oliveira, Adriana Morgan; Fernandes, Fabio; Mady, Charles

2012-01-01

301

Evolution of mushroom-type structures behind a heated cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional transition in the wake flow behind a heated cylinder occurs at a much lower Reynolds number than for the unheated case. The three-dimensional transition is initialized in the near-wake by the formation of ?-shaped structures and manifests itself in the far-wake as escaping mushroom-type structures from the upper vortices. In this study, both experimental and numerical techniques are used to investigate the origin and development of these mushroom-type structures. The formation of the mushroom-type structures is associated with the occurrence of ?-shaped vortices in the near-wake. Hot fluid between the legs and the head of the ?-shaped structure is lifted up. This lift-up process together with the action of buoyancy pulls out hot fluid from the upper vortex cores, resulting in a mushroom-type structure, which is comprised of a so-called stem and cap. Hot fluid is continuously transported through the stem to the advancing front of the mushroom-type structure. Finally, a pinch-off phenomenon is observed of the cap, ending up as a buoyant vortex ring. An analytical model is presented for the pinch-off process.

Ren, Maosheng; Rindt, Camilo; van Steenhoven, Anton

2007-06-01

302

Dietary mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) ameliorates atherogenic lipid in hypercholesterolaemic rats.  

PubMed

1. The effects of edible oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on plasma and liver lipid profiles and on the plasma total anti-oxidant status were estimated in hyper- and normocholesterolaemic Long Evans rats. 2. The feeding of 5% powder of the fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus mushrooms to hypercholesterolaemic rats reduced their plasma total cholesterol by approximately 28%, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by approximately 55%, triglyceride by approximately 34%, non-esterified fatty acid by approximately 30% and total liver cholesterol levels by > 34%, with a concurrent increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration of > 21%. However, these effects were not observed in mushroom-fed normocholesterolaemic rats. 3. Mushroom feeding significantly increased plasma fatty acid unsaturation in both normo- and hypercholesterolaemic rats. 4. Plasma total anti-oxidant status, as estimated by the oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulphonic-acid], was significantly decreased in mushroom-fed hypercholesterolaemic rats, concomitant with a decrease in plasma total cholesterol. 5. The present study suggests that 5% P. ostreatus supplementation provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in the hypercholesterolaemic condition. PMID:12823261

Hossain, Shahdat; Hashimoto, Michio; Choudhury, Emran Kabir; Alam, Nuhu; Hussain, Shahjalal; Hasan, Moynul; Choudhury, Shahabuddin Kabir; Mahmud, Ishtiaq

2003-07-01

303

Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. PMID:24054262

Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

2013-08-09

304

Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

305

Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.  

PubMed

With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway. Seven housekeeping genes were tested of which 18S rRNA was the only housekeeping gene that was stably expressed in various tissues of different developmental stages. Gene expression was determined for most gene homologs (26 genes) involved in the melanin pathway. Of the analysed genes, those encoding polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the PPO co-factor L-chain (unique for A. bisporus), and a putative transcription factor (photoregulator B) were among the highest expressed in skin tissue. An in depth look was taken at the clustering of several PPO genes and the PPO co-factor gene on chromosome 5, which showed that almost 25% of the protein encoding genes in this cluster have a conserved NACHT and WD40 domain or a P-loop nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase. This article will be the start for an in depth study of the melanin pathway and its role in quality losses of this economically important product. PMID:23123422

Weijn, A; Bastiaan-Net, S; Wichers, H J; Mes, J J

2012-10-31

306

White Button Mushroom (Agaricus Bisporus) Exhibits Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Properties and Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth in Athymic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

White button mushrooms are a widely consumed food containing phytochemicals beneficial to cancer prevention. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of white button mushroom extract and its major component, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on prostate cancer cell lines in vitro and mushroom extract in vivo. In all cell lines tested, mushroom inhibited cell proliferation in a

Lynn S. Adams; Shiuan Chen; Sheryl Phung; Xiwei Wu; Lui Ki

2008-01-01

307

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

Ramirez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunuba, Zulma M.; Florez, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

308

Genomic Changes of Chagas Disease Vector, South America  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the main karyologic changes that have occurred during the dispersion of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. We identified two allopatric groups, named Andean and non-Andean. The Andean specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4–7 autosomes with C-banding. These heterochromatin differences are the likely cause of a striking DNA content variation (approximately 30%) between Andean and non-Andean insects. Our study, together with previous historical and genetic data, suggests that T. infestans was originally a sylvatic species, with large quantities of DNA and heterochromatin, inhabiting the Andean region of Bolivia. However, the spread of domestic T. infestans throughout the non-Andean regions only involved insects with an important reduction of heterochromatin and DNA amounts. We propose that heterochromatin and DNA variation mainly reflected adaptive genomic changes that contribute to the ability of T. infestans to survive, reproduce, and disperse in different environments.

Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Nicolini, Paula; Caraccio, Maria Noel; Rose, Virginia; Tellez, Tatiana; Bermudez, Hernan; Bargues, Maria Dolores; Mas-Coma, Santiago; O'Connor, Jose Enrique; Perez, Ruben

2004-01-01

309

Genomic changes of Chagas disease vector, South America.  

PubMed

We analyzed the main karyologic changes that have occurred during the dispersion of Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease. We identified two allopatric groups, named Andean and non-Andean. The Andean specimens present C-heterochromatic blocks in most of their 22 chromosomes, whereas non-Andean specimens have only 4-7 autosomes with C-banding. These heterochromatin differences are the likely cause of a striking DNA content variation (approximately 30%) between Andean and non-Andean insects. Our study, together with previous historical and genetic data, suggests that T. infestans was originally a sylvatic species, with large quantities of DNA and heterochromatin, inhabiting the Andean region of Bolivia. However, the spread of domestic T. infestans throughout the non-Andean regions only involved insects with an important reduction of heterochromatin and DNA amounts. We propose that heterochromatin and DNA variation mainly reflected adaptive genomic changes that contribute to the ability of T. infestans to survive, reproduce, and disperse in different environments. PMID:15109410

Panzera, Francisco; Dujardin, Jean Pierre; Nicolini, Paula; Caraccio, María Noel; Rose, Virginia; Tellez, Tatiana; Bermúdez, Hernán; Bargues, María Dolores; Mas-Coma, Santiago; O'Connor, José Enrique; Pérez, Ruben

2004-03-01

310

Clinical aspects of Chagas disease and implications for novel therapies  

PubMed Central

The interaction between the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and the human host dates back 9000 years, as demonstrated by molecular analysis of material obtained from Andean mummies indicating the presence of the parasite’s kinetoplast DNA in populations from Chile and Peru. This long-established interaction, which persists today, demonstrates that T. cruzi has established a very well adapted relationship with the human host. From a host-parasite relationship point-of-view this is desirable, however, such a high degree of adaptation is perhaps the foundation for many of the unknowns that surround this disease. Unveiling of the immunological mechanisms that underlie the establishment of pathology, identification of parasite-associated factors that determine strain-differential tissue tropism, discovery of host genetic elements that influence the development of different clinical forms of the disease, and understanding environmental factors that may influence the host-parasite interactions, are some of the key questions remaining to be answered. The response to these questions will aid in addressing some of the current challenges in Chagas disease: fulfilling the need for efficient diagnosis, developing effective prophylactic measures, discovering effective therapeutics, and finding methods to control disease progression.

Menezes, Cristiane; Costa, Germano Carneiro; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

2012-01-01

311

Direct micromethod for diagnosis of acute and congenital Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

A microhematocrit concentration method (MH) for immediate diagnosis of Chagas' disease during the acute stage or in congenital cases was standardized. Parasitemia as low as 1,000 parasites per ml was detected, after centrifugation of six 50-microliters capillary tubes, by 10-min microscopic observation of each buffy coat spread between slide and cover glass. Operator's time was reduced by at least one-third when compared with a fresh blood observation (FB). In 12 of the 15 patients studied, diagnosis was performed in 4.9 +/- 3.08 min with MH, whereas 27.0 +/- 12.1 min were necessary when FB was used. In the three remaining patients whose FB results were negative, MH became positive after 13, 16, and 40 min. In our experience, FB proved to be more sensitive than previously reported. Suckling mouse inoculation also proved to be sensitive but, as in xenodiagnosis and in hemoculture, the delay in getting the final result was a limiting factor.

Feilij, H; Muller, L; Gonzalez Cappa, S M

1983-01-01

312

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-06-06

313

Biomolecule profiles in inedible wild mushrooms with antioxidant value.  

PubMed

The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract) and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC??) value 60 ?g/mL similar to the standard Trolox®). It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds. PMID:21613974

Reis, Filipa S; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-05-25

314

Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species  

PubMed Central

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18?:?2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.

Gunc Ergonul, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergonul, Bulent

2013-01-01

315

Accumulation route and chemical form of mercury in mushroom species  

SciTech Connect

Some papers were published on several species of fungi having more accumulating abilities of mercury than other land plants and a relatively small part of mercury being present as methylmercury in most species (Stegnar et al. 1973, Stijve and Roschnik 1974). But, little information is available regarding the routes of mercury in fungi, and also no report on mercury speciation (chemical form and complexation) in them have been published, apart from methylmercury. In order to evaluate accurately their biological characteristics such as absorption, excretion, accumulation and toxicity (The Task Group on Metal Interaction 1978), the mercury speciation present in mushrooms, regardless of edible or nonedible, should be identified. In this report, we present (1) contents of total and methylmercury in mushrooms near the acetaldehyde factory which had the mounds of sludge containing mercury, (2) data or exposure experiment of mercury vapor to raw mushrooms (Shiitake) on the market, and (3) data on mercury speciation of mercury other than methylmercury.

Minagawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Takizawa, Y.; Tamura, R.; Oshina, T.

1980-09-01

316

Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field  

SciTech Connect

There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

1998-12-01

317

Genetic transformation of a Corynebacterial symbiont from the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans  

PubMed Central

Insect-borne diseases have experienced a troubling resurgence in recent years. Emergence of resistance to pesticides greatly hampers control efforts. Paratransgenesis, or the genetic transformation of bacterial symbionts of disease vectors, is an alternative to traditional approaches. Previously, we developed paratransgenic lines of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease in Central America. Here, we report identification of a Corynebacterial species as a symbiont of Triatoma infestans, a leading vector of Chagas disease in South America. We have modified this bacterium to produce an immunologically active single chain antibody fragment, termed rDB3. This study establishes the basis for generating paratransgenic T. infestans as a strategy for control of Chagas disease.

Durvasula, Ravi V.; Sundaram, Ranjini K.; Kirsch, Philipp; Hurwitz, Ivy; Crawford, Carl V.; Dotson, Ellen; Beard, Charles B.

2009-01-01

318

Growth-promoting effect of thermophilic fungi on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed Central

The growth-promoting effect of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in mushroom compost on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus was investigated. Results obtained by others were confirmed by showing that S. thermophilum leads to an increased hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. However, it was demonstrated that hyphal extension rates were not clearly related to mushroom biomass increase rates. A number of experiments pointed strongly towards CO2 as the determinant of hyphal extension rates. In compost, CO2 is produced mainly by thermophilic fungi. Several experiments did not reveal any other specific compound produced by S. thermophilum that increases the hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium.

Wiegant, W M; Wery, J; Buitenhuis, E T; de Bont, J A

1992-01-01

319

Evaluation of the western blot in the confirmatory serologic diagnosis of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

The Western blot method, using antigens from epimastigote forms of the Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain, was evaluated for the confirmatory diagnosis of Chagas' disease. Serum samples were obtained from 136 chagasic patients (Group I), 23 patients with inconclusive serologic results for Chagas' disease (Group II), 53 patients with other diseases (Group III), and 50 healthy individuals (Group IV). The Western blot results for Group I gave a confirmatory diagnosis of Chagas' diseases in 118 (86.80%), an indeterminate pattern of reactivity in 16 (11.76%), and a negative pattern in only two (1.47%). Of the samples from Groups II, III and IV, none had a positive result in the Western blot; 60.86%, 52.83%, and 16.0%, respectively, showed indeterminate results; and 39.13%, 47,16% and 84,0%, respectively, showed negative results. The Western blot method showed a sensitivity of 86.60%, a specificity of 100.0%, a positive predictive value of 100.0%, and a negative predictive value of 73.50%, and the concordance coefficient kappa was high (0.7789). The results suggest that the previous serologic results for Chagas' disease could be confirmed by Western blot for the detection of specific antibodies to T. cruzi antigenic fractions, which may reduce the medical, legal, and social consequences of an inconclusive serologic result for Chagas' disease and also underscore the need for additional studies for continued efforts in the development of an ideal standard confirmatory test for Chagas' disease. PMID:9840592

Reiche, E M; Cavazzana, M; Okamura, H; Tagata, E C; Jankevicius, S I; Jankevicius, J V

1998-11-01

320

Vitamin D deficiency treated by consuming UVB-irradiated mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Deficiency of vitamin D is usually caused by dietary deficiency and/or lack of exposure to sunlight in dark skinned individuals living at northern latitudes. Simple vitamin D deficiency is commonly treated by prescribing a vitamin D containing calcium supplement. This report presents a patient who rejected this approach and instead, after researching alternative treatment options independently, opted to self-treat by consuming UVB-irradiated mushrooms. The beneficial effect of this on the patient's plasma biochemical markers is shown. Further research into the beneficial effect of consuming UVB-irradiated mushrooms is required.

Ozzard, Andrew; Hear, Gurdip; Morrison, Gavin; Hoskin, Mike

2008-01-01

321

[Two different outcomes after Death Cap mushroom intoxication].  

PubMed

Death Cap is one of the most lethal mushrooms in Denmark and may be mistaken for a non-toxic Asian mushroom. We report on two accidental cases admitted 12 and 17 hours after ingestion presenting with gastroenteritis and decline in liver function. The patient who arrived after 12 hours responded well to intensive treatment of liver failure and was discharged after 18 days. The other patient deteriorated in spite of intensive treatment and underwent liver transplantation. She was later discharged. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential. PMID:23763927

Agerlund Petersen, Marianne; Kjær, Mette Skalshøi

2013-06-10

322

Drosophila mushroom body mutants are deficient in olfactory learning.  

PubMed

Two Drosophila mutants are described in which the connections between the input to and the output from the mushroom bodies is largely interrupted. In all forms of the flies (larva, imago, male, female) showing the structural defect, olfactory conditioning is impaired. Learning is completely abolished when electroshock is used as reinforcement and partially suppressed in reward learning with sucrose. No influence of the mushroom body defect on the perception of the conditioning stimuli or on spontaneous olfactory behavior is observed. The defect seems not to impair learning of color discrimination tasks or operant learning involving visual cues. PMID:4020527

Heisenberg, M; Borst, A; Wagner, S; Byers, D

1985-02-01

323

Two Cases of Mushroom Poisoning by Podostroma Cornu-Damae  

PubMed Central

Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare fungus that houses a fatal toxin in its fruit body. In this case report, two patients collected and boiled the wild fungus in water, which they drank for one month. One patient died, presenting with desquamation of the palms and soles, pancytopenia, severe sepsis and multiple organ failure. The other patient recovered after one month of conservative care after admission. We found a piece of Podostroma cornu-damae in the remaining clusters of mushrooms. Mushroom poisoning by Podostroma cornu-damae has never been previously reported in Korea.

Ahn, Jin Young; Seok, Soon Ja; Song, Je Eun; Choi, Jung Ho; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Chang Oh; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

2013-01-01

324

Anti-triatomine saliva immunoassays for the evaluation of impregnated netting trials against Chagas disease transmission  

PubMed Central

Insecticide-impregnated nets can kill triatomine bugs, but it remains unclear whether they can protect against Chagas disease transmission. In a field trial in Quequeña, Peru, sentinel guinea pigs placed in intervention enclosures covered by deltamethrin-treated nets showed significantly lower antibody responses to saliva of Triatoma infestans compared with animals placed in pre-existing control enclosures. Our results strongly suggest that insecticide-treated nets prevent triatomine bites and can thereby protect against infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Anti-salivary immunoassays are powerful new tools to evaluate intervention strategies against Chagas disease.

Schwarz, Alexandra; Juarez, Jenny Ancca; Richards, Jean; Rath, Bruno; Machaca, Victor Quispe; Castro, Yagahira E.; Malaga, Edith S.; Levy, Katelyn; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn; Verastegui, Manuela; Levy, Michael Z.

2011-01-01

325

Cardiac Autonomic Control Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Chagas' Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Primary abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system had been postulated as the pathogenic mechanisms of myocardial damage, in patients with Chagas disease. However, recent investigations indicate that these abnormalities are secondary and amenable to treatment with beta-adrenergic blockers. Moreover, muscarinic cardiac autoantibodies appear to enhance parasympathetic activity on the sinus node. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze how knowledge on Chagas' disease evolved from being initially considered as a primary cardioneuromyopathy to the current status of a congestive cardiomyopathy of parasitic origin.

Davila, Diego F.; Donis, Jose H.; Arata de Bellabarba, Gabriela; Villarroel, Vanesa; Sanchez, Francisco; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Das Neves, Barbara

2012-01-01

326

Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing. PMID:23557365

Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

2013-01-01

327

Selenium uptake by edible oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus sp.) from selenium-hyperaccumulated wheat straw.  

PubMed

In an effort to produce selenium (Se)-fortifying edible mushrooms, five species of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp.), were cultivated on Se-rich wheat straw collected from a seleniferous belt of Punjab, India. Total selenium was analyzed in the selenium hyperaccumulated wheat straw and the fruiting bodies. Significantly high levels (p<0.0001) of Se uptake were observed in fruiting bodies of all mushrooms grown on Se-rich wheat straw. To the best of our knowledge, accumulation and quantification of selenium in mushrooms has hitherto not been reported with substrates naturally enriched with selenium. The results demonstrate the potential of selenium-rich agricultural residues as substrates for production of Se-enriched mushrooms and the ability of different species of oyster mushrooms to absorb and fortify selenium. The study envisages potential use of selenium-rich agricultural residues towards cultivation of Se-enriched mushrooms for application in selenium supplementation or neutraceutical preparations. PMID:23535542

Bhatia, Poonam; Prakash, Ranjana; Prakash, N Tejo

2013-01-01

328

Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies.

Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolon, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

2011-01-01

329

Fexinidazole: A Potential New Drug Candidate for Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background New safe and effective treatments for Chagas disease (CD) are urgently needed. Current chemotherapy options for CD have significant limitations, including failure to uniformly achieve parasitological cure or prevent the chronic phase of CD, and safety and tolerability concerns. Fexinidazole, a 2-subsituted 5-nitroimidazole drug candidate rediscovered following extensive compound mining by the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and currently in Phase I clinical study for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, was evaluated in experimental models of acute and chronic CD caused by different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods and Findings We investigated the in vivo activity of fexinidazole against T. cruzi, using mice as hosts. The T. cruzi strains used in the study were previously characterized in murine models as susceptible (CL strain), partially resistant (Y strain), and resistant (Colombian and VL-10 strains) to the drugs currently in clinical use, benznidazole and nifurtimox. Our results demonstrated that fexinidazole was effective in suppressing parasitemia and preventing death in infected animals for all strains tested. In addition, assessment of definitive parasite clearance (cure) through parasitological, PCR, and serological methods showed cure rates of 80.0% against CL and Y strains, 88.9% against VL-10 strain, and 77.8% against Colombian strain among animals treated during acute phase, and 70% (VL-10 strain) in those treated in chronic phase. Benznidazole had a similar effect against susceptible and partially resistant T. cruzi strains. Fexinidazole treatment was also shown to reduce myocarditis in all animals infected with VL-10 or Colombian resistant T. cruzi strains, although parasite eradication was not achieved in all treated animals at the tested doses. Conclusions Fexinidazole is an effective oral treatment of acute and chronic experimental CD caused by benznidazole-susceptible, partially resistant, and resistant T. cruzi. These findings illustrate the potential of fexinidazole as a drug candidate for the treatment of human CD.

Bahia, Maria Terezinha; de Andrade, Isabel Mayer; Martins, Tassiane Assiria Fontes; do Nascimento, Alvaro Fernando da Silva; Diniz, Livia de Figueiredo; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Talvani, Andre; Trunz, Bernadette Bourdin; Torreele, Els; Ribeiro, Isabela

2012-01-01

330

Barriers to Treatment Access for Chagas Disease in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background According to World Health Organization (WHO) prevalence estimates, 1.1 million people in Mexico are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease (CD). However, limited information is available about access to antitrypanosomal treatment. This study assesses the extent of access in Mexico, analyzes the barriers to access, and suggests strategies to overcome them. Methods and Findings Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 key informants and policymakers at the national level in Mexico. Data on CD cases, relevant policy documents and interview data were analyzed using the Flagship Framework for Pharmaceutical Policy Reform policy interventions: regulation, financing, payment, organization, and persuasion. Data showed that 3,013 cases were registered nationally from 2007–2011, representing 0.41% of total expected cases based on Mexico's national prevalence estimate. In four of five years, new registered cases were below national targets by 11–36%. Of 1,329 cases registered nationally in 2010–2011, 834 received treatment, 120 were pending treatment as of January 2012, and the treatment status of 375 was unknown. The analysis revealed that the national program mainly coordinated donation of nifurtimox and that important obstacles to access include the exclusion of antitrypanosomal medicines from the national formulary (regulation), historical exclusion of CD from the social insurance package (organization), absence of national clinical guidelines (organization), and limited provider awareness (persuasion). Conclusions Efforts to treat CD in Mexico indicate an increased commitment to addressing this disease. Access to treatment could be advanced by improving the importation process for antitrypanosomal medicines and adding them to the national formulary, increasing education for healthcare providers, and strengthening clinical guidelines. These recommendations have important implications for other countries in the region with similar problems in access to treatment for CD.

Manne, Jennifer M.; Snively, Callae S.; Ramsey, Janine M.; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Barnighausen, Till; Reich, Michael R.

2013-01-01

331

[Congenital Chagas disease in the city of Salta, Argentina].  

PubMed

The immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi was studied in our hospital in 937 pregnant women(PW) and their 929 newborns(NB), group I; 4 NB from this center not included in the first group, group II and 35 NB derived from other centers, group III. Two positive results among indirect hemagglutination (IHA), complement fixation(CF) and indirect hemagglutination(IHA), complement fixation(CF) and indirect immunofluorescence(IIF) tests were considered as the criterion of previous infection with T. cruzi in PW. The presence of T. cruzi in blood, explored in fresh smears by serial micro-hematocrite and/or by xenodiagnosis, was the only criterion to define infection in NB. All NB were followed up by direct agglutination (DA) with or without 2 mercaptoethanol (DA-w2ME, DA-wo2ME) and IIF in order to establish the specific antibody kinetics. Clinical studies on NB with T. cruzi infection include routine laboratory tests. Benznidazole (3 to 7 mg/kg/day) and, in 1 case, nifurtimox (15 mg/kg/day) were employed as therapeutic agents. T. cruzi infection was confirmed in 149 PW(15.9%), table I. These chagasic mothers delivered 6 chagasic NB (CCHD-NB), (4%). Diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease accounted for a total of 12 NB out of the 968 studied. 4 out of them were positive by both microhematocrite and blood smears and 7 by microhematocrite alone. Xenodiagnosis was performed in 2 NB resulting positive in both cases, table II. The most usual clinical findings included hepatomegaly (present in all cases), splenomegaly 8/12, jaundice 10/12 and prematurity 5/12, table 3. Laboratory findings showed anemia to be of hypochromic microcytic type in all cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8278744

Zaidenberg, M; Segovia, A

332

Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina

2008-08-01

333

Substrate share in the suicide inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the real cause of the suicide inactivation of mushroom tyrosinase (MT), under in vitro conditions, cresolase and catecholase reactions of this enzyme were investigated in the presence of three different pairs of substrates, which had been selected for their structural specifications. It was showed that the cresolase activity is more vulnerable to the inactivation. Acetylation of the free

Kamahldin Haghbeen; Ali Akbar Saboury; Farhad Karbassi

2004-01-01

334

SOME STUDIES ON FLUID BED DRYING OF WHITE BUTTON MUSHROOM  

Microsoft Academic Search

mm thick slices of white button mushroom slices were dried in fluid bed dryer at 35, 40 and 50 oC. Drying characteristics were studied and effect of drying air temperature on water diffusivity, colour, ascorbic acid content, water activity and rehydration ratio were analyzed. It was found that water diffusion coefficient increased with drying air temperature while colour index, ascorbic

R. P. Murumkar; S. K. Jain; H K Jain

335

Production and application of transgenic mushroom mycelium and fruitbodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invention involves different methods to modify genetic characteristics of homobasidiomycetes in particular commercial homobasidiomycetes such as the common or button mushroom Agaricus bisporus via treatment with donor DNA or fusions using protoplasts and via matings between strains. The methods may be used for the improvement of commercial characteristics and for the commercial production of enzymes and metabolites. The invention

A. Mooibroek; Rhee van de M. D; H. J. Huizing; F. H. Rats

1999-01-01

336

Microbial community structure changes during oyster mushroom substrate preparation.  

PubMed

Although oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is a valuable food, cultivated worldwide on an industrial scale, still very little is known about the microbial dynamics during oyster mushroom substrate preparation. Therefore, the characterization of the microbial dynamics by chemical and biological tools was the objective of this study. During substrate preparation, enzymatic digestibility of the substrate improved by 77%, whereas the cellulose and hemicellulose to lignin ratios decreased by 9% and 19%, respectively. Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis reached its minimum value at the temperature maximum of the process during the composting phase and exceeded the initial level at the end of the process. Fungal species played part in the initial mesophilic phase of the substrate preparation process, but they disappeared after pasteurization in tunnels at constant elevated temperatures. Changes in the microbiota showed a marked bacterial community succession during substrate preparation investigated by 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Mature samples represented the least variance, which indicated the effect of the standardized preparation protocol. The relation between mushroom yield and the bacterial community T-RFLP fingerprints was investigated, but the uniformity of mushroom yields did not support any significant correlation. PMID:19967354

Vajna, Balázs; Nagy, Adrienn; Sajben, Eniko; Manczinger, László; Szijártó, Nóra; Kádár, Zsófia; Bordás, Diána; Márialigeti, Károly

2009-12-05

337

Forest farming of shiitake mushrooms: Aspects of forced fruiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three outdoor shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) cultivation experiments were established during 2002–2004 at the University of Missouri Horticulture and Agroforestry Research Center, in central Missouri. Over three complete years following a year of spawn run, we examined shiitake mushroom production in response to the temperature of forcing water, inoculum strain, substrate host species and physical orientation of the log

J. N. Bruhn; J. D. Mihail

2009-01-01

338

Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials  

SciTech Connect

Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

2008-08-14

339

Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

340

The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)|

Sommer, Robert

1989-01-01

341

A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macro- lepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters.

Pavel Kala; Lubomir Svoboda

2000-01-01

342

Oscillations and Sparsening of Odor Representations in the Mushroom Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the insect olfactory system, oscillatory synchronization is functionally relevant and reflects the coherent activation of dynamic neural assemblies. We examined the role of such oscillatory synchronization in information transfer between networks in this system. The antennal lobe is the obligatory relay for olfactory afferent signals and generates oscillatory output. The mushroom body is responsible for formation and retrieval of

Javier Perez-Orive; Ofer Mazor; Glenn C. Turner; Stijn Cassenaer; Rachel I. Wilson; Gilles Laurent

2002-01-01

343

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

344

High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test  

SciTech Connect

The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

1997-09-01

345

A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macrolepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters. The

Pavel Kala?; Lubom??r Svoboda

2000-01-01

346

Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical approaches to discover anticancer drugs and cancer treatments have made limited progress in the past several decades in finding a cure for cancer. The expanded knowledge of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and metastasis, together with the inherently vast structural diversity of natural compounds found in mushrooms, provided unique opportunities for discovering new drugs that rationally target the abnormal

Ben-Zion Zaidman; Majed Yassin; Jamal Mahajna; Solomon P. Wasser

2005-01-01

347

Mushroom: a framework for collaboration and interaction across the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the initial design of Mushroom, a framework for collaborative working and user interaction on the Internet. The motivation is to address the issues of support for user interaction, shared resource management and privacy. Mrooms are environments for groups of collaborating and interacting users, whose most significant feature is the boundary, which provides security and integrity guarantees

Tim Kindberg

1996-01-01

348

The Use of Mushroom Glucans and Proteoglycans in Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC)

Parris M. Kidd

349

Myo- and hepatotoxic effects of cultivated mushrooms in mice.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are currently examined for their potential as functional foods. At the same time, novel types of mushroom intoxications, such as rhabdomyolysis after prolonged consumption, have been described in edible species. The aim of the present study was to perform an acute toxicity test to establish if the most commonly cultivated species would have myo- or hepatotoxic effects. Mice (n=6/group) were exposed to 3, 6 or 9 g Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus kg body mass(-1) d(-1) for 5 d with 6 controls. Food and water intakes, plasma clinical chemistry and liver and muscle histology were evaluated. While A. bisporus caused significantly increased plasma bilirubin concentrations, L. edodes elicited also increased plasma creatine kinase activities at 9 g kg(-1) d(-1). P. ostreatus decreased dramatically the food intake but increased the water intake and caused significantly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activities at 9 g kg(-1) d(-1). While there were no pathological findings in the histological samples, it seems that the doses and time periods required for the potential benefits of mushroom consumption to appear are similar to those causing undesirable effects. This should be taken into consideration if mushrooms are to be used as functional foods. PMID:18976689

Nieminen, Petteri; Kärjä, Vesa; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

2008-10-14

350

Mushroom lectin protects arsenic induced apoptosis in hepatocytes of rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute and chronic arsenic exposure result in toxicity both in human and animal beings and cause many hepatic and renal manifestations. The present study stated that mushroom lectin prevents arsenic-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was measured by morphological alterations, cell proliferation index (CPI), phagocytic activity (nitro blue tetrazolium index; NBT), nitric oxide (NO) production, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)

Tanmoy Rana; Asit Kumar Bera; Subhashree Das; Debasis Bhattacharya; Diganta Pan; Subhasish Bandyopadhyay; Sumanta De; Subrata Kumar Das

2011-01-01

351

The nucleic acid content of some edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method for the determination of nucleic acid content in edible mushrooms is described. Details of tissue homogenization and extraction are also included. In regard to the limit suggested by the Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations System, the amount of nucleic acids found in Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Pleurotus sajor-caju and Volvariella volvacea indicates that it is

G. S. F. Li; S. T. Chang

1982-01-01

352

Value of wild mushroom picking as an environmental service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the environmental services provided by Mediterranean forests, wild mushroom picking is particularly appreciated. Where access to the forests is free, and when the property rights to the products that can be picked from the ground are not clearly assigned, forest owners bear a cost, in the form of forest damage by pickers, and receive no benefit. These owners therefore

Juan Martínez de Aragón; Pere Riera; Marek Giergiczny; Carlos Colinas

2011-01-01

353

The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

Sommer, Robert

1989-01-01

354

Low-Noise HEMT with Mushroom-Shaped Gate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) play an important role in microwave low-noise amplifiers used in communications and radar systems. Toshiba has developed a HEMT with a mushroom-shaped gate cross-section enabling the gate length to be reduced to ...

H. Kawasaki B. Abe M. Kuroda

1989-01-01

355

High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test  

SciTech Connect

The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1998-07-01

356

Original Contribution ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF AMANITA PHALLOIDES MUSHROOM TOXINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Alpha amanitin and phalloidin are powerful hepatotoxins that belong to the main classes of toxins namely, amatoxins and phallotoxins, isolated from the deadly poisonous mushroom Amanita phalloides. It is well known that disruptions of antioxidant enzyme defense that include superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase lead to generation of reactive oxygen species, followed by increase in the products of

A. Zheleva; V. Gadjeva; S. Popova

2004-01-01

357

Application of image analysis for variety testing of mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of image analysis for variety testing of mushrooms to grant plant breeders' rights was investigated. The measurements of length, width and a range of several other more or less complex shape descriptors determined by means of image analysis were statistically analyzed. A total of 460 observations were used in this experiment. Distinction between 80% of the cultivars in

J. G. Vooren; G. Polder; G. W. A. M. Heijden

1991-01-01

358

Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta

Fatih Kalyoncu; Mustafa Oskay; Hüsniye Kayalar

2010-01-01

359

The reception by French physicians of Chagas' discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi and American trypanosomiasis (1909-1925).  

PubMed

As soon as they were published early in 1909, Chagas's articles on Trypanosoma cruzi and American trypanosomiasis became the topic of discussions in France. The description of T. cruzi and Chagas disease was added to parasitology textbooks as early as 1912, and elicited active research, particularly on the part of French parasitologist Emile Brumpt. He contributed towards eluciding the lifecycle of T. cruzi and the different ways it could infect humans. Laboratory research on T. cruzi was interrupted by First World War and was not resumed afterwards on the same scale, although interest in the epidemiology of Chagas disease continued. PMID:20027917

Gachelin, Gabriel; Opinel, Annick

2009-07-01

360

Mode of Death on Chagas Heart Disease: Comparison with Other Etiologies. A Subanalysis of the REMADHE Prospective Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden death has been considered the main cause of death in patients with Chagas heart disease. Nevertheless, this information comes from a period before the introduction of drugs that changed the natural history of heart failure. We sought to study the mode of death of patients with heart failure caused by Chagas heart disease, comparing with non-Chagas cardiomyopathy. Methods and results We examined the REMADHE trial and grouped patients according to etiology (Chagas vs non-Chagas) and mode of death. The primary end-point was all-cause, heart failure and sudden death mortality; 342 patients were analyzed and 185 (54.1%) died. Death occurred in 56.4% Chagas patients and 53.7% non-Chagas patients. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality and heart failure mortality was significantly higher in Chagas patients compared to non-Chagas. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of sudden death mortality between the two groups. In the Cox regression model, Chagas etiology (HR 2.76; CI 1.34–5.69; p?=?0.006), LVEDD (left ventricular end diastolic diameter) (HR 1.07; CI 1.04–1.10; p<0.001), creatinine clearance (HR 0.98; CI 0.97–0.99; p?=?0.006) and use of amiodarone (HR 3.05; CI 1.47–6.34; p?=?0.003) were independently associated with heart failure mortality. LVEDD (HR 1.04; CI 1.01–1.07; p?=?0.005) and use of beta-blocker (HR 0.52; CI 0.34–0.94; p?=?0.014) were independently associated with sudden death mortality. Conclusions In severe Chagas heart disease, progressive heart failure is the most important mode of death. These data challenge the current understanding of Chagas heart disease and may have implications in the selection of treatment choices, considering the mode of death. Trial Registration ClinicalTrails.gov NCT00505050 (REMADHE)

Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia M.; Mangini, Sandrigo; Issa, Victor S.; Cruz, Fatima D.; Bacal, Fernando; Guimaraes, Guilherme V.; Chizzola, Paulo R.; Conceicao-Souza, Germano E.; Marcondes-Braga, Fabiana G.; Bocchi, Edimar A.

2013-01-01

361

Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil.  

PubMed

In 2006, a total of 178 cases of acute Chagas disease were reported from the Amazonian state of Pará, Brazil. Eleven occurred in Barcarena and were confirmed by visualization of parasites on blood smears. Using cohort and case-control studies, we implicated oral transmission by consumption of açaí palm fruit. PMID:19331764

Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Garcia, Marcio H; Tatto, Erica; Obara, Marcos T; Costa, Elenild; Sobel, Jeremy; Araujo, Wildo N

2009-04-01

362

Oral Transmission of Chagas Disease by Consumption of A?a? Palm Fruit, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2006, a total of 178 cases of acute Chagas disease were reported from the Amazonian state of Pará, Brazil. Eleven occurred in Barcarena and were confirmed by visualization of parasites on blood smears. Using cohort and case–control studies, we implicated oral transmission by consumption of açaí palm fruit.

Garcia, Marcio H.; Tatto, Erica; Obara, Marcos T.; Costa, Elenild; Sobel, Jeremy; Araujo, Wildo N.

2009-01-01

363

Adaptive Developmental Delay in Chagas Disease Vectors: An Evolutionary Ecology Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe developmental time of vector insects is important in population dynamics, evolutionary biology, epidemiology and in their responses to global climatic change. In the triatomines (Triatominae, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease, evolutionary ecology concepts, which may allow for a better understanding of their biology, have not been applied. Despite delay in the molting in some individuals observed in triatomines, no

Frédéric Menu; Marine Ginoux; Etienne Rajon; Claudio R. Lazzari; Jorge E. Rabinovich

2010-01-01

364

Detection and Characterization of Antigens in Urine of Patients with Acute, Congenital, and Chronic Chagas' Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoclonal antibodies raised against purifiedTrypanosoma cruziurinary antigens were used in an enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) capture test for parasite antigens present in urine specimens of Argen- tinean and Brazilian patients with Chagas' disease. At diagnosis, antigenuria was demonstrated by ELISA in all acutely and congenitally infected infants studied. Moreover, T. cruzi urinary antigens were detected in samples from three

RICARDO S. CORRAL; JAIME ALTCHEH; SANDRA R. ALEXANDRE; SAUL GRINSTEIN; HECTOR FREILIJ; ANDALEJANDRO M. KATZIN

1996-01-01

365

Dynamics of the antibody-T.cruzi competition during Chagas infection: Prognostic relevance of intracellular replication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently proposed model for the competitive parasite-antibody interactions in Chagas disease is extended by separately describing the parasitic intracellular and extracellular phases. The model solutions faithfully reproduce available population data and yield predictions for parasite-induced cardiac cell damage.

Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Isasi, S. Cossy

2005-02-01

366

Association of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor ?173G\\/C polymorphism with Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our aim was to evaluate the association of functional polymorphism of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene with Chagas disease. Our study includes two independent cohorts: 240 chagasic patients and 199 controls from Colombia; and 74 chagasic patients and 85 controls from Peru. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ?173 G\\/C of MIF gene was determined using a polymerase chain reaction

Orlando A. Torres; José E. Calzada; Yasmina Beraún; Carlos A. Morillo; Clara I. González; Antonio González; Javier Martín

2009-01-01

367

Spatial patterns in discordant diagnostic test results for Chagas disease: links to transmission hotspots.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of Chagas disease is hindered by discordance between screening and confirmatory test results for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In periurban Arequipa, Peru, spatial analysis revealed that individuals with discordant test results are spatially clustered in hotspots of T. cruzi transmission, suggesting that discordant results likely represent true infections in this setting. PMID:19278335

Levy, Michael Z; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Plotkin, Joshua B; Waller, Lance A; Cabrera, Lilia; Steurer, Frank; Seitz, Amy E; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Cordova Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

2009-04-15

368

Spatial Patterns in Discordant Diagnostic Test Results for Chagas Disease: Links to Transmission Hotspots  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of Chagas disease is hindered by discordance between screening and confirmatory test results for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In periurban Arequipa, Peru, spatial analysis revealed that individuals with discordant test results are spatially clustered in hotspots of T. cruzi transmission, suggesting that discordant results likely represent true infections in this setting.

Levy, Michael Z.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Waller, Lance A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Steurer, Frank; Seitz, Amy E.; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V.; Carpio, Juan Geny Cornejo del; Benzaquen, Eleazar Cordova; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

2009-01-01

369

Evaluation of the Performance of Brazilian Blood Banks in Testing for Chagas’ Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Due to the low sensitivity and reproducibility of available tests, in 1989 it became mandatory for all Brazilian blood donors to be screened for Chagas’ disease by at least two serological techniques. In 1994 the Brazilian Ministry of health launched a program to systematically evaluate the quality of serological screening for the detection of blood-transmissible diseases as

Amadeo Saéz-Alquézar; Márcia M. Otani; Ester C. Sabino; Gabriela Ribeiro-dos-Santos; Nanci Salles; Dalton F. Chamone

1998-01-01

370

LOS EFECTOS MATERNOS Y EL SISTEMA INMUNE EN UNA PATOLOGÍA ENDÉMICA: LA ENFERMEDAD DE CHAGAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

MATERNAL EFFECTS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE. STUDIES IN THE ENDEMIC CHAGAS' DISEASE Pregnancy in mammals results from the coexistence during gestation of two organisms that constantly interact through various stimuli, namely, the antigenic ones. The young are submitted to the influences of the maternal environment, notably nutritional and immunological, during gestation and in the first stages of intrauterine life. For this

NORA RAQUEL PUIG; HÉCTOR OSCAR DÁVILA

2007-01-01

371

Toxic Side Effects of Drugs Used to Treat Chagas’ Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis) is an endemic parasitic disease in some areas of Latin America. About 16-18 million persons are infected with the aetiological agent of the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, and more than 100 million are living at risk of infection. There are different modes of infection: 1) via blood sucking vector insects infected with T. cruzi, accounting for 80-90%

José A Castro; María Montalto deMecca; Laura C Bartel

2006-01-01

372

Prognostic Value of Natriuretic Peptides in Chagas’ Disease: A 3Year Follow-Up Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chagas’ disease (CD) affects around 18 million people in Latin America. To determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of natriuretic peptides in patients with CD, we measured atrial (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and compared the findings with other dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM). Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 111 CD patients, 62 patients with DCM due to other

Maria da Consolação V. Moreira; Silvia Heringer-Walther; Niels Wessel; Tiago Moreira Ventura; Yong Wang; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Thomas Walther

2008-01-01

373

Cell-mediated immune response in megacolon from patients with chronic chagas' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The mechanisms that control chronic infectionin vivo and the immunologic mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of chagasic megacolon are not completely characterized. Although autoimmunity may play a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease, recent studies, both in mice and in humans, suggest a positive association of tissue parasitism, inflammation, and severity of lesions. The aim of this study

Carlos E. P. Corbett; Ulysses Ribeiro; Maria das Graças Prianti; Angelita Habr-Gama; Masayuki Okumura; Joaquim Gama-Rodrigues

2001-01-01

374

Application of edible coating and acidic washing for extending the storage life of mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).  

PubMed

Hydrocolloid-based materials have been extensively used to coat fruit and vegetables to prolong shelf-life. The effects of different concentrations of acidic washing (acetic, ascorbic, citric and malic acids) followed by coating with gum arabic (GA), carboxymethyl cellulose and emulsified gum arabic (EGA) were evaluated on the weight loss (WL), firmness and color of mushroom. The WL of the uncoated mushrooms was significantly (p?mushrooms washed with malic and ascorbic acids showed minimum and maximum of WL, respectively. Loss in firmness of the EGA-coated mushrooms was by 21% (the minimum of loss), while loss value of the uncoated ones was by 39% (the maximum of loss). Firmness of mushrooms was not influenced by the acid type. Concentration of the acid significantly (p?mushrooms, and at the lowest concentration of acid (1%), the mushrooms tissue was firmest. The L* value of the mushrooms coated with GA was higher than that of others. A significant (p?mushrooms washed with acetic acid. Overall, washing with 1% citric or malic acid followed by coating with EGA resulted in minimum decrease in WL and firmness of the mushrooms. PMID:23175781

Sedaghat, Naser; Zahedi, Younes

2012-12-01

375

Vitamin D mushrooms: comparison of the composition of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) treated postharvest with UVB light or sunlight.  

PubMed

This study compared the compositional changes in mushrooms exposed to sunlight with those occurring after commercial ultraviolet (UV) light processing. Button mushrooms (75 kg) were processed in the presence or absence of UVB light; a third group was exposed to direct sunlight. Mushroom composition was evaluated using chemical analyses. Vitamin D concentrations were 5, 410, and 374 ?g/100 g (dw) in control, UVB, and sunlight groups, respectively. On a dry weight basis, no significant changes in vitamin C, folate, vitamins B(6), vitamin B(5), riboflavin, niacin, amino acids, fatty acids, ergosterol, or agaritine were observed following UVB processing. Sunlight exposure resulted in a 26% loss of riboflavin, evidence of folate oxidation, and unexplained increases in ergosterol (9.5%). It was concluded that compositional effects of UVB light are limited to changes in vitamin D and show no detrimental changes relative to natural sunlight exposure and, therefore, provide important information relevant to the suitability and safety of UVB light technology for vitamin D enhanced mushrooms. PMID:21736377

Simon, Ryan R; Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Munro, Ian C

2011-07-25

376

Effect of UV-B exposure on the concentration of vitamin D2 in sliced shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of UV-B on vitamin D 2 concentration in shiitake mushrooms and in white button mushrooms. After the exposure to UV-B, at a dose of 25 kJ/m(2), the concentration of vitamin D(2) was increased to 36.7 +/- 1.4, 68.6 +/- 4.9, and 106.4 +/- 14.7 microg/g (dry weight) for pileus, middle, and gill parts of shiitake mushroom, respectively. The gill side of whole shiitake mushrooms exposed to 0, 25, 50, and 75 kJ/m(2) increased to 2.8 +/- 0.2, 13.8 +/- 1.9, 40.7 +/- 4.4, and 61.9 +/- 10.6 microg/g (dry weight) at 25 degrees C, respectively. Irradiating slices of white button mushroom was a more efficient way of increasing the vitamin D(2) content than irradiating the gill or pileus of whole mushrooms, due to the larger exposure area. As the irradiation doses increased, the vitamin D(2) concentration also increased for both types of mushrooms. In conclusion, exposure to ultraviolet light offers an effective way of increasing the concentration of vitamin D(2) in mushrooms. PMID:18442245

Ko, J A; Lee, B H; Lee, J S; Park, H J

2008-04-29

377

Use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their excellent nutritional and sensory properties. However, they are highly perishable and rapidly lose their organoleptic characteristics. Many methods have been employed for mushroom storage, such as packaging, blanching, canning, or freeze drying. Among them, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been widely employed for preserving fresh mushrooms. MAP provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. Several factors, including optimum CO2 and O2 partial pressures, permeability, package material, thickness, or product weight, must be considered in order to design a suitable modified atmosphere package for mushrooms. Thus, different strategies are available to preserve mushroom quality after harvest. The article presents some promising patents on use of modified atmosphere packaging to preserve mushroom quality during storage. PMID:21846323

Palacios, Irene; Moro, Carlos; Lozano, Miguel; D'Arrigo, Matilde; Guillamón, Eva; García-Lafuente, Ana; Villares, Ana

2011-09-01

378

Potential use of synthetic ?-galactosyl-containing glycotopes of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi as diagnostic antigens for Chagas disease.  

PubMed

A synthetic glycoarray containing non-reducing ?-galactopyranosyl moieties related to mucin O-glycans of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated by a chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with sera from patients with chronic Chagas disease. Our data revealed the disaccharide Gal?(1,3)Gal? as the immunodominant glycotope, which may eventually be employed as a diagnostic antigen for Chagas disease. PMID:23863943

Ashmus, Roger A; Schocker, Nathaniel S; Cordero-Mendoza, Yanira; Marques, Alexandre F; Monroy, Erika Y; Pardo, Andrew; Izquierdo, Luis; Gállego, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim; Almeida, Igor C; Michael, Katja

2013-09-14

379

An Evidence-based Perspective of Coriolus Versicolor (Multicolored Polypore Mushroom) for Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the era of molecularly targeted, rationally designed cancer therapeutics, natural products, especially medicinal mushrooms,\\u000a continue to provide a rich source of anticancer agents. One potent medicinal mushroom extensively used in both traditional\\u000a medicine and modern clinical practice is Coriolus versicolor (alternative names Trametes versicolor, Polyporus versicolor, Polystictus versicolor, multicolored polypore mushroom). In spite of their paucity, available data about

Stanislava Stoši?-Gruji?i?; Sanja Mijatovi?; Danijela Maksimovi?-Ivani?

380

Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity and productivity—an indicator of forest health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Introduction\\u000a   Fruit-body production of mushrooms is not well understood to date as many factors interact with mushroom growth in nature.\\u000a Weather conditions play a key role, but they do not completely explain the growth and productivity of wild mushrooms. Mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi depend on photosynthetically fixed carbon produced by their associated trees, and the physiological state of host trees\\u000a may

Simon Egli

2011-01-01

381

Inhibiting Effect of Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Mushroom Cultivation on Bacterial Quorum Sensing-Regulated Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study aimed to search for novel quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors from mushroom and to analyze their inhibitory activity, with a view to their possible use in controlling detrimental infections. Methods: The bioactive metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation were tested for their abilities to inhibit QS-regulated behavior. All mushroom strains were cultivated in potato-dextrose medium by large-scale submerged fermentation.

Hu Zhu; Shou-xian Wang; Shuai-shuai Zhang; Chun-xu Cao

2011-01-01

382

Anti-Aromatase Activity of Phytochemicals in White Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporous) are a potential breast cancer chemopreventive agent, as they suppress aromatase activity and estrogen biosynthesis. Therefore, we evaluated the activity of mushroom extracts in the estrogen receptor-positive\\/aromatase-positive MCF-7aro cell line in vitro and in vivo. Mushroom extract decreased testosterone-induced cell proliferation in MCF-7aro cells but had no effect on MCF-10A, a nontumorigenic cell line. Most

Shiuan Chen; Sheryl Phung; Jing Jing Ye; Sum Ling Kwok; Gayle E. Shrode; Martha Belury; Lynn S. Adams; Dudley Williams

2006-01-01

383

Inhibitory Effects of ‘Enokitake’ Mushroom Extracts on Polyphenol Oxidase and Prevention of Apple Browning  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Enokitake’ mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extracts were prepared by three different solvents: 70 mL\\/100 mL acetone, 70 mL\\/100 mL ethanol as well as hot water. Effects of the extracts on mushroom tyrosinase activity and browning of apple were investigated. Mushroom tyrosinase activities assayed spectrophotometrically and by oxygen uptake were found to be inhibited significantly by all three extracts. Lyophilized ‘enokitake’ fruit

Mi Soon Jang; Aiko Sanada; Hideki Ushio; Munehiko Tanaka; Toshiaki Ohshima

2002-01-01

384

Development, life table and thermal requirement of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) on mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synanthropic mould mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae infests various stored products, plant seeds and mushroom beds. Its biology was studied under controlled laboratory conditions at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30°C, 70%r.h. and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D)h when reared on button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus and oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae had a significantly shorter developmental time at 25°C when

K. Kheradmand; K. Kamali; Y. Fathipour; E. Mohammadi Goltapeh

2007-01-01

385

Safety assessment of mushroom ?-glucan: Subchronic toxicity in rodents and mutagenicity studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom ?-glucan, a polymer of ?-(1,3\\/1,6)-glucan, has been claimed for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the safety in-use of mushroom ?-glucan as dietary supplement and food ingredient. Hence, a subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity studies were conducted. In the subchronic toxicity study, Sprague Dawley rats (12\\/sex\\/group) were administered (gavage) mushroom ?-glucan at dose levels of

S. N. Chen; F. H. Nan; J. F. Wu; C. L. Lu; Madhu G. Soni

2011-01-01

386

Spatial distribution of Beta glucan containing wild mushroom communities in subtropical dry forest, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to their use as food, mushrooms have been gaining importance in medicinal practices. Beta glucan, known as a modulator\\u000a of the immune system, is one of the bioactive compounds of interest. This study explores the relationship between environmental\\u000a variables and spatial distribution of mushroom communities containing beta-glucan using Canonical Correspondence Analysis.\\u000a Mushroom samples were collected for study from

Jaruntorn Boonyanuphap; Chanida Hansawasdi

2011-01-01

387

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Radulescu, Cristiana; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela; Bancuta, Iulian

2011-10-01

388

Plant growth and gas balance in a plant and mushroom cultivation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain basic data for construction of a plant cultivation system incorporating a mushroom cultivation subsystem in the CELSS, plant growth and atmospheric CO2 balance in the system were investigated. The plant growth was promoted by a high level of CO2 which resulted from the respiration of the mushroom mycelium in the system. The atmospheric CO2 concentration inside the system changed significantly due to the slight change in the net photosynthetic rate of plants and/or the respiration rate of the mushroom when the plant cultivation system combined directly with the mushroom cultivation subsystem.

Kitaya, Y.; Tani, A.; Kiyota, M.; Aiga, I.

1994-11-01

389

[The composition of volatile components of dry cepe and oyster mushroom].  

PubMed

The composition of aroma compounds in dry cepe mushroom (Boletis edulis Fr.) and oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus Fr.) was studied using capillary gas chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrometry. In dry cepe, 53 volatile compounds were identified, and in dry oyster mushroom 41 compounds were identified. Volatile organic substances with various functional groups formed the flavor of dry mushrooms. Unsaturated alcohols and ketones with eight carbon atoms were responsible for the mushroom notes of products. Their content in dry cepe was much higher than in dry oyster mushroom. The specific aroma of dry cepe was formed by the complex mixture of methional, substituted furans, pyrazines, and pyrroles. The content of these compounds was higher in dry cepe than in dry oyster mushroom. The content of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with six, nine, and ten carbon atoms was higher in dry oyster mushroom. The differences in the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds are responsible for more intensive and pleasant aroma of dry cepe in comparison to that of dry oyster mushroom. PMID:19845295

Misharina, T A; Mukhutdinova, S M; Zharikova, G G; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I; Medvedeva, I B

390

75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

2010-02-23

391

Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

1987-06-01

392

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian [Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Popescu, Ion V. [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientist, Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Gabriela [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnologies, Environmental Engineering Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania)

2011-10-03

393

Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.  

PubMed

A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:22044136

Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

2011-11-01

394

Antioxidative enzymatic profile of mushrooms stored at low temperature.  

PubMed

Fruiting bodies of 6 mushrooms including Agaricus bisporus, Hyspizygus ulmarius, Pleurotus florida PF-01, Pleurotus florida PF-01 R5, Pleurotus platypus and Pleurotus sajor-caju PSC-04 were analyzed for antioxidative enzymatic profile during low temperature storage. Colour, rehydration ratio and moisture were taken as indices of accessing their shelf-life/marketability, of which, colour contributed significantly while rehydration ratio and moisture did not change considerably during storage. Mushrooms were stored at 5 and 10 °C and activities and isozyme profile of antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) were analyzed after every 48 h interval till the fruiting bodies remained marketable. SOD activity increased generally at 5 and 10 °C while POX activity first increased and then decreased under similar conditions. Isozyme profile of SOD and POX did not show any new isozyme during storage, the only difference was in the intensity of bands. PMID:23572700

Dama, Chhagan Lal; Kumar, Sunil; Mishra, Brijesh K; Shukla, Kunj Bihari; Mathur, Sudha; Doshi, Anila

2010-10-10

395

Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area  

SciTech Connect

Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the present paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).

Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.; Pozo-Lora, R.

1986-05-01

396

Oilseed rape straw for cultivation of oyster mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer) was grown on five substrates: rice straw, rice straw + oilseed rape straw (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 dw\\/dw), and oilseed rape straw alone. Rice straw + oilseed rape straw (25:75) and oilseed rape straw were best for fruit body production of P. ostreatus. The time to fruiting for P. ostreatus was

Ahmad Norouzi; Gholamali Peyvast; Jamalali Olfati

397

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before.

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

398

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha.  

PubMed

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie; Bian, Yinbing

2012-06-29

399

Antioxidative enzymatic profile of mushrooms stored at low temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruiting bodies of 6 mushrooms including Agaricus bisporus, Hyspizygus ulmarius, Pleurotus florida PF-01, Pleurotus florida PF-01 R5, Pleurotus platypus and Pleurotus sajor-caju PSC-04 were analyzed for antioxidative enzymatic profile during low temperature storage. Colour, rehydration ratio and moisture\\u000a were taken as indices of accessing their shelf-life\\/marketability, of which, colour contributed significantly while rehydration\\u000a ratio and moisture did not change considerably

Chhagan Lal Dama; Sunil Kumar; Brijesh K. Mishra; Kunj Bihari Shukla; Sudha Mathur; Anila Doshi

2010-01-01

400

Microwave-assisted air dehydration of apple and mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hot-air dehydration of apple and mushroom was performed with low-power microwave energy. The purpose of the investigation was to compare hot-air drying and microwave-assisted hot-air drying. The air velocity, the microwave output power and the air temperature were the variables in the experiments. The microwave energy was supplied by either microwave applicators with transverse magnetic (TM) modes as dominant

Tomas Funebo; Thomas Ohlsson

1998-01-01

401

The Mushroom Treatment: Information Suppression and Misrepresentation in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “mushroom treatment� is a common metaphor for the practice of “keeping employees in the dark and feeding them a steady diet of bull manure.� We develop a model of this practice of information suppression and misrepresentation within organizations, wherein informed principals have an incentive to deliberately communicate degraded information (clipped “sales leads�) to their subordinates who perform critical tasks

David C. Croson; Thomas A. Weber

2004-01-01

402

Cost Benefit Analysis and Marketing of Mushroom in Haryana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study conducted in the districts of Sonepat and Gurgaon in Haryana during the year 2003-04, has analysed the cost, returns and break-even point of mushroom production on different categories of farms, and has investigated the existing marketing system along with marketing cost, margins and marketing efficiency. Simple tabular analysis, benefit-cost analysis, break-even level, price spread and marketing efficiency have

Ram Singh; D. K. Bishnoi; Abhey Singh

2010-01-01

403

Proteomic analysis of antihypertensive proteins in edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are high in protein content, which makes them potentially a good source of antihypertensive peptides. Among the mushrooms tested, protein extracts from Pleurotus cystidiosus (E1Pc and E5Pc) and Agaricus bisporus (E1Ab and E3Ab) had high levels of antihypertensive activity. The protein extracts were fractionated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) into six fractions. Fraction 3 from E5Pc (E5PcF3) and fraction 6 from E3Ab (E3AbF6) had the highest antihypertensive activities. SDS-PAGE analysis showed E5PcF3 consisted mainly of low molecular weight proteins, whereas E3AbF6 contained a variety of high to low molecular weight proteins. There were 22 protein clusters detected by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis with five common peaks found in E5PcF3 and E3AbF6, which had m/z values in the range of 3940-11413. This study suggests that the antihypertensive activity in the two mushroom species could be due to proteins with molecular masses ranging from 3 to 10 kDa. PMID:23190208

Lau, Ching-Ching; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Aminudin, Norhaniza

2012-12-11

404

Mushroom harvesting ants in the tropical rain forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ants belong to the most important groups of arthropods, inhabiting and commonly dominating most terrestrial habitats, especially tropical rainforests. Their highly collective behavior enables exploitation of various resources and is viewed as a key factor for their evolutionary success. Accordingly, a great variety of life strategies evolved in this group of arthropods, including seed harvesters, gardeners, and planters, fungus growers, nomadic hunters, life stock keepers, and slave makers. This study reports the discovery of a new lifestyle in ants. In a Southeast Asian rainforest habitat, Euprenolepis procera is specialized in harvesting a broad spectrum of naturally growing mushrooms, a nutritionally challenging and spatiotemporally unpredictable food source. While unfavorable to the vast majority of animals, E. procera has developed exceptional adaptations such as a shift to a fully nomadic lifestyle and special food processing capabilities, which allow it to rely entirely on mushrooms. As a consequence, E. procera is the most efficient and predominant consumer of epigeic mushrooms in the studied habitat and this has broad implications for the tropical rainforest ecosystem.

Witte, Volker; Maschwitz, Ulrich

2008-11-01

405

Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

1988-10-01

406

Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitative results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.

Not Available

1989-01-01

407

[The beginning of Chagas disease control (homage to Dr. Emmanuel Dias, the pioneer of Chagas disease control, in the year of his birth centenary)].  

PubMed

Very soon Carlos Chagas took into account the need of trypanosomiasis control, considering its great social impact and geographical dispersion The vector was considered the more vulnerable target and housing improvement the basic strategy to face the disease. In parallel, it was required a more clinical visibility for the disease, as an argument for its control. The first concrete tentative occurred in 1918 when Souza Araújo dedicating his efforts in Paraná, trying housing improvement. He was followed by Ezequiel Dias et al, in 1921, employing chemical compounds against the vector, The chemical fight will be retaken by Emmanuel Dias in 1944, assaying several old compounds, fire thrower and cyanidric gas. In 1946, DDT showed to be ineffective, but one year later Dias & Pellegrino described the insecticide gammexane, highly effective against domestic triatomines. Working with Mario Pinotti, expanded trials occurred in Minas Gerais (Triangle Region), justifying the expansion of the campaign to other endemic regions, with the rationale of continuous work in contiguous areas. In 1957 Pedreira de Freitas proposed the selective spraying, which was the model for the future strategy of program evaluation, by SUVEN and SUCAN organizations. In 1975 the national program is reorganized, launching two national surveys (entomology and serology). In 1979 the new pyrethroid compounds are tried and im 1983 the national program is expanded. Transfusion transmitted Chagas Disease was studied since the 1950 by the Nussenzweig group in S. Paulo, showing to be vulnerable to chemoprophylaxis and blood donor pre transfusional serologic screening. Nevertheless, these preventive measures only were implemented in the 1980 decade, following the emergence of HIV/AIDS pandemic. Practically, since the pioneer essays, the control of Chagas Disease transmission showed to be efficient against vector and blood bank mechanisms, depending on continuity, educative support and political will. PMID:21584352

Dias, João Carlos Pinto

2011-01-01

408

76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

2011-10-27

409

75 FR 63440 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time...review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's [[Page 63441

2010-10-15

410

In Vitro Antagonistic Characteristics of Bacilli Isolates against Trichoderma spp. and Three Species of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Twenty isolates of Bacillus species obtained from livestock manure composts and cotton-waste composts were tested for their antagonistic effects in vitro against three green mold pathogens of mushrooms (Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, and T. viridescens). However, there exists a possibility Bacillus species may have antagonistic effects against mushrooms themselves, and thus the same 20 isolates were tested in vitro against three species of mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes, Lentinus edodes, and Pleurotus ostreatus). Of the 20 Bacillus species isolates tested, two inhibited mycelial growth of T. harzianum, seven that of T. koningii, and eight that of T. viridescens. Importantly, the bacterial isolates M27 and RM29 strongly inhibited mycelial growth of all the Trichoderma spp. isolates tested. The isolate M27 was subsequently identified as the most effective in inhibiting mycelial growth of all the Trichoderma species. Interesting results of the effect Bacillus isolates had upon the mushroom species followed. It was found that most Bacillus isolates except 5T33 at least somewhat inhibited mycelial growth of the three mushroom species or some of the mushrooms. Furhermore, the antagonistic effects of the bacterial isolates against the three species of mushrooms varied depending on the mushroom species, suggesting a role for mushroom type in the mechanism of inhibition. The bacterial isolates M27 and RM29 were identified as having the most antagonistic activity, inhibiting mycelial growth of all the Trichoderma spp. as well as mycelial growth of the three species of mushrooms. These results suggest that the bacterial isolates and their antagonistic effects on green mold pathogens should be further studied for their practical use for biological control of green mold in the growing room of the mushrooms.

Weon, Hang Yeon; Seok, Soon Ja; Lee, Kang Hyo

2008-01-01

411

Evaluation of waste mushroom medium from cultivation of shiitake mushroom ( Lentinula edodes ) as feedstock of enzymic saccharification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using waste mushroom medium (WMM) as a substrate for enzymic saccharification to produce bioethanol or\\u000a other bioproducts was investigated. WMM was broken up or left unbroken and stored at constant temperatures (5°, 15°, and 25°C)\\u000a for 1 or 2 month(s) to accelerate lignin degradation by shiitake, which is a white rot fungus, and to increase the saccharification

Ryo Hiyama; Seiki Gisusi; Akira Harada

412

[Congenital Chagas' disease in the province of Salta, Argentina, from 1980 to 1997].  

PubMed

This is the experience of 18 years of attending newborn infants suffering from congenital Chagas' disease. From a variety of sources in the provincial health system, the Mother-Child Hospital in the city of Salta, country hospitals and out-patient care, 102 newborn and infants were detected and diagnosed. The newborn were classified into two main groups, one being sub-classified according to diagnostic opportunity. The diagnostic methodology, clinical presentation, treatment and follow-up of the children under care are described, the characteristics of the experience analyzed and the specific conditions of the diagnostic discussed. Also described are the recommendations used in the province in the perinatal Chagas control program, as well as the conclusions reached by this experience. PMID:10881107

Zaidenberg, M

413

Lower Richness of Small Wild Mammal Species and Chagas Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

A new epidemiological scenario involving the oral transmission of Chagas disease, mainly in the Amazon basin, requires innovative control measures. Geospatial analyses of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the wild mammals have been scarce. We applied interpolation and map algebra methods to evaluate mammalian fauna variables related to small wild mammals and the T. cruzi infection pattern in dogs to identify hotspot areas of transmission. We also evaluated the use of dogs as sentinels of epidemiological risk of Chagas disease. Dogs (n?=?649) were examined by two parasitological and three distinct serological assays. kDNA amplification was performed in patent infections, although the infection was mainly sub-patent in dogs. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 11–89% in different localities. The interpolation method and map algebra were employed to test the associations between the lower richness in mammal species and the risk of exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection. Geospatial analysis indicated that the reduction of the mammal fauna (richness and abundance) was associated with higher parasitemia in small wild mammals and higher exposure of dogs to infection. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) demonstrated that species richness and positive hemocultures in wild mammals were associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Domestic canine infection rates differed significantly between areas with and without Chagas disease outbreaks (Chi-squared test). Geospatial analysis by interpolation and map algebra methods proved to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of areas of T. cruzi transmission. Dog infection was shown to not only be an efficient indicator of reduction of wild mammalian fauna richness but to also act as a signal for the presence of small wild mammals with high parasitemia. The lower richness of small mammal species is discussed as a risk factor for the re-emergence of Chagas disease.

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, Andre Luiz Rodrigues; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Otaviano, Joel Carlos Rodrigues; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho; Jansen, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

414

Cost-Effectiveness of Chagas Disease Vector Control Strategies in Northwestern Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundControl and prevention of Chagas disease rely mostly on residual spraying of insecticides. In Argentina, vector control shifted from a vertical to a fully horizontal strategy based on community participation between 1992 and 2004. The effects of such strategy on Triatoma infestans, the main domestic vector, and on disease transmission have not been assessed.Methods and FindingsBased on retrospective (1993–2004) records

Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec; Cynthia Spillmann; Mario Zaidenberg; Uriel Kitron; Ricardo E. Gürtler

2009-01-01

415

Control of Pyrethroid-Resistant Chagas Disease Vectors with Entomopathogenic Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTriatoma infestans-mediated transmission of Tripanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, remains as a major health issue in southern South America. Key factors of T. infestans prevalence in specific areas of the geographic Gran Chaco region—which extends through northern Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay—are both recurrent reinfestations after insecticide spraying and emerging pyrethroid-resistance over the past ten years. Among alternative

Nicolás Pedrini; Sergio J. Mijailovsky; Juan R. Girotti; Raúl Stariolo; Rubén M. Cardozo; Alberto Gentile; M. Patricia Juárez

2009-01-01

416

Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem.  

PubMed

Political repression and/or economic stagnation stimulated the flow of migration from the 17 Latin American countries endemic for Chagas disease to developed countries. Because of this migration, Chagas disease, an autochthonous disease of the Continental Western Hemisphere is becoming a global health problem. In 2006, 3.8% of the 80,522 immigrants from those 17 countries to Australia were likely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. In Canada in 2006, 3.5% of the 156,960 immigrants from Latin America whose country of origin was identified were estimated to have been infected. In Japan in 2007, there were 80,912 immigrants from Brazil, 15,281 from Peru, and 19,413 from other South American countries whose country of origin was not identified, a portion of whom may have been also infected. In 15 countries of Europe in 2005, excluding Spain, 2.9% of the 483,074 legal Latin American immigrants were estimated to be infected with T. cruzi. By 2008, Spain had received 1,678,711 immigrants from Latin American endemic countries; of these, 5.2% were potentially infected with T. cruzi and 17,390 may develop Chagas disease. Further, it was estimated that 24-92 newborns delivered by South American T. cruzi infected mothers in Spain may have been congenitally infected with T. cruzi in 2007. In the USA we estimated that 1.9% of approximately 13 million Latin American immigrants in 2000, and 2% of 17 million in 2007, were potentially infected with T. cruzi. Of these, 49,157 and 65,133 in 2000 and 2007 respectively, may have or may develop symptoms and signs of chronic Chagas disease. Governments should implement policies to prevent donations of blood and organs from T. cruzi infected donors. In addition, an infrastructure that assures detection and treatment of acute and chronic cases as well as congenital infection should be developed. PMID:19932071

Schmunis, Gabriel A; Yadon, Zaida E

2009-11-20

417

Human chagas disease and migration in the context of globalization: some particular aspects.  

PubMed

Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries. PMID:23606862

Pinto Dias, João Carlos

2013-03-30

418

The pathogenesis of Chagas' disease: when autoimmune and parasite-specific immune responses meet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease is a major health problem in Latin America, where it constitutes one of the leading causes of heart failure. About one fourth of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CChC), the most severe form of the disease. CChC is histologically characterized by the presence of multifocal inflammatory infiltrates in the heart, composed mainly by mononuclear cells, usually

MILENA B. P. SOARES; LAIN PONTES-DE-CARVALHO; RICARDO RIBEIRO-DOS-SANTOS

2001-01-01

419

Human Chagas Disease and Migration in the Context of Globalization: Some Particular Aspects  

PubMed Central

Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries.

Pinto Dias, Joao Carlos

2013-01-01

420

[The mushroom bodies of the lower nematocera: a link between those of the higher Diptera and other mecopteroids].  

PubMed

Nematoceran Diptera are nonuniform in the structure of their mushroom bodies. Members of the more basal families (Ptychopteridae, Pediciidae, and Tipulidae) have bipartite mushroom bodies, characteristic of members of the other mecopteroid complex orders. In members of Bibionomorpha (Bibionidae and Anisopodidae), tripartite mushroom bodies have been found characteristic of Brachycera Orthorrhapha. PMID:22988763

Panov, A A

421

Empirical models for predicting the production of wild mushrooms in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in the Central Pyrenees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom picking has become a widespread autumn recreational activity in the Central Pyrenees and other regions of Spain. Predictive models that relate mushroom production or fungal species richness with forest stand and site characteristics are not available. This study used mushroom production data from 24 Scots pine plots over 3 years to develop a predictive model that could facilitate forest

José Antonio Bonet; Christine R. Fischer; M arcPalahi; Passeig Lluis Companys

2008-01-01

422

76 FR 41215 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-07-13

423

76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-03-25

424

75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2003. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

2010-01-25

425

75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-09-29

426

76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-01-25

427

Evaluation of a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Mucin-Like Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Chagas' Disease ?  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is one of the most important endemic problems in Latin America. Lately, it has also become a health concern in the United States and Europe. Currently, a diagnosis of Chagas' disease and the screening of blood supplies for antiparasite antibodies are achieved by conventional serological tests that show substantial variation in the reproducibility and reliability of their results. In addition, the specificity of these assays is curtailed by antigenic cross-reactivity with sera from patients affected by other endemic diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Here we used a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) to evaluate a recombinant protein core of a mucin-like molecule (termed trypomastigote small surface antigen [TSSA]) for the detection of specific serum antibodies in a broad panel of human sera. The same samples were evaluated by CL-ELISA using as the antigen either a mixture of native T. cruzi trypomastigote mucins or an epimastigote extract and, for further comparison, by conventional serologic tests, such as an indirect hemagglutination assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. TSSA showed ?87% sensitivity among the seropositive Chagasic panel, a value which was increased up to >98% when only parasitologically positive samples were considered. More importantly, TSSA showed a significant increase in specificity (97.4%) compared to those of currently used assays, which averaged 80 to 90%. Overall, our data demonstrate that recombinant TSSA may be a useful antigen for the immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease.

De Marchi, Claudia R.; Di Noia, Javier M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Amato Neto, Vicente; Almeida, Igor C.; Buscaglia, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

428

A Nonazole CYP51 Inhibitor Cures Chagas' Disease in a Mouse Model of Acute Infection? †  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease, the leading cause of heart failure in Latin America, is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The sterols of T. cruzi resemble those of fungi, both in composition and in biosynthesis. Azole inhibitors of sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) successfully treat fungal infections in humans, and efforts to adapt the success of antifungal azoles posaconazole and ravuconazole as second-use agents for Chagas’ disease are under way. However, to address concerns about the use of azoles for Chagas’ disease, including drug resistance and cost, the rational design of nonazole CYP51 inhibitors can provide promising alternative drug chemotypes. We report the curative effect of the nonazole CYP51 inhibitor LP10 in an acute mouse model of T. cruzi infection. Mice treated with an oral dose of 40 mg LP10/kg of body weight twice a day (BID) for 30 days, initiated 24 h postinfection, showed no signs of acute disease and had histologically normal tissues after 6 months. A very stringent test of cure showed that 4/5 mice had negative PCR results for T. cruzi, and parasites were amplified by hemoculture in only two treated mice. These results compare favorably with those reported for posaconazole. Electron microscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of sterol composition confirmed that treatment with LP10 blocked the 14?-demethylation step and induced breakdown of parasite cell membranes, culminating in severe ultrastructural and morphological alterations and death of the clinically relevant amastigote stage of the parasite.

Doyle, Patricia S.; Chen, Chiung-Kuang; Johnston, Jonathan B.; Hopkins, Stephanie D.; Leung, Siegfried S. F.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Engel, Juan C.; McKerrow, James H.; Podust, Larissa M.

2010-01-01

429

On the run: free-living mushroom corals avoiding interaction with sponges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individuals of the free-living mushroom coral Heliofungia fralinae moved away when placed in contact with fragments of the toxic haplosclerid sponge Callyspongia (Euplacella) biru. This reaction was not evoked by three other sponge species. The experiment demonstrated that mobility of mushroom corals helps them to flee from organisms that secrete secondary metabolites in competition for space.

Hoeksema, B. W.; de Voogd, N. J.

2012-06-01

430

A new method to apply and quantify bruising sensitivity of button mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are prone to develop brown discolouration due to bruising caused by mechanical damage during harvest, which leads to reduced quality of the mushrooms. In order to study the mechanism behind discolouration and to breed for bruise-related browning resistant strains, a high throughput bruise application method and reliable quantification of browning sensitivity is essential. In this study a new bruising

A. Weijn; M. M. M. Tomassen; S. Bastiaan-Net; M. L. I. Wigham; E. P. J. Boer; E. A. H. J. Hendrix; J. J. P. Baars; A. S. M. Sonnenberg; H. J. Wichers; J. J. Mes

2012-01-01

431

Dry bubble disease of the white button mushroom. Ecology and control of Lecanicillium fungicola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry bubble disease is a persistent problem in the cultivation of the white button mushroom, A. bisporus. There is a pressing need for innovative ways to control spread and development of L. fungicola in mushroom cultivation as currently disease management relies heavily on one chemical (Sporgon) for which a reduced sensitivity of the pathogen has been reported. The research described

R. L. Berendsen

2011-01-01

432

Lecanicillium fungicola: causal agent of dry dubble disease in white-button mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lecanicillium fungicola causes dry bubble disease in commercially cultivated mushroom. This review summarizes current knowledge on the biology of the pathogen and the interaction between the pathogen and its most important host, the white-button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The ecology of the pathogen is discussed with emphasis on host range, dispersal and primary source of infection. In addition, current knowledge on

R. L. Berendsen; J. J. P. Baars; S. I. Kalkhove; L. G. Lugones; H. A. B. Wösten; P. A. H. M. Bakker

2010-01-01

433

Differentiation between Commercial Strains of Oyster and Button Mushrooms Using Molecular Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of commercial strains of two edible mushrooms, Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus, using PCR and isozyme electrophoresis techniques allowed us to differentiate groups of genetically similar and distant strains. Among the commercial strains of P. ostreatus, the level of genetic variation was higher suggesting a broader genetic basis employed in breeding of this mushroom. The cultivars and hybrids of

A. V. Shnyreva

2003-01-01

434

Effects of Three Polysaccharide Coatings on Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the main horticultural crops which differ from other crops significantly. It is devoid of the protective cuticle and reserves carbohydrates. For this reason mushroom is perishable product and its texture is damaged fast after harvesting. In this study, the effects of three edible polysaccharid e coatings including High Methoxy Pectin (HMP), Commercial

Azam Niazmand; Hamid B. Ghodusi; Fakhri Shahidi; Razieh Niazmand

435

Hallucinogenic mushrooms on the German market — simple instructions for examination and identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Magic mushrooms’ is the name most commonly given to psychoactive fungi containing the hallucinogenic components psilocybin and psilocin. Material confiscated by local authorities was examined using morphologic, microscopic, microchemical, and toxicological methods. Psilocybe cubensis was the most popular mushroom in the sample collective, followed by Psilocybe semilanceata, Panaeolus cyanescens and Psilocybe tampanensis. The alkaloid content was determined with <0.003–1.15% of

F Musshoff; B Madea; J Beike

2000-01-01

436

Influence of spatio-temporal resource availability on mushroom mite diversity.  

PubMed

Although biodiversity in nature is of fundamental importance because it improves the sustainability of ecosystems, communities of microscopic organisms are generally excluded from conservation targets for biodiversity. Here, I hypothesize that mushroom mite species richness is correlated with both spatial (i.e., mushroom size) and temporal (i.e., longevity of fruiting bodies) resource availability. I collected fruiting bodies in an old-growth forest over 4 years to collect mites and insects inhabiting the mushrooms. Mites were collected from 47 % of the fruiting bodies and approximately 60 % of the mite species were collected only once. Mite species richness was significantly correlated with the availability of long-lasting fruiting bodies. For example, bracket fungi contained more mite species than ephemeral fruiting bodies. Insect presence was also correlated with mushroom mite richness, probably as phoretic hosts and food resources for predacious mites. On the other hand, mushroom size seemed to be less important; small fruiting bodies sometimes harbored several mite species. Although mite species richness was correlated with mushroom species richness, mushroom specificity by mites was not clear except for a preference for long-lasting fruiting bodies. Therefore, I suggest that a constant supply of coarse woody debris is crucial for maintaining preferred resources for mushroom mites (e.g., bracket fungi) and their associated insects (mycophilous and possibly saproxylic insects). PMID:23613030

Okabe, Kimiko

2013-04-24

437

Mathematical modeling of drying kinetics of milky mushroom in a fluidized bed dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t. Drying kinetics of milky mushroom slices (10 mm) in a fluidized bed dryer was studied at air temperatures of 50, 55 and 60°C. Drying of milky mushroom slices occurred in falling rate period. In order to select a suitable drying curve, eight thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio

T. Arumuganathan; M. R. Manikantan; R. D. Rai; S. Anandakumar; V. Khare

438

Factors influencing fructification phenology of edible mushrooms in a boreal mixed forest of Eastern Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rise in commercialization of edible forest mushrooms in Eastern Canada, it is advantageous to understand the fruiting patterns of fungal species. The aim of this study is to understand the phenology of edible species within the mixed boreal forest. Weekly surveys were conducted in 481 quadrats during the mushroom growing season over three consecutive years (2005–2007). The initial

S. Pinna; M.-F. Gévry; M. Côté; L. Sirois

2010-01-01

439

Effect of Ozone Treatment and Storage Temperature on Physicochemical Properties of Mushrooms (Agaris bisporus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to determine the effect of ozone, storage time and temperature on postharvest quality of mushroom (Agaris bisporus var. Gurelan 55). Mushrooms, treated with ozone (100 mg\\/h) during 0, 15 or 25 minutes, were packed in polystyrene packs, overwrapped with PVC plastic film, and stored at 5, 15 or 25 °C for seven days. Internal

I. Escriche; J. A. Serra; M. Gómez; M. J. Galotto

2001-01-01

440

Effect of shrinkage on the temperature increase in evacuated mushrooms ( Agaricus bisporus) during blanching  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to investigate the effect of shrinkage on the temperature rise in evacuated mushrooms during blanching. Mushrooms were heated or cooled applying (1) two temperature regimes in which no shrinkage took place, and (2) two temperature regimes in which substantial shrinkage took place. The threshold temperature Tthr at which shrinkage started was determined to be ±45 °C.

E. S. A. Biekman; H. H. J. van Remmen; H. I. Kroese-Hoedeman; J. J. M. Ogink; E. P. H. M. Schijvens

1997-01-01

441

Changes in textural and optical properties of oyster mushroom during hot air drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textural (hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and chewiness) and optical (spectral surface reflectance) properties of paddy straw mushroom (Pleuratus spp.) were monitored during hot air drying of mushrooms in a cabinet tray drier at different air temperatures 50, 55, 60, and 70°C. Effect of pre-drying treatments, viz. blanching and sulphitation, was also monitored. Texture Analyser™ and Hunterlab™ Colorimeter were used to determine

Nachiket Kotwaliwale; Pramod Bakane; Ajay Verma

2007-01-01

442

TOTAL PHENOLS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF COMMERCIAL AND WILD MUSHROOMS FROM CHIHUAHUA, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three wild edible mushrooms (Agaricus sp., Boletus sp., and Macrolepiota sp.) from the North of Mexico (Chihuahua state) and two commercial species (Agaricus bisporus white strain and Portabella: Agaricus bisporus brown strain) were analyzed to determine their proximate composition, total phenols and antioxidant activity. Wild mushrooms presented lower humidity values with respect to commercial species. Other proximate parameters such as

E. Alvarez-Parrilla; González Aguilar; Ciudad Juárez

2007-01-01

443

Growing of Oyster-Mushrooms on Substrates Sterilized by Steam or gamma -Irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Oyster-mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus and florida) were grown on straw either sterilized by steam or gamma -irradiation. Concerning the yield of receptacle (270 g receptacle per kg dried straw on average) and the dry substance of mushrooms (8%) no differe...

K. Turanitz G. Stehlik

1978-01-01

444

Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homobasidiomycete fungi display many complex fruiting body morphologies, including mushrooms and puffballs, but their anatomical simplicity has confounded efforts to understand the evolution of these forms. We per- formed a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of homobasi- diomycetes, using sequences from nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA, with an emphasis on understanding evolu- tionary relationships of gilled mushrooms and puffballs. Parsimony-based optimization of

DAVID S. HIBBETT; E LIZABETH M. PINE; EWALD LANGER; G ITTA LANGER; MICHAEL J. DONOGHUE

1997-01-01

445

A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

2004-01-01

446

Functional dissection of the drosophila mushroom bodies by selective feminization ofagenetically defined subcompartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about the neural circuitry underlying sex-specific behaviors. We have expressed the feminizing gene transformer in genetically defined subregions of the brain of male Drosophila, and in particular within different domains of the mushroom bodies. Mushroom bodies are phylogenetically conserved insect brain centers implicated in associative learning and various other aspects of behavior. Expression of transformer in

Kevin M. C. O'Dell; J. Douglas Armstrong; Ming Yao Yang; Kim Kaiser

1995-01-01

447

In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The present study was conducted to examine the effects of organic extracts from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability.2.?Innate immunity was measured by lymphocyte proliferation and nitric oxide production by macrophages, and the inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth was assessed using a

S. H. Lee; H. S. Lillehoj; Y. H. Hong; S. I. Jang; E. P. Lillehoj; C. Ionescu; L. Mazuranok; D. Bravo

2010-01-01

448

A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

2004-01-01

449

In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

450

Rapid Species Identification of Cooked Poisonous Mushrooms by Using Real-Time PCR?  

PubMed Central

Species-specific identification of the major cooked and fresh poisonous mushrooms in Japan was performed using a real-time PCR system. Specific fluorescence signals were detected, and no nonspecific signals were detected. Therefore, we succeeded in developing a species-specific test for the identification of poisonous mushrooms within 1.5 h.

Maeta, Kazuhiko; Ochi, Tomoya; Tokimoto, Keisuke; Shimomura, Norihiro; Maekawa, Nitaro; Kawaguchi, Nobuhisa; Nakaya, Makoto; Kitamoto, Yutaka; Aimi, Tadanori

2008-01-01

451

Screening and treatment of chagas disease in organ transplant recipients in the United States: recommendations from the chagas in transplant working group.  

PubMed

Donor-derived transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, has emerged as an issue in the United States over the past 10 years. Acute T. cruzi infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the posttransplant setting if not recognized and treated early. We assembled a working group of transplant infectious disease specialists, laboratory medicine specialists, organ procurement organization representatives and epidemiologists with expertise in Chagas disease. Based on review of published and unpublished data, the working group prepared evidence-based recommendations for donor screening, and follow-up testing and treatment of recipients of organs from infected donors. We advise targeted T. cruzi screening of potential donors born in Mexico, Central America and South America. Programs can consider transplantation of kidneys and livers from T. cruzi-infected donors with informed consent from recipients. However, we recommend against heart transplantation from infected donors. For other organs, we recommend caution based on the anticipated degree of immunosuppression. Our recommendations stress the need for systematic monitoring of recipients by polymerase chain reaction, and microscopy of buffy coat and advance planning for immediate antitrypanosomal treatment if recipient infection is detected. Data on management and outcomes of all cases should be collected to inform future guidelines and to assist in coordination with public health authorities. PMID:21401868

Chin-Hong, P V; Schwartz, B S; Bern, C; Montgomery, S P; Kontak, S; Kubak, B; Morris, M I; Nowicki, M; Wright, C; Ison, M G

2011-03-14

452

Occurrence of Internal Stipe Necrosis of Cultivated Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Caused by Ewingella americana in Korea  

PubMed Central

The internal stipe necrosis of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is caused by the bacterium Ewingella americana, a species of the Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, Ewingella americana was isolated from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea evidencing symptoms of internal stipe browning. Its symptoms are visible only at harvest, and appear as a variable browning reaction in the center of the stipes. From these lesions, we isolated one bacterial strain (designated CH4). Inoculation of the bacterial isolate into mushroom sporocarps yielded the characteristic browning symptoms that were distinguishable from those of the bacterial soft rot that is well known to mushroom growers. The results of Gram stain, flagellal staining, and biochemical tests identified these isolates as E. americana. This was verified by pathogenicity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the results of an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and the fatty acids profile. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea.

Jhune, Chang-Sung; Cheong, Jong-Chun; Yun, Hyung-Sik; Cho, Weon-Dae

2009-01-01

453

Ethnomycological studies of some wild medicinal and edible mushrooms in the Kashmir Himalayas (India).  

PubMed

The medicinal use of mushrooms has a very long tradition in Asian countries because of their use as a valuable tonic, food, and in herbal medicines. A study was carried out to document the indigenous uses of various mushrooms growing in the Kashmir Himalayas. After consulting local herbal healers (Hakims) and people from tribal communities inhabiting inaccessible hinterlands of the region regarding the use of mushrooms growing in their locality, it was found that 35 species of mushrooms belonging to different ecological and taxonomical groups were used for their nutritional and medicinal values. These mushrooms were used for their activities against a broad spectrum of diseases, ranging from simple skin diseases to present-day complex diseases such as diabetes and tumors. PMID:23557373

Pala, Shauket Ahmed; Wani, Abdul Hamid; Bhat, Mohmmad Yaqoub

2013-01-01

454

A study of the mushrooms of boletes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study the fruiting bodies of six species of wild growing edible mushrooms belonging to Boletes of Basidiomycetes. The results show that each mushroom has its characteristic infrared spectrum, in which the major peaks are attributed to proteins and polysaccharides. The spectra indicate that both ?-glucans and ?-glucans exist in the polysaccharides of mushrooms. According to the differences of their characteristic spectra peaks and absorbance ratios, the different species of Boletes can be identified. The region between 750 and 1200 cm-1 could serve as fingerprints to discriminate mushrooms. A new identification method of mushrooms may be based on the characteristic vibrational spectra and chemical information provided by FTIR.

Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

2006-01-01

455

The microbial population in the air of cultivation facility of oyster mushrooms.  

PubMed

The microbial population in the air of mushroom cultivation facility was studied to understand the population structure and size depending on the cultivation methods and regions. The air contents of ten farmers' oyster mushroom cultivation facilities in Kyunggi province were sampled. The results indicated that there was no difference in population size depending on the regions of mushroom cultivation. In addition, the population size of bacteria in the growth room was bigger than that of the cooling room and outside of the mushroom house, but the fungal population was similar in size between cultivation stages. With regard to population structure, Pseudomonas and Penicillium species were most frequently isolated from the air of oyster mushroom cultivation facility. PMID:23274995

Chun, Se Chul; Ahn, Yu Na; Khan, Sajid Mohamad; Chung, Il Min; Won, Hyang Yoen; Jhune, Chang Sung; Park, Yool Jin

2012-12-30

456

ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

SciTech Connect

During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

Duff, M

2007-05-28

457

[Biologically active compounds of edible mushrooms and their beneficial impact on health].  

PubMed

Edible mushrooms are valuable a source of biologically active compounds. Some are used in the prophylaxis and therapy of such diseases as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Their antitumor mechanism is complex. The biologically active substances in mushrooms decrease DNA damage, reduce carcinogen concentrations and their activation, inhibit the growth of cancer cells by scavenging free radicals, stimulate the immune system, and induce tumor cell apoptosis. The stimulation of the immune system by the biologically active compounds in edible mushrooms protects against cold, flu, infections, well as AIDS by inhibition of viral replication. Mushrooms contain effective substances which decrease the LDL fraction of cholesterol in blood. They also prevent the accumulation of serum triaclyglycerols, thus decreasing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The therapeutic properties of mushrooms result from the specific polysaccharides, such as beta-glucans and chitosans, that are present in the fructification of fungi. PMID:15536392

Rajewska, Justyna; Ba?asi?ska, Bozena

2004-01-01

458

Screening of Tropical Wood-Rotting Mushrooms for Copper Biosorption  

PubMed Central

Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) of nine nonedible macrofungi were screened for copper(II) uptake potential. The maximum uptake potentials (Q(infmax)s) derived from equilibrium studies indicated that all nine species exhibited higher Q(infmax)s at pH 4.0 than that of Filtrasorb-400, a generally used adsorbent for metal removal. Wide variation in Q(infmax) was observed among the species and ranged from 0.048 to 0.383 mmol per g of sorbent. The uptake capacity of Ganoderma lucidum, which exhibited the highest Q(infmax), was higher than those of other microbial biosorbents reported in the literature.

Muraleedharan, T. R.; Iyengar, L.; Venkobachar, C.

1995-01-01

459

Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical mushroom-shaped billiards offer a unique opportunity to isolate and study semiclassical modes concentrated on nondispersive, marginally unstable periodic orbits. Here we show that the openness of the cavity to external electromagnetic fields leads to unanticipated consequences for the far-field radiation pattern, including directional emission. This is mediated by interactions of marginally unstable periodic orbits with chaotic modes. We also show that the semiclassical modes are robust against perturbations to the shape of the cavity, despite the lack of structural stability of the corresponding classical orbits.

Andreasen, Jonathan; Cao, Hui; Wiersig, Jan; Motter, Adilson E.

2009-10-01

460

Antibacterial compounds from the mushroom Ganoderma colossum from Nigeria.  

PubMed

Three colossolactones (colossolactone E, colossolactone B and 23-hydroxycolossolactone E) were isolated and characterized from an n-hexane:dichloromethane (2:7) extract of Ganoderma colossum using chromatographic techniques. The antimicrobial activity of the three compounds was then tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The activity was evaluated by the thin-layer chromatography agar overlay method. The results showed that colossolactone E and 23-hydroxycolossolactone E were active against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas syringae. Colossolactone B was not active against the bacteria. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Potency of the compounds against bacteria tested supports the use of this mushroom in therapeutic medicine. PMID:22084057

Ofodile, L N; Uma, N; Grayer, R J; Ogundipe, O T; Simmonds, M S J

2011-11-14

461

Integrated Microcalorimeters Using Ir TES And Sn Mushroom Absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenic microcalorimeters have the potential to meet the requirements of future x-ray missions. The University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays. We deposit high purity iridium thin film as Transition Edge Sensors (TES). We chose iridium because it has a bulk transition temperature of 112 mK and we expect single layer TES to have good reproducibility and long term stability. Also we use integrated tin film in a mushroom geometry as the absorbers to get high filling factor, low heat capacity and easy array manufacturing process. We present here our preliminary results in both areas.

Chen, C.; Bogorin, D.; Galeazzi, M.

2006-09-01

462

Production of o-diphenols by immobilized mushroom tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The o-diphenols 4-tert-butyl-catechol, 4-methyl-catechol, 4-methoxy-catechol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were produced from the corresponding monophenols (4-tert-butyl-phenol, 4-methyl-phenol, 4-methoxy-phenol, p-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) using immobilized mushroom tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. In all cases the yield was Rdiphenol?88–96%, which, according to the literature, is the highest yield so far, obtained using tyrosinase. The reaction was carried out in 0.5M borate

María Elisa Marín-Zamora; Francisco Rojas-Melgarejo; Francisco García-Cánovas; Pedro Antonio García-Ruiz

2009-01-01

463

Integrated Microcalorimeters Using Ir TES And Sn Mushroom Absorbers  

SciTech Connect

Cryogenic microcalorimeters have the potential to meet the requirements of future x-ray missions. The University of Miami has recently started a program to fabricate fully integrated microcalorimeter arrays. We deposit high purity iridium thin film as Transition Edge Sensors (TES). We chose iridium because it has a bulk transition temperature of 112 mK and we expect single layer TES to have good reproducibility and long term stability. Also we use integrated tin film in a mushroom geometry as the absorbers to get high filling factor, low heat capacity and easy array manufacturing process. We present here our preliminary results in both areas.

Chen, C.; Bogorin, D.; Galeazzi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Miami, 1320 Campo Sano Dr, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)

2006-09-07

464

Coronary microvascular disease in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy including an overview on history, pathology, and other proposed pathogenic mechanisms.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease. PMID:20824217

Rossi, Marcos A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Malvestio, Lygia M; Celes, Mara R; Campos, Erica C; Blefari, Valdecir; Prado, Cibele M

2010-08-31

465

Structurally Simple Inhibitors of Lanosterol 14?-Demethylase Are Efficacious In a Rodent Model of Acute Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

We report structure-activity studies of a large number of dialkyl imidazoles as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi lanosterol-14?-demethylase (L14DM). The compounds have a simple structure compared to posaconazole, another L14DM inhibitor that is an anti-Chagas drug candidate. Several compounds display potency for killing T. cruzi amastigotes in vitro with values of EC50 in the 0.4–10 nM range. Two compounds were selected for efficacy studies in a mouse model of acute Chagas disease. At oral doses of 20–50 mg/kg given after establishment of parasite infection, the compounds reduced parasitemia in the blood to undetectable levels, and analysis of remaining parasites by PCR revealed a lack of parasites in the majority of animals. These dialkyl imidazoles are substantially less expensive to produce than posaconazole and are appropriate for further development toward an anti-Chagas disease clinical candidate.

Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Lockman, Jeffrey W.; Ohkanda, Junko; Karimi, Mandana; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Kraus, James M.; Schoepe, Jan; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

2009-01-01

466

The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

2012-09-11

467

Thermal requirement for development of Sancassania rodionovi (Acari: Acaridae) on mushrooms.  

PubMed

The free-living mite species Sancassania rodionovi (Zachvatkin) (Acari: Acaridae), is a serious pest of mushrooms in Iran. Studies were conducted to examine the development of this mite in relation to temperature on two mushroom species: Agaricus bisporus Lange (button mushroom) and Pleurotus ostreatus Kummer (oyster mushroom). The developmental time of this acarid mite was studied at eight constant temperatures, ranging from 5 to 40 degrees C, and developmental rates were modeled as a function of temperature. Sancassania rodionovi completed immature development in 17.35 +/- 0.58 and 20.17 +/- 0.88 d at 25 degrees C on button and oyster mushrooms, respectively. When the mite fed on button mushroom, the rate of development increased gradually from 10 to 35 degrees C. Using a linear model, the developmental zero was estimated to be 3.50 degrees C with a thermal constant of 357.14 degree-days. The Logan 10, Briere 1, and Thermodynamic models adequately described the data for this mite and yielded R2 values >0.95; these models provided estimates of optimum temperature for development of 33.244, 32.145, and 32.148 degrees C, respectively. Understanding the influence of temperature on development of S. rodionovi is discussed with respect to pest management in mushroom production. PMID:17849857

Kheradmand, Katayun; Kamali, Karim; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Ueckermann, E A

2007-08-01

468

Biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions using mushrooms: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Sorption capacity of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus platypus), button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) were evaluated on biosorption of heavy metals, viz. cadmium (II) and lead (II) from aqueous solutions. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for each metal separately. The desired pH of the aqueous solution was found to be 6.0 for the removal of cadmium (II) and 5.0 for removal of lead (II) for all the mushrooms. The percent removal of both the metals was found to increase with the increase in biosorbent dosage and contact time. The fitness of the biosorption data for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models was investigated. It was found that biosorption of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions onto the biomass of the three mushrooms were better suitable to Langmuir than Freundlich adsorption model. P. platypus showed the highest metal uptake potential for cadmium (q(max) 34.96 mg/g) whereas A. bisporus exhibited maximum potential for lead (q(max) 33.78 mg/g). Milky mushroom showed the lowest metal uptake capacity for both the metals. The present data confirms that mushrooms may be used as efficient biosorbent for the removal of cadmium (II) and lead (II) ions from aqueous solution. PMID:19285798

Vimala, R; Das, Nilanjana

2009-02-21

469

[The oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) effectively prevents the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits].  

PubMed

The addition of 10% dried fruiting bodies of the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) to the diet containing 1% of cholesterol reduced serum cholesterol levels by 65% and cholesterol content in the liver, heart, long extensor muscle and aorta of male rabbits (Chinchilla) by 60; 47; 25 and 79%, respectively. Oyster mushroom diet reduced the content of conjugated dienes by 60-70% in the plasma, erythrocytes and liver. However, it did not significantly affect the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Oyster mushroom diet reduced significantly the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques as estimated by sudanophilia (absence of a positive reaction in 3 of 5 animals) as well as plaque size (26% vs. 2% of the area with a positive reaction in control and oyster mushroom-treated animals, respectively). While all animals on control diet showed atherogenic changes in the aorta, oyster mushroom diet prevented the development of these changes in three animals. Fatty streaks and fibromatous plaques were found in the remaining two animals from this group. The oyster mushroom prevented the formation of atheroma plaques (found in three cases from the control diet group) and reduced the incidence of segmental injury of the coronary artery and of focal fibrosis of the myocardium. The oyster mushroom caused lower incidence of foam cells in all types of lesions. PMID:10566243

Bobek, P; Galbavý, S

1999-09-01

470

Hypocholesterolemic and antiatherogenic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in rabbits.  

PubMed

The addition of 10% dried fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) to the diet containing 1% of cholesterol reduced serum cholesterol levels by 65% and cholesterol content in liver, heart, long extensor muscle and aorta of male rabbits (Chinchilla) by 60, 47, 25 and 80%, respectively. The decrease in total serum cholesterol was affected primarily (by 70%) by reduced cholesterol content in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) while the contribution of high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol increased by a factor of 3. Oyster mushroom diet reduced by 60-70% the content of conjugated dienes in plasma, erythrocytes and liver, however, it did not affect significantly the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Oyster mushroom diet reduced significantly the incidence of atherosclerotic plaques as estimated by sudanophilia (absence of positive-reaction in 3 of 5 animals) as well as plaque size (26% vs. 2% of the area with positive reaction in control and oyster mushroom-treated animals, respectively). While all animals on control diet showed atherogenic changes in aorta, oyster mushroom diet prevented the development of these changes in three animals. Fatty streaks and fibromatous plaques were found in the remaining two animals from this group. Oyster mushroom prevented the formation of atheroma plaques (found in three cases from the control diet group) and reduced the incidence of segmental injury of coronary arteria and of focal fibrosis of myocardium. Oyster mushroom caused lower incidence of foam cells in all types of lesions. PMID:10555301

Bobek, P; Galbavý, S

1999-10-01