Note: This page contains sample records for the topic chaga mushroom inonotus from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated

Seung-Shi Ham; Soo-Hyun Kim; Sun-Young Moon; Mi Ja Chung; Cheng-Bi Cui; Eun-Kyung Han; Cha-Kwon Chung; Myeon Choe

2009-01-01

2

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 ?g/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 ?g/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 ?g/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 ?g/plate) and B(?)P (10 ?g/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(?)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(?)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

2009-01-01

3

A comparative study of analytical methods for alkali-soluble ?-glucan in medicinal mushroom, Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ?-glucan content in the medicinal mushroom Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) was measured by different extraction and analytical methods, and the results were compared. The alkali extraction (AE) method or enzymatic digestion (ED) method followed by a gravimetric analysis was employed to determine the crude ?-glucan content. The amount of crude ?-glucan in Chaga obtained by either AE or ED was

Sook Jong Rhee; Seung Yong Cho; Ki Myong Kim; Dong-Su Cha; Hyun-Jin Park

2008-01-01

4

Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791

Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-12-01

5

Effect of steam treatment on soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the Chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of steam treatment on free phenolic acids in Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) was investigated. Untreated and steam-treated (120°C, 3h) samples of I. obliquus were extracted with organic solvents and free phenolic acid-containing fractions were isolated. Free phenolic acids were determined by LC\\/PDA (liquid chromatography\\/photodiode array), ESI LC\\/MS (electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry), and GC\\/MS (gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry). After

Hyun Kyoung Ju; Ha Wook Chung; Soon-Sun Hong; Jeong Hill Park; Jeongmi Lee; Sung Won Kwon

2010-01-01

6

Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

2010-11-01

7

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma.

Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

2008-01-01

8

Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. PMID:17012771

Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

2006-01-01

9

Antioxidant Activity of Subcritical Water Extracts from Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcritical water (SCW) extraction of Chaga mushroom (CM) was carried out at various temperatures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C) and times (10, 30, and 60 min), and then antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power (RP), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and total

Hye-Kyung Seo; Seung-Cheol Lee

2010-01-01

10

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and

In-Kyoung Lee; Young-Sook Kim; Yoon-Woo Jang; Jin-Young Jung; Bong-Sik Yun

2007-01-01

11

Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines. PMID:24380885

Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

2014-01-01

12

Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 ?g/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 ?g/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics. PMID:23510282

Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

2013-01-01

13

Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:22135889

Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

14

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion. PMID:17980585

Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

2007-12-15

15

Preparation of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus-fermented rice using solid-state fermentation and its taste quality and antioxidant property.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilat, was inoculated into cooked embryo rice and the mycelial growth in I. obliquus-fermented embryo rice (IER) was monitored. Besides, nonvolatile taste components and antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, IER, and embryo rice were studied. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were determined to be: 30°C, an inoculation rate of 1 mL/15 g, water supplementation of 60%, and no extra nitrogen source added. IER showed similar proximate composition to embryo rice but contained a substantial amount of ergothioneine (101 mg/kg dry weight). IER contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and polyols, and umami taste components, including monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like components and flavor 5'-nucleotides, than embryo rice. Besides, IER showed a second level of equivalent umami concentrations (223.73 g MSG/100 g). Fruiting bodies did not contain umami components but showed the most effective antioxidant properties. Although some of EC50 values of IER were less than those of mycelia and embryo rice, IER still showed effective antioxidant properties. Based on the results obtained, IER will be a novel functional food. PMID:23510252

Lin, Shin-Yi; Yeh, Chan-Chun; Liang, Chih-Hung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

16

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.  

PubMed

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

2010-06-01

17

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells  

PubMed Central

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

2010-01-01

18

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in

Yoo Kyoung Park; Hyang Burm Lee; Eun-Jae Jeon; Hack Sung Jung; Myung-Hee Kanga

2004-01-01

19

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular

Yuki Nakajima; Hiroshi Nishida; Yutaka Nakamura; Tetsuya Konishi

2009-01-01

20

In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus. PMID:22135888

Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2011-01-01

21

Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study. PMID:17666849

Nakajima, Yuki; Sato, Yuzo; Konishi, Tetsuya

2007-08-01

22

Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-06-01

23

Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].  

PubMed

Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells. PMID:19627197

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-06-01

24

Tetracyclic triterpenes from Inonotus Obliquus (Pers.) Pil. (Chaga) growing in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetracyclic triterpene content of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) growing in Russia was investigated for the first time. Lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol were isolated from the\\u000a non-phenolic fraction. In addition, trametenolic acid was isolated from fraction III, which was prepared by extraction from\\u000a diethylether solution with 5% NaOH.

E. N. Zhukovich; M. Yu. Semenova; L. A. Sharikova; T. F. Pribytkova

2010-01-01

25

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay.  

PubMed

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations (10, 50, 100 and 500 microg/mL) of the extract for 1 h at 37 degrees C. Cells were then treated with 100 microM of H2O2 for 5 min as an oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative damage was performed using single-cell gel electrophoresis for DNA fragmentation (Comet assay). Using image analysis, the degree of DNA damage was evaluated as the DNA tail moment. Cells pretreated with Chaga extract showed over 40% reduction in DNA fragmentation compared with the positive control (100 micromol H2O2 treatment). Thus, Chaga mushroom treatment affords cellular protection against endogenous DNA damage produced by H2O2. PMID:15630179

Park, Yoo Kyoung; Lee, Hyang Burm; Jeon, Eun-Jae; Jung, Hack Sung; Kang, Myung-Hee

2004-01-01

26

Acute Toxicity Evaluation and Compositional Analysis of a Polysaccharide from the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (IOPS) was isolated from the Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat, which was a medicinal mushroom with many health-benefiting functions. The chemical composition and acute toxicity of IOPS was investigated in order to determine the possibility of using them for human consumption. Chemical analysis of IOPS showed that it was a nonstarch protein bounded acidic polysaccharide. The protein, neutral

Haixia Chen; Lingling Fu; Peng Dong; Xin Zhang; Xueming Lu

2009-01-01

27

Effect of different drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus is a kind of mushroom which has long been used as a folk remedy for curing various diseases such as cancers, heart disease and diabetes in Russian and Eastern Europe. Polysaccharides are one of the main bioactive constituents of Inonotus obliquus with health functions. Three drying methods, freeze drying, hot air drying and vacuum drying methods were comparatively

Lishuai Ma; Haixia Chen; Wenchai Zhu; Zhaoshuai Wang

28

Effect of drying method on the moisture sorption isotherms for Inonotus obliquus mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sorption isotherms of Inonotus obliquus mushroom were studied over a selected temperature range (20–50°C). Sigmoid sorption isotherms were observed for these samples. The sorption data were analyzed using various conventional models. The Oswin model was found to be the best model for predicting the equilibrium moisture content of mushroom in the range of water activity 0.08–0.96. The monolayer moisture

Jun Ho Lee; Min Ji Lee

2008-01-01

29

Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-? was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-? related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

Kim, Yeon-Ran

2005-09-01

30

Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-? was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-? related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy.

2005-01-01

31

Inhibitory effect of chaga mushroom extract on compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock and IgE production in mice.  

PubMed

Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) are hypothesised to exhibit general immune-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, but their anti-allergic activities are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether a chaga mushroom extract (C-HE) might have anti-allergic activity. This activity was assessed through the levels of the IgE Ab produced in response to an allergen (OVA). The administration of C-HE prophylactically inhibited the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice. The oral administration of C-HE significantly reduced the total IgE levels in mice and slightly affected the production of IgG1. Furthermore, spleen cell cultures harvested from OVA-sensitised mice that had received C-HE orally showed a significant increase in Th1-derived responses (IFN-? production). Therefore, our results suggest that the chaga mushroom extract may be used as an anti-allergic functional food. PMID:23535020

Yoon, Taek Joon; Lee, Sue Jung; Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Eun Hee; Kang, Tae Bong; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo

2013-04-01

32

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat).  

PubMed

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress and subsequent damage of cellular and nuclear components. Chaga extracts and the phenolic ingredients, 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and caffeic acid (CA), effectively suppressed intracellular ROS level in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. The H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was more pronounced, effectively prevented in the cells treated with DBL than in cells treated with CA. In addition, ROS activate various signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Therefore, we examined the potentially beneficial effects of DBL on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-MAPK signaling activated by H(2)O(2) stimulation. DBL selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, without affecting JNK and ERK. PMID:19647072

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-10-15

33

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

34

Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-?B luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

2013-08-15

35

Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

2013-01-01

36

Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe purpose of the study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Polygala senega (Senega) and Viburnum trilobum (Cranberry) bark extract fractions from locally produced materials in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced murine macrophage RAW 164.7 cells.

Q. Van; B. N. Nayak; M. Reimer; P. J. H. Jones; R. G. Fulcher; C. B. Rempel

2009-01-01

37

Comparison of Hypoglycemic Activity of Fermented Mushroom of Inonotus obliquus Rich in Vanadium and Wild-Growing I. obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg\\/g\\u000a in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1\\/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg\\/g level\\u000a is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those

Yibing Zhang; Yong Zhao; Haifeng Cui; Chunyu Cao; Jianyou Guo; Sha Liu

38

Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.  

PubMed

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p?

Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

2011-12-01

39

Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the extraction and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from Inonotus obliquus. Ethanol extract from I. obliquus ASI 74006 mycelia showed the highest platelet aggregation inhibitory activity (81.2%). The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of I. obliquus ASI 74006 was extracted with ethanol at 80°C for 12h. The platelet aggregation inhibitor

Kwang Wook Hyun; Seung Chan Jeong; Dae Hyoung Lee; Jeong Sik Park; Jong Soo Lee

2006-01-01

40

Comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from chaga ( Inonotus obliquus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional extraction of biologically active compounds from a chaga shred has been carried out after completion of the aqueous\\u000a extraction. The extraction was carried out using ethanol. We have shown that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts\\u000a and their components is higher than that of the aqueous extracts.

M. A. Sysoeva; L. R. Yumaeva; V. S. Gamayurova; G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; F. G. Khalitov

2010-01-01

41

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells, and exposure to the EE resulted in the induction of apoptosis, whereas no apoptosis was observed in DLD-1 cells exposed to the hot water extracts (HWEs). HWE at 70 degrees C (HWE70) exhibited the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (EC50, 126 microg/ml), whereas the EE showed the weakest activity (EC50, 224 microg/ml). The different biological activities among the four extracts may be attributed to differences in their chemical composition, partially supported by polysaccharide, protein and phenolic content, and the 1H-NMR spectra. PMID:19147108

Hu, Honghai; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Sugiura, Norio

2009-01-01

42

Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

2012-06-20

43

Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study describes the extraction and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from Inonotus obliquus. Ethanol extract from I. obliquus ASI 74006 mycelia showed the highest platelet aggregation inhibitory activity (81.2%). The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of I. obliquus ASI 74006 was extracted with ethanol at 80 degrees C for 12 h. The platelet aggregation inhibitor was purified by systematic solvent fractionation, ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. The purified platelet aggregation inhibitor is a novel tripeptide with a molecular mass of 365 Da, having a sequence of Trp-Gly-Cys. The purified platelet aggregation inhibitor also showed high platelet aggregation inhibitory activity in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. PMID:16289471

Hyun, Kwang Wook; Jeong, Seung Chan; Lee, Dae Hyoung; Park, Jeong Sik; Lee, Jong Soo

2006-06-01

44

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The mushroom Inonotus obliquus(Fr.) Pil ´ at (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic

Yong Cui; Dong-seok Kim; Kyoung-chan Park

2005-01-01

45

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had

Yong Cui; Dong-Seok Kim; Kyoung-Chan Park

2005-01-01

46

[Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].  

PubMed

Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

2013-01-01

47

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had a strong antioxidant activity, and the extract containing triterpenoids and steroids presented a relatively strong antioxidant effect. The polysaccharide extract, however, was inactive. The protective effects of these four extracts were assessed against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Our results show that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, while the polysaccharide, triterpenoid and steroid extracts were ineffective. Additionally, the remnant polyphenolic and low molecular weight polysaccharide extracts showed a weakly protective effect at a concentration of 50 microg/ml. Our results indicate that Inonotus obliquus has the capacity to scavenge free radicals at concentrations higher than 5 microg/ml and that the polyphenolic extract can protect cells against oxidative stress. PMID:15588653

Cui, Yong; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyoung-Chan

2005-01-01

48

Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds". PMID:20635536

Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

2010-01-01

49

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely\\u000a forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called ‘Chaga’. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an

Weifa Zheng; Kangjie Miao; Yubing Liu; Yanxia Zhao; Meimei Zhang; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai

2010-01-01

50

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200mg\\/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute

Young-Mi Park; Jong-Heon Won; Yang-Hee Kim; Jong-Won Choi; Hee-Juhn Park; Kyung-Tae Lee

2005-01-01

51

Chemical and medicobiological properties of chaga (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of chaga (Inonotus obliquus) are reviewed. The possible mechanisms of action and factors responsible for the discrepancy of data available in the literature\\u000a are discussed. The physical and chemical characteristics of melanin (polyphenolic chromogenic humin-like complex present in\\u000a chaga) and its role in the regulation of physiological processes are considered.

M. Ya. Shashkina; P. N. Shashkin; A. V. Sergeev

2006-01-01

52

Enhanced phenolic antioxidants production in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. It is currently ascribed to a number of phenolic compounds as well as triterpenoids and polysaccharides responsible for significant biological and pharmacological properties. A study was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion of lignocellulosic material, in this case corn stover

Xiangqun Xu; Jinwei Zhu

2011-01-01

53

Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.  

PubMed

The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture. PMID:22484608

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-06-01

54

Effect of the Inonotus Obliquus Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress of Rats Fed High-Fat Diet In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus Obliquus is a medicinal mushroom that is widely used in folk medicine in Russia, North Europe and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic capacities of Inonotus Obliquus polysaccharides(IOP). In vivo, the hyperlipidemic rats, induced by high-fat diet, were provided 100, 200, 500 mg\\/kg day of IOP for 8 weeks to evaluate their

Liya Liang; Zesheng Zhang; Wei Sun; Yuben Wang

2009-01-01

55

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS, attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in order to make Inonotus obliquus obtain effective exploitation and satisfy people's demands. PMID:19407959

Zhong, Xiu-hong; Ren, Kuang; Lu, Shi-jie; Yang, Shu-yan; Sun, Dong-zhi

2009-04-01

56

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS,\\u000a attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition\\u000a and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in

Xiu-hong Zhong; Kuang Ren; Shi-jie Lu; Shu-yan Yang; Dong-zhi Sun

2009-01-01

57

New lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsutriols D, and E, from Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsutriols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. (Japanese name: kabanoanatake; Russian name: chaga). Their structures were determined to be lanost-8-ene-3?,22R,24R-triol (1) and lanost-8-ene-3?,22R,24S-triol (2) on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR analysis. In addition, major compounds, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), 3?-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-al (5), 21-hydroxylanosterol

Reiko Tanaka; Misaki Toyoshima; Takeshi Yamada

2011-01-01

58

Styrylpyrone-class compounds from medicinal fungi Phellinus and Inonotus spp., and their medicinal importance.  

PubMed

Members of the genera Phellinus and Inonotus, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus are well-known medicinal fungi (mushrooms) and have been used in treatment of cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections and ulcer. Adverse effects of these medicinal mushrooms have not yet been reported, indicating the safe nature of these mushrooms. Polysaccharides, particularly ?-glucan, are considered the compounds responsible for the biological activity of medicinal mushrooms. However, there is only a limited amount of evidence to indicate that polysaccharides are in fact responsible for the biological effects of these medicinal mushrooms. Recently, many research groups have begun identification of active low-MW compounds in medicinal mushrooms, with a focus on the yellow polyphenol pigments, which are composed of a styrylpyrone class of compounds. Interestingly, a representative group of medicinal fungi, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus were shown to produce a large and diverse range of styrylpyrone-type polyphenol pigments that exhibited various biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-diabetic, anti-dementia and anti-viral effects. Styrylpyrone pigments in mushrooms are thought to have a role similar to that of flavonoids in plants. The unique and unprecedented carbon skeleton of fused styrylpyrone might be an attractive molecular scaffold for pharmacological applications. In this review, the structural diversity, biological effects and biogenesis of styrylpyrone-class polyphenols from medicinal fungi are described. PMID:21304532

Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

2011-05-01

59

Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1?-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom.

Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

2012-01-01

60

Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

2012-01-01

61

ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method.

WITOLD MAZURKIEWICZ

2006-01-01

62

Analysis of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method. PMID:17438866

Mazurkiewicz, Witold

2006-01-01

63

Three new species of Inonotus (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetaceae) from China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species of Inonotus are described and illustrated. Inonotus acutus sp. nov. is characterized by having small, thin basidiocarps with a strongly contracted base, a sharp and undulate pileus\\u000a margin, ventricose hymenial setae, and ellipsoid, yellowish to yellow-brown, slightly thick-walled basidiospores. Inonotus chrysomarginatus sp. nov. differs in having an annual to perennial growth habit, pileate basidiocarps with a distinctly

Bao-Kai Cui; Ping Du; Yu-Cheng Dai

2011-01-01

64

Chagas disease  

MedlinePLUS

... help control the spread of the disease. Blood banks in Central and South America screen donors for ... discarded if the donor tests positive. Most blood banks in the United States began screening for Chagas ...

65

Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is the clinical condition triggered by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The infection is transmitted by triatomine insects while blood feeding on a human host. Field studies predict that one third of an estimated 18 million T cruzi?infected humans in Latin America will die of Chagas disease. Acute infections are usually asymptomatic, but the ensuing chronic T cruzi infections have been associated with high ratios of morbidity and mortality: Chagas heart disease leads to unexpected death in 37.5% of patients, 58% develop heart failure and die and megacolon or megaoesophagus has been associated with death in 4.5%. The pathogenesis of Chagas disease appears to be related to a parasite?induced mutation of the vertebrate genome. Currently, treatment is unsatisfactory.

Teixeira, A R L; Nitz, N; Guimaro, M C; Gomes, C

2006-01-01

66

Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungusInonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesized high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical\\u000a properties. It was shown that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated melanogenesis.\\u000a The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis ofo- andp-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects.

V. G. Babitskaya; V. V. Shcherba; N. V. Lkonnikova

2000-01-01

67

Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been used as a folk remedy for a long time in Russia and East-European countries to treat gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (ISP2a) was successfully purified from I. obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vivo ISP2a had not only shown antitumor activity, but also could significantly enhance the immune response of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, ISP2a significantly enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation and increased the production of TNF-?. Results of these studies demonstrated that ISP2a had a potential application as natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22840014

Fan, Liuping; Ding, Shaodong; Ai, Lianzhong; Deng, Kequan

2012-10-01

68

Mushroom Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will be amateur mycologists--collecting and analyzing various mushrooms. Through observation and discussion, students will gain knowledge of the basic anatomy of mushrooms, their life cycle, and their method of reproduction through spores. Students will learn to create spore prints of mushrooms and label and preserve their spore prints, just like a mycologist. Students also will learn that by comparing spore prints, they can identify different mushroom species.

69

Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3?,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3?,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal

Tomoko Nakata; Takeshi Yamada; Sayaka Taji; Hirofumi Ohishi; Shun-ichi Wada; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuo Sakuma; Reiko Tanaka

2007-01-01

70

Antimitotic activity of aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic effect of two aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus on human cervical uteri cancer cells (Hela S3) in vitro was evaluated. It was concluded that Inonotus extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml to 2000 micrograms/ml inhibited cancer cells growth. In cultures with extracts of the fungus a decrease of the cell proteins and mitotic index was observed. Moreover, the extracts disturbed mitoses by elevating the number of mitotic cells in metaphase. Aqueous extracts of Inonotus effected not only mitoses but also the 8/G phase of the cell cycle. PMID:8942059

Burczyk, J; Gawron, A; Slotwinska, M; Smietana, B; Terminska, K

1996-05-01

71

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-01

72

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

2008-01-01

73

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

2010-07-01

74

Hallucinogenic Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns

Richard H. Schwartz; Deborah E. Smith

1988-01-01

75

Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of morbidity in many countries in Latin America. The important modes of transmission are by the bite of the reduviid bug and blood transfusion. The organism exists in three morphological forms: trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and epimastigotes. The mechanism of transformation and differentiation is currently being explored, and signal transduction pathways of the parasites may be involved in this process. Parasite adherence to and invasion of host cells is a complex process involving complement, phospholipase, penetrin, neuraminidase, and hemolysin. Two clinical forms of the disease are recognized, acute and chronic. During the acute stage pathological damage is related to the presence of the parasite, whereas in the chronic stage few parasites are found. In recent years the roles of tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, and the interleukins in the pathogenesis of this infection have been reported. The common manifestations of chronic cardiomyopathy are arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. Autoimmune, neurogenic, and microvascular factors may be important in the pathogenesis of the cardiomyopathy. The gastrointestinal tract is another important target, and "mega syndromes" are common manifestations. The diagnosis and treatment of this infection are active areas of investigation. New serological and molecular biological techniques have improved the diagnosis of chronic infection. Exacerbations of T. cruzi infection have been reported for patients receiving immuno-suppressive therapy and for those with AIDS. Images

Tanowitz, H B; Kirchhoff, L V; Simon, D; Morris, S A; Weiss, L M; Wittner, M

1992-01-01

76

Hallucinogenic mushrooms.  

PubMed

Ingestion of mushrooms containing psilocybin produces hallucinogenic effects and has become a popular form of substance abuse among some adolescents and young adults. We have reviewed the medical literature on psilocybin mushrooms and describe current patterns of use, provide background material on the botony and pharmacology of these crude drugs, and report results of a small study on usage patterns among identified adolescent drug abusers. Among 174 adolescents already identified as substance abusers, 45 (26%) reported having used hallucinogenic mushrooms, frequently in conjunction with alcohol or other drugs. An average intake of 2-4 mushrooms was obtained for about +8, and led to intoxication for 5-6 hours. Mixing of intoxicants such as alcohol, marijuana, and psilocybin mushrooms was the rule. The acute adverse reactions may have been the result of drug synergy. Pediatricians should become aware of the specific patterns of the use of hallucinogenic drugs by adolescents and consider the possibility of such use when evaluating a delirious or psychotic adolescent. PMID:3338231

Schwartz, R H; Smith, D E

1988-02-01

77

Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H?O?-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE?, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

2013-01-01

78

Prevention & Control of Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... the spread of Chagas disease. Further, screening of blood donations for Chagas is another important public health tool ... Parasite That Causes Chagas Disease Among United States Blood Donors Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...

79

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS STRAINS BY RAPD GENETSKA ANALIZA NIZOVA INONOTUS OBLIQUUSA POMO)U METODE RAPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: RAPD profiling of eight Inonotus obliquus strains isolated from sclerotia collected from different areas of China was conducted to determine the genetic variabili- ty within this important medicinal fungus and to better define relationships between the genotype and geographi- cal origins of isolation. Twelve 10-mer primers generated a total of 167 stable and reproducible DNA fragments, of which 101

Yan-Qiu Chen; Xiao-Fan Guo; Chang-Tian Li

2007-01-01

80

Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7?mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32??g/mL and 2??g/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms.

Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2014-01-01

81

Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7?mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32? ? g/mL and 2? ? g/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2014-01-01

82

Mushroom Cultivation in Thailand,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lucid handbook is designed for volunteers of all backgrounds seeking to understand mushroom culture. Topics include mushroom cultivation in beds, logs, and plastic bags; mushroom spawn propagation; and control of pests. Appendices provide examples of ...

D. A. Pottebaum

1987-01-01

83

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200 mg/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activity, as determined by an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of MEIO, we examined its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. MEIO was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, MEIO potently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, MEIO inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and this was associated with the prevention of inhibitor kappaB degradation and a reduction in nuclear p65 protein levels. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of MEIO may be due to the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity. PMID:15905055

Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Kim, Yang-Hee; Choi, Jong-Won; Park, Hee-Juhn; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2005-10-01

84

Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their biological activities.  

PubMed

Seven new triterpenes, inonotusol A-G (1-7), one new diterpene, inonotusic acid (8), and 22 known compounds were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments. In in vitro assays, compounds 6 and 8-16 showed hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine-induced WB-F344 cell damage, with inhibitory effects from 34.4% to 81.2%. Compounds 7, 17, and 18 exhibited selective cytotoxicities against KB, Bel-7402, or A-549 cell lines. Compounds 16 and 17 showed inhibitory effects against protein tyrosine kinases, with IC50 values of 24.6 and 7.7 ?M, respectively. PMID:24359303

Liu, Chao; Zhao, Cui; Pan, Hong-Hui; Kang, Jie; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Bao-Ming; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Ruo-Yun

2014-01-24

85

Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review.  

PubMed

From time immemorial, mushrooms have been valued by humankind as a culinary wonder and folk medicine in Oriental practice. The last decade has witnessed the overwhelming interest of western research fraternity in pharmaceutical potential of mushrooms. The chief medicinal uses of mushrooms discovered so far are as anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, hypocholesterolemic, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, anti-allergic, nephroprotective, and anti-microbial agents. The mushrooms credited with success against cancer belong to the genus Phellinus, Pleurotus, Agaricus, Ganoderma, Clitocybe, Antrodia, Trametes, Cordyceps, Xerocomus, Calvatia, Schizophyllum, Flammulina, Suillus, Inonotus, Inocybe, Funlia, Lactarius, Albatrellus, Russula, and Fomes. The anti-cancer compounds play crucial role as reactive oxygen species inducer, mitotic kinase inhibitor, anti-mitotic, angiogenesis inhibitor, topoisomerase inhibitor, leading to apoptosis, and eventually checking cancer proliferation. The present review updates the recent findings on the pharmacologically active compounds, their anti-tumor potential, and underlying mechanism of biological action in order to raise awareness for further investigations to develop cancer therapeutics from mushrooms. The mounting evidences from various research groups across the globe, regarding anti-tumor application of mushroom extracts unarguably make it a fast-track research area worth mass attention. PMID:22582152

Patel, Seema; Goyal, Arun

2012-03-01

86

Treatment of Chagas Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease (ChD), caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), was discovered and described by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas in 1909. After a century of original description, trypanosomiasis still brings much misery to humanity and is classified as a neglected tropical disease prevalent in underdeveloped countries, particularly in South America. It is an increasing worldwide problem due to the number of cases in endemic areas and the migration of infected subjects to more developed regions, mainly North America and Europe. Despite its importance, chronic chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) pathophysiology is yet poorly understood, and independently of its social, clinical, and epidemiological importance, the therapeutic approach of CCC is still transposed from the knowledge acquired from other cardiomyopathies. Therefore, the objective of this review is to describe the treatment of Chagas cardiomyopathy with emphasis on its peculiarities.

Botoni, Fernando A.; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P.; Marinho, Carolina Coimbra; Lima, Marcia Maria Oliveira; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Rocha, Manoel Otavio C.

2013-01-01

87

Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

88

Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides fractions from mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. We first reported the enhancement in production and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides by I. obliquus culture under lignocellulose decomposition. In this study, the two different sources of exopolysaccharides from the control medium and the lignocellulose (corn stover) containing medium by I. obliquus in submerged fermentation were fractionated and purified by chromatography. The exopolysaccharides from the corn stover-containing medium presented significantly stronger hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than the control. Three fractions from the control medium and the corn stover-containing medium were isolated respectively. The fraction of DEPL3 from the corn stover-containing medium with the highest protein content (38.3%), mannose content (49.6%), and the lowest molecular weight (29 kDa) had the highest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 values. In conclusion, lignocellulose decomposition changed the chemical characterisation and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions. PMID:23442636

Xiang, Yuling; Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan

2012-10-15

89

Bioassay-guided isolation of DPP-4 inhibitory fractions from extracts of submerged cultured of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom used in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the mycelium powders of I. obliquus possess significant antihyperglycemic effects in a mouse model of diabetic disease induced by alloxan. However, the active ingredients of mycelium powders responsible for the diabetes activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of I. obliquus mycelium powders by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the mechanism of action of these active ingredients by using a well-established DPP-4 (an important enzyme as a new therapeutic target for diabetes) inhibitory assay model. The results showed the chloroform extract of mycelium was potential inhibitory against DPP-4. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the identification of 19 compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecular docking between the compounds and DPP-4 revealed that compounds 5, 8, 9, 14, 15 may be the active components responsible for the DPP-4 inhibitory activity. PMID:23325103

Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2013-01-01

90

Src kinase-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of davallialactone from Inonotus xeranticus in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Mushrooms are popular both as food and as a source of natural compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. Some mushroom-derived compounds such as ?-glucan have been shown to be immunostimulatory; this study explores the anti-inflammatory properties of hispidin analogues derived from the mushroom, Inonotus xeranticus. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism of action of these hispidin analogues by determining their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in a macrophage cell line. Experimental approach: The production of inflammatory mediators was determined by Griess assay, reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA. The inhibitory effect of davalliactone on LPS-induced activation of signalling cascades was assessed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation and direct kinase assay. Key results: In activated RAW264.7 cells, davallialactone strongly downregulated LPS-mediated inflammatory responses, including NO production, prostaglandin E2 release, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cell surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Davallialactone treatment did not alter cell viability or morphology. Davallialactone was found to exert its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting a signalling cascade that activates nuclear factor kappa B via PI3K, Akt and IKK, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. Treatment with davallialactone affected the phosphorylation of these signalling proteins, but not their level of expression. These inhibitory effects were not due to the interruption of toll-like receptor 4 binding to CD14. In particular, davallialactone strongly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation and kinase activity of Src, implying that Src may be a potential pharmacological target of davallialactone. Conclusions and implications: Our data suggest that davallialactone, a small molecule found in edible mushrooms, has anti-inflammatory activity. Davallialactone can be developed as a pharmaceutically valuable anti-Src kinase agent.

Lee, Y G; Lee, W M; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, I-K; Yun, B-S; Rhee, M H; Cho, J Y

2008-01-01

91

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquusBELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquusBELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily

Yong Ook Kim; Sang Bae Han; Hong Woen Lee; Hyo Jung Ahn; Yeo Dae Yoon; Joon Ki Jung; Hwan Mook Kim; Chul Soo Shin

2005-01-01

92

Immunology of Chagas' disease*  

PubMed Central

After reviewing present knowledge of the morphology, multiplication, and transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, this Memorandum discusses the animal models that may be of value in understanding the immune mechanisms operating in Chagas' disease. The role of both circulating antibody and cell-mediated immunity in protection against the parasite is discussed, together with the possibility that immunopathological mechanisms may be responsible for some of the lesions found in patients with Chagas' disease. The immunodiagnostic methods at present available are also reviewed, and the possibility of producing a vaccine for human use is considered in the light of recent findings in experimental animals. A series of recommendations for further research is included.

1974-01-01

93

Carlos Chagas: Biographical sketch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carlos Chagas was born on 9 July 1878 in the farm “Bon Retiro” located close to the City of Oliveira in the interior of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. He started his medical studies in 1897 at the School of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. In the late XIX century, the works by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch induced

Álvaro Moncayo

2010-01-01

94

Cells Immortal - Chagas disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fortieth monthly installment of our "What A Year!" website project, introducing life science breakthroughs to middle and high school students and their teachers. Chagas disease, a dangerous condition, results from infection with the T. cruzi parasite that somehow avoids natural cell death and can remain in a person's body for decades before symptoms appear.

2010-09-06

95

Antioxidant activities of extracts and subfractions from Inonotus Obliquus.  

PubMed

The ethanolic crude extracts and three subfractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, and aqueous fraction) from Inonotus Obliquus were obtained by sequential partitioning and their antioxidant activities were investigated in the present study. The methods of the total antioxidant capacity measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, reducing power assay, scavenging activities towards DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical employed in this study were established in in vitro systems. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids were also determined by spectrophotometer. The results showed that the crude extracts and subfractions exhibited antioxidant activities in different evaluating system. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities is ethyl acetate fraction >n-butanol fraction >crude extract>aqueous fraction. A similar order of the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids in extract and subfractions was found. The results showed that the extent of antioxidant activities is in accordance with the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids existing in extracts and subfractions. PMID:19585318

Liang, Liya; Zhang, Zesheng; Wang, Hao

2009-01-01

96

Antioxidant activities of five polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Five polysaccharides (IOP1b, IOP2a, IOP2c, IOP3a and IOP4) were isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and SepharoseCL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that five polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities, and the higher content of uronic acid and proteinous substances, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. IOP3a and IOP4 showed higher antioxidant properties than IOP1b, IOP2a and IOP2c. PMID:22484729

Huang, Sheng-quan; Ding, Shaodong; Fan, Liuping

2012-06-01

97

Modeling Mushroom Fairy Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes in a forest or yard, mushrooms seem magically to grow in circles, which we call "fairy rings". In this module, we develop simulations for the expansion and interactions of such mushroom fairy rings. After analyzing the system, formulating the model, and considering appropriate rules for the spreading of mushrooms, we create a simulation using the graphical computer algebra system Mathematica. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

Shiflet, Angela B.; Shiflet, George W.

98

Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity of Korean Indigenous Mushroom Extracts and Isolation of an Active Compound from Phellinus baumii  

PubMed Central

We investigated a total of 335 samples of Korean native mushroom extracts as part of our lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor screening program. Among the mushroom-methanolic extracts we investigated, 35 exhibited an inhibitory activity greater than 30% against LOX at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. Especially, Collybia maculata, Tylopilus neofelleus, Strobilomyces confusus, Phellinus gilvus, P. linteus, P. baumii, and Inonotus mikadoi exhibited relatively potent LOX inhibitory activities of 73.3%, 51.6%, 52.4%, 66.7%, 59.5%, 100.0%, and 85.2%, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of inoscavin A from the methanolic extract of P. baumii, which showed the most potent activity and was identified by spectroscopic methods. Specifically, inoscavin A exhibited potent LOX inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 6.8 µM.

Lee, Seung Woong; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Hwang, Byung Soon; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Yoon-Ju; Woo, E-Eum; Kim, Ji-Yul; Lee, In-Kyoung

2014-01-01

99

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

100

Mushroom-Growing Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention is related to and has among its objects the provision of novel mushroom-growing media and novel methods of making the same. A cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms is disclosed. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and ni...

R. H. Kurtzman

1980-01-01

101

Mushroom Use by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

Thompson, John P.; And Others

1985-01-01

102

Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.  

PubMed

The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. PMID:24980757

Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

2014-06-01

103

Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4 µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed. PMID:23799608

Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2013-08-01

104

Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds except for 2 were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The most abundant triterpene, inotodiol (3), was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 3 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:17049251

Nakata, Tomoko; Yamada, Takeshi; Taji, Sayaka; Ohishi, Hirofumi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

2007-01-01

105

Accumulation of antioxidant phenolic constituents in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic compounds in different culture media and whether these compounds possess antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of

Weifa Zheng; Meimei Zhang; Yanxia Zhao; Yao Wang; Kangjie Miao; Zhiwen Wei

2009-01-01

106

Absolute stereostructures of inoterpenes A–F from sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new lanostane-type triterpenes, inoterpenes A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), and F (6), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus together with six known constituents. The chemical structures of new triterpenes 1–6 were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence including the application of the modified Mosher's method.

Seikou Nakamura; Junko Iwami; Hisashi Matsuda; Shuichi Mizuno; Masayuki Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

107

Mushroom Statistics (on Diskette).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This product contains the U.S. and State data, 1996-92, on mushroom yields, production, price, value, sales, and use. Other series reported include trade by product by country (1979-92), various price series, and world production.

1993-01-01

108

The history of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region.

2014-01-01

109

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged\\u000a culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase\\u000a in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g\\/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a

Hui Chen; Mingchao Yan; Jinwei Zhu; Xiangqun Xu

2011-01-01

110

Oxidative stress response of Inonotus obliquus induced by hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

While the medicinal fungus Inonotus obliquus produces polyphenols as one of its main metabolites in natural habitats, it accumulates less polyphenols under laboratory conditions. In this study we found that the continuous addition of 1 mM H(2)O(2) at a rate of 1.6 ml/h into a submerged culture of the fungus enhanced its production of mycelia, melanins, flavonoids and hispidin analogs (HA). Simultaneous exposure of the fungus to both H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in reduced production of mycelia, glycosylated flavonoids (GF) and HA, and inhibition of melanogenesis. However, superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were enhanced following the addition of H(2)O(2) or H(2)O(2) plus arbutin. The maximum levels of SOD and CAT activities reached 355.2 U/mg protein and 39.8 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2)-added medium, and 264 U/mg protein and 35.9 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2) plus arbutin medium. Thus, detoxification of H(2)O(2) is conducted mainly by polyphenols under normal physiological conditions, and by both polyphenols and antioxidant enzymes under oxidative stress when melanogenesis is inhibited. Although enhanced HA production occurred after melanogenesis inactivation, total extracellular polyphenol levels were reduced. These findings suggest that enzymatic activities convert superoxide to H(2)O(2), and non-enzymatic mechanisms are largely responsible for detoxifying H(2)O(2). Enhanced production of melanins is the most important non-enzymatic response of this fungus against oxidative stress. PMID:19184774

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Wei, Zhiwen; Miao, Kangjie; Sun, Weiguo

2009-12-01

111

The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.

2005-01-01

112

Open mushrooms: stickiness revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system ?, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit quasi-regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well-known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe for the first time a zero measure set of control parameter values ? in (0, 1) for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky, leading to a different power law exponent for the Poincaré recurrence time distribution statistics. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited due to MUPOs and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function P(t)\\sim {C}/t are calculated for mushrooms with triangular and rectangular stems. Numerical simulations are also performed which confirm our predictions for both sticky and less sticky mushrooms.

Dettmann, Carl P.; Georgiou, Orestis

2011-05-01

113

Acute Chagas Disease in a Returning Traveler  

PubMed Central

Acute Chagas disease is rarely recognized, and the risk for acquiring the disease is undefined in travelers to Central America. We describe a case of acute Chagas disease in a traveler to Costa Rica and highlight the need for increased awareness of this infection in travelers to Chagas-endemic areas.

Carter, Yvonne L.; Juliano, Jonathan J.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

2012-01-01

114

The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer.

Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

2009-01-01

115

Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage\\u000a cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO\\/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?\\/IL-4 secretion in

Dong Pil Won; Jong Seok Lee; Duck Soo Kwon; Keun Eok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Eock Kee Hong

2011-01-01

116

Involvements of S -nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with\\u000a higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and\\u000a higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

Weifa Zheng; Yubing Liu; Shenyuan Pan; Weihua Yuan; Yucheng Dai; Jiangchun Wei

2011-01-01

117

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures.\\u000a We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type\\u000a triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin

Weifa Zheng; Yanxia Zhao; Xin Zheng; Yubing Liu; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai; Fuming Liu

2011-01-01

118

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and Analysis of Antioxidation and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific\\u000a community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail’s pace. The methods of strain\\u000a identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous

Yana Song; Jing Hui; Wei Kou; Ru Xin; Fei Jia; Ning Wang; Fengqing Hu; Huili Zhang; Hongsheng Liu

2008-01-01

119

Optimization of betulin extraction process from Inonotus Obliquus with pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the extraction of betulin from Inonotus Obliquus applying high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied. To extract non-polar compound, 75% ethanol solution was used. The effect of PEF on betulin yield was discussed compared with conventional extracting method. A set of optimal parameters (PEF strength=40 kV\\/cm, pulse number=2, ethanol concentration=75%, and solid-to-solvent ratio=1:25) were tested and analyzed.

Yongguang Yin; Yanru Cui; Hongwei Ding

2008-01-01

120

Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result,\\u000a I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In\\u000a addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin

Jong Seok Yun; Jung Woon Pahk; Jong Seok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Shin Young Lee; Eock Kee Hong

2011-01-01

121

Mushroom-Growing Medium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention describes a cellulosic medium for growing mushrooms. A liquid mixture containing sources of soluble carbon and nitrogen is fermented and mixed with cellulosic material. The so-treated cellulosic material is held at a temperature and for a ti...

R. H. Kurtzman

1982-01-01

122

Selenium in Edible Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to

Jerzy Falandysz

2008-01-01

123

Mushrooms and health summit proceedings.  

PubMed

The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

2014-07-01

124

Nutrient compositions of culinary-medicinal mushroom fruiting bodies and mycelia.  

PubMed

Mushrooms (including fruiting bodies and mycelia) are a food with high nutritional value. This article summarizes the results of proximate composition studies of 38 fruiting bodies and 19 mycelia of 32 species of culinary-medicinal mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Antrodia, Auricularia, Boletus, Clitocybe, Coprinus, Cordyceps, Trametes, Dictyophora, Flammulina, Ganoderma, Grifola, Hericium, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Sparassis, Termitomyces, Tremella, and Tricholoma. Based on the proximate composition, most fruiting bodies and mycelia are low in fat and rich in protein and dietary fiber (DF); however, some are rich in soluble polysaccharides and others are rich in crude fiber. Due to the high amount of DF present, the energy provided by 100 g of dry fruiting bodies and mycelia is 46.96-292.37 kcal and 195.84-373.22 kcal, respectively. The energy (100 g) is classified into four levels: first level of >300 kcal, second level of 200-300 kcal, third level of 100-200 kcal, and fourth level of <100 kcal. Most fruiting bodies are listed in the third level; nine mycelia are listed in the first level and ten in the second level. Overall, the information about the proximate composition and energy are of great interest for fruiting bodies and mycelia to be used as foods or food-flavoring materials or in the formulation of health foods. PMID:22164764

Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2011-01-01

125

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2010-01-01

126

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2009-01-01

127

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Detailed FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... have Chagas disease. In what parts of the world is Chagas disease found? People who have Chagas disease can be found anywhere in the world. However, vectorborne transmission is confined to the Americas, ...

128

Antitumor activity of water extract of a mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

In the current study, it was demonstrated that the hot water extract of I. obliquus (IOWE) exerts inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29). The inhibitory effect of IOWE on the growth of HT-29 cancer cells was evaluated by treating cells with IOWE at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL for 24 or 48 h. The IOWE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was accompanied by apoptotic cell death. The maximum inhibitory effect (56%) was observed when IOWE was treated at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for 48 h. The apoptotic effect of IOWE on HT-29 cells was also confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, the apoptotic cell percentage was closely associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3. The results suggest that IOWE would be useful as an antitumor agent via the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the growth of cancer cells through up-regulation of the expression of proapoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:19367670

Lee, Sung Hak; Hwang, Hee Sun; Yun, Jong Won

2009-12-01

129

Constituents of Lactarius (Mushrooms)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the currently recognized 5-kingdom system of Whittaker, Fungi is a kingdom of its own, separated for instance from Plantae and Animalia (1). The kingdom of Fungi is vast and heterogeneous, comprising numerous microscopic species like molds, as well as the larger\\u000a fungi (mushrooms). The latter are spore-producing fruit-bodies of fungi that in their vegetative phases live as mycelia. Larger

W. M. Daniewski; G. Vidari

130

Mushroom Industry Technical Assistance Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates various ways that the industry can help itself - both growers and processors. The study looked into new marketing areas, new ways to process and can mushrooms, the nutritional value of mushrooms, an energy audit study for the growe...

1982-01-01

131

Can we heal Chagas infection?  

PubMed

We present a model for the parasite-antibody dynamical competition between Trypanosoma rangeli and its antibodies during the acute phase of an infection in a mammal host. The model reproduces experimental data from murine models found in the literature and allows us to demonstrate that a preinfection with T. rangeli induces a temporary protective effect against Chagas disease. As the mammal immune system is able to eliminate a single T. rangeli infection, the host high antibody levels, needed to resist the Chagas infection, are reduced with time, returning the system to the initial healthy state. Our results suggest that a preinfection with T. rangeli could be used to reduce the in-house vectorial parasitemia through repeated vaccination of domestic animals. PMID:24029157

Vega Royero, S P; Sibona, G J

2014-01-01

132

Heterologous Infection During Chagas' Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human populations are often infected with more than one parasite strain. This is frequently the case with ChagasŠ disease, which is endemic to large regions of Latin America. In the present work we study the dynamics of the heterologous infection for this disease, using a model for the interaction between the trypanosoma cruzi parasite and the immune system. We find the dependence of the nature of the post-acute stage on the parameters characterizing the inoculated infectious strains.

Sibona, G. J.; Condat, C. A.; Cossi Isasi, S.

2007-05-01

133

Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after (99mTc)HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux.

Troncon, L.E.; Rezende Filho, J.; Iazigi, N.

1988-10-01

134

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3?,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3?,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV–EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2

Sayaka Taji; Takeshi Yamada; Shun-ichi Wada; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuo Sakuma; Reiko Tanaka

2008-01-01

135

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8?9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3?,11?-diol (2), and (22R)-3?,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D (1H–1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1–3 showed moderate

Noriko Handa; Takeshi Yamada; Reiko Tanaka

2010-01-01

136

Mushroom compost worker's lung.  

PubMed Central

This study draws attention to difficulties in the diagnosis and the understanding of the mechanism of action of mushroom compost worker's lung. Descriptions are given of 4 workers in one factory who developed acute respiratory failure within a 6-month period; 13 others who were unaffected were also studied. Serological investigation appears to be largely unhelpful, and the evidence against the condition being included amongst the extrinsic allergic alveolitides is discussed. A detailed clinical and occupational history is essential for diagnosis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2.

Phillips, M S; Robinson, A A; Higenbottam, T W; Calder, I M

1987-01-01

137

Chagas' disease and solid organ transplantation.  

PubMed

This review summarizes relevant published data on transplant recipients with Chagas' disease and of naïve recipients transplanted with organs from infected donors. Unpublished experience from some of the largest transplant centers in Argentina is also included. The review outlines the guidelines for pretransplant evaluation and for posttransplant management formulated by the Chagas Disease Argentine Collaborative Transplant Consortium. PMID:21094779

Casadei, Domingo

2010-11-01

138

Aqueous Extract of Inonotus bliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) Significantly Inhibits the Growth of Sarcoma 180 by Inducing Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various cancers in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries for literally more than four centuries. However, in spite of its therapeutic significance for cancers, this fungus has not been studied systematically for the mechanisms of antitumor activity. In this study, we report the effects

Caifa Chen; Weifa Zheng; Xiaowen Gao; Xiaoyan Xiang; Dongxu Sun; Jiangchun Wei; Chengcai Chu

2007-01-01

139

Physicochemical Properties of Melanins Produced by the Sterile Form of Inonotus obliquus(“Chagi”) in Natural and Cultivated Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical properties of pigments isolated from the naturally occurring sterile form of Inonotus obliquus(Fr.) Pil. known as Chagi and comprising the major constituent of the medicine befungin were compared with those of melanins synthesized by this fungus in the culture in order to develop a new medicine. Elemental and functional group analyses, as well as UV-visible, IR, and EPR spectra,

T. A. Kukulyanskaya; N. V. Kurchenko; V. P. Kurchenko; V. G. Babitskaya

2002-01-01

140

Chagas Disease Risk in Texas  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. Methods and Findings The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five–stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post–1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc–minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence–based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag–York–Mollié model and post–1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk is concentrated in south Texas. 3. The ecological and incidence–based risks were analyzed together in a multi–criteria dominance analysis of all counties and those counties in which there were as yet no reports of parasite incidence. Both analyses picked out counties in south Texas as those at highest risk. 4. As an alternative to the multi–criteria analysis, the ecological and incidence–based risks were compounded in a multiplicative composite risk model. Counties in south Texas emerged as those with the highest risk. 5. Risk as the relative expected exposure rate was computed using a multiplicative model for the composite risk and a scaled population county map for Texas. Counties with highest risk were those in south Texas and a few counties with high human populations in north, east, and central Texas showing that, though Chagas disease risk is concentrated in south Texas, it is not restricted to it. Conclusions For all of Texas, Chagas disease should be designated as reportable, as it is in Arizona and Massachusetts. At least for south Texas, lower than N, blood donor screening should be mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations should be established. It is also recommended that a joint initiative be undertaken by the United States and México to combat Chagas disease in the trans–border region. The methodology developed for this analysis can be easily exported to other geographical and disease contexts in which risk assessment is of potential value.

Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E.; Frank, David M.; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor

2010-01-01

141

Uptake of radiocesium by mushrooms.  

PubMed

After the Chernobyl accident in April 1986 the 134Cs, 137Cs and 40K activity of mushrooms of different genera and their corresponding soils from woods located in the province of Umbria (Italy) was determined. The results indicated: a temporally increasing trend for 137Cs up to a "limit value" depending on local fallout in 1986; different cesium concentrations in various mushroom genera; and uptake of potassium from soil that did not appear to compete with cesium uptake. No reliable correlation can be inferred between the cesium content of the soil and those of mushrooms. PMID:1925527

Borio, R; Chiocchini, S; Cicioni, R; Degli Esposti, P; Rongoni, A; Sabatini, P; Scampoli, P; Antonini, A; Salvadori, P

1991-07-15

142

Quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study describes the method of quantitative determination of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied to separate these steroids. The procedure was carried out on a reversed-phase C, column, using a stepwise gradient of water-methanol as mobile phase with the following profile: 0-10 min, 10% water, 90% methanol; 10-40 min, 3% water, 97% methanol. The flow rate was 1.4 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 202 nm. The analysis was completed within 40 min. The results showed that this method has good reproducibility and satisfactory recoveries for the determination of steroids. The relative standard deviations of the peak areas were less than 2.94% (n = 5) for intraday assays. A good linear correlation was obtained in a range of 0.4-4.8 microg. The recoveries of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol were 100.05%-100.72%, 99.31%-101.04%, 97.52%-101.63%, 96.61%-100.08%, 96.21%-100.76% and 100.04%-100.51%, respectively. This method can be applied to evaluate real samples, and it is rapid, accurate and suitable for the quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. PMID:20352924

Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hongyu; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong

2009-11-01

143

The Vasculature in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

The cardiovascular manifestations of Chagas disease are well known. However, the contribution of the vasculature and specifically the microvasculature has received little attention. This chapter reviews the evidence supporting the notion that alterations in the microvasculature especially in the heart contribute to the pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy. These data may also be important in understanding the contributions of the microvasculature in the aetiologies of other cardiomyopathies. The role of endothelin-1 and of thromboxane A2 vascular spasm and platelet aggregation is also discussed. Further, these observations may provide target(s) for intervention.

Prado, Cibele M.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Weiss, Louis M.; Factor, Stephen M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Rossi, Marcos A.

2013-01-01

144

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

145

Vitamin D4 in mushrooms.  

PubMed

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D(2) as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D(4) (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D(4) was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [(3)H] itamin D(3) as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D(4) was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2-7.0 and 22.5-35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D(4) in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D(4) content was more than twice that of D(2) (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D(4), but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D(4) precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49-16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D(4) should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D(4) coeluted with D(3) in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D(2) and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D(2) in mushrooms and using D(3) as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D(3) and D(4). PMID:22870201

Phillips, Katherine M; Horst, Ronald L; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Simon, Ryan R

2012-01-01

146

Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4.

Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

2012-01-01

147

[Mushroom ileus without previous intestinal obstruction].  

PubMed

A case is described of obstruction of the small bowel after consumption of 500 g edible mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius). No fibrous bands or adhesions were found on laparotomy. When preparing the meal the mushrooms were not cut up, nor were they properly chewed due to the patient's defective dental prosthesis. 11 days after the meal the patient passed largely intact mushrooms. In retrospect the impacted mushrooms could be assumed on X-ray after barium meal. Since even without intra-abdominal adhesions impacted mushrooms can cause mechanical obstruction, it is recommended that mushrooms be cut up, chewed well and consumed only in moderate portions even when large quantities are available. PMID:2814413

Gerber, P

1989-10-21

148

Sterol composition in field-grown and cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Sterols are one of the active classes of compounds in Inonotus obliquus for their effective therapy of many diseases. In field environment, this fungus accumulates large amount of sterols. In cultured mycelia, however, this class of compounds is less accumulated. For analyzing the factors responsible for differing sterol composition, the field-grown and cultured mycelia were extracted with 80% ethanol at room temperature and total sterols were prepared using silicon gel column chromatography followed by identification using either GC-MS or spectroscopic methods. For culturing Inonotus obliquus, the seed culture was grown either in basic medium consisting of glucose (2%), yeast extract (0.5%), KH2PO4 (0.01%), MgSO4.7H20 (0.05%) and distilled water at pH 6.5, or the basic medium supplemented with serial concentrations of AgNO3. The results indicated that field-grown mycelia contained lanosterol and inotodiol (comprised 45. 47% and 25. 36% of the total sterols, respectively) and other 10 sterols (comprising the remaining 30.17%) including ergosterol biosynthetic intermediates such as 24-methylene dihydrolanosterol, 4,4-dimethylfecosterol, 4-methyl fecosterol, fecosterol and episterol. Column chromatography also led to the isolation of lanosterol, Inotodiol, trametenolic acid, foscoparianol B and a new triterpenoid foscoparianol D in field-grown mycelia. In comparison, the cultured mycelia only contained three sterols with ergosterol as the predominant one (82.20%). Lanosterol only accounted for 3.68%. Supplementing Ag+ into the culture at 0.28 micromol x L(-1) greatly enhanced content of lanosterol (accounting for 56.81%) and decreased the content of ergosterol (18.5%) together with the presence of intermediates for ergosterol biosynthesis. These results suggested that the sterol composition in mycelia of the fungus can be diversified by supplementing substances inhibiting enzymatic process towards the synthesis of ergosterol. Harsh growth conditions in field environment (i.e. temperature variation, UV irradiation etc.) can delay the synthesis of ergosterol and hereby diversify the sterol composition in the mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. PMID:17882960

Zheng, Wei-fa; Liu, Tong; Xiang, Xiao-yan; Gu, Qi

2007-07-01

149

Chagas' disease as a foodborne illness.  

PubMed

Various researchers have studied the importance of the oral transmission of Chagas' disease since the mid-20th century. Only in recent years, due to an outbreak that occurred in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina in 2005 and to various outbreaks occurring during the last 3 years in the Brazilian Amazon basin, mainly associated with the consumption of Amazonian palm berry or açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice, has this transmission route aroused the attention of researchers. Nevertheless, reports published in the 1960s already indicated the possibility of Chagas' disease transmission via food in Brazil, mainly in the Amazonian region. Recently, in December 2007, an outbreak of Chagas' disease occurred in Caracas, Venezuela, related to ingestion of contaminated fruit juices. The objective of this article is to point out the importance of foodborne transmission in the etiology of Chagas' disease, on the basis of published research and Brazilian epidemiology data. PMID:19350996

Pereira, Karen Signori; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Guaraldo, Ana M A; Franco, Regina M B; Dias, Viviane L; Passos, Luiz A C

2009-02-01

150

[Suicide under the influence of "magic mushrooms"].  

PubMed

Psilocybin/psilocin from so-called psychoactive mushrooms causes hallucinogenic effects. Especially for people with mental or psychiatric disorders ingestion of magic mushrooms may result in horror trips combined with the intention of self-destruction and suicidal thoughts. Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms has already been described. Our case report demonstrates the suicide of a man by self-inflicted cut and stab injuries. A causal connection between suicidal behaviour and previous ingestion of psychoactive mushrooms is discussed. PMID:23878898

Müller, Katja; Püschel, Klaus; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie

2013-01-01

151

Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.  

PubMed

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-06-01

152

Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract  

PubMed Central

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods.

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-01-01

153

Potential new clinical therapies for Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is the highest impact parasitic disease in the Americas but often goes untreated due to the shortcomings of currently available therapeutics. Thus there is an urgent need for new treatment options and growing interest in drug development for the infection. This review summarizes some of the recent advances and failures in this realm, with particular emphasis on recently published studies and unpublished results presented at a recent Chagas Drug Discovery Consortium meeting. PMID:24716790

Bustamante, Juan M; Tarleton, Rick L

2014-05-01

154

Toxicological screening of seven Nigerian mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological studies were carried out on seven Nigerian mushrooms, namely, Chlorophyllum molybditis (Mayer ex. fr.) Masse, Cortinarius melliolens Fries, Lentinus subnudus Berk, Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer, Termitomyces robustus (Beeli) Heim, Tricholoma lobayensis Heim and Volvariella esculenta (Mass) Singer. Amatoxin spot test and Chromatographic screening of the mushrooms revealed the absence of amatoxins and phallotoxins. None of the mushroom extracts tested

Isola O. Fasidi; Mukaila Kadiri

1995-01-01

155

Health foods and medicinal usages of mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many edible mushrooms, such as Reishi, Maitake, Shiitake, Yama?bushitake, etc., are used in Japan and China to develop not only food materials but also medicines. These mushrooms can be used as highly functional food materials in dishes, concentrates, extracts, liquor, and powdered mushrooms or mycelia. In medicines, three kinds of carcinostatic polysaccharide drugs, such as immunopo?tentiators (BRM, biological response modifiers),

Takashi Mizuno; Tadamoto Sakai; Goro Chihara

1995-01-01

156

Pests on commercial mushrooms in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fungivorous arthropods including mites, collembolans and insects were reviewed focusing on commercial mushroom pests in each taxon. Insects collected from mushroom fruiting bodies play roles not only of fungivores but also of phoretic hosts of smaller invertebrates. Their function should be considered for sound control measures. To learn biology and ecology of fungivores in field mushrooms is crucial because it

OKABE Kimiko

2006-01-01

157

Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (IOP40, IOP60 and IOP80) were isolated by using different concentrations of alcohol precipitation from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia. Their physicochemical properties, including total sugar content, protein content, monosaccharide composition and percentage were analyzed. And their in vitro antioxidant capacities were investigated in terms of reducing power assay and scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In general, three polysaccharide fractions exhibited increasing antioxidant activity with increasing concentration at the ranges of tested dosage. The orders of reducing power, DPPH-scavenging capacity, H2O2-scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl-scavenging activity were all IOP60>IOP40>IOP80. These findings demonstrated that three polysaccharide fractions extracted from I. obliquus, especially IOP60, could be employed as natural ingredients in functional food and pharmaceutical industry to alleviate the oxidative stress. PMID:24145301

Du, XiuJu; Mu, HongMei; Zhou, Shuai; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, XiaoLi

2013-11-01

158

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity.  

PubMed

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3beta,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3beta,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 were stronger than the positive control, oleanolic acid. The most abundant compound 4 was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 4 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:18387711

Taji, Sayaka; Yamada, Takeshi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

2008-11-01

159

Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-05-01

160

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8-->9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3beta,11beta-diol (2), and (22R)-3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate activity against cultured P388, L1210, HL-60 and KB cells. PMID:20691456

Handa, Noriko; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

2010-10-01

161

Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

2013-03-01

162

Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence.

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

163

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus BELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquus BELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily during the late stationary phase. Enhanced proliferation and polyclonal IgM antibody production were observed in B cells by purified water-soluble endo-polysaccharide. Nitrite production and expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and iNOS in macrophages were also enhanced. However, the endo-polysaccharide did not affect the proliferation of T cells, the IL-2 expression of Th1 cells, or the IL-4 expression of Th2 cells. The endo-polysaccharide showed activities similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for B cells and macrophages, but there was a large difference between the two polysaccharides because cellular activations induced by endo-polysaccharide were not affected by polymyxin B, a specific inhibitor of LPS. The endo-polysaccharide appeared to have other cellular binding sites with TLR-4 and did not show a direct toxicity against tumor cells. However, indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation were observed. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of I. obliquus is a candidate for use as an immune response modifier. Submerged mycelial cultures are advantageous for industrial production of polysaccharides. PMID:15970296

Kim, Yong Ook; Han, Sang Bae; Lee, Hong Woen; Ahn, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Jung, Joon Ki; Kim, Hwan Mook; Shin, Chul Soo

2005-09-23

164

Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

2011-09-01

165

Comparative antioxidative characteristics of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential antioxidant property of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from the natural fungal sclerotia and the cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus was evaluated using three antioxidant assays. The extracts from both the natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia including extra- and intra-cellular extracts were effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The content and

Xiangqun Xu; Yongde Wu; Hui Chen

2011-01-01

166

Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from

Yong Ook Kim; Hae Woong Park; Jong Hoon Kim; Jae Young Lee; Seong Hoon Moon; Chul Soo Shin

2006-01-01

167

Quantum mushroom billiards  

SciTech Connect

We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. A. Bunimovich [Chaos 11, 802 (2001)]. The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E{sup -1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16 000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and high mode numbers ({approx}10{sup 5}) orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

Barnett, Alex H.; Betcke, Timo [Department of Mathematics, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2007-12-15

168

Immunosuppression and Chagas Disease: A Management Challenge  

PubMed Central

Immunosuppression, which has become an increasingly relevant clinical condition in the last 50 years, modifies the natural history of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in most patients with Chagas disease. The main goal in this setting is to prevent the consequences of reactivation of T. cruzi infection by close monitoring. We analyze the relationship between Chagas disease and three immunosuppressant conditions, including a description of clinical cases seen at our center, a brief review of the literature, and recommendations for the management of these patients based on our experience and on the data in the literature. T. cruzi infection is considered an opportunistic parasitic infection indicative of AIDS, and clinical manifestations of reactivation are more severe than in acute Chagas disease. Parasitemia is the most important defining feature of reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole and/or nifurtimox is strongly recommended in such cases. It seems reasonable to administer trypanocidal treatment only to asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients with detectable parasitemia, and/or patients with clinically defined reactivation. Specific treatment for Chagas disease does not appear to be related to a higher incidence of neoplasms, and a direct role of T. cruzi in the etiology of neoplastic disease has not been confirmed. Systemic immunosuppressive diseases or immunosuppressants can modify the natural course of T. cruzi infection. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids have not been associated with higher rates of reactivation of Chagas disease. Despite a lack of evidence-based data, treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox should be initiated before immunosuppression where possible to reduce the risk of reactivation. Timely antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole and nifurtimox (or with posaconazole in cases of therapeutic failure) has proven to be highly effective in preventing Chagas disease reactivation, even if such treatment has not been formally incorporated into management protocols for immunosuppressed patients. International consensus guidelines based on expert opinion would greatly contribute to standardizing the management of immunosuppressed patients with Chagas disease.

Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Espinosa, Gerard; Cortes-Lletget, Cristina; Posada, Elizabeth de Jesus; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Oliveira, Ines; Munoz, Jose; Gallego, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim

2013-01-01

169

Non-volatile taste components of several commercial mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Taichung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were collected from commercial sources. Strain yellow contained 26.7% of proteins (higher than other mushrooms). Shiitake and the two oyster mushrooms contained more than 60% of carbohydrates. Arabitol was found in the highest amounts only in winter mushrooms. Glucose, mannitol and

Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau

2001-01-01

170

The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

2013-01-01

171

The Mushroom Place. Part III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

Schlichter, Carol

1978-01-01

172

Gap junctions and chagas disease.  

PubMed

Gap junction channels provide intercellular communication between cells. In the heart, these channels coordinate impulse propagation along the conduction system and through the contractile musculature, thereby providing synchronous and optimal cardiac output. As in other arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases, chagasic cardiomyopathy is associated with decreased expression of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and its gene. Our studies of cardiac myocytes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi have revealed that synchronous contraction is greatly impaired and gap junction immunoreactivity is lost in infected cells. Such changes are not seen for molecules forming tight junctions, another component of the intercalated disc in cardiac myocytes. Transcriptomic studies of hearts from mouse models of Chagas disease and from acutely infected cardiac myocytes in vitro indicate profound remodelling of gene expression patterns involving heart rhythm determinant genes, suggesting underlying mechanisms of the functional pathology. One curious feature of the altered expression of Cx43 and its gene expression is that it is limited in both extent and location, suggesting that the more global deterioration in cardiac function may result in part from spread of damage signals from more seriously compromised cells to healthier ones. PMID:21884887

Adesse, Daniel; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli; Fortes, Fabio S; Jasmin; Iacobas, Dumitru A; Iacobas, Sanda; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Narareth Meirelles, Maria; Huang, Huan; Soares, Milena B; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Spray, David C

2011-01-01

173

[Part VI. Antiparasitic treatment for Chagas disease].  

PubMed

As expert consensus has been arisen about universal antiparasitic treatment for all patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, most important drugs licensed for Chagas disease treatment are reviewed: nifurtimox and benznidazol, their mechanisms of action, doses, treatment schedules, adverse effects and contraindications. Two other drugs used for Chagas disease treatment, for which a Chilean experience may be exhibited, are allopurinol and itraconazole. Indications for treatment of Chagas disease in immunocompetent patients and immunocompromised hosts are detailed. This chapter refers besides to the evaluation and monitoring of antiparasitic therapy in immunocompromised patients, the availability of drugs and includes various forms facsimiles suggested to perform clinical and laboratory follow up of patients that undergo treatment, indicating the prescribed drug, adverse effects and time of follow up. PMID:18949153

B, Werner Apt; G, Ingrid Heitmann; L, M Isabel Jercic; M, Leonor Jofré; V, Patricia Muñoz C Del; H, Isabel Noemí; V, Ana M San Martín; P, Jorge Sapunar; H, Marisa Torres; A, Inés Zulantay

2008-10-01

174

Mushroom Culture: A New Potential for Fishery Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fish solubles were successfully substituted for other organic nitrogen supplements commonly used in mushroom composting and subsequent mushroom culture. These experiments performed in 1971-1972, indicated that in certain situations larger mushrooms were p...

J. H. Green

1974-01-01

175

Effects of inotodiol extracts from inonotus obliquus on proliferation cycle and apoptotic gene of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To observe the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation cycle of human lung carcinoma cell line A549 treated\\u000a with Inotodiol extracts from Inonotus obliquus and explore the possibility of Inotodiol extracts from Inonotus obliquus as\\u000a a new tumor chemopreventive drug.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human lung cancer cell line A549 was treated with different concentrations of Inotodiol, the effects of Inotodiol on cell\\u000a apoptosis,

Xiu-hong Zhong; Li-bo Wang; Dong-zhi Sun

2011-01-01

176

Antioxidant properties of several commercial mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Tainung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were obtained commercially and methanolic extracts were prepared from these mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities by the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate to high at 1.2 mg ml?1. Reducing powers were excellent (and higher than 1.28

Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau

2002-01-01

177

Beta-glucans in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible mushrooms contain interesting functional components. In particular beta glucans, homo- and hetero-glucans with ?(1?3), ?(1?4) and ?(1?6) glucosidic linkages, are supposed to be responsible for some healthy properties of mushrooms. In this research the amount of beta glucans in different edible mushroom species has been evaluated and their distribution within the soluble and insoluble fractions of dietary fibre has

Pamela Manzi; Laura Pizzoferrato

2000-01-01

178

Medicinal mushrooms: Towards a new horizon  

PubMed Central

The arising awareness about functional food has created a boom in this new millennium. Mushrooms are widely consumed by the people due to their nutritive and medicinal properties. Belonging to taxonomic category of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, these mushrooms possess antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. They are also one of the richest source of anticancer and immunomodulating agents. Thus these novel myochemicals from these mushrooms are the wave of future.

Ganeshpurkar, A.; Rai, G.; Jain, A. P.

2010-01-01

179

[Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

2012-05-01

180

Accumulation of antioxidant phenolic constituents in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic compounds in different culture media and whether these compounds possess antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of melanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and small phenolics. Their accumulation was affected by adding H(2)O(2) to the medium, where increased levels of total intracellular phenols (TIP) and melanins, but less total extracellular phenol (TEP) occurred. Simultaneous exposure to H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in a further increase in TIP production and reduced accumulation of TEP. Both TIP and TEP obtained at different culture ages and media were active in scavenging superoxide anion and DPPH radicals. Therefore, production of phenolic compounds by I. obliquus is enhanced by imposing oxidative stress, which might allow it to be exploited as a reliable source of pharmaceutically important phenolic compounds. PMID:18824349

Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Yao; Miao, Kangjie; Wei, Zhiwen

2009-02-01

181

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail's pace. The methods of strain identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous molds from fruit body which was collected from birch wood on Changbai Mountain, cultivated mycelia on an inclined plane, and examined its micromorphology based on macroscopic examination. The strain was identified as I. obliquus by sequencing its ITS (internal transcribed spacer) domain. We subsequently investigated some of the mycelium polysaccharides' biological activities. The strain used in this study as the producers of antioxidation and anticancer polysaccharides was LNUF008. After fermentation in a 30-L fermenter, mycelia were obtained. The polysaccharides were extracted by transonic recirculation and ethanol precipitation. In order to identify the antioxidation effect, we designed an assay to test the inhibition of endogenous and Fe(2+)-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation as well as ferrous sulfate/ascorbate (Fe(2+)-VC)-induced mitochondrial swelling. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method was used to study the antiproliferation activity of the polysaccharides on SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. The results indicate that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. The submerged culture method of growing I. obliquus will enable large-scale production of the polysaccharides. PMID:18795365

Song, Yana; Hui, Jing; Kou, Wei; Xin, Ru; Jia, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hu, Fengqing; Zhang, Huili; Liu, Hongsheng

2008-11-01

182

Involvements of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). This homeostasis was breached by GSNOR or TrxR inhibitors. Inhibiting GSNOR boosted TrxR activity, but reduced SNO formation, coinciding with an enhanced production of polyphenols. Likewise, inhibiting TrxR increased GSNOR activity and SNO production, but downregulated accumulation of polyphenols. Inhibiting GSNOR or TrxR also modified the polyphenolic profiles of I. obliquus. Suppressing GSNOR-enhanced biosynthesis of phelligridins C and H, inoscavin C and methyl inoscavin B, but reduced that of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone and methyl davallialactone, the typical polyphenols in I. obliquus. Similarly, downregulating TrxR increased production of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone, and methyl davallialactone, but shrinking that of phelligridins C and H, methyl inoscavin B and inoscavin C. Thus, in I. obliquus, the state of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation affects not only the accumulation of polyphenols, but also their metabolic profiles. PMID:21468702

Zheng, Weifa; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Yuan, Weihua; Dai, Yucheng; Wei, Jiangchun

2011-06-01

183

Immunostimulating Activity by Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response.

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

184

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus.  

PubMed

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures. We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, inoscavin B, davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-en, lanosta-7,9(11),23-triene-3?,22,25-triol, and inotodisaccharide and melanins. Metabolites from coculture also showed an increased potential for scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, and minor phenolic components are the major contributors for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical in monoculture, and phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, and inotodisaccharide are those for scavenging the tested radicals in coculture. Lanostane-type triterpenoids indicated limited roles in scavenging free radicals. Nearly all the detected metabolites correlate positively with inhibiting proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Thus, coculture of I. obliquus with other fungi seems to be a cost-effective strategy for upregulating biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites. PMID:20830471

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng; Liu, Fuming

2011-01-01

185

Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-02-01

186

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate  

PubMed Central

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7?±?1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells.

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

187

Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

188

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the

José Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles

2002-01-01

189

Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini,

Katherine M. Phillips; Ronald L. Horst; Nicholas J. Koszewski; Ryan R. Simon

2012-01-01

190

Antifungal activity of cysteine, its effect on C-21 oxygenated lanosterol derivatives and other lipids in Inonotus obliquus , in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of cysteine (2-amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid) on mycelial growth and the production of lanosterol, 3,ß-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, 3,ß-21,dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-diene, trametenolic acid and ergosterol were investigated in solid and liquid cultures of Inonotus obliquus at cysteine concentrations of 0.9 and 9.0 mM by means of thin-layer chromatography densitometry. Cysteine elicited the production of ergosterol in all the cultures and at a concentration of

K. Kahlos; V. H. Tikka

1994-01-01

191

Chagas disease in the Amazon region.  

PubMed

The risk that Chagas disease becomes established as a major endemic threat in Amazonia (the world's largest tropical biome, today inhabited by over 30 million people) relates to a complex set of interacting biological and social determinants. These include intense immigration from endemic areas (possibly introducing parasites and vectors), extensive landscape transformation with uncontrolled deforestation, and the great diversity of wild Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir hosts and vectors (25 species in nine genera), which maintain intense sylvatic transmission cycles. Invasion of houses by adventitious vectors (with infection rates > 60%) is common, and focal adaptation of native triatomines to artificial structures has been reported. Both acute (approximately 500) and chronic cases of autochthonous human Chagas disease have been documented beyond doubt in the region. Continuous, low-intensity transmission seems to occur throughout the Amazon, and generates a hypoendemic pattern with seropositivity rates of approximately 1-3%. Discrete foci also exist in which transmission is more intense (e.g., in localized outbreaks probably linked to oral transmission) and prevalence rates higher. Early detection-treatment of acute cases is crucial for avoiding further dispersion of endemic transmission of Chagas disease in Amazonia, and will require the involvement of malaria control and primary health care systems. Comprehensive eco-epidemiological research, including prevalence surveys or the characterization of transmission dynamics in different ecological settings, is still needed. The International Initiative for Chagas Disease Surveillance and Prevention in the Amazon provides the framework for building up the political and scientific cooperation networks required to confront the challenge of preventing Chagas disease in Amazonia. PMID:17891274

Aguilar, Hugo Marcelo; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Junqueira, Angela Cristina Veríssimo; Coura, José Rodrigues

2007-10-30

192

NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using 1H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited

Weifa Zheng; Meimei Zhang; Yanxia Zhao; Kangjie Miao; Hong Jiang

2009-01-01

193

Optimization of ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were

Yiyong Chen; Xiaohong Gu; Sheng-quan Huang; Jinwei Li; Xin Wang; Jian Tang

2010-01-01

194

The Problem of Psilocybin Mushroom Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 We have reviewed the clinical features and management of 44 consecutive patients presenting to hospital over a 5 week period during an outbreak of ingestion of psilocybin containing mushrooms.2 Patients presented to hospital usually because of dysphoric effects an average of 3.8 h after ingesting the mushrooms.3 Mydriasis was present in 40 patients but fewer than half showed other

Norman R. Peden; Stuart D. Pringle; James Crooks

1982-01-01

195

A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of

Eui Cha Jung; Ki Don Kim; Chan Hyung Bae; Ju Cheol Kim; Dae Kyong Kim; Ha Hyung Kim

2007-01-01

196

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

197

V350 Mushrooms: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

eating the mushroom, but mushrooms are found in the pet's environment. Clinical signs associated with mushroom poisoning are varied, depending on toxin and dose, and are not unique. There are few laboratories that actually test for the toxins present in mushrooms, and many of the toxins have short half-lives. In addition, specimen preservation is critical to accurate identification by a

Patricia A. Talcott; WA Pullman

198

Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

1986-01-01

199

Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.  

PubMed

For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. PMID:24125745

El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

2013-12-01

200

The effects of whole mushrooms during inflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Consumption of edible mushrooms has been suggested to improve health. A number of isolated mushroom constituents have been shown to modulate immunity. Five commonly consumed edible mushrooms were tested to determine whether whole mushrooms stimulate the immune system in vitro and in vivo. Results The white button (WB) extracts readily stimulated macrophage production of TNF-?. The crimini, maitake, oyster and shiitake extracts also stimulated TNF-? production in macrophage but the levels were lower than from WB stimulation. Primary cultures of murine macrophage and ovalbumin (OVA) specific T cells showed that whole mushroom extracts alone had no effect on cytokine production but co-stimulation with either lipopolysacharide or OVA (respectively) induced TNF-?, IFN-?, and IL-1? while decreasing IL-10. Feeding mice diets that contained 2% WB mushrooms for 4 weeks had no effect on the ex vivo immune responsiveness or associated toxicity (changes in weight or pathology of liver, kidney and gastrointestinal tract). Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) stimulation of mice that were fed 1% WB mushrooms were protected from DSS induced weight loss. In addition, 2% WB feeding protected the mice from transient DSS induced colonic injury. The TNF-? response in the colon and serum of the DSS challenged and 2% WB fed mice was higher than controls. Conclusion The data support a model whereby edible mushrooms regulate immunity in vitro. The in vivo effects of edible mushrooms required a challenge with DSS to detect small changes in TNF-? and transient protection from colonic injury. There are modest effects of in vivo consumption of edible mushrooms on induced inflammatory responses. The result is not surprising since it would certainly be harmful to strongly induce or suppress immune function following ingestion of a commonly consumed food.

Yu, Sanhong; Weaver, Veronika; Martin, Keith; Cantorna, Margherita T

2009-01-01

201

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition.  

PubMed

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a basal medium to 1.38 ± 0.02 g/l and 82.7 ± 0.5% in a corn straw-containing medium was obtained. A synchronized effect between lignocellulose decomposition and malondialdehyde presenting hydroxyl radical concentration in the fermentation broth was identified. The adding of thiourea, a hydroxyl radical-scavenging reagent, suppressed malondialdehyde generation and lowered the lignocellulose decomposition rate. Correspondingly, the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity decreased to 1.26 g/l and 74%. The EPS obtained from the corn straw-containing medium also presented the strongest superoxide radical scavenging activity. The monosaccharide components of the EPS from the corn straw-containing medium are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with molar proportions at 3.0, 3.0, 0.9, 46.6, 11.4, and 35.1%, respectively, which are largely different from the molar proportions of the EPS from the basal medium. PMID:20628784

Chen, Hui; Yan, Mingchao; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Xiangqun

2011-02-01

202

Glycoinositolphosphosphingolipids (basidiolipids) of higher mushrooms.  

PubMed

The basidiolipids of six mushroom species, i.e. the basidiomycetes Amanita virosa (engl., death cup), Calvatia exipuliformis (engl., puffball), Cantharellus cibarius (engl., chanterelle), Leccinum scabrum (engl., red birch boletus), Lentinus edodes (jap., Shiitake), and Pleurotus ostreatus (engl., oystermushroom), were isolated, and their chemical structures investigated. All glycolipids are structurally related to those of the Agaricales (engl., field mushroom). They are glycoinositolphosphosphingolipids, their ceramide moiety consisting of t18:0-trihydroxysphinganine and an alpha-hydroxy long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to a previous study [Jennemann, R., Bauer, B.L., Bertalanffy, H., Geyer, R., Gschwind, R.M., Selmer, T. & Wiegandt, H. (1999) Eur. J. Biochem. 259, 331--338], the glycoside anomery of the hexose (mannose) connected to the inositol of all investigated basidiomycete glycolipids, including the basidiolipids of Agaricus bisporus, was determined unequivocally to be alpha. Therefore, the root structure of all basidiolipids consists of alpha-DManp-2Ins1-[PO(4)]-Cer. In addition, for some mushroom species, the occurrence of an inositol substitution position variant, alpha-Manp-4Ins1-[PO(40]-Cer, is shown. The carbohydrate of chanterelle basidiolipids consists solely of mannose, i.e. Cc1, Man alpha-3 or -6Man alpha; Cc2, Man alpha-3(Man alpha-6)Man alpha-. All other species investigated show extension of the alpha-mannoside in the 6-position by beta-galactoside, which, in some instances, is alpha-fucosylated in 2-position (Fuc alpha-2)Gal beta-6Man alpha-. Further sugar chain elongation at the beta-galactoside may be in 3- and/or 6-position by alpha-galactoside, e.g. Ce4, Po2, Gal alpha-3-(Gal alpha-6)(Fuc alpha-2)Gal beta-6Man alpha-, whereas A. virosa, Av-3, has a more complex, highly alpha-fucosylated terminus, Gal alpha-3 (Fuc alpha-2)(Fuc alpha-6)Gal alpha-2(Gal alpha-3)Gal beta-6Man alpha-. L. edodes basidiolipids show further elongation by alpha-mannoside, e.g. Le3, Man alpha-2Man alpha-6Gal alpha-3(Fuc alpha-2)Gal beta-6Man alpha-, C. exipuliformis glycolipid by alpha-glucoside, i.e. Ce3, Glc alpha-6Gal beta-6Man alpha-. Basidiolipid Ls1 from L. scabrum, notably, has a 3-alpha-mannosylated alpha-fucose, i.e. Gal alpha-6(Man alpha-3Fuc alpha-2)Gal alpha-6Gal beta-6Man alpha-. In conclusion, basidiolipids, though identical in their ceramide constitution, display wide and systematic mushroom species dependent variabilities of their chemical structures. PMID:11231270

Jennemann, R; Geyer, R; Sandhoff, R; Gschwind, R M; Levery, S B; Gröne, H J; Wiegandt, H

2001-03-01

203

Natural Chagas Disease in Four Baboons  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is common in Central and South America and the southern United States. The causative agent is Trypanosoma cruzi (T cruzi, Order Kinetoplastida, Family Trypanosomatidae), a kinetoplastid protozoan parasite of humans and other vertebrates. It is a serious public health issue and the leading cause of heart disease and cardiovascular death in Central and South America. In 1984 a colony baboon was discovered to be infected with T cruzi. Methods Since the initial diagnosis was made by microscopic observation of the amastigote forms of T. cruzi in myocardial fibers, T. cruzi amastigotes have been identified in three additional baboons. Results The primary findings were similar in all four baboons and were congestive heart failure with edema of dependent areas, hydrothorax, hydropericardium, and multifocal to diffuse lymphoplasmacytic myocarditis. Conclusions A baboon animal model of Chagas disease could contribute significantly to the development of therapies for the disease in humans.

Williams, Jeff T.; Dick, Edward J.; VandeBerg, John L.; Hubbard, Gene B.

2010-01-01

204

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil.  

PubMed

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the past eight years. This article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil, including known reservoirs and vectors, and the genetic diversity of T. cruzi. At least three subspecific groups of T. cruzi-T. cruzilZ1, T. cruziZ3 and T. cruziZ3/Z1 ASAT--are present. It appears that T. cruzil has an extant capacity for genetic exchange. Attention is also drawn to the risk of domestic endemicity, in addition to the tasks facing the disease control authorities. PMID:11998705

Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V; Fernandes, Octavio; Valente, Sebastiao A S; Miles, Michael A

2002-04-01

205

Enteromegaly and cardiomegaly in Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease due to a trypanosome infection may lead to extensive destruction of ganglion cells in the peripheral autonomic system and may result in gross enlargement of the oesophagus, colon, and heart. From studies on nerve cell counts it is concluded that the number of ganglion cells in the oesophagus must be reduced to less than half to produce functional disturbances in the oesophagus and to one tenth to produce a megaoesophagus. Problems of terminology are discussed.

Koberle, Fritz

1963-01-01

206

The future of Chagas disease control.  

PubMed

In the past 15 years, there have been major advances in the control of Chagas disease in most of the countries endemic for this infection. Attention now turns to the future continuity of surveillance and control interventions - especially in regions where control has been so successful that the epidemiological significance of Chagas disease is in steep decline. The effort and expenditure of the recent past cannot continue indefinitely, but a degree of surveillance and selective intervention will be required because of the risk of new infestations and infections resulting from adventitious silvatic vectors accidentally entering houses. In this review, we summarize the progress of multinational control initiatives against Chagas disease. In addition, we suggest that the most sustainable approach to future surveillance involves both the primary healthcare system and university-based teams, with progressively greater attention given to case detection and treatment. Such an idea is not new, but we believe that it merits extensive discussion because of the different ways that research and health interventions are financed and because of the need to establish clearer reporting links between the research communities and the national health authorities. PMID:17049308

Schofield, Chris J; Jannin, Jean; Salvatella, Roberto

2006-12-01

207

The elimination of Chagas' disease from Brazil  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY On 9 June 2006 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) presented the Minister of Health of Brazil with the International Elimination of Transmission of Chagas' Disease Certificate. This act was the culmination of an intensive process that began in 1991 with the Southern Cone Initiative, a joint agreement between the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru, to control Chagas' disease by the elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans. This initiative has been highly successful and the prevalence area of the vector diminished rapidly in the last years. As a consequence, the current seroprevalence in children aged between 0 and 5 years is of the order of 10?5, a clear indication that transmission, if it is occurring, is only accidental. In this review I calculate the basic reproduction number, R0, for Chagas' disease and demonstrate that its relatively low value (1·25) explains why vectorial transmission was interrupted relatively easily. In addition, I used a mathematical model to forecast how long the remaining cases of the disease, as well as the additional vertically transmitted cases will last.

MASSAD, E.

2008-01-01

208

Type III hypersensitivity reaction in mushroom growers.  

PubMed

Some respiratory symptoms in mushroom growers such as mushroom worker's lung develop by inhalation of certain agents arising from the environment of mushroom cultivation. Recently we observed mushroom workers who had respiratory symptoms which might be type III hypersensitivity reaction to the antigen of Pleurotus floridae. We gave questionnaires to all the mushroom growers at one of the biggest cultivation areas of mushrooms, Pleurotus floridae in Pocheon, Kyunggi Province. Those with respiratory symptoms were subjects for the study. CBC, chest X-ray, pulmonary function test, skin test with Pleurotus floridae extract, and precipitin antibody test to Pleurotus floridae were performed in the study subjects. Out of a total 308 mushroom workers, 23 workers (14 males, 9 females) had respiratory symptoms. Their mean age was 45 years, and their mean duration of engagement was 3.4 years. Their main symptoms were cough (100%), sputum (82.6%), dyspnea (43.5%), and fever with chills (13.0%). Two cases showed increased interstitial lung markings on chest X-ray films. Sixteen cases (73.9%) showed precipitin antibodies against P. floridae extract by counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Antibodies against Micropolyspora faeni and Thermoactinomyces vulgaris were not detected in any subject. PMID:1742253

Choi, B W; Min, K U; Kim, Y Y; Moon, H B; Chang, S I; Kang, S Y; Kim, S J; Kim, S O

1991-01-01

209

[Chemical composition of eight edible mushrooms].  

PubMed

A comparative analysis of crude protein, crude ash, phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) contents of 57 samples of eight common edible mushroom species was made. The most important protein sources were: Marasmius oreades and Lepista nebularis. Species of the Boletaceae formed an intermediate group, while relatively proteinless species were: Armillariella mellea and Cratarellus cornucopioides. The lowest crude protein content was established in Cantharellus cibarius. The ash contents varied more widely. The greatest P contents were measured in Lepista nebularis and Marasmius oreades but most mushrooms contained 6-7 gP/kg. The analysed mushroom samples contained 30-40 gK/kg dry weight and 0,2-0,3 gCa/kg. These analyses are important from the point of view of the nutritional role of mushrooms. PMID:8465607

Vetter, J

1993-03-01

210

Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.  

PubMed

Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of ?-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2013-05-01

211

Antioxidant properties of several specialty mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four specialty mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these specialty mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities at 1.2 mg ml?1 were in the order of basket stinkhorn>lion's mane>maitake>white matsutake. Basket stinkhorn showed an excellent

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Si-Fu Song

2002-01-01

212

Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: Food function and medicinal effect of mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the several thousand species of mushrooms (Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes) on earth, 1500 species are found in Japan. Many of these species are valuable as gene pool sources which can be utilized by biotechnology to develop new foods and new medicines. Many edible mushrooms are now being studied for their nutritional and flavor properties. To utilize the full potential

Takashi Mizuno

1995-01-01

213

Chemical constituents of Inonotus obliquus II: a new triterpene, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3 ? ,21,25-triol-8-ene from sclerotium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lanostane-type triterpene with a cyclopentanol partial structure in the side chain was isolated from the sclerotium\\u000a of the wood rotting fungusInonotus obliquus along with four known compounds: lanosterol, inotodiol, trametenolic acid, and 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dienlanosta-21,23-lactone. The new compound was determined to be 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-ene by spectroscopic analyses.

Yusoo Shin; Yutaka Tamai; Minoru Terazawa

2001-01-01

214

Muscarinic Toxicity Among Family Members After Consumption of Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are commercially cultivated over the world and safe for human consumption, except in those with known allergies. Among the thousands of mushroom species identified, few are considered to be edible. Mushroom hunting has emerged as an adventure and recreational activity in recent decades. Wild forms of mushrooms are often poisonous and visually mimic the edible ones, thus leading to mistaken harvesting, consumption, and toxicities. In literature, various systemic toxic syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning have been described. We report four members of a family with muscarinic manifestations after accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. The Clitocybe species of mushrooms they consumed resulted in their muscarinic toxicity. Patients with muscarinic mushroom toxicity have early onset of symptoms and they respond well to atropine and symptomatic supportive care.

George, Peter; Hegde, Narasimha

2013-01-01

215

Early detection of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease may cause left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its early detection in asymptomatic patients would allow to stratify the risk and to optimize medical treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate if transmitral Doppler flow can detect early abnormalities of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients during the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease, in which the electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray and 2-D echocardiogram (2D-echo) are normal. Methods a group of 54 patients with Chagas' disease was studied and compared to a control group of 27 subjects of similar age. All were assessed with an ECG, chest X-ray, 2-D echo, and transmitral Doppler flow. Results both groups had similar values in the 2D-echo. In patients with Chagas' disease, the transmitral Doppler showed a higher peak A velocity (control group: 0.44 m/sec, Chagas group: 0.55 m/sec, p = 0.001), a lower E/A ratio (control group: 1.45, Chagas group: 1.22, p < 0.05), and a lengthening of the deceleration time of early diastolic filling (control: 138.7 ± 26.8 msec, Chagas group: 167.9 ± 34.6 msec, p = 001), thus revealing an early disorder of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients with Chagas' disease. Conclusion in patients with Chagas' disease who are in the indeterminate phase, transmitral Doppler flow allowed to identify early abnormalities of the left ventricular diastolic function, which provide useful clinical information for prognostic stratification and treatment.

Cianciulli, Tomas F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, Maria C; Papantoniou, Alonso; Morita, Luis A; Prado, Nilda G; Dorelle, Adriana N; Riarte, Adelina R; Prezioso, Horacio A

2006-01-01

216

[Part V. Laboratory diagnosis of Chagas disease].  

PubMed

In this fifth part of Guidelines for Chagas disease, diagnostic techniques for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in humans are reviewed, the interpretation of laboratory results and an algorithm for laboratory diagnosis in immunocompetent hosts are presented. Chagas disease may be diagnosed by three kinds of techniques: direct, which allow detect the presence of the parasite in different kind of samples; indirect, based on the search of immune specific response against T. cruzi antigens and molecular, which detect parasite genetic material. Direct techniques are utilized mainly in acute phase of disease, as the parasite is present in blood of infected host. These techniques do not require be confirmed by other methods. For chronic undetermined phase and for symptomatic phase it is recommended to use indirect techniques; generally, immunoassay techniques (ELISA) that detect IgG antibodies directed against T. cruzi antigens are performed. As false positive results are possible, a positive or undetermined result must be confirmed by at least another technique (indirect immunofluorescence or indirect hemmaglutination). In Chile, confirmation of infection is performed by the Instituto de Salud Pública National Reference Laboratory or at surrogate centers. Molecular methods may be used to make the diagnosis in acute or chronic phase of infection, with more accuracy in the acute phase, and it is mainly recommended to diagnose vertical transmission of T. cruzi as early diagnosis of congenital infection increases the possibility to cure the sibling and besides it is a good marker to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. PMID:18949152

Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jofré M, Leonor; Muñoz C Del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martín V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

2008-10-01

217

Chagas' Disease: Pregnancy and Congenital Transmission  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is a chronic infection that kills approximately 12,000 people a year. Mass migration of chronically infected and asymptomatic persons has caused globalization of Chagas disease and has made nonvectorial infection, including vertical and blood-borne transmission, more of a threat to human communities than vectorial infection. To control transmission, it is essential to test all pregnant women living in endemic countries and all pregnant women having migrated from, or having lived in, endemic countries. All children born to seropositive mothers should be tested not only within the first month of life but also at ~6 months and ~12 months of age. The diagnosis is made by identification of the parasite in blood before the age of 6 months and by identification of the parasite in blood and/or positive serology after 10 months of age. Follow up for a year is essential as a significant proportion of cases are initially negative and are only detected at a later stage. If the condition is diagnosed and treated early, the clinical response is excellent and the majority of cases are cured.

Hernandez, Roberto

2014-01-01

218

Chagas disease in Switzerland: history and challenges.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, endemic in Latin America, is an emerging health problem in Europe affecting an estimated 80,000 persons. Around 60,000 Latin American migrants live in Switzerland, and cases of Chagas disease have been reported since 1979. As of June 2011, 258 cases have been diagnosed, mostly adults in the indeterminate phase of the chronic stage of the disease. Vertical transmission has been identified and there is a high potential for blood- and organ-borne transmission in the absence of systematic screening. Major challenges include (i) raising awareness among migrants and healthcare professionals, (ii) developing national protocols for screening and treatment targeting high-risk groups such as pregnant woman, newborns, migrants from highly endemic areas (e.g. Bolivia), and immunocompromised migrants, (iii) preventing blood- and organ-borne transmission by appropriate screening strategies, (iv) taking into account the social vulnerability of individuals at risk in the design and implementation of public health programmes, and (v) facilitating contacts with the communities at risk through outreach programmes, for example in churches and cultural groups. PMID:21944555

Jackson, Y; Chappuis, F

2011-01-01

219

A critical review on Chagas disease chemotherapy.  

PubMed

In this "Critical Review" we made a historical introduction of drugs assayed against Chagas disease beginning in 1912 with the works of Mayer and Rocha Lima up to the experimental use of nitrofurazone. In the beginning of the 70s, nifurtimox and benznidazole were introduced for clinical treatment, but results showed a great variability and there is still a controversy about their use for chronic cases. After the introduction of these nitroheterocycles only a few compounds were assayed in chagasic patients. The great advances in vector control in the South Cone countries, and the demonstration of parasite in chronic patients indicated the urgency to discuss the etiologic treatment during this phase, reinforcing the need to find drugs with more efficacy and less toxicity. We also review potential targets in the parasite and present a survey about new classes of synthetic and natural compounds studied after 1992/1993, with which we intend to give to the reader a general view about experimental studies in the area of the chemotherapy of Chagas disease, complementing the previous papers of Brener (1979) and De Castro (1993). PMID:11992141

Rodriques Coura, José; de Castro, Solange L

2002-01-01

220

Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms

S. P. Wasser

2002-01-01

221

Substrate affects growth and yield of shiitake mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentinus edodes (Berk.), the shiitake mushroom, is worldwide one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms. Sawdust is the most popular basal ingredient used in synthetic substrate formulations for producing shiitake spawn. However, the best sawdust for this uses needs to be determined. Shiitake mushroom was cultivated on sawdust from the woody plants Babla (Acacia nilotica L.), Champa (Michelia champaca L.),

M. Ashrafuzzaman; A. K. M. Kamruzzaman; M. Razi; S. M. Shahidullah

222

Prizes and parasites: incentive models for addressing Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Recent advances in immunology have provided a foundation of knowledge to understand many of the intricacies involved in manipulating the human response to fight parasitic infections, and a great deal has been learned from malaria vaccine efforts regarding strategies for developing parasite vaccines. There has been some encouraging progress in the development of a Chagas vaccine in animal models. A prize fund for Chagas could be instrumental in ensuring that these efforts are translated into products that benefit patients. PMID:19493074

Crager, Sara E; Price, Matt

2009-01-01

223

Antioxidant activity of indigenous edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to measure the antioxidant potential from water and methanolic extracts of fruiting bodies of 23 species of mushrooms naturally grown in different geographic locations of India. The antioxidant ability of each species was analyzed for the total antioxidative status, employing multimechanistic antioxidative assays such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation, determination of reducing power, and free radical scavenging ability, in addition to determination of total phenolics and identification of phenolic acids by HPLC analysis, because the phenolics are known to contribute largely to antioxidant potential. The antioxidant potential of these varieties of mushrooms was determined by summing the antioxidative activity (AOA) of each variety by varied antioxidant assays followed by determining the relative percent of AOA defined as the "antioxidant index" (AI). On the basis of the AI, the mushroom species were graded as very high, high, moderate, and low. Termitomyces heimii was identified as the best variety, which showed 100% AI with 37 mg of phenolics/g of sample, 418 units of reducing power ability (RPA)/g, and an IC50 of approximately 1.1 mg (dry weight)/mL, free radical scavenging activity (FRS) in the water extract followed by 11.2 mg of phenolics/g, 275 units of RPA/g, and an IC50 of approximately 2.7 mg (dry weight)/mL of FRS in the methanolic extract. Following T. heimii, Termitomyces mummiformis exhibited an AI of 86% within the "very high" group. Potent inhibitions of lipid peroxidation of approximately 100 and 69% was also observed in T. heimii and T. mummiformis, respectively. Water extracts ranged from 34 to 49% and methanolic extracts varied from 20 to 32% on dry weight of mushroom fruiting body. Total phenolic compounds were higher in the water extracts (2-37 mg/g) than in methanolic extract (0.7-11.2 mg/g). The AOA measured in the water extract was better than that from the methanolic extract. HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in the two mushroom species, namely, T. heimii and T. mummiformis, displaying maximum AOA potential indicated a preponderance of tannic acid, gallic acid, protocatacheuic acid, and gentisic acid. Studies thus provide the precise antioxidant status of 23 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics. PMID:17177499

Puttaraju, Nethravathi Guthalu; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Dharmesh, Shylaja Mallaiah; Urs, Shashirekha Mysore Nanjaraj; Somasundaram, Rajarathnam

2006-12-27

224

The Mushroom Genus Laccaria in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Botanist Gregory Mueller of The Field Museum (Chicago) has put together this spectacular resource on mushrooms in the genus Laccaria. Complete with a lengthy scientific introduction, the site contains a colorful, photo-illustrated species identification section (20+ species), an evolutionary tree for the genus, a pictorial key to aid in identification, an additional key for identifying Laccaria in Costa Rica, documentation of specimens examined, and a substantial Literature Cited section. For researchers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in these mushrooms, this is an excellent, information-rich, yet fully accessible, resource.

Mueller, Gregory M.

225

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation.  

PubMed

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

2014-01-01

226

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

227

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation  

PubMed Central

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste.

2014-01-01

228

Probability of occurrence of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas' disease versus non-Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is highly effective in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) responsible for sudden cardiac death. However, the probability of occurrence of these arrhythmic events in presence of cardiomyopathy remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the probability of nonoccurrence of life-threatening VA in ICD recipients with Chagas' versus non-Chagas' heart disease. Over a mean follow-up of 10.5 months, 53 ICD recipients (mean age = 50.1 years, 48 male) were evaluated. Eleven patients had Chagas' heart disease, 19 had idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 23 had ischemic cardiomyopathy. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias with a cycle length < 315 ms were considered life-threatening. The cumulative probability of nonoccurrence of life-threatening VA was examined by Kaplan-Meyer method and the outcomes were submitted to the log rank test. At 2 years, the cumulative probability of life-threatening VA nonoccurrence was 0 in the Chagas' heart disease group versus 40% up to 55 months of follow-up in the non-Chagas' disease group (P = 0.0097). Among patients with cardiomyopathies of different etiologies, those with Chagas' heart disease had the lowest cumulative probability of nonoccurrence of life-threatening VA, confirming its unfavorable prognosis and the importance of preventive measures against sudden death in this disease. PMID:11139963

Martinelli Filho, M; De Siqueira, S F; Moreira, H; Fagundes, A; Pedrosa, A; Nishioka, S D; Costa, R; Scanavacca, M; D'Avila, A; Sosa, E

2000-11-01

229

Serological Confirmation of Chagas' Disease by a Recombinant and Peptide Antigen Line Immunoassay: INNO-LIA Chagas  

PubMed Central

Although screening for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies is mandatory in most South American countries, current tests are insensitive and have poor specificity. A recently optimized line immunoassay (the INNO-LIA Chagas assay) for the serological confirmation of Chagas' disease was evaluated at a large blood bank in São Paulo, Brazil. Sera from blood donors who reacted in at least one of three serological screening assays (n = 1,604) and who returned for a follow-up were retested, and the donors were interviewed to assess their epidemiological risk. The results obtained by the confirmatory assay evaluated in this study were compared to those obtained by the three different screening assays. Upon consideration of the consensus results obtained by the three different screening assays as a “gold standard,” the INNO-LIA Chagas assay showed a sensitivity of 99.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.3 to 99.9) and a specificity of 98.1% (95% CI, 96.6 to 99.0) for positive (n = 503) and negative (n = 577) sera. The INNO-LIA Chagas assay confirmed the results for significantly larger numbers of positive samples of at-risk individuals independent of the number of positive screening tests (P = 0.017, Mantel-Haenszel test). In conclusion, the INNO-LIA Chagas assay reliably confirmed the presence of antibodies to T. cruzi and can be implemented as a confirmatory assay for Chagas' disease serology.

Saez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Sabino, Ester C.; Salles, Nanci; Chamone, Dalton F.; Hulstaert, Frank; Pottel, Hans; Stoops, Erik; Zrein, Maan

2000-01-01

230

New Drug for Chagas Disease Disappoints in 1st Human Trial  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Drug for Chagas Disease Disappoints in 1st Human ... disappointing results from a trial that tested a new drug as a possible player against Chagas disease, ...

231

Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

Reason, J.

1984-03-01

232

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

233

[Automutilation after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms].  

PubMed

Two young men, 25 and 32 years old, presented with severe automutilation by knife wounds after consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms. The first patient had also used cocaine, cannabis and alcohol, while the second patient had only used the hallucinogenic mushrooms. Both patients were treated symptomatically and survived despite their severe stab wounds. Psilocybin-containing mushrooms are used as mind-altering drugs. These drugs may sometimes induce 'bad trips', a psychotic reaction accompanied by fear, panic, and dangerous behaviour, especially when used in combination with other drugs and alcohol or by psychiatrically unstable patients. During a bad trip, patients may hurt themselves. Because the duration of the psychotic and sympathicomimetic effects of psilocybin after ingestion of mushrooms is short (up to 6 h), and since psilocin itself causes no permanent organ toxicity, the treatment of psilocybin intoxication is only symptomatic. The diagnosis ofpsilocybin intoxication is hampered by the lack of routinely available, rapid and sensitive, analytical methods for the quantification ofpsilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin. PMID:18257429

Attema-de Jonge, M E; Portier, C B; Franssen, E J F

2007-12-29

234

Suspected myotoxicity of edible wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

Recently, the widely consumed yellow tricholoma Tricholoma flavovirens caused delayed rhabdomyolysis and fatalities in humans in France and Poland and triggered elevated plasma creatine kinase activities in mice. Furthermore, the highly appreciated king boletus (Boletus edulis) caused similar responses in experimental mice. Because of this, it was hypothesized that other fungi could also contain chemical compounds that would cause similar myotoxic effects. To test the suspected myotoxicity of other wild mushrooms consumed by tradition, 86 mice were exposed for 5 days to 3, 6, or 9 g/kg body mass/day of edible mushrooms representing diverse genera (Russula spp, Cantharellus cibarius, Albatrellus ovinus, and Leccinium versipelle) mixed with regular laboratory rodent diet. The plasma creatine kinase activity increased with all studied mushroom species at 9 g/kg body mass/day, whereas the histologic appearance of muscle and liver samples was unaffected. The results support the hypothesis that the previously observed toxic effects are not specific to T. flavovirens, but probably represent an unspecific response requiring individual sensitivity and a significant amount of ingested mushroom to manifest itself. PMID:16446499

Nieminen, Petteri; Kirsi, Markku; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

2006-02-01

235

Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) in Mexico: an update.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellated organism that is transmitted mainly to humans through the infected feces of triatomine kissing bugs (vector transmission in endemic areas) or by transfusion of infected blood, donations of infected organ, or transmission from an infected mother to her child at birth. Chagas disease was first described in 1909 by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, and due to the parasite's distribution throughout North, Central and South America, the disease is commonly known as American trypanosomiasis. However, this disease is now present in non-endemic countries such as Canada, the United States of America, and several countries in Europe (principally Spain). Moreover, Chagas disease was recently designated by the World Health Organization as one of the main neglected tropical diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize the research efforts recently described in studies conducted in Mexico on Chagas disease. In this country, there are no existing vector control programs. In addition, there is no consensus on the diagnostic methods for acute and chronic Chagas disease in maternity wards and blood banks, and trypanocidal therapy is not administered to chronic patients. The actual prevalence of the disease is unknown because no official reporting of cases is performed. Therefore, the number of people infected by different routes of transmission (vector, congenital, blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or oral) is unknown. We believe that by promoting education about Chagas disease in schools starting at the basic elementary level and including reinforcement at higher education levels will ensure that the Mexican population would be aware of this health problem and that the control measures adopted will have more acceptance and success. We hope that this review sensitizes the relevant authorities and that the appropriate measures to reduce the risk of infection by T. cruzi are undertaken to provide the Mexican people a better quality of life. PMID:23643518

Carabarin-Lima, Alejandro; González-Vázquez, María Cristina; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Baylón-Pacheco, Lidia; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Reyes-López, Pedro Antonio; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

2013-08-01

236

Chagas disease in Texas: Recognizing the significance and implications of evidence in the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease is endemic and is recognized as a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Despite the parallels between socio-economic and environmental conditions in Texas and much of Latin America, Chagas disease is not a notifiable human disease in Texas. Based on extensive review of related literature, this paper seeks to recognize the evidence that Chagas Disease is

Elaine Jennifer Hanford; F. Benjamin Zhan; Yongmei Lu; Alberto Giordano

2007-01-01

237

Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland.

Myers, Catherine; Diana, Alessandro; Marti, Hans-Peter; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, Francois; Loutan, Louis; Gervaix, Alain

2009-01-01

238

Congenital transmission of Chagas disease in Latin American immigrants in Switzerland.  

PubMed

International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland. PMID:19331743

Jackson, Yves; Myers, Catherine; Diana, Alessandro; Marti, Hans Peter; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, François; Loutan, Louis; Gervaix, Alain

2009-04-01

239

Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control  

PubMed Central

Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

Sasagawa, Emi; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; de Ramirez, Marta Alicia Hernandez; Chevez, Jose Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

2014-01-01

240

Effects of bioglycans isolated from birch fungi inonotus obliquus on electric activity of venous sinus cells in frog heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioglycans isolated from chaga in a concentration of 0.0001% reduced frequency of action potential in venous sinus cells of\\u000a frog heart during the first 15–30 min of exposure, then this parameter increased by 10% per hour over 3.5 h, and was 41±3\\u000a min?1 from the 4th to the 20th hour of incubation. The frequency of action potentials in heart strips

V. A. Golovko

1999-01-01

241

[Guidelines for chagas disease: Part IV. Chagas disease in immune compromised patients].  

PubMed

A summary of different kind of immune suppressed hosts and the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this group of patients is presented. Then, most relevant aspects of immune compromised host-parasite interaction are analyzed such as the moment of acquiring the infection, immune compromise level, mechanisms of acquisition the infection and geographic region. Clinical features of primary infection and reactivation of infection in chronic Chagasic patients are described making special emphasis in solid organ transplant and BMT. Chagas disease in AIDS patients is discussed including its treatment, follow up, monitoring the immune compromise level and prophylaxis. PMID:18769777

Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C Del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

2008-08-01

242

Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.  

PubMed

White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

2013-04-01

243

Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from I. obliquus mycelia cultivated in a 300-l pilot fermenter, followed by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Purification was achieved by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical analysis revealed that the purified endo-polysaccharide is an alpha-linked fucoglucomannan with a molecular weight of approximately 1,000 kDa. The anti-cancer activities of the endo-polysaccharide against various types of tumor cells were determined. No direct toxicity against either cancer or normal cells was observed. Intraperitoneal administration of the endo-polysaccharide significantly prolonged the survival rate of B16F10-implanted mice, resulting in a 4.07-fold increase in the survival rate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. After 60 days of feeding, approximately 67% of the initial number of mice survived with no tumor incidence based on macroscopic examination. These results indicate that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating. PMID:16458328

Kim, Yong Ook; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Moon, Seong Hoon; Shin, Chul Soo

2006-05-30

244

Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%. PMID:20467262

Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

2010-04-01

245

Nitric oxide mediates the fungal-elicitor-enhanced biosynthesis of antioxidant polyphenols in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

A fungal elicitor prepared from the cell debris of the plant-pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria alternata induces multiple responses by Inonotus obliquus cells, including an increase in generation of nitric oxide (NO), activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and accumulation of total mycelial phenolic compounds (TMP), but does not trigger production of oxylipins or jasmonic acid (JA). The role of NO in TMP production was investigated via the effects of the NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). TMP profiles were assayed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. Pretreatment of I. obliquus mycelia with cPITO or AG suppressed not only elicitor-enhanced NO generation and PAL activity, but also the elicitor-induced increase in TMP production. This TMP reduction by either a NO scavenger or a NOS inhibitor was reversed by exogenous addition of either a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, or JA separately. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of TMP profiles showed that the induced TMP were hispidin analogues including inoscavins, phelligridins, davallialactone and methyldavallialactone, which possess high antioxidant activities. Thus, NO mediates an elicitor-induced increase in production of antioxidant polyphenols in I. obliquus via a signalling pathway independent of oxylipins or JA, a mechanism which differs from those in some higher plants. PMID:19556296

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Zhang, Yanxia; Pan, Shenyuan; Zhang, Meimei; Jiang, Hong

2009-10-01

246

Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially ?-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties. PMID:23735479

Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

2013-01-01

247

Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol and water crude extracts from Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) and straw mushroom (Volvariella volvacea) were investigated for their antioxidant capacity in three different assays, namely, the ?-carotene and linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of hemolysis of rat erythrocyte induced by peroxyl radicals. Among the four mushroom extracts, the water extract from L. edodes showed

L. M. Cheung; Peter C. K. Cheung; Vincent E. C. Ooi

2003-01-01

248

Behavioural biology of Chagas disease vectors  

PubMed Central

Many arthropod species have adopted vertebrate blood as their main food source. Blood is rich in nutrients and, except for the presence of parasites, sterile. However, this food source is not freely available, nor is obtaining it devoid of risk. It circulates inside vessels hidden underneath the skin of mobile hosts that are able to defend themselves and even predate the insects that try to feed on them. Thus, the haematophagous lifestyle is associated with major morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations that have accumulated throughout the evolutionary history of the various lineages of blood-sucking arthropods. These adaptations have significant consequences for the evolution of parasites as well as for the epidemiology of vector-transmitted diseases. In this review article, we analyse various aspects of the behaviour of triatomine bugs to illustrate how each behavioural trait represents a particular adaptation to their close association with their hosts, which may easily turn into predators. Our aim is to offer to the reader an up-to-date integrative perspective on the behaviour of Chagas disease vectors and to propose new research avenues to encourage both young and experienced colleagues to explore this aspect of triatomine biology.

Lazzari, Claudio Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horacio; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

2013-01-01

249

VNI cures acute and chronic experimental Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a deadly infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Afflicting approximately 8 million people in Latin America, Chagas disease is now becoming a serious global health problem proliferating beyond the traditional geographical borders, mainly because of human and vector migration. Because the disease is endemic in low-resource areas, industrial drug development has been lethargic. The chronic form remains incurable, there are no vaccines, and 2 existing drugs for the acute form are toxic and have low efficacy. Here we report the efficacy of a small molecule, VNI, including evidence of its effectiveness against chronic Chagas disease. VNI is a potent experimental inhibitor of T. cruzi sterol 14?-demethylase. Nontoxic and highly selective, VNI displays promising pharmacokinetics and administered orally to mice at 25 mg/kg for 30 days cures, with 100% cure rate and 100% survival, the acute and chronic T. cruzi infection. PMID:23372180

Villalta, Fernando; Dobish, Mark C; Nde, Pius N; Kleshchenko, Yulia Y; Hargrove, Tatiana Y; Johnson, Candice A; Waterman, Michael R; Johnston, Jeffrey N; Lepesheva, Galina I

2013-08-01

250

Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?  

PubMed

Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

2013-01-01

251

Fine Structure of Sticky Sets in Mushroom Billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider sticky sets in the phase space of circular mushroom billiards, which are referred to in physics literature as MUPOs (marginally unstable periodic orbits). An exact description of the set of parameters (widths of the mushrooms' stems) without or with a finite set of MUPOs is given. It is shown that there exist a continuum of MUPOless parameters. We also estimate from above a number of MUPOs which exist for widths of the mushroom's stem which correspond to rational numbers and present a simple approach for finding mushroom billiards without MUPOs.

Bunimovich, Leonid A.

2013-12-01

252

Neuronal Health - Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?  

PubMed Central

Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.

Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

2013-01-01

253

The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare.

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martinez, Monica Florez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

2008-01-01

254

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning.

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

255

[Acute hepatic failure after ingestion of mushrooms].  

PubMed

This report is about a married couple who were admitted to hospital suffering from gastrointestinal complaints after eating mushrooms. With the suspicion of poisoning with Amanita phalloides treatment started with elimination of the toxins, symptomatic therapy and specific therapy with silibinin. After quantitative determination of the Amanita toxins the patients were immediately transferred to a university hospital.Poisoning by the death cap mushroom is responsible for acute hepatic and often also renal failure and is accompanied by a high mortality. Clinical symptoms follow a three-phase course with gastrointestinal complaints, an asymptomatic interval and finally the hepatorenal phase. Even in suspected cases of intoxication, treatment should be started by antidote therapy with silibinin. PMID:22527661

Oeckinghaus, R; Cuneo, A; Brockmeier, J; Oeckinghaus, G S; Drewek-Platena, S; Hochreuther, St; Götz, J; Tebbe, U

2012-05-01

256

Kinetics of ergothioneine inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase.  

PubMed

The native amino acid ergothioneine, a thiourea derivative of histidine, inhibits mushroom tyrosinase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC(50) value of 1.025 mg/ml (4.47 mM). By contrast, histidine exhibited no inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase activity. We characterized ergothioneine as a noncompetitive tyrosinase inhibitor using a Lineweaver-Burk plot of experimental kinetic data. The IC(50) value for ergothioneine scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl was 6.110?±?0.305 mg/ml, much higher than the IC(50) for inhibition of tyrosinase activity which indicating ergothioneine on tyrosinase shows a weak correlation to its antioxidative activity. The results demonstrated that ergothioneine has a potent inhibition effect on tyrosinase enzyme activity, resulting from the presence of the sulfur substituted imidazole ring in ergothioneine. PMID:22068690

Liao, Wayne C; Wu, Wen Hong; Tsai, Pei-Chuan; Wang, Hui-Feng; Liu, Yi-Hsin; Chan, Chin-Feng

2012-01-01

257

Mercury in Certain Mushroom Species in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many wild-grown higher fungi (mushrooms, macromycetes) often are able to pick-up from soil substrate uncontaminated anthropogenically\\u000a and bioconcentrate in their fruit bodies various metallic elements and\\/or metalloids to strikingly great concentration. This\\u000a feature is known among mycorrhizal fungi and humus decomposers. Even, some species are able to hyperaccumulate certain elements.\\u000a The examples of hyperacumulating species are: Fly Agaric (Amanita muscaria)

Jerzy Falandysz

258

Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 ?g/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 ?g/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 ?g/mL) and ?-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 ?g/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases.

Kosanic, Marijana; Rankovic, Branislav; Dasic, Marko

2012-01-01

259

Oyster mushroom reduced blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects.  

PubMed

It has been postulated that mushroom has beneficial effect of lowering blood glucose and cholesterol in diabetic subjects. The literature so far searched and found that there was no published data in this regard. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of reducing blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in diabetic patients. Additionally, this study addressed whether there was any hepatic and renal toxicity of mushroom. This clinical investigation was conducted in BIRDEM hospital from July 2005 to January 2006. Eighty-nine subjects were recruited. Baseline investigations included height, weight, blood pressure (SBP, DBP), plasma glucose for fasting (FPG) and 2-h after-breakfast (2hPG), total cholesterol (T-chol), triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c). Twenty- four days' study constitutes 7-days mushroom, 7-days no mushroom and then 7-days mushroom. Investigations were done at the start and each after every 7-days. Thirty subjects (M / F = 17 / 13) followed to ensure full compliance with the designed protocol for 24 days. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 46.3 (10) years. Mushroom significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, p<0.01; DBP, p<0.05). It also lowered both plasma glucose significantly (FPG & 2-hPG, p<0.001). Mushroom also lowered total cholesterol and TG significantly; whereas, there was no significant change in weight and HDL-c. When mushroom was withdrawn, there were significant increases of DBP, FPG, 2hPG, T-cholesterol and TG, whereas, no significant change was observed in weight, SBP and HDL-c. Restarting mushroom there was again significant reduction of blood glucose, TG and cholesterol. We conclude that mushroom significantly reduced blood glucose, blood pressure, TG and cholesterol of diabetic subjects without any deleterious effect on liver and kidney. The effect of mushroom may be investigated in a large sample for a longer duration to evaluate its efficacy and toxicity. PMID:17344789

Khatun, K; Mahtab, H; Khanam, P A; Sayeed, M A; Khan, K A

2007-01-01

260

Neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration in Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction plays a significant role in the development of chronic Chagas disease (CD). Destruction of cardiac parasympathetic ganglia can underlie arrhythmia and heart failure, while lesions of enteric neurons in the intestinal plexuses are a direct cause of aperistalsis and megasyndromes. Neuropathology is generated by acute infection when the parasite, though not directly damaging to neuronal cells, elicits immune reactions that can become cytotoxic, inducing oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. Anti-neuronal autoimmunity may further contribute to neuropathology. Much less clear is the mechanism of subsequent neuronal regeneration in patients that survive acute infection. Morphological and functional recovery of the peripheral neurons in these patients correlates with the absence of CD clinical symptoms, while persistent neuronal deficiency is observed for the symptomatic group. The discovery that Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase can moonlight as a parasite-derived neurotrophic factor (PDNF) suggests that the parasite might influence the balance between neuronal degeneration and regeneration. PDNF functionally mimics mammalian neurotrophic factors in that it binds and activates neurotrophin Trk tyrosine kinase receptors, a mechanism which prevents neurodegeneration. PDNF binding to Trk receptors triggers PI3K/Akt/GSK-3? and MAPK/Erk/CREB signalling cascades which in neurons translates into resistance to oxidative and nutritional stress, and inhibition of apoptosis, whereas in the cytoplasm of infected cells, PDNF represents a substrate-activator of the host Akt kinase, enhancing host-cell survival until completion of the intracellular cycle of the parasite. Such dual activity of PDNF provides sustained activation of survival mechanisms which, while prolonging parasite persistence in host tissues, can underlie distinct outcomes of CD. PMID:21884893

Chuenkova, Marina V; Pereiraperrin, Mercio

2011-01-01

261

Chagas disease and anticardiolipin antibodies in older adults.  

PubMed

Infectious agents have been implicated in the induction of antiphospholipid antibodies and the development of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of anticardiolipin antibodies with Chagas' disease antibodies. A total of 45 patients, who were positive for Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) antibodies and had elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies, were investigated in a case-control study. Twenty-four of the patients were male and 21 female with ages ranging from 60 to 81 years and with a mean age of 68.3 years. Twenty-three female and 11 male individuals from a senior citizen support group who were apparently healthy formed a control group. Their ages varied from 62 to 80 years with a mean of 68 years. The measurement of anticardiolipin antibodies was performed by means of enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative measurement of IgG and IgM antibodies against cardiolipins in serum and evaluation of Chagas' disease was confirmed by the Machado Guerreiro test. Statistical analysis was made using Fisher's exact test with a confidence interval of 95% and a p-value <0.05. Elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies were detected in 48.8% of the patients and in 26.4% of the control group giving a p-value <0.038 using the Fisher's exact test. Thus, an association between Chagas' disease antibodies and anticardiolipin antibodies was evidenced in this series of patients. PMID:15979738

Pereira de Godoy, Maria Regina; Cação, João Castilho; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Brandão, Antonio Carlos; Silva Rossi Souza, Dorotéia

2005-01-01

262

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND CYTOTOXICITY OF SOME TANZANIAN WILD MUSHROOMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sterol ergosterol and ergosta-4,22-diene-3!,7?-diol, together with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde were isolated from the mushroom species Polyporus molluscensis, Cantharellus isabelinus, C. symoensii and a Podaxis species. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic data. The ethanol extracts of mushroom samples of Agaricus sp. and Termitomyces letestui also showed cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp larvae.

V Nyigo; LD Baraza; MHH Nkunya; SJM Mdachi; CC Joseph; A Waziri

2005-01-01

263

Lipid Components of a Malaysian Edible Mushroom, Termitomyces Heimii Natarajan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termitomyces heimii is highly priced due to its unique taste unlike many other cultivated mushrooms. Termitomyces heimii, an edible mushroom, has high nutritive value. It is a fungus that usually lives in termite hills. There are limited reports on the chemical investigations of Termitomyces heimii. This may be due to difficulty in obtaining wild fruit bodies, as these are seasonal

Sri Nurestri Abd Malek; Gowri Kanagasabapathy; Vikineswary Sabaratnam; Noorlidah Abdullah; Hashim Yaacob

2011-01-01

264

Lipid Components of a Malaysian Edible Mushroom, Termitomyces heimii Natarajan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Termitomyces heimii is highly priced due to its unique taste unlike many other cultivated mushrooms. Termitomyces heimii, an edible mushroom, has high nutritive value. It is a fungus that usually lives in termite hills. There are limited reports on the chemical investigations of Termitomyces heimii. This may be due to difficulty in obtaining wild fruit bodies, as these are seasonal

Sri Nurestri Abd Malek; Gowri Kanagasabapathy; Vikineswary Sabaratnam; Noorlidah Abdullah; Hashim Yaacob

2012-01-01

265

Conversion of conifer wastes into edible and medicinal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom-producing white-rot fungi can be used to convert woodwaste into gour- met and medicinal mushrooms. White-rot fungi do not always readily colonize on coni- fer wood because of its extractives content. This study evaluated the resinous extractive content of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda), ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa ), and an un- known species of southern yellow pine before

Suki C. Croan

266

Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on various components of nutritional interest, such as water, protein, total amino acids, ash and minerals, in mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius and Lentinula edodes) was carried out. Mushrooms were cultivated on the same compost (wheat straw added with 15% of sugar beet) and analysed immediately after harvest to avoid any interfering

Pamela Manzi; Loretta Gambelli; Stefania Marconi; Vittorio Vivanti; Laura Pizzoferrato

1999-01-01

267

Delayed Release Nutrient Supplement for Mushroom Culture 1  

PubMed Central

The disadvantages associated with the supplementation of noncomposted nutrients to mushroom compost at spawning were largely overcome by encapsulating microdroplets of vegetable oil within a protein coat that was denatured with formaldehyde. Increases in mushroom yield of 60% were obtained. Delayed nutrient release was indicated by prolonged stimulation of yields beyond the first few flushes.

Carroll, A. D.; Schisler, L. C.

1976-01-01

268

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, José Rodrigues

2013-12-01

269

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed Central

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man.

Coura, Jose Rodrigues

2013-01-01

270

Pyrethroid-impregnated curtains for Chagas' disease control in Venezuela.  

PubMed

The use of insecticide treated materials for the control of Chagas' disease transmission is potentially a cost-effective and sustainable option where vectors are sylvatic. A study was undertaken in two rural Chagas' disease endemic communities (96 households) of Trujillo State, Venezuela. After a baseline study (including a short questionnaire survey, assessment of housing conditions, vector behaviour and preferences in vector protection), 37 households were chosen at random for protection by impregnated or non-impregnated curtains. During the 30-day entomological study vector collection of triatomine bugs were conducted in the early morning. The protective efficacy of curtains was determined by the number of vectors found dead or alive in control and experimental houses. It was found that house infestation of Chagas' disease vectors was high (60% of houses) in spite of good-quality houses due to a re-housing programme. The vectors were sylvatic (mainly Rhodnius robustus) and entered the houses at night. More than half the population (52%) preferred curtains to bednets for Chagas' disease protection. Users of pyrethroid-impregnated curtains were well protected as no living triatomines were found in bedrooms of houses with impregnated curtains compared to houses with non-impregnated curtains where an average of 4/7 vectors were found alive in bedrooms. In houses with impregnated curtains 21/30 triatomines died within 72 h; the triatomines which survived were found exclusively in rooms where no impregnated curtains had been placed. In houses with non-impregnated curtains 20% (6/30) of vectors died, probably due to rough handling. It is concluded that pyrethroid-impregnated curtains represent an important option for the reduction or even elimination of man-vector contact and thus of Chagas' disease transmission in areas where species of small triatomine bugs such as Rhodnius prolixus and R. robustus are the main vectors. PMID:12943974

Herber, Oliver; Kroeger, Axel

2003-09-01

271

Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery. A systemic review.  

PubMed

Although Chagas disease was only discovered in 1909, it began millions of years ago as an enzootic disease among wild animals. Its transmission to man began accidentally as an anthropozoonosis when mankind invaded wild ecotopes. Endemic Chagas disease became established as a zoonosis over the last 200-300 years through deforestation for agriculture and livestock rearing and adaptation of triatomines to dwellings and to humans and domestic animals as food sources. When T. cruzi is transmitted to man, it invades the bloodstream and lymphatic system and lodges in muscle and heart tissue, the digestive system and phagocytic cells. Through this, it causes inflammatory lesions and an immune response, particularly mediated by CD4(+), CD8(+), IL2 and IL4, with cell and neuron destruction and fibrosis. These processes lead to blockage of the heart's conductive system, arrhythmias, heart failure, aperistalsis and dilatation of hollow viscera, especially the esophagus and colons. Chagas disease is characterized by an acute phase with or without symptoms, with (or more often without) T. cruzi penetration signs (inoculation chagoma or Romaña's sign), fever, adenomegaly, hepatosplenomegaly and patent parasitemia; and a chronic phase: indeterminate (asymptomatic, with normal electrocardiogram and heart, esophagus and colon X-rays) or cardiac, digestive or cardiac/digestive forms. There is great regional variation in the morbidity caused by Chagas disease: severe cardiac or digestive forms may occur in 10-50%, and indeterminate forms in the remaining, asymptomatic cases. The epidemiological and control characteristics of Chagas disease vary according to each country's ecological conditions and health policies. PMID:20382097

Coura, José Rodrigues; Borges-Pereira, José

2010-01-01

272

Accumulation of elements by edible mushroom species: part I. Problem of trace element toxicity in mushrooms.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn accumulation in six edible mushroom species and to assess their risk and benefits to human consumers. Mushrooms (Leccinium aurantiacum, Xerocomus badius, Lactarius deliciosus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Suillus luteus) were collected from selected regions of Poland during 1990-2010. The highest diversity between studied mushroom species was observed in terms of Cu and Zn accumulation. Significant differences in the accumulation efficiency were found among the six mushroom species examined. The most efficient were Boletus edulis (Cd and Hg), Suillus luteus (Cu and Sr), and Lactarius deliciosus (Pb and Zn). In the case of Co and Ni, the most effective were Xerocomus badius and Leccinium aurantiacum, respectively. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) values of Cd, Cu, Hg, Sr and Zn were > 1 for all species in this study while Co, Ni and Pb usually were bioexcluded (BCF < 1). Additionally, based on the calculated daily intake rates of trace elements determined it can be concluded that occasional consumption of fruiting bodies of L. aurantiacum, X. badius, L. deliciosus, B. edulis, C. cibarius and S. luteus collected in Poland is safe and this finding largely agrees with results from recent studies by other authors. PMID:23030443

Mleczek, Miros?aw; Siwulski, Marek; Stuper-Szablewska, Kinga; Rissmann, Iwona; Sobieralski, Krzysztof; Goli?ski, Piotr

2013-01-01

273

Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of select mushroom varieties.  

PubMed

Select mushrooms were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles either raw or cooked and at different stages of maturity. White button mushrooms (Agaricus biporus) contained high concentrations of ash (12.5 and 11.9% for immature and mature mushrooms, respectively). Starch and total dietary fiber (TDF) concentrations were higher in maitake (Grifola frondosa) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. Crude protein (CP) and acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) were highest in crimini (Agaricus bisporus) and white button and maitake mushrooms, respectively. Chitin concentrations were highest in portabella (Agaricus bisporus) and enoki (Flammulina velutipes) mushrooms (8.0 and 7.7%, respectively). Oligosaccharides were found in low concentrations in some mushrooms. CP and TDF accounted for 86.4 and 49.3% of mushroom organic matter. Cooking increased starch, TDF, and AHF but decreased CP and chitin concentrations. The chitin concentration increased with mushroom maturity. These results detail the complete carbohydrate profile of several important mushroom varieties. PMID:15713030

Dikeman, Cheryl L; Bauer, Laura L; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Fahey, George C

2005-02-23

274

Chagas Disease, Migration and Community Settlement Patterns in Arequipa, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent seasonal migration by residents of peri-urban shantytowns provides a path of entry of vectors into these communities. Changing demographic dynamics of traditional towns are also leading to favorable conditions for Chagas disease transmission. Control programs must include surveillance for infestation in communities assumed to be free of vectors.

Gilman, Robert H.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

2009-01-01

275

Harm potential of magic mushroom use: a review.  

PubMed

In 2007, the Minister of Health of the Netherlands requested the CAM (Coordination point Assessment and Monitoring new drugs) to assess the overall risk of magic mushrooms. The present paper is an updated redraft of the review, written to support the assessment by CAM experts. It summarizes the literature on physical or psychological dependence, acute and chronic toxicity, risk for public health and criminal aspects related to the consumption of magic mushrooms. In the Netherlands, the prevalence of magic mushroom use was declining since 2000 (last year prevalence of 6.3% in 2000 to 2.9% in 2005), and further declined after possession and use became illegal in December 2008. The CAM concluded that the physical and psychological dependence potential of magic mushrooms was low, that acute toxicity was moderate, chronic toxicity low and public health and criminal aspects negligible. The combined use of mushrooms and alcohol and the quality of the setting in which magic mushrooms are used deserve, however, attention. In conclusion, the use of magic mushrooms is relatively safe as only few and relatively mild adverse effects have been reported. The low prevalent but unpredictable provocation of panic attacks and flash-backs remain, however, a point of concern. PMID:21256914

van Amsterdam, Jan; Opperhuizen, Antoon; van den Brink, Wim

2011-04-01

276

Dissecting slander and crying for justice: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.  

PubMed

Chagas disease was discovered by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Chagas worked at Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the bases of experimental medicine were settled in Brazil, and that had no connection with the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. Chagas had several enemies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute mainly because of his election to Head of Service in 1910, and for the position of Oswaldo Cruz Directorship in 1917. Furthermore, Chagas gained enemies at Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, which did not like to see the economical political autonomy of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. This allowed the Institute not only to perform top experimental research, but also to take the leadership of research in the country. Chagas was nominated to the Nobel Prize of 1921 in December, 1920. None was awarded the Nobel Prize in that year. He seems to have been evaluated by the Noble Committee of Karolinska Institute from March to May of 1921. At that time, his enemies were denying his discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi, a key point in Chagas' nomination by Karolinska Institute, and giving no epidemiological importance for the disease. By the same way, the obligation of small pox vaccination was tarnishing his public image. Having taken into account the epidemiologic importance of Chagas disease, the strong historical mistake in the process of Chagas evaluation, and the inequity behind all these facts, we insist on a posthumous Nobel Prize for the man who made the most complete medical-scientist discovery of all time. PMID:23410487

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

2013-10-01

277

Ethanol extract of Inonotus obliquus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes. Extracts and fractions of this fungus have been known to have biological activities, including antimutagenic, anticancer, antioxidative, and immunostimulating effects. Recently, there have been reports that the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the methanol extract of I. obliquus may be due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via the down-regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding activity. However, the effects of I. obliquus on Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation of inflammatory mediator production have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a 70% ethanol extract of I. obliquus (IOE70) showed antioxidative effects. We also tested the ability of the I. obliquus extract to inhibit the inflammatory cascades in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The NO inhibition of IOE70 was better than that of other ethanol extracts from I. obliquus. To investigate the mechanism by which IOE 70 inhibits NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression, we examined the activations of IkappaBalpha, Akt, and c-Jun NH(2) -terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-activated macrophages. IOE70 markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, Akt, and MAPKs in dose-dependent manners in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, these experiments demonstrated that IOE70 inhibition of LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein is mediated by Akt and JNK. Based on our findings, the most likely mechanism that can account for this biological effect of IOE70 involves the inhibition of NF-kappaB through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/IkappaB pathway and the inhibition of JNK activation. Thus, IOE70 might have useful clinical applications in the management of inflammatory diseases and may also be useful as a medicinal food. PMID:17472471

Kim, Ho-Gyoung; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Kim, Chun-Hoi; Shrestha, Bhushan; Chang, Woo-Chul; Lim, So-Yeon; Lee, Won-Ho; Han, Sang-Guk; Lee, Je-O; Lim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Geun-Young; Choi, Sunga; Song, Won O; Sung, Jae-Mo; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woong

2007-03-01

278

A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris.  

PubMed

A mushroom lectin has been purified from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris, which is one of the most popular mushrooms in eastern Asia used as a nutraceutical and in traditional Chinese medicine. This lectin, designated CML, exhibited hemagglutination activity in mouse and rat erythrocytes, but not in human ABO erythrocytes. SDS-PAGE of CML revealed a single band with a molecular mass of 31.0 kDa under both nonreducing and reducing conditions that was stained by silver nitrate, and a 31.4 kDa peak in a Superdex-200 HR gel-filtration column. The hemagglutination activity was inhibited by sialoglycoproteins, but not in by mono- or disaccharides, asialoglycoproteins, or de-O-acetylated glycoprotein. The activity was maximal at pH 6.0-9.1 and at temperatures below 50 degrees C. Circular dichroism spectrum analysis revealed that CML comprises 27% alpha-helix, 12% beta-sheets, 29% beta-turns, and 32% random coils. Its binding specificity and secondary structure are similar to those of a fungal lectin from Arthrobotrys oligospora. However, the N-terminal amino acid sequence of CML differs greatly from those of other lectins. CML exhibits mitogenic activity against mouse splenocytes. PMID:17306462

Jung, Eui Cha; Kim, Ki Don; Bae, Chan Hyung; Kim, Ju Cheol; Kim, Dae Kyong; Kim, Ha Hyung

2007-05-01

279

Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.  

PubMed

Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Amatoxins, on the other hand, are very toxic and they primarily consist of alpha-amanitin (AA), beta-amanitin (BA) and gamma-amanitin (GA). Toxin levels can vary among various species, even among varieties of the same species, of Amanita mushroom family. Revealing the differences between the toxin compositions of the Amanita species that grow in our region may contribute to the clinics of poisonings. Our study aims at showing in detail the toxin levels in various parts of Amanita verna mushroom. A. verna mushrooms needed for toxin analysis were collected from Kozak Plateau near Ayvalik county of Bal?kesir, Turkey in April 2013. The mushrooms were divided into their parts as pileus, gills, stripe and volva. Following the procedures required before the analysis, the AA, BA, GA, PHN and PCN levels were measured using the RP-HPLC method. While the lowest level of amatoxin was in the volva of the mushroom, the highest was measured in the gills. This was followed by pileus and stripe where the levels were close to each other. Similarly, the highest level of phallotoxin was measured in the gills. Gamma toxin and phalloidin were at lower amounts than the other toxins. A. verna is frequently confused with edible mushrooms with white caps due to its macroscopic similarity. If just one of them is eaten by mistake by an adult person with no mushroom experience, it can easily poison them. The amount of amatoxin is more as compared to Amanita phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba. Particularly, the AA and BA levels are approximately three times higher, whereas GA levels are lower. Similarly, the level of PCN is approximately four times higher as compared to A. phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba; by contrast, the level of PNH is about a half of theirs. In summary, it can be said that A. verna is a more toxic mushroom than A. phalloides and has a higher rate of mortality. With our study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations and distribution in A. verna mushrooms were shown in detail for the first time and it would be useful to carry out more similar studies with other members of Amanita family growing in various parts of the world. PMID:24911374

Yilmaz, Ismail; Kaya, Ertugrul; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Bayram, Recep; Surmen, Mustafa Gani; Colakoglu, Serdar

2014-09-01

280

Current situation and perspectives regarding human Chagas disease in midwestern of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.  

PubMed

Recognising the importance of Chagas disease in Brazil, Bambuí set up epidemiological surveillance for Chagas disease in 1974 and was the first municipality to do so. To ascertain the current epidemiology of Chagas disease in this municipality, 1.782 blood samples from the general population were analysed; 7.7% of samples were found to be seropositive for Chagas disease. A strong positive correlation between increasing age and Chagas disease was evident in both genders, with the highest prevalence in individuals aged over 60 years. Clinically, the cardiodigestive form of Chagas disease was the most common in these samples. These data confirm the interruption of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission, in parallel with a still important residual morbidity of Chagas disease in the county, thus supporting political decisions that will prioritise epidemiological surveillance and medical treatment of Chagas disease in the coming years. PMID:24831551

Matos, Christiane Santos; Santos Júnior, José Eloy Dos; Medeiros, Fernanda Alvarenga Cardoso; Furtado, Eliana; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

2014-06-01

281

NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited biosynthesis of davallialactone and phelligridins and other hispidin analogs. Continuous darkness enhanced the formation of phelligridins, davallialactone and inoscavins. Phelligridins and davallialactone also occurred in the mycelia grown in blue and red light with levels lower than those found in darkness. In addition, polyphenols synthesized under daylight conditions showed less potential antioxidant activity than those determined with other light regimes. These findings demonstrate that light regulates biosynthesis of polyphenols in I. obliquus and their subsequent antioxidant activities, and (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling is a cost-effective approach for evaluating light effects on fungal metabolisms. PMID:19433352

Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Miao, Kangjie; Jiang, Hong

2009-10-01

282

Current situation of Chagas disease in Central America.  

PubMed

Chagas disease in Central America is known since 1913 when the first human case was reported in El Salvador. The other Central American countries reported their first cases between 1933 and 1967. On October 1997 was launched the Central American Initiative for Chagas Disease Control (IPCA). The objectives of this sub-regional Initiative are: (1) the elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America; (2) the reduction of the domiciliary infestation of Triatoma dimidiata; and (3) the elimination of the transfusion transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Significant advancements being close to the elimination of R. prolixus in Central America and the control of the transfusion transmission has been a transcendent achievement for the sub-region. The main challenges that the IPCA will have in the close future are: developing effective strategies for control and surveillance of T. dimidiata; and surveillance of other emerging triatominae species like R. pallescens, T. nitida, and T. ryckmani. PMID:17713679

Ponce, Carlos

2007-10-30

283

Therapy of Chagas Disease: Implications for Levels of Prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the evidence supporting the use of etiological treatment for Chagas disease that has changed the standard of care for patients with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the last decades. Implications of this evidence on different levels of prevention as well as gaps in current knowledge are also discussed. In this regard, etiological treatment has shown to be beneficial as an intervention for secondary prevention to successfully cure the infection or to delay, reduce, or prevent the progression to disease, and as primary disease prevention by breaking the chain of transmission. Timely diagnosis during initial stages would allow for the prescription of appropriate therapies mainly in the primary health care system thus improving chances for a better quality of life. Based on current evidence, etiological treatment has to be considered as an essential public health strategy useful to reduce disease burden and to eliminate Chagas disease altogether.

Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Colantonio, Lisandro; Segura, Elsa Leonor

2012-01-01

284

Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

Montgomery, Susan P; Starr, Michelle C; Cantey, Paul T; Edwards, Morven S; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-05-01

285

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease.

Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

2014-01-01

286

Update on Chagas disease in Venezuela: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews the status of Chagas disease in Venezuela based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infections both in referred patients with clinical presumptive diagnosis (1988-2002) and in individuals sampled from rural localities representative of the different geographical regions of the country (1995-2002). In the former group from 306 individuals examined, 174 (56.8%) were seropositive to T. cruzi;

Néstor Añez; Gladys Crisante; Agustina Rojas

2004-01-01

287

Changing epidemiology and approaches to therapy for Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impressive progress has been made in reducing the incidence of Chagas disease, or American trypanosomiasis, in many countries\\u000a in which the illness is endemic. This has been achieved through expanded blood screening programs and low-technology vector\\u000a control. Despite the progress made in reducing the number of new cases, the burden of disability and mortality in the endemic\\u000a countries is enormous

Louis V. Kirchhoff

2003-01-01

288

Captopril Ameliorates Myocarditis in Acute Experimental Chagas Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, is commonly prescribed to patients with Chagas heart disease (CHD). There are few human studies and no animal studies on the effects of captopril in CHD. We investigated the effects of captopril on myocarditis and the host immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi in an experimental model of acute CHD. Methods and Results—A\\/J mice infected with

Juan S. Leon; Kegiang Wang; David M. Engman

2010-01-01

289

Six-minute walk test in Chagas cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied systematically, for the first time, the utility of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) in Chagas disease. The walked distance at 6MWT correlated negatively with the increased circulating levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, r=?0.358, p=0.04) and natriuretic peptide type B (BNP, r=?0.349, p=0.04), as well as positively with ejection fraction deterioration (r=0.451, p=0.004), indicating that submaximal functional capacity

Lidiane Sousa; Fernando Antônio Botoni; Raquel R. Britto; Manoel Otávio da Costa Rocha; Antonio Lúcio Teixeira; Mauro Martins Teixeira; Adelina M. Reis; Bráulio Muzzi R. Oliveira; Antonio L. Ribeiro

2008-01-01

290

Recent Developments in Sterol 14-demethylase Inhibitors for Chagas Disease.  

PubMed

The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, causes the most prevalent parasitic infection in the American continent. It gives rise to life-long infection in humans and results in severe cardiomyopathy or other life-threatening manifestations (Chagas disease) in ~30% of those infected. Animal models and clinical studies indicate that etiological treatment of the infection reduces the risk of developing the disease manifestations. Unfortunately, the existing chemotherapeutics have suboptimal antiparasitic activity and cause significant side effects in many patients, thus better anti-trypanosomal drugs are greatly needed. The sterol biosynthesis pathway has received attention as a target for the development of new drugs for Chagas disease. In particular, inhibitors of sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) are shown to be extremely active on Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro and in animal models. Antifungal drugs (i.e. azoles) in clinical use or in clinical studies have been extensively tested preclinically on Trypanosoma cruzi with posaconazole and ravuconazole demonstrating the most promising activity. As a result, posaconazole and a pro-drug of ravuconazole (E1224) are currently being evaluated in Phase II studies for Chagas disease. Additional CYP51 inhibitors that are specifically optimized for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity are in development by academia. These represent an alternative to proprietary antifungal drugs if the latter fall short in clinical trials or are too expensive for widespread clinical use in disease endemic countries. The research over the next few years will help define the role of CYP51 inhibitors, alone or in combination with other drugs, for managing patients with Chagas disease. PMID:23277882

Buckner, Frederick S; Urbina, Julio A

2012-12-01

291

Seronegative conversion after incomplete benznidazole treatment in chronic Chagas disease.  

PubMed

In 12-18% of adult patients, treatment with benznidazole for chronic Chagas disease has to be discontinued because of side-effects. We identified and analysed a cohort of 81 adult patients with three positive tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and serological monitoring following incomplete treatment with benznidazole for a median of 10 days. Twenty percent of these patients (16/81) met the criteria of cure, showing that the optimal schedule of benznidazole administration remains to be determined. PMID:22898619

Alvarez, M G; Vigliano, C; Lococo, B; Petti, M; Bertocchi, G; Viotti, R

2012-10-01

292

Tolerance of Benznidazole in Treatment of Chagas' Disease in Adults ?  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease is an emerging public health problem in areas where the disease is not endemic. Treatment with benznidazole has shown efficacy in the acute stage of the disease, but its efficacy in the chronic stage remains controversial, and unwanted side effects are more frequent and severe in adults than in children. This study describes the profile of side effects of benznidazole in a cohort of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients in a European country.

Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Munoz, Jose; Posada, Elizabeth; Lopez-Chejade, Paulo; Gallego, Montserrat; Ayala, Edgar; del Cacho, Elena; Soy, Dolors; Gascon, Joaquim

2010-01-01

293

Recent developments in sterol 14-demethylase inhibitors for Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

The protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, causes the most prevalent parasitic infection in the American continent. It gives rise to life-long infection in humans and results in severe cardiomyopathy or other life-threatening manifestations (Chagas disease) in ?30% of those infected. Animal models and clinical studies indicate that etiological treatment of the infection reduces the risk of developing the disease manifestations. Unfortunately, the existing chemotherapeutics have suboptimal antiparasitic activity and cause significant side effects in many patients, thus better anti-trypanosomal drugs are greatly needed. The sterol biosynthesis pathway has received attention as a target for the development of new drugs for Chagas disease. In particular, inhibitors of sterol 14-demethylase (CYP51) are shown to be extremely active on T. cruziin vitro and in animal models. Antifungal drugs (i.e. azoles) in clinical use or in clinical studies have been extensively tested preclinically on T. cruzi with posaconazole and ravuconazole demonstrating the most promising activity. As a result, posaconazole and a pro-drug of ravuconazole (E1224) are currently being evaluated in Phase II studies for Chagas disease. Additional CYP51 inhibitors that are specifically optimized for anti-T. cruzi activity are in development by academia. These represent an alternative to proprietary antifungal drugs if the latter fall short in clinical trials or are too expensive for widespread clinical use in disease endemic countries. The research over the next few years will help define the role of CYP51 inhibitors, alone or in combination with other drugs, for managing patients with Chagas disease.

Buckner, Frederick S.; Urbina, Julio A.

2012-01-01

294

Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on the antioxidant defence system and regeneration of pancreatic ?-cells in experimental diabetes in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycaemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth (DMCB) of Inonotus obliquus were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and the possible mechanism of action was also discussed. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, treatment with the ethanol extract from DMCB of I. obliquus (30 and 60 mg kg body weight (b.w.) for 21

Hong-Yu Xu; Jun-En Sun; Zhen-Ming Lu; Xiao-Mei Zhang; Wen-Fang Dou; Zheng-Hong Xu

2010-01-01

295

Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life.

Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Gilberto; Pena-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

2014-01-01

296

Circulating antibodies to peripheral nerve in American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease).  

PubMed Central

An antibody reacting with Schwann sheaths of myelinated somatic and unmyelinated autonomic peripheral nerve was found in sixty-one out of seventy-one chronic, and nine out of ten acute, Chagas' disease sera. Indirect immunofluorescence (IFL) was carried out on rat, mouse and human somatic nerves and rat sympathetic nerves with initial serum dilutions of 1 : 10, and the staining reached a final titre of 1 : 320 in some cases. The antibodies fixed complement and were absorbed out by lyophilized epimastigotes of T. cruzi. Lipid extraction of the tissue sections enhanced the staining of myelinated nerve, whereas unfixed unmyelinated sympathetic nerve was strongly reactive. Central nervous tissue did not display any positive staining on neurons, glial cells or periaxonal sheaths. Furthermore, by using a double-labelled IFL technique, it was possible to show that a rabbit antiserum raised against guinea-pig spinal cord and the chagasic anti-nerve antibodies reacted with different structures in the rat sciatic nerve. These findings suggest that the reactive antigen(s) could be located on Schwann cells. The majority, but not all, of the chagasic individuals with anti-nerve antibodies also showed the sarcolemmal and endothelial staining (EVI) previously described in Chagas' disease. The possible recognition of Schwann cell antigens by circulating antibodies in Chagas' disease could be relevant, since an autonomic denervation has been postulated as a pathogenic mechanism of cardiomyopathy and megaviscera in this condition. Images FIG. 3 FIG. 1 FIG. 2

Khoury, E L; Ritacco, V; Cossio, P M; Laguens, R P; Szarfman, A; Diez, C; Arana, R M

1979-01-01

297

Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century.

Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

2011-01-01

298

Methodological advances in drug discovery for Chagas disease.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Chagas disease is the highest impact human infectious disease in Latin America, and the leading worldwide cause of myocarditis. Despite the availability of several compounds that have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the effects of T. cruzi, these compounds are rarely used due to their variable efficacy, substantial side effects and the lack of methodologies for confirming their effectiveness. Furthermore, the development of more efficacious compounds is challenged by limitations of systems for assessing drug efficacy in vitro and in vivo. AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors review the development of Chagas disease drug discovery methodology, focusing on recent developments in high throughput screening, in vivo testing methods and assessments of efficacy in humans. Particularly, this review documents the significant progress that has taken place over the last 5 years that have paved the way for both target-focused and high-throughput screens of compound libraries. EXPERT OPINION: The tools for in vitro and in vivo screening of anti-T. cruzi compounds have improved dramatically in the last few years and there are now a number of excellent in vivo testing models available; this somewhat alleviates the bottleneck issue of quickly and definitively demonstrating in vivo efficacy in a relevant host animal system. These advances emphasize the potential for additional progress resulting in new treatments for Chagas disease in the coming years. That being said, national and international agencies must improve the coordination of research and development efforts in addition to cultivating the funding sources for the development of these new treatments. PMID:21712965

Bustamante, Juan M; Tarleton, Rick L

2011-06-01

299

Methodological advances in drug discovery for Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chagas disease is the highest impact human infectious disease in Latin America, and the leading worldwide cause of myocarditis. Despite the availability of several compounds that have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the effects of T. cruzi, these compounds are rarely used due to their variable efficacy, substantial side effects and the lack of methodologies for confirming their effectiveness. Furthermore, the development of more efficacious compounds is challenged by limitations of systems for assessing drug efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Areas covered Herein, the authors review the development of Chagas disease drug discovery methodology, focusing on recent developments in high throughput screening, in vivo testing methods and assessments of efficacy in humans. Particularly, this review documents the significant progress that has taken place over the last 5 years that have paved the way for both target-focused and high-throughput screens of compound libraries. Expert opinion The tools for in vitro and in vivo screening of anti-T. cruzi compounds have improved dramatically in the last few years and there are now a number of excellent in vivo testing models available; this somewhat alleviates the bottleneck issue of quickly and definitively demonstrating in vivo efficacy in a relevant host animal system. These advances emphasize the potential for additional progress resulting in new treatments for Chagas disease in the coming years. That being said, national and international agencies must improve the coordination of research and development efforts in addition to cultivating the funding sources for the development of these new treatments.

Bustamante, Juan M.; Tarleton, Rick L.

2011-01-01

300

Protective Human Leucocyte Antigen Haplotype, HLA-DRB1*01B*14, against Chronic Chagas Disease in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChagas disease, caused by the flagellate parasite Trypanosoma cruzi affects 8–10 million people in Latin America. The mechanisms that underlie the development of complications of chronic Chagas disease, characterized primarily by pathology of the heart and digestive system, are not currently understood. To identify possible host genetic factors that may influence the clinical course of Chagas disease, Human Leucocyte Antigen

Florencia del Puerto; Juan Eiki Nishizawa; Mihoko Kikuchi; Yelin Roca; Cinthia Avilas; Alberto Gianella; Javier Lora; Freddy Udalrico Gutierrez Velarde; Sachio Miura; Norihiro Komiya; Koji Maemura; Kenji Hirayama

2012-01-01

301

ETHNOMYCOLOGICAL STUDIES ON WILD MUSHROOMS IN CAMEROON, CENTRAL AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms play important social, economic, and ecological roles in Cameroon. Several species, belonging to the genera Agaricus, Volvariella, Ganoderma, Flammulina, Auricularia, Pleurotus, and Termitomyces, were found to be used as food or in traditional medicine by the indigenous people.

K. YONGABI; M. AGHO; D. MARTÍNEZ-CARRERA

2004-01-01

302

Novel cerebroside, termitomycesphin I, from the mushroom, Termitomyces titanicus.  

PubMed

The novel cerebroside, termitomycesphin I (1), and two known cerebrosides (2 and 3) were isolated from the edible mushroom, Termitomyces titanicus. The structures of 1-3 were determined and identified by interpreting the spectroscopic data. PMID:22785477

Choi, Jae-Hoon; Maeda, Kohei; Hirai, Hirofumi; Harada, Etsuko; Kawade, Mitsuo; Qi, Jianhua; Ojika, Makoto; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

2012-01-01

303

Ecology and Management of Commercially Harvested Chanterelle Mushrooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last two decades, the chanterelle mushroom harvest from Pacific Northwest forests has become a multimillion dollar industry, yet managers, harvesters, and scientists lack a current synthesis of information about chanterelles. We define chantere...

D. Pilz L. Norvell E. Danell R. Molina

2003-01-01

304

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized.

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

305

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

306

Microbial community structure changes during oyster mushroom substrate preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although oyster mushroom (Pleurotus spp.) is a valuable food, cultivated worldwide on an industrial scale, still very little is known about the microbial dynamics\\u000a during oyster mushroom substrate preparation. Therefore, the characterization of the microbial dynamics by chemical and biological\\u000a tools was the objective of this study. During substrate preparation, enzymatic digestibility of the substrate improved by\\u000a 77%, whereas the

Balázs Vajna; Adrienn Nagy; Enik? Sajben; László Manczinger; Nóra Szijártó; Zsófia Kádár; Diána Bordás; Károly Márialigeti

2010-01-01

307

[Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].  

PubMed

Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for children. We discuss possible approaches. PMID:19401986

Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

2009-05-01

308

A ribonuclease from the wild mushroom Boletus griseus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A ribonuclease (RNase) with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and cospecific for poly A and poly U was isolated from fruiting bodies of the mushroom Boletus griseus. Its N-terminal sequence exhibited some similarity to those of RNases from the mushrooms Irpex lacteus and Lentinus edodes. The RNase was adsorbed on diethylaminoethyl-cellulose, Q-Sepharose, and Affi-gel blue gel and was unadsorbed on

Hexiang Wang; T. B. Ng

2006-01-01

309

Comparative study of wild edible mushrooms as sources of antioxidants.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to explore sixteen of the most popular edible species of wild-growing mushrooms as potential sources of antioxidants. Among the mushrooms tested, the highest total polyphenol contents, exceeding 100 mg/100 g fresh mass, were found in five mushrooms: Boletus chrysenteron, B. edulis, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Macrolepiota procera. Antioxidant activity was measured with the FRAP, TEAC, DPPH scavenging ability and ferrous ions chelating ability assays. Results of the study show that wild mushrooms vary according to their antioxidant properties. The highest FRAP potentials, exceeding 1 mmol/100 g, were found in five species ofBoletales: Boletus edulis, B. chrysenteron, Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, and Suillus grevillei. TEAC values were from 1.07 to 4.01 mmol/100 g fresh mass. High TEAC values (>2.3 mmol/100 g) were found in Leccinum scabrum, L. aurantiacum, Macrolepiota procera, Boletus chrysenteron, and B. edulis. The DPPH radical scavenging effectiveness of mushroom extracts, expressed as EC50 values, was in range 2.91-13.86 mg/mL. Scavenging ability was the highest for B. edulis and B. chrysenteron. The metal chelating ability of mushroom extracts expressed as ECso values of chelating ability on ferrous ions were from 8.02 mg/mL in Cantharellus cibarius to 12.10 mg/mL in Suillus luteus. Among the mushrooms tested, Boletus chrysenteron and B. edulis were characterized by high scores of polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity in the FRAP, TEAC, and DPPH assays. These results place these culinary species of wild-growing mushrooms among products with considerable antioxidant potential. PMID:22164763

Witkowska, Anna M; Zujko, Ma?gorzata E; Miro?czuk-Chodakowska, Iwona

2011-01-01

310

Heart Rate Recovery in Asymptomatic Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB) have diverse clinical presentation and prognosis, depending on left ventricular (LV) function. Autonomic disorder can be an early marker of heart involvement. The heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise may identify autonomic dysfunction, with impact on therapeutic strategies. This study was designed to assess the HRR after symptom-limited exercise testing in asymptomatic Chagas disease patients with RBBB without ventricular dysfunction compared to patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease and healthy controls. Methods One hundred and forty-nine subjects divided into 3 groups were included. A control group was comprised of healthy individuals; group 1 included patients in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and group 2 included patients with complete RBBB with or without left anterior hemiblock, and normal ventricular systolic function. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed and heart rate (HR) response to exercise was assessed. HRR was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and 1 min following test termination. Results There were no differences in heart-rate profile during exercise between healthy individuals and patients in indeterminate form, whereas patients with RBBB had more prevalence of chronotropic incompetence, lower exercise capacity and lower HRR compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. A delayed decrease in the HR after exercise was found in 17 patients (15%), 9% in indeterminate form and 24% with RBBB, associated with older age, worse functional capacity, impaired chronotropic response, and ventricular arrhythmias during both exercise and recovery. By multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of a delayed decrease in the HRR were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.21; p?=?0.010) and presence of RBBB (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.05 to 15.01; p?=?0.042). Conclusions A small proportion (15%) of asymptomatic Chagas patients had attenuated HRR after exercise, being more prevalent in patients with RBBB compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls.

de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rocha, Manoel Otavio da Costa; Lima, Marcia Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Carneiro, Renata de Carvalho Bicalho; Silva, Guilherme Canabrava Rodrigues; Brandao, Fernando Vieira; Kreuser, Lucas Jordan; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

2014-01-01

311

Evaluation of Recombinant Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Chagas' Disease in South and Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercially available diagnostic tests for Chagas' disease employ whole extracts or semipurified frac- tions of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Considerable variation in the reproducibility and reliability of these tests has been reported by different research laboratories, mainly due to cross-reactivity with other pathogens and standardization of the reagents. The use of recombinant antigens for the serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease is

EUFROSINA S. UMEZAWA; SUELI F. BASTOS; MARIO E. CAMARGO; LUCI M. YAMAUCHI; MARCIA R. SANTOS; ANTONIO GONZALEZ; BIANCA ZINGALES; MARIANO J. LEVIN; OCTAVIO SOUSA; RAFAEL RANGEL-ALDAO; JOSEFRANCO DA SILVEIRA

1999-01-01

312

Heart rate turbulence and left ventricular ejection fraction in Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Chagas disease patients often present premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), depression of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and autonomic dysfunction, which is generally evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. As frequent PVCs may complicate HRV computation, we measured heart rate turbulence (HRT) and evaluated the correlation between ejection fraction and HRT or HRV in Chagas disease. Methods We studied

Fabrizio Tundo; Federico Lombardi; Manoel C. Rocha; Fernando Botoni; Georg Schmidt; Vladimir C. Barros; Braulio Muzzi; Murilo Gomes; Airandes Pinto; Antonio L. Ribeiro

2005-01-01

313

Heart rate turbulence and left ventricular ejection fraction in Chagas disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsChagas disease patients often present premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), depression of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and autonomic dysfunction, which is generally evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. As frequent PVCs may complicate HRV computation, we measured heart rate turbulence (HRT) and evaluated the correlation between ejection fraction and HRT or HRV in Chagas disease.

Fabrizio Tundo; Federico Lombardi; Manoel C. Rocha; Fernando Botoni; Georg Schmidt; Vladimir C. Barros; Braulio Muzzi; Murilo Gomes; Airandes Pinto; Antonio L. Ribeiro

2005-01-01

314

A Cysteine Protease Inhibitor Cures Chagas' Disease in an Immunodeficient-Mouse Model of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, remains the leading cause of cardiopathy in Latin America with about 12 million people infected. Classic clinical manifestations derive from infection of muscle cells leading to progressive cardiomyopathy, while some patients develop megacolon or megaesophagus. A very aggressive clinical course including fulminant meningoencephalitis has been reported in patients who contract Chagas' disease

Patricia S. Doyle; Yuan M. Zhou; Juan C. Engel; James H. McKerrow

2007-01-01

315

Identification of phenotypic markers of B cells from patients with Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease was discovered more than a hundred years ago, but its pathogenesis is still not completely understood. Autoimmunity is one of the mechanisms shown to contribute to its pathogenesis, which may indicate an important participation of B lymphocytes. Patients with Chagas disease have shown increased percentage of B cells producing IL-10. However, there are no reports of the phenotypic markers of B cells producing IL-10 in patients with Chagas disease. For the first time in the literature, we evaluated the phenotypic profile of distinct markers of B cells from peripheral blood of noninfected individuals and patients with Chagas disease. Our results showed that patients with Chagas disease had a higher expression of CD21 and CD24 on the surface of CD19+ B cells, while CD43 and CD23 were expressed equally in all groups. Moreover, the expression of MHC-II (HLA-DR), CD80, CD86, caspase-3, granzyme B and intracellular IL-10 and TGF-? by CD19+ B cells was higher in patients with Chagas disease. The results of IL-10 production within CD19+ CD5+ CD1d+ B cells showed a higher percentage of this cytokine in patients with Chagas disease. Thus, our data bring a new knowledge about distinct markers of B cells in immune responses of Chagas disease. PMID:23607422

Fares, R C G; Correa-Oliveira, R; de Araújo, F F; Keesen, T S L; Chaves, A T; Fiuza, J A; Ferreira, K S; Rocha, M O C; Gomes, J A S

2013-07-01

316

Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Death for Patients with Chagas’ Disease: A Hospital-Derived Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to identify patients with Chagas’ disease at risk of sudden cardiac death, inasmuch as such patients have not been recognized thus far. Seventy-four consecutive patients with a positive complement fixation test for Chagas’ disease prospectively followed up at the Cardiomyopathy Clinic from January 1990 to June 1993 were entered into the study. Patients underwent medical

Reinaldo B. Bestetti; Creusa M. R. Dalbo; Carlos Alberto Arruda; Dalmo Correia Filho; Olavo C. Freitas

1996-01-01

317

Small fiber neuropathy in the chronic phase of Chagas disease: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the occurrence of small fiber neuropathy in a patient affected by Chagas disease in the indeterminate phase. After the exclusion of all the possible etiologies of small fiber neuropathy, the disorder was considered related to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Although a peripheral involvement has been described in Chagas disease, this is the first report of a selective involvement of small fibers. PMID:23475268

Nolano, Maria; Provitera, V; Manganelli, F; Pagano, A; Perretti, A; Santoro, L

2013-06-01

318

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune  

SciTech Connect

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

2010-09-01

319

Terpenoids and sterols from some Japanese mushrooms.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, our research group has been studying the chemical constituents of mushrooms. From nineteen species, namely, Amanita virgineoides Bas (Amanitaceae), Daedaleopsis tricolor (Bull.: Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae), Grifolafrondosa (Fr.) S. F. Gray (Polyporaceae), Hericium erinaceum (Bull.: Fr.) Pers. (Hericiaceae), Hypsizigus marmoreus (Peck) Bigelow (Tricholomataceae), Lactarius piperatus (Scop.: Fr.) S. F. Gray (Russulaceae), Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Pleurotaceae), Lyophyllyum connatum (Schum.: Fr.) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), Naematoloma sublateritium (Fr.) Karst. (Strophariaceae), Ompharia lapidescens Schroeter (Polyporaceae), Panellus serotinus (Pers.: Fr.) Kuhn. (Tricholomataceae), Pholiota nameko (T. Ito) S. Ito et Imai in Imai (Strophariaceae), Pleurotus eringii (DC.: Fr.) Quel. (Pleurotaceae), Polyporus umbellatus Fries (Polyporaceae), Russula delica Fr. (Russulaceae), Russula sanguinea (Bull.) Fr. (Russulaceae), Sarcodon aspratus (Berk.) S. Ito (Thelephoraceae), Tricholoma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Tricholomataceae), and Tricholomaportentosum (Fr.) Quel. (Tricholomataceae), we isolated eight new sesquiterpenoids, six new meroterpenoids, three new triterpenoids, and twenty eight new sterols. In this review, structural features of these new compounds are discussed. PMID:24689228

Yaoita, Yasunori; Kikuchi, Masao; Machida, Koichi

2014-03-01

320

Bioremediation of industrial waste through mushroom cultivation.  

PubMed

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to achieve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormality in the attachment of basidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. PMID:21186717

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep; Jain, B L

2010-07-01

321

Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from Aloe barbadensis Miller.  

PubMed

Two new chromones, 5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-(?-glucopyranosyl-oxy-methyl)chromone (1) and 5-((S)-2'-oxo-4'-hydroxypentyl)-2-methoxychromone (2), together with four known analogues, 8-C-glucosyl-7-O-methyl-(S)-aloesol (3), isoaloeresin D (4), 8-C-glucosyl-(R)-aloesol (5), and aloesin (6) were isolated from the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences (1-D and 2-D NMR, HRMS, UV, and IR data), chemical methods and the literature data. The Mosher's method was applied to establish the absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2. The inhibitory effects of these chromones on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase were examined, and compound 6 was identified as a noncompetitive tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 108.62?g·mL(-1). PMID:23051964

Wu, Xiaofang; Yin, Sheng; Zhong, Jiasheng; Ding, Wenjing; Wan, Jinzhi; Xie, Zhiyong

2012-12-01

322

Growth potential of Clostridium botulinum in fresh mushrooms packaged in semipermeable plastic film.  

PubMed Central

Fresh mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were inoculated in the stem, gill, or cap with Clostridium botulinum spores. They were placed with uninoculated mushrooms in paper board trays, which were then covered and sealed in a polyvinyl chloride stretch film to simulate prepackaged mushrooms available at retail stores. When incubated at 20 C, botulinum toxin could be detected as early as day 3, or 4, when the mushrooms still appear edible. Mushrooms inoculated in the stem with 1,000 type A spores frequently became botulinogenic; higher spore levels were needed if gills or caps were inoculation sites. Type B spores were less apt to produce toxic mushrooms. Respiration of the fresh mushrooms used up O2 more rapidly than could enter through the semipermeable wrapping film, so that the equilibrium O2 concentration became low enough for growth of C. botulinum. Inoculated mushrooms did not become botulinogenic when held at 4 C.

Sugiyama, H; Yang, K H

1975-01-01

323

Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).  

PubMed

In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects. PMID:15544548

Sliva, Daniel

2004-10-01

324

Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development\\u000a of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if\\u000a not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and\\u000a cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are

Solomon P. Wasser

2011-01-01

325

Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the possibility of using waste mushroom logs as a biomass resource for alternative energy production, the chemical and physical characteristics of normal wood and waste mushroom logs were examined. Size reduction of normal wood (145kWh\\/tone) required significantly higher energy consumption than waste mushroom logs (70kWh\\/tone). The crystallinity value of waste mushroom logs was dramatically lower (33%)

Jae-Won Lee; Bon-Wook Koo; Joon-Weon Choi; Don-Ha Choi; In-Gyu Choi

2008-01-01

326

Tropical diseases encountered in Canada: 1. Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease, or South American trypanosomiasis, is an endemic South American disease now being seen in Canada in both acute and chronic forms. It is characterized by an initial parasitemia that elicits a brisk immune response. Evidence is mounting that the debilitating chronic form, which is characterized by cardiac and visceral organ failure, results from antigenic cross-reactivity between the parasite and the human host, which generates an aberrant, destructive, cell-mediated immune response. Diagnosis, treatment and potential areas for investigation are discussed.

Schipper, H.; McClarty, B. M.; McRuer, K. E.; Nash, R. A.; Penney, C. J.

1980-01-01

327

[Congenital Chagas-Mazza disease in Salta, Argentina].  

PubMed

A study was carried out on T. cruzi infection in pregnant women in the Guemes area in Salta province; the rate of infection was 12.3%. Of newborn children studied by the microhematocrit technique, 8.8% were diagnosed with Chagas' disease. All of them were treated with benznidazol (5mg/kg/day) for one month; all of them presented anemia, which was interpreted to be an adverse drug reaction. The microhematocrit technique is believed to represent the best option for diagnosis of this disease in newborn children. A diagnostic methodology to follow the course of the infection is proposed. PMID:10881099

Contreras, S; Fernandez, M R; Agüero, F; Desse Desse, J; Orduna, T; Martino, O

1999-01-01

328

Acute liver failure caused by mushroom poisoning: a case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

It is estimated that there are over 5,000 species of mushrooms worldwide. Some of them are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. In more than 95% of mushroom toxicity cases, poisoning occurs as a result of misidentification of the mushroom by an amateur mushroom hunter. The severity of mushroom poisoning may vary, depending on the geographic location where the mushroom is grown, growth conditions, the amount of toxin delivered, and the genetic characteristics of the mushroom. Amanita phalloides is the most common and fatal cause of mushroom poisoning. This mushroom contains amanitins, which are powerful hepatotoxins that inhibit RNA polymerase II in liver. Mushroom poisoning is a relatively rare cause of acute liver failure. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the emergency room with weakness, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. He reported ingesting several wild mushrooms about 36 hours earlier. In this article we report a case of lethal Amanita phalloides intoxication from stored mushrooms.

Erden, Abdulsamet; Esmeray, Kubra; Karagoz, Hatice; Karahan, Samet; Gumuscu, Hasan Huseyin; Basak, Mustafa; Cetinkaya, Ali; Avc?, Deniz; Poyrazoglu, Orhan Kursat

2013-01-01

329

?????????????????? ????????????????????????????????????????????????????? Species Diversity of Edible Mushrooms and Plants at Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of species diversity and distribution of edible mushrooms and plants was carried out at Sakaerat Biosphere Reserve, Nakhon Ratchasima, by participatory action research during September 2004 to August 2005. Thirty species from 8 families of edible mushrooms were found in the deciduous dipterocarp forest, dry evergreen forest, and reforest plantation. The dominant species of mushrooms were Russula spp.(Fam.

Sujitra Kosol; Tantima Kumlung; Tanapak Inyod; Pongmanee Thongbai; Taksin Archavacom

330

Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

1996-01-01

331

75 FR 17376 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC for the period February...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

2010-04-06

332

Subdivision of the drosophila mushroom bodies by enhancer-trap expression patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetically conserved brain centers known as mushroom bodies are implicated in insect associative learning and in several other aspects of insect behavior. Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of mushroom bodies, have been generally considered to be disposed as homogenous arrays. Such a simple picture imposes constraints on interpreting the diverse behavioral and computational properties that mushroom bodies are supposed to

Ming Yao Yang; J. Douglas Armstrong; Ilya Vilinsky; Nicholas J. Strausfeld; Kim Kaiser

1995-01-01

333

76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-05-18

334

Antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts from several ear mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five kinds of ear mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears. Methanolic extracts were prepared from these ear mushrooms, and their antioxidant properties were studied. For all methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms, the antioxidant activities in the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate (38.6 approximately 74.6%) at 1.0-5.0 mg/mL. Methanolic extracts from red, jin, and snow ears showed excellent antioxidant activities in the conjugated diene method at 5.0 mg/mL. At 5.0 mg/mL, reducing powers of methanolic extracts were in the descending order of snow > black approximately red approximately jin > silver ears. The scavenging effect of methanolic extracts from ear mushrooms on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals was excellent except for that from silver ears. Ear mushroom extracts were not good scavengers for hydroxyl free radicals but were good chelators for ferrous ions. Naturally occurring antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, tocopherols, and total phenols, were found in the methanolic extracts. However, beta-carotene was not detected. Total antioxidant components were 15.69, 30.09, 27.83, 49.17, and 31.70 mg/g for black, red, jin, snow, and silver ears, respectively. PMID:11714344

Mau, J L; Chao, G R; Wu, K T

2001-11-01

335

Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. PMID:24054262

Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

2014-01-15

336

Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals.  

PubMed

In order to promote the use of mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals, several experiments were performed in wild and commercial species. The analysis of nutrients included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars by HPLC-RI. The analysis of nutraceuticals included determination of fatty acids by GC-FID, and other phytochemicals such as tocopherols, by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid, by spectrophotometer techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the mushrooms were also screened against fungi, Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The wild mushroom species proved to be less energetic than the commercial sp., containing higher contents of protein and lower fat concentrations. In general, commercial species seem to have higher concentrations of sugars, while wild sp. contained lower values of MUFA but also higher contents of PUFA. alpha-Tocopherol was detected in higher amounts in the wild species, while gamma-tocopherol was not found in these species. Wild mushrooms revealed a higher content of phenols but a lower content of ascorbic acid, than commercial mushrooms. There were no differences between the antimicrobial properties of wild and commercial species. The ongoing research will lead to a new generation of foods, and will certainly promote their nutritional and medicinal use. PMID:18538460

Barros, Lillian; Cruz, Telma; Baptista, Paula; Estevinho, Letícia M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2008-08-01

337

Evaluation of the sub-acute toxicity of the sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerus (Cooke), the Tiger Milk mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceLignosus rhinocerus (known locally as ‘Tiger Milk mushroom’) is the most important medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities of Malaysia to treat fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. Lignosus rhinocerus was hitherto unexploited commercially because of limited supply. Recently, the mushroom was

Sook Shien Lee; Nget Hong Tan; Shin Yee Fung; Jayalakshmi Pailoor; Si Mui Sim

2011-01-01

338

Bidirectional sex change in mushroom stony corals  

PubMed Central

Sex change occurs when an individual changes from one functional sex to another. The direction of sex change occurs mainly from male to female (protandry) or vice versa (protogyny), but sometimes may be bidirectional (repetitive). Here, for the first time in stony corals, we report on a protandrous sex change exhibited by two mushroom corals, Fungia repanda and Ctenactis echinata, with the latter also exhibiting bidirectional sex change. Compared with C. echinata, F. repanda exhibited relatively earlier sex change, significantly slower growth and higher mortality rates, in accordance with sex-allocation theory. Sex ratio in both the species was biased towards the first sex. The bidirectional sex change displayed by C. echinata greatly resembles that of dioecious plants that display labile sexuality in response to energetic and/or environmental constraints. We posit that, similar to these plants, in the studied corals, sex change increases their overall fitness, reinforcing the important role of reproductive plasticity in scleractinian corals in determining their evolutionary success.

Loya, Yossi; Sakai, Kazuhiko

2008-01-01

339

Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere.

Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

340

[Emergent drugs (III): hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms].  

PubMed

An increase in the consumption of vegetable substances with a hallucinogenic effect has been observed. Some of these substances are associated with ancestral religious ceremonies, while many of them are legal or are partially regulated. Salvia divinorum is a powerful kappa receptor agonist, with dissociative and hallucinogenic properties, which start quickly and have a short duration. Kratom (Mytragyna speciosa) has mitragynine as its principal alkaloid, with stimulating effects at low doses (coke-like effect), and sedative effects (opiate-like effect) at high doses. Several deaths from its consumption have been detected. The consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms appears in cyclic form, although there has been increase in their online offer. They are consumed in search of their hallucinogenic effects, above all those belonging to the family of psilocybes, which contain tryptamines with a hallucinogenic effect similar to LSD. Peyote (Lophophora psilocybes), a cactus rich in mescaline (trimetoxifeniletilamina), produces hallucinations of the five senses, and forms part of the religious culture of the North American Indians. Daturas, which are ubiquitous, produce anticholinergic symptoms and effects on the central nervous system (delirium, hallucinations, etc.), due to their high atropine and scopolamine content. Other substances used for their hallucinogenic effects include the drink known as ayahuasca, and seeds for preparing infusions like Ololiuqui, Morning Glory (Ipomoea violacea), Hawaian Baby Woodrose (Argyreia nervosa), Syrian Rue (Peganum harmala) and Iboga Rootbark (Tabernanthe iboga). PMID:24406363

Burillo-Putze, G; López Briz, E; Climent Díaz, B; Munné Mas, P; Nogue Xarau, S; Pinillos, M A; Hoffman, R S

2013-01-01

341

Bidirectional sex change in mushroom stony corals.  

PubMed

Sex change occurs when an individual changes from one functional sex to another. The direction of sex change occurs mainly from male to female (protandry) or vice versa (protogyny), but sometimes may be bidirectional (repetitive). Here, for the first time in stony corals, we report on a protandrous sex change exhibited by two mushroom corals, Fungia repanda and Ctenactis echinata, with the latter also exhibiting bidirectional sex change. Compared with C. echinata, F. repanda exhibited relatively earlier sex change, significantly slower growth and higher mortality rates, in accordance with sex-allocation theory. Sex ratio in both the species was biased towards the first sex. The bidirectional sex change displayed by C. echinata greatly resembles that of dioecious plants that display labile sexuality in response to energetic and/or environmental constraints. We posit that, similar to these plants, in the studied corals, sex change increases their overall fitness, reinforcing the important role of reproductive plasticity in scleractinian corals in determining their evolutionary success. PMID:18611848

Loya, Yossi; Sakai, Kazuhiko

2008-10-22

342

Chagas disease in dogs from endemic areas of Costa Rica.  

PubMed

Dogs with the presumptive diagnosis of Chagas disease are commonly sent to our School of Veterinary Medicine by independent veterinarians. This prompted us to evaluate the prevalence of canine trypanosomiasis in some villages of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. A total of 54 dogs (21 males and 33 females) from five rural villages, with ages between 3 months and 10 years old, were bled and submitted to three serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination and ELISA. Among all animals, 15 (27.7%) revealed antibodies (6 pure bred and 9 mongrels) and in 3 of them the parasite was also demonstrated by xenodiagnosis. All positive animals except 1, and 9 negative animals (control group) were examined by X-rays and electrocardiography, revealing different degrees of cardiomegaly and ECG alteration, consistent with Chagas disease pathology in one dog (SA-11) of the infected ones. Examination of 50 inhabitants living in the houses where dogs and Triatoma dimidiata were found, yielded negative serological reactions. This was assumed to support the hypothesis that dogs are commonly infected by the oral route, a more effective means of infection compared with the vector transmission mechanism that occurs in humans. PMID:12118277

Montenegro, Victor M; Jimenez, Maurico; Dias, J C Pinto; Zeledon, Rodrigo

2002-06-01

343

Antigenuria in infants with acute and congenital Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

Detection and partial characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi soluble antigens (SAg) in urine, as well as demonstration of parasite circulating antigens (CAg) in serum from pediatric patients with acute (10 patients) and congenital (10 patients) Chagas' disease, are reported. Classical techniques for parasite detection and antibody serology were also conducted in both groups. Samples collected before the onset of parasiticidal drug treatment were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for SAg and CAg demonstration. The control population consisted of 6 children with acute toxoplasmosis, 6 with cutaneous leishmaniasis, and 20 healthy individuals. Patients with acute cases were 100% positive for both SAg and CAg, whereas patients with congenital disease were 80% CAg positive and 100% SAg positive. Controls yielded negative results in all cases. Partial characterization of SAg from two patients with acute disease was performed by iodination, affinity chromatography, immunoprecipitation, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Two different antigenic glycoproteins (80 kilodaltons, pI 6 to 6.5 and 55 kilodaltons, pI 6.5 to 7) were identified by these methods. Traditional serology and classical parasitologic tests failed, each in a different way, to provide an accurate diagnosis in the total of our patients. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for SAg detection proved to be the most effective procedure for achieving early and precise proof of infection in acute and congenital cases of Chagas' disease. Images

Freilij, H L; Corral, R S; Katzin, A M; Grinstein, S

1987-01-01

344

Advances in Chagas disease drug development: 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The need for better drugs to treat patients with Chagas disease remains urgent. This review summarizes the advancements in drug development over the past two years. Recent Findings Drug development efforts are almost exclusively occurring as preclinical research. The exceptions being Phase I safety studies for the cruzain inhibitor, K-777, and potential Phase II studies for the antifungal drug, posaconazole, and a prodrug of ravuconazole. Several recent laboratory investigations demonstrate anti-T. cruzi activity of novel small molecules in animal models. These include nonpeptidic cruzain inhibitors, novel inhibitors of the sterol 14?-demethylase enzyme, new compounds (arylimidamides) related to pentamidine, derivatives of nifurtimox, compounds using ruthenium complexes, and several natural products. The recent implementation of a high-throughput screen of >300,000 compounds against intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes done at the Broad Institute is an important development, yielding ~300 selective inhibitors, many of which may serve as leads for medicinal chemistry efforts. Summary Progress is slow, but recent advancements in both drug development and advocacy for research on neglected diseases are encouraging. Efforts to define a target product profile and to harmonize methodologies for testing drugs for Chagas disease are described herein.

Buckner, Frederick S.; Navabi, Nazlee

2013-01-01

345

[Chagas disease in a rural area of Northeast Brazil].  

PubMed

A serological and medical survey on Chagas disease was carried out between December 1997 and June 2000 in four villages of the semi-arid rural Northeast Brazil. The average human serological prevalence rate of 11.8% was strongly linked with age: 1.1% for people under 25, 13.7% for people aged of 26 to 49, 29.5% for people aged of 50+. The clinical form was indeterminate for 57% of the infected population, cardiac for 35%, digestive or mixed for 8%. The infected patients under 55 received at home an etiologic treatment with benznidazol. The survey confirms the drastic reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission during the last decades, especially since 25 years. This situation is the result jointly of the antivectorial activities, improvement of education level and changes in the way of life. However Chagas disease is still a serious problem, especially for numerous middle-aged infected adults. The situation could be improved by increasing the serologic screening in the field as well as the counselling and the treatment of the patients. PMID:15462201

Gazin, P; Melo, G; Abuquerque, A; Oliveira, W; Soula, G; Audry, P

2004-08-01

346

Trifluralin toxicity in a Chagas disease mouse model.  

PubMed

Even though trifluralin (alpha,alpha,alpha-2,6-dinitro-N-N-dipropyl-p-toluidine) is effective for the treatment of experimental Chagas disease, more preclinical toxicity studies need to be performed. Cell toxicity of trifluralin was studied in Hep-G2 and Vero C76 cells treated with 50 and 150 microM trifluralin. The results show that duplication time, amount of cellular protein and cell protein/DNA values were normal. Histological, haematological and chemical parameters were measured in CF1 mice after oral trifluralin administration. Acute toxic effects were assayed by administration of 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 30 days, and chronic effects by administration of 200 mg/kg body weight once a week for 90 days (n = 20). In the acute scheme treatment, hepatic (glutamic-pyruvic, glutamic-oxalacetic and alkaline phosphatase activities; proteins and albumin plasma concentrations) and pancreatic (amylase, glycaemia) functions were normal. Mean corpuscular volume, haemoglobin and haematocrit decreased. Creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase and glutamic-oxalacetic activity increased, suggesting lesion in myocardial tissue. Histology was normal, excepting for the heart (mild myocarditis). Similar results were observed in acutely treated animals. There were no differences in body weight gain for treated mice compared to controls. In view of the published therapeutic effects of trifluralin on CF1 Chagas disease model and considering the present results, trifluralin seems to be a moderately toxic drug with a potential selective effect on the myocardium. PMID:17651308

Zaidenberg, Aníbal; Marra, Carlos; Luong, Tai; Gómez, Pedro; Milani, Laura; Villagra, Sergio; Drut, Ricardo

2007-08-01

347

Squalene Synthase As a Target for Chagas Disease Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease.

Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A.; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A.; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

2014-01-01

348

Squalene synthase as a target for Chagas disease therapeutics.  

PubMed

Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A; Wang, Andrew H-J; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

2014-05-01

349

Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field  

SciTech Connect

There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

1998-12-01

350

Ostreolysin enhances fruiting initiation in the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus).  

PubMed

Fruiting initiation in mushrooms can be triggered by a variety of environmental and biochemical stimuli, including substances of natural or synthetic origin. In this work ostreolysin, a cytolytic protein specifically expressed during the formation of primordia and fruit bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus, was applied to nutrient media inoculated with mycelium of P. ostreatus, and its effects on mycelial growth and fructification of the mushroom studied. The addition of ostreolysin slightly inhibited the growth of mycelium, but strongly induced the formation of primordia, which appeared 10 d earlier than in control plates supplemented with bovine serum albumin or with the dissolving buffer alone. Moreover, ostreolysin stimulated the subsequent development of primordia into fruit bodies. However, direct involvement of this protein in the sporulation of the mushroom is unlikely, as it was also detected in large amounts in the non-sporulating strain of P. ostreatus. PMID:18037282

Berne, Sabina; Pohleven, Jure; Vidic, Iztok; Rebolj, Katja; Pohleven, Franc; Turk, Tom; Macek, Peter; Sonnenberg, Anton; Sepci?, Kristina

2007-12-01

351

Biomolecule profiles in inedible wild mushrooms with antioxidant value.  

PubMed

The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract) and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC??) value 60 ?g/mL similar to the standard Trolox®). It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds. PMID:21613974

Reis, Filipa S; Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2011-01-01

352

Two Cases of Mushroom Poisoning by Podostroma Cornu-Damae  

PubMed Central

Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare fungus that houses a fatal toxin in its fruit body. In this case report, two patients collected and boiled the wild fungus in water, which they drank for one month. One patient died, presenting with desquamation of the palms and soles, pancytopenia, severe sepsis and multiple organ failure. The other patient recovered after one month of conservative care after admission. We found a piece of Podostroma cornu-damae in the remaining clusters of mushrooms. Mushroom poisoning by Podostroma cornu-damae has never been previously reported in Korea.

Ahn, Jin Young; Seok, Soon Ja; Song, Je Eun; Choi, Jung Ho; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Chang Oh; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

2013-01-01

353

Isolation of Ewingella americana from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed

The isolation of Ewingella americana, an unusual Enterobacteriaceae, is reported here for the first time in a non-animal reservoir. Thirty-five strains of E. americana have been recovered from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The biochemical characteristics of these strains are consistent with previously published descriptions of this species recovered from clinical specimens and from molluscs. DNA reassociation analysis was used to confirm the identity of mushroom-derived E. americana, and restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to reliably differentiate strains that otherwise demonstrated little phenotypic variation. PMID:8875916

Inglis, P W; Peberdy, J F

1996-11-01

354

Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.  

PubMed

Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg?¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg?¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg?¹ dw). PMID:23749039

Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

2013-08-01

355

Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing. PMID:23557365

Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

2013-01-01

356

Optimization of ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities.  

PubMed

Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were 90W microwave power, 50W ultrasonic power together with 40kHz ultrasonic frequency, solid/water ratio was 1:20 (W/V) and the extracting time was 19min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the yield and purity of polysaccharides were 3.25% and 73.16%, respectively, which are above that of traditional hot water extraction and close to the predicted value (3.07% and 72.54%, respectively). These results confirmed that ultrasonic/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides had great potential and efficiency compared with traditional hot water extraction. At the same time, the anti-tumor activities of the polysaccharides from I. obliquus with UMAE were evaluated. The results suggested that polysaccharides from I. obliquus exhibited obvious anti-tumor activities. PMID:20149817

Chen, Yiyong; Gu, Xiaohong; Huang, Sheng-quan; Li, Jinwei; Wang, Xin; Tang, Jian

2010-05-01

357

Etiological treatment of chronic Chagas disease: neglected 'evidence' by evidence-based medicine.  

PubMed

No randomized clinical trials regarding the etiological treatment of chronic Chagas disease can be found in the medical literature. However, other 'evidence' sustaining the use of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drugs for adult individuals with Chagas disease will be analyzed along with the limitations in evaluating the treatment efficacy. Today, the hypothesis of T. cruzi persistence in the target organs giving rise to the chronic inflammatory response is sustained. In addition, several experimental, pathological, nonrandomized clinical studies and studies based on the response or serological evolution (besides the clinical experience) demonstrate the role of T. cruzi in the pathogenesis of the chronic stage and the efficacy of etiological treatment to reduce the titers of antibodies and the progression of chronic Chagas heart disease. All of this supports the recommendation of treatment for every patient diagnosed with Chagas disease. The interpretation of this sum of evidence is not considered from the perspective of evidence-based medicine. PMID:17678432

Viotti, Rodolfo; Vigliano, Carlos

2007-08-01

358

PROGRESSIVE CHRONIC CHAGAS HEART DISEASE TEN YEARS AFTER TREATMENT WITH ANTI-TRYPANOSOMA CRUZINITRODERIVATIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized ten-year follow-up study involving 91 Chagas patients and 41 uninfected controls was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of nitroderivative therapy. Anti- Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies were con- sistently lower one year after treatment than 10 years thereafter ( P 0.001). The blood of all treated and 93.7% of untreated Chagas patients yielded polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from probes

LIANA LAURIA-PIRES; MARIA S. BRAGA; ANA C. VEXENAT; NADJAR NITZ; AUGUSTO SIMOES-BARBOSA; DOUGLAS L. TINOCO; ANTONIO R. L. TEIXEIRA

2000-01-01

359

Modeling horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the gut of the Chagas disease vector Rhodnius prolixus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Paratransgenesis is an approach to reducing arthropod vector competence using genetically modified symbionts. When applied\\u000a to control of Chagas disease, the symbiont bacterium Rhodococcus rhodnii, resident in the gut lumen of the triatomine vector Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), is transformed to export cecropin A, an insect immune peptide. Cecropin A is active against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas

Scott Matthews; Vadrevu SreeHari Rao; Ravi V Durvasula

2011-01-01

360

Sudden cardiac death in Chagas' heart disease in the contemporary era  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews epidemiology, clinical–morphological aspects, and primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with chronic Chagas' heart disease in the current era. Chagas' disease patients with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias are at risk of sudden cardiac death. No evidence-based support is available for guiding prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death in patients with this condition. Therefore, measurements for

Reinaldo B. Bestetti; Augusto Cardinalli-Neto

2008-01-01

361

Chagas disease. What is known and what should be improved: a systemic review.  

PubMed

This study consists of a broad review on what is known and what should be improved regarding knowledge of Chagas disease, not only through analysis on the main studies published on the topics discussed, but to a large extent based on experience of this subject, acquired over the past 50 years (1961-2011). Among the subjects covered, we highlight the pathogenesis and evolution of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, drugs in use and new strategies for treating Chagas disease; the serological tests for the diagnosis and the controls of cure the infection; the regional variations in prevalence, morbidity and response to treatment of the disease; the importance of metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi in different species of triatomines and its capacity to transmit Chagas infection; the risks of adaptation of wild triatomines to human dwellings; the morbidity and need for a surveillance and control program for Chagas disease in the Amazon region and the need to prioritize initiatives for controlling Chagas disease in Latin America and Mexico and in non-endemic countries, which is today a major international dilemma. Finally, we raise the need for to create a new initiative for controlling Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco, which involves parts of Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay. PMID:22760123

Coura, José Rodrigues; Borges-Pereira, José

2012-06-01

362

Antiproliferative and immunostimulatory protein fraction from edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruit bodies and mycelia of various higher Basidiomycetes were studied in search of biological effector molecules. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties of a protein fraction designated as Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein (CBAEP) isolated from five different species of edible mushrooms (Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indica, Astraeus hygrometricus, and Volvariella volvacea). This protein fraction

Swatilekha Maiti; Sujit K. Bhutia; Sanjaya K. Mallick; Alok Kumar; Niyati Khadgi; Tapas K. Maiti

2008-01-01

363

Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta

Fatih Kalyoncu; Mustafa Oskay; Hüsniye Kayalar

2010-01-01

364

Hemagglutinating activity in extracts of mycelia from submerged mushroom cultures.  

PubMed Central

Extracts from mycelia of seven different mushrooms agglutinated erythrocytes of several species. More than one agglutinating factor was identified in the extracts of three different mycelia. Agglutination was partially inhibited nonspecifically by high concentrations of glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, and rhamnose.

Banerjee, P C; Ghosh, A K; Sengupta, S

1982-01-01

365

Antimony uptake and correlation with other metals in mushroom species  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydride atomic absorption method has been applied to determine the antimony concentration in a single specimen of fourteen different mushroom species. The analytical methods used for the other metals were flame atomic absorption (for: zinc), Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption (for: thallium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, silver, cobalt, vanadium, manganese, molybdenum, strontium and cesium), hydride atomic absorption (for: bismuth,

N. E. Parisis; M. A. Van den Heede

1992-01-01

366

Morphological and chemical analysis of magic mushrooms in Japan.  

PubMed

Morphological and toxicological analyses were performed on hallucinogenic mushrooms that are currently circulated in Japan. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a three-dimensional microstructures in the mushrooms. The complementary use of SEM with an optical microscope was effective for observing characteristic tissues, such as basidiomycetes, spores, cystidia and basidia. Hallucinogenic alkaloids were extracted with methanol and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV detector set at 220 nm. The psilocin/psilocybin contents in Psilocybe cubensis were in the range of 0.14-0.42%/0.37-1.30% in the whole mushroom (0.17-0.78%/0.44-1.35% in the cap and 0.09-0.30%/0.05-1.27% in the stem), respectively. The hallucinogenic alkaloids in Copelandia were 0.43-0.76%/0.08-0.22% in the whole mushroom (0.64-0.74%/0.02-0.22% in the cap and 0.31-0.78%/0.01-0.39% in the stem). It thus appears that P. cubensis is psilocybin-rich, whereas Copelandia is psilocin-rich. PMID:14642723

Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Ohmae, Yoshihito; Sugita, Ritsuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

2003-12-17

367

Antimetastatic and Immunomodulating Effect of Water Extracts From Various Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to evaluate inhibitory effects against lung metastasis and promotion of splenocytes by water extracts from various mushrooms including Armillaria mellea, Grifola frondosa, Garnoderma frondosa, Codyceps militaris, Hericium erinaceus, Coriolus versicolor, Agaricus Blazei with Lycium Chinense Miller (known as M8). Analysis of carbohydrate using HPTLC showed that ?-glucan and pachyman were some of the major components of

Sung-Soo Ronald Han; Chong-Kwan Cho; Yeon-Weol Lee; Hwa-Seung Yoo

2009-01-01

368

The Use of Mushroom Glucans and Proteoglycans in Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC)

Parris M. Kidd

369

A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macrolepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters. The

Pavel Kala?; Lubom??r Svoboda

2000-01-01

370

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

371

Low-Noise HEMT with Mushroom-Shaped Gate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) play an important role in microwave low-noise amplifiers used in communications and radar systems. Toshiba has developed a HEMT with a mushroom-shaped gate cross-section enabling the gate length to be reduced to ...

H. Kawasaki B. Abe M. Kuroda

1989-01-01

372

High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test  

SciTech Connect

The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

1997-09-01

373

Oscillations and Sparsening of Odor Representations in the Mushroom Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the insect olfactory system, oscillatory synchronization is functionally relevant and reflects the coherent activation of dynamic neural assemblies. We examined the role of such oscillatory synchronization in information transfer between networks in this system. The antennal lobe is the obligatory relay for olfactory afferent signals and generates oscillatory output. The mushroom body is responsible for formation and retrieval of

Javier Perez-Orive; Ofer Mazor; Glenn C. Turner; Stijn Cassenaer; Rachel I. Wilson; Gilles Laurent

2002-01-01

374

Mushroom: a framework for collaboration and interaction across the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the initial design of Mushroom, a framework for collaborative working and user interaction on the Internet. The motivation is to address the issues of support for user interaction, shared resource management and privacy. Mrooms are environments for groups of collaborating and interacting users, whose most significant feature is the boundary, which provides security and integrity guarantees

Tim Kindberg

1996-01-01

375

A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macro- lepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters.

Pavel Kala; Lubomir Svoboda

2000-01-01

376

High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL mushroom test  

SciTech Connect

The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less sensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore{close_quote}s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1998-07-01

377

Disinfection of some pathogens of mushroom cultivation by photocatalytic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photocatalytic disinfection of six bacteria and fungi, including pathogens of four mushroom diseases, Trichoderma harzianum, Cladobotryum varium, Spicellum roseum, and Pseudomonas tolaasii, and Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, was studied. The photocatalyst reduced the number of viable microorganisms sufficiently by near-UV irradiation. Efficiency of disinfection was increased for P. tolaasii and E. coli, but not for T. harzianum, when the

Dai Sawada; Masatake Ohmasa; Masaki Fukuda; Kazuhiko Masuno; Hiroshi Koide; Shigeyuki Tsunoda; Kimiyoshi Nakamura

2005-01-01

378

Ethanol diminishes the toxicity of the mushroom Amanita phalloides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Survival of mice after lethal doses of a lyophilizate fromAmanita phalloides (‘death cap’) was markedly increased by single doses of ethanol applied 30 min before or 5 min after the mushroom. Hepatic histopathological damage (confluent necrosis) was largley prevented. Acute, but not chronic, consumption of ethanol may thus influence favorably the outcome of death cap poisoning and should be

G. L. Floersheim; L. Bianchi

1984-01-01

379

Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical approaches to discover anticancer drugs and cancer treatments have made limited progress in the past several decades in finding a cure for cancer. The expanded knowledge of the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and metastasis, together with the inherently vast structural diversity of natural compounds found in mushrooms, provided unique opportunities for discovering new drugs that rationally target the abnormal

Ben-Zion Zaidman; Majed Yassin; Jamal Mahajna; Solomon P. Wasser

2005-01-01

380

The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

Sommer, Robert

1989-01-01

381

Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) of Mushroom Tyrosinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially purified and crude commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase was subjected to immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , and Zn 2+ metal ions bound to iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agarose. Under high salt conditions (500 mM NaCl) tyrosinase was retained on all immobilized metal IDA resins. In contrast, under low salt

Andrew Powell; Norman Siu; Jennifer K. Inlow; William H. Flurkey

382

Advances in Imaging of Animal Models of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Since serial studies of patients are limited, researchers interested in Chagas disease have relied on animal models of Trypanosoma cruzi infection to explore many aspects of this important human disease. These studies have been important for evaluation of the immunology, pathology, physiology and other aspects of pathogenesis. While larger animals have been employed, mice have remained the most favoured animal model, as they recapitulate many aspects of the human disease, are easy to manipulate genetically and are amenable to study by small animal imaging technologies. Further, developments in non-invasive imaging technologies have permitted the study of the same animal over an extended period of time by multiple imaging modalities, thus permitting the study of the transition from acute infection through the chronic stage and during therapeutic regimens.

Jelicks, Linda A.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2013-01-01

383

Modeling the Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent model for Chagas’ disease after stem cell transplantation is extended for a three-dimensional multi-agent-based model. The computational model includes six different types of autonomous agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor- ?, Trypanosoma cruzi, and bone marrow stem cell. Only fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move randomly through the empty spaces using the three-dimensional Moore neighborhood. Bone marrow stem cells can promote apoptosis in inflammatory cells, fibrosis regression and can differentiate in cardiomyocyte. T. cruzi can increase the number of inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells and tumor necrosis factor- ? can increase the quantity of fibrosis. Our results were compared with experimental data giving a fairly fit and they suggest that the inflammatory cells are important for the development of fibrosis.

Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

2009-04-01

384

Advances and challenges towards a vaccine against Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is major public health problem, affecting nearly 10 million people, characterized by cardiac alterations leading to congestive heart failure and death of 20-40% of the patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite responsible for the disease. A vaccine would be key to improve disease control and we review here the recent advances and challenges of a T. cruzi vaccine. There is a growing consensus that a protective immune response requires the activation of a Th1 immune profile, with the stimulation of CD8+ T cells. Several vacines types, including recombinant proteins, DNA and viral vectors, as well as heterologous prime-boost combinations, have been found immunogenic and protective in mouse models, providing proof-of-concept data on the feasibility of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine to control a T. cruzi infection. However, several challenges such as better end-points, safety issues and trial design need to be addressed for further vaccine development to proceed.

Quijano-Hernandez, Israel

2011-01-01

385

Chagas Disease: Increased Parasitemia during Pregnancy Detected by Hemoculture  

PubMed Central

One hundred fifty-two Trypanosoma cruzi seropositive women were submitted to a single hemoculture; 101 were pregnant, and 51 were not pregnant. Seven tubes from each individual were harvested with liver infusion tryptose (LIT) medium and observed monthly until the fifth month. Hemocultures were positive in 50% (76 of 152) of the women. Results showed that the positivity was 29.4% (15 of 51) among non-pregnant women and 60.4% (61 of 101) in pregnant women (P < 0.05). In relation to gestational age, there were significant differences in positivity, with a higher proportion of women with positive hemocultures (20 of 25) before 21 weeks and lower after 30 weeks (10 of 21; P = 0.02). We conclude that pregnancy enhances the parasitemia in Chagas disease, with a higher effect early in pregnancy.

da Rocha Siriano, Liliane; Luquetti, Alejandro Ostermayer; Avelar, Juliana Boaventura; Marra, Neusa Leal; de Castro, Ana Maria

2011-01-01

386

Agrochemicals against malaria, sleeping sickness, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.  

PubMed

In tropical regions, protozoan parasites can cause severe diseases with malaria, leishmaniasis, sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease standing in the forefront. Many of the drugs currently being used to treat these diseases have been developed more than 50 years ago and can cause severe adverse effects. Above all, resistance to existing drugs is widespread and has become a serious problem threatening the success of control measures. In order to identify new antiprotozoal agents, more than 600 commercial agrochemicals have been tested on the pathogens causing the above mentioned diseases. For all of the pathogens, compounds were identified with similar or even higher activities than the currently used drugs in applied in vitro assays. Furthermore, in vivo activity was observed for the fungicide/oomyceticide azoxystrobin, and the insecticide hydramethylnon in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model, and for the oomyceticide zoxamide in the Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB900 mouse model, respectively. PMID:23145187

Witschel, Matthias; Rottmann, Matthias; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto

2012-01-01

387

Chagas' disease in the Brazilian Amazon. II. A serological survey.  

PubMed

A serological survey, involving indirect immunofluorescence testing of blood sera samples, was carried out on the residents of one in every five dwellings in the town of Barcelos (in the northern part of the State of Amazonas, on the right bank of the Rio Negro, 490 Km from Manaus by river) and on the rural populations of the villages of Piloto and Marará (also on the right bank of the Rio Negro, 30 minutes by boat from Barcelos). A total of 710 sera samples were tested, 628 from the resident population in the town of Barcelos, 35 from Piloto and 47 from Marará. The tests were carried out using human anti-gammaglobulin type IgG (Biolab) and antigen from formolized culture of T. cruzi Y strain. The sera were serially diluted from 1:40 to 1:320 in PBS 7.2. Of the 710 samples examined 89 (12.5%) were positive for anti-T.cruzi antibodies: 2 of these (2.2%) at a dilution of 1:320; 12 (13.4%) at 1:160; 38 (42.6%) at 1:80; and the remainder at 1:40, giving a median serological dilution of 1:80. The following questions are discussed: the high serological prevalence for Chagas' infection found in our survey; the possibility of serological cross-reactions; the need for confirmatory tests for the positives reactions; and the strong correlation between our results and preliminary epidemiological data (such as the level of human contact with wild triatominae, know locally as "Piaçava's lice". We draw attention to the isolation by xenodiagnosis of one strain of T.cruzi from a patient with positive serology for Chagas' infection. PMID:7481464

Coura, J R; Naranjo, M A; Willcox, H P

1995-01-01

388

Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ?100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze ??gi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe. PMID:25035918

Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasi?ska, Gra?yna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

2014-09-01

389

Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes.  

PubMed

Mushroom industries generate a virtually in-exhaustible supply of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). This is the unutilised substrate and the mushroom mycelium left after harvesting of mushrooms. As the mushroom industry is steadily growing, the volume of SMS generated annually is increasing. In recent years, the mushroom industry has faced challenges in storing and disposing the SMS. The obvious solution is to explore new applications of SMS. There has been considerable discussion recently about the potentials of using SMS for production of value-added products. One of them is production of lignocellulosic enzymes such as laccase, xylanase, lignin peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase. This paper reviews scientific research and practical applications of SMS as a readily available and cheap source of enzymes for bioremediation, animal feed and energy feedstock. PMID:23053096

Phan, Chia-Wei; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

2012-11-01

390

[Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study of different parts of wild growing edible mushrooms].  

PubMed

In this paper, vibrational spectra of different parts of fruiting bodies of wild growing mushrooms were recorded with Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. It was different for the spectra of cap skin, gill, cap meat and stem of the same mushroom. The great differences were found between cap skin and other parts of the same mushrooms of Russula virescens and Russula rubra, whereas the spectra of mushroom Termitomyces albuminosus show greated differences between gill and other parts. These indicate variety in the chemical composition of different parts of the same fruiting body. The results suggest that the mushrooms could be identified at the species level by comparison of the vibrational spectra of different parts of fruiting bodies of mushrooms. PMID:16241053

Liu, Gang; Liu, Jian-hong; Song, Ding-shan; Dong, Qin; Ou, Jia-ming; Yang, Ai-ming

2005-07-01

391

[Influence of storing conditions of on quality and safety quality and safety of mushroom tins].  

PubMed

The invention relates to the influence of period of time and storage conditions on microbiological, physical-and-chemical, sensory indices of mushrooms in brine salted (enzyme mushrooms). The invention establishes the fact that mushroom tin storage in a refrigerator at temperature between 0 degrees C and + 4 degrees C provides high quality and microbiological stability of the product during 2 years, storage in a warehouse with temperature between +10 degrees C and +18 degrees C - for 1 year. PMID:16729758

Baka?tis, V I

2006-01-01

392

Indian Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents  

PubMed Central

Medicinal mushrooms occurring in South India namely Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus pulmonaris possessed profound antioxidant and antitumor activities. This indicated that these mushrooms would be valuable sources of antioxidant and antitumor compounds. Investigations also revealed that they had significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Thus, Indian medicinal mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, intensive and extensive investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic use.

A. Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil; K. Janardhanan, Kainoor

2007-01-01

393

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian [Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Popescu, Ion V. [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientist, Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Gabriela [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnologies, Environmental Engineering Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania)

2011-10-03

394

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Gheboianu, Anca; Radulescu, Cristiana; Popescu, Ion V.; Busuioc, Gabriela; Bancuta, Iulian

2011-10-01

395

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important "Big Red Mushroom" from Southern China  

PubMed Central

Background In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called “Dahongjun” or “Big Red Mushroom” by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. Conclusion and Significance The ectomycorrhizal mushroom “Dahongjun” from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately.

Li, Mochan; Liang, Junfeng; Li, Yanchun; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; James, Timothy Y.; Xu, Jianping

2010-01-01

396

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach.

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascon, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Munoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

397

Antibodies to an Epitope from the Cha Human Autoantigen Are Markers of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease is a prevalent disease in South America that is thought to have an autoimmune etiology. We previously identified human Cha as a new autoantigen recognized by chagasic sera. Those sera recognized an epitope spanning amino acids 120 to 129 of Cha, named R3. In the present study we have used the synthetic R3 peptide for the detection of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies from patients at different stages of Chagas' disease, including a therapeutically treated group. The immunoreactivity with R3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed 92.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity for Chagas' disease sera. This sensitivity and specificity were higher than for any other autoantigen described to date. No anti-R3 antibodies were detected in sera from Leishmania-infected or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients or healthy controls from the same areas. Moreover, anti-R3 antibody reactivity detected by ELISA correlated with conventional serological tests as indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA assays with Trypanosoma cruzi extracts and other diagnostic tests as indirect hemagglutination. The levels of anti-R3 antibodies increased with progression and symptomatology of Chagas' disease. More interestingly, a statistically significant fall in anti-R3 antibody titer was observed in patients treated with antiparasitic drugs. Those results suggest that the presence of anti-R3 antibodies is a highly specific marker of Chagas' disease and that R3 ELISA could be helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease.

Girones, Nuria; Rodriguez, Clara I.; Basso, Beatriz; Bellon, Jose M.; Resino, Salvador; Munoz-Fernandez, M. Angeles; Gea, Susana; Moretti, Edgardo; Fresno, Manuel

2001-01-01

398

The effect of beta-blockade on myocardial remodelling in Chagas' cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Chagas' disease has spread throughout Latin America because of the high rate of migration among these countries. Approximately 30% of Chagas' patients will develop cardiomyopathy, and 10% of these will develop severe cardiac damage leading to heart failure. Beta-blockade improves symptoms and survival in heart failure patients; however, its efficacy has not been well established in Chagas' disease. We evaluated the role of carvedilol in cardiac remodeling and mortality in a Chagas' cardiomyopathy animal model. METHODS: We studied Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 55 Syrian hamsters that were divided into three groups: control (15), infected (20), and infected + carvedilol (20). Animals underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and morphometry for collagen evaluation in ventricles stained with picrosirius red. RESULTS: The left ventricular diastolic diameter did not change between groups, although it was slightly larger in infected groups, as was left ventricular systolic diameter. Fractional shortening also did not change between groups, although it was slightly lower in infected groups. Collagen accumulation in the interstitial myocardial space was significantly higher in infected groups and was not attenuated by carvedilol. The same response was observed in the perivascular space. The survival curve showed significantly better survival in the control group compared with the infected groups; but no benefit of carvedilol was observed during the study. However, in the acute phase (up to 100 days of infection), carvedilol did reduce mortality. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol did not attenuate cardiac remodeling or mortality in this model of Chagas' cardiomyopathy. The treatment did improve survival in the acute phase of the disease.

de Souza Pimentel, Walace; Ramires, Felix Jose Alvarez; Ianni, Barbara Maria; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Bilate, Angelina Morand Bianchi; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; de Oliveira, Adriana Morgan; Fernandes, Fabio; Mady, Charles

2012-01-01

399

Chagas disease in European countries: the challenge of a surveillance system.  

PubMed

A study of aggregate data collected from the literature and official sources was undertaken to estimate expected and observed prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, annual incidence of congenital transmission and rate of underdiagnosis of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in the nine European countries with the highest prevalence of Chagas disease. Formal and informal data sources were used to estimate the population from endemic countries resident in Europe in 2009, diagnosed cases of Chagas disease and births from mothers originating from endemic countries. By 2009, 4,290 cases had been diagnosed in Europe, compared with an estimated 68,000 to 122,000 expected cases. The expected prevalence was very high in undocumented migrants (on average 45% of total expected cases) while the observed prevalence rate was 1.3 cases per 1,000 resident migrants from endemic countries. An estimated 20 to 183 babies with congenital Chagas disease are born annually in the study countries. The annual incidence rate of congenital transmission per 1,000 pregnancies in women from endemic countries was between none and three cases. The index of under diagnosis of T. cruzi infection was between 94% and 96%. Chagas disease is a public health challenge in the studied European countries. Urgent measures need to be taken to detect new cases of congenital transmission and take care of the existing cases with a focus on migrants without legal residency permit and potential difficulty accessing care. PMID:21944556

Basile, L; Jansa, J M; Carlier, Y; Salamanca, D D; Angheben, A; Bartoloni, A; Seixas, J; Van Gool, T; Canavate, C; Flores-Chavez, M; Jackson, Y; Chiodini, P L; Albajar-Vinas, P

2011-01-01

400

Purified Excreted-Secreted Antigens from Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigotes as Tools for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

There is currently no “gold standard” test for the diagnosis of late-stage Chagas' disease. As a result, protection of the blood supply in areas where Chagas' disease is endemic remains problematic. A panel of 709 serum samples from subjects with confirmed Chagas' disease (n = 195), healthy controls (n = 400), and patients with other parasitic diseases (n = 114) was used to assess enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on a concentrated extract of excretory-secretory antigens from either Brazil or Tulahuen strain Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes (total trypomastigote excretory-secretory antigens [TESAs]). The total TESA-based assays had excellent overall sensitivity (100%) and specificity (>94%), except for cross-reactivity with Leishmania-infected sera. In an attempt to increase the specificity of the assay, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify the TESA proteins (TESAIA proteins). By Western blotting, a series of polypeptide bands with molecular masses ranging from 60 to 220 kDa were recognized by pooled sera positive for Chagas' disease. An ELISA based on TESAIA proteins had a slightly lower sensitivity (98.6%) but an improved specificity (100%) compared to the sensitivity and specificity of the total TESA protein-based ELISAs. A 60-kDa polypeptide was identified as a major contributor to the cross-reactivity with Leishmania. These data suggest the need for field validation studies of TESA- and TESAIA-based assays in regions where Chagas' disease is endemic.

Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Ndao, Momar; Bubis, Jose; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Ache, Alberto; Lacouture, Sonia; Medina, Mehudy; Ward, Brian J.

2006-01-01

401

Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for diagnosis of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is a common cause of morbidity in Latin American countries. In Brazil, naturally occurring transmission of its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has been almost completely abolished through effective control programs aimed at the triatomid insect vector. Thus, transfusion of blood from infected donors has become the major route for contracting Chagas' disease due to the socioeconomically motivated migration of residents from areas where the disease is endemic to the larger urban centers. Therefore, the employment of screening tests is mandatory for all blood banks throughout the country. We compared the diagnostic performances of three commercially available screening assays used in routine testing in Brazilian blood banks: the Abbott Chagas antibody enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil, São Paulo), the BIOELISACRUZI kit (Biolab-Mérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and the BIOZIMA Chagas kit (Polychaco S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires, Argentina). The evaluation was performed with sera obtained from chagasic patients and healthy residents of four different areas in Brazil where Chagas' disease is either endemic or emergent and where clinical manifestations of the disease and circulating parasite strains vary. The results obtained with each kit were compared to matched in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay data obtained for each sample. Depending on the area under investigation, the three commercial kits produced specificity values between 93.3 and 100.0%, sensitivity values between 97.7 and 100%, and accuracies ranging from 93.6 to 100.0%. PMID:9705367

Oelemann, W M; Teixeira, M D; Veríssimo Da Costa, G C; Borges-Pereira, J; De Castro, J A; Coura, J R; Peralta, J M

1998-09-01

402

Evaluation of Three Commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease is a common cause of morbidity in Latin American countries. In Brazil, naturally occurring transmission of its etiologic agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, has been almost completely abolished through effective control programs aimed at the triatomid insect vector. Thus, transfusion of blood from infected donors has become the major route for contracting Chagas’ disease due to the socioeconomically motivated migration of residents from areas where the disease is endemic to the larger urban centers. Therefore, the employment of screening tests is mandatory for all blood banks throughout the country. We compared the diagnostic performances of three commercially available screening assays used in routine testing in Brazilian blood banks: the Abbott Chagas antibody enzyme immunoassay (Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil, São Paulo), the BIOELISACRUZI kit (Biolab-Mérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), and the BIOZIMA Chagas kit (Polychaco S.A.I.C., Buenos Aires, Argentina). The evaluation was performed with sera obtained from chagasic patients and healthy residents of four different areas in Brazil where Chagas’ disease is either endemic or emergent and where clinical manifestations of the disease and circulating parasite strains vary. The results obtained with each kit were compared to matched in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence assay data obtained for each sample. Depending on the area under investigation, the three commercial kits produced specificity values between 93.3 and 100.0%, sensitivity values between 97.7 and 100%, and accuracies ranging from 93.6 to 100.0%.

Oelemann, Walter M. R.; Teixeira, Maria Da Gloria M.; Verissimo Da Costa, Giovani C.; Borges-Pereira, Jose; De Castro, Jose Adail F.; Coura, Jose Rodrigues; Peralta, Jose Mauro

1998-01-01

403

[Current prospects of specific treatment of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The evolution of the specific treatment of Chagas' disease, including the numerous drugs tested, is briefly summarized. Since 1969 laboratory and clinical studies have persistently demonstrated that nifurtimox (NFX) and benznidazole (BNL) are the best agents for treating Trypanosoma cruzi human infection, even though they cannot be considered ideal drugs. The main indications for NFX and BNL are: acute phase of the infection, congenital form, reactivation associated with immunosuppression, recently acquired infection, mostly in children and young adults, and in transfusions and organ transplant situations. Both drugs may also be indicated for the treatment of some patients in the undetermined asymptomatic form of the chronic infection with mild heart involvement, or in clinical megaesophagus patients who previously need symptomatic treatment to ensure the appropriate absorption of the medication. The most used dosage schedules are: NFX for 60-90 days, 8-10 mg/kg/day in adults and < 15 mg/kg/day in children. BNL, for 60 days, 5 mg/kg/day in adults and < 10 mg/kg/day in children. Both drugs are taken orally and must be given divided into 2-3 fractions after meals. Both drugs are well tolerated by children, and particularly in the acute phase of the disease. Adverse reactions may be observed, i.e. disturbances associated to the digestive tract such as hyporexia, nausea, vomiting and loss of weight with NFX, and dermopathy and polyneuropathy, with BNL. The main limitations of both drugs are in the long course of administration and the occurrence of adverse side effects. A series of promising new drugs for the treatment of human Chagas' disease is being tested. Because the relative lack of interest of the pharmaceutical industry in the research for new drugs for the treatment of the parasitosis--which affects 16-18 million people in Latin America--Universities and Research Governmental Institution should stimulate the investigation for the development of new drugs and the clinical evaluation of drugs experimentally known and not yet tested. PMID:9302778

Coura, J R

1996-01-01

404

Antiproliferative and immunostimulatory protein fraction from edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Fruit bodies and mycelia of various higher Basidiomycetes were studied in search of biological effector molecules. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties of a protein fraction designated as Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein (CBAEP) isolated from five different species of edible mushrooms (Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indica, Astraeus hygrometricus, and Volvariella volvacea). This protein fraction (10-100?g/ml) mediated antiproliferative activity on several tumor cell lines through the induction of apoptosis. Also the isolated protein fraction from all five mushrooms had a stimulatory effect on splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. Further it enhanced mouse natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and stimulated macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO). The highest immunostimulatory activity was determined in the CBAEP from T. clypeatus and the highest antiproliferative activity from C. indica. PMID:21783909

Maiti, Swatilekha; Bhutia, Sujit K; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Kumar, Alok; Khadgi, Niyati; Maiti, Tapas K

2008-09-01

405

Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area  

SciTech Connect

Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the present paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).

Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.; Pozo-Lora, R.

1986-05-01

406

Voluntary ingestion of Cortinarius mushrooms leading to chronic interstitial nephritis.  

PubMed

'Magic mushrooms' ingestion among the drug-using population has become a popular cheap way to get hallucinogenic effects which is not free of complications. One of these is acute renal failure related to Cortinarius genus intake. This one greatly resembles 'magic mushrooms' and confusion is possible for inexperienced collectors. We report the case of a young male ex-drug addict who developed acute tubulointerstitial nephritis after voluntary ingestion of Cortinarius orellanus. The clinical picture was preceded by a long latency period, had an insidious course without any data of hepatoxicity and evolved to a chronic state. Renal biopsy showed nonspecific histopathological findings. In summary, it is important to bear this possibility in mind when facing an acute tubulointerstitial nephritis of unknown origin in a drug-taking patient. PMID:9845839

Calviño, J; Romero, R; Pintos, E; Novoa, D; Güimil, D; Cordal, T; Mardaras, J; Arcocha, V; Lens, X M; Sanchez-Guisande, D

1998-01-01

407

Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology  

PubMed Central

Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of freestanding lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model.

FISCHER, Mark W. F.; MONEY, Nicholas P.

2009-01-01

408

Silver content of wild-grown mushrooms from northern Poland.  

PubMed

Wild-grown and mostly edible species of higher mushrooms collected in 1989-1992 from the districts of Gda?sk, Elblag and Pi?a (northern part of Poland) have been investigated with regard to their silver content. In total, 527 samples including 25 mushroom species of six families (Agaricaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Coprinaceae and Russulaceae) were examined. Among the fungi examined only Agaricus campestris and A. augustus were heavy bioaccumulating species and showed the highest concentrations of 35 mg Ag/kg dry weight (1.1-150) and 2.0-6.9 mg/kg, respectively. Silver concentrations exceeding 1.0 mg/kg dry weight were noted in Boletus aestivalis, Lepista nuda, L. personata, and in some specimens of B. edulis, Leccinum scrabum, L. vulpinum, Cantharellus cibarius and Coprinus comatus. PMID:7975911

Falandysz, J; Bona, H; Danisiewicz, D

1994-09-01

409

[The influence of cooking on radiocaesium contamination of edible mushrooms].  

PubMed

Radiocaesium concentration in some kinds of edible mushrooms collected in October 1990 has been determined to evaluate the radiocaesium activity 5 years after Chernobyl accident. The highest activity was found in Xerocomus subtomentosus (1080.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight), then in Rozites caperata (768.5 Bq/kg) and Xerocomus badius (562.5 Bq/kg); the lowest--in Suillus luteus (52.0 Bq/kg) and Cantharellus cibarius (63.0 Bq/kg). Studies on the influence of cooking on radiocaesium activity revealed that parboiling and boiling of mushrooms led to high, even 85% losses of radiocaesium in the product. Samples of Xerocomus badius collected in various sites of North-East Poland in 1995 averaged to 195.4 +/- 125.5 Bq/kg of fresh weight. PMID:10523934

Skibniewska, K A; Smoczy?ski, S S

1999-01-01

410

Microwave-assisted air dehydration of apple and mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hot-air dehydration of apple and mushroom was performed with low-power microwave energy. The purpose of the investigation was to compare hot-air drying and microwave-assisted hot-air drying. The air velocity, the microwave output power and the air temperature were the variables in the experiments. The microwave energy was supplied by either microwave applicators with transverse magnetic (TM) modes as dominant

Tomas Funebo; Thomas Ohlsson

1998-01-01

411

Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote the use of mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals, several experiments were performed in wild and commercial species. The analysis of nutrients included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars by HPLC-RI. The analysis of nutraceuticals included determination of fatty acids by GC-FID, and other phytochemicals such as tocopherols, by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics,

Lillian Barros; Telma Cruz; Paula Baptista; Letícia M. Estevinho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2008-01-01

412

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before.

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

413

Non-volatile taste components of several speciality mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four speciality mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Protein contents ranged from 14.6 to 22.3%. Carbohydrate contents were high in basket stinkhorn and white matsutake (67.0 and 70.1%) and low in maitake and lion's mane (58.8 and 57.2%, respectively). Contents of total soluble

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jung-Tsun Ma; Si-Fu Song

2001-01-01

414

Ethanol diminishes the toxicity of the mushroom Amanita phalloides.  

PubMed

Survival of mice after lethal doses of a lyophilizate from Amanita phalloides ('death cap') was markedly increased by single doses of ethanol applied 30 min before or 5 min after the mushroom. Hepatic histopathological damage (confluent necrosis) was largely prevented. Acute, but not chronic, consumption of ethanol may thus influence favorably the outcome of death cap poisoning and should be taken into consideration in the evaluation of therapeutic measures. PMID:6500014

Floersheim, G L; Bianchi, L

1984-11-15

415

Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.  

PubMed

Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) within two compost production yards for some parameters, therefore, for the most part, the uniformity of SMC within each yard is relatively consistent. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were evident when comparing SMC obtained from growers supplied with compost from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture. PMID:17306529

Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

2008-01-01

416

76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

2011-10-27

417

Acute mushroom poisoning : a report of 41 cases.  

PubMed

A retrospective analysis of all mushroom poisoning cases admitted in Tansen Mission Hospital in the period of two months of the year 2005 was done. Forty-one cases were admitted during that period, among which only 34 case records could be found for analysis. Female (58.82%) outnumbered the male and 15 (44.11%) of the cases were from pediatric age group. The poisoning was secondary to consumption of different species of Amanita variety including the most poisonous Amanita phalloides. The commonest symptoms at the time of presentation in both adults and children was gastrointestinal (diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain). There were 12 mortalities and they died at the median interval of 3.5 days after admission. The main cause of death was acute liver failure and acute renal failure. Relative risk of having a bad outcome was found to be higher when the mushroom was consumed with alcohol when compared with non-alcoholics. High mortality was probably due to late presentation and only the conservative management in all the cases. Increased community and medical awareness is needed to reduce the frequency, morbidity and mortality of mushroom poisoning. PMID:17721556

Joshi, A; Awale, P; Shrestha, A; Lee, M

2007-01-01

418

Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

1988-10-01

419

Internal structure of mushroom-shaped salt diapirs  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the dynamics and kinematics of salt diapirs with crestal bulbs shaped like a mushroom, one of the most complex types of diapirs, as interpreted by experimental modeling and from naturally occurring examples. Direct, practical applications of this research include use in the evaluation of salt domes as repositories for radioactive waste, in the exploration and production of salt, potash, and sulfur, and in the search for subtle hydrocarbon traps. The authors conducted 8 centrifuge experiments, which produced more than 100 model diapirs. These experiments were dynamically scaled to U.S. Gulf Coast salt domes, but the qualitative results are also relevant to salt diapirs in other provinces and to granitoid diapirs penetrating metamorphic crust. The centrifuged domes grew under overburdens of constant thickness or under aggrading and prograding overburdens, a new experimental approach. Results indicate that external mushroom structure results from toroidal circulation of buoyant source and immediate cover having similar effective viscosities, whereas internal structure is produced by toroidal circulation confined within the diapir. The internal diapir structure elucidates the mechanics of emplacement and indicates whether an external mushroom shape can be expected and sought by further exploration.

Not Available

1989-01-01

420

Direct micromethod for diagnosis of acute and congenital Chagas' disease.  

PubMed Central

A microhematocrit concentration method (MH) for immediate diagnosis of Chagas' disease during the acute stage or in congenital cases was standardized. Parasitemia as low as 1,000 parasites per ml was detected, after centrifugation of six 50-microliters capillary tubes, by 10-min microscopic observation of each buffy coat spread between slide and cover glass. Operator's time was reduced by at least one-third when compared with a fresh blood observation (FB). In 12 of the 15 patients studied, diagnosis was performed in 4.9 +/- 3.08 min with MH, whereas 27.0 +/- 12.1 min were necessary when FB was used. In the three remaining patients whose FB results were negative, MH became positive after 13, 16, and 40 min. In our experience, FB proved to be more sensitive than previously reported. Suckling mouse inoculation also proved to be sensitive but, as in xenodiagnosis and in hemoculture, the delay in getting the final result was a limiting factor.

Feilij, H; Muller, L; Gonzalez Cappa, S M

1983-01-01

421

Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

2014-08-22

422

Archaeosomes display immunoadjuvant potential for a vaccine against Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen. PMID:23291939

Higa, Leticia H; Corral, Ricardo S; Morilla, María José; Romero, Eder L; Petray, Patricia B

2013-01-01

423

Archaeosomes display immunoadjuvant potential for a vaccine against Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen.

Higa, Leticia H.; Corral, Ricardo S.; Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder L.; Petray, Patricia B.

2013-01-01

424

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

Ramirez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunuba, Zulma M.; Florez, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

425

Chagas disease vector control in Tupiza, southern Bolivia.  

PubMed

Heavy domestic and peridomestic infestations of Triatoma infestans were controlled in two villages in southern Bolivia by the application of deltamethrin SC25 (2.5% suspension concentrate) at a target dose of 25 mg a.i./m2. Actual applied dose was monitored by HPLC analysis of filter papers placed at various heights on the house walls, and was shown to range from 0 to 59.6 about a mean of 28.5 mg a.i./m2. Wall bioassays showed high mortality of T. infestans during the first month after the application of deltamethrin. Mortality declined to zero as summer temperatures increased, but reappeared with the onset of the following winter. In contrast, knockdown was apparent throughout the trial, showing no discernible temperature dependence. House infestation rates, measured by manual sampling and use of paper sheets to collect bug faeces, declined from 79% at the beginning of the trial to zero at the 6 month evaluation. All but one of the houses were still free of T. infestans at the final evaluation 12 months after spraying, although a small number of bugs were found at this time in 5 of 355 peridomestic dependencies. Comparative cost studies endorse the recommendation of large-scale application of deltamethrin, or pyrethroid of similar cost-effectiveness, as a means to eliminate domestic T. infestans populations in order to interrupt transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:9302405

Guillen, G; Diaz, R; Jemio, A; Cassab, J A; Pinto, C T; Schofield, C J

1997-01-01

426

Acute Chagas Disease Induces Cerebral Microvasculopathy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyopathy is the main clinical form of Chagas disease (CD); however, cerebral manifestations, such as meningoencephalitis, ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment, can also occur. The aim of the present study was to investigate functional microvascular alterations and oxidative stress in the brain of mice in acute CD. Acute CD was induced in Swiss Webster mice (SWM) with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Cerebral functional capillary density (the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries), leukocyte rolling and adhesion and the microvascular endothelial-dependent response were analyzed over a period of fifteen days using intravital video-microscopy. We also evaluated cerebral oxidative stress with the thiobarbituric acid reactive species TBARS method. Compared with the non-infected group, acute CD significantly induced cerebral functional microvascular alterations, including (i) functional capillary rarefaction, (ii) increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion, (iii) the formation of microvascular platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and (iv) alteration of the endothelial response to acetylcholine. Moreover, cerebral oxidative stress increased in infected animals. We concluded that acute CD in mice induced cerebral microvasculopathy, characterized by a reduced incidence of perfused capillaries, a high number of microvascular platelet-leukocyte aggregates, a marked increase in leukocyte-endothelium interactions and brain arteriolar endothelial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress. These results suggest the involvement of cerebral microcirculation alterations in the neurological manifestations of CD.

Nisimura, Lindice Mitie; Estato, Vanessa; de Souza, Elen Mello; Reis, Patricia A.; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Tibirica, Eduardo; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro

2014-01-01

427

Clinical aspects of Chagas disease and implications for novel therapies  

PubMed Central

The interaction between the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and the human host dates back 9000 years, as demonstrated by molecular analysis of material obtained from Andean mummies indicating the presence of the parasite’s kinetoplast DNA in populations from Chile and Peru. This long-established interaction, which persists today, demonstrates that T. cruzi has established a very well adapted relationship with the human host. From a host-parasite relationship point-of-view this is desirable, however, such a high degree of adaptation is perhaps the foundation for many of the unknowns that surround this disease. Unveiling of the immunological mechanisms that underlie the establishment of pathology, identification of parasite-associated factors that determine strain-differential tissue tropism, discovery of host genetic elements that influence the development of different clinical forms of the disease, and understanding environmental factors that may influence the host-parasite interactions, are some of the key questions remaining to be answered. The response to these questions will aid in addressing some of the current challenges in Chagas disease: fulfilling the need for efficient diagnosis, developing effective prophylactic measures, discovering effective therapeutics, and finding methods to control disease progression.

Menezes, Cristiane; Costa, Germano Carneiro; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

2012-01-01

428

Chagas disease: don't forget it in Latin American patients with heart block!  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and mostly affects poor rural populations of central and south America. It is mainly acquired by bugs (triatoma) but also by ingestion of the parasite (fresh fruit juices) or by foetal-maternal blood passing. Despite an important decrease in transmission during the last decades in several countries, millions of patients are still chronically infected and most of them are asymptomatic. In 2012-2013, two cases were admitted in our cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) with heart block due to Chagas cardiomyopathy. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography and positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi. This report underlines that in cases of heart failure and conduction abnormalities of unclear aetiology, Chagas disease should be taken into consideration, even in patients originating from non-endemic countries. PMID:24783476

Bimbi, Baby Jean-Marc Bantu; Unger, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc; Silance, Paul-Gaël; Van Laethem, Yves

2014-04-01

429

A three-dimensional multi-agent-based model for the evolution of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

A better understanding of Chagas' disease is important because the knowledge about the progression and the participation of the different types of cells in this disease are still lacking. To clarify this system, the kinetics of inflammatory cells and parasite nests was shown in an experiment. Using this experimental data, we have developed a three-dimensional multi-agent-based computational model for the evolution of Chagas' disease. Our model includes five different types of agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, fibroblast, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move through the empty space. They move randomly by using the Moore neighborhood. This model reproduces the acute and chronic phases of Chagas' disease and the volume occupied by all different types of cells in the cardiac tissue. PMID:20347006

Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

2010-06-01

430

[Control of Chagas disease in pregnant Latin-American women and her children].  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a chronic and systemic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. According to estimates from WHO, 10 million people are affected by this parasite. In the last years, birthrate among the immigrant women from Latin America settled in the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid has been increasing, and as T. cruzi can be transmitted from mother to child, in fact 11 cases of congenital Chagas disease have been confirmed. Therefore, the aim of this paper is encouraging improvements in the coverage of the anti-T. cruzi antibodies detection in pregnant women from endemic areas. By this strategy, an active search for infected pregnant women and early detection of her infected newborns could be conducted, and then an early specific treatment could be administrated. Thus, there could be an important contribution to the control of Chagas disease in non-endemic area. PMID:24080893

Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Olabarrieta, Iciar; Merino, Paloma; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Gastañaga, Teresa; Flores-Chavez, María

2013-09-01

431

Congenital Chagas disease of second generation in Santiago, Chile. Report of two cases.  

PubMed

Congenital Chagas disease (CChD) has been reported in different countries, mostly in Latin America. In 1987 a fatal case of CChD of second generation (CChDSG) was published. Within a period of six months--1989-1990--two cases of CChDSG were diagnosed and studied in the city of Santiago. Two premature newborns, sons of two sisters, with moderate liver and spleen enlargement, were found to have positive serology for Chagas disease and xenodiagnoses. The mothers, urban residents all their lives, without antecedents of triatomine bugs contact or blood transfusions, showed positive serology and xenodiagnoses. Their mother (grandmother of the infants), lived 20 years in a Northern rural Chagas disease endemic locality, in a triatomine infested house. Afterwards, she moved to Santiago, where she married and has resided up to now. Serology and xenodiagnoses were also positive. All the Trypanosoma cruzi infected individuals were successfully treated with nifurtimox. PMID:11558005

Schenone, H; Gaggero, M; Sapunar, J; Contreras, M C; Rojas, A

2001-01-01

432

Field evaluation of a diagnostic protocol for Chagas' disease and rangeliosis.  

PubMed

The present paper evaluates the protocol for the diagnosis of Chagas' diseases and rangeliosis that is suitable for use in remote and scarcely populated rural areas. Beginning with a blood sample taken by venipuncture in the rural dispensary from 350 inhabitants of Caserío La Sierra, Cojedes State, Venezuela, samples were analyzed at a laboratory located at a distance of 150 Km. Each blood sample was analyzed for blood and clot culture, artificial xenodiagnosis, inoculation into mice, complement fixation reaction (CFR), and indirect fluorescent antibodies test (IFA). Nine isolates of trypanosomes were obtained and identified as Trypanosoma rangeli, 29.4% of the blood samples showed seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi, 7.1% of total of persons between 6 and 18 years were found infected with T. rangeli, suggesting active transmission of this trypanosome in an endemic area for Chagas' disease. Results indicate that this protocol of study is reliable, economical and sufficiently versatile to study both rangeliosis and Chagas' disease. PMID:9460249

Araque, W; Plasencia, E; Cortés, C; Contreras, V

1996-01-01

433

T rypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase as a multifunctional enzyme in Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) was identified three decades ago. TS catalyses a trans-glycosylation reaction, transferring SA from sialylated donors to the terminal galactose mucin-glycoconjugates, or non-mucin galactyosyl-glycoconjugates. It is an external surface protein that is also released from the parasite, displaying several binding properties in addition to its enzymatic function. TS structure has been solved and its catalytic properties are well known, providing tools for development of new inhibitors, as potential chemotherapeutic agents against Chagas' disease. However, there are still several unsolved questions regarding TS role in the biology of T.?cruzi and in the pathology of Chagas' disease. In this review, we will describe the multifunctional roles of TS regarding the development of Chagas' disease and propose that these multiple functions have to be considered in future investigations aiming to use TS as a drug target. PMID:22747789

Dc-Rubin, Sergio S C; Schenkman, Sergio

2012-10-01

434

Epidemiology, control and surveillance of Chagas disease: 100 years after its discovery.  

PubMed

Chagas disease originated millions of years ago as an enzootic infection of wild animals and began to be transmitted to humans as an anthropozoonosis when man invaded wild ecotopes. While evidence of human infection has been found in mummies up to 9,000 years old, endemic Chagas disease became established as a zoonosis only in the last 200-300 years, as triatomines adapted to domestic environments. It is estimated that 15-16 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in Latin America, and 75-90 million are exposed to infection. Control of Chagas disease must be undertaken by interrupting its transmission by vectors and blood transfusions, improving housing and areas surrounding dwellings, providing sanitation education for exposed populations and treating acute and recently infected chronic cases. These measures should be complemented by surveillance and primary, secondary and tertiary care. PMID:19753455

Coura, José Rodrigues; Dias, João Carlos Pinto

2009-07-01

435

75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-09-29

436

76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-03-25

437

75 FR 3896 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2003. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of...

2010-01-25

438

Improving indoor conditions of a Thai-style mushroom house by means of an evaporative cooler and continuous ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses the effect of an evaporative cooling process and continuous ventilation for improving the indoor conditions of a conventional Thai-style mushroom house. A numerical model describing the behaviour of the Thai-style mushroom house model was developed. It was validated by comparing its output with that of the experiment of a small model of a mushroom house. It was

S. Thepa; K. Kirtikara; J. Hirunlabh; J. Khedari

1999-01-01

439

Cardiac Autonomic Control Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Chagas' Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Primary abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system had been postulated as the pathogenic mechanisms of myocardial damage, in patients with Chagas disease. However, recent investigations indicate that these abnormalities are secondary and amenable to treatment with beta-adrenergic blockers. Moreover, muscarinic cardiac autoantibodies appear to enhance parasympathetic activity on the sinus node. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze how knowledge on Chagas' disease evolved from being initially considered as a primary cardioneuromyopathy to the current status of a congestive cardiomyopathy of parasitic origin.

Davila, Diego F.; Donis, Jose H.; Arata de Bellabarba, Gabriela; Villarroel, Vanesa; Sanchez, Francisco; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Das Neves, Barbara

2012-01-01

440

Mother-to-child transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection (Chagas disease): a neglected problem.  

PubMed

Congenital Chagas disease may be considered a global health problem and the underdiagnosis of congenital infections should be a matter of concern. Vertical transmission is an important mode of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in non-endemic areas. Treatment in the early phases of the