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1

Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines. PMID:24380885

Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

2014-01-01

2

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

3

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely\\u000a forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called ‘Chaga’. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an

Weifa Zheng; Kangjie Miao; Yubing Liu; Yanxia Zhao; Meimei Zhang; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai

2010-01-01

4

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-01

5

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

2008-01-01

6

Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... that cause Chagas disease are in the bug’s feces. People will usually scratch the bite and when this happens, a small amount of the bug’s feces, along with the germs, enter the bloodstream. ? The ...

7

Chagas disease  

MedlinePLUS

American trypanosomiasis ... Kirchhoff LV. Trypanosoma species (American trypanosomiasis, Chagas' disease): Biology of trypanosomes. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. ...

8

Mushroom Prints  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will be amateur mycologists--collecting and analyzing various mushrooms. Through observation and discussion, students will gain knowledge of the basic anatomy of mushrooms, their life cycle, and their method of reproduction through spores. Students will learn to create spore prints of mushrooms and label and preserve their spore prints, just like a mycologist. Students also will learn that by comparing spore prints, they can identify different mushroom species.

9

Mushroom Poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

MENU Return to Web version Food Poisoning | Mushroom Poisoning Is it possible to tell if a wild mushroom is poisonous? You can't tell for sure if a ... watch the person for any symptoms of mushroom poisoning for the next 24 hours. Written by familydoctor.org editorial staff ... Reviewed/Updated: 04/14 Created: 09/00

10

[Hallucinogenic mushrooms].  

PubMed

The group of hallucinogenic mushrooms (species of the genera Conocybe, Gymnopilus, Panaeolus, Pluteus, Psilocybe, and Stropharia) is psilocybin-containing mushrooms. These "magic", psychoactive fungi have the serotonergic hallucinogen psilocybin. Toxicity of these mushrooms is substantial because of the popularity of hallucinogens. Psilocybin and its active metabolite psilocin are similar to lysergic acid diethylamide. These hallucinogens affect the central nervous system rapidly (within 0.5-1 hour after ingestion), producing ataxia, hyperkinesis, and hallucinations. In this review article there are discussed about history of use of hallucinogenic mushrooms and epidemiology; pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, somatic effects and pharmacokinetics of psilocybin, the clinical effects of psilocybin and psilocin, signs and symptoms of ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms, treatment and prognosis. PMID:16401965

Reingardiene, Dagmara; Vilcinskaite, Jolita; Lazauskas, Robertas

2005-01-01

11

Src kinase-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of davallialactone from Inonotus xeranticus in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Mushrooms are popular both as food and as a source of natural compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. Some mushroom-derived compounds such as ?-glucan have been shown to be immunostimulatory; this study explores the anti-inflammatory properties of hispidin analogues derived from the mushroom, Inonotus xeranticus. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism of action of these hispidin analogues by determining their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in a macrophage cell line. Experimental approach: The production of inflammatory mediators was determined by Griess assay, reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA. The inhibitory effect of davalliactone on LPS-induced activation of signalling cascades was assessed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation and direct kinase assay. Key results: In activated RAW264.7 cells, davallialactone strongly downregulated LPS-mediated inflammatory responses, including NO production, prostaglandin E2 release, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cell surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Davallialactone treatment did not alter cell viability or morphology. Davallialactone was found to exert its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting a signalling cascade that activates nuclear factor kappa B via PI3K, Akt and IKK, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. Treatment with davallialactone affected the phosphorylation of these signalling proteins, but not their level of expression. These inhibitory effects were not due to the interruption of toll-like receptor 4 binding to CD14. In particular, davallialactone strongly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation and kinase activity of Src, implying that Src may be a potential pharmacological target of davallialactone. Conclusions and implications: Our data suggest that davallialactone, a small molecule found in edible mushrooms, has anti-inflammatory activity. Davallialactone can be developed as a pharmaceutically valuable anti-Src kinase agent. PMID:18454171

Lee, Y G; Lee, W M; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, I-K; Yun, B-S; Rhee, M H; Cho, J Y

2008-01-01

12

Wild Mushrooms in Nepal: Some Potential Candidates as Antioxidant and ACE-Inhibition Sources  

PubMed Central

Twenty-nine mushrooms collected in the mountainous areas of Nepal were analyzed for antioxidant activity by different methods, including Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, ABTS, and DPPH assays. Intracellular H2O2-scavenging activity was also performed on HaCaT cells. The results showed that phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant of the mushrooms. Among studied samples, Inonotus andersonii, and Phellinus gilvus exhibited very high antioxidant activity with the phenolic contents up to 310.8 and 258.7?mg GAE/g extracts, respectively. The H2O2-scavenging assay on cells also revealed the potential of these mushrooms in the prevention of oxidative stress. In term of ACE-inhibition, results showed that Phlebia tremellosa would be a novel and promising candidate for antihypertensive studies. This mushroom exhibited even higher in vitro ACE-inhibition activity than Ganoderma lingzhi, with the IC50 values of the two mushrooms being 32??g/mL and 2??g/mL, respectively. This is the first time biological activities of mushrooms collected in Nepal were reported. Information from this study should be a valuable reference for future studies on antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory activities of mushrooms. PMID:24672576

Hai Bang, Tran; Suhara, Hiroto; Doi, Katsumi; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Fukami, Katsuya; Parajuli, Gopal Prasad; Katakura, Yoshinori; Yamashita, Shuntaro; Watanabe, Kazuo; Adhikari, Mahesh Kumar; Manandhar, Hira Kaji; Kondo, Ryuichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

2014-01-01

13

Gastrointestinal manifestations of chagas' disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease is an infectious disease that affects millions of people in Latin America and is increasingly seen outside endemic areas. A substantial number of patients develop gastrointestinal disorders secondary to lesions of the enteric nervous system. The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge about gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas' disease, including disorders other than the well-known

Ricardo Brandt de Oliveira; LuizErnesto A. Troncon; Roberto Oliveira Dantas; Ulysses G. Meneghelli

1998-01-01

14

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

15

The history of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region. PMID:25011546

Steverding, Dietmar

2014-01-01

16

The history of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

The ancestor of Trypanosome cruzi was probably introduced to South American via bats approximately 7-10 million years ago. When the first humans arrived in the New World, a sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease was then already well established. Paleoparasitological data suggests that human American trypanosomiasis originated in the Andean area when people founded the first settlements in the coastal region of the Atacama Desert. Identification of T. cruzi as the etiological agent and triatome bugs as the transmission vector of Chagas disease occurred within a few years at the beginning of the 20th century. History also teaches us that human activity leading to environmental changes, in particular deforestation, is the main cause for the spread of Chagas disease. Recently, migration of T. cruzi-infected patients has led to a distribution of Chagas disease from Latin America to non-endemic countries in Europe, North America and western Pacific region. PMID:25011546

2014-01-01

17

JAMA Patient Page: Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... from an infected donor. Chagas disease occurs mainly in Latin America, where an estimated 8 million to 11 million ... Division of Parasitic Diseases at 770-488-7775. In Latin America, housing improvement and insecticide spraying have decreased the ...

18

Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

19

Mushroom Use by College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed 1,507 college students to investigate the extent of hallucinogenic mushroom use and compared mushroom users to nonusers. Results showed that among the respondents who reported use of hallucinogenic drugs (17 percent), over 85 percent had used hallucinogenic (psilocybin) mushrooms and over half had used mushrooms but no other…

Thompson, John P.; And Others

1985-01-01

20

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus BELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquus BELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily during the late stationary phase. Enhanced proliferation and polyclonal IgM antibody production were observed in B cells by purified water-soluble endo-polysaccharide. Nitrite production and expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and iNOS in macrophages were also enhanced. However, the endo-polysaccharide did not affect the proliferation of T cells, the IL-2 expression of Th1 cells, or the IL-4 expression of Th2 cells. The endo-polysaccharide showed activities similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for B cells and macrophages, but there was a large difference between the two polysaccharides because cellular activations induced by endo-polysaccharide were not affected by polymyxin B, a specific inhibitor of LPS. The endo-polysaccharide appeared to have other cellular binding sites with TLR-4 and did not show a direct toxicity against tumor cells. However, indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation were observed. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of I. obliquus is a candidate for use as an immune response modifier. Submerged mycelial cultures are advantageous for industrial production of polysaccharides. PMID:15970296

Kim, Yong Ook; Han, Sang Bae; Lee, Hong Woen; Ahn, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Jung, Joon Ki; Kim, Hwan Mook; Shin, Chul Soo

2005-09-23

21

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Blood Screening FAQs On This Page Why are blood ... be concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission ...

22

Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.  

PubMed

Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. PMID:25027706

Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2014-12-01

23

Immunostimulating Activity by Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

24

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????? ????????????? Investigation of mushroom GAP affecting mushrooms post-harvest quality in upper northern Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was carried out in mushroom farms in 2548-2549 in Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai and Lam Phun, that are the important mushroom production areas. The objective of this investigation is following up the GAP practicing for shiitake and oyster mushrooms of 45 growers by visiting and interviewing the mushroom growers in 11 points : 1) mushroom culture 2) mushroom

Siriporn Hassarangsee; Apiracht Somrit

25

Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after (99mTc)HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux.

Troncon, L.E.; Rezende Filho, J.; Iazigi, N.

1988-10-01

26

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

27

Selenium in Edible Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to

Jerzy Falandysz

2008-01-01

28

Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.  

PubMed

The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

2014-07-01

29

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2010-01-01

30

Rare Association: Chagas' Disease and Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

A woman (49 years) with Chagas' disease showed: ECG, right bundle-branch block and left anterior-superior fascicular block; V1 has unusual R > R', and elevated ST segment from V2 to V6 . Additional imaging revealed concomitant HCM and Chagas, which is uncommon. Overlapping of ECG findings can be explained by this rare association of diseases. PMID:25367861

Pastore, Carlos Alberto; Samesima, Nelson; Filho, Horácio Gomes Pereira; Varoni, Leonardo Paschoal Camacho; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Vieira, Marcelo Luiz; de Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Melo, Rodrigo de Jesus Louzeiro; Pereira, Alexandre da Costa; Daheer, Julia; Carlo, Carlos Henrique Del

2014-11-01

31

Chagas Disease Risk in Texas  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. Methods and Findings The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five–stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post–1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc–minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence–based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag–York–Mollié model and post–1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk is concentrated in south Texas. 3. The ecological and incidence–based risks were analyzed together in a multi–criteria dominance analysis of all counties and those counties in which there were as yet no reports of parasite incidence. Both analyses picked out counties in south Texas as those at highest risk. 4. As an alternative to the multi–criteria analysis, the ecological and incidence–based risks were compounded in a multiplicative composite risk model. Counties in south Texas emerged as those with the highest risk. 5. Risk as the relative expected exposure rate was computed using a multiplicative model for the composite risk and a scaled population county map for Texas. Counties with highest risk were those in south Texas and a few counties with high human populations in north, east, and central Texas showing that, though Chagas disease risk is concentrated in south Texas, it is not restricted to it. Conclusions For all of Texas, Chagas disease should be designated as reportable, as it is in Arizona and Massachusetts. At least for south Texas, lower than N, blood donor screening should be mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations should be established. It is also recommended that a joint initiative be undertaken by the United States and México to combat Chagas disease in the trans–border region. The methodology developed for this analysis can be easily exported to other geographical and disease contexts in which risk assessment is of potential value. PMID:20957148

Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E.; Frank, David M.; Rivaldi, Chissa–Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez–Cordero, Victor

2010-01-01

32

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

33

Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic ?-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic ?-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

Diao, Bao-zhong; Jin, Wei-rong; Yu, Xue-jing

2014-01-01

34

Chagas Heart Disease: Report on Recent Developments  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an important cause of cardiac disease in endemic areas of Latin America. It is now being diagnosed in non-endemic areas due to immigration. Typical cardiac manifestations of Chagas disease include dilated cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, cardioembolism and stroke. Clinical and laboratory-based research to define the pathology resulting from T. cruzi infection has shed light on many of the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these manifestations. Antiparasitic treatment may not be appropriate for patients with advanced cardiac disease. Clinical management of Chagas heart disease is similar to that used for cardiomyopathies due to other processes. Cardiac transplantation has been successfully performed in a small number of patients with Chagas heart disease. PMID:22293860

Machado, Fabiana S.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Kirchhoff, Louis V.; Shirani, Jamshid; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Mukherjee, Shankar; Nelson, Randin; Coyle, Christina M.; Spray, David C.; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Guan, Fangxia; Prado, Cibele M.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Weiss, Louis M.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2011-01-01

35

Chagas' disease as a foodborne illness.  

PubMed

Various researchers have studied the importance of the oral transmission of Chagas' disease since the mid-20th century. Only in recent years, due to an outbreak that occurred in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina in 2005 and to various outbreaks occurring during the last 3 years in the Brazilian Amazon basin, mainly associated with the consumption of Amazonian palm berry or açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice, has this transmission route aroused the attention of researchers. Nevertheless, reports published in the 1960s already indicated the possibility of Chagas' disease transmission via food in Brazil, mainly in the Amazonian region. Recently, in December 2007, an outbreak of Chagas' disease occurred in Caracas, Venezuela, related to ingestion of contaminated fruit juices. The objective of this article is to point out the importance of foodborne transmission in the etiology of Chagas' disease, on the basis of published research and Brazilian epidemiology data. PMID:19350996

Pereira, Karen Signori; Schmidt, Flávio Luis; Guaraldo, Ana M A; Franco, Regina M B; Dias, Viviane L; Passos, Luiz A C

2009-02-01

36

Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.  

PubMed

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-06-01

37

Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract  

PubMed Central

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-01-01

38

Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: Immunopathology and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects ca. 10 million people worldwide. About 30% of Chagas disease patients develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a particularly lethal inflammatory cardiomyopathy that occurs decades after the initial infection, while most patients remain asymptomatic. Mortality rate is higher than that of noninflammatory cardiomyopathy. CCC heart lesions present a Th1 T-cell-rich myocarditis, with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and prominent fibrosis. Data suggest that the myocarditis plays a major pathogenetic role in disease progression. Major unmet goals include the thorough understanding of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targets and identification of prognostic genetic factors. Chagas disease thus remains a neglected disease, with no vaccines or antiparasitic drugs proven efficient in chronically infected adults, when most patients are diagnosed. Both familial aggregation of CCC cases and the fact that only 30% of infected patients develop CCC suggest there might be a genetic component to disease susceptibility. Moreover, previous case-control studies have identified some genes associated to human susceptibility to CCC. In this paper, we will review the immunopathogenesis and genetics of Chagas disease, highlighting studies that shed light on the differential progression of Chagas disease patients to CCC. PMID:25210230

Chevillard, Christophe

2014-01-01

39

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share ... see the DPDx Web site: Chagas disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Diagnostic Procedures: Blood Specimens Print page Get email ...

40

Immunosuppression and Chagas Disease: A Management Challenge  

PubMed Central

Immunosuppression, which has become an increasingly relevant clinical condition in the last 50 years, modifies the natural history of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in most patients with Chagas disease. The main goal in this setting is to prevent the consequences of reactivation of T. cruzi infection by close monitoring. We analyze the relationship between Chagas disease and three immunosuppressant conditions, including a description of clinical cases seen at our center, a brief review of the literature, and recommendations for the management of these patients based on our experience and on the data in the literature. T. cruzi infection is considered an opportunistic parasitic infection indicative of AIDS, and clinical manifestations of reactivation are more severe than in acute Chagas disease. Parasitemia is the most important defining feature of reactivation. Treatment with benznidazole and/or nifurtimox is strongly recommended in such cases. It seems reasonable to administer trypanocidal treatment only to asymptomatic immunosuppressed patients with detectable parasitemia, and/or patients with clinically defined reactivation. Specific treatment for Chagas disease does not appear to be related to a higher incidence of neoplasms, and a direct role of T. cruzi in the etiology of neoplastic disease has not been confirmed. Systemic immunosuppressive diseases or immunosuppressants can modify the natural course of T. cruzi infection. Immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids have not been associated with higher rates of reactivation of Chagas disease. Despite a lack of evidence-based data, treatment with benznidazole or nifurtimox should be initiated before immunosuppression where possible to reduce the risk of reactivation. Timely antiparasitic treatment with benznidazole and nifurtimox (or with posaconazole in cases of therapeutic failure) has proven to be highly effective in preventing Chagas disease reactivation, even if such treatment has not been formally incorporated into management protocols for immunosuppressed patients. International consensus guidelines based on expert opinion would greatly contribute to standardizing the management of immunosuppressed patients with Chagas disease. PMID:23349998

Pinazo, María-Jesús; Espinosa, Gerard; Cortes-Lletget, Cristina; Posada, Elizabeth de Jesús; Aldasoro, Edelweiss; Oliveira, Inés; Muñoz, Jose; Gállego, Montserrat; Gascon, Joaquim

2013-01-01

41

Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini, portabella, enoki, shiitake, maitake, oyster, morel, chanterelle, and UV-treated portabella mushrooms were analyzed, as four composites each of a total of 71 samples from U.S. retail suppliers and producers. Vitamin D4 was present (>0.1 µg/100 g) in a total of 18 composites and in at least one composite of each mushroom type except white button. The level was highest in samples with known UV exposure: vitamin D enhanced portabella, and maitake mushrooms from one supplier (0.2–7.0 and 22.5–35.4 µg/100 g, respectively). Other mushrooms had detectable vitamin D4 in some but not all samples. In one composite of oyster mushrooms the vitamin D4 content was more than twice that of D2 (6.29 vs. 2.59 µg/100 g). Vitamin D4 exceeded 2 µg/100 g in the morel and chanterelle mushroom samples that contained D4, but was undetectable in two morel samples. The vitamin D4 precursor 22,23-dihydroergosterol was found in all composites (4.49–16.5 mg/100 g). Vitamin D4 should be expected to occur in mushrooms exposed to UV light, such as commercially produced vitamin D enhanced products, wild grown mushrooms or other mushrooms receiving incidental exposure. Because vitamin D4 coeluted with D3 in the routine HPLC analysis of vitamin D2 and an alternate mobile phase was necessary for resolution, researchers analyzing vitamin D2 in mushrooms and using D3 as an internal standard should verify that the system will resolve vitamins D3 and D4. PMID:22870201

Phillips, Katherine M.; Horst, Ronald L.; Koszewski, Nicholas J.; Simon, Ryan R.

2012-01-01

42

[Chagas disease with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinical cases].  

PubMed

We report 2 patients with AIDS who developed Chagas infection, one with encephalitis, the other with acute myocarditis. The implications of immune depression for the manifestations and course of Chagas disease are discussed. Chagas disease should be considered in patients with AIDS who live in endemic zones and who develop cerebral or cardiac manifestations. PMID:1340556

Labarca, J; Acuña, G; Saavedra, H; Oddó, D; Sepúlveda, C; Ballesteros, J; Alvarez, M

1992-02-01

43

Videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing in Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Dysphagia is the most common digestive symptom reported by patients with Chagas' disease. The condition results from abnormalities of esophageal motility. Our hypothesis is that there are also alterations of oral and pharyngeal transit during swallowing. We studied by videofluoroscopy the oral and pharyngeal transit during swallowing in 17 patients with dysphagia, a positive serologic test for Chagas' disease, and radiologic demonstration of esophageal involvement. The study also included 15 asymptomatic healthy volunteers. Each subject swallowed in duplicate 5 and 10 ml of liquid and paste barium boluses. Chagas' disease patients had a longer oropharyngeal transit with the 5-ml liquid bolus (p = 0.03), and a longer oral transit (p = 0.01) and pharyngeal transit (p = 0.04) with the 10-ml liquid bolus than controls. There was no difference between patients and controls with swallows of the 5-ml paste bolus. With swallows of the 10-ml paste bolus, the oropharyngeal transit (p = 0.05), pharyngeal transit (p = 0.04), pharyngeal clearance (p = 0.02), and UES opening (p = 0.01) took a longer amount of time in Chagas' disease patients than in controls. We conclude that the duration of pharyngeal transit is longer in patients with Chagas' disease than in normal subjects, especially with a bolus of pasty consistency and a volume of 10 ml. PMID:21221655

dos Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

2011-12-01

44

How the Mushroom Got Its Spots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.26 of PDF), learners discover why mushrooms have spots. Learners use a balloon, toilet paper, and water to simulate what happens as mushrooms grow. This activity can also function as a group demonstration.

Assinder, Sue; Rutter, Gordon

2002-01-01

45

Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?  

PubMed

Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. PMID:24518310

Guillén, J; Baeza, A

2014-07-01

46

21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Whole— consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems cut to...ounce) of drained weight of mushrooms. (viii) Organic acids...permitted), only where the inside metal of the container is fully...i) The name of the food is mushrooms. The style as provided...

2010-04-01

47

21 CFR 155.201 - Canned mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Whole— consisting of whole mushrooms with attached stems cut to...ounce) of drained weight of mushrooms. (viii) Organic acids...permitted), only where the inside metal of the container is fully...i) The name of the food is mushrooms. The style as provided...

2011-04-01

48

Lawn Clippings for Cultivation of Oyster Mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus var. sajor caju (Fr.) Singer, can be cultivated on a wide variety of substrates containing lignin and cellulose. Oyster mushroom cultivation can play an important role in managing organic waste. Oyster mushroom was grown on five substrates: sedge (Carex remota L.), lawn clippings (mix of Bermuda grass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], ryegrass [Lolium persicum L.], meadow

J. A. Olfati; Gh. Peyvast

2008-01-01

49

Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. PMID:24615848

Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

2014-09-01

50

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the

José Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles

2002-01-01

51

Kissing Bugs. The Vectors of Chagas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete picture of Chagas disease requires an appreciation of the many species of kissing bugs and their role in transmitting this disease to humans and other mammals. This chapter provides an overview of the taxonomy of the major species of kissing bugs and their evolution. Knowledge of systematics and biological kinship of these insects may contribute to novel and

Lori Stevens; Patricia L. Dorn; Justin O. Schmidt; John H. Klotz; David Lucero; Stephen A. Klotz

2011-01-01

52

The Mushroom Place. Part III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

Schlichter, Carol

1978-01-01

53

The "Mushroom Cloud" Demonstration Revisited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A revisitation of the classical "mushroom cloud" demonstration is described. Instead of aniline and benzoyl peroxide, the proposed reaction involves household chemicals such as alpha-pinene (turpentine oil) and trichloroisocyanuric acid ("Trichlor") giving an impressive demonstration of oxidation and combustion reactions that…

Panzarasa, Guido; Sparnacci, Katia

2013-01-01

54

Enteromegaly and cardiomegaly in Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease due to a trypanosome infection may lead to extensive destruction of ganglion cells in the peripheral autonomic system and may result in gross enlargement of the oesophagus, colon, and heart. From studies on nerve cell counts it is concluded that the number of ganglion cells in the oesophagus must be reduced to less than half to produce functional disturbances in the oesophagus and to one tenth to produce a megaoesophagus. Problems of terminology are discussed. PMID:14084752

Köberle, Fritz

1963-01-01

55

Use of a Novel Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) for Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission is considered one of the pillars of control programs of Chagas disease. Congenital transmission accounts for 25% of new infections with an estimated 15,000 infected infants per year. Current programs to detect congenital Chagas disease in Latin America utilize microscopy early in life and serology after 6 months. These programs suffer from low sensitivity by microscopy and high loss to follow-up later in infancy. We developed a Chagas urine nanoparticle test (Chunap) to concentrate, preserve and detect T. cruzi antigens in urine for early, non-invasive diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a proof-of-concept study of Chunap for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Poly N-isopropylacrylamide nano-particles functionalized with trypan blue were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and characterized with photon correlation spectroscopy. We evaluated the ability of the nanoparticles to capture, concentrate and preserve T. cruzi antigens. Urine samples from congenitally infected and uninfected infants were then concentrated using these nanoparticles. The antigens were eluted and detected by Western Blot using a monoclonal antibody against T. cruzi lipophosphoglycan. The nanoparticles concentrate T. cruzi antigens by 100 fold (western blot detection limit decreased from 50 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml). The sensitivity of Chunap in a single specimen at one month of age was 91.3% (21/23, 95% CI: 71.92%–98.68%), comparable to PCR in two specimens at 0 and 1 month (91.3%) and significantly higher than microscopy in two specimens (34.8%, 95% CI: 16.42%–57.26%). Chunap specificity was 96.5% (71/74 endemic, 12/12 non-endemic specimens). Particle-sequestered T. cruzi antigens were protected from trypsin digestion. Conclusion/Significance Chunap has the potential to be developed into a simple and sensitive test for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. PMID:25275534

Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Sánchez, Gerardo; Valencia Ayala, Edward; Liotta, Lance; Bern, Caryn; Luchini, Alessandra

2014-01-01

56

Elevated cardiac enzymes due to mushroom poisoning.  

PubMed

Mushroom poisoning is an important reason of plant toxicity. Wild mushrooms that gathered from pastures and forests can be dangerous for human health. The clinical outcomes and symptoms of mushroom toxicity vary from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to acute multiple organ failure. Toxic effects to kidney and liver of amatoxin are common but cardiotoxic effects are unusual. In this case, we reported the cardiotoxic effect of amatoxin with the elevated troponin-I without any additional finding in electrocardiography, echocardiography and angiography. PMID:25567466

Avc?, Sema; Usul, Eren; Kavak, Nezih; Büyükcam, Fatih; Arslan, Engin Deniz; Genç, Selim; Özkan, Seda

2014-01-01

57

Antioxidant properties of several commercial mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Tainung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were obtained commercially and methanolic extracts were prepared from these mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities by the 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid method were moderate to high at 1.2 mg ml?1. Reducing powers were excellent (and higher than 1.28

Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau

2002-01-01

58

Uruguay declared free of Chagas disease transmission.  

PubMed

According to 1997 entomological and sero-epidemiological data, the transmission of Chagas disease has been interrupted in Uruguay; this has been certified by an independent commission appointed by the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO). Transmission of Chagas disease, which is endemic in Uruguay, is via the vector Triatoma infestans or through transfusion with infected blood. In 1983, T. infestans lived in dwellings in 80% of Uruguay; in 1996, in all departments except Tacuarembo, house infestation rates decreased to below 0.1% (a reduction equivalent to 95%). The vector is found around the home, rather than in it, in Tacuarembo; therefore, its presence does not have any significance for transmission. The number of infected blood donors is now negligible, and there is 100% coverage via compulsory blood screening. Uruguay is the first Southern Cone country to have achieved the goals established by the Ministries of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay to eliminate the transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:12321803

1998-06-01

59

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

60

Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

1986-01-01

61

Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.  

PubMed

For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. PMID:24125745

El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

2013-12-01

62

Early detection of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease may cause left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its early detection in asymptomatic patients would allow to stratify the risk and to optimize medical treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate if transmitral Doppler flow can detect early abnormalities of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients during the indeterminate phase of Chagas' disease, in which the electrocardiogram (ECG), chest x-ray and 2-D echocardiogram (2D-echo) are normal. Methods a group of 54 patients with Chagas' disease was studied and compared to a control group of 27 subjects of similar age. All were assessed with an ECG, chest X-ray, 2-D echo, and transmitral Doppler flow. Results both groups had similar values in the 2D-echo. In patients with Chagas' disease, the transmitral Doppler showed a higher peak A velocity (control group: 0.44 m/sec, Chagas group: 0.55 m/sec, p = 0.001), a lower E/A ratio (control group: 1.45, Chagas group: 1.22, p < 0.05), and a lengthening of the deceleration time of early diastolic filling (control: 138.7 ± 26.8 msec, Chagas group: 167.9 ± 34.6 msec, p = 001), thus revealing an early disorder of the diastolic left ventricular function in patients with Chagas' disease. Conclusion in patients with Chagas' disease who are in the indeterminate phase, transmitral Doppler flow allowed to identify early abnormalities of the left ventricular diastolic function, which provide useful clinical information for prognostic stratification and treatment. PMID:16573837

Cianciulli, Tomás F; Lax, Jorge A; Saccheri, María C; Papantoniou, Alonso; Morita, Luis A; Prado, Nilda G; Dorelle, Adriana N; Riarte, Adelina R; Prezioso, Horacio A

2006-01-01

63

Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon.  

PubMed

The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon. PMID:17308715

Briceño-León, Roberto

2007-01-01

64

The emerging role of amiodarone and dronedarone in Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease has emerged as an important health problem in the Americas and, with globalization, in other parts of the world. Drug therapy for this parasitic infection has remained largely ineffective, especially in chronic stages of the disease. However, developments in experimental therapy might signal an important advance for the management of patients with Chagas disease. Herein, we review studies on the potential use of the benzofuran derivatives amiodarone and dronedarone in patients with Chagas disease. These agents have a dual role, not only as primary antiarrhythmic drugs, but also as antiparasitic agents. We believe that this 'kill two birds with one stone' approach represents a new tactic for the treatment of Chagas disease using currently approved drugs. PMID:22869282

Benaim, Gustavo; Paniz Mondolfi, Alberto E

2012-10-01

65

Attitudes towards Chagas' disease in an endemic Brazilian community.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease remains a major public health concern throughout much of Latin America. In Brazil, segments of the population experience Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates as high as 65%, indicating that control programs are still needed. Few data are available concerning people's health beliefs related to Chagas' disease in heavily infected populations. Such health beliefs may significantly impact the effectiveness of intervention schemes. The purpose of this study was to assess health beliefs related to Chagas' disease in a population experiencing infection high rates with the causal parasite. The focal population for the study consisted of the residents of Posse, a rural community in the State of Goiás. The results indicate that a majority of the population had a high degree of knowledge about Chagas' disease and the vector involved in its transmission. These findings indicate that control programs conducted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health have included effective educational components. PMID:10203442

Williams-Blangero, S; VandeBerg, J L; Teixeira, A R

1999-01-01

66

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control In endemic areas of Mexico, Central America, and ... disease is now found but is not endemic, control strategies are focused on preventing transmission from blood ...

67

Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.  

PubMed

Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of ?-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. PMID:23265457

Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2013-05-01

68

Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

Feeney, Mary Jo; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

2014-01-01

69

Antioxidant properties of several specialty mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four specialty mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these specialty mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities at 1.2 mg ml?1 were in the order of basket stinkhorn>lion's mane>maitake>white matsutake. Basket stinkhorn showed an excellent

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Si-Fu Song

2002-01-01

70

Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and other edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Pleurotus ostreatus is the second most cultivated edible mushroom worldwide after Agaricus bisporus. It has economic and ecological values and medicinal properties. Mushroom culture has moved toward diversification with the production of other mushrooms. Edible mushrooms are able to colonize and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates and other wastes which are produced primarily through the activities of the agricultural, forest, and food-processing industries. Particularly, P. ostreatus requires a shorter growth time in comparison to other edible mushrooms. The substrate used for their cultivation does not require sterilization, only pasteurization, which is less expensive. Growing oyster mushrooms convert a high percentage of the substrate to fruiting bodies, increasing profitability. P. ostreatus demands few environmental controls, and their fruiting bodies are not often attacked by diseases and pests, and they can be cultivated in a simple and cheap way. All this makes P. ostreatus cultivation an excellent alternative for production of mushrooms when compared to other mushrooms. PMID:19956947

Sánchez, Carmen

2010-02-01

71

Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

2014-01-01

72

Chagas disease in Texas: Recognizing the significance and implications of evidence in the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease is endemic and is recognized as a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Despite the parallels between socio-economic and environmental conditions in Texas and much of Latin America, Chagas disease is not a notifiable human disease in Texas. Based on extensive review of related literature, this paper seeks to recognize the evidence that Chagas Disease is

Elaine Jennifer Hanford; F. Benjamin Zhan; Yongmei Lu; Alberto Giordano

2007-01-01

73

Kinetics of the conversion of ergosterol in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 has been investigated in cultivated edible mushrooms. It was observed that the rates of conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 were varied in different types of mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) showed the highest conversion rate followed by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) and Abalone (Pleurotus cystidus) whereas the lowest conversion rate was observed

Viraj J. Jasinghe; Conrad O. Perera; Shyam S. Sablani

2007-01-01

74

Mushroom plasmonic metamaterial infrared absorbers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a considerable amount of interest in the development of various types of electromagnetic wave absorbers for use in different wavelength ranges. In particular, infrared (IR) absorbers with wavelength selectivity can be applied to advanced uncooled IR sensors, which would be capable of identifying objects through their radiation spectrum. In the present study, mushroom plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MPMAs) for the IR wavelength region were designed and fabricated. The MPMAs consist of a periodic array of thin metal micropatches connected to a thin metal plate with narrow silicon (Si) posts. A Si post height of 200 nm was achieved by isotropic XeF2 etching of a thin Si layer sandwiched between metal plates. This fabrication procedure is relatively simple and is consistent with complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. The absorption spectra of the fabricated MPMAs were experimentally measured. In addition, theoretical calculations of their absorption properties were conducted using rigorous coupled wave analysis. Both the calculated and measured absorbance results demonstrated that these MPMAs can realize strong selective absorption at wavelengths beyond the period of the array by varying the micropatch width. Absorbance values greater than 90% were achieved. Dual- or single-mode absorption can also be selected by varying the width of the Si posts. Pixel structures using such MPMAs could be used as high responsivity, high resolution and fast uncooled IR sensors.

Ogawa, Shinpei; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Hata, Hisatoshi; Uetsuki, Mitsuharu; Misaki, Koji; Kimata, Masafumi

2015-01-01

75

The Mushroom Genus Laccaria in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Botanist Gregory Mueller of The Field Museum (Chicago) has put together this spectacular resource on mushrooms in the genus Laccaria. Complete with a lengthy scientific introduction, the site contains a colorful, photo-illustrated species identification section (20+ species), an evolutionary tree for the genus, a pictorial key to aid in identification, an additional key for identifying Laccaria in Costa Rica, documentation of specimens examined, and a substantial Literature Cited section. For researchers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in these mushrooms, this is an excellent, information-rich, yet fully accessible, resource.

Mueller, Gregory M.

76

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation  

PubMed Central

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

2014-01-01

77

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation.  

PubMed

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

2014-01-01

78

Nutritional Properties of Some Edible Wild Mushrooms in Sabah  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ten edible wild mushrooms that were commonly consumed by the native of Sabah were identified as Lentinellus omphallodes, Lentinus cilliatus, Pleurotus sp1, Pleurotus sp2, Schizophyllum commune, Hygrocybe sp., Volvariella sp., Auricularia auricula, Trametes sp. The nutritive value of these wild mushrooms was determined. The protein content of the mushrooms ranged from 5-15% of dry weight, whereas most of the wild species were found to have low fat content (1-5%). Potassium is the most abundant mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium. The sodium concentration was relatively low in all wild mushrooms. However, the calcium content in Pleurotus sp1 is 10 times higher than the cultivated mushrooms. Overall, the trace element concentrations across all wild mushrooms were in the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr. The high protein and low fat characteristic of these wild mushrooms indicating the need to further determine their amino acid and fatty acid profiles.

Kian Shin, Chong; Fook Yee, Chye; Jau Shya, Lee; Atong, Markus

79

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION  

E-print Network

#34752; 1981 (Hmk) 416 Cross #34767 X 34752 Agaricus bernardii 772 ATCC 52974;9/93 Agaricus bisporus M1. bisporus W14 J.W. Sinden; formerly A. rodmanii Agaricus campestris 83 J. Hill #3; 10/18/84 413 #685 CanadaTHE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION March 4, 2014 Agaricus abruptibulbus

Guiltinan, Mark

80

Flagellate dermatitis after consumption of Shiitake mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Flagellate dermatitis occurs in patients who have eaten Shiitake mushrooms. We are reporting on a 55-year-old man, who developed whiplash-striped, severely itching efflorescences on the trunk 3 days after eating Lentinula edodes. Flagellate dermatitis is also known as a cutaneous side effect of bleomycin therapy. PMID:25097492

Kreft, Burkhard; Marsch, Wolfgang Ch.

2014-01-01

81

Mushroom composite button for orthodontic use.  

PubMed

Composite buttons are a valuable adjunct in orthodontic treatment mechanics and provide an esthetic alternative to metal buttons. In particular, their use warrants application in lingual orthodontic therapy or in any minor tooth movement situations. This paper describes the step by step technique for the fabrication of a mushroom shaped composite button for clinical use. PMID:25109061

Sivakumar, Arunachalam; Varm, Praveen Kumar; Padmapriya, C V; Ravipatti, S V Raghu Ram; Azharuddin, Mohammad; Sudhakar, P

2014-01-01

82

Chagas disease in a domestic transmission cycle, southern Texas, USA.  

PubMed

After three dogs died from acute Chagas cardiomyopathy at one location, an investigation was conducted of the home, garage, and grounds of the owner. A serologic study was conducted on stray dogs, and an ecologic niche model was developed to predict areas where the vector Triatoma gerstaeckeri might be expected. PMID:12533289

Beard, Charles B; Pye, Greg; Steurer, Frank J; Rodriguez, Ray; Campman, Richard; Peterson, A Townsend; Ramsey, Janine; Wirtz, Robert A; Robinson, Laura E

2003-01-01

83

Pathogenesis of Chagas' Disease: Parasite Persistence and Autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

Summary: Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infections can be asymptomatic, but chronically infected individuals can die of Chagas' disease. The transfer of the parasite mitochondrial kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle to the genome of chagasic patients can explain the pathogenesis of the disease; in cases of Chagas' disease with evident cardiomyopathy, the kDNA minicircles integrate mainly into retrotransposons at several chromosomes, but the minicircles are also detected in coding regions of genes that regulate cell growth, differentiation, and immune responses. An accurate evaluation of the role played by the genotype alterations in the autoimmune rejection of self-tissues in Chagas' disease is achieved with the cross-kingdom chicken model system, which is refractory to T. cruzi infections. The inoculation of T. cruzi into embryonated eggs prior to incubation generates parasite-free chicks, which retain the kDNA minicircle sequence mainly in the macrochromosome coding genes. Crossbreeding transfers the kDNA mutations to the chicken progeny. The kDNA-mutated chickens develop severe cardiomyopathy in adult life and die of heart failure. The phenotyping of the lesions revealed that cytotoxic CD45, CD8+ ??, and CD8?+ T lymphocytes carry out the rejection of the chicken heart. These results suggest that the inflammatory cardiomyopathy of Chagas' disease is a genetically driven autoimmune disease. PMID:21734249

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Hecht, Mariana M.; Guimaro, Maria C.; Sousa, Alessandro O.; Nitz, Nadjar

2011-01-01

84

Lead identification to clinical candidate selection: drugs for chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease affects 8 million people worldwide and remains a main cause of death due to heart failure in Latin America. The number of cases in the United States is now estimated to be 300,000, but there are currently no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs available for patients with Chagas disease. To fill this gap, we have established a public-private partnership between the University of California, San Francisco and the Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation (GNF) with the goal of delivering clinical candidates to treat Chagas disease. The discovery phase, based on the screening of more than 160,000 compounds from the GNF Academic Collaboration Library, led to the identification of new anti-Chagas scaffolds. Part of the screening campaign used and compared two screening methods, including a colorimetric-based assay using Trypanosoma cruzi expressing ?-galactosidase and an image-based, high-content screening (HCS) assay using the CA-I/72 strain of T. cruzi. Comparing molecules tested in both assays, we found that ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors had greater potency in the colorimetric assay than in the HCS assay. Both assays were used to inform structure-activity relationships for antiparasitic efficacy and pharmacokinetics. A new anti-T. cruzi scaffold derived from xanthine was identified, and we describe its development as lead series. PMID:25281737

Neitz, R Jeffrey; Chen, Steven; Supek, Frantisek; Yeh, Vince; Kellar, Danielle; Gut, Jiri; Bryant, Clifford; Gallardo-Godoy, Alejandra; Molteni, Valentina; Roach, Steven L; Chatterjee, Arnab K; Robertson, Stephanie; Renslo, Adam R; Arkin, Michelle; Glynne, Richard; McKerrow, James; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L

2015-01-01

85

Global economic burden of Chagas disease: a computational simulation model  

PubMed Central

Summary Background As Chagas disease continues to expand beyond tropical and subtropical zones, a growing need exists to better understand its resulting economic burden to help guide stakeholders such as policy makers, funders, and product developers. We developed a Markov simulation model to estimate the global and regional health and economic burden of Chagas disease from the societal perspective. Methods Our Markov model structure had a 1 year cycle length and consisted of five states: acute disease, indeterminate disease, cardiomyopathy with or without congestive heart failure, megaviscera, and death. Major model parameter inputs, including the annual probabilities of transitioning from one state to another, and present case estimates for Chagas disease came from various sources, including WHO and other epidemiological and disease-surveillance-based reports. We calculated annual and lifetime health-care costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for individuals, countries, and regions. We used a discount rate of 3% to adjust all costs and DALYs to present-day values. Findings On average, an infected individual incurs US$474 in health-care costs and 0·51 DALYs annually. Over his or her lifetime, an infected individual accrues an average net present value of $3456 and 3·57 DALYs. Globally, the annual burden is $627·46 million in health-care costs and 806 170 DALYs. The global net present value of currently infected individuals is $24·73 billion in health-care costs and 29 385 250 DALYs. Conversion of this burden into costs results in annual per-person costs of $4660 and lifetime per-person costs of $27 684. Global costs are $7·19 billion per year and $188·80 billion per lifetime. More than 10% of these costs emanate from the USA and Canada, where Chagas disease has not been traditionally endemic. A substantial proportion of the burden emerges from lost productivity from cardiovascular disease-induced early mortality. Interpretation The economic burden of Chagas disease is similar to or exceeds those of other prominent diseases globally (eg, rotavirus $2·0 billion, cervical cancer $4·7 billion) even in the USA (Lyme disease $2·5 billion), where Chagas disease has not been traditionally endemic, suggesting an economic argument for more attention and efforts towards control of Chagas disease. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study. PMID:23395248

Lee, Bruce Y; Bacon, Kristina M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

2013-01-01

86

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed Central

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, José Rodrigues

2013-01-01

87

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, José Rodrigues

2013-12-01

88

78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

2013-05-06

89

75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-10-07

90

77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is...

2012-11-06

91

75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...

2010-01-22

92

Justice where justice is due: A posthumous Nobel Prize to Carlos Chagas (1879–1934), the discoverer of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working in the Brazilian backland, Chagas described a new disease. He discovered the etiologic agent, the vector, the reservoir, the acute stage, the several clinical aspects of the chronic stage (particularly the heart disease), role of autoimmunity in its pathogenesis, and anticipated the social impact of the disease. Chagas was nominated to Nobel Prize twice: in 1913, and in 1921.

Reinaldo B. Bestetti; Cláudia A. Martins; Augusto Cardinalli-Neto

2009-01-01

93

Justice where justice is due: A posthumous Nobel Prize to Carlos Chagas (1879-1934), the discoverer of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease).  

PubMed

Working in the Brazilian backland, Chagas described a new disease. He discovered the etiologic agent, the vector, the reservoir, the acute stage, the several clinical aspects of the chronic stage (particularly the heart disease), role of autoimmunity in its pathogenesis, and anticipated the social impact of the disease. Chagas was nominated to Nobel Prize twice: in 1913, and in 1921. In 1913, Richet won the prize because his work on anaphylaxis. In 1921, no one received the Nobel Prize. It is believed that detraction of Chagas' work at the National Academy of Medicine, made by jealousy, mediocrity, and political rivalries can be maculated the image of the scientist. Furthermore, misperception of Chagas' work may also have led the Nobel Committee not to award him. One-hundred years after the discovery, we can appreciate the greatness of the discovery of Carlos Chagas, never seem in the realm of biological research. Time to make justice, therefore, has finally come. PMID:19185367

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Martins, Cláudia A; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

2009-05-01

94

[Disinfection of wood in mushroom growing cellars with Mycetox].  

PubMed

Since the use od phenolic disinfectants for impregnating and disinfecting of wood in mushroom--growing cellars was banned in Poland for ecologic and hygienic reasons, the new product, namely Mycetox, containing quaternary ammonium compound and boric acid has been registered for this purpose. Mycetox belongs to new generation products and is non toxic for man and the environment. It is first Polish product developed for the general disinfection as well as for impregnating purposes in mushroom farms. The efficacy of Mycetox in mushroom-growing cellars has been evaluated basing on its fungicidal properties in the different substrates used for the cultivation of mushrooms. Also its influence on mushroom spawn growth, crop yield, and the penetration of spawn into wooden cages impregnated with Mycetox as well as its influence on blanching of mushrooms has been investigated. PMID:8533038

Szyma?ski, J; Wazny, J

1995-01-01

95

Hericium erinaceus: an edible mushroom with medicinal values.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are considered as nutritionally functional foods and source of physiologically beneficial medicines. Hericium erinaceus, also known as Lion's Mane Mushroom or Hedgehog Mushroom, is an edible fungus, which has a long history of usage in traditional Chinese medicine. This mushroom is rich in some physiologically important components, especially ?-glucan polysaccharides, which are responsible for anti-cancer, immuno-modulating, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and neuro-protective activities of this mushroom. H. erinaceus has also been reported to have anti-microbial, anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, wound healing properties among other therapeutic potentials. This review article has overviewed the recent advances in the research and study on H. erinaceus and discussed the potential health beneficial activities of this mushroom, with the recognition of bioactive compounds responsible for these medicinal properties. PMID:23735479

Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; Tania, Mousumi; Liu, Rui; Rahman, Mohammad Mijanur

2013-01-01

96

Hydroxyurea-Induced Partial Mushroom Body Ablation in the Honeybee Apis mellifera: Volumetric  

E-print Network

Hydroxyurea-Induced Partial Mushroom Body Ablation in the Honeybee Apis mellifera: Volumetric ABSTRACT: Hydroxyurea (HU) treatment of first instar honeybee larvae was previously shown to cause mushroom

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

97

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms: bioprocesses and products (review).  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms belonging to higher Basidiomycetes are an immensely rich yet largely untapped resource of useful, easily accessible, natural compounds with various biological activities that may promote human well-being. The medicinal properties are found in various cellular components and secondary metabolites (polysaccharides, proteins and their complexes, phenolic compounds, polyketides, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids, nucleotides, etc.), which have been isolated and identified from the fruiting bodies, culture mycelium, and culture broth of mushrooms. Some of these compounds have cholesterol-lowering, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, antitumor, immunomodulating, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities ready for industrial trials and further commercialization, while others are in various stages of development. Recently, the submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms has received a great deal of attention as a promising and reproducible alternative for the efficient production of mushroom mycelium and metabolites. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this technique of mushroom cultivation. In spite of many researchers' efforts for the production of bioactive metabolites by mushrooms, the physiological and engineering aspects of submerged cultures are still far from being thoroughly studied. The vast majority of studies have focused on polysaccharide and ganoderic acid production in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms, and very little has been written so far on the antioxidant and hemagglutinating activity of submerged mushroom cultures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update of the present state of the art and future prospects of submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms to produce mycelium and bioactive metabolites, and to make a contribution for the research and development of new pharmaceutical products from mushrooms. A brief overview of the metabolic diversity and bioactive compounds of mushrooms produced by submerged cultures is also given. PMID:22577974

Elisashvili, Vladimir

2012-01-01

98

Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges.  

PubMed

The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25179726

Wasser, Solomon P

2014-01-01

99

Fine Structure of Sticky Sets in Mushroom Billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider sticky sets in the phase space of circular mushroom billiards, which are referred to in physics literature as MUPOs (marginally unstable periodic orbits). An exact description of the set of parameters (widths of the mushrooms' stems) without or with a finite set of MUPOs is given. It is shown that there exist a continuum of MUPOless parameters. We also estimate from above a number of MUPOs which exist for widths of the mushroom's stem which correspond to rational numbers and present a simple approach for finding mushroom billiards without MUPOs.

Bunimovich, Leonid A.

2013-12-01

100

Neuronal Health – Can Culinary and Medicinal Mushrooms Help?  

PubMed Central

Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

2013-01-01

101

Neuronal health - can culinary and medicinal mushrooms help?  

PubMed

Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets. PMID:24716157

Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kah-Hui, Wong; Naidu, Murali; Rosie David, Pamela

2013-01-01

102

Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms have been consumed since earliest history; ancient Greeks believed that mushrooms provided strength for warriors in battle, and the Romans perceived them as the “Food of the Gods.” For centuries, the Chinese culture has treasured mushrooms as a health food, an “elixir of life.” They have been part of the human culture for thousands of years and have considerable interest in the most important civilizations in history because of their sensory characteristics; they have been recognized for their attractive culinary attributes. Nowadays, mushrooms are popular valuable foods because they are low in calories, carbohydrates, fat, and sodium: also, they are cholesterol-free. Besides, mushrooms provide important nutrients, including selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, proteins, and fiber. All together with a long history as food source, mushrooms are important for their healing capacities and properties in traditional medicine. It has reported beneficial effects for health and treatment of some diseases. Many nutraceutical properties are described in mushrooms, such as prevention or treatment of Parkinson, Alzheimer, hypertension, and high risk of stroke. They are also utilized to reduce the likelihood of cancer invasion and metastasis due to antitumoral attributes. Mushrooms act as antibacterial, immune system enhancer and cholesterol lowering agents; additionally, they are important sources of bioactive compounds. As a result of these properties, some mushroom extracts are used to promote human health and are found as dietary supplements. PMID:25685150

Valverde, María Elena; Hernández-Pérez, Talía; Paredes-López, Octavio

2015-01-01

103

[Mushroom poisoning--classification, symptoms and therapy].  

PubMed

The most serious poisonings are the hepatotoxic ones which are caused above all by Amanita phalloides, virosa, verna, Lepiota helveola, Galerina marginata, Gyromitra esculenta, Hypholoma fasciculare, and nephroptoxic intoxications which are caused above all by Cortinarius orrelanus and Paxillus involutus. Neurotoxic and psychotropic intoxications develop after ingestion of Inocybe, Clitocybe, Amanita-panterina, muscaria and Psilocybe. Most frequently the gastroenteric type of mushroom poisoning is encountered which is caused by many species e.g. Boletus satanas, Entoloma sinuatum and others. In the diagnosis anamnestic data are used, the clinical picture, mycological and toxicological examinations of residues of mushrooms, their spores and toxins. Therapeutic strategy comprises elimination methods gastric lavage, intestinal lavage and administration of large amounts of animal charcoal, forced diuresis, haemoperfusion, haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administration of antidotes and symptomatic treatment, i.e. mainly rehydration and restoration of the mineral balance. Early and comprehensive treatment are important. PMID:9601842

Kohn, R; Mot'ovská, Z

1997-04-01

104

A New, Mushroom-shaped Budding Bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mushroom-shaped budding bacterium, isolated from fresh pond water, is unlike any previously described aquatic budding bacteria (Whittenbury & McLee, I 967 ; Hirsch & Rheinheimer, 1968 ; Staley, 1968). Its morphological 'life-cycle' and other properties are described. METHODS Media. The organism was grown routinely in glucose-salts medium (pH 6.9) of the follow- ing composition: (NH4)2S04, 0.1 % (w\\/v); NaCI,

R. WHITTENBURY; JUDITH M. NICOLL

1971-01-01

105

Productivity of hydrolytic enzymes by mycorrhizal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To survey the potential for production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes by mycorrhizal mushrooms, productivities of these exo-enzymes from mycelia on potato-dextrose liquid medium were determined.Tricholoma matsutake produced relatively high levels of CM-cellulase and avicelase activities in all test strains. It also produced higher activity of acid proteinase than neutral proteinase. Its xylanase activities seemed to be higher than those of

Takao Terashita; Matashi Kono; Kentaro Yoshikawa; Jiko Shishiyama

1995-01-01

106

Total contents of arsenic and associated health risks in edible mushrooms, mushroom supplements and growth substrates from Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

The levels of arsenic (As) in the main commercial species of mushrooms present in Galicia, in their growth substrates, and mushroom supplements have been analysed by ICP-MS, with the intention of assessing potential health risks involved with their consumption. The mean concentrations of As in wild and cultivated mushrooms was 0.27mg/kg dw, in mushroom supplements 0.40mg/kg dw, in soils 5.10mg/kg dw, and in growth substrate 0.51mg/kg dw. No significant differences were observed between species, although the species Lactarius deliciosus possessed a slightly more elevated mean concentration (at 0.49mg/kg dw) than the other species investigated. In soils, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were observed according to geographic origin. Levels in mushroom supplements, although low, were higher than in wild or cultivated mushrooms. Measured arsenic levels were within the normal range in samples analysed in unpolluted areas. Because of the low As concentrations found in fungi and mushroom supplements from Galicia, and considering the relatively small inclusion of these foods in people's diet, it can be concluded that there is no toxicological risk of arsenic associated with the consumption of the species of mushrooms analysed or at the dosages indicated for mushroom supplements. PMID:25128776

Melgar, M J; Alonso, J; García, M A

2014-11-01

107

Challenges and perspectives of Chagas disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease (CD), also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and affects an estimated 8 to 10 million people worldwide. In Latin America, 25 million people live in risk areas, while in 2008 alone, 10,000 CD-related deaths were reported. This review aimed to evaluate the challenges of CD control, future perspectives, and actions performed worldwide to control expansion of the disease and its impact on public health in Latin America. PMID:24354455

2013-01-01

108

Opportunity Cost for Early Treatment of Chagas Disease in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Given current neglect for Chagas disease in public health programs in Mexico, future healthcare and economic development policies will need a more robust model to analyze costs and impacts of timely clinical attention of infected populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov decision model was constructed to simulate the natural history of a Chagas disease cohort in Mexico and to project the associated short and long-term clinical outcomes and corresponding costs. The lifetime cost for a timely diagnosed and treated Chagas disease patient is US$ 10,160, while the cost for an undiagnosed individual is US$ 11,877. The cost of a diagnosed and treated case increases 24-fold from early acute to indeterminate stage. The major cost component for lifetime cost was working days lost, between 44% and 75%, depending on the program scenario for timely diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions/Significance In the long term, it is cheaper to diagnose and treat chagasic patients early, instead of doing nothing. This finding by itself argues for the need to shift current policy, in order to prioritize and attend this neglected disease for the benefit of social and economic development, which implies including treatment drugs in the national formularies. Present results are even more relevant, if one considers that timely diagnosis and treatment can arrest clinical progression and enhance a chronic patient's quality of life. PMID:24743112

Ramsey, Janine M.; Elizondo-Cano, Miguel; Sanchez-González, Gilberto; Peña-Nieves, Adriana; Figueroa-Lara, Alejandro

2014-01-01

109

The Role of Haptoglobin Genotypes in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Although the number of people infected with T. cruzi is on the rise, host genetic and immune components that are crucial in the development of the Chagas disease have been discovered. We investigated the frequency of polymorphisms in the gene encoding haptoglobin of patients with chronic Chagas disease. The results suggest that while the HP1-1 genotype may confer protection against infection and the development of chronic Chagas disease due to the rapid metabolism of the Hp1-1-Hb complex and its anti-inflammatory activity, the presence of HP2-2 genotype may increase susceptibility towards a chronic condition of the disease due to a slow metabolism of the Hp2-2-Hb complex, lower antioxidant activity, and increased inflammatory reactivity, which lead to cell damage and a deterioration of the cardiac function. Finally, correlations between HP genotypes in different age groups and cardiac manifestations suggest that HP polymorphism could influence the prognosis of this infectious disease. This study shows some of the relevant aspects of the haptoglobin gene polymorphism and its implications in the T. cruzi infection. PMID:25147423

Mundaray Fernández, Ninomar; Fernández-Mestre, Mercedes

2014-01-01

110

Chagas Disease Drug Discovery: Toward a New Era.  

PubMed

American trypanosomiasis, or Chagas disease, is the result of infection by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite. Endemic in Latin America where it is the major cause of death from cardiomyopathy, the impact of the disease is reaching global proportions through migrating populations. New drugs that are safe, efficacious, low cost, and adapted to the field are critically needed. Over the past five years, there has been increased interest in the disease and a surge in activities within various organizations. However, recent clinical trials with azoles, specifically posaconazole and the ravuconazole prodrug E1224, were disappointing, with treatment failure in Chagas patients reaching 70% to 90%, as opposed to 6% to 30% failure for benznidazole-treated patients. The lack of translation from in vitro and in vivo models to the clinic observed for the azoles raises several questions. There is a scientific requirement to review and challenge whether we are indeed using the right tools and decision-making processes to progress compounds forward for the treatment of this disease. New developments in the Chagas field, including new technologies and tools now available, will be discussed, and a redesign of the current screening strategy during the discovery process is proposed. PMID:25245987

Chatelain, Eric

2014-09-22

111

Recent developments on umami ingredients of edible mushrooms: A review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Umami is a pleasant savory taste which has been attributed mainly to the presence of MSG-like amino acids and flavor 5’- nucleotides and widely used in food industry. Edible mushrooms have a peculiar umami taste. The umami taste makes the edible mushrooms palatable and adaptable in most food prepara...

112

NUTRIENT CONTENT AND NUTRIENT RETENTION OF SELECTED MUSHROOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2003 Americans consumed 2.6 pounds per capita of mushrooms. While the white button mushroom remains a frequent component of many recipes, other varieties such as shiitake, enoki, maitake, oyster, portabella, and shiitake are also growing in popularity. To improve and expand the data in the US...

113

Crocipodin, a benzotropolone pigment from the mushroom Leccinum crocipodium (Boletales)  

E-print Network

Crocipodin, a benzotropolone pigment from the mushroom Leccinum crocipodium (Boletales) Lydia December 2010 Keywords: Crocipodin Mushroom pigment Benzotropolone Heck reaction Bolete a b s t r a c t Crocipodin, an unusual benzotropolone pigment, has been isolated from the fruit bodies of the mush- room

Trauner, Dirk

114

STATUS OF MUSHROOM PRODUCTION AND RESEARCH IN MAURITIUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are cultivated for their nutritive and medicinal values. In Mauritius, they are highly appreciated for their taste and flavour and are consumed both in fresh and processed forms. In 2001, the annual value of mushroom imports (including fresh, preserved and dried produce) attained MUR 21 Millions while the annual local Pleurotus production is estimated at more than 15 tons

P Huzar Futty

115

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

116

Conversion of conifer wastes into edible and medicinal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom-producing white-rot fungi can be used to convert woodwaste into gour- met and medicinal mushrooms. White-rot fungi do not always readily colonize on coni- fer wood because of its extractives content. This study evaluated the resinous extractive content of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda), ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa ), and an un- known species of southern yellow pine before

Suki C. Croan

117

Morphological and chemical analysis of magic mushrooms in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological and toxicological analyses were performed on hallucinogenic mushrooms that are currently circulated in Japan. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a three-dimensional microstructures in the mushrooms. The complementary use of SEM with an optical microscope was effective for observing characteristic tissues, such as basidiomycetes, spores, cystidia and basidia. Hallucinogenic alkaloids were extracted with methanol and determined by high performance liquid

Kenji Tsujikawa; Tatsuyuki Kanamori; Yuko Iwata; Yoshihito Ohmae; Ritsuko Sugita; Hiroyuki Inoue; Tohru Kishi

2003-01-01

118

Mushrooms: Morphological complexity in the fungi John W. Taylor1  

E-print Network

Mushrooms: Morphological complexity in the fungi John W. Taylor1 and Christopher E. Ellison morphologically complex fungi, the "inky cap" mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, and illustrates the ac- complishments the fungi, there is an amazing amount of morphological diversity, from unicellular yeasts to large "fruiting

119

Heart Rate Recovery in Asymptomatic Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB) have diverse clinical presentation and prognosis, depending on left ventricular (LV) function. Autonomic disorder can be an early marker of heart involvement. The heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise may identify autonomic dysfunction, with impact on therapeutic strategies. This study was designed to assess the HRR after symptom-limited exercise testing in asymptomatic Chagas disease patients with RBBB without ventricular dysfunction compared to patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease and healthy controls. Methods One hundred and forty-nine subjects divided into 3 groups were included. A control group was comprised of healthy individuals; group 1 included patients in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and group 2 included patients with complete RBBB with or without left anterior hemiblock, and normal ventricular systolic function. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed and heart rate (HR) response to exercise was assessed. HRR was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and 1 min following test termination. Results There were no differences in heart-rate profile during exercise between healthy individuals and patients in indeterminate form, whereas patients with RBBB had more prevalence of chronotropic incompetence, lower exercise capacity and lower HRR compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. A delayed decrease in the HR after exercise was found in 17 patients (15%), 9% in indeterminate form and 24% with RBBB, associated with older age, worse functional capacity, impaired chronotropic response, and ventricular arrhythmias during both exercise and recovery. By multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of a delayed decrease in the HRR were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.21; p?=?0.010) and presence of RBBB (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.05 to 15.01; p?=?0.042). Conclusions A small proportion (15%) of asymptomatic Chagas patients had attenuated HRR after exercise, being more prevalent in patients with RBBB compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. PMID:24979699

de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rocha, Manoel Otávio da Costa; Lima, Márcia Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Carneiro, Renata de Carvalho Bicalho; Silva, Guilherme Canabrava Rodrigues; Brandão, Fernando Vieira; Kreuser, Lucas Jordan; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

2014-01-01

120

Statistical phylogeography of Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans: Testing biogeographic hypotheses of dispersal  

E-print Network

al., 2009). Chagas disease is one of the most important vector- borne diseases in Latin America with over 8 million people infected (Gurtler et al., 2008). The disease is caused by the flagellateStatistical phylogeography of Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans: Testing biogeographic

121

Towards a Paradigm Shift in the Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Treatment for Chagas disease with currently available medications is recommended universally only for acute cases (all ages) and for children up to 14 years old. The World Health Organization, however, also recommends specific antiparasite treatment for all chronic-phase Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, even though in current medical practice this remains controversial, and most physicians only prescribe palliative treatment for adult Chagas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present opinion, prepared by members of the NHEPACHA network (Nuevas Herramientas para el Diagnóstico y la Evaluación del Paciente con Enfermedad de Chagas/New Tools for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chagas Disease Patients), reviews the paradigm shift based on clinical and immunological evidence and argues in favor of antiparasitic treatment for all chronic patients. We review the tools needed to monitor therapeutic efficacy and the potential criteria for evaluation of treatment efficacy beyond parasitological cure. Etiological treatment should now be mandatory for all adult chronic Chagas disease patients. PMID:24247135

Alarcón de Noya, B.; Araujo-Jorge, T.; Grijalva, M. J.; Guhl, F.; López, M. C.; Ramsey, J. M.; Ribeiro, I.; Schijman, A. G.; Sosa-Estani, S.; Torrico, F.; Gascon, J.

2014-01-01

122

Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

2014-01-01

123

Ultraviolet irradiation: The generator of Vitamin D 2 in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh Shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes), Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), Button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), and Abalone mushrooms (Pleurotus cystidus) were irradiated with Ultraviolet-A (UV-A; wavelength 315–400nm), Ultraviolet-B (UV-B; wavelength 290–315nm), and Ultraviolet-C (UV-C; wavelength 190–290nm). Irradiation of each side of the mushrooms for 1h, was found to be the optimum period of irradiation in this conversion. The conversions of ergosterol to

Viraj J. Jasinghe; Conrad O. Perera

2006-01-01

124

Olfactory representations by Drosophila mushroom body neurons.  

PubMed

Learning and memory has been studied extensively in Drosophila using behavioral, molecular, and genetic approaches. These studies have identified the mushroom body as essential for the formation and retrieval of olfactory memories. We investigated odor responses of the principal neurons of the mushroom body, the Kenyon cells (KCs), in Drosophila using whole cell recordings in vivo. KC responses to odors were highly selective and, thus sparse, compared with those of their direct inputs, the antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). We examined the mechanisms that might underlie this transformation and identified at least three contributing factors: excitatory synaptic potentials (from PNs) decay rapidly, curtailing temporal integration, PN convergence onto individual KCs is low ( approximately 10 PNs per KC on average), and KC firing thresholds are high. Sparse activity is thought to be useful in structures involved in memory in part because sparseness tends to reduce representation overlaps. By comparing activity patterns evoked by the same odors across olfactory receptor neurons and across KCs, we show that representations of different odors do indeed become less correlated as they progress through the olfactory system. PMID:18094099

Turner, Glenn C; Bazhenov, Maxim; Laurent, Gilles

2008-02-01

125

Pathology of patients with Chagas' disease and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.  

PubMed

The main pathologic findings in 23 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Chagas' disease are reviewed; five are from our own experience and 18 from the literature. The presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites and/or T. cruzi antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid was recorded and computerized tomograms of the brain were evaluated. Twenty (87%) of the 23 subjects developed severe, multifocal or diffuse meningoencephalitis with necrosis and hemorrhage associated with numerous tissue parasites. The second most severely affected site was the heart. Seven (30.4%) of the 23 cases had myocarditis on pathologic examination. It was acute in four patients, chronic in two, and simultaneously acute and chronic in one. Acute myocarditis and meningoencephalitis are interpreted as being caused by relapses of chronic T. cruzi infections. An AIDS permissive role is suggested for these conditions since immunologic defense against T. cruzi is mediated mainly by T lymphocytes, whose CD4 subpopulation is depleted in patients with this disease. Consequently, AIDS is a factor that may favor the reactivation of T. cruzi infections. The lesions reported in the association of Chagas' disease with AIDS were compared with those reported from patients without AIDS having fatal, acute, vector-transmitted infections, contaminated blood transfusions, or accidental exposures in the laboratory. For the latter three, meningoencephalitis is uncommon. Only immunosuppressed cases of Chagas' disease have been described as having a pseudotumoral presentation that shows expanding lesions with a mass effect in the cranial cavity that causes intracranial hypertension and simulates neoplasms (tumors such as gliomas, lymphomas, metastases, etc.). PMID:8147485

Rocha, A; de Meneses, A C; da Silva, A M; Ferreira, M S; Nishioka, S A; Burgarelli, M K; Almeida, E; Turcato Júnior, G; Metze, K; Lopes, E R

1994-03-01

126

Elimination of transmission of Chagas disease in southernmost Latin America.  

PubMed

Some 90 million people in Latin America are exposed to the risk of infection with Chagas disease, a parasitic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the southern part of South America, over 54 million people are at risk, representing 31% of the population. The risk is particularly high in countries such as Paraguay, where 43% of the population is exposed, and Bolivia, where the proportion is 35%. Chagas disease mainly affects children under 10 years of age. Illness begins with an acute phase followed by a chronic phase that may last for years and irreversibly affect the heart, esophagus, colon, and peripheral nervous system. Uruguay is the first Member State of the Southern Cone Countries Initiative, which the Ministries of Health of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay established for the elimination of T. cruzi parasite by the year 2000. This program was launched in Brasilia in June 1991. In Uruguay seroepidemiological surveys at the end of 1992 showed extremely low infection rates, or even zero incidence in a number of endemic rural areas, although a World Health Organization (WHO) study in 1985 had shown that 3.4% of Uruguay's population was infected with the parasite. Chagas disease is transmitted by a bloodsucking insect that infests poorly constructed rural dwellings. Vector control measures include fumigant canisters and insecticidal paints, improved housing and strengthened health education. The disease is also spread through the transfusion of infected blood. Screening of blood banks for the parasite is now compulsory in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. Argentina has launched a program to control rural transmission by the use of fumigant canisters and sensor boxes for biting insects. Both these tools were developed with the support of the WHO Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. By the end of this campaign 380,000 rural dwellings will have been treated in the endemic 16 provinces of Argentina. PMID:7945765

1994-01-01

127

Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.  

PubMed

Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Amatoxins, on the other hand, are very toxic and they primarily consist of alpha-amanitin (AA), beta-amanitin (BA) and gamma-amanitin (GA). Toxin levels can vary among various species, even among varieties of the same species, of Amanita mushroom family. Revealing the differences between the toxin compositions of the Amanita species that grow in our region may contribute to the clinics of poisonings. Our study aims at showing in detail the toxin levels in various parts of Amanita verna mushroom. A. verna mushrooms needed for toxin analysis were collected from Kozak Plateau near Ayvalik county of Bal?kesir, Turkey in April 2013. The mushrooms were divided into their parts as pileus, gills, stripe and volva. Following the procedures required before the analysis, the AA, BA, GA, PHN and PCN levels were measured using the RP-HPLC method. While the lowest level of amatoxin was in the volva of the mushroom, the highest was measured in the gills. This was followed by pileus and stripe where the levels were close to each other. Similarly, the highest level of phallotoxin was measured in the gills. Gamma toxin and phalloidin were at lower amounts than the other toxins. A. verna is frequently confused with edible mushrooms with white caps due to its macroscopic similarity. If just one of them is eaten by mistake by an adult person with no mushroom experience, it can easily poison them. The amount of amatoxin is more as compared to Amanita phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba. Particularly, the AA and BA levels are approximately three times higher, whereas GA levels are lower. Similarly, the level of PCN is approximately four times higher as compared to A. phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba; by contrast, the level of PNH is about a half of theirs. In summary, it can be said that A. verna is a more toxic mushroom than A. phalloides and has a higher rate of mortality. With our study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations and distribution in A. verna mushrooms were shown in detail for the first time and it would be useful to carry out more similar studies with other members of Amanita family growing in various parts of the world. PMID:24911374

Yilmaz, Ismail; Kaya, Ertugrul; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Bayram, Recep; Surmen, Mustafa Gani; Colakoglu, Serdar

2014-09-01

128

Chagas disease awareness among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California.  

PubMed

Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-11-01

129

Mortality Related to Chagas Disease and HIV/AIDS Coinfection in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease in patients with HIV infection represents a potentially serious event with high case fatality rates. This study describes epidemiological and clinical aspects of deaths related to Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection in Brazil, 1999–2007. We performed a descriptive study based on mortality data from the nationwide Mortality Information System. Of a total of about 9 million deaths, Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS were mentioned in the same death certificate in 74 cases. AIDS was an underlying cause in 77.0% (57) and Chagas disease in 17.6% (13). Males (51.4%), white skin color (50%), age group 40–49 years (29.7%), and residents in the Southeast region (75.7%) were most common. Mean age at death was significantly lower in the coinfected (47.1 years [SD ± 14.6]), as compared to Chagas disease deaths (64.1 years [SD ± 14.7], P < 0.001). Considering the lack of data on morbidity related to Chagas disease and AIDS coinfection, the use of mortality data may be an appropriate sentinel approach to monitor the occurrence of this association. Due to the epidemiological transition in Brazil, chronic Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection will be further complicated and require the development of evidence-based preventive control measures. PMID:22969814

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

2012-01-01

130

When a misperception favors a tragedy: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.  

PubMed

Carlos Chagas, the discoverer of Chagas' disease was nominated to the Nobel Prize in 1921, but none did win the prize in that year. As a leader of a young scientist team, he discovered all aspects of the new disease from 1909 to 1920. It is still obscure why he did not win the Nobel Prize in 1921. Chagas was discarded by Gunnar Hedrèn on April 16, 1921. Hedrèn should have made a written report about the details of his evaluation to the Nobel Committee. However, such a document has not been found in the Nobel Committee Archives. No evidence of detractions made by Brazilian scientists on Chagas was found. Since Chagas nomination was consistent with the Nobel Committee requirements, as seen in the presentation letter by until now unknown Cypriano de Freitas, it become clear that Chagas did not win the Nobel Prize exclusively because the Nobel Committee did not perceive the importance of his discovery. Thus, it would be fair a posthumous Nobel Prize of 1921 to Carlos Chagas. A diploma of the Nobel Prize, as precedent with Dogmack in 1947, would recognize the merit of the scientist who made the most complete medical discovery of all times. PMID:24063910

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Couto, Lucélio B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

2013-11-20

131

Biomedical effects of mushrooms with emphasis on pure compounds.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms show great promise for disease treatments. They have been employed in the Orient and Occident for thousands of years, although the practice has persisted in the East. They remain highly valuable. Authentic human trials and pure compounds are emphasized in this review of the most current literature. Polysaccharides from the fungi appear effective in cancer treatments and low-molecular-weight compounds also attract much interest. However, reports of toxicity must be taken seriously. Prescriptions for mushrooms and preparations need to be given by qualified medical practitioners. The reason why these preparations are not more widely used in the West is related to problems of (A) intellectual property rights, (B) mass production, and (C) obtaining pure compounds that retain activity. Mushroom compounds require testing against infectious diseases such as those caused by bacteria, because the current antibiotics are failing from resistances. Overall, the future is assured for medicinal mushrooms. PMID:25355390

Paterson, R Russell M; Lima, Nelson

2014-01-01

132

Heavy metals intake by cultured mushrooms growing in model system.  

PubMed

Micro element and heavy metal contents of mushrooms were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was seen an increase in the heavy metal contents (except Cu and Zn) of the mushrooms until the second dose. A decrease was seen in heavy metal intake of the mushroom in the application of the third dose. The highest accumulation occurred from the upper soils treated with the second dose. Amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were accumulated in the mushroom after the application of this dose, were detected as 5.7, 23.1, 75.7, 62.8 and 99.3 ppm, respectively. PMID:23591676

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

2013-10-01

133

Diagnosis and Treatment of Amanita Phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

The number of cases of mushroom poisoning is increasing as a result of the increasing popularity of “wild” mushroom consumption. Amanitin and phalloidin cytotoxins found in some Amanita and Galerina species produce the most severe and frequent life-threatening symptoms of Amanita phalloidestype poisoning. Delay in onset of symptoms, individual susceptibility variation and lack of rapid and reliable identification have contributed to the significant morbidity and mortality of this type of poisoning. A rapid chromatographic assay for identifying the potent cytotoxins and apparently successful management using thioctic acid of two cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning are reported. All known cases of A. phalloides-type mushroom poisoning treated with thioctic acid in the United States are summarized. PMID:788340

Becker, Charles E.; Tong, Theodore G.; Roe, Robert L.; Scott, Robert A. T.; MacQuarrie, Michael B.; Boerner, Udo; Bartter, Frederic

1976-01-01

134

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

135

Squalene Synthase As a Target for Chagas Disease Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A.; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A.; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

2014-01-01

136

Squalene synthase as a target for Chagas disease therapeutics.  

PubMed

Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A; Wang, Andrew H-J; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

2014-05-01

137

Urban transmission of Chagas disease in Cochabamba, Bolivia.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a major public health problem in Bolivia. In the city of Cochabamba, 58% of the population lives in peripheral urban districts ("popular zones") where the infection prevalence is extremely high. From 1995 to 1999, we studied the demographics of Chagas infections in children from five to 13 years old (n = 2218) from the South zone (SZ) and North zone (NZ) districts, which differ in social, environmental, and agricultural conditions. Information gathered from these districts demonstrates qualitative and quantitative evidence for the active transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in urban Cochabamba. Seropositivity was high in both zones (25% in SZ and 19% in NZ). We observed a high risk of infection in children from five to nine years old in SZ, but in NZ, a higher risk occurred in children aged 10-13, with odds ratio for infection three times higher in NZ than in SZ. This difference was not due to triatomine density, since more than 1,000 Triatoma infestans were captured in both zones, but was possibly secondary to the vector infection rate (79% in SZ and 37% in NZ). Electrocardiogram abnormalities were found to be prevalent in children and pre-adolescents (SZ = 40%, NZ = 17%), indicating that under continuous exposure to infection and re-infection, a severe form of the disease may develop early in life. This work demonstrates that T. cruzi infection should also be considered an urban health problem and is not restricted to the rural areas and small villages of Bolivia. PMID:18797753

Medrano-Mercado, N; Ugarte-Fernandez, R; Butrón, V; Uber-Busek, S; Guerra, H L; Araújo-Jorge, Tania C de; Correa-Oliveira, R

2008-08-01

138

Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

1997-01-01

139

Protein analysis of the common mushroom Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crude protein content of the common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) has been reported to be 19–38% on a dry weight (DW) basis, but measurements are complicated by the presence of non-protein nitrogen-containing compounds. Reliability of protein measurement methods were compared by extracting mushrooms in defined ways and the resulting fractions were analysed in terms of protein content (amino acid analysis

A. Braaksma; D. J. Schaap

1996-01-01

140

Respiratory parameters and sugar catabolism of mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus Lange)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The respiration rate (RR) of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Lange, strain X25) under air follows Arrhenius’ law with an apparent activation energy of 43?400 J mol?1 corresponding to a Q10 of 2.9 between 10 and 20°C. Oxygen from 20 to 1 kPa did not affect RR at temperatures ranging from 5 to 20°C, confirming previous studies. The initial RR of mushroom

P. Varoquaux; B. Gouble; C. Barron; F. Yildiz

1999-01-01

141

Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found. PMID:12623649

Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

2003-03-01

142

Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-07-01

143

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune.  

PubMed

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals. PMID:20622885

Ohm, Robin A; de Jong, Jan F; Lugones, Luis G; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E; de Vries, Ronald P; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E; Bartholomew, Kirk A; Coutinho, Pedro M; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J; Gathman, Allen C; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kües, Ursula; Lilly, Walt W; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K; Piumi, François; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W M R; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Horton, J Stephen; Grigoriev, Igor V; Wösten, Han A B

2010-09-01

144

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune  

SciTech Connect

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

2010-09-01

145

78 FR 15683 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...suitable liquid medium, including, but not limited to, water, brine, butter or butter sauce. Certain preserved mushrooms may...mushrooms, which are presalted and packed in a heavy salt solution to provisionally preserve them for further processing....

2013-03-12

146

Effect of dietary supplementation with white button mushroom on immune function of C57BL mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, no information is available on the effect of dietary intake of white mushrooms, which represent ...

147

75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2010-06-23

148

76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2011-07-20

149

76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of...

2011-03-31

150

77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

2012-06-04

151

Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

1996-01-01

152

76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-05-18

153

75 FR 31426 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...A-560-802) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Indonesia: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia for the period of review (POR), February...order on certain preserved mushrooms from Indonesia with respect to these companies....

2010-06-03

154

75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation...duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be likely to lead to...

2010-04-15

155

Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 date of collection  

E-print Network

Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date of collection: Location by: Identified by: Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date of collection) collected by: Identified by: Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date

California at Berkeley, University of

156

Forensic analysis of hallucinogenic mushrooms and khat ( Catha edulis Forsk) using cation-exchange liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hallucinogenic mushrooms (e.g. Psilocybe and Panaeolus species) as well as leaves and young shoots of the khat tree (Catha edulisForsk) are illicit drugs in many countries. The exact concentration of the hallucinogenic alkaloids psilocin and psilocybin in mushrooms and the sympathomimetic alkaloids cathinone and cathine in khat is usually essential for jurisdiction. Facing an increasing number of mushroom and khat

Tim Laussmann; Sigrid Meier-Giebing

2010-01-01

157

Experimental determination and modelling of size variation, heat transfer and quality indexes during mushroom blanching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Process time during mushrooms blanching is determined either by shrinking rate or by polyphenoloxidase (PPO) inactivation, depending on the value of heating bath temperature. Quality losses during blanching can be minimized through an adequate selection of the time–temperature schedule. In this work shrinkage and PPO enzymatic activity of mushroom during blanching were measured. A simple kinetics of mushroom shrinkage was

A. R. Lespinard; S. M. Goñi; P. R. Salgado; R. H. Mascheroni

2009-01-01

158

Melanin biosynthesis pathway in Agaricus bisporus mushrooms.  

PubMed

With the full genome sequence of Agaricus bisporus available, it was possible to investigate the genes involved in the melanin biosynthesis pathway of button mushrooms. Based on different BLAST and alignments, genes were identified in the genome which are postulated to be involved in this pathway. Seven housekeeping genes were tested of which 18S rRNA was the only housekeeping gene that was stably expressed in various tissues of different developmental stages. Gene expression was determined for most gene homologs (26 genes) involved in the melanin pathway. Of the analysed genes, those encoding polyphenol oxidase (PPO), the PPO co-factor L-chain (unique for A. bisporus), and a putative transcription factor (photoregulator B) were among the highest expressed in skin tissue. An in depth look was taken at the clustering of several PPO genes and the PPO co-factor gene on chromosome 5, which showed that almost 25% of the protein encoding genes in this cluster have a conserved NACHT and WD40 domain or a P-loop nucleoside triphosphate hydrolase. This article will be the start for an in depth study of the melanin pathway and its role in quality losses of this economically important product. PMID:23123422

Weijn, A; Bastiaan-Net, S; Wichers, H J; Mes, J J

2013-06-01

159

Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22216099

Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

160

Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

2001-11-01

161

Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees.  

PubMed

Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations. PMID:11771476

Faber, T; Menzel, R

2001-11-01

162

Doença de Chagas: a construção de um fato científico e de um problema de saúde pública no Brasil* Chagas disease: the construction of a scientific fact and of a public health problem in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims at studying two moments in the course of social and scientific consolidation and legitimation of American trypanosomiasis, discovered in the interior of the state of Minas Gerais in 1909 by Carlos Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Institute researcher. Analysis, therefore, will focus first on Lassance's research, a phase that occurred still during Chagas' lifetime and that presided over the

Simone Petraglia Kropf; Nara Azevedo; Luiz Otávio Ferreira

163

Submerged cultivation of medicinal mushrooms for production of valuable bioactive metabolites.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are abundant sources of a wide range of useful natural products. Nowadays, commercial mushroom products are from mushrooms collected from field cultivation, which is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. Submerged cultivation of mushrooms has significant industrial potential, but its success on a commercial scale depends on cost compared with existing technology. Increasing product yields and development of novel production systems that address the problems associated with this new technology will certainly facilitate expansion. This article outlines the major valuable metabolites produced by mushroom cultivation and advances in submerged culture of mushrooms, taking Ganoderma lucidum, a popular folk and an oriental medicine used to treat many diseases, as a typical example. Our latest data on mushroom cultivation for efficient production of bioactive ganoderic acids and Ganoderma polysaccharides in bioreactors are presented. PMID:15217103

Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2004-01-01

164

Lead accumulation in the straw mushroom, Volvariella volvacea, from lead contaminated rice straw and stubble.  

PubMed

Straw mushrooms were grown on lead contaminated rice straw and stubble. Study materials were dried, acid digested, and analyzed for lead using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results showed the highest lead concentration in substrate was 445.350 mg kg?¹ in Treatment 3 (T3) and the lowest was BD (below detection) in Treatment 1 (T1). The maximum lead content in straw mushrooms was 5.072 mg kg?¹ dw in pileus of T3 and the minimum lead content in straw mushrooms was BD in egg and mature (stalk and pileus) stage of T1. The lead concentration in straw mushrooms was affected by the age of the mycelium and the morphology of mushrooms. Mushrooms' lead uptake produced the highest accumulation in the cell wall. Some lead concentrations in straw mushrooms exceeded the EU standard (>3 mg kg?¹ dw). PMID:23749039

Kumhomkul, Thapakorn; Panich-pat, Thanawan

2013-08-01

165

Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing. PMID:23557365

Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

2013-01-01

166

Transmission of T. cruzi infection via liver transplantation to a nonreactive recipient for Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is an endemic zoonosis of South America caused by a protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. About 30% of infected people develop the disease. This disease is known to reactivate in immunocompromised hosts, such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, leukemia, and transplantation. There is some experience with transplantation of infected renal grafts into negative recipients, resulting in an index of transmission of 35%. No cases have been reported involving other organ transplants up to 2002, when the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported 3 cases of Chagas' disease transmission to 3 recipients (liver, kidney, and pancreas-kidney) from a single chagas infected donor. Here we report on a case of orthotopic liver transplant from a chagas infected donor into a negative recipient in clinical emergency status. The recipient was monitored by direct parasitological Strout method and serological tests with detection of transmission on the 84 th day by both studies, without clinical signs. The patient was put on benznidazole with rapid clearance of the parasitemia. However, we propose that chagas infected donors may be accepted for liver transplant recipients only in emergency status. PMID:16123968

Barcán, Laura; Luna, Concepcion; Lunaó, Concepción; Clara, Liliana; Sinagra, Angel; Valledor, Alejandra; De Rissio, Ana María; De Rissioí, Ana María; Gadano, Adrian; Gadanoá, Adrián; García, Myriam Martín; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Riarte, Adelina

2005-09-01

167

Purified Excreted-Secreted Antigens from Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigotes as Tools for Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

There is currently no “gold standard” test for the diagnosis of late-stage Chagas' disease. As a result, protection of the blood supply in areas where Chagas' disease is endemic remains problematic. A panel of 709 serum samples from subjects with confirmed Chagas' disease (n = 195), healthy controls (n = 400), and patients with other parasitic diseases (n = 114) was used to assess enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on a concentrated extract of excretory-secretory antigens from either Brazil or Tulahuen strain Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes (total trypomastigote excretory-secretory antigens [TESAs]). The total TESA-based assays had excellent overall sensitivity (100%) and specificity (>94%), except for cross-reactivity with Leishmania-infected sera. In an attempt to increase the specificity of the assay, immunoaffinity chromatography was used to purify the TESA proteins (TESAIA proteins). By Western blotting, a series of polypeptide bands with molecular masses ranging from 60 to 220 kDa were recognized by pooled sera positive for Chagas' disease. An ELISA based on TESAIA proteins had a slightly lower sensitivity (98.6%) but an improved specificity (100%) compared to the sensitivity and specificity of the total TESA protein-based ELISAs. A 60-kDa polypeptide was identified as a major contributor to the cross-reactivity with Leishmania. These data suggest the need for field validation studies of TESA- and TESAIA-based assays in regions where Chagas' disease is endemic. PMID:16455872

Berrizbeitia, Mariolga; Ndao, Momar; Bubis, José; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Aché, Alberto; Lacouture, Sonia; Medina, Mehudy; Ward, Brian J.

2006-01-01

168

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascón, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Muñoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

169

Acute Chagas Disease Induces Cerebral Microvasculopathy in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cardiomyopathy is the main clinical form of Chagas disease (CD); however, cerebral manifestations, such as meningoencephalitis, ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment, can also occur. The aim of the present study was to investigate functional microvascular alterations and oxidative stress in the brain of mice in acute CD. Acute CD was induced in Swiss Webster mice (SWM) with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Cerebral functional capillary density (the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries), leukocyte rolling and adhesion and the microvascular endothelial-dependent response were analyzed over a period of fifteen days using intravital video-microscopy. We also evaluated cerebral oxidative stress with the thiobarbituric acid reactive species TBARS method. Compared with the non-infected group, acute CD significantly induced cerebral functional microvascular alterations, including (i) functional capillary rarefaction, (ii) increased leukocyte rolling and adhesion, (iii) the formation of microvascular platelet-leukocyte aggregates, and (iv) alteration of the endothelial response to acetylcholine. Moreover, cerebral oxidative stress increased in infected animals. We concluded that acute CD in mice induced cerebral microvasculopathy, characterized by a reduced incidence of perfused capillaries, a high number of microvascular platelet-leukocyte aggregates, a marked increase in leukocyte-endothelium interactions and brain arteriolar endothelial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress. These results suggest the involvement of cerebral microcirculation alterations in the neurological manifestations of CD. PMID:25010691

Nisimura, Lindice Mitie; Estato, Vanessa; de Souza, Elen Mello; Reis, Patricia A.; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire; Pereira, Mirian Claudia de Souza; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro

2014-01-01

170

Mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi persistence in Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Summary Trypanosoma cruzi infection leads to development of chronic Chagas disease. In this article, we provide an update on the current knowledge of the mechanisms employed by the parasite to gain entry into the host cells and establish persistent infection despite activation of a potent immune response by the host. Recent studies point to a number of T. cruzi molecules that interact with host cell receptors to promote parasite invasion of the diverse host cells. T. cruzi expresses an antioxidant system and thromboxane A2 to evade phagosomal oxidative assault and suppress the host’s ability to clear parasites. Additional studies suggest that besides cardiac and smooth muscle cells that are the major target of T. cruzi infection, adipocytes and adipose tissue serve as reservoirs from where T. cruzi can recrudesce and cause disease decades later. Further, T. cruzi employs at least four strategies to maintain a symbiotic-like relationship with the host, and ensure consistent supply of nutrients for its own survival and long-term persistence. Ongoing and future research will continue to help refining the models of T. cruzi invasion and persistence in diverse tissues and organs in the host. PMID:22309180

Nagajyothi, Fnu; Machado, Fabiana S.; Burleigh, Barbara A.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Mukherjee, Shankar; Lisanti, Michael P.; Weiss, Louis M.; Garg, Nisha J.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2013-01-01

171

Circulating Serum Markers and QRS Scar Score in Chagas Cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Approximately 8 million people have Trypanosoma cruzi infection, and nearly 30% will manifest Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC). Identification of reliable early indicators of CC risk would enable prioritization of treatment to those with the highest probability of future disease. Serum markers and electrocardiogram (EKG) changes were measured in 68 T. cruzi-infected individuals in various stages of cardiac disease and 17 individuals without T. cruzi infection or cardiac disease. T. cruzi-infected individuals were assigned to stage A (normal EKG/chest x-ray [CXR]), B (abnormal EKG/normal CXR), or C (abnormal EKG/cardiac structural changes). Ten serum markers were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/Luminex, and QRS scores were calculated. Higher concentrations of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?1), and TGF?2 were associated with stage B compared with stage A. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), Tissue Inhibitors of MMP 1, QRS score, and Brain Natriuretic Protein rose progressively with increasing CC severity. Elevated levels of several markers of cardiac damage and inflammation are seen in early CC and warrant additional evaluation in longitudinal studies. PMID:25385865

Clark, Eva H; Marks, Morgan A; Gilman, Robert H; Fernandez, Antonio B; Crawford, Thomas C; Samuels, Aaron M; Hidron, Alicia I; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Menacho-Mendez, Gilberto Silvio; Bozo-Gutierrez, Ricardo W; Martin, Diana L; Bern, Caryn

2015-01-01

172

A Model for Chagas Disease with Oral and Congenital Transmission  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new mathematical model for the domestic transmission of Chagas disease, a parasitic disease affecting humans and other mammals throughout Central and South America. The model takes into account congenital transmission in both humans and domestic mammals as well as oral transmission in domestic mammals. The model has time-dependent coefficients to account for seasonality and consists of four nonlinear differential equations, one of which has a delay, for the populations of vectors, infected vectors, infected humans, and infected mammals in the domestic setting. Computer simulations show that congenital transmission has a modest effect on infection while oral transmission in domestic mammals substantially contributes to the spread of the disease. In particular, oral transmission provides an alternative to vector biting as an infection route for the domestic mammals, who are key to the infection cycle. This may lead to high infection rates in domestic mammals even when the vectors have a low preference for biting them, and ultimately results in high infection levels in humans. PMID:23840647

Coffield, Daniel J.; Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Shillor, Meir; Mema, Ensela; Pell, Bruce; Pruzinsky, Amanda; Zetye, Alexandra

2013-01-01

173

Clinical aspects of Chagas disease and implications for novel therapies  

PubMed Central

The interaction between the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and the human host dates back 9000 years, as demonstrated by molecular analysis of material obtained from Andean mummies indicating the presence of the parasite’s kinetoplast DNA in populations from Chile and Peru. This long-established interaction, which persists today, demonstrates that T. cruzi has established a very well adapted relationship with the human host. From a host-parasite relationship point-of-view this is desirable, however, such a high degree of adaptation is perhaps the foundation for many of the unknowns that surround this disease. Unveiling of the immunological mechanisms that underlie the establishment of pathology, identification of parasite-associated factors that determine strain-differential tissue tropism, discovery of host genetic elements that influence the development of different clinical forms of the disease, and understanding environmental factors that may influence the host-parasite interactions, are some of the key questions remaining to be answered. The response to these questions will aid in addressing some of the current challenges in Chagas disease: fulfilling the need for efficient diagnosis, developing effective prophylactic measures, discovering effective therapeutics, and finding methods to control disease progression. PMID:22267887

Menezes, Cristiane; Costa, Germano Carneiro; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

2012-01-01

174

Trypanosoma cruzi Antioxidant Enzymes As Virulence Factors in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Chagas disease (CD) affects several million people in Latin America and is spreading beyond its classical boundaries due to the migration of infected host and insect vectors, HIV co-infection, and blood transfusion. The current therapy is not adequate for treatment of the chronic phase of CD, and new drugs are warranted. Recent Advances: Trypanosoma cruzi is equipped with a specialized and complex network of antioxidant enzymes that are located at different subcellular compartments which defend the parasite against host oxidative assaults. Recently, strong evidence has emerged which indicates that enzyme components of the T. cruzi antioxidant network (cytosolic and mitochondrial peroxiredoxins and trypanothione synthetase) in naturally occurring strains act as a virulence factor for CD. This precept is recapitulated with the observed increased resistance of T. cruzi peroxirredoxins overexpressers to in vivo or in vitro nitroxidative stress conditions. In addition, the modulation of mitochondrial superoxide radical levels by iron superoxide dismutase (FeSODA) influences parasite programmed cell death, underscoring the role of this enzyme in parasite survival. Critical Issues: The unraveling of the biological significance of FeSODs in T. cruzi programmed cell death in the context of chronic infection in CD is still under examination. Future Directions: The role of the antioxidant enzymes in the pathogenesis of CD, including parasite virulence and persistence, and their feasibility as pharmacological targets justifies further investigation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 723–734. PMID:22458250

Piacenza, Lucía; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Alvarez, María Noel; Martínez, Alejandra

2013-01-01

175

A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

Tissue specimens from 283 principally spontaneously (naturally) desiccated human mummies from coastal and low valley sites in northern Chile and southern Peru were tested with a DNA probe directed at a kinetoplast DNA segment of Trypanosoma cruzi. The time interval spanned by the eleven major cultural groups represented in the sample ranged from ?9,000 years B.P. (7050 B.C.) to approximately the time of the Spanish conquest, ?450 B.P. (?1500 A.D.). Forty-one percent of the tissue extracts, amplified by the PCR reacted positively (i.e., hybridized) with the probe. Prevalence patterns demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the individual cultural groups, nor among subgroups compared on the basis of age, sex, or weight of specimen tested. These results suggest that the sylvatic (animal-infected) cycle of Chagas' disease was probably well established at the time that the earliest humans (members of the Chinchorro culture) first peopled this segment of the Andean coast and inadvertently joined the many other mammal species acting as hosts for this parasite. PMID:14766963

Aufderheide, Arthur C.; Salo, Wilmar; Madden, Michael; Streitz, John; Buikstra, Jane; Guhl, Felipe; Arriaza, Bernardo; Renier, Colleen; Wittmers, Lorentz E.; Fornaciari, Gino; Allison, Marvin

2004-01-01

176

Potential for manipulating the polysaccharide content of shiitake mushrooms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiitake mushroom growers may be able to use the presence of health promoting constituents as a marketing tool to promote sales of their products for premium prices. There are few reports on the effects of management protocols for log-grown shiitakes on the concentrations of constituents to guide gr...

177

The Use of Mushroom Glucans and Proteoglycans in Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC)

Parris M. Kidd

178

Production of theanine by Xerocomus badius (mushroom) using submerged fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theanine is a rare amino acid mainly produced by the genus Camellia, which is also found in the Basidiomycete fungus (mushroom) Xerocomus badius. Besides its favorable taste, broad potential physiological effects have been reported in the recent years, leading to the very fast growing demand for theanine worldwide. Thus a series of methods to produce theanine have been developed, including

Jian Li; Ping Li; Fang Liu

2008-01-01

179

The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

Sommer, Robert

1989-01-01

180

Antimetastatic and Immunomodulating Effect of Water Extracts From Various Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was conducted to evaluate inhibitory effects against lung metastasis and promotion of splenocytes by water extracts from various mushrooms including Armillaria mellea, Grifola frondosa, Garnoderma frondosa, Codyceps militaris, Hericium erinaceus, Coriolus versicolor, Agaricus Blazei with Lycium Chinense Miller (known as M8). Analysis of carbohydrate using HPTLC showed that ?-glucan and pachyman were some of the major components of

Sung-Soo Ronald Han; Chong-Kwan Cho; Yeon-Weol Lee; Hwa-Seung Yoo

2009-01-01

181

Genealogical Correspondence of Mushroom Bodies across Invertebrate Phyla.  

PubMed

Except in species that have undergone evolved loss, paired lobed centers referred to as "mushroom bodies" occur across invertebrate phyla [1-5]. Unresolved is the question of whether these centers, which support learning and memory in insects, correspond genealogically or whether their neuronal organization suggests convergent evolution. Here, anatomical and immunohistological observations demonstrate that across phyla, mushroom body-like centers share a neuroanatomical ground pattern and proteins required for memory formation. Paired lobed or dome-like neuropils characterize the first brain segment (protocerebrum) of mandibulate and chelicerate arthropods and the nonganglionic brains of polychaete annelids, polyclad planarians, and nemerteans. Structural and cladistic analyses resolve an ancestral ground pattern common to all investigated taxa: chemosensory afferents supplying thousands of intrinsic neurons, the parallel processes of which establish orthogonal networks with feedback loops, modulatory inputs, and efferents. Shared ground patterns and their selective labeling with antisera against proteins required for normal mushroom body function in Drosophila are indicative of genealogical correspondence and thus an ancestral presence predating arthropod and lophotrochozoan origins. Implications of this are considered in the context of mushroom body function and early ecologies of ancestral bilaterians. PMID:25532890

Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

2015-01-01

182

Evolution of Marine Mushrooms DAVID S. HIBBETT* AND MANFRED BINDER  

E-print Network

- cludes about 13,000 described species of mushrooms and related forms. Eleven species possible by the establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses (associations involving fungal hyphae and plant they play pivotal ecological roles, as decayers, pathogens, and symbionts of plants and animals. One group

Hibbett, David S.

183

Morphological and chemical analysis of magic mushrooms in Japan.  

PubMed

Morphological and toxicological analyses were performed on hallucinogenic mushrooms that are currently circulated in Japan. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated a three-dimensional microstructures in the mushrooms. The complementary use of SEM with an optical microscope was effective for observing characteristic tissues, such as basidiomycetes, spores, cystidia and basidia. Hallucinogenic alkaloids were extracted with methanol and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV detector set at 220 nm. The psilocin/psilocybin contents in Psilocybe cubensis were in the range of 0.14-0.42%/0.37-1.30% in the whole mushroom (0.17-0.78%/0.44-1.35% in the cap and 0.09-0.30%/0.05-1.27% in the stem), respectively. The hallucinogenic alkaloids in Copelandia were 0.43-0.76%/0.08-0.22% in the whole mushroom (0.64-0.74%/0.02-0.22% in the cap and 0.31-0.78%/0.01-0.39% in the stem). It thus appears that P. cubensis is psilocybin-rich, whereas Copelandia is psilocin-rich. PMID:14642723

Tsujikawa, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Yuko; Ohmae, Yoshihito; Sugita, Ritsuko; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kishi, Tohru

2003-12-17

184

Radioactivity levels in some wild edible mushroom species in Turkey.  

PubMed

Eleven different wild-growing edible mushroom species collected from various regions of Turkey were analysed for their content of 137Cs, 40K, 226Ra and 232Th using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Specific activities of 226Ra and 232Th were generally below detection limits. The specific activities of 137Cs and 40K ranged from 2.4+/-0.3 to 109.0+/-7.3 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 28.4+/-27.2 Bq kg-1 (dry matter) and 715.5+/-50.1 to 1779.0+/-163.7 Bq kg-1 with a mean of 1150.8+/-315.2 Bq kg-1 (dry matter), respectively. The mean annual effective dose of 137Cs and 40K through mushrooms were estimated to be (7.0+/-6.0)x10(-3) microSv and 0.13+/-0.03 microSv, respectively. The overall intake of 137Cs is quite low and no significant contamination was found in collected mushroom species. The highest contents of 137Cs and 40K among the analysed mushrooms were in Morchella esculenta and Stropharia coronilla, respectively. PMID:17786670

Turhan, Seref; Köse, Abdullah; Varinlio?lu, Ahmet

2007-09-01

185

Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom  

E-print Network

Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom Production David Pilz, Randy Molina-scale thinning experi- ment in 50-year-old Douglas-fir stands in the Cascade Range of Oregon. Chanterelle numbers and weight were significantly decreased by thinning the first year after logging, more so in heavily thinned

186

Nonpeptidic tetrafluorophenoxymethyl ketone cruzain inhibitors as promising new leads for Chagas disease chemotherapy.  

PubMed

A century after discovering that the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, treatment is still plagued by limited efficacy, toxicity, and the emergence of drug resistance. The development of inhibitors of the major T. cruzi cysteine protease, cruzain, has been demonstrated to be a promising drug discovery avenue for this neglected disease. Here we establish that a nonpeptidic tetrafluorophenoxymethyl ketone cruzain inhibitor substantially ameliorates symptoms of acute Chagas disease in a mouse model with no apparent toxicity. A high-resolution crystal structure confirmed the mode of inhibition and revealed key binding interactions of this novel inhibitor class. Subsequent structure-guided optimization then resulted in inhibitor analogues with improvements in potency despite minimal or no additions in molecular weight. Evaluation of the analogues in cell culture showed enhanced activity. These results suggest that nonpeptidic tetrafluorophenoxymethyl ketone cruzain inhibitors have the potential to fulfill the urgent need for improved Chagas disease chemotherapy. PMID:20088534

Brak, Katrien; Kerr, Iain D; Barrett, Kimberly T; Fuchi, Nobuhiro; Debnath, Moumita; Ang, Kenny; Engel, Juan C; McKerrow, James H; Doyle, Patricia S; Brinen, Linda S; Ellman, Jonathan A

2010-02-25

187

Chagas disease: don't forget it in Latin American patients with heart block!  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and mostly affects poor rural populations of central and south America. It is mainly acquired by bugs (triatoma) but also by ingestion of the parasite (fresh fruit juices) or by foetal-maternal blood passing. Despite an important decrease in transmission during the last decades in several countries, millions of patients are still chronically infected and most of them are asymptomatic. In 2012-2013, two cases were admitted in our cardiac intensive care unit (ICU) with heart block due to Chagas cardiomyopathy. Diagnosis was established by echocardiography and positive serological results for Trypanosoma cruzi. This report underlines that in cases of heart failure and conduction abnormalities of unclear aetiology, Chagas disease should be taken into consideration, even in patients originating from non-endemic countries. PMID:24783476

Bimbi, Baby Jean-Marc Bantu; Unger, Philippe; Vandenbossche, Jean-Luc; Silance, Paul-Gaël; Van Laethem, Yves

2014-04-01

188

A cysteine protease inhibitor cures Chagas' disease in an immunodeficient-mouse model of infection.  

PubMed

Chagas' disease, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, remains the leading cause of cardiopathy in Latin America with about 12 million people infected. Classic clinical manifestations derive from infection of muscle cells leading to progressive cardiomyopathy, while some patients develop megacolon or megaesophagus. A very aggressive clinical course including fulminant meningoencephalitis has been reported in patients who contract Chagas' disease in the background of immunodeficiency. This includes patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection as well as patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplant. Currently, only two drugs are approved for the treatment of Chagas' disease, nifurtimox and benznidazole. Both have significant limitations due to common and serious side effects as well as limited availability. A promising group of new drug leads for Chagas' disease is cysteine protease inhibitors targeting cruzain, the major protease of T. cruzi. The inhibitor N-methyl-Pip-F-homoF-vinyl sulfonyl phenyl (N-methyl-Pip-F-hF-VS phi) is in late-stage preclinical development. Therefore, the question arose as to whether protease inhibitors targeting cruzain would have efficacy in Chagas' disease occurring in the background of immunodeficiency. To address this question, we studied the course of infection in recombinase-deficient (Rag1(-/-)) and normal mice infected with T. cruzi. Infections localized to heart and skeletal muscle in untreated normal animals, while untreated Rag1(-/-) mice showed severe infection in all organs and predominantly in liver and spleen. Treatment with the dipeptide N-methyl-Pip-F-hF-VS phi rescued immunodeficient animals from lethal Chagas' infection. The majority (60 to 100%) of inhibitor-treated Rag1(-/-) mice had increased survival, negative PCR, and normal tissues by histopathological examination. PMID:17698625

Doyle, Patricia S; Zhou, Yuan M; Engel, Juan C; McKerrow, James H

2007-11-01

189

Safety assessment of the post-harvest treatment of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) using ultraviolet light.  

PubMed

Wild mushrooms are an excellent source of vitamin D. The presence of vitamin D in mushrooms is attributed to sunlight exposure, which catalyzes the conversion of fungal ergosterol to vitamin D2 via a series of photochemical/thermal reactions. Mushroom growers now incorporate UV light treatments during processing to produce mushrooms with levels of vitamin D that compare to those in wild mushrooms. Presented herein is a comprehensive review of information relevant to the safety of introducing vitamin D mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, to the food supply. Historical reference to the use of UV light for production of vitamin D is discussed, and studies evaluating the nutritional value and safety of vitamin D mushrooms are reviewed. Traditional safety evaluation practices for food additives are not applicable to whole foods; therefore, the application of substantial equivalence and history-of-safe-use is presented. It was demonstrated that vitamin D in mushrooms, produced using UV light technologies, are equivalent to vitamin D in mushrooms exposed to sunlight, and that UV light has a long-history of safe use for production of vitamin D in food. Vitamin D mushrooms produced using UV light technologies were therefore considered safe and suitable for introduction to the marketplace. PMID:23485617

Simon, R R; Borzelleca, J F; DeLuca, H F; Weaver, C M

2013-06-01

190

Mercury in certain boletus mushrooms from Poland and Belarus.  

PubMed

This paper reports the results of the study of Hg contents of four species of Boletus mushroom (Boletus reticulatus Schaeff. 1763, B. pinophilus Pilát & Dermek 1973, B. impolitus Fr. 1838 and B. luridus Schaeff. 1774) and the surface soils (0-10 cm layer, ?100 g) samples beneath the mushrooms from ten forested areas in Poland and Belarus by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ability of the species to bioconcentrate Hg was calculated (as the BCF) while Hg intakes from consumption of these mushroom species were also estimated. The median Hg content of the caps of the species varied between 0.38 and 4.7 mg kg(-1) dm; in stipes between 0.13 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) dm and in the mean Hg contents of soils varied from 0.020 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) dm to 0.17 ± 0.10 mg kg(-1) dm which is considered as "background" Hg level. The median Hg content of caps of B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus were up to 4.7 and 3.6 mg kg(-1) dm, respectively, and they very efficiently bioaccumulate Hg with median BCF values of up to 130 for caps and 58 for stipes. The caps and stipes of these mushrooms if eaten will expose consumer to elevated dose of total Hg estimated at 1.4 mg for caps of Boletus reticulatus from the Kacze ??gi site, which is a nature reserve area. Nevertheless, the occasional consumption of the valued B. reticulatus and B. pinophilus mushrooms maybe safe. PMID:25035918

Falandysz, Jerzy; Krasi?ska, Gra?yna; Pankavec, Sviatlana; Nnorom, Innocent C

2014-01-01

191

Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID:25438017

Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

2014-01-01

192

Wild mushroom extracts as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm formation.  

PubMed

Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition-almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action. PMID:25438017

Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

2014-01-01

193

Clinical measurement of swallowing and proximal esophageal contractions in Chagas’ disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Chagas’ disease causes esophageal motility impairment similar to that seen in idiopathic achalasia. Our hypothesis is that\\u000a the disease could affect the results of swallowing evaluation and the esophageal response to swallows.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied, by the water-swallowing test, the swallowing dynamics of 40 patients with esophageal involvement by Chagas’ disease\\u000a and 75 controls. During the clinical test, each subject ingested

Roberto Oliveira Dantas; Leda Maria Tavares Alves; Rachel de Aguiar Cassiani; Carla Manfredi dos Santos

2009-01-01

194

Epidemiology of Mortality Related to Chagas' Disease in Brazil, 1999–2007  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease is an important neglected public health problem in many Latin American countries, but population-based epidemiological data are scarce. Here we present a nationwide analysis on Chagas-associated mortality, and risk factors for death from this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed all death certificates of individuals who died between 1999 and 2007 in Brazil, based on the nationwide Mortality Information System (a total of 243 data sets with about 9 million entries). Chagas' disease was mentioned in 53,930 (0.6%) of death certificates, with 44,537 (82.6%) as an underlying cause and 9,387 (17.4%) as an associated cause of death. Acute Chagas' disease was responsible for 2.8% of deaths. The mean standardized mortality rate was 3.36/100.000 inhabitants/year. Nationwide standardized mortality rates reduced gradually, from 3.78 (1999) to 2.78 (2007) deaths/year per 100,000 inhabitants (?26.4%). Standardized mortality rates were highest in the Central-West region, ranging from 15.23 in 1999 to 9.46 in 2007 (?37.9%), with a significant negative linear trend (p?=?0.001; R2?=?82%). Proportional mortality considering multiple causes of death was 0.60%. The Central-West showed highest proportional mortality among regions (2.17%), with a significant linear negative trend, from 2.28% to 1.90% (?19.5%; p?=?0.001; R2?=?84%). There was a significant increase in the Northeast of 38.5% (p?=?0.006; R2?=?82%). Bivariable analysis on risk factors for death from Chagas' disease showed highest relative risks (RR) in older age groups (RR: 10.03; 95% CI: 9.40–10.70; p<0.001) and those residing in the Central-West region (RR: 15.01; 95% CI: 3.90–16.22; p<0.001). In logistic regression analysis, age ?30 years (adjusted OR: 10.81; 95% CI: 10.03–10.65; p<0.001) and residence in one of the three high risk states Minas Gerais, Goiás or the Federal District (adjusted OR: 5.12; 95% CI: 5.03–5.22, p<0.001) maintained important independent risk factors for death by Chagas' disease. Conclusions/Significance This is the first nationwide population-based study on Chagas mortality in Brazil, considering multiple causes of death. Despite the decline of mortality associated with Chagas' disease in Brazil, the disease remains a serious public health problem with marked regional differences. PMID:22348163

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Heukelbach, Jorg

2012-01-01

195

Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.  

PubMed

The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. PMID:25124478

Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

2014-09-01

196

The development of integrated pest management for the control of mushroom sciarid flies, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) and Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock), in cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are susceptible to a range of diseases and pests that can cause serious crop loss. Effective pest and pathogen control is a very important factor for the maintenance of efficient production of cultivated mushrooms. Integrated pest management in mushrooms is reliant upon four main principals/elements: sanitation, exclusion, monitoring and pest control. Bradysia ocellaris (Comstock) and Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) are major pests of cultivated mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. These pests cause losses in yield through larval damage of the compost, mycelium and sporophores, and affect the structural features of the compost itself. Adult flies of these species also act as vectors for the introduction of mites and fungal diseases in cultivated mushrooms. PMID:20597099

Shamshad, Afsheen

2010-10-01

197

Potential uses of spent mushroom substrate and its associated lignocellulosic enzymes.  

PubMed

Mushroom industries generate a virtually in-exhaustible supply of a co-product called spent mushroom substrate (SMS). This is the unutilised substrate and the mushroom mycelium left after harvesting of mushrooms. As the mushroom industry is steadily growing, the volume of SMS generated annually is increasing. In recent years, the mushroom industry has faced challenges in storing and disposing the SMS. The obvious solution is to explore new applications of SMS. There has been considerable discussion recently about the potentials of using SMS for production of value-added products. One of them is production of lignocellulosic enzymes such as laccase, xylanase, lignin peroxidase, cellulase and hemicellulase. This paper reviews scientific research and practical applications of SMS as a readily available and cheap source of enzymes for bioremediation, animal feed and energy feedstock. PMID:23053096

Phan, Chia-Wei; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

2012-11-01

198

Modulation of immune response in experimental Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), the etiological agent of Chagas disease, affects nearly 18 million people in Latin America and 90 million are at risk of infection. The parasite presents two stages of medical importance in the host, the amastigote, intracellular replicating form, and the extracellular trypomastigote, the infective form. Thus infection by T. cruzi induces a complex immune response that involves effectors and regulatory mechanisms. That is why control of the infection requires a strong humoral and cellular immune response; hence, the outcome of host-parasite interaction in the early stages of infection is extremely important. A critical event during this period of the infection is innate immune response, in which the macrophage’s role is vital. Thus, after being phagocytized, the parasite is able to develop intracellularly; however, during later periods, these cells induce its elimination by means of toxic metabolites. In turn, as the infection progresses, adaptive immune response mechanisms are triggered through the TH1 and TH2 responses. Finally, T. cruzi, like other protozoa such as Leishmania and Toxoplasma, have numerous evasive mechanisms to the immune response that make it possible to spread around the host. In our Laboratory we have developed a vaccination model in mice with Trypanosoma rangeli, nonpathogenic to humans, which modulates the immune response to infection by T. cruzi, thus protecting them. Vaccinated animals showed an important innate response (modulation of NO and other metabolites, cytokines, activation of macrophages), a strong adaptive cellular response and significant increase in specific antibodies. The modulation caused early elimination of the parasites, low parasitaemia, the absence of histological lesions and high survival rates. Even though progress has been made in the knowledge of some of these mechanisms, new studies must be conducted which could target further prophylactic and therapeutic trials against T. cruzi infection. PMID:24520540

Basso, Beatriz

2013-01-01

199

Environmental Changes Can Produce Shifts in Chagas Disease Infection Risk  

PubMed Central

An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types) in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network) that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM) approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection. PMID:25574142

Cordovez, Juan M; Sanabria, Camilo

2014-01-01

200

Molecular Epidemiology of Human Oral Chagas Disease Outbreaks in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI). In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. Methodology and Principal Findings High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing) and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing) strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. Conclusions These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed. PMID:23437405

Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Cucunubá, Zulma M.; Floréz, Astrid Carolina; Zambrano, Pilar; Guhl, Felipe

2013-01-01

201

Community Participation in Chagas Disease Vector Surveillance: Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control has substantially reduced Chagas disease (ChD) incidence. However, transmission by household-reinfesting triatomines persists, suggesting that entomological surveillance should play a crucial role in the long-term interruption of transmission. Yet, infestation foci become smaller and harder to detect as vector control proceeds, and highly sensitive surveillance methods are needed. Community participation (CP) and vector-detection devices (VDDs) are both thought to enhance surveillance, but this remains to be thoroughly assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched Medline, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, the bibliographies of retrieved studies, and our own records. Data from studies describing vector control and/or surveillance interventions were extracted by two reviewers. Outcomes of primary interest included changes in infestation rates and the detection of infestation/reinfestation foci. Most results likely depended on study- and site-specific conditions, precluding meta-analysis, but we re-analysed data from studies comparing vector control and detection methods whenever possible. Results confirm that professional, insecticide-based vector control is highly effective, but also show that reinfestation by native triatomines is common and widespread across Latin America. Bug notification by householders (the simplest CP-based strategy) significantly boosts vector detection probabilities; in comparison, both active searches and VDDs perform poorly, although they might in some cases complement each other. Conclusions/Significance CP should become a strategic component of ChD surveillance, but only professional insecticide spraying seems consistently effective at eliminating infestation foci. Involvement of stakeholders at all process stages, from planning to evaluation, would probably enhance such CP-based strategies. PMID:21713022

Abad-Franch, Fernando; Vega, M. Celeste; Rolón, Miriam S.; Santos, Walter S.; Rojas de Arias, Antonieta

2011-01-01

202

Identification of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Fluorescent Pseudomonads Associated with Commercial Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidic exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from 63 strains of mushroom production-associated fluorescent pseudomonadswhichweremucoidonPseudomonasagarFmedium(PAF)wereisolated,partiallypurified,and characterized. The strains were originally isolated from discolored lesions which developed postharvest on mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) caps or from commercial lots of mushroom casing medium. An acidic galacto- glucan, previously named marginalan, was produced by mucoid strains of the saprophytePseudomonas putida and the majority of mucoid strains of

WILLIAM F. FETT; JOHN M. WELLS; PAOLA CESCUTTI; ANDCHANDI WIJEY

1995-01-01

203

Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis. PMID:25308683

Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

2015-03-15

204

Vitamin D2 from Irradiated Mushrooms Significantly Increases Femur Bone Mineral Density in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been optimized for the conversion of ergosterol in mushrooms to vitamin D2, and the vitamin D-enriched mushrooms have been tested for bioavailability of vitamin D2 using a rat model. Femur bone mineral density (BMD) of the experimental group of animals fed with vitamin D2 (1 ?g\\/d) obtained from irradiated mushrooms was significantly increased. Femur BMD of two

Viraj J. Jasinghe; Conrad O. Perera; Philip J. Barlow

2006-01-01

205

Certifying achievement in the control of Chagas disease native vectors: what is a viable scenario?  

PubMed

As an evaluation scheme, we propose certifying for "control", as alternative to "interruption", of Chagas disease transmission by native vectors, to project a more achievable and measurable goal and sharing good practices through an "open online platform" rather than "formal certification" to make the key knowledge more accumulable and accessible. PMID:25317713

Hashimoto, Ken; Yoshioka, Kota

2014-09-01

206

Voltammetric behavior of nitrofurazone and its hydroxymethyl prodrug with potential anti-Chagas activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A doença de Chagas é um grave problema de saúde pública para a América Latina, situação agravada pela inexistência de quimioterapia eficiente. Os dois fármacos comercialmente encontrados, benznidazol e nifurtimox, são eficazes apenas na fase aguda da doença. A nitrofurazona é ativa contra Trypanosoma cruzi, entretanto, a alta toxicidade impede seu uso na parasitose. A hidroximetilnitrofurazona é um pró-fármaco da

Mauro Aquiles La-Scalea; Carla Maria de Souza Menezes; Murilo Sérgio; Sílvia Helena; Pires Serrano; Lineu Prestes

2005-01-01

207

ACUTE CHAGAS' DISEASE IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: A CLINICAL, SEROPARASITOLOGIC, AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected

NESTOR ANEZ; HUGO CARRASCO; HENRY PARADA; GLADYS CRISANTE; AGUSTINA ROJAS; NESTOR GONZALEZ; JOSE LUIS RAMIREZ; PALMIRA GUEVARA; CHRISTIAN RIVERO; RAFAEL BORGES; JOSE VICENTE SCORZA

208

Toxic Side Effects of Drugs Used to Treat Chagas’ Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas’ disease (American trypanosomiasis) is an endemic parasitic disease in some areas of Latin America. About 16-18 million persons are infected with the aetiological agent of the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, and more than 100 million are living at risk of infection. There are different modes of infection: 1) via blood sucking vector insects infected with T. cruzi, accounting for 80-90%

José A Castro; María Montalto deMecca; Laura C Bartel

2006-01-01

209

Short report: Increasing access to treatment for Chagas disease: the case of Morelos, Mexico.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a neglected vector-borne disease with an estimated prevalence of 1.1 million cases in Mexico. Recent research showed that access to treatment of Chagas disease is limited in Mexico, with < 0.5% of infected cases treated. This brief report used quantitative data from the Morelos Program on Chagas disease and qualitative analysis of key informant interviews to examine strategies to increase treatment access for infected patients in Morelos, Mexico. From 2007 to 2011, 263 (9.2%) of the registered cases of Chagas disease in Mexico occurred in Morelos. Among these, 152 (57.8%) were treated and 97.3% of those treated received benznidazole. The assessment finds that state officials decided to directly purchase benznidazole from the distributor to increase access and improve clinical quality of treatment of patients in their state. They also faced significant barriers, especially in regulation and health system organization, which limited efforts to make high quality treatment available. PMID:25266353

Manne-Goehler, Jennifer; Ramsey, Janine M; Salgado, Marco Ocampo; Wirtz, Veronika J; Reich, Michael R

2014-12-01

210

Isozymic heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi in the first autochthonous patients with Chagas' disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

CHAGAS' disease, in which the aetiological agent is Trypanosoma cruzi, is a principal cause of morbidity and mortality on the South American continent; at least 10 million people are said to be infected1. There is no vaccine or acceptable chemotherapy2, and insecticide control of domiciliated triatomine vectors (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) remains problematical. Human survivors of the acute phase of infection commonly

Michael A. Miles; Adelson Souza; Marinete Povoa; Jeffrey J. Shaw; Ralph Lainson; Peter J. Toye

1978-01-01

211

Role of PPARs in Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: Implications for Chagas Disease Therapy  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), remains a substantial public health concern and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. T. cruzi infection causes an intense inflammatory response in diverse tissues by triggering local expression of inflammatory mediators, which results in the upregulation of the levels of cytokines and chemokines, and important cardiac alterations in the host, being one of the most characteristic damages of Chagas disease. Therefore, controlling the inflammatory reaction becomes critical for the control of the proliferation of the parasite and of the evolution of Chagas disease. The nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have emerged as key regulators of lipid metabolism and inflammation. The precise role of PPAR ligands in T. cruzi infection or in Chagas disease is poorly understood. This review summarizes our knowledge about T. cruzi infection as well as about the activation of PPARs and the potential role of their ligands in the resolution of inflammation, with the aim to address a new pharmacological approach to improve the host health. PMID:22448167

Hovsepian, Eugenia; Penas, Federico; Mirkin, Gerardo A.; Goren, Nora B.

2012-01-01

212

Trypanosoma cruzi strain TcI is associated with chronic Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease in the Amazon region is considered an emerging anthropozoonosis with a predominance of the discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI and TcIV. These DTUs are responsible for cases of acute disease associated with oral transmission. Chronic disease cases have been detected through serological surveys. However, the mode of transmission could not be determined, or any association of chronic disease with a specific T. cruzi DTU’s. The aim of this study was to characterize Trypanosoma cruzi in patients with chronic Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Methods Blood culture and xenodiagnosis were performed in 36 patients with positive serology for Chagas disease who participated in a serological survey performed in urban and rural areas of Manaus, Amazonas. DNA samples were extracted from the feces of triatomines used for xenodiagnosis, and the nontranscribed spacer of the mini-exon gene and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results Blood culture and xenodiagnosis were negative in 100% of samples; however, molecular techniques revealed that in 13 out of 36 (36%) fecal samples from xenodiagnosis, T. cruzi was characterized as the DTU TcI, and different haplotypes were identified within the same DTU. Conclusion The DTU TcI, which is mainly associated with acute cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon region, is also responsible for chronic infection in patients from a region in the State of Amazonas. PMID:24916362

2014-01-01

213

Triatoma sanguisuga Blood Meals and Potential for Chagas Disease, Louisiana, USA  

PubMed Central

To evaluate human risk for Chagas disease, we molecularly identified blood meal sources and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among 49 Triatoma sanguisuga kissing bugs in Louisiana, USA. Humans accounted for the second most frequent blood source. Of the bugs that fed on humans, ?40% were infected with T. cruzi, revealing transmission potential. PMID:25418456

Suarez, Julianne; Richards, Bethany; Dorn, Patricia L.

2014-01-01

214

The use of steroids to prevent cutaneous reactions to benznidazole in patients with Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

The treatment of Chagas disease is limited by the frequent cutaneous side effects of benznidazole. We tested the use of steroids plus escalating doses of benznidazole to prevent this complication in 17 adult patients with chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection and found extremely good tolerance. A randomized trial is warranted. PMID:23683371

Górgolas, Miguel; Robles, Ignacio; Cabello, Alfonso; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Peremarch, Concepción Pérez-Jorge; Fernández-Roblas, Ricardo; Williams, Frances; Rincón, José Manuel Ramos

2013-01-01

215

Effect of Lysine Deficiency on Chagas' Disease in Laboratory Rats1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory rats fed a purified diet containing a low quality protein, gluten, were more susceptible to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi than rats fed a diet containing a high quality protein, casein. Furthermore, supplementation of the gluten diet with lysine markedly reduced the susceptibility of rats to near control values. Chagas' disease, caused by an infection with T. cruzi, manifests itself

ROBERT G. YAEGER ANDO; NEAL MILLER

216

Chagas disease in 2 geriatric rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) housed in the Pacific Northwest.  

PubMed

Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is endemic in Latin America but also is found in the southern United States, particularly Texas and along the Gulf Coast. Typical clinical manifestations of Chagas disease are not well-characterized in rhesus macaques, but conduction abnormalities, myocarditis, and encephalitis and megaesophagus have been described. Here we report 2 cases of Chagas disease in rhesus macaques housed in the northwestern United States. The first case involved a geriatric male macaque with cardiomegaly, diagnosed as dilated cardiomyopathy on ultrasonographic examination. Postmortem findings included myocarditis as well as ganglioneuritis in the esophagus, stomach, and colon. The second case affected a geriatric female macaque experimentally infected with SIV. She was euthanized for a protocol-related time point. Microscopic examination revealed chronic myocarditis with amastigotes present in the cardiomyocytes, ganglioneuritis, and opportunistic infections attributed to her immunocompromised status. Banked serum samples from both macaques had positive titers for T. cruzi. T. cruzi DNA was amplified by conventional PCR from multiple tissues from both animals. Review of their histories revealed that both animals had been obtained from facilities in South Texas more than 12 y earlier. Given the long period of clinical latency, Chagas disease may be more prevalent in rhesus macaques than typically has been reported. T. cruzi infection should be considered for animals with unexplained cardiac or gastrointestinal pathology and that originated from areas known to have a high risk for disease transmission. PMID:25296019

Dickerson, Mary F; Astorga, Nestor Gerardo; Astorga, Nestor Rodrigo; Lewis, Anne D

2014-08-01

217

Oral Transmission of Chagas Disease by Consumption of Açaí Palm Fruit, Brazil  

PubMed Central

In 2006, a total of 178 cases of acute Chagas disease were reported from the Amazonian state of Pará, Brazil. Eleven occurred in Barcarena and were confirmed by visualization of parasites on blood smears. Using cohort and case–control studies, we implicated oral transmission by consumption of açaí palm fruit. PMID:19331764

Garcia, Marcio H.; Tatto, Erica; Obara, Marcos T.; Costa, Elenild; Sobel, Jeremy; Araujo, Wildo N.

2009-01-01

218

Oral transmission of Chagas disease by consumption of açaí palm fruit, Brazil.  

PubMed

In 2006, a total of 178 cases of acute Chagas disease were reported from the Amazonian state of Pará, Brazil. Eleven occurred in Barcarena and were confirmed by visualization of parasites on blood smears. Using cohort and case-control studies, we implicated oral transmission by consumption of açaí palm fruit. PMID:19331764

Nóbrega, Aglaêr A; Garcia, Marcio H; Tatto, Erica; Obara, Marcos T; Costa, Elenild; Sobel, Jeremy; Araujo, Wildo N

2009-04-01

219

Metallothionein-1 and nitric oxide expression are inversely correlated in a murine model of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, represents an endemic among Latin America countries. The participation of free radicals, especially nitric oxide (NO), has been demonstrated in the pathophysiology of seropositive individuals with T. cruzi. In Chagas disease, increased NO contributes to the development of cardiomyopathy and megacolon. Metallothioneins (MTs) are efficient free radicals scavengers of NO in vitro and in vivo. Here, we developed a murine model of the chronic phase of Chagas disease using endemic T. cruzi RyCH1 in BALB/c mice, which were divided into four groups: infected non-treated (Inf), infected N-monomethyl-L-arginine treated (Inf L-NAME), non-infected L-NAME treated and non-infected vehicle-treated. We determined blood parasitaemia and NO levels, the extent of parasite nests in tissues and liver MT-I expression levels. It was observed that NO levels were increasing in Inf mice in a time-dependent manner. Inf L-NAME mice had fewer T. cruzi nests in cardiac and skeletal muscle with decreased blood NO levels at day 135 post infection. This affect was negatively correlated with an increase of MT-I expression (r = -0.8462, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, we determined that in Chagas disease, an unknown inhibitory mechanism reduces MT-I expression, allowing augmented NO levels. PMID:24676665

Gonzalez-Mejia, Martha Elba; Torres-Rasgado, Enrique; Porchia, Leonardo M; Salgado, Hilda Rosas; Totolhua, José-Luis; Ortega, Arturo; Hernández-Kelly, Luisa Clara Regina; Ruiz-Vivanco, Guadalupe; Báez-Duarte, Blanca G; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo

2014-01-01

220

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian [Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Popescu, Ion V. [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientist, Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Gabriela [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnologies, Environmental Engineering Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania)

2011-10-03

221

Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.  

PubMed

A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase. PMID:22044136

Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

2012-05-01

222

Oscillations and Sparsening of Odor Representations in the Mushroom Body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the insect olfactory system, oscillatory synchronization is functionally relevant and reflects the coherent activation of dynamic neural assemblies. We examined the role of such oscillatory synchronization in information transfer between networks in this system. The antennal lobe is the obligatory relay for olfactory afferent signals and generates oscillatory output. The mushroom body is responsible for formation and retrieval of olfactory and other memories. The format of odor representations differs significantly across these structures. Whereas representations are dense, dynamic, and seemingly redundant in the antennal lobe, they are sparse and carried by more selective neurons in the mushroom body. This transformation relies on a combination of oscillatory dynamics and intrinsic and circuit properties that act together to selectively filter and synthesize the output from the antennal lobe. These results provide direct support for the functional relevance of correlation codes and shed some light on the role of oscillatory synchronization in sensory networks.

Perez-Orive, Javier; Mazor, Ofer; Turner, Glenn C.; Cassenaer, Stijn; Wilson, Rachel I.; Laurent, Gilles

2002-07-01

223

Antiproliferative and immunostimulatory protein fraction from edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

Fruit bodies and mycelia of various higher Basidiomycetes were studied in search of biological effector molecules. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties of a protein fraction designated as Cibacron blue affinity eluted protein (CBAEP) isolated from five different species of edible mushrooms (Termitomyces clypeatus, Pleurotus florida, Calocybe indica, Astraeus hygrometricus, and Volvariella volvacea). This protein fraction (10-100?g/ml) mediated antiproliferative activity on several tumor cell lines through the induction of apoptosis. Also the isolated protein fraction from all five mushrooms had a stimulatory effect on splenocytes, thymocytes and bone marrow cells. Further it enhanced mouse natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and stimulated macrophages to produce nitric oxide (NO). The highest immunostimulatory activity was determined in the CBAEP from T. clypeatus and the highest antiproliferative activity from C. indica. PMID:21783909

Maiti, Swatilekha; Bhutia, Sujit K; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Kumar, Alok; Khadgi, Niyati; Maiti, Tapas K

2008-09-01

224

[Natriuretic peptide in patients with Chagas disease: diagnostic utility in heart failure].  

PubMed

The assessment of the type-B natriuretic peptide (BNP) has shown utility as a diagnostic and prognostic tool of heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BNP levels and to know its association within the systolic dysfunction level on Chagas disease. During the period 2010-2011, 64 patients were evaluated in the Chagas clinic of the Cardiopulmonary Unit of the University Hospital Dr. Luis Razetti, Barcelona-Anzoátegui state, Venezuela. After confirming the seropositive state to antibodies anti-T. cruzi with three inmunoserological tests (ELISA, indirect inmunofluorescence and indirect hemaglutination), patients were classified into Groups I, II and III of cardiac disease, by the evaluation with electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and thorax radiography. Thirty three seronegative cardiological patients and eight healthy volunteers were included in the study as controls. BNP groups levels were as follow: Chagas I = 18.87 +/- 18.00 pg/mL (n=20), Chagas II = 99.88 +/- 171.52 pg/mL (n=24) y Chagas III = 365.80 +/- 280.54 pg/mL (n=20). The sensitivity and specificity of BNP were 85.0% and 93.2%, respectively, (p<0.0001; IC 95%), employing as parameter of reference the left ventricle fraction ejection (LVFE <40%), with a prognostic value of 89.0% (p=0.006). These results place the BNP in an equivalent position with the echocardiogram for the evaluation of cardiological patients, with the benefits of rapidity and simplicity, which makes the determination of this biochemical parameter a useful tool to perform field studies in endemic zones with limited access to the echocardiographic test. PMID:25558752

Pozo-Pérez, Arleth; Jorquera-Fernández, Alicia; Rodríguez-Urbaneja, Fernando; Romero-Peña, Leomery; Geraldino-Carvajal, Oscar; Cáceres-Cauro, Alfonso; Rosas-Martínez, María

2014-12-01

225

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis of a mushroom worker due to Aspergillus glaucus.  

PubMed

We present the first reported case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) due to Aspergillus glaucus in a mushroom worker. The Aspergillus glaucus group is one of the most popular storage fungi and a possible subsidiary etiologic agent of farmer's lung, but no case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) due to A. glaucus has been reported. This first case may demonstrate the etiologic role of A. glaucus in HP and in farmer's lung. PMID:2119164

Yoshida, K; Ando, M; Ito, K; Sakata, T; Arima, K; Araki, S; Uchida, K

1990-01-01

226

Oscillating mushrooms: adiabatic theory for a non-ergodic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can elliptic islands contribute to sustained energy growth as parameters of a Hamiltonian system slowly vary with time? In this paper we show that a mushroom billiard with a periodically oscillating boundary accelerates the particle inside it exponentially fast. We provide an estimate for the rate of acceleration. Our numerical experiments corroborate the theory. We suggest that a similar mechanism applies to general systems with mixed phase space.

Gelfreich, V.; Rom-Kedar, V.; Turaev, D.

2014-10-01

227

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

228

Non-volatile taste components of several speciality mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four speciality mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Protein contents ranged from 14.6 to 22.3%. Carbohydrate contents were high in basket stinkhorn and white matsutake (67.0 and 70.1%) and low in maitake and lion's mane (58.8 and 57.2%, respectively). Contents of total soluble

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jung-Tsun Ma; Si-Fu Song

2001-01-01

229

Stimulation of Erythrocyte Cell Membrane Scrambling by Mushroom Tyrosinase  

PubMed Central

Background: Mushroom tyrosinase, a copper containing enzyme, modifies growth and survival of tumor cells. Mushroom tyrosinase may foster apoptosis, an effect in part due to interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and activation of sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide. The present study explored, whether tyrosinase stimulates eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. Results: A 24 h exposure to mushroom tyrosinase (7 U/mL) was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i, a significant increase of ceramide abundance, and a significant increase of annexin-V-binding. The annexin-V-binding following tyrosinase treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Tyrosinase did not significantly modify forward scatter. Conclusions: Tyrosinase triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect, at least partially, due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and ceramide formation. PMID:24647148

Frauenfeld, Leonie; Alzoubi, Kousi; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

2014-01-01

230

Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 ?g/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25271860

Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2014-01-01

231

Mushroom harvesting ants in the tropical rain forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ants belong to the most important groups of arthropods, inhabiting and commonly dominating most terrestrial habitats, especially tropical rainforests. Their highly collective behavior enables exploitation of various resources and is viewed as a key factor for their evolutionary success. Accordingly, a great variety of life strategies evolved in this group of arthropods, including seed harvesters, gardeners, and planters, fungus growers, nomadic hunters, life stock keepers, and slave makers. This study reports the discovery of a new lifestyle in ants. In a Southeast Asian rainforest habitat, Euprenolepis procera is specialized in harvesting a broad spectrum of naturally growing mushrooms, a nutritionally challenging and spatiotemporally unpredictable food source. While unfavorable to the vast majority of animals, E. procera has developed exceptional adaptations such as a shift to a fully nomadic lifestyle and special food processing capabilities, which allow it to rely entirely on mushrooms. As a consequence, E. procera is the most efficient and predominant consumer of epigeic mushrooms in the studied habitat and this has broad implications for the tropical rainforest ecosystem.

Witte, Volker; Maschwitz, Ulrich

2008-11-01

232

In vitro supplementation with white button mushroom promotes maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) constitute 90 percent of the total mushroom market in the US; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well-studied. Furthermore, littl...

233

Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity in C57BL/6 Mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to possess anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-bacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions. However, majority of these studies evaluated the effect of administering extracts of exotic mushrooms thr...

234

White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Mushrooms have been shown to enhance immune response, which contributes to their anti-tumor property. White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) (WBM) constitute 90 percent of the total mushrooms consumed in the United States; however, the health benefit of this strain in general is not well studied...

235

76 FR 16727 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...July 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-03-25

236

76 FR 41215 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-07-13

237

75 FR 60076 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration (A-570-851) Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-09-29

238

76 FR 4287 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2010. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-01-25

239

Evaluation of the Chagas Stat-Paktm Assay for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi Antibodies in Wildlife Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

An immunochromatographic assay (Chagas Stat-Pak™) was evaluated for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 4 species of wildlife reservoirs. Antibodies to T. cruzi were detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor) (naturally and experimentally infected) and degus (Octodon degu) (experimentally-infected) using the Chagas Stat-Pak. In naturally exposed wild raccoons, the Chagas Stat-Pak had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7–80.0% and 96.3%, respectively. Compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay results, serocon-version as determined by Chagas Stat-Pak was delayed for experimentally infected raccoons, but occurred sooner in experimentally infected degus. The Chagas Stat-Pak did not detect antibodies in naturally or experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) or in experimentally infected short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). These data suggest that the Chagas Stat-Pak might be useful in field studies of raccoons and degus when samples would not be available for more-conventional serologic assays. Because this assay did not work on either species of marsupial, the applicability of the assay should be examined before it is used in other wild species. PMID:19016578

Yabsley, Michael J.; Brown, Emily L.; Roellig, Dawn M.

2010-01-01

240

Evaluation of the Chagas Stat-Pak assay for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in wildlife reservoirs.  

PubMed

An immunochromatographic assay (Chagas Stat-Pak) was evaluated for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 4 species of wildlife reservoirs. Antibodies to T. cruzi were detected in raccoons (Procyon lotor) (naturally and experimentally infected) and degus (Octodon degu) (experimentally-infected) using the Chagas Stat-Pak. In naturally exposed wild raccoons, the Chagas Stat-Pak had a sensitivity and specificity of 66.7-80.0% and 96.3%, respectively. Compared with indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay results, seroconversion as determined by Chagas Stat-Pak was delayed for experimentally infected raccoons, but occurred sooner in experimentally infected degus. The Chagas Stat-Pak did not detect antibodies in naturally or experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) or in experimentally infected short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). These data suggest that the Chagas Stat-Pak might be useful in field studies of raccoons and degus when samples would not be available for more-conventional serologic assays. Because this assay did not work on either species of marsupial, the applicability of the assay should be examined before it is used in other wild species. PMID:19016578

Yabsley, Michael J; Brown, Emily L; Roellig, Dawn M

2009-06-01

241

Modelling the influence of time and temperature on the respiration rate of fresh oyster mushrooms.  

PubMed

The respiration rate of mushrooms is an important indicator of postharvest senescence. Storage temperature plays a major role in their rate of respiration and, therefore, in their postharvest life. In this context, reliable predictions of respiration rates are critical for the development of modified atmosphere packaging that ultimately will maximise the quality of the product to be presented to consumers. This work was undertaken to study the influence of storage time and temperature on the respiration rate of oyster mushrooms. For that purpose, oyster mushrooms were stored at constant temperatures of 2, 6, 10, 14 and 18?? under ambient atmosphere. Respiration rate data were measured with 8-h intervals up to 240?h. A decrease of respiration rate was found after cutting of the carpophores. Therefore, time effect on respiration rate was modelled using a first-order decay model. The results also show the positive influence of temperature on mushroom respiration rate. The model explaining the effect of time on oyster mushroom's respiration rate included the temperature dependence according to the Arrhenius equation, and the inclusion of a parameter describing the decrease of the respiration rate, from the initial time until equilibrium. These yielded an overall model that fitted well to the experimental data. Moreover, results show that the overall model is useful to predict respiration rate of oyster mushrooms at different temperatures and times, using the initial respiration rate of mushrooms. Furthermore, predictive modelling can be relevant for the choice of an appropriate packaging system for fresh oyster mushrooms. PMID:25339381

Azevedo, Sílvia; Cunha, Luís M; Fonseca, Susana C

2014-10-22

242

Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and its fractions in two rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maitake mushroom has been reported to favorably influence hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of whole Maitake mushroom powder and two extracts designated as ether soluble (ES) and water soluble (WS) on Zucker fatty rats (ZFR), a model of insulin resistance, and on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a model of genetic hypertension.

Nadeem A. Talpur; Bobby W. Echard; Arthur Yin Fan; Omeed Jaffari; Debasis Bagchi; Harry G. Preuss

2002-01-01

243

A Rapid PCR-RFLP Method for Monitoring Genetic Variation among Commercial Mushroom Species  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the development of a simplified procedure for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of mushrooms. We have adapted standard molecular techniques to be amenable to an undergraduate laboratory setting in order to allow students to explore basic questions about fungal diversity and relatedness among mushroom species. The…

Martin, Presley; Muruke, Masoud; Hosea, Kenneth; Kivaisi, Amelia; Zerwas, Nick; Bauerle, Cynthia

2004-01-01

244

DNA polymorphisms in commercial and wild strains of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA from the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, was cloned into the bacteriophage lambda vector EMBL3 creating a partial genomic library. Ten random clones from the library were used to probe for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Six of the ten probes detected polymorphisms and were used to demonstrate variation in wild and cultivated strains of the mushroom. These results suggest

M. G. Loftus; D. Moore; T. J. Elliott

1988-01-01

245

76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...September 26, 2011, Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (petitioner) filed...language regarding the cost of metal lids for tin can products...language regarding the cost of metal lids for tin can products...Order on Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's...

2011-11-10

246

In vitro effects of plant and mushroom extracts on immunological function of chicken lymphocytes and macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present study was conducted to examine the effects of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), turmeric (Curcuma longa), reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum), and shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) on innate immunity and tumor cell viability. In vitro culture of chicken spleen lymphocytes with extracts ...

247

Biology, Life Table and Host Specificity of the Mushroom Pest, Brennandania Lambi (Acari: Pygmephoroidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biology and life table parameters of Brennandania lambi (Krczal) were studied at different temperatures while feeding on white mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) mycelium cultured on mushroom compost. The duration of egg and larva development, preoviposition and oviposition period, female longevity, and the time to 50% mortality declined as temperature increased from 16 to 28°C. The threshold temperature of development (female) was

Jian-Rong Gao; Ping Zou

2001-01-01

248

Natural production of wild edible mushrooms in the southwestern rural territory of Mexico City, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild edible mushrooms are important as dietary products in the rural communities of Mexico, and provide additional income during the rainy season. The present study was carried out during the summers of 1990 and 1991 in two Christmas tree stand plots near the town of Topilejo, in Distrito Federal, Mexico, to determine the natural production of wild edible mushrooms. The

Marisela C. Zamora-Martínez; Cecilia Nieto de Pascual-Pola

1995-01-01

249

Influence of dietary mushroom Agaricus bisporus on intestinal morphology and microflora composition in broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we evaluated the intestinal morphology and bacteria populations in broiler chickens fed for six weeks diets that contained different amount of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ninety day-old female chicks were randomly divided into three dietary treatments, each with three replicates kept in floor pens and fed a basal diet supplemented with the dried mushroom at levels of

I. Giannenas; D. Tontis; E. Tsalie; E. F. Chronis; D. Doukas; I. Kyriazakis

2010-01-01

250

[Anti-sulfatide antibody titers in patients with chronic Chagas disease and other forms of cardiopathy].  

PubMed

A specific treatment for Chagas' disease has not yet been discovered, even though the condition is endemic in large parts of the Region of the Americas. Earlier studies have addressed the possibility that the sulfatide galactocerebroside in Trypanosoma cruzi behaves as an immunogen involved in the production of the high antisulfatide antibody levels found in patients with chronic infestation with the parasite. This may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of the cardiac symptoms and peripheral neuropathy seen in Chagas' disease, which is the most important cause of myocarditis in Central and South America and the second most important cause of heart failure in several of the countries located in these subregions. The present study was conducted in order to ascertain whether patients with Chagas' disease and other patients not afflicted with the ailment differ insofar as the presence of antibodies against sulfatide is concerned, and it describes antisulfatide antibody levels in 124 hospital patients (74 men and 50 women) between the ages of 15 and 94 who were in the cardiology unit of Vargas Hospital in Caracas from 1 July to 30 June 1995. Antisulfatide antibody titers were determined by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), and the antigen employed was sulfatide cerebroside obtained from bovine brain tissue. Of the 124 patients under study, 39 (31.5%) suffered from Chagas' disease and had antisulfatide antibody levels higher than those detected in patients without Chagas (P = 0.0298) and in 28 seemingly healthy controls (P = 0.0035). Serum levels of antisulfatide antibodies in patients with other forms of heart disease were also compared with those seen in the control group, and significantly higher levels were found in patients with acute ischemic heart disease (P = 0.0049), rheumatic valvular heart disease (P = 0.0075), chronic ischemic heart disease (P = 0.0464) and bradiarrythmias (P = 0.0157), and significantly lower ones in subjects with hypertensive heart disease (P = 0.0367). These antibody levels showed no correlation with clinical or paraclinical variables indicative of the degree of cardiac compromise. Our results support the notion that antibodies against sulfatide may play a role in the pathogenesis of Chagas' cardiomyopathy and other forms of heart disease and should be further studied in an effort to determine their potential role in these processes. PMID:9608814

García, R; Avila, J L; Rojas, M; Martínez, A; García, W; Bergel, P

1998-04-01

251

ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW  

SciTech Connect

During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or ''sentinel-type'' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. This review will discuss the aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms and focus on mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms and discuss on how growth media and other conditions relate to Cs accumulation.

Duff, M

2007-05-28

252

Fumigation with essential oils improves sensory quality and enhanced antioxidant ability of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes).  

PubMed

Several naturally occurring essential oils were evaluated for their effectiveness in maintaining sensory quality and increasing antioxidant levels and activities in shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. Freshly harvested mushrooms were fumigated with 5 ?l l(-)(1) clove, cinnamaldehyde and thyme oils at 10 °C for 1.5h and the antioxidant activities determined using assays of H2O2 content, O2(-) production rate, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging activity. The results showed that the antioxidant activities of the mushrooms fumigated with cinnamaldehyde were significantly increased when compared to the controls. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde fumigation significantly delayed losses of phenolic compounds and enhanced flavonoid content. The essential oil fumigation treatment also increased the antioxidant enzyme activities of CAT, SOD, APX and GR throughout the storage periods. All the fumigation treatments were effective in retarding mushroom sensory deterioration. These results indicate that postharvest application of essential oil fumigation can extend the shelf life and enhance the antioxidant capacity of shiitake mushrooms. PMID:25442609

Jiang, Tianjia; Luo, Zisheng; Ying, Tiejin

2015-04-01

253

Growth-promoting effect of thermophilic fungi on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus.  

PubMed Central

The growth-promoting effect of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in mushroom compost on the mycelium of the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus was investigated. Results obtained by others were confirmed by showing that S. thermophilum leads to an increased hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. However, it was demonstrated that hyphal extension rates were not clearly related to mushroom biomass increase rates. A number of experiments pointed strongly towards CO2 as the determinant of hyphal extension rates. In compost, CO2 is produced mainly by thermophilic fungi. Several experiments did not reveal any other specific compound produced by S. thermophilum that increases the hyphal extension rate of the mushroom mycelium. PMID:1514812

Wiegant, W M; Wery, J; Buitenhuis, E T; de Bont, J A

1992-01-01

254

[Carlos Chagas Filho: an articulator of the history of sciences in Brazil].  

PubMed

A letter sent in 1982 by a group of scientists to the president of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico appealed for a policy of preservation of Brazilian scientific culture. The name of Carlos Chagas Filho topped the list of signatures thereby proving his commitment to that proposal, the ideological structure of which was part of his experience in scientific policy in Brazil and abroad. This document harks back to the practice of the history of the sciences in Brazil and the creation of places for the safeguard and organization of scientific memory, such as the Museu de Astronomia e Ciências Afins, Casa de Oswaldo Cruz and the Sociedade Brasileira de História da Ciência, of which Carlos Chagas Filho was an inaugural member of the board of directors. PMID:22473448

Domingues, Heloisa Maria Bertol

2012-06-01

255

From ancient to contemporary molecular eco-epidemiology of Chagas disease in the Americas.  

PubMed

One of the best-studied populations with regard to Chagas disease is from the coastal area of northern Chile at the foot of the western Andean slopes. The extremely arid climate here generates rapid, spontaneous desiccation of buried bodies, arresting the decay process. The absence of rainfall then preserves these dried bodies (mummies) for millennia. The aim of the present study was to perform the first molecular paleoepidemiological study on a set of 43 mummified human remains from the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile in order to elucidate the transmission dynamics and determinants of ancient genotypes, to try to unravel the natural history of the Trypanosoma cruzi taxon and Chagas disease. Interestingly, TcBat, a recently described Discrete Taxonomic Unit, emerges as the plausible ancestor of T. cruzi. The findings herein presented allow us to present a plausible model of T. cruzi transmission in pre-Columbian civilisations. PMID:24675555

Guhl, Felipe; Auderheide, Arthur; Ramírez, Juan David

2014-08-01

256

The impact of Chagas disease control in Latin America: a review.  

PubMed

Discovered in 1909, Chagas disease was progressively shown to be widespread throughout Latin America, affecting millions of rural people with a high impact on morbidity and mortality. With no vaccine or specific treatment available for large-scale public health interventions, the main control strategy relies on prevention of transmission, principally by eliminating the domestic insect vectors and control of transmission by blood transfusion. Vector control activities began in the 1940s, initially by means of housing improvement and then through insecticide spraying following successful field trials in Brazil (Bambui Research Centre), with similar results soon reproduced in São Paulo, Argentina, Venezuela and Chile. But national control programmes only began to be implemented after the 1970s, when technical questions were overcome and the scientific demonstration of the high social impact of Chagas disease was used to encourage political determination in favour of national campaigns (mainly in Brazil). Similarly, large-scale screening of infected blood donors in Latin America only began in the 1980s following the emergence of AIDS. By the end of the last century it became clear that continuous control in contiguous endemic areas could lead to the elimination of the most highly domestic vector populations - especially Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius prolixus - as well as substantial reductions of other widespread species such as T. brasiliensis, T. sordida, and T. dimidiata, leading in turn to interruption of disease transmission to rural people. The social impact of Chagas disease control can now be readily demonstrated by the disappearance of acute cases and of new infections in younger age groups, as well as progressive reductions of mortality and morbidity rates in controlled areas. In economic terms, the cost-benefit relationship between intervention (insecticide spraying, serology in blood banks) and the reduction of Chagas disease (in terms of medical and social care and improved productivity) is highly positive. Effective control of Chagas disease is now seen as an attainable goal that depends primarily on maintaining political will, so that the major constraints involve problems associated with the decentralisation of public health services and the progressive political disinterest in Chagas disease. Counterbalancing this are the political and technical cooperation strategies such as the "Southern Cone Initiative" launched in 1991. This international approach, coordinated by PAHO, has been highly successful, already reaching elimination of Chagas disease transmission in Uruguay, Chile, and large parts of Brazil and Argentina. The Southern Cone Initiative also helped to stimulate control campaigns in other countries of the region (Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru) which have also reached tangible regional successes. This model of international activity has been shown to be feasible and effective, with similar initiatives developed since 1997 in the Andean Region and in Central America. At present, Mexico and the Amazon Region remain as the next major challenges. With consolidation of operational programmes in all endemic countries, the future focus will be on epidemiological surveillance and care of those people already infected. In political terms, the control of Chagas disease in Latin America can be considered, so far, as a victory for international scientific cooperation, but will require continuing political commitment for sustained success. PMID:12219120

Dias, J C P; Silveira, A C; Schofield, C J

2002-07-01

257

Interferon-? and other inflammatory mediators in cardiomyocyte signaling during Chagas disease cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), the main consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi) infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy that develops in up to 30% of infected individuals. The heart inflammation in CCC patients is characterized by a Th1 T cell-rich myocarditis with increased production of interferon (IFN)-?, produced by the CCC myocardial infiltrate and detected at high levels in the periphery. IFN-? has a central role in the cardiomyocyte signaling during both acute and chronic phases of T.cruzi infection. In this review, we have chosen to focus in its pleiotropic mode of action during CCC, which may ultimately be the strongest driver towards pathological remodeling and heart failure. We describe here the antiparasitic protective and pathogenic dual role of IFN-? in Chagas disease. PMID:25228957

Ferreira, Ludmila Rodrigues Pinto; Frade, Amanda Farage; Baron, Monique Andrade; Navarro, Isabela Cunha; Kalil, Jorge; Chevillard, Christophe; Cunha-Neto, Edecio

2014-01-01

258

Genetic diversity of Kenyan native oyster mushroom (Pleurotus).  

PubMed

Members of the genus Pleurotus, also commonly known as oyster mushroom, are well known for their socioeconomic and biotechnological potentials. Despite being one of the most important edible fungi, the scarce information about the genetic diversity of the species in natural populations has limited their sustainable utilization. A total of 71 isolates of Pleurotus species were collected from three natural populations: 25 isolates were obtained from Kakamega forest, 34 isolates from Arabuko Sokoke forest and 12 isolates from Mount Kenya forest. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was applied to thirteen isolates of locally grown Pleurotus species obtained from laboratory samples using five primer pair combinations. AFLP markers and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of the ribosomal DNA were used to estimate the genetic diversity and evaluate phylogenetic relationships, respectively, among and within populations. The five primer pair combinations generated 293 polymorphic loci across the 84 isolates. The mean genetic diversity among the populations was 0.25 with the population from Arabuko Sokoke having higher (0.27) diversity estimates compared to Mount Kenya population (0.24). Diversity between the isolates from the natural population (0.25) and commercial cultivars (0.24) did not differ significantly. However, diversity was greater within (89%; P > 0.001) populations than among populations. Homology search analysis against the GenBank database using 16 rDNA ITS sequences randomly selected from the two clades of AFLP dendrogram revealed three mushroom species: P. djamor, P. floridanus and P. sapidus; the three mushrooms form part of the diversity of Pleurotus species in Kenya. The broad diversity within the Kenyan Pleurotus species suggests the possibility of obtaining native strains suitable for commercial cultivation. PMID:25344263

Otieno, Ojwang D; Onyango, Calvin; Onguso, Justus Mungare; Matasyoh, Lexa G; Wanjala, Bramwel W; Wamalwa, Mark; Harvey, Jagger J W

2015-01-01

259

Echocardiographic diagnosis and evaluation of cardiomyopathies: idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, Chagas' heart disease and endomyocardial fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Echocardiographic investigations on patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with obstruction have been detailed and compared with the changes found in sixty patients with chronic Chagas' 'cardiomyopathy'. These changes are similar to those encountered in congestive cardiomyopathy. Endomyocardial fibrosis is rare in Venezuela, but six patients have been found in that country and the echocardiographic changes in one of these patients has been included in this study. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:412175

Hernández-Pieretti, O.

1977-01-01

260

A Scientometric Evaluation of the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme of the PAHO and TDR  

PubMed Central

The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) is an independent global programme of scientific collaboration cosponsored by the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. TDR's strategy is based on stewardship for research on infectious diseases of poverty, empowerment of endemic countries, research on neglected priority needs, and the promotion of scientific collaboration influencing global efforts to combat major tropical diseases. In 2001, in view of the achievements obtained in the reduction of transmission of Chagas disease through the Southern Cone Initiative and the improvement in Chagas disease control activities in some countries of the Andean and the Central American Initiatives, TDR transferred the Chagas Disease Implementation Research Programme (CIRP) to the Communicable Diseases Unit of the Pan American Health Organization (CD/PAHO). This paper presents a scientometric evaluation of the 73 projects from 18 Latin American and European countries that were granted by CIRP/PAHO/TDR between 1997 and 2007. We analyzed all final reports of the funded projects and scientific publications, technical reports, and human resource training activities derived from them. Results about the number of projects funded, countries and institutions involved, gender analysis, number of published papers in indexed scientific journals, main topics funded, patents inscribed, and triatomine species studied are presented and discussed. The results indicate that CIRP/PAHO/TDR initiative has contributed significantly, over the 1997–2007 period, to Chagas disease knowledge as well as to the individual and institutional-building capacity. PMID:24244761

Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Yadón, Zaida E.

2013-01-01

261

Association of Bartonella spp bacteremia with Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocarditis and arrhythmias in patients from South America.  

PubMed

Infection with Bartonella spp may cause cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis and endocarditis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and endocarditis, arrhythmia and Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients from Brazil and Argentina. We screened for the presence of bacterial 16S rRNA in human blood by PCR using oligonucleotides to amplify a 185-bp bacterial DNA fragment. Blood samples were taken from four groups of subjects in Brazil and Argentina: i) control patients without clinical disease, ii) patients with negative blood-culture endocarditis, iii) patients with arrhythmias, and iv) patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. PCR products were analyzed on 1.5% agarose gel to visualize the 185-bp fragment and then sequenced to confirm the identity of DNA. Sixty of 148 patients (40.5%) with cardiac disease and 1 of 56 subjects (1.8%) from the control group presented positive PCR amplification for Bartonella spp, suggesting a positive association of the bacteria with these diseases. Separate analysis of the four groups showed that the risk of a Brazilian patient with endocarditis being infected with Bartonella was 22 times higher than in the controls. In arrhythmic patients, the prevalence of infection was 45 times higher when compared to the same controls and 40 times higher for patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of the association between Bartonella spp bacteremia and Chagas disease. The present data may be useful for epidemiological and prevention studies in Brazil and Argentina. PMID:22584639

Corrêa, F G; Pontes, C L S; Verzola, R M M; Mateos, J C P; Velho, P E N F; Schijman, A G; Selistre-de-Araujo, H S

2012-07-01

262

Fine-scale predictions of distributions of Chagas disease vectors in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico  

E-print Network

MODELING/GIS, RISK ASSESSMENT,ECONOMIC IMPACT Fine-Scale Predictions of Distributions of Chagas Disease Vectors in the State of Guanajuato, Mexico JORGE LO ´ PEZ-CA ´ RDENAS, 1 FRANCISCO ERNESTO GONZALEZ BRAVO, 2 PAZ MARIA SALAZAR SCHETTINO, 3 JUAN..., in the last decade, “additional” operative vector control activities have focused pri- marily in urban environments owing to increases in classical and hemorrhagic dengue transmission. (To date, vector-borne disease control activities are bud- geted only...

Ló pez-Cá tdenas, Jorge; Gonzalez-Bravo, Francisco Ernesto; Salazar-Schettino, Paz Maria; Gallaga-Solorzano, Juan Carlos; Ramí rez-Barba, Ector; Martinez-Mendez, Joel; Sá nchez-Cordero, Ví ctor; Peterson, A. Townsend; Ramsey, J. M.

2005-11-01

263

Lower Richness of Small Wild Mammal Species and Chagas Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

A new epidemiological scenario involving the oral transmission of Chagas disease, mainly in the Amazon basin, requires innovative control measures. Geospatial analyses of the Trypanosoma cruzi transmission cycle in the wild mammals have been scarce. We applied interpolation and map algebra methods to evaluate mammalian fauna variables related to small wild mammals and the T. cruzi infection pattern in dogs to identify hotspot areas of transmission. We also evaluated the use of dogs as sentinels of epidemiological risk of Chagas disease. Dogs (n?=?649) were examined by two parasitological and three distinct serological assays. kDNA amplification was performed in patent infections, although the infection was mainly sub-patent in dogs. The distribution of T. cruzi infection in dogs was not homogeneous, ranging from 11–89% in different localities. The interpolation method and map algebra were employed to test the associations between the lower richness in mammal species and the risk of exposure of dogs to T. cruzi infection. Geospatial analysis indicated that the reduction of the mammal fauna (richness and abundance) was associated with higher parasitemia in small wild mammals and higher exposure of dogs to infection. A Generalized Linear Model (GLM) demonstrated that species richness and positive hemocultures in wild mammals were associated with T. cruzi infection in dogs. Domestic canine infection rates differed significantly between areas with and without Chagas disease outbreaks (Chi-squared test). Geospatial analysis by interpolation and map algebra methods proved to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of areas of T. cruzi transmission. Dog infection was shown to not only be an efficient indicator of reduction of wild mammalian fauna richness but to also act as a signal for the presence of small wild mammals with high parasitemia. The lower richness of small mammal species is discussed as a risk factor for the re-emergence of Chagas disease. PMID:22616021

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Lima, Valdirene dos Santos; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Otaviano, Joel Carlos Rodrigues; Ferreira da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho; Jansen, Ana Maria

2012-01-01

264

Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. Methodology/Principal Findings The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães) that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI). This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. Conclusion/Significance These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as “Distantiae transmission”. PMID:24854494

Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Bilac, Daniele; de Araújo, Vitor Antônio Louzada; Neto, Sócrates Fraga da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira; Jansen, Ana Maria

2014-01-01

265

Human Chagas Disease and Migration in the Context of Globalization: Some Particular Aspects  

PubMed Central

Human Chagas disease originated in Latin America, being spread around the world in relation with multiple bioecological, sociocultural, and political factors. The process of the disease production and dispersion is discussed, emphasizing the human migration and correlated aspects, in the context of globalization. Positive and negative consequences concern the future of this trypanosomiasis, mainly in terms of the ecologic and sociopolitical characteristics of the endemic and nonendemic countries. PMID:23606862

Pinto Dias, João Carlos

2013-01-01

266

Buried treasure: Unlocking the secrets of medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we investigate the potential of plants and fungi as a source of beneficial molecules for human health. We explore the weird and wonderful world of the mushroom and examine how Western medicine still has a lot to learn from Eastern practices dating back thousands of years. We also discuss a study further supporting claims that flaxseed, the plant kingdom's richest source of omega-3 fatty acids, can have lipid-lowering and fat-busting properties in the right physiological context. Finally, this issue also includes several validation studies of medical procedures or devices that define optimal conditions for their use in Asian populations. PMID:25510923

Walton, Emma L

2014-01-01

267

Fatal fulminant hepatitis associated with Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) mushroom powder.  

PubMed

Hepatotoxic effect related to Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi) mushroom powder was first described in a patient from Hong Kong in 2004. In 2005, the authors experienced a case of fatal fulminant hepatitis associated with such a preparation. Both patients had taken other therapeutic agents and traditionally boiled Lingzhi without any toxic effect. After switching to taking Lingzhi in powder form for 1-2 months, the hepatotoxic episode occurred in both patients. The toxic role of Lingzhi powder needs close monitoring in the future, especially in combination with other drugs. PMID:17621752

Wanmuang, Harirak; Leopairut, Juvady; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri; Wananukul, Winai; Bunyaratvej, Sukhum

2007-01-01

268

The main sceneries of Chagas disease transmission. The vectors, blood and oral transmissions - A comprehensive review.  

PubMed

This review deals with transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by the most important domestic vectors, blood transfusion and oral intake. Among the vectors, Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus, Rhodnius prolixus, Triatoma dimidiata, Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Triatoma sordida, Triatoma maculata, Panstrongylus geniculatus, Rhodnius ecuadoriensis and Rhodnius pallescens can be highlighted. Transmission of Chagas infection, which has been brought under control in some countries in South and Central America, remains a great challenge, particularly considering that many endemic countries do not have control over blood donors. Even more concerning is the case of non-endemic countries that receive thousands of migrants from endemic areas that carry Chagas disease, such as the United States of America, in North America, Spain, in Europe, Japan, in Asia, and Australia, in Oceania. In the Brazilian Amazon Region, since Shaw et al. (1969) described the first acute cases of the disease caused by oral transmission, hundreds of acute cases of the disease due to oral transmission have been described in that region, which is today considered to be endemic for oral transmission. Several other outbreaks of acute Chagas disease by oral transmission have been described in different states of Brazil and in other South American countries. PMID:25466622

Coura, José Rodrigues

2014-12-01

269

[Transmission of chagasic infection by oral route in the natural history of Chagas disease].  

PubMed

The enzootic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi in the nature is maintained for millions of years, in great part by oral route, through the ingestion of infected triatomines by edentates(Xenarthra), marsupials and primates and by carnivores eating other infected mammals. The other phases of the natural history of Chagas disease--Anthropozoonosis, Zoonosis or Anphixenosis and Zooanthroponosis are more recent. The most ancient human mummies found with DNA of T. cruzi by PCR, from northern Chile and southern Peru, dated of 9.000 years and the infection must be acquired from the forest or in the caves as an anthropozoonosis. The adaptation of triatomines to human dwellings must be started with deforestation during the agriculture cycle or for cattle raising in the last 200-300 years, when Chagas disease seat up as an endemic zoonosis. After the Triatoma infestans and the blood bank transmission ofT. cruzi were controlled in Brazil, the transmision by oral route came to be the most important and permanent transmission mechanism of the infection, as we have seen by microepidemic or outbreaks of acute Chagas disease in several regions of Brazil. PMID:17605219

Coura, José Rodrigues

2006-01-01

270

Current Understanding of Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Pathogenesis of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi remains an important neglected tropical disease and a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. No longer confined to endemic areas of Latin America, it is now found in non-endemic areas due to immigration. The parasite may persist in any tissue, but in recent years there has been increased recognition of adipose tissue both as an early target of infection and a reservoir of chronic infection. The major complications of this disease are cardiomyopathy and megasyndromes involving the gastrointestinal tract. The pathogenesis of Chagas disease is complex and multifactorial involving many interactive pathways. The significance of innate immunity, including the contributions of cytokines, chemokines, reactive oxygen species, and oxidative stress, has been emphasized. The role of the components of the eicosanoid pathway such as thromboxane A2 and the lipoxins has been demonstrated to have profound effects as both pro-and anti-inflammatory factors. Additionally, we discuss the vasoconstrictive actions of thromboxane A2 and endothelin-1n Chagas disease. Human immunity to T. cruzi infection and its role in pathogen control and disease progression have not been fully investigated. However, recently, it was demonstrated that a reduction in the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was associated with clinically significant chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23076807

Machado, Fabiana S.; Dutra, Walderez O.; Esper, Lisia; Gollob, Kenneth; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Factor, Stephen M.; Weiss, Louis M.; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Garg, Nisha J.

2012-01-01

271

Chagas disease in the 21st century: a public health success or an emerging threat?  

PubMed

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

Bonney, Kevin M

2014-01-01

272

Modelling inter-human transmission dynamics of Chagas disease: analysis and application.  

PubMed

Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, has expanded from rural endemic to urban areas due to migration. This so-called urban Chagas is an emerging health problem in American, European, Australian and Japanese cities. We present a mathematical model to analyse the dynamics of urban Chagas to better understand its epidemiology. The model considers the three clinical stages of the disease and the main routes of inter-human transmission. To overcome the complexities of the infection dynamics, the next-generation matrix method was developed. We deduced expressions which allowed estimating the number of new infections generated by an infected individual through each transmission route at each disease stage, the basic reproduction number and the number of individuals at each disease stage at the outbreak of the infection. The analysis was applied to Buenos Aires city (Argentina). We estimated that 94% of the new infections are generated by individuals in the chronic indeterminate stage. When migration was not considered, the infection disappeared slowly and R0 = 0.079, whereas when migration was considered, the number of individuals in each stage of the infection tended to stabilize. The expressions can be used to estimate different numbers of infected individuals in any place where only inter-human transmission is possible. PMID:24533945

Fabrizio, M C; Schweigmann, N J; Bartoloni, N J

2014-05-01

273

Evaluation of a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Mucin-Like Antigen for Serodiagnosis of Chagas' Disease ?  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is one of the most important endemic problems in Latin America. Lately, it has also become a health concern in the United States and Europe. Currently, a diagnosis of Chagas' disease and the screening of blood supplies for antiparasite antibodies are achieved by conventional serological tests that show substantial variation in the reproducibility and reliability of their results. In addition, the specificity of these assays is curtailed by antigenic cross-reactivity with sera from patients affected by other endemic diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Here we used a highly sensitive chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CL-ELISA) to evaluate a recombinant protein core of a mucin-like molecule (termed trypomastigote small surface antigen [TSSA]) for the detection of specific serum antibodies in a broad panel of human sera. The same samples were evaluated by CL-ELISA using as the antigen either a mixture of native T. cruzi trypomastigote mucins or an epimastigote extract and, for further comparison, by conventional serologic tests, such as an indirect hemagglutination assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay. TSSA showed ?87% sensitivity among the seropositive Chagasic panel, a value which was increased up to >98% when only parasitologically positive samples were considered. More importantly, TSSA showed a significant increase in specificity (97.4%) compared to those of currently used assays, which averaged 80 to 90%. Overall, our data demonstrate that recombinant TSSA may be a useful antigen for the immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease. PMID:21880857

De Marchi, Claudia R.; Di Noia, Javier M.; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Amato Neto, Vicente; Almeida, Igor C.; Buscaglia, Carlos A.

2011-01-01

274

Chagas disease in the 21st Century: a public health success or an emerging threat?  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially fatal cardiomyopathy and/or severe digestive tract disorders. As Chagas disease becomes an increasingly globalized public health issue in the twenty-first century, continued attentiveness from governmental and health organizations as well as improved diagnostic tools, expanded surveillance and increased research funding will be required to maintain existing public health successes and stymie the spread of the disease to new areas and populations. PMID:24626257

Bonney, Kevin M.

2014-01-01

275

Evaluation of Waste Mushroom Medium as a Fermentable Substrate and Bioethanol Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waste Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushroom medium, a lignocellulosic aglicultural residue, was evaluated as a fermentable substrate. 87% of the fermentable sugars remained in the waste mushroom medium. The sugar yield of the waste mushroom medium (46.3%) was higher than that of raw mushroom medium (20.3%) after 48 h of enzymatic saccharification by Meicelase because L. edodes changed wood structure. These results indicated that the waste mushroom medium is a suitable substrate for fermentation. Next, the efficient ethanol production using steam explosion pretreatment was studied. After 30 h of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 20.0 g/L ethanol was produced from 100 g/L water-insoluble residue of the waste mushroom medium treated at a steam pressure of 20 atm and a steaming time of 5 min. This corresponded to an ethanol yield of 77.0% of the theoretical, i.e. 14.7 g of ethanol obtained from 100 g of waste mushroom medium.

Asakawa, Ai; Sasaki, Chizuru; Asada, Chikako; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

276

Themes for mushroom exploitation in the 21st century: Sustainability, waste management, and conservation.  

PubMed

Because many natural resources are limited, sustainability becomes an important concept in maintaining the human population, health, and environment. Mushrooms are a group of saprotrophic fungi. Mushroom cultivation is a direct utilization of their ecological role in the bioconversion of solid wastes generated from industry and agriculture into edible biomass, which could also be regarded as a functional food or as a source of drugs and pharmaceuticals. To make the mushroom cultivation an environmentally friendly industry, the basic biology of mushrooms and the cultivation technology must be researched and developed. This is very true for Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea, and Ganoderma lucidum, which are commonly consumed in Asian communities but are now gaining popularity worldwide. Besides the conventional method, strain improvement can also be exploited by protoplast fusion and transformation. Biodiversity is the key contribution to the genetic resource for breeding programs to fulfill different consumer demands. The conservation of these mushrooms becomes essential and is in immediate need not only because of the massive habitat loss as a result of human inhabitation and deforestation, but also because of the introduced competition by a cultivar with the wild germ plasm. Spent mushroom compost, a bulky solid waste generated from the mushroom industry, however, can be exploited as a soil fertilizer and as a prospective bioremediating agent. PMID:12483569

Chiu, Siu Wai; Law, Shui Chee; Ching, Mei Lun; Cheung, Ka Wan; Chen, Ming Jie

2000-12-01

277

The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

2013-05-01

278

Bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant properties of wild edible mushrooms from the island of Lesvos, Greece.  

PubMed

Crude composition, fatty acids, sterols, total phenolic content (TPC), individual polyphenols and terpenic acids were determined in five wild edible mushrooms species (Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius sanguifluus, Lactarius semisanguifluus, Russula delica, Suillus bellinii) from Lesvos Island, Greece. In addition, the DPPH scavenging capacity, the ferric ion reducing power (FRAP) and the ferrous ion chelating activity of mushroom methanolic extracts were assessed. Among sterols, ergosterol predominated at concentrations 9.2-18.0mg/100g fw. Total phenolic content of mushroom extracts ranged from 6.0 to 20.8mg GAE/100g fw. Up to 19 simple polyphenols were determined in mushrooms extracts, the more abundant being p-OH-benzoic acid, p-OH-phenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and chrysin. In addition, the triterpenic acids oleanolic and ursolic were detected for the first time in mushrooms. All species exerted antioxidant activity and ferrous ion chelating capacity. Principal component analysis revealed good correlations between TPC, DPPH and FRAP but not with metal chelating activity. It seems that mushrooms polyphenols exert antiradical and reducing activities, but they are not strong metal chelators, the observed chelating ability being probably due to other classes of compounds. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the bioactive microconstituents and antioxidant activity of wild Greek edible mushrooms. PMID:23354393

Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Yanni, Amalia E; Koutrotsios, Georgios; Aloupi, Maria

2013-05-01

279

The relationship between lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase production capacities and cultivation periods of mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are able to secrete lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), and able to use the cellulose as sources of carbon. This article focuses on the relation between peroxidase-secreting capacity and cultivation period of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Methylene blue and methyl catechol qualitative assay and spectrophotometry quantitative assay show LiP secreting unvaryingly accompanies the MnP secreting in mushroom strains. The growth rates of hyphae are detected by detecting the dry hyphal mass. We link the peroxidase activities to growth rate of mushrooms and then probe into the relationship between them. The results show that there are close relationships between LiP- and/or MnP-secretory capacities and the cultivation periods of mushrooms. The strains with high LiP and MnP activities have short cultivation periods. However, those strains have long cultivation periods because of the low levels of secreted LiP and/or MnP, even no detectable LiP and/or MnP activity. This study provides the first evidence on the imitate relation between the level of secreted LiP and MnP activities and cultivation periods of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. Our study has significantly increased the understanding of the role of LiP and MnP in the growth and development of mushrooms with non-laccase activity. PMID:22966760

Xu, Jian Z; Zhang, Jun L; Hu, Kai H; Zhang, Wei G

2013-01-01

280

Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. PMID:22765964

de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

2012-11-01

281

Process and dynamics of traditional selling wild edible mushrooms in tropical Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background More than twelve temperate-inhabitant Mexican ethnic groups are considered to be mycophilic and to have extensive traditional mycological knowledge. In contrast, inhabitants of tropical lands have been studied only superficially and their mycological knowledge is less well known. In this paper, we report the results of an ethnomycological research in markets of a wide area of the Mexican tropics. Our aims were to describe the dynamics related to the traditional selling process of wild mushrooms and to determine the tendencies of informants toward mushrooms (mycophily vs. mycophoby). Methods We visited 25 markets of 12 different settlements in the states of Oaxaca, Tabasco and Veracruz and collected information by participant observation as well as by 291 non-structured and semi-structured interviews. Results Mushroom selling was observed in four towns in Oaxaca and in two in Tabasco. Women represented 81.82% of sellers, while indigenous people (Chinantecos, Chontales, Ch'oles and Zoques) comprised 68.18%. Mushroom commercialization took place in secondary mobile markets and only in peasant stands. Mushroom collectors gather the resource in places with secondary vegetation, farmed areas and cattle fields. Because of land tenure restrictions mushroom sellers did not normally collect mushrooms themselves. In Oaxaca, we observed economic dynamics not based on capitalism, such as exchange, reciprocity and barter. Conclusion The sale of some wild edible mushrooms, the large amounts of commercialization of Schizophyllum commune, the complicated intermediary process, as well as the insertion of mushrooms into different informal economic practices are all evidence of an existent mycophily in a sector of the population of this region of the Mexican tropics. Among our informants, urban mestizo people were mycophobic, rural mestizo people were non-mycophilic and indigenous people were true mycophilic. PMID:16393345

Ruán-Soto, Felipe; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Cifuentes, Joaquín

2006-01-01

282

Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques and molecular studies, while the spectrum of microbial metabolites including mycotoxins was analyzed by a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method covering 320 metabolites. Molds such as Fusarium, Penicillium, Trichoderma and aflatoxigenic species of Aspergillus (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus) were recovered from all samples at varying levels. None of the mycotoxins addressed by regulatory limits in the EU was positively identified in the samples. However, 26 other fungal metabolites occurred at sub- to medium ?g/kg levels in the samples, including aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin bio-precursors, bis-anthraquinone derivatives from Talaromyces islandicus, emerging toxins (e.g. enniatins) and other Fusarium metabolites, and clavine alkaloids. Although little is known on the toxicology of these substances, the absence of aflatoxins and other primary mycotoxins suggests that dried mushrooms may represent a relatively safe type of food in view of mycotoxin contamination. PMID:23454813

Ezekiel, C N; Sulyok, M; Frisvad, J C; Somorin, Y M; Warth, B; Houbraken, J; Samson, R A; Krska, R; Odebode, A C

2013-04-01

283

Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.  

PubMed

This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co. PMID:25577119

Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

2015-05-15

284

CAUSES OF MIGRAINE IN KARACHIITES AND ITS TREATMENT FROM MUSHROOMS  

E-print Network

This study was conducted to find the causes of migraine in Karachi, Pakistan and also to assess the efficacy of mushrooms (GANODERMA LUCIDUM therapy) in treatment of migraine. Migraine is an episodic headache that affects the general population. There are lots of factors that cause migraine and may include stress, exposure to light and sounds, anxiety, caffeine reduction etc. Many medicines are used for treating migraine and Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus belonging to the Polyporaceae family, (known in Japan as REISHI), is now being used in Pakistan for this purpose. It has proved to completely eradicate migraine without side effects. The study was conducted by researchers using a specially designed questionnaire developed from different sources to find the major factors contributing to the occurrence of migraine. About 220 questionnaires were filled by the subjects from March to May 2012. Regarding the treatment using mushrooms (ganotherapy), about 66 cases of migrainuers were studied by the researchers who were treated at DXN International Clinic, Karachi, Pakistan. Results recorded were calculated statistically. People having migraine may experience different types of symptoms and they may belong to different age groups. The most frequent aggravating factors reported by migrainuers were stress 50.90 % (n=112), sunlight 48.18 % (n=106) and loud noise 45.5 % (n=100). The relieving factors for migraine reported by most of the migrainuers were rest/sleep 61.8 % (n=136), dark/quiet environment 39.54 % (n=87) and various medications used

Coden Ijpnl; Fakhsheena Anjum; Nighat Razvi; Hina Yasin; Arije Ahmad; Marvi Khan Sherwani; Rahim Khan; Sidra Arshad

285

Decolourisation of mushroom farm wastewater by Pleurotus ostreatus.  

PubMed

Mushroom production on coffee pulp as substrate generates an intense black residual liquid, which requires suitable treatment. In the present study, Pleurotus ostreatus growth in wastewater from mushroom farm was evaluated as a potential biological treatment process for decolourisation as well as to obtain biomass (liquid inoculum). Culture medium components affecting mycelial growth were determined, evaluating colour removal. Laccase activity was monitored during the process. P. ostreatus was able to grow in non diluted WCP. Highest biomass yield was obtained when glucose (10 g/l) was added. The addition of this carbon source was necessary for efficient decolourisation. Agitation of the culture improved biodegradation of WCP as well as fungal biomass production. Laccase and manganese-independent peroxidase activities were detected during fungal treatment of the WCP by P. ostreatus CCEBI 3024. The laccase enzyme showed good correlation with colour loss. Both wastewater colour and pollution load (as chemical oxygen demand) decreased more than 50% after 10 days of culture. Phenols were reduced by 92%. PMID:17957486

Rodríguez Pérez, Suyén; García Oduardo, Nora; Bermúdez Savón, Rosa C; Fernández Boizán, Maikel; Augur, Christopher

2008-07-01

286

Isolation and Identification of Mushroom Pathogens from Agrocybe aegerita  

PubMed Central

Agrocybe aegerita is an important mushroom cultivated in Korea, with good feel and a peculiar fragrance. A. aegerita can be cultivated throughout the year using culture bottles but is more susceptible to contamination than other mushrooms. Twenty-two pathogens were isolated from the fruiting bodies and compost of A. aegerita, and seven isolates were isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus to compare with the A. aegerita isolates, collected from Gimje, Iksan, Gunsan of Chonbuk, and Chilgok of Gyeongbuk Province in 2009. These isolates were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Of the 29 isolates, 26 were identified as Trichoderma spp. and the remaining three were Aspergillus spp., Mucor spp., and Penicillium spp. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 26 isolates of Trichoderma were divided into four taxa, namely T. harzianum, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. atroviride. Among the Trichoderma spp., 16 isolates (55.2%) were identified as T. harzianum, six as T. pleuroticola (20.7%), two as T. longibrachiatum, and the remaining two were T. atroviride. PMID:23956671

Choi, Jang-Nam; Sharma, Praveen K.; Lee, Wang-Hyu

2010-01-01

287

Isolation and Identification of Mushroom Pathogens from Agrocybe aegerita.  

PubMed

Agrocybe aegerita is an important mushroom cultivated in Korea, with good feel and a peculiar fragrance. A. aegerita can be cultivated throughout the year using culture bottles but is more susceptible to contamination than other mushrooms. Twenty-two pathogens were isolated from the fruiting bodies and compost of A. aegerita, and seven isolates were isolated from Pleurotus ostreatus to compare with the A. aegerita isolates, collected from Gimje, Iksan, Gunsan of Chonbuk, and Chilgok of Gyeongbuk Province in 2009. These isolates were identified based on morphological and molecular characteristics. Of the 29 isolates, 26 were identified as Trichoderma spp. and the remaining three were Aspergillus spp., Mucor spp., and Penicillium spp. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 26 isolates of Trichoderma were divided into four taxa, namely T. harzianum, T. pleuroticola, T. longibrachiatum, and T. atroviride. Among the Trichoderma spp., 16 isolates (55.2%) were identified as T. harzianum, six as T. pleuroticola (20.7%), two as T. longibrachiatum, and the remaining two were T. atroviride. PMID:23956671

Choi, In-Young; Choi, Jang-Nam; Sharma, Praveen K; Lee, Wang-Hyu

2010-12-01

288

EPR investigation of some desiccated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota gamma-irradiated mushrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The suitability of the EPR spectroscopy for detection of ?-irradiation in five species of dried mushroom, currently used in gastronomy: yellow morel— Morchella esculenta, (L.) Pers. (Phylum Ascomycota), button mushroom— Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange), Agaricus haemorrhoidarius Fr., golden chantarelle— Cantharellus cibarius Fr., as well as oyster mushroom— Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) (Phylum Basidiomycota) is presented and discussed. Although after irradiation at doses up to 11 kGy, all specimens presented well defined EPR spectra, only A. bisporus EPR signal was enough stable to make detection possible after 18 months.

Bercu, V.; Negut, C. D.; Duliu, O. G.

2010-12-01

289

Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas  

SciTech Connect

Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

Stoller, B.B.

1981-04-28

290

Influence of storage and household processing on the agaritine content of the cultivated Agaricus mushroom.  

PubMed

Agaritine (N-(gamma-L(+)-glutamyl)-4-hydroxymethyl-phenylhydrazine) was identified and quantified by high-pressure liquid chromatography and used as a marker for the occurrence of phenylhydrazine derivatives in the cultivated Agaricus bitorquis and A. garicus hortensis mushrooms. Although relatively high levels of agaritine (around 700 mg kg(-1)) could be found in freshly harvested A. bitorquis from early flushes, samples from supermarkets contained less agaritine. The content of 28 samples varied between 165 and 457 mg kg(-1), on average being 272 +/- 69 mg kg(-1). The highest amounts of agaritine were found in the skin of the cap and in the gills, the lowest being in the stem. There was no significant difference in agaritine content of the two mushroom species in our study. Pronounced reduction in agaritine content was observed during storage of mushrooms in the refrigerator or freezer, as well as during drying of the mushrooms. The degree of reduction was dependent on the length and condition of storage and was usually in the region 20-75%. No reduction in agaritine content was observed during freeze-drying. Depending on the cooking procedure, household processing of cultivated Agaricus mushrooms reduced the agaritine content to various degrees. Boiling extracted around 50% of the agaritine content into the cooking broth within 5min and degraded 20-25% of the original agaritine content of the mushrooms. Prolonged boiling, as when preparing a sauce, reduced the content in the solid mushroom further (around 10% left after 2h). Dry baking of the cultivated mushroom, a process similar to pizza baking, reduced the agaritine content by approximately 25%, whereas frying in oil or butter or deep frying resulted in a more marked reduction (35-70%). Microwave processing of the cultivated mushrooms reduced the agaritine content to one-third of the original level. Thus, the exposure to agaritine was substantially less when consuming processed Agaricus mushrooms as compared with consuming the raw mushrooms. However, it is not yet known to what extent agaritine and other phenylhydrazine derivatives occurring in the cultivated mushroom are degraded into other biologically active compounds during the cooking procedure. PMID:12396396

Schulzová, V; Hajslová, J; Peroutka, R; Gry, J; Andersson, H C

2002-09-01

291

Efficient Recovery of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes of Spent Mushroom Compost from Oyster Mushrooms, Pleurotus spp., and Potential Use in Dye Decolorization  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted in order to perform efficient extraction of lignocellulolytic enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), cellulase (EC 3.2.1.4), laccase (EC 1.10.3.2), and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and P. cornucopiae. Optimal enzyme recovery was achieved when SMCs were extracted with 50 mM sodium citrate (pH 4.5) buffer at 4? for 2 hr. Amylase, cellulase, and xylanase activities showed high values in extracts from P. ostreatus SMC, with 2.97 U/g, 1.67 U/g, and 91.56 U/g, respectively, whereas laccase activity and filter paper degradation ability were highest in extracts from P. eryngii SMC, with values of 9.01 U/g and 0.21 U/g, respectively. Enzymatic activities varied according to the SMCs released from different mushroom farms. The synthetic dyes remazol brilliant blue R and Congo red were decolorized completely by the SMC extract of P. eryngii within 120 min, and the decolorization ability of the extract was comparable to that of 0.3 U of commercial laccase. In addition, laccase activity of the SMC extract from P. eryngii was compared to that of commercial enzymes or its industrial application in decolorization. PMID:24493942

Lim, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yun-Hae

2013-01-01

292

Structurally Simple Inhibitors of Lanosterol 14?-Demethylase Are Efficacious In a Rodent Model of Acute Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

We report structure-activity studies of a large number of dialkyl imidazoles as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi lanosterol-14?-demethylase (L14DM). The compounds have a simple structure compared to posaconazole, another L14DM inhibitor that is an anti-Chagas drug candidate. Several compounds display potency for killing T. cruzi amastigotes in vitro with values of EC50 in the 0.4–10 nM range. Two compounds were selected for efficacy studies in a mouse model of acute Chagas disease. At oral doses of 20–50 mg/kg given after establishment of parasite infection, the compounds reduced parasitemia in the blood to undetectable levels, and analysis of remaining parasites by PCR revealed a lack of parasites in the majority of animals. These dialkyl imidazoles are substantially less expensive to produce than posaconazole and are appropriate for further development toward an anti-Chagas disease clinical candidate. PMID:19463001

Suryadevara, Praveen Kumar; Olepu, Srinivas; Lockman, Jeffrey W.; Ohkanda, Junko; Karimi, Mandana; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Kraus, James M.; Schoepe, Jan; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

2009-01-01

293

Coronary microvascular disease in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy including an overview on history, pathology, and other proposed pathogenic mechanisms.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the short and bewildered history of Brazilian scientist Carlos Chagas's discovery and subsequent developments, the anatomopathological features of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), an overview on the controversies surrounding theories concerning its pathogenesis, and studies that support the microvascular hypothesis to further explain the pathological features and clinical course of CCC. It is our belief that knowledge of this particular and remarkable cardiomyopathy will shed light not only on the microvascular involvement of its pathogenesis, but also on the pathogenetic processes of other cardiomyopathies, which will hopefully provide a better understanding of the various changes that may lead to an end-stage heart disease with similar features. This review is written to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the discovery of Chagas disease. PMID:20824217

Rossi, Marcos A; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Malvestio, Lygia M; Celes, Mara R; Campos, Erica C; Blefari, Valdecir; Prado, Cibele M

2010-01-01

294

Seroprevalence and sociocultural conditionants of Chagas disease in school-aged children of marginal zones of Asunción.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is becoming a public health problem in Latin America due to the wide distribution, the high prevalence, the magnitude of the damage caused and the difficulties to control it. In Paraguay, the disease is mainly distributed in the departments of Paraguarí, Cordillera and Central. Prevalence in marginal zones, where migrations from rural populations and endemic areas make possible the urbanization of the disease, has no been studied yet. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional sampling and a probabilistic system recruitment carried out in school aged children from marginal zones of Asunción to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease. Serological methods, parasite isolation and questionnaires were used to achieve the goals. Nine hundred and fifty three children were studied to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease in marginal zones which was 1.4%. PMID:9662961

Vera, N I; Maldonado, M; Yaluff, G; Simancas, L; de Arias, A R

1998-01-01

295

7" serving prepared in traditional brick oven Pepperoni, Sausage, Ham, Bacon, Hamburger, Mushrooms, Black Olives,  

E-print Network

7" serving prepared in traditional brick oven Pepperoni, Sausage, Ham, Bacon, Hamburger, Mushrooms, tomatoes, broccoli, cheddar cheese, hard boiled egg, ham slices and turkey slices with fat free raspberry

Oklahoma, University of

296

Studies concerning heavy metals bioaccumulation of wild edible mushrooms from industrial area by using spectrometric techniques.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to determine the heavy metal content of the fruiting bodies of four species of wild edible mushrooms and their respective substrates. The samples were collected from Dambovita County, Romania, at various distances from of a metal smelter, to asses the concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd in the wild edible mushrooms and their substrate using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry together with Flame Atomic Absorption (FAAS) spectrometry. A quantitative evaluation of the relationship of element uptake by mushrooms from substrate was made by calculating the coefficient accumulation (K(a)). A high accumulation of Zn (K(a) range 1.01 to 2.01) was observed in mushrooms growing in the vicinity of the metal smelter. PMID:20405104

Radulescu, Cristiana; Stihi, Claudia; Busuioc, Gabriela; Gheboianu, Anca Irina; Popescu, Ion V

2010-05-01

297

Mushrooms-Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique: Exploring a "Third Food Kingdom"  

PubMed

Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms' increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers' efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms' nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology. PMID:25435595

Jo Feeney, Mary; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

2014-11-01

298

An experimental study of mushroom shaped stall cells. [on finite wings with separated flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface patterns characterized by a pair of counter-rotating swirls have been observed in connection with the conduction of surface flow visualization experiments involving test geometries with separated flows. An example of this phenomenon occurring on a finite wing with trailing edge stall has been referred to by Winkelmann and Barlow (1980) as 'mushroom shaped'. A description is presented of a collection of experimental results which show or suggest the occurrence of mushroom shaped stall cells on a variety of test geometries. Investigations conducted with finite wings, airfoil models, and flat plates are considered, and attention is given to studies involving the use of bluff models, investigations of shock induced boundary layer separation, and mushroom shaped patterns observed in a number of miscellaneous cases. It is concluded that the mushroom shaped stall cell appears commonly in separated flow regions.

Winkelmann, A. E.

1982-01-01

299

Mushrooms: A Potential Natural Source of Anti-Inflammatory Compounds for Medical Applications  

PubMed Central

For centuries, macrofungi have been used as food and medicine in different parts of the world. This is mainly attributed to their nutritional value as a potential source of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals. In addition, they also include many bioactive metabolites which make mushrooms and truffles common components in folk medicine, especially in Africa, the Middle East, China, and Japan. The reported medicinal effects of mushrooms include anti-inflammatory effects, with anti-inflammatory compounds of mushrooms comprising a highly diversified group in terms of their chemical structure. They include polysaccharides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and many other low molecular weight molecules. The aims of this review are to report the different types of bioactive metabolites and their relevant producers, as well as the different mechanisms of action of mushroom compounds as potent anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:25505823

Elsayed, Elsayed A.; El Enshasy, Hesham; Wadaan, Mohammad A. M.; Aziz, Ramlan

2014-01-01

300

75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-02-23

301

Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.  

PubMed

The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 ?l l?¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. PMID:24295683

Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

2014-04-15

302

78 FR 18315 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Final Rescission of Antidumping...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department) published in the Federal Register the preliminary rescission of this new shipper review (NSR) of Shandong Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) under the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic...

2013-03-26

303

78 FR 4126 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The NSR covers Shandong Yinfeng Rare Fungus Corporation Ltd. (Yinfeng) for the period of review (POR) February 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. The...

2013-01-18

304

Prediction of white button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) moisture content using hyperspectral imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperspectral imaging is a non-contact, non-destructive technique that combines spectroscopy and imaging to extract information\\u000a from a sample. This technology has recently emerged as a powerful technique for food analysis. In this study, the potential\\u000a of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to predict white button mushroom moisture content (MC) was investigated. Mushrooms were subjected\\u000a to dehydration at 45 ± 1 °C for different time periods

Masoud Taghizadeh; Aoife Gowen; Colm P. O’Donnell

2009-01-01

305

Commonly consumed and specialty dietary mushrooms reduce cellular proliferation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Worldwide, over one million women will be newly diagnosed with breast cancer in the next year. Moreover, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the USA. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that consumption of dietary mushrooms can protect against breast cancer. In this study, we tested and compared the ability of five commonly consumed or specialty mushrooms to modulate cell number balance in the cancer process using MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Hot water extracts (80°C for 2 h) of maitake (MT, Grifola frondosa), crimini (CRIM, Agaricus bisporus), portabella (PORT, Agaricus bisporus), oyster (OYS, Pleurotus ostreatus) and white button (WB, Agaricus bisporus) mushrooms or water alone (5% v/v) were incubated for 24 h with MCF-7 cells. Cellular proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced up to 33% by all mushrooms, with MT and OYS being the most effective. MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction, an often used mitochondrion-dependent marker of proliferation, was unchanged although decreased (P > 0.05) by 15% with OYS extract. Lactate dehydrogenase release, as a marker of necrosis, was significantly increased after incubation with MT but not with other test mushrooms. Furthermore, MT extract significantly increased apoptosis, or programmed cell death, as determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl end labeling method, whereas other test mushrooms displayed trends of ?15%. The total numbers of cells per flask, determined by hemacytometry, were not different from control cultures. Overall, all test mushrooms significantly suppressed cellular proliferation, with MT further significantly inducing apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. This suggests that both common and specialty mushrooms may be chemoprotective against breast cancer. PMID:20921274

Martin, Keith R; Brophy, Sara K

2010-11-01

306

DNA barcoding of wild edible mushrooms consumed by the ethnic tribes of India.  

PubMed

Wild edible mushrooms are consumed by the tribes of Meghalaya in the North-Eastern region of India, as part of their ethnic cuisine because of their favored organoleptic characteristics and traditionally known health benefits. Majority of these mushrooms have not yet been characterized in detail and are slowly shrinking in their natural habitats owing to anthropogenic factors and climate change. In the present study, representative specimens of ten morphologically distinct groups of wild edible mushrooms available in the traditional markets and their respective forest habitats, were subjected to multi-loci molecular characterization using SSU, ITS, RPB1 and RPB2 markers. The species identities inferred for the ten mushroom types using the SSU marker matched their morphological description in the case of four morphological groups only whereas the ITS marker successfully resolved the species identity for nine out of the ten mushroom groups under study. Both the protein coding gene markers RPB1 and RPB2 successfully resolved the species identity for three out of the ten morphologically distinct groups. Finally the most likely identity of the wild edible mushrooms under study has been suggested by matching their unique morphological characteristics with the generated DNA barcoding data. The present molecular characterization reveals the ten widely consumed wild mushroom types of Meghalaya, India to be Gomphus floccosus, Lactarius deliciosus, Lactarius volemus, Cantharellus cibarius, Tricholoma viridiolivaceum, Inocybe aff. sphaerospora, Laccaria vinaceoavellanea, Albatrellus ellisii, Ramaria maculatipes and Clavulina cristata. The final species identity generated by the ITS marker matched more accurately with the morphological characteristics/appearance of the specimens indicating the ITS region as a reliable barcode for identifying wild edible mushrooms. PMID:25130907

Khaund, Polashree; Joshi, S R

2014-10-15

307

Classification of Sequences Expressed during the Primordial and Basidiome Stages of the Cultivated Mushroom Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ospina-Giraldo, M. D., Collopy, P. D., Romaine, C. P., and Royse, D. J. 2000. Classification of sequences expressed during the primordial and basidiome stages of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Two complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries were constructed from tissues isolated from primordia and basidiomes of Agaricus bisporus to characterize genes involved in mushroom development. Using single-pass sequencing of 869 cDNA

M. D Ospina-Giraldo; P. D Collopy; C. P Romaine; D. J Royse

2000-01-01

308

Screening of edible mushrooms for release of ferulic acid from wheat bran by fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out to identify edible mushrooms that are able to release ferulic acid from wheat bran. In the five samples tested in the present studies, cultured mycelia of four mushroom species were found to release ferulic acid, with Hericium erinaceus producing the highest ferulic acid yield at 4d of culture, reach 95.51mg\\/l in wheat bran broth. Enzymes detection

Chun-yan Xie; Zhen-xin Gu; Xuejiao You; Gaixia Liu; Yuxia Tan; Hong Zhang

2010-01-01

309

Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration\\u000a (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale\\u000a (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H2S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples

R Noble; P J Hobbs; A Mead; A Dobrovin-Pennington

2002-01-01

310

Concentrations and health risks of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury in rice and edible mushrooms in China.  

PubMed

In this study, four common heavy metals, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) in rice and edible mushrooms of China were studied to evaluate contamination level and edible safety. Ninety two (92) rice samples were collected from the main rice growing regions in China, and 38 fresh and 21 dry edible mushroom samples were collected from typical markets in Nanjing City. The analyzed metal concentrations were significantly different between rice and edible mushroom samples (p<0.05). The results showed that Pb, Cd and As contents in 4.3%, 3.3% and 2.2% rice samples respectively, were above maximum allowable concentration (MAC). In fresh edible mushroom, Pb and Hg contents in 2.6% samples were above MAC, respectively. However, only Hg content in 4.8% dry edible mushroom samples was above its MAC. Therefore, more than 95% rice and edible mushroom samples in our test had high edible safety. PMID:24206698

Fang, Yong; Sun, Xinyang; Yang, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Xin, Zhihong; Fu, Jin; Liu, Xiaochang; Liu, Meng; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Zhu, Xuefeng; Hu, Qiuhui

2014-03-15

311

Synthetic Medicinal Chemistry in Chagas’ Disease: Compounds at The Final Stage of “Hit-To-Lead” Phase  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease, or American trypanosomosiasis, has been the most relevant illness produced by protozoa in Latin America. Synthetic medicinal chemistry efforts have provided an extensive number of chemodiverse hits at the “active-to-hit” stage. However, only a more limited number of these have been studied in vivo in models of Chagas’ disease. Herein, we survey some of the cantidates able to surpass the “hit-to-lead” stage discussing their limitations or merit to enter in clinical trials in the short term.

Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes

2010-01-01

312

Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees.  

PubMed

Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown. Here, using recordings from mushroom body Kenyon cells in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and clothianidin, and the organophosphate miticide coumaphos oxon, cause a depolarization-block of neuronal firing and inhibit nicotinic responses. These effects are observed at concentrations that are encountered by foraging honeybees and within the hive, and are additive with combined application. Our findings demonstrate a neuronal mechanism that may account for the cognitive impairments caused by neonicotinoids, and predict that exposure to multiple pesticides that target cholinergic signalling will cause enhanced toxicity to pollinators. PMID:23535655

Palmer, Mary J; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A; Connolly, Christopher N

2013-01-01

313

Context generalization in Drosophila visual learning requires the mushroom bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The world is permanently changing. Laboratory experiments on learning and memory normally minimize this feature of reality, keeping all conditions except the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli as constant as possible. In the real world, however, animals need to extract from the universe of sensory signals the actual predictors of salient events by separating them from non-predictive stimuli (context). In principle, this can be achieved ifonly those sensory inputs that resemble the reinforcer in theirtemporal structure are taken as predictors. Here we study visual learning in the fly Drosophila melanogaster, using a flight simulator,, and show that memory retrieval is, indeed, partially context-independent. Moreover, we show that the mushroom bodies, which are required for olfactory but not visual or tactile learning, effectively support context generalization. In visual learning in Drosophila, it appears that a facilitating effect of context cues for memory retrieval is the default state, whereas making recall context-independent requires additional processing.

Liu, Li; Wolf, Reinhard; Ernst, Roman; Heisenberg, Martin

1999-08-01

314

Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees  

PubMed Central

Pesticides that target cholinergic neurotransmission are highly effective, but their use has been implicated in insect pollinator population decline. Honeybees are exposed to two widely used classes of cholinergic pesticide: neonicotinoids (nicotinic receptor agonists) and organophosphate miticides (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors). Although sublethal levels of neonicotinoids are known to disrupt honeybee learning and behaviour, the neurophysiological basis of these effects has not been shown. Here, using recordings from mushroom body Kenyon cells in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that the neonicotinoids imidacloprid and clothianidin, and the organophosphate miticide coumaphos oxon, cause a depolarization-block of neuronal firing and inhibit nicotinic responses. These effects are observed at concentrations that are encountered by foraging honeybees and within the hive, and are additive with combined application. Our findings demonstrate a neuronal mechanism that may account for the cognitive impairments caused by neonicotinoids, and predict that exposure to multiple pesticides that target cholinergic signalling will cause enhanced toxicity to pollinators. PMID:23535655

Palmer, Mary J.; Moffat, Christopher; Saranzewa, Nastja; Harvey, Jenni; Wright, Geraldine A.; Connolly, Christopher N.

2013-01-01

315

Extension of mushroom shelf-life by ultrasound treatment combined with high pressure argon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effects of ultrasound, high pressure argon, and treatments comprising their combinations on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of white mushrooms were studied during 9 days of storage at 4°C. High pressure argon treatments were relatively effective in retaining firmness and were found to maintain the cell integrity. White mushrooms firmness after 9 days of storage was increased from 2.79 N for untreated mushrooms up to 3.01, 3.24, 3.58 N for ultrasound, treatments comprising ultrasound and high pressure argon, high pressure argon, respectively. Similarly, the loss of water, ascorbic acid and total soluble solid in fresh mushroom was also greatly reduced by the high pressure argon treatment. The ultrasound treatment followed by treatments comprising ultrasound and high pressure argon and high pressure argon, respectively exhibited a pronounced effect on retarding browning and in delaying mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, yeasts and moulds growth in white mushroom, compared to the control during 9 days of cold storage. Treatments comprising ultrasound and high pressure argon treatment delayed pseudomonas growth, implying that it could extend shelf life of white mushrooms to 9 days at 4°C.

Lagnika, Camel; Zhang, Min; Nsor-Atindana, John; Tounkara, Fatoumata

2014-03-01

316

Relationship between uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms and its catalase activity  

SciTech Connect

The uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms (Shiitake) artifically grown on an oak tree and the uptake in vitro by catalase extracts prepared from mushroom Hay Bacillus and spinach are reported. Mushrooms were exposed to 1.4 mg/Hg/cu m for 11 days. Measurement of total mercury was as previously described (Ogata et al. 1978, 1979). Levels in mushrooms ranged from 0.4 +/- 0.1 ..mu..g/g at 0.5 days to 4.6 +/- 0.2 ..mu..g/g at 10.5 days and steady-state thereafter. In in vitro studies Hy uptake by mushroom catalase extract was estimated by the perborate method. Uptake was found to parallel catalase activity and was inhibited by potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. Similar results were obtained with Hay Bacillus and spinach catalase extracts. Results suggest that the level of mercury in the mushroom can be used as an indicator of mercury pollution in the environment. It is also suggested that catalase has an important role in uptake of mercury vapor in the plant. 2 tables (JMT)

Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Naito, M.

1981-12-01

317

Performance and antioxidant status of broiler chickens supplemented with dried mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) in their diet.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the growth performance and antioxidant status of broiler chicken supplemented with the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Ninety 1-d-old female broiler chickens randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments were given either a nutritionally balanced basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 10 or 20 g of dried mushroom/kg of feed for 6 wk on an ad libitum basis. Body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio values were monitored weekly. To evaluate the antioxidant status of broiler chicken, refrigerated liver, breast, and thigh tissues were assayed for levels of glutathione, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as malondialdehyde at 6 wk of age. Results showed that dietary mushroom supplementation at both inclusion levels was accepted well by the broiler chicken and improved feed efficiency compared with the control diet. Dietary mushroom inclusion at 20 g/kg improved both growth performance and feed efficiency compared with control diet at 42 d of age. Dietary mushroom at both inclusion levels reduced malondialdehyde production in liver, breast, and thigh tissues and elevated glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase compared with the control treatment, the effects being dose-dependent. These results suggest that A. bisporus mushroom exerts both a growth-promoting and tissue antioxidant-protective activity when supplemented in broiler chicken diets. PMID:20075283

Giannenas, I; Pappas, I S; Mavridis, S; Kontopidis, G; Skoufos, J; Kyriazakis, I

2010-02-01

318

Design or screening of drugs for the treatment of Chagas disease: what shows the most promise?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Endemic in Latin America, Chagas disease is now becoming a serious global health problem, and yet has no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry and remains incurable. In 2012, two antimycotic drugs inhibitors of fungal sterol 14?-demethylase (CYP51) – posaconazole and ravuconazole – entered clinical trials. Availability of the X-ray structure of the orthologous enzyme from the causative agent of the disease, protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, determined in complexes with posaconazole as well as with several experimental protozoa-specific CYP51 inhibitors opens an excellent opportunity to improve the situation. Areas covered This article summarizes the information available in PubMed and Google on the outcomes of treatment of the chronic Chagas disease. It also outlines the major features of the T. cruzi CYP51 structure and the possible structure-based strategies for rational design of novel T. cruzi specific drugs. Expert opinion There is no doubt that screenings for alternative drug-like molecules as well as mining the T. cruzi genome for novel drug targets are of great value and might eventually lead to groundbreaking discoveries. However, all newly identified molecules must proceed through the long, expensive and low-yielding drug optimization process, and all novel potential drug targets must be validated in terms of their essentiality and druggability. CYP51 is already a well-validated and highly successful target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. With minimal investments into the final stages of their development/trials, T. cruzi-specific CYP51 inhibitors can provide an immediate treatment for Chagas disease, either on their own or in combination with the currently available drugs. PMID:24079515

Lepesheva, Galina I.

2013-01-01

319

[Chagas disease in the central region of Honduras: knowledge, beliefs, and practices].  

PubMed

From November to December 1991 and in March 1993 a survey was conducted in 17 rural communities located in Central Honduras. The communities belonged to two areas where Chagas' disease is endemic. In one of them, disease control activities had been conducted. A total of 849 adults, one in each of an equal number of households, was interviewed. The objective of the survey was to investigate and compare in both locations knowledge about Chagas' disease and its routes of transmission, measures aimed at avoiding the presence of triatomines within households, beliefs surrounding the vector and its control, and the population's sources of information about the disease. A 23-item questionnaire was tested and precoded. Almost 100% of the subjects who were surveyed were able to identify the vector and to describe its habits, but only 30.1% knew that Triatoma is the vector for the disease and only about 6% associated it with a chronic heart condition. Around 47.9% of survey subjects indicated that eliminating triatomines from households is a personal responsibility, although 78% identified as the control measure the institutional application of insecticides. Personal contact between a health worker and community members was the chief source of information for those who mentioned having heard of Chagas' disease (41.0%). These results suggest that health education should be included as a component in the planification of control programs. The role played by triatomines in disease transmission should be emphasized, as well as the importance of carrying out household improvements, with community participation, as an effective and sustainable measure. To achieve greater impact, this component should be developed through interpersonal communication channels. PMID:9567649

Avila Montes, G; Martínez Hernández, M; Ponce, C; Ponce, E; Soto Hernández, R

1998-03-01

320

Cultivation-Independent Methods Reveal Differences among Bacterial Gut Microbiota in Triatomine Vectors of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is a trypanosomiasis whose agent is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans by hematophagous bugs known as triatomines. Even though insecticide treatments allow effective control of these bugs in most Latin American countries where Chagas disease is endemic, the disease still affects a large proportion of the population of South America. The features of the disease in humans have been extensively studied, and the genome of the parasite has been sequenced, but no effective drug is yet available to treat Chagas disease. The digestive tract of the insect vectors in which T. cruzi develops has been much less well investigated than blood from its human hosts and constitutes a dynamic environment with very different conditions. Thus, we investigated the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the microbiota in insect vectors from Rhodnius, Triatoma, Panstrongylus and Dipetalogaster genera. Methodology/Principal Findings Microbiota of triatomine guts were investigated using cultivation-independent methods, i.e., phylogenetic analysis of 16s rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloned-based sequencing. The Chao index showed that the diversity of bacterial species in triatomine guts is low, comprising fewer than 20 predominant species, and that these species vary between insect species. The analyses showed that Serratia predominates in Rhodnius, Arsenophonus predominates in Triatoma and Panstrongylus, while Candidatus Rohrkolberia predominates in Dipetalogaster. Conclusions/Significance The microbiota of triatomine guts represents one of the factors that may interfere with T. cruzi transmission and virulence in humans. The knowledge of its composition according to insect species is important for designing measures of biological control for T. cruzi. We found that the predominant species of the bacterial microbiota in triatomines form a group of low complexity whose structure differs according to the vector genus. PMID:22563511

da Mota, Fabio Faria; Marinho, Lourena Pinheiro; Moreira, Carlos José de Carvalho; Lima, Marli Maria; Mello, Cícero Brasileiro; Garcia, Eloi Souza; Carels, Nicolas; Azambuja, Patricia

2012-01-01

321

Mannose-specific lectin from the mushroom Hygrophorus russula.  

PubMed

A lectin was purified from the mushroom Hygrophorus russula by affinity chromatography on a Sephadex G-50 column and BioAssist S cation exchange chromatography and designated H. russula lectin (HRL). The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaclylamidegel electrophoresis, gel filtration and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of HRL indicated that it was composed of four identical 18.5 kDa subunits with no S-S linkage. Isoelectric focusing of the lectin showed bands near pI 6.40. The complete sequence of 175 amino acid residues was determined by amino acid sequencing of intact or enzyme-digested HRL. The sequence showed homology with Grifola frondosa lectin. The cDNA of HRL was cloned from RNA extracted from the mushroom. The open reading frame of the cDNA consisted of 528 bp encoding 176 amino acids. In hemagglutination inhibition assay, ?1-6 mannobiose was the strongest inhibitor and isomaltose, Glc?1-6Glc, was the second strongest one, among mono- and oligosaccharides tested. Frontal affinity chromatography indicated that HRL had the highest affinity for Man?1-6(Man?1-3)Man?1-4GlcNAc?1-4GlcNAc, and non-reducing terminal Man?1-6 was essential for the binding of HRL to carbohydrate chains. The sugar-binding specificity of HRL was also analyzed by using BIAcore. The result from the analysis exhibited positive correlations with that of the hemagglutination inhibition assay. All the results suggested that HRL recognized the ?1-6 linkage of mannose and glucose, especially the Man?1-6 bond. HRL showed a mitogenic activity against spleen lymph cells of an F344 rat. Furthermore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed strong binding of HRL to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 gp120. PMID:22198564

Suzuki, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Kozue; Hirai, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Dohra, Hideo; Murata, Takeomi; Usui, Taichi; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Kobayashi, Yuka; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

2012-05-01

322

Phylogenetic profiling of culturable bacteria associated with early phase of mushroom composting assessed by amplified rDNA restriction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus is grown commercially on composted manure\\/straw mixtures. Mushroom composting is a fermentation process in which various\\u000a groups of microorganisms play important roles at different stages of composting. The present study was conducted to explore\\u000a the mesophilic bacterial diversity in the early phase of mushroom composting. Morphologically all the isolated bacteria were\\u000a either Gram-positive rods, cocci

Ajay Veer Singh; Abhinay Sharma; Bhavdish N. Johri

323

Emerging and under-recognized Chagas cardiomyopathy in non-endemic countries  

PubMed Central

Due to recent population emigration movements, an epidemic of Chagas disease is currently menacing most developed countries. The authors report the case of a 53-year-old Brazilian woman living in Europe for the last 10 years who developed heart failure symptoms, having a previous symptomatic sinus node disease with a pacemaker implant at age of 40 years. The diagnosis was based on serology and myocardial biopsy and the patient was treated with nifurtimox. The authors emphasize the need of a high level of suspicion in patients with suggestive epidemiology and the need of populational screening of specific high risk groups. New treatment options are also discussed. PMID:22905296

Cortez, Joana; Providência, Rui; Ramos, Evelise; Valente, Cristina; Seixas, Jorge; Meruje, Manuela; Leitão-Marques, António; Vieira, António

2012-01-01

324

Chagas disease in pregnancy: a non-endemic problem in a globalized world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Chagas disease, caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an endemic cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. Infection during pregnancy may increase the risk\\u000a for adverse maternal-foetal outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods   Review of significant articles regarding maternal-foetal T. cruzi infection in free-vector non-endemic regions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Vertical transmission, even in vector-free world regions, occurs in 1 out of 20 seropositive mothers. T.

Faustino R. Pérez-López; Peter Chedraui

2010-01-01

325

Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of Chagas Cardiomyopathy in Trypanosoma cruzi Seropositive Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Familial aggregation of Chagas cardiac disease in T. cruzi–infected persons suggests that human genetic variation may be an important determinant of disease progression. Objective To perform a GWAS using a well-characterized cohort to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes associated with cardiac outcomes. Methods A retrospective cohort study was developed by the NHLBI REDS-II program in Brazil. Samples were collected from 499 T. cruzi seropositive blood donors who had donated between1996 and 2002, and 101 patients with clinically diagnosed Chagas cardiomyopathy. In 2008–2010, all subjects underwent a complete medical examination. After genotype calling, quality control filtering with exclusion of 20 cases, and imputation of 1,000 genomes variants; association analysis was performed for 7 cardiac and parasite related traits, adjusting for population stratification. Results The cohort showed a wide range of African, European, and modest Native American admixture proportions, consistent with the recent history of Brazil. No SNPs were found to be highly (P<10?8) associated with cardiomyopathy. The two mostly highly associated SNPs for cardiomyopathy (rs4149018 and rs12582717; P-values <10?6) are located on Chromosome 12p12.2 in the SLCO1B1 gene, a solute carrier family member. We identified 44 additional genic SNPs associated with six traits at P-value <10-6: Ejection Fraction, PR, QRS, QT intervals, antibody levels by EIA, and parasitemia by PCR. Conclusion This GWAS identified suggestive SNPs that may impact the risk of progression to cardiomyopathy. Although this Chagas cohort is the largest examined by GWAS to date, (580 subjects), moderate sample size may explain in part the limited number of significant SNP variants. Enlarging the current sample through expanded cohorts and meta-analyses, and targeted studies of candidate genes, will be required to confirm and extend the results reported here. Future studies should also include exposed seronegative controls to investigate genetic associations with susceptibility or resitance to T. cruzi infection and non-Chagas cardiomathy. PMID:24324551

Deng, Xutao; Sabino, Ester C.; Cunha-Neto, Edecio; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ianni, Barbara; Mady, Charles; Busch, Michael P.; Seielstad, Mark; Component, International

2013-01-01

326

Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed. PMID:25004146

Hiwat, Hélène

2014-01-01

327

Current and developing therapeutic agents in the treatment of Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease must be treated in all its stages: acute, indeterminate, chronic, and initial and middle determinant chronic, due to the fact that DNA of the parasite can be demonstrated by PCR in chronic cases, where optical microscopy does not detect parasites. Nifurtimox (NF) and benznidazole (BNZ) are the drugs accepted to treat humans based upon ethical considerations and efficiency. However, both the drugs produce secondary effects in 30% of the cases, and the treatment must be given for at least 30–60 days. Other useful drugs are itraconazole and posaconazole. The latter may be the drug to treat Chagas disease in the future when all the investigations related to it are finished. At present, there is no criterion of cure for chronic cases since in the majority, the serology remains positive, although it may decrease. In acute cases, 70% cure with NF and 75% with BNZ is achieved. In congenital cases, 100% cure is obtained if the treatment is performed during the first year of life. In chronic acquired cases, 20% cure and 50% improvement of the electrocardiographic changes are obtained with itraconazole. PMID:20957215

Apt, Werner

2010-01-01

328

Protective actions of melatonin against heart damage during chronic Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chronic cardiomyopathy is the most important clinical form of Chagas disease, and it is characterised by myocarditis that is associated with fibrosis and organ dysfunction. Alternative treatment options are important tools to modulate host immune responses. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory actions of melatonin during the chronic phase of Chagas disease. TNF-?, IL-10 and nitrite concentrations were evaluated as predictive factors of immune modulation. Creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB), cardiac inflammatory foci and heart weight were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of the melatonin treatment. Male Wistar rats were infected with 1×10(5) blood trypomastigotes of the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and kept untreated for 60 days to mimic chronic infection. After this period, the rats were orally treated with melatonin 50mg/kg/day, and the experiments were performed 90, 120, and 180 days post-infection. Melatonin treatment significantly increased the concentration of IL-10 and reduced the concentrations of NO and TNF-? produced by cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, it led to decreased heart weight, serum CK-MB levels and inflammatory foci when compared to the untreated and infected control groups. We conclude that melatonin therapy is effective at protecting animals against the harmful cardiac inflammatory response that is characteristic of chronic T. cruzi infection. PMID:24055715

Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo Rodrigues; Kuehn, Christian Collins; dos Santos, Carla Domingues; Miranda, Mariza Abreu; da Costa, Cassia Mariana Bronzon; Mendonça, Vagner José; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

2013-12-01

329

Serum biomarkers predictive of cure in Chagas disease patients after nifurtimox treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, remains an important public health issue in many Central and South American countries, as well as non-endemic areas with high rates of immigration from these countries. Existing treatment options for CD are limited and often unsatisfactory. Moreover the lack of post-treatment tests of cure limits the development of new drugs. To address this issue, we sought to identify serum biomarkers following nifurtimox (Nfx) treatment that could be used as an early test of cure and/or markers of a therapeutic response. Methods Human sera from Chagas patients pre- and post-treatment with Nfx (n?=?37) were compared to samples from healthy subjects (n?=?37) using a range of proteomic and immunologic techniques. Biomarker peaks with the best discriminatory power were further characterized. Results Using serum samples (n?=?111), we validated the presence of five key biomarkers identified in our previous study, namely human apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and specific fragments thereof and one fragment of human fibronectin (FN1). In chagasic serum samples all biomarkers except full-length APOA1 were upregulated. These five biomarkers returned to normal in 43% (16/37) of the patients treated with Nfx at three years after treatment. Conclusions The normalization of biomarker patterns strongly associated with CD suggests that these markers can be used to identify patients in whom Nfx treatment is successful. We believe that these are the first biomarkers predictive of cure in CD patients. PMID:24894358

2014-01-01

330

Molecular Population Genetics and Evolution of the Chagas’ Disease Vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)  

PubMed Central

Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas’ disease in the Southern Cone of Latin America between the latitudes 10° S and 46° S. The long-term effectiveness of the control campaigns is greatly dependent upon the vector population structure. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes have been used in a number of T. infestans population genetic analyses. However, the maternally inherited markers as well as nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed until the present exhibited low or limited levels of variation. Analyses based on microsatellite markers strongly supported the existence of some type of stratification in T. infestans populations and supported the hypothesis of vector population recovery from survivors of the insecticide-treated areas, highlighting the value of population genetic analyses in assessing the effectiveness of Chagas’ disease vector control programmes. Although phylogeographic studies have generally suggested a Bolivian Andean origin of T. infestans, they recovered two reciprocal monophyletic groups of T. infestans and Bolivian populations who were not basal as expected for an ancestral group. In addition, a non-Andean origin could not be excluded by mtDNA genealogies that included sylvatic bugs from Gran Chaco. On the other side, mitochondrial and microsatellite markers supported the hypothesis of two independent migration events of colonization and secondary contacts in southern South America. Since the phylogenetic analyses remain inconclusive, more sequences, not only from mitochondrial genes but also from nuclear genes, need to be examined. PMID:24403850

García, Beatriz A.; de Rosas, Alicia R. Pérez; Blariza, María J.; Grosso, Carla G.; Fernández, Cintia J.; Stroppa, María M.

2013-01-01

331

Molecular Population Genetics and Evolution of the Chagas' Disease Vector Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

Triatoma infestans (Klug) is the main vector of Chagas' disease in the Southern Cone of Latin America between the latitudes 10° S and 46° S. The long-term effectiveness of the control campaigns is greatly dependent upon the vector population structure. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes have been used in a number of T. infestans population genetic analyses. However, the maternally inherited markers as well as nuclear ribosomal DNA analyzed until the present exhibited low or limited levels of variation. Analyses based on microsatellite markers strongly supported the existence of some type of stratification in T. infestans populations and supported the hypothesis of vector population recovery from survivors of the insecticide-treated areas, highlighting the value of population genetic analyses in assessing the effectiveness of Chagas' disease vector control programmes. Although phylogeographic studies have generally suggested a Bolivian Andean origin of T. infestans, they recovered two reciprocal monophyletic groups of T. infestans and Bolivian populations who were not basal as expected for an ancestral group. In addition, a non-Andean origin could not be excluded by mtDNA genealogies that included sylvatic bugs from Gran Chaco. On the other side, mitochondrial and microsatellite markers supported the hypothesis of two independent migration events of colonization and secondary contacts in southern South America. Since the phylogenetic analyses remain inconclusive, more sequences, not only from mitochondrial genes but also from nuclear genes, need to be examined. PMID:24403850

García, Beatriz A; de Rosas, Alicia R Pérez; Blariza, María J; Grosso, Carla G; Fernández, Cintia J; Stroppa, María M

2013-08-01

332

Parasite Prolyl Oligopeptidases and the Challenge of Designing Chemotherapeuticals for Chagas Disease, Leishmaniasis and African Trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

The trypanosomatids Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis, respectively. It is estimated that over 10 million people worldwide suffer from these neglected diseases, posing enormous social and economic problems in endemic areas. There are no vaccines to prevent these infections and chemotherapies are not adequate. This picture indicates that new chemotherapeutic agents must be developed to treat these illnesses. For this purpose, understanding the biology of the pathogenic trypanosomatid-host cell interface is fundamental for molecular and functional characterization of virulence factors that may be used as targets for the development of inhibitors to be used for effective chemotherapy. In this context, it is well known that proteases have crucial functions for both metabolism and infectivity of pathogens and are thus potential drug targets. In this regard, prolyl oligopeptidase and oligopeptidase B, both members of the S9 serine protease family, have been shown to play important roles in the interactions of pathogenic protozoa with their mammalian hosts and may thus be considered targets for drug design. This review aims to discuss structural and functional properties of these intriguing enzymes and their potential as targets for the development of drugs against Chagas disease, leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis. PMID:23514419

Bastos, I.M.D; Motta, F.N; Grellier, P; Santana, J.M

2013-01-01

333

Etanercept Induces Low QRS Voltage and Autonomic Dysfunction in Mice with Experimental Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagasic cardiomyopathy is characterized by disorders of autonomic regulation and action potential conduction in the acute and chronic phases of infection. Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) has been linked to cardiomyopathy in experimental models and in patients with Chagas disease, other reports suggest that TNF-? may exert anti-parasitic actions during the acute phase of infection. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effects of a soluble TNF-? blocker, etanercept, on electrocardiographic parameters in the acute phase of experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods Electrocardiograms were obtained from untreated infected mice and infected mice who were treated with etanercept 7 days after infection. ECG wave and heart rate variability parameters were determined using Chart for Windows. Results Etanercept treatment resulted in a low QRS voltage and decreased heart rate variability compared with no treatment. However, the treated mice exhibited a delay in the fall of the survival curve during the acute phase. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although etanercept treatment promotes survival in mice infected with a virulent T. cruzi strain, TNF-? blockade generates a low voltage complex and autonomic dysfunction during the acute phase of infection. These findings indicate that mortality during the acute phase can be attributed to a systemic inflammatory response rather than cardiac dysfunction. PMID:23877744

Rodríguez-Angulo, Héctor; García, Oscar; Castillo, Endher; Cardenas, Edward; Marques, Juan; Mijares, Alfredo

2013-01-01

334

Geographic Distribution of Chagas Disease Vectors in Brazil Based on Ecological Niche Modeling  

PubMed Central

Although Brazil was declared free from Chagas disease transmission by the domestic vector Triatoma infestans, human acute cases are still being registered based on transmission by native triatomine species. For a better understanding of transmission risk, the geographic distribution of Brazilian triatomines was analyzed. Sixteen out of 62 Brazilian species that both occur in >20 municipalities and present synanthropic tendencies were modeled based on their ecological niches. Panstrongylus geniculatus and P. megistus showed broad ecological ranges, but most of the species sort out by the biome in which they are distributed: Rhodnius pictipes and R. robustus in the Amazon; R. neglectus, Triatoma sordida, and T. costalimai in the Cerrado; R. nasutus, P. lutzi, T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata, T. melanocephala, and T. petrocchiae in the Caatinga; T. rubrovaria in the southern pampas; T. tibiamaculata and T. vitticeps in the Atlantic Forest. Although most occurrences were recorded in open areas (Cerrado and Caatinga), our results show that all environmental conditions in the country are favorable to one or more of the species analyzed, such that almost nowhere is Chagas transmission risk negligible. PMID:22523500

Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Galvão, Cléber; Costa, Jane; Peterson, A. Townsend

2012-01-01

335

High household infestation rates by synanthropic vectors of Chagas disease in southern Ecuador.  

PubMed

Entomological surveys were conducted in five rural communities (138 domiciliary units [DUs]) in the southern Andes of Ecuador. Adobe walls and ceramic tile roofs were predominant construction materials. A 35% house infestation rate with Panstrongylus chinai (Del Ponte, 1929) (0.7%), Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (Champion, 1899) (0.7%), Rhodnius ecuadoriensis (Lent & León, 1958) (27%), and/or Triatoma carrioni (Larrousse, 1926) (7%) was found. Adults and nymphs of R. ecuadoriensis and T. carrioni were found in intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas. Breeding triatomine colonies were present in 85% of infested DUs, and the average insect crowding was 52+/-113 triatomine bugs per infested house. T. cruzi-like organisms were found by microscopic examination in the feces or hindgut but not the salivary glands of 4% of examined R. ecuadoriensis and 12% T. carrioni. Serological tests detected a general anti-T. cruzi antibody seroprevalence of 3.9% (n = 1136). Only 2% of individuals had heard of Chagas disease, and although triatomines were reported as a major nuisance by the population they were not considered vectors of disease. Additional baseline field research is needed for the design and implementation of a Chagas disease control program in the region. PMID:15691011

Grijalva, M J; Palomeque-Rodríguez, F S; Costales, J A; Davila, S; Arcos-Teran, L

2005-01-01

336

An entomoepidemiological investigation of Chagas disease in the state of Ceará, Northeast Region of Brazil.  

PubMed

The seroprevalence of Chagas disease in humans and the presence of triatomines were investigated in a rural locality in the State of Ceará, Brazil, an historically endemic region. Approximately 80% of the surveyed residents agreed to undergo serological tests. Intradomestic and peridomestic environments were searched for triatomines in both the dry and rainy seasons. The prevalence rate of Chagas disease was 1.2% and the majority of individuals confirmed with the disease over 50 years of age. A total of 761 specimens of triatomines were captured, most of which were from colonies composed of nymphs and adult bugs, and the majority of specimens were obtained in the dry season. Triatoma brasiliensis was the predominant species. Analysis using light microscopy revealed that 28.6% of the insects were Trypanosoma cruzi positive. Results suggest that peridomestic man-made structures, such as animal shelters, improper storage of timber and uninhabited dwellings contribute to the high rate of triatomine infestation in the area. PMID:24896053

Coutinho, Carolina Fausto de Souza; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Teixeira, Natalia Faria Daflon; Georg, Ingebourg; Gomes, Taís Ferreira; Boia, Marcio Neves; dos Reis, Neilane Bertoni; Maia, Alexander de Oliveira; Lima, Marli Maria

2014-04-01

337

Aptamer-Based Detection of Disease Biomarkers in Mouse Models for Chagas Drug Discovery  

PubMed Central

Drug discovery initiatives, aimed at Chagas treatment, have been hampered by the lack of standardized drug screening protocols and the absence of simple pre-clinical assays to evaluate treatment efficacy in animal models. In this study, we used a simple Enzyme Linked Aptamer (ELA) assay to detect T. cruzi biomarker in blood and validate murine drug discovery models of Chagas disease. In two mice models, Apt-29 ELA assay demonstrated that biomarker levels were significantly higher in the infected group compared to the control group, and upon Benznidazole treatment, their levels reduced. However, biomarker levels in the infected treated group did not reduce to those seen in the non-infected treated group, with 100% of the mice above the assay cutoff, suggesting that parasitemia was reduced but cure was not achieved. The ELA assay was capable of detecting circulating biomarkers in mice infected with various strains of T. cruzi parasites. Our results showed that the ELA assay could detect residual parasitemia in treated mice by providing an overall picture of the infection in the host. They suggest that the ELA assay can be used in drug discovery applications to assess treatment efficacy in-vivo. PMID:25569299

de Araujo, Fernanda Fortes; Nagarkatti, Rana; Gupta, Charu; Marino, Ana Paula; Debrabant, Alain

2015-01-01

338

Modeling the spatial distribution of Chagas disease vectors using environmental variables and people´s knowledge  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to mammal hosts by triatomine insect vectors. The goal of this study was to model the spatial distribution of triatomine species in an endemic area. Methods Vector’s locations were obtained with a rural householders’ survey. This information was combined with environmental data obtained from remote sensors, land use maps and topographic SRTM data, using the machine learning algorithm Random Forests to model species distribution. We analysed the combination of variables on three scales: 10 km, 5 km and 2.5 km cell size grids. Results The best estimation, explaining 46.2% of the triatomines spatial distribution, was obtained for 5 km of spatial resolution. Presence probability distribution increases from central Chile towards the north, tending to cover the central-coastal region and avoiding areas of the Andes range. Conclusions The methodology presented here was useful to model the distribution of triatomines in an endemic area; it is best explained using 5 km of spatial resolution, and their presence increases in the northern part of the study area. This study’s methodology can be replicated in other countries with Chagas disease or other vectorial transmitted diseases, and be used to locate high risk areas and to optimize resource allocation, for prevention and control of vectorial diseases. PMID:23724993

2013-01-01

339

Aptamer-based detection of disease biomarkers in mouse models for chagas drug discovery.  

PubMed

Drug discovery initiatives, aimed at Chagas treatment, have been hampered by the lack of standardized drug screening protocols and the absence of simple pre-clinical assays to evaluate treatment efficacy in animal models. In this study, we used a simple Enzyme Linked Aptamer (ELA) assay to detect T. cruzi biomarker in blood and validate murine drug discovery models of Chagas disease. In two mice models, Apt-29 ELA assay demonstrated that biomarker levels were significantly higher in the infected group compared to the control group, and upon Benznidazole treatment, their levels reduced. However, biomarker levels in the infected treated group did not reduce to those seen in the non-infected treated group, with 100% of the mice above the assay cutoff, suggesting that parasitemia was reduced but cure was not achieved. The ELA assay was capable of detecting circulating biomarkers in mice infected with various strains of T. cruzi parasites. Our results showed that the ELA assay could detect residual parasitemia in treated mice by providing an overall picture of the infection in the host. They suggest that the ELA assay can be used in drug discovery applications to assess treatment efficacy in-vivo. PMID:25569299

de Araujo, Fernanda Fortes; Nagarkatti, Rana; Gupta, Charu; Marino, Ana Paula; Debrabant, Alain

2015-01-01

340

Stroke History and Chagas Disease Are Independent Predictors of Silent Cerebral Microembolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chagas disease is endemic in South and Central America, where 18 million individuals are infected by Trypanosoma cruzi, causing congestive heart failure (CHF) and cardioembolic stroke. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is able to detect real-time microembolic signals (MES) to the brain vessels and may represent a surrogate marker of stroke risk. We aimed to determine predictors of MES in a

Pedro A. P. Jesus; Iuri Neville; Carolina Cincurá; Daniela F. Menezes; Rodrigo M. Vieira-de-Melo; Amanda M. Lacerda; Leila C. Viana; Davidson F. Pereira; Valter Ribeiro-dos-Santos Jr; Francisco J. F. B. Reis; Cristiano Macedo; Jamary Oliveira-Filho

2011-01-01

341

Opportunities for Improved Chagas Disease Vector Control Based on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Methodology/principal findings We employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding Chagas disease, triatomines and vector control in three rural communities. Our combined data show that community members are well aware of triatomines and are knowledgeable about their habits. However, most have a limited understanding of the transmission dynamics and clinical manifestations of Chagas disease. While triatomine control is not a priority for community members, they frequently use domestic insecticide products including insecticide spray, mosquito coils and plug-in repellents. Families spend about $32 US per year on these products. Alternative methods such as yard cleaning and window screens are perceived as desirable and potentially more effective. Screens are nonetheless described as unaffordable, in spite of a cost comparable to the average annual spending on insecticide products. Conclusion/Significance Further education campaigns and possibly financing schemes may lead families to redirect their current vector control spending from insecticide products to window screens. Also, synergism with mosquito control efforts should be further explored to motivate community involvement and ensure sustainability of Chagas disease vector control. PMID:24676038

Rosecrans, Kathryn; Cruz-Martin, Gabriela; King, Ashley; Dumonteil, Eric

2014-01-01

342

CHARITY: Chagas cardiomyopathy bisoprolol intervention study: a randomized double-blind placebo force-titration controlled study with Bisoprolol in patients with chronic heart failure secondary to Chagas cardiomyopathy [NCT00323973  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease is the major cause of disability secondary to tropical diseases in young adults from Latin America, and around 20 million people are currently infected by T. cruzi. Heart failure due to Chagas cardiomyopathy is the main clinical presenation in Colombia. Heart failure due to Chagas' disease may respond to digoxin, diuretics and vasodilator therapy. Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonism seems to protect against the increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death due to chronic sympathetic stimulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker Bisoprolol on cardiovascular mortality, hospital readmission due to progressive heart failure and functional status in patients with heart failure secondary to Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Methods/design A cohort of 500 T. cruzi seropositive patients (250 per arm) will be selected from several institutions in Colombia. During the pretreatment period an initial evaluation visit will be scheduled in which participants will sign consent forms and baseline measurements and tests will be conducted including blood pressure measurements, twelve-lead ECG and left ventricular ejection fraction assessment by 2D echocardiography. Quality of life questionnaire will be performed two weeks apart during baseline examination using the "Minnesota living with heart failure" questionnaire. A minimum of two 6 minutes corridor walk test once a week over a two-week period will be performed to measure functional class. During the treatment period patients will be randomly assigned to receive Bisoprolol or placebo, initially taking a total daily dose of 2.5 mgrs qd. The dose will be increased every two weeks to 5, 7.5 and 10 mgrs qd (maximum maintenance dose). Follow-up assessment will include clinical check-up, and blood collection for future measurements of inflammatory reactants and markers. Quality of life measurements will be obtained at six months. This study will allow us to explore the effect of beta-blockers in chagas' cardiomyopathy. PMID:16764726

Quiros, Franklin R; Morillo, Carlos A; Casas, Juan P; Cubillos, Luz A; Silva, Federico A

2006-01-01

343

Recycling of Vineyard and Winery Wastes as Nutritive Composts for Edible Mushroom Cultivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, in Romania huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental damages in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories, for instance, by their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside soil matrix. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to recycle these biomass wastes as main ingredients in nutritive composts preparation that could be used for edible mushrooms cultivation. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology of winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes, namely Lentinula edodes as well as Pleurotus ostreatus were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23° C; agitation speed, 90-120 rev min-1 pH level, 5.0-6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120-168 h. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vine cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. The tested culture variants were monitored continuously to keep constant the temperature during the incubation as well as air humidity, air pressure and a balanced ratio of the molecular oxygen and carbon dioxide. In every mushroom culture cycle all the physical and chemical parameters that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of L. edodes and P. ostreatus were compared to the same fungal cultures that were grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

Petre, Marian; Teodorescu, Alexandru

2011-01-01

344

Mercury in mushrooms and soil from the Wielu?ska Upland in south-central Poland.  

PubMed

Concentrations of mercury were determined in the fruiting bodies of 15 species of higher mushrooms and underlying soil substrate collected from Wielu?ska Upland in northern part of Sandomierska Valley in south-central Poland in 1995. A total of 197 samples of caps, 197 stalks, 30 whole fruiting bodies and 227 soil (0-10 cm layer) were analyzed. Mean mercury concentrations in soil substrate corresponding to 15 mushroom species were between 28 +/- 17 and 85 +/- 62 ng/g dry matter (total range between 3.0-190 ng/g). The average cap to stalk concentration quotients of Hg were around 2 (range between 1.1 +/- 1.1 and 2.8 +/- 1.4). However, this quotient in Larch bolete (Suillus grevillei) was 4.4 +/- 6.3. Concentrations of Hg varied depending on the mushroom species. Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) and Horse mushroom (Agaricus arvensis) contained the greatest mean mercury concentrations both in caps (between 4500 +/- 1700 and 4400 +/- 2400 ng/g dry matter) and stalks (between 2800 +/- 1300 and 3000 +/- 2000 ng/g dry matter). Both the Parasol Mushroom and Horse mushroom were characterised also by a greater potential to bioconcentrate mercury from soils as evidenced by great bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which were between 170 +/- 160 and 130 +/- 120 for caps, and 110 +/- 97 and 89 +/- 92 for stalks. Mercury concentrations in caps and stalks of False death cap (Amanita citrina) increased (p < 0.05) with increasing soil mercury contents. An opposite trend was observed for Quéleta brittle gills (Russula queleti), Grat knight-cap (Tricholoma terreum), Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria), Common scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum) and Slippery jack (Suillus luteus). PMID:12369635

Falandysz, Jerzy; Bielawski, Leszek; Kawano, Masabide; Brzostowski, Andrzej; Chudzy?ski, Krzysztof

2002-09-01

345

Distribution of ergosterol in different tissues of mushrooms and its effect on the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D 2 by UV irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of ergosterol content in different tissues of Shiitake mushrooms showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in its distribution. Thus, the conversion of ergosterol in whole mushrooms to vitamin D2, by exposure to UV irradiation, was significantly affected (p<0.01) by the orientation of the mushroom tissues to the UV. The highest ergosterol content was found in button mushrooms (7.80±0.35 mg\\/g DM)

Viraj J. Jasinghe; Conrad O. Perera

2005-01-01

346

Lineage Analysis of Circulating Trypanosoma cruzi Parasites and Their Association with Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease in Bolivia  

PubMed Central

Background The causative agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, is divided into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTU): Tc I, IIa, IIb, IIc, IId and IIe. In order to assess the relative pathogenicities of different DTUs, blood samples from three different clinical groups of chronic Chagas disease patients (indeterminate, cardiac, megacolon) from Bolivia were analyzed for their circulating parasites lineages using minicircle kinetoplast DNA polymorphism. Methods and Findings Between 2000 and 2007, patients sent to the Centro Nacional de Enfermedades Tropicales for diagnosis of Chagas from clinics and hospitals in Santa Cruz, Bolivia, were assessed by serology, cardiology and gastro-intestinal examinations. Additionally, patients who underwent colonectomies due to Chagasic magacolon at the Hospital Universitario Japonés were also included. A total of 306 chronic Chagas patients were defined by their clinical types (81 with cardiopathy, 150 without cardiopathy, 100 with megacolon, 144 without megacolon, 164 with cardiopathy or megacolon, 73 indeterminate and 17 cases with both cardiopathy and megacolon). DNA was extracted from 10 ml of peripheral venous blood for PCR analysis. The kinetoplast minicircle DNA (kDNA) was amplified from 196 out of 306 samples (64.1%), of which 104 (53.3%) were Tc IId, 4 (2.0%) Tc I, 7 (3.6%) Tc IIb, 1 (0.5%) Tc IIe, 26 (13.3%) Tc I/IId, 1 (0.5%) Tc I/IIb/IId, 2 (1.0%) Tc IIb/d and 51 (25.9%) were unidentified. Of the 133 Tc IId samples, three different kDNA hypervariable region patterns were detected; Mn (49.6%), TPK like (48.9%) and Bug-like (1.5%). There was no significant association between Tc types and clinical manifestations of disease. Conclusions None of the identified lineages or sublineages was significantly associated with any particular clinical manifestations in the chronic Chagas patients in Bolivia. PMID:20502516

del Puerto, Ramona; Nishizawa, Juan Eiki; Kikuchi, Mihoko; Iihoshi, Naomi; Roca, Yelin; Avilas, Cinthia; Gianella, Alberto; Lora, Javier; Gutierrez Velarde, Freddy Udalrico; Renjel, Luis Alberto; Miura, Sachio; Higo, Hiroo; Komiya, Norihiro; Maemura, Koji; Hirayama, Kenji

2010-01-01

347

Determination of trace elements in three mushroom samples of basidiomycetes from Shandong, China.  

PubMed

We have determined the trace element composition of three mushrooms of Basidiomycetes, used in traditional Chinese medicine using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Metal concentrations in mushrooms were 203-401 mg/kg for iron, 22-51 mg/kg for manganese, 84-116 mg/kg for zinc, 24.1-41.3 mg/kg for copper, 1.6-5.6 mg/kg for lead, 3.3-4.4 mg/kg for chromium, 9.3-11.5 mg/kg for nickel, 0 mg/kg for vanadium, and 55.3-71 mg/kg for magnesium. The trace metal concentrations in mushrooms are hardly affected by the ecosystem and soil where they grew, as well as by the mushroom species and trace metal species. The results can be used to set new standards to control the quality of the three mushrooms of Basidiomycetes-Ganoderma lucidum, Coprinus comatus, and Grifola frondosa. PMID:20665124

Wang, Chao; Hou, Yunhua

2011-09-01

348

Enhancing stability of essential oils by microencapsulation for preservation of button mushroom during postharvest.  

PubMed

Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus L.) are sensitive to browning, water loss, and microbial attack. The short shelf-life of mushrooms is an impediment to the distribution and marketing of the fresh product. Essential oils outstand as an alternative to chemical preservatives and their use in foods meets the demands of consumers for natural products. To resolve controlled release of oil and increase in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, the oil was incorporated into microcapsules. Effects of microcapsulated thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on quality of fresh button mushroom were compared. Physicochemical qualities were evaluated during 15 days of storage at 4 ± 0.5°C. All treatments prevented product weight loss and decrease in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities during storage. Color and firmness, microbiological analysis, and total phenolic content caused the least change. With use of microencapsulated oils, mushrooms were within acceptable limits during 10 days of storage. Microencapsulated rosemary oil produced the highest beneficial effects and has potential to improve quality of button mushrooms and extend shelf-life. PMID:25473510

Alikhani-Koupaei, Majid; Mazlumzadeh, Meisam; Sharifani, Mohamadmehdi; Adibian, Mohamad

2014-09-01

349

Biasing effects on the characteristics and the optimization of mushroom waveguide photodetectors (WGPDs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Waveguide photodetectors (WGPDs) are considered a leading candidate to overcome the bandwidth-quantum efficiency trade-off as the flow of the photon and carrier fluxes are perpendicular to each other enabling high date rate applications. Mushroom-WGPD was proposed to overcome the trade-off between the capacitance of the photodetector and the contact resistance. In this paper, an extended calibrated circuit model for mushroom-WGPD, including the effect of the biasing of the photodetector, is presented so resulting in the feasibility of a complete circuit simulation of the entire photoreceiver circuit. The effects of the biasing over the performance of Mushroom-WGPDs have been explored for different loads and different dimensions of the device. Based on the studies of different parameters for design and materials, optimization has been performed for the mushroom-WGPD. With this optimization, the optimal values of the thickness of the absorption layer to produce the highest bandwidth of the photodetector are obtained for different biasing values. These optimizations are performed for different areas of the photodetector and also for different load resistors, and they result in a significant improvement in the performance of the mushroom-WGPDs.

El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Youssef, Sarah

2014-07-01

350

Characteristics of a hydrated, alginate-based delivery system for cultivation of the button mushroom.  

PubMed

The production of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus with mycelium-colonized alginate pellets as an inoculant of the growing medium was investigated. Pellets having an irregular surface and porous internal structure were prepared by complexing a mixture of 1% sodium alginate, 2 to 6% vermiculite, 2% hygramer, and various concentrations of Nutrisoy (soy protein) with calcium chloride. The porous structure allowed the pellets to be formed septically and then inoculated and colonized with the fungus following sterilization. By using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to estimate fungal biomass, the matrix components of the pellet were found to be of no nutritive value to A. bisporus. Pellets amended with Nutrisoy at a concentration of 0.5 to 8% supported extensive mycelial growth, as determined by significantly increased ELISA values, with a concentration of 4% being optimal and higher concentrations proving inhibitory. The addition of hydrated, mycelium-invaded pellets to the compost or casing layer supported the thorough colonization of the growing substrate and culminated in the formation of mushrooms that showed normal development and typical morphology. Yields and sizes of mushrooms were comparable from composts seeded with either colonized pellets or cereal grain spawn. Similarly, amending the casing layer with pelletized-mycelium-colonized compost resulted in a 2- to 3-day-earlier and more-synchronous emergence of mushrooms than with untreated casing. This technology shows the greatest potential as a pathogen-free inoculant of the casing layer in the commercial cultivation of mushrooms. PMID:16348774

Romaine, C P; Schlagnhaufer, B

1992-09-01

351

Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the Western Ghats of India  

PubMed Central

This study provides the nutritional qualities of two wild mushrooms (Agaricus abruptibulbus and Termitomyces globulus) commonly consumed by the tribals of Kaiga forests of the Western Ghats of India. Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. Potassium and selenium contents were high, while sodium, calcium and phosphorus contents were low. Except for three essential amino acids (EAAs: leucine, tyrosine and lysine), the rest of the amino acids in both mushrooms were comparable to soybean and wheat. Based on the EAA standards of FAO-WHO, these mushrooms composed of high quantity of threonine, isoleucine and histidine. The EAA score of isoleucine in cooked A. abruptibulbus and threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine and sulphur amino acids in cooked T. globulus were substantially high. Oleic acid constitutes a major unsaturated fatty acid in these mushrooms, which was significantly increased in cooked A. abruptibulbus. Cooking also increased the ratio of TUFA/TSFA in A. abruptibulbus, while it was opposite in T. globulus. Cooking significantly increased the linoleic acid in A. abruptibulbus and eicosadienoic acid in T. globulus. PMID:24999438

Sudheep, Naga M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

2014-01-01

352

Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism Strain Fingerprinting Markers Applicable to Various Mushroom Species  

PubMed Central

The retrotransposon marY1 is a gypsy family retroelement, which is detected ubiquitously within the fungal taxonomic groups in which mushrooms are included. To utilize marY1 as a molecular marker for the DNA fingerprinting of mushrooms, oligonucleotides marY1-LTR-L and marY1-LTR-R were designed on the basis of highly conserved regions from the multiple sequence alignment of 30 marY1 sequences retrieved from a nucleotide sequence database. In accordance with Retrotransposon Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP) fingerprinting methodology, the two oligonucleotides were utilized together with the short sequence repeat primers UBC807 and UBC818 for polymerase chain reaction using templates from different mushroom genomic DNAs. Among the tested oligonucleotides, the marY1-LTR-L and UBC807 primer set yielded the greatest amount of abundance and variation in terms of DNA band numbers and patterns. This method was successfully applied to 10 mushroom species, and the primer set successfully discriminated between different commercial mushroom cultivars of the same strains of 14 Pleurotus ostreatus and 16 P. eryngii. REMAP reproducibility was superior to other popular DNA fingerprinting methodologies including the random amplified polymorphic DNA method. PMID:23997618

Le, Quy Vang; Won, Hyo-Kyung; Lee, Tae-Soo; Lee, Chang-Yun; Lee, Hyun-Sook

2008-01-01

353

Fluorimetric determination of thiabendazole residues in mushrooms using sequential injection analysis.  

PubMed

Thiabendazole is a benzimidazole fungicide of general use that is specifically used to control mushroom diseases, mainly cobweb diseases, which is caused by members of the genus Cladobotryum. Although this compound is legislated and its maximum residue limit established at 60mgkg(-1) by Codex Alimentarius, there is almost a complete absence of analytical methods available for its determination in mushrooms. Here, we propose an automated method, using Sequential Injection Analysis with fluorescence detection (?(exc)/?(em)=305/345nm) for the determination of thiabendazole in mushrooms. We have developed a flow-through optosensor using C(18) silica gel as solid support placed in the flow-cell where the determination is performed. This method presents a detection limit of 0.5mgkg(-1), and recovery experiments have been carried out in different kinds of mushrooms at levels below the legislated maximum residue limit, demonstrating that the proposed analytical method fulfils the requirements for its applications in quality control of mushrooms. PMID:22817949

Llorent-Martínez, E J; Fernández-de Córdova, M L; Ruiz-Medina, A; Ortega-Barrales, P

2012-07-15

354

Occurrence of Internal Stipe Necrosis of Cultivated Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Caused by Ewingella americana in Korea.  

PubMed

The internal stipe necrosis of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is caused by the bacterium Ewingella americana, a species of the Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, Ewingella americana was isolated from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea evidencing symptoms of internal stipe browning. Its symptoms are visible only at harvest, and appear as a variable browning reaction in the center of the stipes. From these lesions, we isolated one bacterial strain (designated CH4). Inoculation of the bacterial isolate into mushroom sporocarps yielded the characteristic browning symptoms that were distinguishable from those of the bacterial soft rot that is well known to mushroom growers. The results of Gram stain, flagellal staining, and biochemical tests identified these isolates as E. americana. This was verified by pathogenicity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the results of an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and the fatty acids profile. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea. PMID:23983509

Lee, Chan-Jung; Jhune, Chang-Sung; Cheong, Jong-Chun; Yun, Hyung-Sik; Cho, Weon-Dae

2009-03-01

355

ACCUMULATION OF RADIOCESIUM BY MUSHROOMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND IMAGE GALLERY  

SciTech Connect

During the last 50 years, a large amount of information on radionuclide accumulators or 'sentinel-type' organisms in the environment has been published. Much of this work focused on the risks of food-chain transfer of radionuclides to higher organisms such as reindeer and man. However, until the 1980's and 1990's, there has been little published data on the radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) accumulation by mushrooms. This presentation will consist of a review of the published data for {sup 134,137}Cs accumulation by mushrooms in nature. The review will consider the time of sampling, sample location characteristics, the radiocesium source term and other aspects that promote {sup 134,137}Cs uptake by mushrooms. This review will focus on published data for mushrooms that demonstrate a large propensity for use in the environmental biomonitoring of radiocesium contamination. It will also provide photographs and descriptions of habitats for many of these mushrooms to facilitate their collection for biomonitoring.

Duff, M; Mary Ramsey, M

2006-11-05

356

INHIBITION OF GROWTH AND INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES BY AN ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION FROM SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiitake mushrooms have been reported to have cancer preventing properties, and polysaccharides isolated from shiitake mushrooms are being used in some parts of the world as an adjuvant in cancer chemtherapy. However, little research has been conducted verifying the antitumor activities of "mycoche...

357

Evidence against Barium in the Mushroom Trogia venenata as a Cause of Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Yunnan, China  

PubMed Central

This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths. PMID:23042168

Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin

2012-01-01

358

Population Dynamics of Scytalidium thermophilum in Mushroom Compost and Stimulatory Effects on Growth Rate and Yield of Agaricus bisporus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus on sterilized compost is strongly stimulated by pre- incubating the compost with the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum. This stimulatory effect is not species specific, for either A. bisporus or S. thermophilum. Normal mushroom compost is almost completely colonized with S. thermophilum. In experimental composts a positive relation was found between the logarithm of mushroom yield

GERBEN STRAATSMA; JAN P. G. GERRITS; MARC P. A. M. AUGUSTIJN; H. J. M. Op Den Camp; G. D Vogels; L. J. L. D. Van Griensven

1989-01-01

359

Evidence against barium in the mushroom Trogia venenata as a cause of sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, China.  

PubMed

This study examined barium concentrations in the mushroom Trogia venenata, the leading culprit for sudden unexpected deaths in Yunnan, southwest China. We found that barium concentrations in T. venenata from Yunnan were low and comparable to other foods, inconsistent with barium concentrations in this mushroom as a significant contributor to these deaths. PMID:23042168

Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanchun; Wu, Gang; Feng, Bang; Yoell, Shanze; Yu, Zefen; Zhang, Keqin; Xu, Jianping

2012-12-01

360

Mushroom Bodies of the Honeybee Brain Show Cell Population-Specific Plasticity in Expression of Amine-Receptor Genes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dopamine and octopamine released in the mushroom bodies of the insect brain play a critical role in the formation of aversive and appetitive memories, respectively. As recent evidence suggests a complex relationship between the effects of these two amines on the output of mushroom body circuits, we compared the expression of dopamine- and…

McQuillan, H. James; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Mercer, Alison R.

2012-01-01

361

Therapeutic potential of culinary-medicinal mushrooms for the management of neurodegenerative diseases: diversity, metabolite, and mechanism.  

PubMed

Abstract Mushrooms have long been used not only as food but also for the treatment of various ailments. Although at its infancy, accumulated evidence suggested that culinary-medicinal mushrooms may play an important role in the prevention of many age-associated neurological dysfunctions, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Therefore, efforts have been devoted to a search for more mushroom species that may improve memory and cognition functions. Such mushrooms include Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Sarcodon spp., Antrodia camphorata, Pleurotus giganteus, Lignosus rhinocerotis, Grifola frondosa, and many more. Here, we review over 20 different brain-improving culinary-medicinal mushrooms and at least 80 different bioactive secondary metabolites isolated from them. The mushrooms (either extracts from basidiocarps/mycelia or isolated compounds) reduced beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity and had anti-acetylcholinesterase, neurite outgrowth stimulation, nerve growth factor (NGF) synthesis, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and anti-(neuro)inflammatory effects. The in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the bioactive effects of mushrooms are also discussed. Mushrooms can be considered as useful therapeutic agents in the management and/or treatment of neurodegeneration diseases. However, this review focuses on in vitro evidence and clinical trials with humans are needed. PMID:24654802

Phan, Chia-Wei; David, Pamela; Naidu, Murali; Wong, Kah-Hui; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

2014-03-24

362

Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the "Maltese mushroom" Cynomorium  

PubMed Central

Background Although recent molecular phylogenetic studies have identified the photosynthetic relatives of several enigmatic holoparasitic angiosperms, uncertainty remains for the last parasitic plant order, Balanophorales, often considered to include two families, Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. The nonphotosynthetic (holoparasitic) flowering plant Cynomorium coccineum has long been known to the Muslim world as "tarthuth" and to Europeans as the "Maltese mushroom"; C. songaricum is known in Chinese medicine as "suo yang." Interest in these plants is increasing and they are being extensively collected from wild populations for use in herbal medicines. Results Here we report molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial matR sequence data that strongly support the independent origin of Balanophoraceae and Cynomoriaceae. Analyses of single gene and combined gene data sets place Cynomorium in Saxifragales, possibly near Crassulaceae (stonecrop family). Balanophoraceae appear related to Santalales (sandalwood order), a position previously suggested from morphological characters that are often assumed to be convergent. Conclusion Our work shows that Cynomorium and Balanophoraceae are not closely related as indicated in all past and present classifications. Thus, morphological features, such as inflorescences bearing numerous highly reduced flowers, are convergent and were attained independently by these two holoparasite lineages. Given the widespread harvest of wild Cynomorium species for herbal medicines, we here raise conservation concerns and suggest that further molecular phylogenetic work is needed to identify its photosynthetic relatives. These relatives, which will be easier to cultivate, should then be examined for phytochemical activity purported to be present in the more sensitive Cynomorium. PMID:15969755

Nickrent, Daniel L; Der, Joshua P; Anderson, Frank E

2005-01-01

363

Schizolysin, a hemolysin from the split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune.  

PubMed

Abstract A monomeric hemolysin with a molecular mass of 29 kDa was isolated from fresh fruiting bodies of the split gill mushroom Schizophyllum commune. The hemolysin was purified by successive adsorption on DEAE-cellulose, carboxymethyl-cellulose and Q-Sepharose and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. This demonstrated the N-terminal sequence ATNYNKCPGA, different from those of previously reported fungal and bacterial hemolysins. The hemolysin was stable up to 40 degrees C. Only partial activity remained at 50 and 60 degrees C. Activity was indiscernible at 70 degrees C. A pH of 6.0 was optimal for activity. The hemolytic activity was most potently inhibited by dithiothreitol, sucrose and raffinose, followed by cellobiose, maltose, rhamnose, inulin, lactose, fructose and inositol. The metal ions Cu(2+), Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Al(3+) and Fe(3+) significantly, and Pb(2+) to a lesser extent, curtailed the activity of the hemolysin. The hemolysin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 1.8 microM. PMID:20618854

Han, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Qing; Wang, He-Xiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

2010-08-01

364

Antioxidant property of edible mushrooms collected from Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Two cultivated (P. ostreatus and L. edodes) and five wild (L. sulphureus, A. campestris, T. clypeatus, T. microcarpus and T. letestui) edible mushrooms were analyzed for their antioxidant activities, total phenolics, total flavonoids, phenolic profile and ergothioneine content. Results showed that A. campestris had the greatest antioxidant activity in all assays with lower EC50 (mg/ml) values of 1.4, 3.6 and 0.035 for scavenging, reducing and chelating activities, respectively. To correlate well with activities, A. campestris also exhibited greater total phenolics and total flavonoids content of 14.6 mg GAE/g and 1.97 mg CE/g, respectively. The maximum concentration (?g/g) of the individual phenolic compounds were 7.80 (P. ostreatus) for caffeic acid, 4.55 (T. letestui) for chlorogenic acid, 15.8 (T. microcarpus) for p-coumaric acid, 20.3 (A. campestris) for ferulic acid, 561.9 (A. campestris) for gallic acid, 38.7 (A. campestris) for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 7.08 (A. campestris) for myricetin. All samples tested contained different amounts of ergothioneine ranging from 0.08 (L. sulphureus) to 3.78 (P. ostreatus) mg/g in dry weight. PMID:24679748

Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Z; Abate, Dawit; Haki, Gulelat D; Ziegler, Gregory R

2014-08-15

365

Mushroom beta glucan: potential candidate for post irradiation protection.  

PubMed

The in vivo radioprotective effect of a beta-glucan (BG) isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, against radiation (RT) induced damage was investigated taking mouse survival, hematology, liver GSH (Reduced glutathione), liver Malondialdehyde (MDA) and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations as end points. Young adult swiss albino mice were whole body exposed to gamma radiation. For mouse survival study, BG was administered orally (250?g/kg body wt or 500?g/kg body wt) 15min before or 5min after 8Gy exposure. For other parameters BG was given orally 5min after 4Gy exposure. The radioprotective effect of BG was compared with that of clinically used radioprotective drug amifostine (WR-2721), at 300mg/kg body wt administered intraperitoneally, 30min before irradiation. BG (500?g/kg body wt) produced (66%) mouse survival at 30 days given post irradiation, and 83% survived at 30 days with 300mg/kg body wt of amifostine administered before RT while RT alone produced 100% mortality. BG is not toxic at the radioprotective dose. Significant reduction in number of aberrant cells and different types of aberration was observed in both BG and amifostine administered groups compared to radiation alone treated group. BG seems to have potential for use in protection against unplanned radiation exposures. PMID:23277319

Pillai, Thulasi G; Uma Devi, P

2013-03-18

366

Screening of inhibitors for mushroom tyrosinase using surface plasmon resonance.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase inhibitors have been used as whitening or antihyperpigment agents because of their ability to suppress dermal-melanin production. In the present study, screening and kinetic evaluation of various small molecules were performed on mushroom tyrosinase (MT) using surface plasmon resonance. The binding constant KD (M) values obtained for tannic acid, phloroglucinol, saffron, catechol, and pyrogallol are 1.213 × 10(-4), 7.136 × 10(-5), 3.111 × 10(-5), 1.557 × 10(-5), and 7.981 × 10(-6) M, respectively. Pyrogallol has been found to display high affinity for MT, whereas catechol, saffron, and phloroglucinol have been found to bind with low affinity. MT shows considerable changes in the secondary structure in the presence of inhibitors. The study reveals the Biacore/SPR sensor's ability in the rapid identification and characterization of inhibitors for MT. The methodology described here can be used to rapidly screen and optimize various lead compounds for other enzymes and elucidate structure function inter-relationships between various enzymes. PMID:25402844

Patil, Sushama; Sistla, Srinivas; Jadhav, Jyoti

2014-11-26

367

Purification and characterization of melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase from button mushroom.  

PubMed

Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19?U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95?kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933?mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. PMID:25197562

Zaidi, Kamal Uddin; Ali, Ayesha S; Ali, Sharique A

2014-01-01

368

Lignocellulolytic Enzymes Produced by Volvariella volvacea, the Edible Straw Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Volvariella volvacea, commonly known as the straw or paddy mushroom, had the following growth characteristics: minimum temperature, 25°C; optimal temperature, 37°C; maximal temperature, 40°C; pH optimum 6.0. Optimal pH for cellulase production was 5.5. The optimal initial pH for cellulase production and mycelial growth was found to be 6.0. The pH and temperature optima for cellulolytic activity were 5.0 and 50°C, respectively. Maximal cellulolytic activity was obtained within 5 days in shake-flask culture. The cellulases were found to be partly cell free and partly cell bound during growth on microcrystalline cellulose. The endoglucanase activity was primarily extracellular, and ?-glucosidase activity was found exclusively extracellularly. Weak cellulase activity was detected when cells were grown on cellobiose and lactose. V. volvacea could not digest the lignin portion of newspaper in shake-flask cultivation. Phenol oxidase, an important enzyme in lignin biodegradation, also was lacking in the cell-free filtrate. However, the organism oxidized phenolic compounds when it was cultured on agar plates containing commercial lignin. PMID:16345949

Chang, S. C.; Steinkraus, K. H.

1982-01-01

369

Lignocellulolytic Enzymes Produced by Volvariella volvacea, the Edible Straw Mushroom.  

PubMed

Volvariella volvacea, commonly known as the straw or paddy mushroom, had the following growth characteristics: minimum temperature, 25 degrees C; optimal temperature, 37 degrees C; maximal temperature, 40 degrees C; pH optimum 6.0. Optimal pH for cellulase production was 5.5. The optimal initial pH for cellulase production and mycelial growth was found to be 6.0. The pH and temperature optima for cellulolytic activity were 5.0 and 50 degrees C, respectively. Maximal cellulolytic activity was obtained within 5 days in shake-flask culture. The cellulases were found to be partly cell free and partly cell bound during growth on microcrystalline cellulose. The endoglucanase activity was primarily extracellular, and beta-glucosidase activity was found exclusively extracellularly. Weak cellulase activity was detected when cells were grown on cellobiose and lactose. V. volvacea could not digest the lignin portion of newspaper in shake-flask cultivation. Phenol oxidase, an important enzyme in lignin biodegradation, also was lacking in the cell-free filtrate. However, the organism oxidized phenolic compounds when it was cultured on agar plates containing commercial lignin. PMID:16345949

Chang, S C; Steinkraus, K H

1982-02-01

370

Purification and Characterization of Melanogenic Enzyme Tyrosinase from Button Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Melanogenesis is a biosynthetic pathway for the formation of the pigment melanin in human skin. A key enzyme, tyrosinase, catalyzes the first and only rate-limiting steps in melanogenesis. Since the discovery of its melanogenic properties, tyrosinase has been in prime focus and microbial sources of the enzyme are sought. Agaricus bisporus widely known as the common edible mushroom, it's taking place in high amounts of proteins, enzyme, carbohydrates, fibers, and low fat contents are frequently cited in the literature in relation to their nutritional value. In the present study tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis followed by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Cellulose; the enzyme was purified, 16.36-fold to give 26.6% yield on total activity in the crude extract and final specific activity of 52.19?U/mg. The SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a migrating protein band molecular weight of 95?kDa. The purified tyrosinase was optimized and the results revealed that the optimum values are pH 7.0 and temperature 35°C. The highest activity was reported towards its natural substrate, L-DOPA, with an apparent Km value of 0.933?mM. This indicated that tyrosinase purified from Agaricus bisporus is a potential source for medical applications. PMID:25197562

Ali, Ayesha S.; Ali, Sharique A.

2014-01-01

371

[Chemical composition of three Mexican strains of mushrooms (Pleurotus ostratus)].  

PubMed

The chemical composition of three Mexican strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (INIREB-8, CDBB-H-896 and CDBB-H-897), were determined. The mushrooms were cultivated on wheat straw in a greenhouse (22-28 degrees C temperature and 80 +/- 5% of relative humidity). Fruits bodies of P. ostreatus contained (all values are expressed in g/100 g dry wt.), protein (N x 6.25): 24.64 +/- 0.21-28.50 +/- 0.26; lipids: 1.10 +/- 0.16-1.85 +/- 0.22; mineral matter: 7.66 +/- 0.23-8.79 +/- 0.25; dietary fibre: 32.14 +/- 0.14-36.81 +/- 0.40; and available carbohydrates: 26.33 +/- 1.04-30.46 +/- 0.21. They contain vitamins (mg/100 g dry wt): riboflavin: 3.31-3.7, thiamin: 1.92-1.96, niacin: 35.98-36.56 and ascorbic acid: 28-35. The main fatty acid was linoleic (0.70-1.19 g/100 g dry wt), it was also reported a low calcium and phosphorus content. Concluding the Pleurotus ostreatus could be a source of some of the complex B vitamins, dietary fiber, protein and linoleic acid. PMID:10347703

Bautista Justo, M; Alanís Guzmán, M G; González de Mejía, E; García Díaz, C L

1998-12-01

372

Antimetastatic and immunomodulating effect of water extracts from various mushrooms.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to evaluate inhibitory effects against lung metastasis and promotion of splenocytes by water extracts from various mushrooms including Armillaria mellea, Grifola frondosa, Garnoderma frondosa, Codyceps militaris, Hericium erinaceus, Coriolus versicolor, Agaricus Blazei with Lycium Chinense Miller (known as M8). Analysis of carbohydrate using HPTLC showed that beta-glucan and pachyman were some of the major components of M8. Oral administration of M8 resulted in a dose-dependent tendency to inhibit lung metastasis after intravenous injection of colon26-L5 cells. Treatment with M8 resulted in a significant increase of T cell and B cell mitogenic stimuli. The population of CD3, CD19, CD4, and CD8 positive cells increased in a dose dependent manner of M8 administration. However, no significant results were obtained from the population of Mac-1 and NK1.1 positive cells. Oral administration of M8 resulted in the increased production of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by splenocytes stimulated with Con A compared with untreated controls. These results show that M8 has antitumor activities which may be useful as an antimetastatic agent. PMID:20633495

Han, Sung-Soo Ronald; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

2009-09-01

373

Medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus as an alternative cancer therapy  

PubMed Central

Alternative cancer treatment with nutritional/dietary supplements containing a wide variety of herbal products is on the rise in Western countries. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that mushrooms may prevent against different types of cancers. Phellinus linteus is a well-known Oriental medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities, including immunomodulatory or direct antitumor activities. The activity of P. linteus and its extracts is associated with the presence of polysaccharides, their peptide/protein complexes and other low molecular weight complexes. Polysaccharide fractions isolated from P. linteus were found to be related to the increased activity of immune cells such as the production of cytokines by macrophages and B-cells or the increased cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells. Moreover, P. linteus was found to modulate the expression or activity of various genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasive behavior and chemoprevention. Finally, P. linteus extracts demonstrated tumor regression in three independent case reports, suggesting that an extract from P. linteus or a dietary supplement based on the extract from P. linteus may have potential use for the alternative treatment of cancer. PMID:22993555

SLIVA, DANIEL

2010-01-01

374

Warming-induced shift in European mushroom fruiting phenology  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi are the major agents of decomposition processes and nutrient cycling and of plant nutrient uptake. Hence, they have a vital impact on ecosystem processes and the terrestrial carbon cycle. Changes in productivity and phenology of fungal fruit bodies can give clues to changes in fungal activity, but understanding these changes in relation to a changing climate is a pending challenge among ecologists. Here we report on phenological changes in fungal fruiting in Europe over the past four decades. Analyses of 746,297 dated and geo-referenced mushroom records of 486 autumnal fruiting species from Austria, Norway, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom revealed a widening of the annual fruiting season in all countries during the period 1970–2007. The mean annual day of fruiting has become later in all countries. However, the interspecific variation in phenological responses was high. Most species moved toward a later ending of their annual fruiting period, a trend that was particularly strong in the United Kingdom, which may reflect regional variation in climate change and its effects. Fruiting of both saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi now continues later in the year, but mycorrhizal fungi generally have a more compressed season than saprotrophs. This difference is probably due to the fruiting of mycorrhizal fungi partly depending on cues from the host plant. Extension of the European fungal fruiting season parallels an extended vegetation season in Europe. Changes in fruiting phenology imply changes in mycelia activity, with implications for ecosystem function. PMID:22908273

Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Büntgen, Ulf; Halvorsen, Rune; Egli, Simon; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Krisai-Greilhuber, Irmgard; Dämon, Wolfgang; Sparks, Tim; Nordén, Jenni; Høiland, Klaus; Kirk, Paul; Semenov, Mikhail; Boddy, Lynne; Stenseth, Nils C.

2012-01-01

375

An antitumour lectin from the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita.  

PubMed Central

An antitumour lectin (named AAL) consisting of two identical subunits of 15.8 kDa was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita using a procedure which involved precipitating the extract by addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 HR and finally purification on a GF-250 HPLC column. Amino acid analysis of the N-terminus and an internal fragment indicated that the sequences of the two fragments were QGVNIYNI and Q(K)PDGPWLVEK(Q)R respectively. AAL showed strong inhibition of the growth of human tumour cell lines HeLa, SW480, SGC-7901, MGC80-3, BGC-823, HL-60 and mouse sarcoma S-180. AAL also inhibited the viability of S-180 tumour cells in vivo. Analysis by Hoechst 33258 staining, MitoSensor Kit and flow cytometry showed that AAL induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. TUNEL (terminal transferase deoxytidyl uridine end labelling) analysis of slides of tumour tissues excised from BALB/c mice also demonstrated the apoptosis-induction activity of the lectin. Furthermore, AAL was shown to possess DNase activity in assays using plasmid pCDNA3 and salmon sperm DNA. Based on the results obtained in these assays, we conclude that AAL exerts its antitumour effects via apoptosis-inducing and DNase activities. PMID:12757412

Zhao, Chenguang; Sun, Hui; Tong, Xin; Qi, Yipeng

2003-01-01

376

An antitumour lectin from the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita.  

PubMed

An antitumour lectin (named AAL) consisting of two identical subunits of 15.8 kDa was isolated from the fruiting bodies of the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita using a procedure which involved precipitating the extract by addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4), ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography on Sephacryl S-200 HR and finally purification on a GF-250 HPLC column. Amino acid analysis of the N-terminus and an internal fragment indicated that the sequences of the two fragments were QGVNIYNI and Q(K)PDGPWLVEK(Q)R respectively. AAL showed strong inhibition of the growth of human tumour cell lines HeLa, SW480, SGC-7901, MGC80-3, BGC-823, HL-60 and mouse sarcoma S-180. AAL also inhibited the viability of S-180 tumour cells in vivo. Analysis by Hoechst 33258 staining, MitoSensor Kit and flow cytometry showed that AAL induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. TUNEL (terminal transferase deoxytidyl uridine end labelling) analysis of slides of tumour tissues excised from BALB/c mice also demonstrated the apoptosis-induction activity of the lectin. Furthermore, AAL was shown to possess DNase activity in assays using plasmid pCDNA3 and salmon sperm DNA. Based on the results obtained in these assays, we conclude that AAL exerts its antitumour effects via apoptosis-inducing and DNase activities. PMID:12757412

Zhao, Chenguang; Sun, Hui; Tong, Xin; Qi, Yipeng

2003-09-01

377

Serologic Testing for Chagas' Disease and HIV in Counseling Programs and Blood Banks in Midwest Brazil.  

PubMed

For many years it has been the practice in Brazil to question donors and to test blood to be used in blood banks for HIV, Chagas' disease, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis. Counseling and blood testing programs have recently been established to assist in identifying and treating those with HIV. In a blood bank center in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS), we evaluated the frequency and age of patients with positive tests for T.cruzi in order to determine whether the frequency and age distribution indicated that this infection should be added to the counseling and testing programs. A group of 476 first time blood donors were enrolled to answer a questionnaire and to be tested serologically for Chagas' disease, HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis. A standard ELISA and an IFA test were used for Chagas' disease patients. Five patients (1.1%) were serologically positive for T.cruzi infection. All five were male between 22 and 35 years of age. None of the five had been born in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Four donors donated blood in order to obtain serologic test results, only one donated blood as a social responsibility. One was HIV positive and related previous STD, and one had received a blood transfusion between 1980 and 1986. Each had had only one sexual partner in the last six months. The age range and the frequency of 1.1% suggest that it would be beneficial to include this disease in counseling and testing program in Brazil. The limitations of this approach are the relatively low attendance at such centers in Mato Grosso do Sul (1.7 people/day compared to a national average of 2.9 people/day), the slow reporting time for results (1 week compared to 1 day for the blood bank reporting), and the absence of a standard disease-specific testing procedure. We recommend increasing the use of serologic tests for T.cruzi and designing appropriate questionnaires in counseling and testing programs now used primarily for HIV, assuming the existing limitations can be overcome. PMID:11084664

Aguiar; Setti Aguiar E

1999-10-01

378

Relation of regional sympathetic denervation and myocardial perfusion disturbance to wall motion impairment in Chagas' cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Impairment of sinus node autonomic control and myocardial perfusion disturbances have been described in patients with chronic Chagas' cardiomyopathy. However, it is not clear how these conditions contribute to myocardial damage. In this investigation, iodine-123 (I-123) meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and thallium-201 myocardium segmental uptake were studied in correlation with the severity of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction detected in various phases of Chagas' heart disease. Group I consisted of 12 subjects (43 +/- 4 years, 7 men) with no symptoms and no cardiac involvement on electrocardiogram (ECG) or echocardiography; group II consisted of 13 patients (48 +/- 3 years, 9 men) with abnormal resting ECG and/or echocardiographic segmental abnormalities, and LV ejection fraction of > or = 0.5; group III was comprised of 12 patients (59 +/- 3 years, 10 men) with more severe heart disease, LV dilation, and LV ejection fraction of < 0.5. Eighteen control volunteers (38 +/- 3 years, 9 men) were also included in the study. I-123 MIBG single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) segmental uptake defects were observed in group I (33%), group II (77%), and group III (92%). Quantitative analysis showed mean areas of reduced LV I-123-MIBG uptake: group I was 3.7 +/- 2.1%; group II was 8.3 +/- 2.3%; and group III was 19.0 +/- 3.3%. The differences between group I and both groups II and III were statistically significant (p < 0.001, analysis of variance test). Myocardial perfusion defects (reversible, fixed, and paradox) were observed in group I (83%), group II (69%), and group III (83%). A marked topographic association between perfusion, innervation, and wall motion abnormalities (assessed by gated-SPECT perfusion studies) was observed in all the groups. Defects predominated in the inferior, posterior lateral, and apical LV regions. Thus, extensive impairment of cardiac sympathetic function at the ventricular level occured early in the course of Chagas' cardiomyopathy and was related to regional myocardial perfusion disturbances, before wall motion abnormalities. Both conditions are associated with progression of ventricular dysfunction. PMID:11053710

Simões, M V; Pintya, A O; Bromberg-Marin, G; Sarabanda, A V; Antloga, C M; Pazin-Filho, A; Maciel, B C; Marin-Neto, J A

2000-11-01

379

Toxic side effects of drugs used to treat Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis).  

PubMed

Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) is an endemic parasitic disease in some areas of Latin America. About 16-18 million persons are infected with the aetiological agent of the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, and more than 100 million are living at risk of infection. There are different modes of infection: (1) via blood sucking vector insects infected with T. cruzi, accounting for 80-90% of transmission of the disease; (2) via blood transfusion or congenital transmission, accounting for 0.5-8% of transmission; (3) other less common forms of infection, eg, from infected food or drinks or via infected organs used in transplants. The acute phase of the disease can last from weeks to months and typically is asymptomatic or associated with fever and other mild nonspecific manifestations. However, life-threatening myocarditis or meningoencephalitis can occur during the acute phase. The death rate for persons in this phase is about 10%. Approximately 10-50% of the survivors develop chronic Chagas' disease, which is characterized by potentially lethal cardiopathy and megacolon or megaoesophagus. There are two drugs available for the aetiological treatment of Chagas' disease: nifurtimox (Nfx) and benznidazole (Bz). Nfx is a nitrofurane and Bz is a nitroimidazole compound. The use of these drugs to treat the acute phase of the disease is widely accepted. However, their use in the treatment of the chronic phase is controversial. The undesirable side effects of both drugs are a major drawback in their use, frequently forcing the physician to stop treatment. The most frequent adverse effects observed in the use of Nfx are: anorexia, loss of weight, psychic alterations, excitability, sleepiness, digestive manifestations such as nausea or vomiting, and occasionally intestinal colic and diarrhoea. In the case of Bz, skin manifestations are the most notorious (e.g., hypersensitivity, dermatitis with cutaneous eruptions, generalized oedema, fever, lymphoadenopathy, articular and muscular pain), with depression of bone marrow, thrombocytopenic purpura and agranulocytosis being the more severe manifestations. Experimental toxicity studies with Nfx evidenced neurotoxicity, testicular damage, ovarian toxicity, and deleterious effects in adrenal, colon, oesophageal and mammary tissue. In the case of Bz, deleterious effects were observed in adrenals, colon and oesophagus. Bz also inhibits the metabolism of several xenobiotics biotransformed by the cytochrome P450 system and its reactive metabolites react with fetal components in vivo. Both drugs exhibited significant mutagenic effects and were shown to be tumorigenic or carcinogenic in some studies. The toxic side effects of both nitroheterocyclic derivatives require enzymatic reduction of their nitro group. Those processes are fundamentally mediated by cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome P450. Other enzymes such as xanthine oxidoreductase or aldehyde oxidase may also be involved. PMID:16937919

Castro, José A; de Mecca, Maria Montalto; Bartel, Laura C

2006-08-01

380

Performance and meat quality of broiler chickens that are fed diets supplemented with Agaricus brasiliensis mushrooms.  

PubMed

This trial was performed to study the use of the mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis as an alternative additive to antimicrobial growth promoters in broiler chicken diets and to assess the quality of the broiler chicken breast meat of birds that are fed diets containing this fungus. Thus, 595 1-day-old chicks were reared in reused poultry litter without anticoccidial and antimicrobial additives. The results showed that a concentration of 1.6 g mushrooms/kg diet was ideal for these birds because it provided better bird performance. When the birds' immune system organs were analyzed, it was found that the addition of both mushrooms influenced the immune system organs of these broiler chickens. Adding A. brasiliensis to broiler chicken diets did not compromise breast meat quality. PMID:25169695

Guimarães, João Borges; Dos Santos, Eder Clementino; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Bertechini, Antônio Gilberto; da Silva Ávila, Carla Luiza; Dias, Francesca Silva

2014-12-01

381

Experimental evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster mushroom Pleurotus florida  

PubMed Central

Background: Edible mushrooms have been used as flavorful foods and as health nutritional supplements for several centuries. A number of bioactive molecules have been identified in numerous mushroom species Objective: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of Oyster Mushroom Pleurotus florida using various experimental models in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were performed whereby dose of 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg was selected for present study, Analgesic activity was determined using hot plate method, tail flick method, acetic acid induced writhing and formalin induced pain in rats, while carrageenan was used to induce inflammation and anti-inflammatory studies were performed. Results: HEE showed significant (P < 0.01) analgesic and anti-inflammatory response against all experimental models. Conclusion: These studies conclude that Pleurotus florida possesses analgesic and anti- inflammatory potential which might be due to presence of myochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics and polysaccharides. PMID:23543896

Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Rai, Gopal

2013-01-01

382

An In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant and Colonic Microbial Profile Levels following Mushroom Consumption  

PubMed Central

The biological activity of mushroom consumption is achieved by the antioxidant effect of constituent biomolecules released during digestion. In the following study, the consumption of mushroom fungi was determined to increase the number of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains within the colon. The main phenolic antioxidant compounds identified were both gentisic and homogentisic acids. Moreover, the flavonoid catechin as well as a significant amount of ?- and ?-tocopherols was determined. The amount of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from different sections of the human colon was significantly correlated with levels of antioxidative biomolecules. The experimental data clearly demonstrate a significant impact of mushroom consumption on the fermentative function of microorganisms in the human colon, resulting in the homeostasis of normal physiological colonic functions. PMID:24027755

Vamanu, Emanuel; Avram, Ionela; Nita, Sultana

2013-01-01

383

Anti-complementary Activities of Exo- and Endo-biopolymer Produced by Submerged Mycelial Culture of Eight Different Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

The Elfvingia applanata (EA), Hericium erinaceum (HE),Grifola frondosa (GF), Pholiota nameko (PN), Pleurotus eryngii (PE), Trametes suaveolens (TS), Fomes fomentarius (FF), and Inonotus obliquus (IO) could produce the endo- (EN) and exo-biopolymer (EX) in submerged culture. The highest anti-complementary activity of the EN was exhibited by PN (49.1%), followed by HE (38.6%), TS (37.0%),and FF (33.0%),whereas the high activity of the EX was found with GF (59.8%),followed by HE (36.3%),TS (30.8%),and IO (28.8%). The EN of P. nameko (EN-PN) and EX of G. frondosa (EX-GF) were found to contain 78.6% and 41.2% carbohydrates, while 21.4% and 58.8% protein, respectively. The sugar and amino acid compositions of EN-PN and EX-GF were also analyzed in detail. PMID:24015085

Yang, Byung-Keun; Gu, Young-Ah; Jeong, Yong-Tae

2007-01-01

384

Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells  

PubMed Central

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S.; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

2013-01-01

385

Antioxidant activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of two raw truffles (Terfezia claveryi Chatin and Picoa juniperi Vittadini) and five raw mushrooms (Lepista nuda, Lentinus edodes, Agrocybe cylindracea, Cantharellus lutescens, and Hydnum repandum) were tested by subjecting these truffles and mushrooms to different industrial processes (freezing and canning) and comparing them with common food antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol [E-307], BHA [E-320], BHT [E-321], and propyl gallate [E-310]) with regard to their ability to inhibit lipid oxidation. All of the truffles and mushrooms analyzed exhibited higher percentages of oxidation inhibition than did the food antioxidants according to assays based on lipid peroxidation (LOO*), deoxyribose (OH*), and peroxidase (H2O2). Frozen samples exhibited a small reduction in free radical scavenger activity, but the results did not show a significant difference (P < 0.05) with respect to the raw samples, while canned truffles and mushrooms lost some antioxidant activity as a consequence of industrial processing. All of the raw and frozen truffles and mushrooms except frozen Cantharellus improved the stability of oil against oxidation (100 degrees C Rancimat), while canned samples accelerated oil degradation. Antioxidant activity during 30 days of storage was measured by the linoleic acid assay, and all of the samples except canned Terfezia, Picoa, and Hydnum showed high or medium antioxidant activity. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay was used to provide a ranking order of antioxidant activity as measured against that of Trolox (a standard solution used to evaluate equivalent antioxidant capacity). The order of raw samples with regard to antioxidant capacity was as follows (in decreasing order): Cantharellus, Agrocybe, Lentinus, Terfezia, Picoa, Lepista, and Hydnum. Losses of antioxidant activity were detected in the processed samples of these truffles and mushrooms. PMID:12380748

Murcia, M Antonia; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; Jiménez, Antonia M; Vera, Ana M; Honrubia, Mario; Parras, Pilar

2002-10-01

386

Effect of dose rate of gamma irradiation on biochemical quality and browning of mushrooms Agaricus bisporus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance the shelf-life of edible mature mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, 2 kGy ionising treatments were applied at two different dose rates: 4.5 kGy/h ( I-) and 32 kGy/h ( I+). Both I+ and I- showed 2 and 4 days shelf-life enhancement compared to the control ( C). Before day 9, no significant difference ( p>0.05) in L* value was detected in irradiated mushrooms. However, after day 9, the highest observed L* value (whiteness) was obtained for the mushrooms irradiated in I-. Analyses of phenolic compounds revealed that mushrooms in I- contained more phenols than I+ and C, the latter containing the lower level of phenols. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities of irradiated mushrooms, analysed via catechol oxidase and dopa oxidase substrates, resulted in being significantly lowered ( p?0.05) compared to C, with a further decrease in I+. Analyses of the enzymes indicated that PPO activity was lower in I+, contrasting with its lower phenol concentration. Ionising treatments also increased significantly ( p?0.05) the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity. The observation of mushrooms cellular membranes, by electronic microscopy, revealed a better preserved integrity in I- than in I+. It is thus assumed that the browning effect observed in I+ was caused by both the decompartimentation of vacuolar phenol and by the entry of molecular oxygen into the cell cytoplasm. The synergetic effect of the residual active PPO and the molecular oxygen, in contact with the phenols, allowed an increased oxidation rate and, therefore, a more pronounced browning in I+ than in I-.

Beaulieu, M.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

2002-03-01

387

Mushroom body miscellanea: transgenic Drosophila strains expressing anatomical and physiological sensor proteins in Kenyon cells.  

PubMed

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster represents a key model organism for analyzing how neuronal circuits regulate behavior. The mushroom body in the central brain is a particularly prominent brain region that has been intensely studied in several insect species and been implicated in a variety of behaviors, e.g., associative learning, locomotor activity, and sleep. Drosophila melanogaster offers the advantage that transgenes can be easily expressed in neuronal subpopulations, e.g., in intrinsic mushroom body neurons (Kenyon cells). A number of transgenes has been described and engineered to visualize the anatomy of neurons, to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity, and to manipulate neuronal function artificially. To target the expression of these transgenes selectively to specific neurons several sophisticated bi- or even multipartite transcription systems have been invented. However, the number of transgenes that can be combined in the genome of an individual fly is limited in practice. To facilitate the analysis of the mushroom body we provide a compilation of transgenic fruit flies that express transgenes under direct control of the Kenyon-cell specific promoter, mb247. The transgenes expressed are fluorescence reporters to analyze neuroanatomical aspects of the mushroom body, proteins to restrict ectopic gene expression to mushroom bodies, or fluorescent sensors to monitor physiological parameters of neuronal activity of Kenyon cells. Some of the transgenic animals compiled here have been published already, whereas others are novel and characterized here for the first time. Overall, the collection of transgenic flies expressing sensor and reporter genes in Kenyon cells facilitates combinations with binary transcription systems and might, ultimately, advance the physiological analysis of mushroom body function. PMID:24065891

Pech, Ulrike; Dipt, Shubham; Barth, Jonas; Singh, Priyanka; Jauch, Mandy; Thum, Andreas S; Fiala, André; Riemensperger, Thomas

2013-01-01

388

Chagas Disease: Assessing the Existence of a Threshold for Bug Infestation Rate  

PubMed Central

To examine the existence of a possible threshold for the domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata, below which transmission becomes unlikely, a census was conducted in 59 Chagas disease endemic communities of El Salvador and Honduras. Entomological and serological tests were conducted targeting 4,083 households and 6,324 children between 6 months and 15 years of age. The overall domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata and seroprevalence among children were 12.9% and 0.49%, respectively. Communities with a domestic infestation rate at 8% or less consistently showed a seroprevalence of 0%. In communities with a domestic infestation rate above 8%, there was a wide range in seroprevalence. A domestic infestation rate of 8% could serve as the possible threshold below which transmission would become unlikely. The implementation of an 8% threshold for determining needs for universal insecticide spraying would lead to a 21% reduction in spraying-related costs. PMID:22665603

Aiga, Hirotsugu; Sasagawa, Emi; Hashimoto, Ken; Nakamura, Jiro; Zúniga, Concepción; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Nakagawa, Jun; Tabaru, Yuichiro

2012-01-01

389

[Control Program of Chagas disease in São Paulo, Brazil: the control and surveillance of vector transmission].  

PubMed

The control of the vectors of Chagas' disease in the State of Sao Paulo are discussed, mainly those activities that led to the elimination of Triatoma infestans. Secondary factors that helped the control such as rural exodus are also analyzed. The article shows that since 1965 the control became a campaign with different phases due to the epidemiological situation, the acquired knowledge and the entomological surveillance. After 25 years of work, the elimination of all the focus of Triatoma infestans was finally reached and the campaign was ended. However, due to the possibility of reintroduction of the vector in rural areas by passive transportation besides the presence of secondary vectors (Triatoma sordida and Panstrongylus megistus) in several localities, the vector control activities were not interrupted and the surveillance is continuous. PMID:21584361

Silva, Eduardo Olavo da Rocha e; Rodrigues, Vera Lúcia Cortiço Corrêa; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério

2011-01-01

390

Familial Analysis of Seropositivity to Trypanosoma cruzi and of Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional study was carried out in Água Comprida, MG, Brazil, a region previously endemic to Chagas disease whose vectorial transmission was interrupted around 20 year ago. A total of 998 individuals were examined for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. Seropositivity was observed in 255 subjects (25.5%), and 743 subjects were negative. Forty-one families with 5–80 individuals with similar environmental conditions were selected for familial analysis. In 15 families, seropositivity to T. cruzi was observed in > 50% of individuals. The segregation analysis confirmed family aggregation for the seropositivity to the T. cruzi. Heart commitment was the major clinical form observed, and in six families, > 50% of the individuals display cardiopathy that may be attributed to T. cruzi infection. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a family aggregation for the seropositivity but without the effect of one major gene. PMID:20064994

Silva-Grecco, Roseane L.; Balarin, Marly A. S.; Correia, Dalmo; Prata, Aluízio; Rodrigues, Virmondes

2010-01-01

391

Two Analogues of Fenarimol Show Curative Activity in an Experimental Model of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is an increasing threat to global health. Available medicines were introduced over 40 years ago, have undesirable side effects, and give equivocal results of cure in the chronic stage of the disease. We report the development of two compounds, 6 and (S)-7, with PCR-confirmed curative activity in a mouse model of established T. cruzi infection after once daily oral dosing for 20 days at 20 mg/kg 6 and 10 mg/kg (S)-7. Compounds 6 and (S)-7 have potent in vitro activity, are noncytotoxic, show no adverse effects in vivo following repeat dosing, are prepared by a short synthetic route, and have druglike properties suitable for preclinical development. PMID:24304150

2013-01-01

392

Successful Treatment with Posaconazole of a Patient with Chronic Chagas Disease and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease that affects Latin American people worldwide. Two old antiparasitic drugs, benznidazole and nifurtimox, are currently used for specific CD treatment with limited efficacy in chronic infections and frequent side effects. New drugs are needed for patients with chronic CD as well as for immunosuppressed patients, for whom the risk of reactivation is life-threatening. We describe a case of chronic CD and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that required immunosuppression to control the autoimmune process. It was found that benznidazole induced a reduction, but not an elimination, of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi levels, whereas subsequent treatment with posaconazole led to a successful resolution of the infection, despite the maintenance of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:20348503

Pinazo, María-Jesús; Espinosa, Gerard; Gállego, Montserrat; López-Chejade, Paulo Luis; Urbina, Julio A.; Gascón, Joaquim

2010-01-01

393

Trypanosoma cruzi, the Causal Agent of Chagas Disease: Boundaries between Wild and Domestic Cycles in Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi the etiological agent of American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (ChD) is transmitted by triatomines vectors between mammals including man. T. cruzi has existed for circa 150?Ma in the Americas and nearly 10 million people are currently infected. The overlap between wild and domestic ecotopes where T. cruzi circulates is increasing. Host–parasite interactions have been determined by infection patterns in these cycles, all under natural or laboratorial conditions. This mini-review describes specific parasite niches, such as plant communities or biological corridors between domestic and wild landscapes, in order to help identify risk factors for ChD and define the boundaries between wild and domestic transmission cycles, with an emphasis on research undertaken in Venezuela. PMID:25506587

Herrera, Leidi

2014-01-01

394

Concurrent Chagas’ disease and borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis: The role of amiodarone as an antitrypanosomatidae drug  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of mixed infections of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. is becoming a common feature in Central and South America due to overlapping endemic areas. Unfortunately, the possibilities for treating flagellated kinetoplastid infections are still very limited and most of the available drugs exhibit severe side effects. Although the development of new drugs for Leishmania has markedly improved in the last years, the tendency is still to employ antimonial compounds. On the other hand, treatment for Chagas’ disease is only available for the acute phase with no effective therapeutical options for chronic stage disease. The following case report substantiates the recently discovered effect of amiodarone as a nonconventional antiparasitic drug, particularly against Leishmania, breaching a new perspective in the therapeutic management of these important infectious parasitic diseases. PMID:18827865

Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto E; Pérez-Álvarez, Alexandra M; Reyes-Jaimes, Oscar; Socorro, Gustavo; Zerpa, Olga; Slova, Denisa; Concepción, Juan L

2008-01-01

395

Adhesion tilt-tolerance in bio-inspired mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied experimentally and theoretically the effect of different tilt angles on the adhesion of mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructures. The marginal measured influence of tilting on pull-off forces is quantitatively well confirmed by numerical and theoretical calculations and was shown to be a direct consequence of an optimized stress distribution. In addition, the presence of a joint-like narrowing under the contact elements, as found in some biological attachment systems, was shown to further contribute to the tilt-tolerance. The results obtained allow us to explain the advantage of the widely observed mushroom-shaped contact geometry in nature for long-term and permanent adhesion.

Heepe, Lars; Carbone, Giuseppe; Pierro, Elena; Kovalev, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-01-01

396

Natural Products and Biological Activity of the Pharmacologically Active Cauliflower Mushroom Sparassis crispa  

PubMed Central

Sparassis crispa, also known as cauliflower mushroom, is an edible mushroom with medicinal properties. Its cultivation became popular in Japan about 10 years ago, a phenomenon that has been attributed not only to the quality of its taste, but also to its potential for therapeutic applications. Herein, I present a comprehensive summary of the pharmacological activities and mechanisms of action of its bioactive components, such as beta-glucan, and other physiologically active substances. In particular, the immunomodulatory mechanisms of the beta-glucan components are presented herein in detail. PMID:23586068

Kimura, Takashi

2013-01-01

397

Relationships between selenium and mercury in the fruiting bodies of some mushrooms growing in Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationships between concentrations of total selenium and mercury were investigated for the whole fruiting bodies, caps and/or stalks of King bolete (Boletus edulis), Brown birch scaber stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), Poison pax (Paxillus involutus) and Fly agaric (Amatiita niuscaria) collected from the various sites in Poland. The mushroom species examined varied largely due to the contents and proportions between the total selenium and mercury concentrations, what seems to indicate on species-dependent strategy of co-uptake and accumulation of these elements.

Falandysz, J.; Kubotal, R.; Kunito, T.; Bielawski, L.; Brzostowski, A.; Gucia, M.; Jedrusiak, A.; Lipka, K.; Tanabe, S.

2003-05-01

398

Sesquiterpene Lactone in Nanostructured Parenteral Dosage Form Is Efficacious in Experimental Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

The drugs available for Chagas disease treatment are toxic and ineffective. We studied the in vivo activity of a new drug, lychnopholide (LYC). LYC was loaded in nanocapsules (NC), and its effects were compared to free LYC and benznidazole against Trypanosoma cruzi. Infected mice were treated in the acute phase at 2.0 mg/kg/day with free LYC, LYC-poly-?-caprolactone NC (LYC-PCL), and LYC-poly(lactic acid)-co-polyethylene glycol NC (LYC-PLA-PEG) or at 50 mg/kg/day with benznidazole solution by the intravenous route. Animals infected with the CL strain, treated 24 h after infection for 10 days, evaluated by hemoculture, PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay exhibited a 50% parasitological cure when treated with LYC-PCL NC and 100% cure when treated with benznidazole, but 100% of the animals treated during the prepatent period for 20 days with these formulations or LYC-PLA-PEG NC were cured. In animals with the Y strain treated 24 h after infection for 10 days, only mice treated by LYC-PCL NC were cured, but animals treated in the prepatent period for 20 days exhibited 100, 75, and 62.5% cure when treated with LYC-PLA-PEG NC, benznidazole, and LYC-PCL NC, respectively. Free LYC reduced the parasitemia and improved mice survival, but no mice were cured. LYC-loaded NC showed higher cure rates, reduced parasitemia, and increased survival when used in doses 2five times lower than those used for benznidazole. This study confirms that LYC is a potential new treatment for Chagas disease. Furthermore, the long-circulating property of PLA-PEG NC and its ability to improve LYC efficacy showed that this formulation is more effective in reaching the parasite in vivo. PMID:24449777

Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado; de Oliveira-Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel; Simões-Silva, Marianne Rocha; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia Antunes

2014-01-01

399

Efficacy of a trans-sialidase-ISCOMATRIX subunit vaccine candidate to protect against experimental Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein vaccines are safe but elicit low immunological responses. The new generation of adjuvants is currently reversing this situation. Here, a new antigen-adjuvant combination for protection against experimental Chagas disease was assessed. The antigen used in the formulation was a glycosylated mutant inactive trans-sialidase (mTS) that was previously proven to be highly protective against Trypanosoma cruzi infection; here, we show that it can be produced in large quantities and high quality using Pichia pastoris. The adjuvant used in the formulation was ISCOMATRIX (IMX), which was found to be effective and safe in human clinical trials of vaccines designed to control other intracellular infections. Fifteen days after the third immunization, mice immunized with mTS-IMX showed a TS-specific IgG response with titers >10(6) and high avidity, an increased IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, significant delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity, a balanced production of IFN-? and IL-10 by splenocytes and a strong IFN-? secretion by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. When these mice where challenged with 1000 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi, all mTS-IMX immunized mice survived, whereas mice immunized with mTS alone, IMX or PBS exhibited high mortality. Remarkably, during acute infection, when the parasitemia is highest in this infection model (day 21), mTS-IMX immunized mice had ?50 times less parasitemia than non-immunized mice. At this moment and also in the chronic phase, 100 days after infection, tissue presented ?4.5 times lower parasite load and associated inflammatory infiltrate and lesions. These results indicate that protection against Chagas disease can be achieved by a protein antigen-adjuvant mTS formulation that is compatible with human medicine. Therefore, the current formulation is a highly promising T. cruzi vaccine candidate to be tested in clinical trials. PMID:25625671

Bontempi, Iván Alejandro; Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Cabrera, Gabriel; Villar, Silvina Raquel; González, Florencia Belén; Roggero, Eduardo Angel; Ameloot, Paul; Callewaert, Nico; Pérez, Ana Rosa; Marcipar, Iván Sergio

2015-03-01

400

Increased myeloperoxidase activity and protein nitration are indicators of inflammation in patients with Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated whether inflammatory responses contribute to oxidative/nitrosative stress in patients with Chagas' disease. We used three tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immuno-flow cytometry, and STAT-PAK immunochromatography) to screen human serum samples (n = 1,481) originating from Chiapas, Mexico, for Trypanosoma cruzi-specific antibodies. We identified 121 subjects who were seropositive for T. cruzi-specific antibodies, a finding indicative of an 8.5% seroprevalence in the rural population from Chiapas. Seropositive and seronegative subjects were examined for plasma levels of biomarkers of inflammation, i.e., myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and xanthine oxidase (XOD), as well as for oxidative (advanced oxidation protein products [AOPPs]) and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine [3NT]) biomarkers. The seropositive subjects exhibited a significant increase in MPO activity and protein level, the indicator of neutrophil activation. Subsequently, a corresponding increase in AOPP contents, formed by MPO-dependent hypochlorous acid and chloramine formation, was noted in seropositive subjects. The plasma level of 3NT was significantly increased in seropositive subjects, yet we observed no change in XOD activity (O(2)(-) source) and nitrate/nitrite contents (denotes iNOS activation and NO production), which implied that direct peroxynitrite formation does not contribute to increased nitrosative damage in chagasic subjects. Instead, a positive correlation between increased MPO activity and protein 3NT formation was observed, which suggested to us that MPO-dependent formation of nitrylchloride that occurs in the presence of physiological NO and O(2)(-) concentrations contributes to protein nitration. Overall, our data demonstrate that T. cruzi-induced neutrophil activation is pathological and contributes to MPO-mediated collateral protein oxidative and nitrosative damage in human patients with Chagas' disease. Therapies capable of suppressing MPO activity may be useful in controlling the inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative pathology in chagasic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19297613

Dhiman, Monisha; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo; Pando, Jasmine M; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J; Spratt, Heidi; Vazquez-Corzo, Sara; Perez-Molina, Gladys; Gallegos-Sandoval, Rosa; Moreno, Roberto; Garg, Nisha Jain

2009-05-01

401

Chagas’ Disease: An Emergent Urban Zoonosis. The Caracas Valley (Venezuela) as an Epidemiological Model  

PubMed Central

The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas’ disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas’ disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases. PMID:25520950

Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

2014-01-01

402

Benznidazole microcrystal preparation by solvent change precipitation and in vivo evaluation in the treatment of Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Benznidazole (BNZ) is traditionally used to treat Chagas disease. Despite its common use, BNZ has a poor water solubility and a variable bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to prepare BNZ microcrystals by solvent change precipitation and to study the effects of BNZ micronisation on therapeutic efficiency using a murine model of Chagas disease. The solvent change precipitation procedure was optimised in order to obtain stable and homogeneous particles with a small particle size, high yield and fast dissolution rate. The thermal and crystallographic analysis showed no polymorphic change in the microcrystals, and microscopy confirmed a significant reduction in particle size. A marked improvement in the drug dissolution rate was observed for micronised BNZ particles and BNZ tablets in comparison with untreated BNZ and commercial Rochagan. In vivo studies showed a significant increase in the therapeutic efficacy of the BNZ microparticles, corroborating the dissolution results. PMID:21397015

Maximiano, Flávia Pires; de Paula, Lívia Maria; Figueiredo, Vivian Paulino; de Andrade, Isabel Mayer; Talvani, André; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

2011-08-01

403

Malaria as a disease and as a cultural perspective in Carlos Chagas' and Mário de Andrade's travels to the Amazon.  

PubMed

Two journeys have had an important bearing on social thought regarding the Amazon: Carlos Chagas', from 1912 to 1913, and Mário de Andrade's, in 1927. The article examines how their travel experiences influenced these two men's views and interpretations of the relation between malaria and the project to bring civilization to the tropics. In Chagas' texts, wonderment is the category that organizes his perception of the Amazon region, evinced in the idea that the pathology of the tropics challenges established knowledge of the disease. Empathy, on the other hand, is the explanatory key to understanding Mário de Andrade's critical outlook, which entails the valorization of forms of sociability, beliefs, and popular manifestations in the region, including those related to malaria. PMID:24141914

Lima, Nísia Trindade; Botelho, André

2013-01-01

404

Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 causes discoloration and pitting of mushroom caps due to the production of antifungal metabolites.  

PubMed

Bacteria in the diverse Pseudomonas fluorescens group include rhizosphere inhabitants known for their antifungal metabolite production and biological control of plant disease, such as Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, and mushroom pathogens, such as Pseudomonas tolaasii. Here, we report that strain Pf-5 causes brown, sunken lesions on peeled caps of the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) that resemble brown blotch symptoms caused by P. tolaasii. Strain Pf-5 produces six known antifungal metabolites under the control of the GacS/GacA signal transduction system. A gacA mutant produces none of these metabolites and did not cause lesions on mushroom caps. Mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of the antifungal metabolites 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin caused less-severe symptoms than wild-type Pf-5 on peeled mushroom caps, whereas mutants deficient in the production of lipopeptide orfamide A caused similar symptoms to wild-type Pf-5. Purified pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol mimicked the symptoms caused by Pf-5. Both compounds were isolated from mushroom tissue inoculated with Pf-5, providing direct evidence for their in situ production by the bacterium. Although the lipopeptide tolaasin is responsible for brown blotch of mushroom caused by P. tolaasii, P. protegens Pf-5 caused brown blotch-like symptoms on peeled mushroom caps through a lipopeptide-independent mechanism involving the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and pyoluteorin. PMID:24742073

Henkels, Marcella D; Kidarsa, Teresa A; Shaffer, Brenda T; Goebel, Neal C; Burlinson, Peter; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Bentley, Michael A; Rangel, Lorena I; Davis, Edward W; Thomashow, Linda S; Zabriskie, T Mark; Preston, Gail M; Loper, Joyce E

2014-07-01

405

In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).  

PubMed

Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory. PMID:23557368

Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

2013-01-01

406

Potential novel risk factors for autochthonous and sylvatic transmission of human Chagas disease in the United States  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an emerging vector-borne disease in the United States that causes progressive dilated cardiomyopathy in a third of infected humans. While transmission studies have been performed in Latin America, little is known about the source of infection in locally acquired cases in the United States. This letter describes the underlying factors possibly leading to an increased risk of disease transmission among high-risk groups in the United States. PMID:24996479

2014-01-01

407

International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation.Methodology\\/FindingsAn international collaborative study

Alejandro G. Schijman; Margarita Bisio; Liliana Orellana; Mariela Sued; Tomás Duffy; Ana M. Mejia Jaramillo; Carolina Cura; Frederic Auter; Vincent Veron; Yvonne Qvarnstrom; Stijn Deborggraeve; Gisely Hijar; Inés Zulantay; Raúl Horacio Lucero; Elsa Velazquez; Tatiana Tellez; Zunilda Sanchez Leon; Lucia Galvão; Debbie Nolder; María Monje Rumi; José E. Levi; Juan D. Ramirez; Pilar Zorrilla; María Flores; Maria I. Jercic; Gladys Crisante; Néstor Añez; Ana M. De Castro; Clara I. Gonzalez; Karla Acosta Viana; Pedro Yachelini; Faustino Torrico; Carlos Robello; Patricio Diosque; Omar Triana Chavez; Christine Aznar; Graciela Russomando; Philippe Büscher; Azzedine Assal; Felipe Guhl; Sergio Sosa Estani; Alexandre DaSilva; Constança Britto; Alejandro Luquetti; Janis Ladzins

2011-01-01

408

Chagas Disease among the Latin American Adult Population Attending in a Primary Care Center in Barcelona, Spain  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The epidemiology of Chagas disease, until recently confined to areas of continental Latin America, has undergone considerable changes in recent decades due to migration to other parts of the world, including Spain. We studied the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin American patients treated at a health center in Barcelona and evaluated its clinical phase. We make some recommendations for screening for the disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed an observational, cross-sectional prevalence study by means of an immunochromatographic test screening of all continental Latin American patients over the age of 14 years visiting the health centre from October 2007 to October 2009. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological methods: conventional in-house ELISA (cELISA), a commercial kit (rELISA) and ELISA using T cruzi lysate (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics) (oELISA). Of 766 patients studied, 22 were diagnosed with T. cruzi infection, showing a prevalence of 2.87% (95% CI, 1.6–4.12%). Of the infected patients, 45.45% men and 54.55% women, 21 were from Bolivia, showing a prevalence in the Bolivian subgroup (n?=?127) of 16.53% (95% CI, 9.6–23.39%). All the infected patients were in a chronic phase of Chagas disease: 81% with the indeterminate form, 9.5% with the cardiac form and 9.5% with the cardiodigestive form. All patients infected with T. cruzi had heard of Chagas disease in their country of origin, 82% knew someone affected, and 77% had a significant history of living in adobe houses in rural areas. Conclusions We found a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in immigrants from Bolivia. Detection of T. cruzi–infected persons by screening programs in non-endemic countries would control non-vectorial transmission and would benefit the persons affected, public health and national health systems. PMID:21572511

Roca, Carme; Pinazo, María Jesús; López-Chejade, Paolo; Bayó, Joan; Posada, Elizabeth; López-Solana, Jordi; Gállego, Montserrat; Portús, Montserrat; Gascón, Joaquim

2011-01-01

409

Ruthenium Complex with Benznidazole and Nitric Oxide as a New Candidate for the Treatment of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease remains a serious medical and social problem in Latin America and is an emerging concern in nonendemic countries as a result of population movement, transfusion of infected blood or organs and congenital transmission. The current treatment of infected patients is unsatisfactory due to strain-specific drug resistance and the side effects of the current medications. For this reason, the discovery of safer and more effective chemotherapy is mandatory for the successful treatment and future eradication of Chagas disease. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of a ruthenium complex with benznidazole and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2) against Trypanosoma cruzi both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated that RuBzNO2 was more effective than the same concentrations of benznidazole (Bz) in eliminating both the extracellular trypomastigote and the intracellular amastigote forms of the parasite, with no cytotoxic effect in mouse cells. In vivo treatment with the compound improved the survival of infected mice, inhibiting heart damage more efficiently than Bz alone. Accordingly, tissue inflammation and parasitism was significantly diminished after treatment with RuBzNO2 in a more effective manner than that with the same concentrations of Bz. Conclusions The complexation of Bz with ruthenium and nitric oxide (RuBzNO2) increases its effectiveness against T. cruzi and enables treatment with lower concentrations of the compound, which may reduce the side effects of Bz. Our findings provide a new potential candidate for the treatment of Chagas disease. PMID:25275456

Sesti-Costa, Renata; Carneiro, Zumira A.; Silva, Maria C.; Santos, Maíta; Silva, Grace K.; Milanezi, Cristiane; da Silva, Roberto S.; Silva, João S.

2014-01-01

410

T. cruzi OligoC-TesT: A Simplified and Standardized Polymerase Chain Reaction Format for Diagnosis of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background PCR has evolved into one of the most promising tools for T. cruzi detection in the diagnosis and control of Chagas disease. However, general use of the technique is hampered by its complexity and the lack of standardization. Methodology We here present the development and phase I evaluation of the T. cruzi OligoC-TesT, a simple and standardized dipstick format for detection of PCR amplified T. cruzi DNA. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were evaluated on blood samples from 60 Chagas non-endemic and 48 endemic control persons and on biological samples from 33 patients, 7 reservoir animals, and 14 vectors collected in Chile. Principal Findings The lower detection limits of the T. cruzi OligoC-TesT were 1 pg and 1 to 10 fg of DNA from T. cruzi lineage I and II, respectively. The test showed a specificity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 96.6%–100%) on the control samples and a sensitivity of 93.9% (95% CI: 80.4%–98.3%), 100% (95% CI: 64.6%–100%), and 100% (95% CI: 78.5%–100%) on the human, rodent, and vector samples, respectively. Conclusions The T. cruzi OligoC-TesT showed high sensitivity and specificity on a diverse panel of biological samples. The new tool is an important step towards simplified and standardized molecular diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:19503815

Deborggraeve, Stijn; Coronado, Ximena; Solari, Aldo; Zulantay, Ines; Apt, Werner; Mertens, Pascal; Laurent, Thierry; Leclipteux, Thierry; Stessens, Tim; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Herdewijn, Piet; Büscher, Philippe

2009-01-01

411

Tumor Necrosis Factor Is a Therapeutic Target for Immunological Unbalance and Cardiac Abnormalities in Chronic Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease  

PubMed Central

Background. Chagas disease (CD) is characterized by parasite persistence and immunological unbalance favoring systemic inflammatory profile. Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, the main manifestation of CD, occurs in a TNF-enriched milieu and frequently progresses to heart failure. Aim of the Study. To challenge the hypothesis that TNF plays a key role in Trypanosoma cruzi-induced immune deregulation and cardiac abnormalities, we tested the effect of the anti-TNF antibody Infliximab in chronically T. cruzi-infected C57BL/6 mice, a model with immunological, electrical, and histopathological abnormalities resembling Chagas' heart disease. Results. Infliximab therapy did not reactivate parasite but reshaped the immune response as reduced TNF mRNA expression in the cardiac tissue and plasma TNF and IFN? levels; diminished the frequency of IL-17A+ but increased IL-10+ CD4+ T-cells; reduced TNF+ but augmented IL-10+ Ly6C+ and F4/80+ cells. Further, anti-TNF therapy decreased cytotoxic activity but preserved IFN?-producing VNHRFTLV-specific CD8+ T-cells in spleen and reduced the number of perforin+ cells infiltrating the myocardium. Importantly, Infliximab reduced the frequency of mice afflicted by arrhythmias and second degree atrioventricular blocks and decreased fibronectin deposition in the cardiac tissue. Conclusions. Our data support that TNF is a crucial player in the pathogenesis of Chagas' heart disease fueling immunological unbalance which contributes to cardiac abnormalities. PMID:25140115

Pereira, Isabela Resende; Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Silva, Andrea Alice; Moreira, Otacilio Cruz; Britto, Constança; Sarmento, Ellen Diana Marinho

2014-01-01

412

Starch concentrations in log-grown shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) mushrooms have a reputation as a healthy food, in part from the abundance of different polysaccharides that may have functional food activities. Polysaccharide content of shiitake and shiitake-derived products are being utilized as a promotional tool to hea...

413

Dietary supplementation with white button mushroom augments the protective immune response to Salmonella vaccine in mice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We previously showed that dietary white button mushrooms (WBM) enhanced natural killer cell activity and that in vitro WBM supplementation promotes maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC). The current study investigated whether WBM consumption would enhance pathogen-specific immune response ...

414

Folate composition of ten types of mushrooms determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

White button, crimini, shiitake, maitake, enoki, oyster, chanterelle, morel, portabella, and uv-treated portabella mushrooms were sampled from U.S. retail outlets and major producers. Folate (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5MTHF], 10-formyl folate [10FF], 5-formyltetrahydrofolate [5FTHF]) was analyzed u...

415

GC-MS studies of the chemical composition of two inedible mushrooms of the genus Agaricus  

PubMed Central

Background Mushrooms in the genus Agaricus have worldwide distribution and include the economically important species A. bisporus. Some Agaricus species are inedible, including A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, which are similar in appearance to certain edible species, yet are known to possess unpleasant odours and induce gastrointestinal problems if consumed. We have studied the chemical composition of these mushrooms using GC-MS. Results Our GC-MS studies on the volatile fractions and butanol extracts resulted in the identification of 44 and 34 compounds for A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, respectively, including fatty acids and their esters, amino acids, and sugar alcohols. The most abundant constituent in the volatiles and butanol were phenol and urea respectively. We also identified the presence of ergosterol and two ?7-sterols. In addition, 5?,8?-Epidioxi-24(?)-methylcholesta-6,22-diene-3?-ol was isolated for the first time from both mushrooms. Our study is therefore the first report on the chemical composition of these two species. Conclusion The results obtained contribute to the knowledge of the chemical composition of mushrooms belonging to the Agaricus genus, and provide some explanation for the reported mild toxicity of A. placomyces and A. pseudopratensis, a phenonomenon that can be explained by a high phenol content, similar to that found in other Xanthodermatei species. PMID:18096035

Petrova, Assya; Alipieva, Kalina; Kostadinova, Emanuela; Antonova, Daniela; Lacheva, Maria; Gjosheva, Melania; Popov, Simeon; Bankova, Vassya

2007-01-01

416

Inhibitory effects of medicinal mushrooms on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase - enzymes related to hyperglycemia.  

PubMed

In Asia, medicinal mushrooms have been popularly used as folk medicine and functional foods. In this study, our aim was to examine the inhibitory effects of six medicinal mushrooms on key enzymes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase) related to hyperglycemia; chemical profiles of bioactive extracts were also examined. The results showed that the n-hexane extract of Coriolus versicolor had the strongest anti-?-amylase activity, while the n-hexane extract of Grifola frondosa showed the most potent anti-?-glucosidase activity. Compared with acarbose, the anti-?-amylase activity of all mushroom extracts was weaker, however a stronger anti-?-glucosidase activity was noted. GC-MS analysis showed that the magnitude of potency of inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity varied with the levels of oleic acid and linoleic acid present in the extracts. These findings were consistent with the IC50 values of these free fatty acids on inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity. Taken together, this study suggests that oleic acid and linoleic acid could have contributed to the potent anti-?-glucosidase activity of selected medicinal mushrooms. PMID:23396484

Su, Chun-Han; Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean-Teik

2013-04-25

417

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation  

E-print Network

Genome sequence of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus reveals mechanisms governing adaptation. Aside from its ecological role, A. bisporus has been an important component of the human diet for over present two A. bisporus genomes, their gene repertoires and transcript profiles

Hibbett, David S.

418

eople have harvested mushrooms from the wild for thousands of years for food and  

E-print Network

weight and percentage of total production Percent increase 1986 1994 Agaricus bisporus (button) (X 1, with domestication efforts beginning centuries earlier. White button mush- rooms (Agaricus spp.), most familiar in the United States in the 1880s. Agaricus is the leading mushroom crop worldwide and accounted for 99 percent

O'Laughlin, Jay

419

Concentrations of 21 metals in 18 species of mushrooms growing in the East Black Sea region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen different species of wild mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus silvicola, Amanita muscaria, Amanita rubescens, Amanita vaginata, Boletus sp., Hydnum repandum, Hypholoma fasciculare, Laccaria lacceta, Lactarius piperatus, Lactarius sp., Lactarius volemus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Russula cyanoxantha, Russula sp., Russula delica, Russula foetens andTricholoma terreum) growing in the East Black Sea region were analyzed spectrometrically for their metal element (Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu,

Ayhan Demirba?

2001-01-01

420

Multiple headspace-solid-phase microextraction: an application to quantification of mushroom volatiles.  

PubMed

Multiple headspace-solid phase microextraction (MHS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and flame ionization detection (GC-FID) was applied to the identification and quantification of volatiles released by the mushroom Agaricus bisporus, also known as champignon. MHS-SPME allows to perform quantitative analysis of volatiles from solid matrices, free of matrix interferences. Samples analyzed were fresh mushrooms (chopped and homogenized) and mushroom-containing food dressings. 1-Octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one and benzaldehyde were common constituents of the samples analyzed. Method performance has been tested through the evaluation of limit of detection (LoD, range 0.033-0.078 ng), limit of quantification (LoQ, range 0.111-0.259 ng) and analyte recovery (92.3-108.5%). The results obtained showed quantitative differences among the samples, which can be attributed to critical factors, such as the degree of cell damage upon sample preparation, that are here discussed. Considerations on the mushrooms biochemistry and on the basic principles of MHS analysis are also presented. PMID:23498680

Costa, Rosaria; Tedone, Laura; De Grazia, Selenia; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

2013-04-01

421

Craterellus fallax, a Black Trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad host range  

E-print Network

SHORT NOTE Craterellus fallax, a Black Trumpet mushroom from eastern North America with a broad of Tsuga, Quercus, and possibly Castanea supports a broad host range in North America for the ECM symbiont complex are recorded from Europe, North America, Central America, South America, and Asia (Pilz et al

Matheny, P. Brandon

422

COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATION OF BETA-GLUCANS FROM SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fungal polysaccharides and glucans, including lentinan from shiitakes, have been identified as promoting human health, and consequently, the sale of mushroom-based health products has increased significantly in recent years. Reliable methods for the quantitation of lentinan must be available if shi...

423

Evaluation of Selected Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms for Antioxidant and ACE Inhibitory Activities.  

PubMed

Considering the importance of diet in prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases including hypertension, this study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities of selected culinary-medicinal mushrooms extracted by boiling in water for 30?min. Antioxidant capacity was measured using the following assays: DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ?-carotene bleaching, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power ability, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC). Antioxidant potential of each mushroom species was calculated based on the average percentages relative to quercetin and summarized as Antioxidant Index (AI). Ganoderma lucidum (30.1%), Schizophyllum commune (27.6%), and Hericium erinaceus (17.7%) showed relatively high AI. Total phenolics in these mushrooms varied between 6.19 to 63.51?mg GAE/g extract. In the ACE inhibitory assay, G. lucidum was shown to be the most potent species (IC(50) = 50??g/mL). Based on our findings, culinary-medicinal mushrooms can be considered as potential source of dietary antioxidant and ACE inhibitory agents. PMID:21716693

Abdullah, Noorlidah; Ismail, Siti Marjiana; Aminudin, Norhaniza; Shuib, Adawiyah Suriza; Lau, Beng Fye

2012-01-01

424

Host feeding, damage and control of the mushroom pest, Brennandania lambi (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pygmephoroid mite, Brennandania lambi (Krczal), is the most serious mite pest of mushroom production in Shanghai. China. This mite could not develop and reproduce on the mycelia of Lentinus edodes, Flammulina velutipes, Pleurotus ostreatus or Pleutotus sajor-caju, but 12–20% of the females survived 15 to 31 days on these hosts, whereas all mites died after 8 days in absence

Jufang Wu; Zhi-Qiang Zhang

1993-01-01

425

Mitogenic activity and immunological properties of bolesatine, a lectin isolated from the mushroom Boletus satanas Lenz.  

PubMed

1. A lectin has been purified from the mushroom Boletus satanas Lenz. 2. The protein, called bolesatine, is mitogenic for human T lymphocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner. 3. Optimal mitogenic doses induce the release of interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-2 from mononuclear cell cultures. PMID:8349019

Licastro, F; Morini, M C; Kretz, O; Dirheimer, G; Creppy, E E; Stirpe, F

1993-05-01

426

Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L.  

E-print Network

been associated with olfactory learning and memory. Here we used hydroxyurea (HU) to treat honeybee). They have been traditionally associated with olfactory learning and memory following studies principallyPartial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

427

Early Development of Mushroom Bodies in the Brain of the Honeybee Apis mellifera  

E-print Network

of mushroom bodies in olfactory learning and memory was subsequently more di- rectly investigated particularly their participation in nonas- sociative and associative olfactory learning. In LEARNING & MEMORY 5:90­101 © 1998 in Drosophila exhibit impaired olfactory learning and memory (Heisenberg et al. 1985; Davis and Dauwalder 1991

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

428

Learning and Memory Deficits upon TAU Accumulation in "Drosophila" Mushroom Body Neurons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mutations in the neuronal-specific microtubule-binding protein TAU are associated with several dementias and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effects of elevated TAU accumulation on behavioral plasticity are unknown. We report that directed expression of wild-type vertebrate and "Drosophila" TAU in adult mushroom body neurons, centers for…

Mershin, Andreas; Pavlopoulos, Elias; Fitch, Olivia; Braden, Brittany C.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.

2004-01-01

429

Ground Plan of the Insect Mushroom Body: Functional and Evolutionary Implications  

E-print Network

an indispens- able role in olfactory discrimination as well as in olfactory learning and memory (Heisenberg, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 ABSTRACT In most insects with olfactory glomeruli, each side of the brain possesses a mushroom body equipped with calyces supplied by olfactory projection neurons. Kenyon cells pro

Farris, Sarah M.

430

Metamorphosis of the Mushroom Bodies; Large-Scale Rearrangements of the Neural  

E-print Network

bodies (MBs) in olfactory asso- ciative learning and memory: Single-gene mutants selected for gross for Associative Learning and Memory in Drosophila J. Douglas Armstrong,1,4 J. Steven de Belle,2,3 Zongsheng Wang,1 by olfactory cues. Mushroom bodies have an embryonic origin, and unlike most other brain structures

de Belle, J. Steven

431

Roles for Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons in Olfactory Learning and Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli. However, the precise roles of the different neurons comprising the MBs are still under debate. The confusion surrounding the roles of the different neurons…

Zong, Lin; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.; Ito, Kei; Davis, Ronald L.; Akalal, David-Benjamin G.; Wilson, Curtis F.

2006-01-01

432

Detection of Calcium Transients in Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons with Camgaroo Reporters  

E-print Network

Detection of Calcium Transients in Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons with Camgaroo Reporters Dinghui as transgenically encoded calcium sensors in behaving animals. We expressed two versions of camgaroo in Drosophila- izationofbrainsexpressingthereportersproducesarobustincreaseinfluorescencethatisblockedbyremovingextracellularcalciumor by antagonists of voltage-dependent calcium channels. The fluorescence increase

Tsien, Roger Y.

433

Tissue Printing to Visualize Polyphenol Oxidase and Peroxidase in Vegetables, Fruits, and Mushrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple tissue-printing procedure to determine the tissue location of the endogenous enzymes polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase in a variety of vegetables, fruits, and mushrooms is described. In tissue printing, cell contents from the surface of a cut section of the tissue are transferred to an adsorptive surface, commonly a nitrocellulose…

Melberg, Amanda R.; Flurkey, William H.; Inlow, Jennifer K.

2009-01-01

434

Effects of Spatial Dispersion on Reflection From Mushroom-Type Artificial Impedance Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent works have emphasized the role of spatial dispersion in wire media, and demonstrated that arrays of parallel metallic wires may behave very differently from a uniaxial local material with negative permittivity. Here, we investigate using local and non-local homogenization methods the effect of spatial dispersion on reflection from the mushroom structure introduced by Sievenpiper. The objective of the

Olli Luukkonen; Mário G. Silveirinha; Alexander B. Yakovlev; Constantin R. Simovski; Igor S. Nefedov; Sergei A. Tretyakov

2009-01-01

435

Lanostane-Type Triterpenes from the Mushroom Astraeus pteridis with Antituberculosis Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract of the Truffle-mimiking mushroom Astraeus pteridis led to the isolation and identification of three new (3-5) and two known (1, 2) lanostane triterpenes, and phenylalanine betaine (6). The structures of the isolates were elucidated based on 1D and 2D...

436

Experience-dependent plasticity in the mushroom bodies of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria (Megachilidae).  

PubMed

All members of the solitary bee species Osmia lignaria (the orchard bee) forage upon emergence from their natal nest cell. Conversely, in the honey bee, days-to-weeks of socially regulated behavioral development precede the onset of foraging. The social honey bee's behavioral transition to foraging is accompanied by neuroanatomical changes in the mushroom bodies, a region of the insect brain implicated in learning. If these changes were general adaptations to foraging, they should also occur in the solitary orchard bee. Using unbiased stereological methods, we estimated the volume of the major compartments of the mushroom bodies, the neuropil and Kenyon cell body region, in adult orchard bees. We compared the mushroom bodies of recently emerged bees with mature bees that had extensive foraging experience. To separate effects of general maturation from field foraging, some orchard bees were confined to a cage indoors. The mushroom body neuropil of experienced field foragers was significantly greater than that of both recently emerged and mature caged orchard bees, suggesting that, like the honey bee, this increase is driven by outdoor foraging experience. Unlike the honey bee, where increases in the ratio of neuropil to Kenyon cell region occur in the worker after emerging from the hive cell, the orchard bee emerged from the natal nest cell with a ratio that did not change with maturation and was comparable to honey-bee foragers. These results suggest that a common developmental endpoint may be reached via different development paths in social and solitary species of foraging bees. PMID:17918235

Withers, Ginger S; Day, Nancy F; Talbot, Emily F; Dobson, Heidi E M; Wallace, Christopher S

2008-01-01

437

The Steroid Hormone 20-Hydroxyecdysone Enhances Neurite Growth of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons Isolated during Metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom bodies (MBs) are symmetrically paired neuropils in the insect brain that are of critical importance for associative olfactory learning and memory. In Drosophila melanogaster, the MB intrinsic neurons (Kenyon cells) undergo extensive reorga- nization at the onset of metamorphosis. A phase of rapid axonal degeneration without cell death is followed by axonal regener- ation. This re-elaboration occurs as levels

Robert Kraft; Richard B. Levine; Linda L. Restifo

438

Mushroom and herb polysachariides as alternative for antimicrobial growth promotors in poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords : mushroom and herb polysaccharides, antimicrobial growth promoters, chickensAntibiotics are widely used as therapeutics agents and also as growth promoters in poultry production. The possibility of developing resistant populations of bacteria and the side effects of using antibiotics as growth promoters in the farm animals has led to the recent EU-ban on the use of several antibiotics as growth

F. Guo