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1

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated

Seung-Shi Ham; Soo-Hyun Kim; Sun-Young Moon; Mi Ja Chung; Cheng-Bi Cui; Eun-Kyung Han; Cha-Kwon Chung; Myeon Choe

2009-01-01

2

Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 ?g/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 ?g/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 ?g/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 ?g/plate) and B(?)P (10 ?g/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(?)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(?)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3?-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

2009-01-01

3

A comparative study of analytical methods for alkali-soluble ?-glucan in medicinal mushroom, Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ?-glucan content in the medicinal mushroom Chaga (Inonotus obliquus) was measured by different extraction and analytical methods, and the results were compared. The alkali extraction (AE) method or enzymatic digestion (ED) method followed by a gravimetric analysis was employed to determine the crude ?-glucan content. The amount of crude ?-glucan in Chaga obtained by either AE or ED was

Sook Jong Rhee; Seung Yong Cho; Ki Myong Kim; Dong-Su Cha; Hyun-Jin Park

2008-01-01

4

Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME. PMID:20041791

Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

2009-12-01

5

Effect of steam treatment on soluble phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the Chaga mushroom ( Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of steam treatment on free phenolic acids in Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) was investigated. Untreated and steam-treated (120°C, 3h) samples of I. obliquus were extracted with organic solvents and free phenolic acid-containing fractions were isolated. Free phenolic acids were determined by LC\\/PDA (liquid chromatography\\/photodiode array), ESI LC\\/MS (electrospray ionisation liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry), and GC\\/MS (gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry). After

Hyun Kyoung Ju; Ha Wook Chung; Soon-Sun Hong; Jeong Hill Park; Jeongmi Lee; Sung Won Kwon

2010-01-01

6

Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149? kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and PPAR? (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ?) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPAR? target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPAR? and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPAR? ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPAR? transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21031614

Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

2010-11-01

7

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

2008-01-01

8

Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.  

PubMed

Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. PMID:17012771

Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

2006-01-01

9

Antioxidant Activity of Subcritical Water Extracts from Chaga Mushroom (Inonotus obliquus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcritical water (SCW) extraction of Chaga mushroom (CM) was carried out at various temperatures (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C) and times (10, 30, and 60 min), and then antioxidant activities of the SCW extracts were evaluated by determining 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, reducing power (RP), superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity, and total

Hye-Kyung Seo; Seung-Cheol Lee

2010-01-01

10

[A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus].  

PubMed

The chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains a wide range of excellent bioactive compounds. However, limited information exists on the antiviral activity of the compounds extracted from chaga. A number of subfractions of chaga were obtained using different solvents and different procedures. The subfractions of chaga extracted with water, alcohol, alkali were tested for their toxicity for the Vero cell culture and antiviral effect in the Vero cells infected with the Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Type 1. It was shown that most of the subfractions were not toxic for the Vero cells and had protective effect on the Vero cells infected with HSV. The subfraction IV in the concentration 5 microg/ml protected the Vero cells from cytodestructive action of HSV and no viral DNA was detected in infected cells treated with chaga extracts. Best protective effect was observed when compound was added before or within one hour after the Vero cells were infected with HSV. PMID:25069286

Polkovnikova, M V; Nosik, N N; Garaev, T M; Kondrashina, N G; Finogenova, M P; Shibnev, V A

2014-01-01

11

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and

In-Kyoung Lee; Young-Sook Kim; Yoon-Woo Jang; Jin-Young Jung; Bong-Sik Yun

2007-01-01

12

Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.  

PubMed

In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines. PMID:24380885

Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

2014-01-01

13

Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 ?g/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 ?g/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics. PMID:23510282

Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

2013-01-01

14

Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent. PMID:22135889

Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

15

New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion. PMID:17980585

Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

2007-12-15

16

Preparation of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus-fermented rice using solid-state fermentation and its taste quality and antioxidant property.  

PubMed

Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilat, was inoculated into cooked embryo rice and the mycelial growth in I. obliquus-fermented embryo rice (IER) was monitored. Besides, nonvolatile taste components and antioxidant properties of fruiting bodies, mycelia, IER, and embryo rice were studied. The optimal conditions for mycelial growth were determined to be: 30°C, an inoculation rate of 1 mL/15 g, water supplementation of 60%, and no extra nitrogen source added. IER showed similar proximate composition to embryo rice but contained a substantial amount of ergothioneine (101 mg/kg dry weight). IER contained higher amounts of soluble sugars and polyols, and umami taste components, including monosodium glutamate (MSG)-like components and flavor 5'-nucleotides, than embryo rice. Besides, IER showed a second level of equivalent umami concentrations (223.73 g MSG/100 g). Fruiting bodies did not contain umami components but showed the most effective antioxidant properties. Although some of EC50 values of IER were less than those of mycelia and embryo rice, IER still showed effective antioxidant properties. Based on the results obtained, IER will be a novel functional food. PMID:23510252

Lin, Shin-Yi; Yeh, Chan-Chun; Liang, Chih-Hung; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

17

Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.  

PubMed

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

2010-06-01

18

Chaga mushroom extract inhibits oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes as assessed by comet assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) is claimed to have beneficial properties for human health, such as anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The antioxidant effects of the mushroom may be partly explained by protection of cell components against free radicals. We evaluated the effect of aqueous Chaga mushroom extracts for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in

Yoo Kyoung Park; Hyang Burm Lee; Eun-Jae Jeon; Hack Sung Jung; Myung-Hee Kanga

2004-01-01

19

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga ( Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular

Yuki Nakajima; Hiroshi Nishida; Yutaka Nakamura; Tetsuya Konishi

2009-01-01

20

Inhibitory effects of a polysaccharide extract from the Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), on the proliferation of human neurogliocytoma cells.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory roles of a polysaccharide extract from Inonotus obliquus on U251 human neurogliocytoma cells cultured in vitro. After administering the polysaccharide extract from I. obliquus to U251 cells cultivated in vitro, methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay was performed to measure the inhibitory effects of the extract on tumor cell proliferation. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. Different concentrations of I. obliquus extract (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 µg/mL) were added to U251 cells at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay showed that the inhibition ratio increased with increased extract concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract sharply decreased the expression of Bcl-2 but dramatically increased the expression of caspase-3. This function was gradually enhanced with increased drug concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. This inhibition function is closely related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and the upregulation of caspase-3. PMID:24940902

Ning, Xianbin; Luo, Qi; Li, Chuang; Ding, Zhaoyi; Pang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Changfu

2014-01-01

21

In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus. PMID:22135888

Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

2011-01-01

22

Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study. PMID:17666849

Nakajima, Yuki; Sato, Yuzo; Konishi, Tetsuya

2007-08-01

23

Chaga mushroom-induced oxalate nephropathy.  

PubMed

Chaga mushrooms have been used in folk and botanical medicine as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones. A 72-year-old Japanese female had been diagnosed with liver cancer 1 year prior to presenting at our department. She underwent hepatectomy of the left lobe 3 months later. Chaga mushroom powder (4 - 5 teaspoons per day) had been ingested for the past 6 months for liver cancer. Renal function decreased and hemodialysis was initiated. Renal biopsy specimens showed diffuse tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Oxalate crystals were detected in the tubular lumina and urinary sediment and oxalate nephropathy was diagnosed. Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations. This is the first report of a case of oxalate nephropathy associated with ingestion of Chaga mushrooms. PMID:23149251

Kikuchi, Yuko; Seta, Koichi; Ogawa, Yayoi; Takayama, Tatsuya; Nagata, Masao; Taguchi, Takashi; Yahata, Kensei

2014-06-01

24

Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory. PMID:21779570

Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

2011-06-01

25

Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].  

PubMed

Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells. PMID:19627197

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-06-01

26

Tetracyclic triterpenes from Inonotus Obliquus (Pers.) Pil. (Chaga) growing in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tetracyclic triterpene content of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) growing in Russia was investigated for the first time. Lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol were isolated from the\\u000a non-phenolic fraction. In addition, trametenolic acid was isolated from fraction III, which was prepared by extraction from\\u000a diethylether solution with 5% NaOH.

E. N. Zhukovich; M. Yu. Semenova; L. A. Sharikova; T. F. Pribytkova

2010-01-01

27

Effect of drying method on the moisture sorption isotherms for Inonotus obliquus mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture sorption isotherms of Inonotus obliquus mushroom were studied over a selected temperature range (20–50°C). Sigmoid sorption isotherms were observed for these samples. The sorption data were analyzed using various conventional models. The Oswin model was found to be the best model for predicting the equilibrium moisture content of mushroom in the range of water activity 0.08–0.96. The monolayer moisture

Jun Ho Lee; Min Ji Lee

2008-01-01

28

Acute Toxicity Evaluation and Compositional Analysis of a Polysaccharide from the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water-soluble polysaccharide (IOPS) was isolated from the Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat, which was a medicinal mushroom with many health-benefiting functions. The chemical composition and acute toxicity of IOPS was investigated in order to determine the possibility of using them for human consumption. Chemical analysis of IOPS showed that it was a nonstarch protein bounded acidic polysaccharide. The protein, neutral

Haixia Chen; Lingling Fu; Peng Dong; Xin Zhang; Xueming Lu

2009-01-01

29

Effect of different drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus is a kind of mushroom which has long been used as a folk remedy for curing various diseases such as cancers, heart disease and diabetes in Russian and Eastern Europe. Polysaccharides are one of the main bioactive constituents of Inonotus obliquus with health functions. Three drying methods, freeze drying, hot air drying and vacuum drying methods were comparatively

Lishuai Ma; Haixia Chen; Wenchai Zhu; Zhaoshuai Wang

30

Inhibitory effect of chaga mushroom extract on compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock and IgE production in mice.  

PubMed

Chaga mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus) are hypothesised to exhibit general immune-potentiating, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, but their anti-allergic activities are not fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether a chaga mushroom extract (C-HE) might have anti-allergic activity. This activity was assessed through the levels of the IgE Ab produced in response to an allergen (OVA). The administration of C-HE prophylactically inhibited the systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice. The oral administration of C-HE significantly reduced the total IgE levels in mice and slightly affected the production of IgG1. Furthermore, spleen cell cultures harvested from OVA-sensitised mice that had received C-HE orally showed a significant increase in Th1-derived responses (IFN-? production). Therefore, our results suggest that the chaga mushroom extract may be used as an anti-allergic functional food. PMID:23535020

Yoon, Taek Joon; Lee, Sue Jung; Kim, Eun Young; Cho, Eun Hee; Kang, Tae Bong; Yu, Kwang-Won; Suh, Hyung Joo

2013-04-01

31

Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-? was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-? related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

2005-01-01

32

Prevention of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells by 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone isolated from Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat).  

PubMed

Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat) is a mushroom traditionally used as a folk medicine for tumors and stomach ulcers in Russia. Previously, we reported the antioxidant potential of Chaga extracts and seven isolated phenolic ingredients. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of Chaga extracts and other isolated phenolic ingredients against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leads to oxidative stress and subsequent damage of cellular and nuclear components. Chaga extracts and the phenolic ingredients, 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL) and caffeic acid (CA), effectively suppressed intracellular ROS level in H(2)O(2)-treated cells. The H(2)O(2)-induced cell death was more pronounced, effectively prevented in the cells treated with DBL than in cells treated with CA. In addition, ROS activate various signal transduction pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Therefore, we examined the potentially beneficial effects of DBL on extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38-MAPK signaling activated by H(2)O(2) stimulation. DBL selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, without affecting JNK and ERK. PMID:19647072

Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yutaka; Konishi, Tetsuya

2009-10-15

33

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

34

Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-?B luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application. PMID:23561137

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

2013-08-15

35

Progress on understanding the anticancer mechanisms of medicinal mushroom: inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Recently, the demand for more effective and safer therapeutic agents for the chemoprevention of human cancer has increased. As a white rot fungus, Inonotus obliquus is valued as an edible and medicinal resource. Chemical investigations have shown that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Importantly, their anticancer activities have become a hot recently, but with relatively little knowledge of their modes of action. Some compounds extracted from I. obliquus arrest cancer cells in the G0/G1 phase and then induce cell apoptosis or differentiation, whereas some examples directly participate in the cell apoptosis pathway. In other cases, polysaccharides from I. obliquus can indirectly be involved in anticancer processes mainly via stimulating the immune system. Furthermore, the antioxidative ability of I. obliquus extracts can prevent generation of cancer cells. In this review, we highlight recent findings regarding mechanisms underlying the anticancer influence of I. obliquus, to provide a comprehensive landscape view of the actions of this mushroom in preventing cancer. PMID:23679238

Song, Fu-Qiang; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiang-Shi; Chang, Wei; Song, Ge

2013-01-01

36

Anti-inflammatory effect of Inonotus obliquus, Polygala senega L., and Viburnum trilobum in a cell screening assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe purpose of the study was to assess the anti-inflammatory effects of the mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Chaga), Polygala senega (Senega) and Viburnum trilobum (Cranberry) bark extract fractions from locally produced materials in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced murine macrophage RAW 164.7 cells.

Q. Van; B. N. Nayak; M. Reimer; P. J. H. Jones; R. G. Fulcher; C. B. Rempel

2009-01-01

37

Comparison of Hypoglycemic Activity of Fermented Mushroom of Inonotus obliquus Rich in Vanadium and Wild-Growing I. obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg\\/g\\u000a in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1\\/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg\\/g level\\u000a is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those

Yibing Zhang; Yong Zhao; Haifeng Cui; Chunyu Cao; Jianyou Guo; Sha Liu

38

Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.  

PubMed

The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p?

Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

2011-12-01

39

Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the extraction and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from Inonotus obliquus. Ethanol extract from I. obliquus ASI 74006 mycelia showed the highest platelet aggregation inhibitory activity (81.2%). The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of I. obliquus ASI 74006 was extracted with ethanol at 80°C for 12h. The platelet aggregation inhibitor

Kwang Wook Hyun; Seung Chan Jeong; Dae Hyoung Lee; Jeong Sik Park; Jong Soo Lee

2006-01-01

40

Comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from chaga ( Inonotus obliquus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional extraction of biologically active compounds from a chaga shred has been carried out after completion of the aqueous\\u000a extraction. The extraction was carried out using ethanol. We have shown that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts\\u000a and their components is higher than that of the aqueous extracts.

M. A. Sysoeva; L. R. Yumaeva; V. S. Gamayurova; G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; F. G. Khalitov

2010-01-01

41

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells, and exposure to the EE resulted in the induction of apoptosis, whereas no apoptosis was observed in DLD-1 cells exposed to the hot water extracts (HWEs). HWE at 70 degrees C (HWE70) exhibited the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (EC50, 126 microg/ml), whereas the EE showed the weakest activity (EC50, 224 microg/ml). The different biological activities among the four extracts may be attributed to differences in their chemical composition, partially supported by polysaccharide, protein and phenolic content, and the 1H-NMR spectra. PMID:19147108

Hu, Honghai; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Sugiura, Norio

2009-01-01

42

Isolation and characterization of a novel platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from the medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study describes the extraction and characterization of a platelet aggregation inhibitory peptide from Inonotus obliquus. Ethanol extract from I. obliquus ASI 74006 mycelia showed the highest platelet aggregation inhibitory activity (81.2%). The maximum platelet aggregation inhibitory activity was found when the mycelia of I. obliquus ASI 74006 was extracted with ethanol at 80 degrees C for 12 h. The platelet aggregation inhibitor was purified by systematic solvent fractionation, ultrafiltration, Sephadex G-10 column chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. The purified platelet aggregation inhibitor is a novel tripeptide with a molecular mass of 365 Da, having a sequence of Trp-Gly-Cys. The purified platelet aggregation inhibitor also showed high platelet aggregation inhibitory activity in Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. PMID:16289471

Hyun, Kwang Wook; Jeong, Seung Chan; Lee, Dae Hyoung; Park, Jeong Sik; Lee, Jong Soo

2006-06-01

43

Chemical modification and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from mushroom Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Chemical modification polysaccharides exerted potent biological property which was related to the physicochemical properties. In the present study, polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus were modified by suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of I. obliquus polysaccharide (IOPS) and its derivatives were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, infrared spectra and circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were differed each other after the chemical modification of suflation, acetylation and carboxymethylation. Among the three derivatives, acetylationed polysaccharide (Ac-IOPS) resulted in lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Ac-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for human consumption. PMID:24750732

Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ning; Fu, Lingling

2012-06-20

44

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The mushroom Inonotus obliquus(Fr.) Pil ´ at (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic

Yong Cui; Dong-seok Kim; Kyoung-chan Park

2005-01-01

45

Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had

Yong Cui; Dong-Seok Kim; Kyoung-Chan Park

2005-01-01

46

[Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].  

PubMed

Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

2013-01-01

47

Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds". PMID:20635536

Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

2010-01-01

48

Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of fungal poisoning varies a lot in a global perspective and it is related to local habits, economic factors and lifestyle. Among thousands of mushroom species fewer than a hundred are toxic. Most fungal toxins cause mild or moderate poisoning. It is, however, the ingestion of a few species of extremely poisonous fungi that define the medical dimension

Hans Persson

2007-01-01

49

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely\\u000a forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called ‘Chaga’. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an

Weifa Zheng; Kangjie Miao; Yubing Liu; Yanxia Zhao; Meimei Zhang; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai

2010-01-01

50

Chemical and medicobiological properties of chaga (review)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of chaga (Inonotus obliquus) are reviewed. The possible mechanisms of action and factors responsible for the discrepancy of data available in the literature\\u000a are discussed. The physical and chemical characteristics of melanin (polyphenolic chromogenic humin-like complex present in\\u000a chaga) and its role in the regulation of physiological processes are considered.

M. Ya. Shashkina; P. N. Shashkin; A. V. Sergeev

2006-01-01

51

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200mg\\/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute

Young-Mi Park; Jong-Heon Won; Yang-Hee Kim; Jong-Won Choi; Hee-Juhn Park; Kyung-Tae Lee

2005-01-01

52

Enhanced phenolic antioxidants production in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. It is currently ascribed to a number of phenolic compounds as well as triterpenoids and polysaccharides responsible for significant biological and pharmacological properties. A study was conducted to determine the effects of inclusion of lignocellulosic material, in this case corn stover

Xiangqun Xu; Jinwei Zhu

2011-01-01

53

Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.  

PubMed

The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture. PMID:22484608

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2012-06-01

54

Effect of the Inonotus Obliquus Polysaccharides on Blood Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress of Rats Fed High-Fat Diet In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus Obliquus is a medicinal mushroom that is widely used in folk medicine in Russia, North Europe and China. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hypolipidemic capacities of Inonotus Obliquus polysaccharides(IOP). In vivo, the hyperlipidemic rats, induced by high-fat diet, were provided 100, 200, 500 mg\\/kg day of IOP for 8 weeks to evaluate their

Liya Liang; Zesheng Zhang; Wei Sun; Yuben Wang

2009-01-01

55

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS, attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in order to make Inonotus obliquus obtain effective exploitation and satisfy people's demands. PMID:19407959

Zhong, Xiu-hong; Ren, Kuang; Lu, Shi-jie; Yang, Shu-yan; Sun, Dong-zhi

2009-04-01

56

Amino acid composition of some Tanzanian wild mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen known amino acids, including the essential ones except isoleucine, were identified in the Tanzanian wild mushroom species Boletus pruinatus (Fr. & HÖK), Boletinus cavipes (Opat.) Kalchbr., Cantharellus cibarius (Fr.) Fr., Inonotus sp. cf. obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil., Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst, Agaricus sp. (L. ex Fr.), Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Sing., Lactarius sp. aff. pseudovolemus Heim., Russula hiemisilvae

Stephen J. M. Mdachi; Mayunga H. H. Nkunya; Vitus A. Nyigo; Isai T. Urasa

2004-01-01

57

Progress of research on Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus has high nutritional and medicinal value, especially in treating malignant tumors, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and AIDS,\\u000a attracting significant attention from scholars in recent years. In this paper, the biological characteristics, chemical composition\\u000a and pharmacologic effects of Inonotus obliquus were summarized. And the applications in medicine and food were introduced. Future research on Inonotus obliquus was also discussed in

Xiu-hong Zhong; Kuang Ren; Shi-jie Lu; Shu-yan Yang; Dong-zhi Sun

2009-01-01

58

Styrylpyrone-class compounds from medicinal fungi Phellinus and Inonotus spp., and their medicinal importance.  

PubMed

Members of the genera Phellinus and Inonotus, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus are well-known medicinal fungi (mushrooms) and have been used in treatment of cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections and ulcer. Adverse effects of these medicinal mushrooms have not yet been reported, indicating the safe nature of these mushrooms. Polysaccharides, particularly ?-glucan, are considered the compounds responsible for the biological activity of medicinal mushrooms. However, there is only a limited amount of evidence to indicate that polysaccharides are in fact responsible for the biological effects of these medicinal mushrooms. Recently, many research groups have begun identification of active low-MW compounds in medicinal mushrooms, with a focus on the yellow polyphenol pigments, which are composed of a styrylpyrone class of compounds. Interestingly, a representative group of medicinal fungi, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus were shown to produce a large and diverse range of styrylpyrone-type polyphenol pigments that exhibited various biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-diabetic, anti-dementia and anti-viral effects. Styrylpyrone pigments in mushrooms are thought to have a role similar to that of flavonoids in plants. The unique and unprecedented carbon skeleton of fused styrylpyrone might be an attractive molecular scaffold for pharmacological applications. In this review, the structural diversity, biological effects and biogenesis of styrylpyrone-class polyphenols from medicinal fungi are described. PMID:21304532

Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

2011-05-01

59

New lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsutriols D, and E, from Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsutriols D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) Pil. (Japanese name: kabanoanatake; Russian name: chaga). Their structures were determined to be lanost-8-ene-3?,22R,24R-triol (1) and lanost-8-ene-3?,22R,24S-triol (2) on the basis of spectral data, including 2D NMR analysis. In addition, major compounds, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), 3?-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-al (5), 21-hydroxylanosterol

Reiko Tanaka; Misaki Toyoshima; Takeshi Yamada

2011-01-01

60

Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1'-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H(2)O(2)-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20?g/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

2012-01-01

61

Chagas disease  

MedlinePLUS

... immigration, the disease also affects people in the United States. Risk factors for Chagas disease include: Living in a hut where reduvid bugs live in the walls Living in Central or South America Poverty Receiving a blood transfusion from a person who ...

62

ANALYSIS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method.

WITOLD MAZURKIEWICZ

2006-01-01

63

Analysis of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Water-soluble melanin complexes were extracted with hot water from Inonotus obliquus fungus. They were characterized before and after reaction with diluted hydrochloric acid. The organic components as products of degradation of melanin complexes were separated by column chromatography and analyzed by GC-MS method. PMID:17438866

Mazurkiewicz, Witold

2006-01-01

64

Mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We aimed to review characteristics of mushrooms and mushroom poisoning and compare clinical picture, laboratory data, treatment\\u000a modalities and prognostic factors in children with amanita intoxication and non-amanita mushroom poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We analyzed 39 pediatric patients through 1994–2004, retrospectively from the patient files and evaluated the patients in\\u000a two groups as patients with amanita intoxication and patients with non-amanita mushroom poisoning.

M. Erguven; O. Yilmaz; M. Deveci; N. Aksu; F. Dursun; M. Pelit; N. Cebeci

2007-01-01

65

Antitumor and immunomodulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been used as a folk remedy for a long time in Russia and East-European countries to treat gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In our study, a water-soluble polysaccharide (ISP2a) was successfully purified from I. obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. In vivo ISP2a had not only shown antitumor activity, but also could significantly enhance the immune response of tumor-bearing mice. In addition, ISP2a significantly enhanced the lymphocyte proliferation and increased the production of TNF-?. Results of these studies demonstrated that ISP2a had a potential application as natural antitumor agent with immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22840014

Fan, Liuping; Ding, Shaodong; Ai, Lianzhong; Deng, Kequan

2012-10-01

66

Melanin complex of the fungus Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungusInonotus obliquus (Pers.) Pil. synthesized high-molecular-weight phenolic pigments that were assigned to melanins according to their physicochemical\\u000a properties. It was shown that copper ions (0.008%), pyrocatechol (1.0 mM), and tyrosine (20.0 mM) stimulated melanogenesis.\\u000a The production of melanin correlated with the synthesis ofo- andp-diphenoloxidases. The fungal melanin had strong antioxidant and genoprotective effects.

V. G. Babitskaya; V. V. Shcherba; N. V. Lkonnikova

2000-01-01

67

Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3?,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3?,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal

Tomoko Nakata; Takeshi Yamada; Sayaka Taji; Hirofumi Ohishi; Shun-ichi Wada; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuo Sakuma; Reiko Tanaka

2007-01-01

68

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

2008-01-01

69

Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

2008-12-01

70

Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

2010-07-01

71

Antimitotic activity of aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic effect of two aqueous extracts of Inonotus obliquus on human cervical uteri cancer cells (Hela S3) in vitro was evaluated. It was concluded that Inonotus extracts at a concentration of 10 micrograms/ml to 2000 micrograms/ml inhibited cancer cells growth. In cultures with extracts of the fungus a decrease of the cell proteins and mitotic index was observed. Moreover, the extracts disturbed mitoses by elevating the number of mitotic cells in metaphase. Aqueous extracts of Inonotus effected not only mitoses but also the 8/G phase of the cell cycle. PMID:8942059

Burczyk, J; Gawron, A; Slotwinska, M; Smietana, B; Terminska, K

1996-05-01

72

Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC?50 of 9.74 and 8.43??M, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3?,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a K I = K IS of 0.4??M on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13??M and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43??M), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a K I of 0.9??M, K IS of 0.5??M, and an IC50 of 7.25??M. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent. PMID:25197307

Yan, Zheng-Fei; Yang, Yang; Tian, Feng-Hua; Mao, Xin-Xin; Li, Yu; Li, Chang-Tian

2014-01-01

73

Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H?O?-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE?, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement. PMID:23917116

Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

2013-01-01

74

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF INONOTUS OBLIQUUS STRAINS BY RAPD GENETSKA ANALIZA NIZOVA INONOTUS OBLIQUUSA POMO)U METODE RAPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: RAPD profiling of eight Inonotus obliquus strains isolated from sclerotia collected from different areas of China was conducted to determine the genetic variabili- ty within this important medicinal fungus and to better define relationships between the genotype and geographi- cal origins of isolation. Twelve 10-mer primers generated a total of 167 stable and reproducible DNA fragments, of which 101

Yan-Qiu Chen; Xiao-Fan Guo; Chang-Tian Li

2007-01-01

75

Bioactive proteins from mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms have been used as food or medicine for thousands of years. Due to low-fat content and absence of cholesterol, many mushrooms are excellent sources of protein. There are various mushroom proteins with interesting biological activities, such as lectins, fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIP), ribosome inactivating proteins (RIP), ribonucleases, laccases, and other proteins, which have become popular sources of natural antitumor,

Xiaofei Xu; Huidan Yan; Jian Chen; Xuewu Zhang

2011-01-01

76

[Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].  

PubMed

Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparing mushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

1997-09-30

77

Hepatoprotective effects of mushrooms.  

PubMed

The particular characteristics of growth and development of mushrooms in nature result in the accumulation of a variety of secondary metabolites such as phenolic compounds, terpenes and steroids and essential cell wall components such as polysaccharides, b-glucans and proteins, several of them with biological activities. The present article outlines and discusses the available information about the protective effects of mushroom extracts against liver damage induced by exogenous compounds. Among mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum is indubitably the most widely studied species. In this review, however, emphasis was given to studies using other mushrooms, especially those presenting efforts of attributing hepatoprotective activities to specific chemical components usually present in the mushroom extracts. PMID:23884116

Soares, Andréia Assunço; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Bracht, Adelar; da Costa, Sandra Maria Gomes; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica; de Souza, Cristina Giatti Marques; Peralta, Rosane Marina

2013-01-01

78

In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200 mg/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activity, as determined by an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of MEIO, we examined its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. MEIO was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, MEIO potently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, MEIO inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and this was associated with the prevention of inhibitor kappaB degradation and a reduction in nuclear p65 protein levels. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of MEIO may be due to the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity. PMID:15905055

Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Kim, Yang-Hee; Choi, Jong-Won; Park, Hee-Juhn; Lee, Kyung-Tae

2005-10-01

79

Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Termitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

2012-01-01

80

Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their biological activities.  

PubMed

Seven new triterpenes, inonotusol A-G (1-7), one new diterpene, inonotusic acid (8), and 22 known compounds were isolated from Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) experiments. In in vitro assays, compounds 6 and 8-16 showed hepatoprotective effects against d-galactosamine-induced WB-F344 cell damage, with inhibitory effects from 34.4% to 81.2%. Compounds 7, 17, and 18 exhibited selective cytotoxicities against KB, Bel-7402, or A-549 cell lines. Compounds 16 and 17 showed inhibitory effects against protein tyrosine kinases, with IC50 values of 24.6 and 7.7 ?M, respectively. PMID:24359303

Liu, Chao; Zhao, Cui; Pan, Hong-Hui; Kang, Jie; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Wang, Hong-Qing; Li, Bao-Ming; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Chen, Ruo-Yun

2014-01-24

81

Modeling Mushroom Fairy Rings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes in a forest or yard, mushrooms seem magically to grow in circles, which we call "fairy rings". In this module, we develop simulations for the expansion and interactions of such mushroom fairy rings. After analyzing the system, formulating the model, and considering appropriate rules for the spreading of mushrooms, we create a simulation using the graphical computer algebra system Mathematica. Projects involve various refinements of the model.

Shiflet, Angela B.; Shiflet, George W.

82

MushroomExpert.Com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by amateur mycologist Dr. Michael Kuo with contributions from amateur and professional mycologists, MushroomExpert.Com is an excellent resource for a wide variety of mushroom enthusiasts. The site provides a genus and species index and search engine for detailed information on, and quality up-close photos of, over 330 North American Mushrooms. Individual species pages include brief sections on Habitat, Cap, Stem, and Microscopic Features-to name a few. The site also provides information for beginners, as well as sections on Studying Mushrooms, Edibility, a Morel Data Collection Project, and more.

Kuo, Michael

83

Polymyositis in Chagas's disease.  

PubMed Central

Polymyositis marked the clinical onset of Chagas's disease in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. This is unusual, although clinically unimportant muscle involvement in trypanosomiasis has been described. The plasma cell infiltrate and vascular deposition of IgM and C3 suggest that the humoral immune system may play a role in the pathogenesis of chagasic polymyositis. It is not known whether the rheumatoid diseases predisposed to the polymyositis. Images PMID:99092

Cossermelli, W; Friedman, H; Pastor, E H; Nobre, M R; Manzione, A; Camargo, M E; Shiroma, M

1978-01-01

84

Mushroom Poisoning-an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many thousands of mushroom species in the world, some are edible and some are poisonous due to containing significant toxins. The edible mushroom is a common food item with tempting flavour, taste and nutritive value; nowadays quite often grown at home and cultured with commercial marketing. Mushroom poisoning usually results from ingestion of wild mushrooms due to misidentification

B. S. Patowary

2010-01-01

85

Src kinase-targeted anti-inflammatory activity of davallialactone from Inonotus xeranticus in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 cells  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Mushrooms are popular both as food and as a source of natural compounds of biopharmaceutical interest. Some mushroom-derived compounds such as ?-glucan have been shown to be immunostimulatory; this study explores the anti-inflammatory properties of hispidin analogues derived from the mushroom, Inonotus xeranticus. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism of action of these hispidin analogues by determining their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses in a macrophage cell line. Experimental approach: The production of inflammatory mediators was determined by Griess assay, reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA. The inhibitory effect of davalliactone on LPS-induced activation of signalling cascades was assessed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation and direct kinase assay. Key results: In activated RAW264.7 cells, davallialactone strongly downregulated LPS-mediated inflammatory responses, including NO production, prostaglandin E2 release, expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cell surface expression of co-stimulatory molecules. Davallialactone treatment did not alter cell viability or morphology. Davallialactone was found to exert its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting a signalling cascade that activates nuclear factor kappa B via PI3K, Akt and IKK, but not mitogen-activated protein kinases. Treatment with davallialactone affected the phosphorylation of these signalling proteins, but not their level of expression. These inhibitory effects were not due to the interruption of toll-like receptor 4 binding to CD14. In particular, davallialactone strongly inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation and kinase activity of Src, implying that Src may be a potential pharmacological target of davallialactone. Conclusions and implications: Our data suggest that davallialactone, a small molecule found in edible mushrooms, has anti-inflammatory activity. Davallialactone can be developed as a pharmaceutically valuable anti-Src kinase agent. PMID:18454171

Lee, Y G; Lee, W M; Kim, J Y; Lee, J Y; Lee, I-K; Yun, B-S; Rhee, M H; Cho, J Y

2008-01-01

86

Anticancer substances of mushroom origin.  

PubMed

The present status of investigations about the anticancer activity which is inherent to medicinal mushrooms, as well as their biomedical potential and future prospects are discussed. Mushroom products and extracts possess promising immunomodulating and anticancer effects, so the main biologically active substances of mushrooms responsible for immunomodulation and direct cytoto-xicity toward cancer cell lines (including rarely mentioned groups of anticancer mushroom proteins), and the mechanisms of their antitumor action were analyzed. The existing to date clinical trials of mushroom substances are mentioned. Mushroom anticancer extracts, obtained by the different solvents, are outlined. Modern approaches of cancer treatment with implication of mushroom products, including DNA vaccinotherapy with mushroom immunomodulatory adjuvants, creation of prodrugs with mushroom lectins that can recognize glycoconjugates on the cancer cell surface, development of nanovectors etc. are discussed. The future prospects of mushroom anticancer substances application, including chemical modification of polysaccharides and terpenoids, gene engineering of proteins, and implementation of vaccines are reviewed. PMID:24980757

Ivanova, T S; Krupodorova, T A; Barshteyn, V Y; Artamonova, A B; Shlyakhovenko, V A

2014-06-01

87

Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides fractions from mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium.  

PubMed

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. We first reported the enhancement in production and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides by I. obliquus culture under lignocellulose decomposition. In this study, the two different sources of exopolysaccharides from the control medium and the lignocellulose (corn stover) containing medium by I. obliquus in submerged fermentation were fractionated and purified by chromatography. The exopolysaccharides from the corn stover-containing medium presented significantly stronger hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than the control. Three fractions from the control medium and the corn stover-containing medium were isolated respectively. The fraction of DEPL3 from the corn stover-containing medium with the highest protein content (38.3%), mannose content (49.6%), and the lowest molecular weight (29 kDa) had the highest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 values. In conclusion, lignocellulose decomposition changed the chemical characterisation and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions. PMID:23442636

Xiang, Yuling; Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan

2012-10-15

88

Bioassay-guided isolation of DPP-4 inhibitory fractions from extracts of submerged cultured of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom used in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the mycelium powders of I. obliquus possess significant antihyperglycemic effects in a mouse model of diabetic disease induced by alloxan. However, the active ingredients of mycelium powders responsible for the diabetes activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of I. obliquus mycelium powders by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the mechanism of action of these active ingredients by using a well-established DPP-4 (an important enzyme as a new therapeutic target for diabetes) inhibitory assay model. The results showed the chloroform extract of mycelium was potential inhibitory against DPP-4. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the identification of 19 compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecular docking between the compounds and DPP-4 revealed that compounds 5, 8, 9, 14, 15 may be the active components responsible for the DPP-4 inhibitory activity. PMID:23325103

Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2013-01-01

89

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquusBELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquusBELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily

Yong Ook Kim; Sang Bae Han; Hong Woen Lee; Hyo Jung Ahn; Yeo Dae Yoon; Joon Ki Jung; Hwan Mook Kim; Chul Soo Shin

2005-01-01

90

About Imperfect Mushroom Billiards  

E-print Network

Imperfections of Bunimovich mushroom Billiards are analyzed. Any experiment will be affected by such imperfections, and it will be necessary to estimate their influence. In particular some of the corners will be rounded and small deviations of the angle of the underside of the mushroom head will be considered. The analysis displayed some unexpected non-generic features. The latter leads to a transition from a perfect mushroom behavior to either an ordinary KAM scenario or an abrupt transition to complete chaos, depending on the sign of the perturbation. The former produces a fractal area of islands and chaos, in fact a KAM scenario, not associated to the large island of stability of the mushroom billiard.

W. P. Karel Zapfe; Francois Leyvraz; Thomas H. Seligman

2008-05-23

91

JAMA Patient Page: Chagas Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... at greatest risk. Most individuals with Chagas disease in the United States acquired their infections in other countries. Although there are triatomine bugs in the United States, only rare cases originating in the United States ...

92

Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease  

E-print Network

Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible for Parasitology Inc. Keywords: Myocarditis; Chagas heart disease Myosin; Autoimmunity 1. Introduction After

Engman, David M.

93

Antioxidant activities of five polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Five polysaccharides (IOP1b, IOP2a, IOP2c, IOP3a and IOP4) were isolated and purified from Inonotus obliquus by DEAE-Sepharose fast flow and SepharoseCL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical and physical characteristics were determined and antioxidant activities were investigated on the basis of hydroxyl radical assay, superoxide radical assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that five polysaccharides exhibited antioxidant activities, and the higher content of uronic acid and proteinous substances, the stronger antioxidant activities of polysaccharides. Besides, molecular weights of polysaccharides also influence their antioxidant activities. IOP3a and IOP4 showed higher antioxidant properties than IOP1b, IOP2a and IOP2c. PMID:22484729

Huang, Sheng-quan; Ding, Shaodong; Fan, Liuping

2012-06-01

94

Antioxidant activities of extracts and subfractions from Inonotus Obliquus.  

PubMed

The ethanolic crude extracts and three subfractions (ethyl acetate fraction, n-butanol fraction, and aqueous fraction) from Inonotus Obliquus were obtained by sequential partitioning and their antioxidant activities were investigated in the present study. The methods of the total antioxidant capacity measured by the ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, reducing power assay, scavenging activities towards DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical employed in this study were established in in vitro systems. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids were also determined by spectrophotometer. The results showed that the crude extracts and subfractions exhibited antioxidant activities in different evaluating system. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities is ethyl acetate fraction >n-butanol fraction >crude extract>aqueous fraction. A similar order of the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids in extract and subfractions was found. The results showed that the extent of antioxidant activities is in accordance with the amounts of phenolics and flavonoids existing in extracts and subfractions. PMID:19585318

Liang, Liya; Zhang, Zesheng; Wang, Hao

2009-01-01

95

Cap mushroom poisonings.  

PubMed

This paper presents species of fungi of high toxicity. Their consumption might have serious consequences for health and in many cases it might lead to death. Toxic compounds present in fungi have also been characterised, mechanisms of their toxic activity have been presented and clinical symptoms of poisoning have been described. Hallucinogenic mushrooms have also been mentioned as they have recently become a serious problem: many people use them to intoxicate themselves. There are also species of mushrooms that can be consumed under certain conditions since they can occasionally trigger off serious disturbances for the functioning of organisms. PMID:16145968

Gromysz-Ka?kowska, Kazimiera; Szubartowska, Ewa; Wójcik, Kazimiera

2004-01-01

96

Mushroom Poisoning in Canada  

PubMed Central

At least 150 cases of mushroom poisoning occur in Canada each year, 75% in the Province of Ontario. Eighty per cent of the total are in children under the age of 9, and most do not require hospitalization. Amanita virosa poisoning is a potentially fatal medical emergency which presents as an acute gastroenteritis, progressing to hepatorenal failure. Treatment consists of elimination of undigested mushrooms, rapid rehydration, management of acute liver and renal failure, and prevention of infection during the recovery phase. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:5445050

Lough, John; Kinnear, D. G.

1970-01-01

97

Structure determination of inonotsuoxides A and B and in vivo anti-tumor promoting activity of inotodiol from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsuoxides A (1) and B (2) along with three known lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotodiol (3), trametenolic acid (4), and lanosterol (5), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.: Fr.) (Japanese name: Kabanoanakake) (Russian name: Chaga). Their structures were determined to be 22R,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (1) and 22S,25-epoxylanost-8-ene-3beta,24S-diol (2) on the basis of spectral data including single crystal X-ray analysis. These compounds except for 2 were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. The most abundant triterpene, inotodiol (3), was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 3 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:17049251

Nakata, Tomoko; Yamada, Takeshi; Taji, Sayaka; Ohishi, Hirofumi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

2007-01-01

98

Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited  

E-print Network

We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system $\\rho$, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control parameter values $\\rho\\in(0,1)$ for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function $P(t)$ are calculated for mushrooms with triangular and rectangular stems.

Carl P. Dettmann; Orestis Georgiou

2010-11-03

99

Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4 µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed. PMID:23799608

Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

2013-08-01

100

Mushrooms and Health Summit proceedings.  

PubMed

The Mushroom Council convened the Mushrooms and Health Summit in Washington, DC, on 9-10 September 2013. The proceedings are synthesized in this article. Although mushrooms have long been regarded as health-promoting foods, research specific to their role in a healthful diet and in health promotion has advanced in the past decade. The earliest mushroom cultivation was documented in China, which remains among the top global mushroom producers, along with the United States, Italy, The Netherlands, and Poland. Although considered a vegetable in dietary advice, mushrooms are fungi, set apart by vitamin B-12 in very low quantity but in the same form found in meat, ergosterol converted with UV light to vitamin D2, and conjugated linoleic acid. Mushrooms are a rare source of ergothioneine as well as selenium, fiber, and several other vitamins and minerals. Some preclinical and clinical studies suggest impacts of mushrooms on cognition, weight management, oral health, and cancer risk. Preliminary evidence suggests that mushrooms may support healthy immune and inflammatory responses through interaction with the gut microbiota, enhancing development of adaptive immunity, and improved immune cell functionality. In addition to imparting direct nutritional and health benefits, analysis of U.S. food intake survey data reveals that mushrooms are associated with higher dietary quality. Also, early sensory research suggests that mushrooms blended with meats and lower sodium dishes are well liked and may help to reduce intakes of red meat and salt without compromising taste. As research progresses on the specific health effects of mushrooms, there is a need for effective communication efforts to leverage mushrooms to improve overall dietary quality. PMID:24812070

Feeney, Mary Jo; Dwyer, Johanna; Hasler-Lewis, Clare M; Milner, John A; Noakes, Manny; Rowe, Sylvia; Wach, Mark; Beelman, Robert B; Caldwell, Joe; Cantorna, Margherita T; Castlebury, Lisa A; Chang, Shu-Ting; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Clemens, Roger; Drescher, Greg; Fulgoni, Victor L; Haytowitz, David B; Hubbard, Van S; Law, David; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Minor, Bart; Percival, Susan S; Riscuta, Gabriela; Schneeman, Barbara; Thornsbury, Suzanne; Toner, Cheryl D; Woteki, Catherine E; Wu, Dayong

2014-07-01

101

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2012-01-01

102

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2014-01-01

103

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2013-01-01

104

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2010-01-01

105

7 CFR 1209.11 - Mushrooms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mushrooms. 1209.11 Section 1209.11 Agriculture...COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer...

2011-01-01

106

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Blood Screening FAQs On This Page Why are blood ... be concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission ...

107

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION  

E-print Network

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY MUSHROOM CULTURE COLLECTION March 4, 2014 Agaricus abruptibulbus/11/87 #12;The Pennsylvania State University Mushroom Culture Collection -- Page 2 Agaricus subfloccosus 781

Guiltinan, Mark

108

Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia and cultured mycelia stimulate cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro and their chemical characterization.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus is an edible and medicinal mushroom to treat many diseases. In the present study, polysaccharides and fractions were isolated and purified by DEAE-52 and Sephadex G-200 chromatography from I. obliquus wild sclerotia, culture broth and cultured mycelia under submerged fermentation. The extracts and fractions could significantly induce the secretion of TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-1?, and IL-2 in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and showed no toxicity to PBMCs. The stimulation effect of the six extracts and eight fractions on the four-cytokine production was dose-dependent. Sclerotial polysaccharides were more effective in the four-cytokine production at 150 ?g/ml while exopolysaccharides and endopolysacchrides showed a much better effect on IL-1? production at 30 ?g/ml. Purified fractions from exopolysaccharides and endopolysaccharides were more effective than the fraction from sclerotia in most cytokine production. These heteropolysaccharide-protein conjugates mainly contained glucose, galactose, and mannose. Protein content, molecular weight, monosaccharide molar ratio, and anomeric carbon configuration differed from each other and had effects on the cytokine induction activity of the polysaccharides to some extent. PMID:24867795

Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan; Hu, Yan

2014-08-01

109

Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited  

E-print Network

We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical systems with sharply divided phase space. For typical values of the control parameter of the system $\\rho$, an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits (MUPOs) exist making the system sticky in the sense that unstable orbits approach regular regions in phase space and thus exhibit regular behaviour for long periods of time. The problem of finding these MUPOs is expressed as the well known problem of finding optimal rational approximations of a real number, subject to some system-specific constraints. By introducing a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control parameter values $\\rho\\in(0,1)$ for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is less sticky. The open mushroom (billiard with a hole) is then considered in order to quantify the stickiness exhibited and exact leading order expressions for the algebraic decay of the survival probability function $P(t)$ are ca...

Dettmann, Carl P

2010-01-01

110

Absolute stereostructures of inoterpenes A–F from sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six new lanostane-type triterpenes, inoterpenes A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), and F (6), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus together with six known constituents. The chemical structures of new triterpenes 1–6 were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence including the application of the modified Mosher's method.

Seikou Nakamura; Junko Iwami; Hisashi Matsuda; Shuichi Mizuno; Masayuki Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

111

Accumulation of antioxidant phenolic constituents in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic compounds in different culture media and whether these compounds possess antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of

Weifa Zheng; Meimei Zhang; Yanxia Zhao; Yao Wang; Kangjie Miao; Zhiwen Wei

2009-01-01

112

Development of cricket mushroom bodies.  

PubMed

Mushroom bodies are recognized as a multimodal integrator for sensorial stimuli. The present study analyzes cricket mushroom body development from embryogenesis to adulthood. In the house cricket, Kenyon cells were born from a group of neuroblasts located at the apex of mushroom bodies. Our results demonstrate the sequential generation of Kenyon cells: The more external they are, the earlier they were produced. BrdU treatment on day 8 (57% stage) of embryonic life results, at the adult stage, in the labelling of the large Kenyon cells at the periphery of the mushroom body cortex. These cells have specific projections into the posterior calyx, the gamma lobe, and an enlargement at the inner part of the vertical lobe; they represent a part of mushroom bodies of strictly embryonic origin. The small Kenyon cells were formed from day 9 (65% stage) of the embryonic stage onward, and new interneurons are produced throughout the entire life of the insect. They send their projections into the anterior calyx and into the vertical and medial lobes. Mushroom body development of Acheta should be considered as a primitive template, and cross-taxonomic comparisons of the mushroom body development underscore the precocious origin of the gamma lobe. As a result of continuous neurogenesis, cricket mushroom bodies undergo remodeling throughout life, laying the foundation for future studies of the functional role of this developmental plasticity. PMID:12353218

Malaterre, Jordane; Strambi, Colette; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Aouane, Aicha; Strambi, Alain; Cayre, Myriam

2002-10-21

113

REVIEW PAPER Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity  

E-print Network

REVIEW PAPER Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity and productivity--an indicator of forest health? Simon and productivity of wild mushrooms. Mycorrhizal fungi depend on photosynthetically fixed carbon produced raise the question of whether mycorrhizal fungi can be used as indicators for tree health. & Discussion

Boyer, Edmond

114

Duodenogastric reflux in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Increased duodenogastric reflux has been recognized as a cause of gastric mucosa damage. The frequent finding of bile-stained gastric juice and a suggested higher frequency of lesions of the gastric mucosa in patients with Chagas' disease, which is characterized by a marked reduction of myenteric neurons, suggest that impairment of intrinsic innervation of the gut might be associated with increased duodenogastric reflux. Duodenogastric bile reflux was quantified after intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium-HIDA, in 18 patients with chronic Chagas' disease, 12 controls, and 7 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. All but one of the chagasic patients were submitted to upper digestive tract endoscopy. High reflux values (greater than or equal to 10%) were detected both in chagasic patients and in the controls, but the values for both groups were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than those obtained for Billroth II patients (median: 55.79%; range: 12.58-87.22%). Reflux values tended to be higher in the Chagas' disease group (median: 8.20%; range: 0.0-29.40%) than in the control group (median: 3.20%; range: 0.0-30.64%), with no statistical difference between the two groups (P greater than 0.10). Chronic gastritis was detected by endoscopy in 12 chagasic patients, benign gastric ulcer in 2 patients, and a pool of bile in the stomach in 11 patients. However, neither the occurrence of gastric lesions nor the finding of bile-stained gastric juice was associated with high reflux values after (99mTc)HIDA injection. This study suggests that lesions of the intramural nervous system of the gut in Chagas' disease do not appear to be associated with abnormally increased duodenogastric reflux.

Troncon, L.E.; Rezende Filho, J.; Iazigi, N.

1988-10-01

115

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged\\u000a culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase\\u000a in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g\\/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a

Hui Chen; Mingchao Yan; Jinwei Zhu; Xiangqun Xu

2011-01-01

116

Unearthing the Secret Lives of Aiaska's Mushrooms  

E-print Network

Feature Unearthing the Secret Lives of Aiaska's Mushrooms SONYA SENKOWSKY here is a reason people refer to "hunting" mushrooms instead of "picking" them. Mushrooms may not move fast to the hunt: They're collecting mushrooms and other fungi they can't see. Using the same techniques

Taylor, Lee

117

MUSHROOM BODY INFLUENCE ON LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY AND  

E-print Network

MUSHROOM BODY INFLUENCE ON LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY AND CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER locomotor rhythms and learning are related anatomically through the mushroom bodies (MBs) was investigated for mushroom body miniature (mbm; only in a wild-type Berlin genetic background) and mushroom body defect (mud

de Belle, J. Steven

118

Oxidative stress response of Inonotus obliquus induced by hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

While the medicinal fungus Inonotus obliquus produces polyphenols as one of its main metabolites in natural habitats, it accumulates less polyphenols under laboratory conditions. In this study we found that the continuous addition of 1 mM H(2)O(2) at a rate of 1.6 ml/h into a submerged culture of the fungus enhanced its production of mycelia, melanins, flavonoids and hispidin analogs (HA). Simultaneous exposure of the fungus to both H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in reduced production of mycelia, glycosylated flavonoids (GF) and HA, and inhibition of melanogenesis. However, superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were enhanced following the addition of H(2)O(2) or H(2)O(2) plus arbutin. The maximum levels of SOD and CAT activities reached 355.2 U/mg protein and 39.8 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2)-added medium, and 264 U/mg protein and 35.9 U/mg protein respectively in H(2)O(2) plus arbutin medium. Thus, detoxification of H(2)O(2) is conducted mainly by polyphenols under normal physiological conditions, and by both polyphenols and antioxidant enzymes under oxidative stress when melanogenesis is inhibited. Although enhanced HA production occurred after melanogenesis inactivation, total extracellular polyphenol levels were reduced. These findings suggest that enzymatic activities convert superoxide to H(2)O(2), and non-enzymatic mechanisms are largely responsible for detoxifying H(2)O(2). Enhanced production of melanins is the most important non-enzymatic response of this fungus against oxidative stress. PMID:19184774

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Wei, Zhiwen; Miao, Kangjie; Sun, Weiguo

2009-12-01

119

Stickiness in mushroom billiards  

E-print Network

We investigate dynamical properties of chaotic trajectories in mushroom billiards. These billiards present a well-defined simple border between a single regular region and a single chaotic component. We find that the stickiness of chaotic trajectories near the border of the regular region occurs through an infinite number of marginally unstable periodic orbits. These orbits have zero measure, thus not affecting the ergodicity of the chaotic region. Notwithstanding, they govern the main dynamical properties of the system. In particular, we show that the marginally unstable periodic orbits explain the periodicity and the power-law behavior with exponent $\\gamma=2$ observed in the distribution of recurrence times.

Eduardo G. Altmann; Adilson E. Motter; Holger Kantz

2005-02-25

120

ANTIBODIES TO LAMININ IN CHAGAS' DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas' disease occurs in Central and South America in individuals infected with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzL In the acute stage of the disease, subcutaneous swelling around the eye (chagoma), myocarditis, encephalitis, and fever are observed. These conditions are related to the invasion of the tissues by the parasite (1). Years later, in the chronic stage of Chaga s' disease, when

ANA SZARFMAN; VICTOR P. TERRANOVA; STEPHEN I. RENNARD; JEAN-MICHEL FOIDART; MARIA DE FATIMA LIMA; JON I. SCHEINMAN; GEORGE R. MARTIN

1982-01-01

121

The Chronic Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The disease mainly affects the nervous system, digestive system and heart. The objective of this review is to revise the literature and summarize the main chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease. The chronic gastrointestinal manifestations of Chagas disease are mainly a result of enteric nervous system impairment caused by T. cruzi infection. The anatomical locations most commonly described to be affected by Chagas disease are salivary glands, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, small intestine, colon, gallbladder and biliary tree. Chagas disease has also been studied in association with Helicobacter pylori infection, interstitial cells of Cajal and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:20037711

Matsuda, Nilce Mitiko; Miller, Steven M.; Evora, Paulo R. Barbosa

2009-01-01

122

Focusing properties of mushroom microlenses  

E-print Network

Focusing properties of a novel type photoresist microlens are studied. A specific character of the microlens is its mushroom shape. Recently it was predicted and experimentally revealed that such a lens integrated with a light-emitting diode is capable of enhancing its output efficiency and directivity. In our paper we describe the true electromagnetic performance of a mushroom lens by applying a mathematically rigorous method of boundary integral equations. Numerical results are presented for the mushroom lens illuminated with a plane E-polarized wave and include figures describing the evolution of the lens focal spot and near field maps.

Boriskin, A V; Benson, T; Sewell, P; Nosich, A I

2010-01-01

123

[Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].  

PubMed

The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies. PMID:21773665

Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

2011-02-01

124

Antitumor activity of water extract of a mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, against HT-29 human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

In the current study, it was demonstrated that the hot water extract of I. obliquus (IOWE) exerts inhibitory activity against the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (HT-29). The inhibitory effect of IOWE on the growth of HT-29 cancer cells was evaluated by treating cells with IOWE at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL for 24 or 48 h. The IOWE inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this inhibition was accompanied by apoptotic cell death. The maximum inhibitory effect (56%) was observed when IOWE was treated at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL for 48 h. The apoptotic effect of IOWE on HT-29 cells was also confirmed by flow cytometric analysis. In addition, the apoptotic cell percentage was closely associated with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3. The results suggest that IOWE would be useful as an antitumor agent via the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of the growth of cancer cells through up-regulation of the expression of proapoptotic proteins and down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins. PMID:19367670

Lee, Sung Hak; Hwang, Hee Sun; Yun, Jong Won

2009-12-01

125

Quantum mushroom billiards  

E-print Network

We report the first large-scale statistical study of very high-lying eigenmodes (quantum states) of the mushroom billiard proposed by L. Bunimovich in this journal, vol. 11, 802 (2001). The phase space of this mixed system is unusual in that it has a single regular region and a single chaotic region, and no KAM hierarchy. We verify Percival's conjecture to high accuracy (1.7%). We propose a model for dynamical tunneling and show that it predicts well the chaotic components of predominantly-regular modes. Our model explains our observed density of such superpositions dying as E^{-1/3} (E is the eigenvalue). We compare eigenvalue spacing distributions against Random Matrix Theory expectations, using 16000 odd modes (an order of magnitude more than any existing study). We outline new variants of mesh-free boundary collocation methods which enable us to achieve high accuracy and such high mode numbers orders of magnitude faster than with competing methods.

A. H. Barnett; T. Betcke

2006-11-29

126

Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result,\\u000a I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In\\u000a addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin

Jong Seok Yun; Jung Woon Pahk; Jong Seok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Shin Young Lee; Eock Kee Hong

2011-01-01

127

Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage\\u000a cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO\\/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?\\/IL-4 secretion in

Dong Pil Won; Jong Seok Lee; Duck Soo Kwon; Keun Eok Lee; Won Cheol Shin; Eock Kee Hong

2011-01-01

128

Optimization of betulin extraction process from Inonotus Obliquus with pulsed electric fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the extraction of betulin from Inonotus Obliquus applying high intensity pulsed electric fields (PEF) was studied. To extract non-polar compound, 75% ethanol solution was used. The effect of PEF on betulin yield was discussed compared with conventional extracting method. A set of optimal parameters (PEF strength=40 kV\\/cm, pulse number=2, ethanol concentration=75%, and solid-to-solvent ratio=1:25) were tested and analyzed.

Yongguang Yin; Yanru Cui; Hongwei Ding

2008-01-01

129

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures.\\u000a We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type\\u000a triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin

Weifa Zheng; Yanxia Zhao; Xin Zheng; Yubing Liu; Shenyuan Pan; Yucheng Dai; Fuming Liu

2011-01-01

130

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and Analysis of Antioxidation and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific\\u000a community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail’s pace. The methods of strain\\u000a identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous

Yana Song; Jing Hui; Wei Kou; Ru Xin; Fei Jia; Ning Wang; Fengqing Hu; Huili Zhang; Hongsheng Liu

2008-01-01

131

Involvements of S -nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with\\u000a higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and\\u000a higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase

Weifa Zheng; Yubing Liu; Shenyuan Pan; Weihua Yuan; Yucheng Dai; Jiangchun Wei

2011-01-01

132

Radioactivity in mushrooms: a health hazard?  

PubMed

Mushrooms are a complementary foodstuff and considered to be consumed locally. The demand for mushrooms has increased in recent years, and the mushroom trade is becoming global. Mushroom origin is frequently obscured from the consumer. Mushrooms are considered excellent bioindicators of environmental pollution. The accumulation of radionuclides by mushrooms, which are then consumed by humans or livestock, can pose a radiological hazard. Many studies have addressed the radionuclide content in mushrooms, almost exclusively the radiocaesium content. There is a significant lack of data about their content from some of the main producer countries. An exhaustive review was carried out in order to identify which radionuclide might constitute a health hazard, and the factors conditioning it. Regulatory values for the different radionuclides were used. The worldwide range for radiocaesium, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, and (210)Po surpasses those values. Appropriate radiological protection requires that the content of those radionuclides in mushrooms should be monitored. PMID:24518310

Guillén, J; Baeza, A

2014-07-01

133

How the Mushroom Got Its Spots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (p.26 of PDF), learners discover why mushrooms have spots. Learners use a balloon, toilet paper, and water to simulate what happens as mushrooms grow. This activity can also function as a group demonstration.

Assinder, Sue; Rutter, Gordon

2002-01-01

134

Mushroom toxins: a forensic toxicological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms are ubiquitous in the world. Amateur hunters harvest mushrooms growing in forests to enjoy eating them as seasonal\\u000a delicacies, and occasionally they cause poisonings and even deaths. In this review, mushroom toxins are tabulated according\\u000a to mushroom species, symptoms, toxicities and analytical methods on the basis of references. Second, because we constructed\\u000a a method for analysis of amatoxins, the

Kunio Gonmori; Hiroki Fujita; Kazumasa Yokoyama; Kanako Watanabe; Osamu Suzuki

2011-01-01

135

Fatal muscarinic syndrome after eating wild mushrooms.  

PubMed

Death from mushroom poisoning in Australia is rare and usually due to liver failure produced by Amanita phalloides. We report a 53-year-old woman in Queensland who died from an acute muscarinic syndrome 10 hours after eating mushrooms belonging to the genus Rubinoboletus. To our knowledge, this is the first death in Australia caused by non-amatoxin-producing mushrooms. It highlights the need for awareness of non-amatoxin-producing mushrooms as potentially lethal. PMID:15777146

Pauli, John L; Foot, Carole L

2005-03-21

136

Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: Immunopathology and Genetics  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in Latin America and affects ca. 10 million people worldwide. About 30% of Chagas disease patients develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC), a particularly lethal inflammatory cardiomyopathy that occurs decades after the initial infection, while most patients remain asymptomatic. Mortality rate is higher than that of noninflammatory cardiomyopathy. CCC heart lesions present a Th1 T-cell-rich myocarditis, with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and prominent fibrosis. Data suggest that the myocarditis plays a major pathogenetic role in disease progression. Major unmet goals include the thorough understanding of disease pathogenesis and therapeutic targets and identification of prognostic genetic factors. Chagas disease thus remains a neglected disease, with no vaccines or antiparasitic drugs proven efficient in chronically infected adults, when most patients are diagnosed. Both familial aggregation of CCC cases and the fact that only 30% of infected patients develop CCC suggest there might be a genetic component to disease susceptibility. Moreover, previous case-control studies have identified some genes associated to human susceptibility to CCC. In this paper, we will review the immunopathogenesis and genetics of Chagas disease, highlighting studies that shed light on the differential progression of Chagas disease patients to CCC. PMID:25210230

Chevillard, Christophe

2014-01-01

137

MUSHROOM SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION FORM Schutter Diagnostic Lab  

E-print Network

MUSHROOM SPECIMEN IDENTIFICATION FORM Schutter Diagnostic Lab 119 Plant BioScience Facility Montana of the cap in inches (approximate): largest cap smallest cap Height of the mushroom in inches (approximate): tallest smallest ***WHAT IS YOUR PURPOSE IN KNOWING THE IDENTIFICATION OF THIS MUSHROOM (DO YOU WANT

Maxwell, Bruce D.

138

Toxicological screening of seven Nigerian mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicological studies were carried out on seven Nigerian mushrooms, namely, Chlorophyllum molybditis (Mayer ex. fr.) Masse, Cortinarius melliolens Fries, Lentinus subnudus Berk, Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer, Termitomyces robustus (Beeli) Heim, Tricholoma lobayensis Heim and Volvariella esculenta (Mass) Singer. Amatoxin spot test and Chromatographic screening of the mushrooms revealed the absence of amatoxins and phallotoxins. None of the mushroom extracts tested

Isola O. Fasidi; Mukaila Kadiri

1995-01-01

139

Mushroom keratoplasty in pediatric patients?  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the outcome of mushroom keratoplasty for the treatment of full thickness corneal disease in pediatric patients with healthy endothelium. Methods A retrospective analysis of pediatric patients who underwent mushroom keratoplasty. The medical records of pediatric patients suffering from full thickness corneal stromal disease with normal endothelium who underwent mushroom keratoplasty at our Institution were included. A two-piece donor graft consisting of a large anterior stromal lamella (9.0 mm in diameter and ±250 ?m in thickness) and a small posterior lamella (5–6.5 mm in diameter) including deep stroma and endothelium, prepared with the aid of a microkeratome had been transplanted in all cases. Ophthalmic examination including slit lamp examination, best corrected visual acuity, and corneal topography was performed preoperatively and at each postoperative visit on all patients. The endothelial cells were assessed by specular microscopy in these patients. Results Six eyes of six patients (five males and one female) were included. The mean age was 9.3 years (range 5–15 years). Average follow-up was 17.8 months (range 9–48 months). There were no early or late complications recorded. All corneas were clear at the last follow up visit. Preoperative best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was worse than 20/70 in all six eyes. Postoperatively, four eyes achieved BCVA of 20/40 or better. Endothelial cell loss (n eyes = 3 averaged 24% (range 19–31%). The mean endothelial cell loss was 24% (range 19–31%) among these patients. Conclusions Microkeratome assisted mushroom keratoplasty is a viable surgical option for pediatric eyes with full thickness corneal stromal disease and healthy endothelium. Mushroom keratoplasty combines the refractive advantage of a large penetrating keratoplasty with the survival advantage of a small penetrating keratoplasty. Furthermore, mushroom keratoplasty exhibits the mechanical advantage of a shaped keratoplasty. PMID:23960935

Busin, Massimo; Beltz, Jacqueline; Scorcia, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

140

Changes of Ginsenoside Content by Mushroom Mycelial Fermentation in Red Ginseng Extract  

PubMed Central

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-01-01

141

Changes of ginsenoside content by mushroom mycelial fermentation in red ginseng extract.  

PubMed

To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of ginsenosides in red ginseng extract (RGE), mushroom mycelia were used for the fermentation of RGE. After fermentation, total sugar contents and polyohenol contents of the RGEs fermented with various mushrooms were not a significant increase between RGE and the ferments. But uronic acid content was relatively higher in the fermented RGEs cultured with Lentus edodes (2155.6 ?g/mL), Phelllinus linteus (1690.9 ?g/mL) and Inonotus obliquus 26137 and 26147 (1549.5 and 1670.7 ?g/mL) compared to the RGE (1307.1 ?g/mL). The RGEs fermented by Ph. linteus, Cordyceps militaris, and Grifola frondosa showed particularly high levels of total ginsenosides (20018.1, 17501.6, and 16267.0 ?g/mL, respectively). The ferments with C. militaris (6974.2 ?g/mL), Ph. linteus (9109.2 ?g/mL), and G. frondosa (7023.0 ?g/mL) also showed high levels of metabolites (sum of compound K, Rh1, Rg5, Rk1, Rg3, and Rg2) compared to RGE (3615.9 ?g/mL). Among four different RGE concentrations examined, a 20 brix concentration of RGE was favorable for the fermentation of Ph. linteus. Maximum biotransformation of ginsneoside metabolites (9395.5 ?g/mL) was obtained after 5 days fermentation with Ph. linteus. Maximum mycelial growth of 2.6 mg/mL was achieved at 9 days, in which growth was not significantly different during 5 to 9 days fermentation. During fermentation of RGE by Ph. linteus in a 7 L fermenter, Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1 contents showed maximum concentrations after 5 days similar to flask fermentation. These results confirm that fermentation with Ph. linteus is very useful for preparing minor ginsenoside metabolites while being safe for foods. PMID:23717066

Bae, Song Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Jin-Man; Suh, Hyung Joo

2011-06-01

142

Non-volatile taste components of several commercial mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter (strains white and yellow), shiitake (strains 271 and Taichung 1) and oyster mushrooms (abalone and tree oyster mushrooms) were collected from commercial sources. Strain yellow contained 26.7% of proteins (higher than other mushrooms). Shiitake and the two oyster mushrooms contained more than 60% of carbohydrates. Arabitol was found in the highest amounts only in winter mushrooms. Glucose, mannitol and

Joan-Hwa Yang; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Jeng-Leun Mau

2001-01-01

143

Use of Mushroom Compost to Suppress Artillery Fungi1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom compost (spent mushroom substrate, SMS, mushroom soil) exhibits suppressive characteristics against various fungi, as well as against plant diseases caused by fungi. In addition, mushroom compost has physical and chemical characteristics that make it ideal for blending with landscape mulch to enhance growth of horticultural plants. There is currently an oversupply of used compost in mushroom-growing areas, where it

Donald D. Davis; Larry J. Kuhns; Tracey L. Harpster

2005-01-01

144

The Mushroom Place. Part III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

Schlichter, Carol

1978-01-01

145

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3?,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3?,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV–EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2

Sayaka Taji; Takeshi Yamada; Shun-ichi Wada; Harukuni Tokuda; Kazuo Sakuma; Reiko Tanaka

2008-01-01

146

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8?9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3?,11?-diol (2), and (22R)-3?,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D (1H–1H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1–3 showed moderate

Noriko Handa; Takeshi Yamada; Reiko Tanaka

2010-01-01

147

Gap junctions and chagas disease.  

PubMed

Gap junction channels provide intercellular communication between cells. In the heart, these channels coordinate impulse propagation along the conduction system and through the contractile musculature, thereby providing synchronous and optimal cardiac output. As in other arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases, chagasic cardiomyopathy is associated with decreased expression of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and its gene. Our studies of cardiac myocytes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi have revealed that synchronous contraction is greatly impaired and gap junction immunoreactivity is lost in infected cells. Such changes are not seen for molecules forming tight junctions, another component of the intercalated disc in cardiac myocytes. Transcriptomic studies of hearts from mouse models of Chagas disease and from acutely infected cardiac myocytes in vitro indicate profound remodelling of gene expression patterns involving heart rhythm determinant genes, suggesting underlying mechanisms of the functional pathology. One curious feature of the altered expression of Cx43 and its gene expression is that it is limited in both extent and location, suggesting that the more global deterioration in cardiac function may result in part from spread of damage signals from more seriously compromised cells to healthier ones. PMID:21884887

Adesse, Daniel; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli; Fortes, Fabio S; Jasmin; Iacobas, Dumitru A; Iacobas, Sanda; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Narareth Meirelles, Maria; Huang, Huan; Soares, Milena B; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Spray, David C

2011-01-01

148

Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

Lopez-Velez, Rogelio

2013-01-01

149

[Part VI. Antiparasitic treatment for Chagas disease].  

PubMed

As expert consensus has been arisen about universal antiparasitic treatment for all patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, most important drugs licensed for Chagas disease treatment are reviewed: nifurtimox and benznidazol, their mechanisms of action, doses, treatment schedules, adverse effects and contraindications. Two other drugs used for Chagas disease treatment, for which a Chilean experience may be exhibited, are allopurinol and itraconazole. Indications for treatment of Chagas disease in immunocompetent patients and immunocompromised hosts are detailed. This chapter refers besides to the evaluation and monitoring of antiparasitic therapy in immunocompromised patients, the availability of drugs and includes various forms facsimiles suggested to perform clinical and laboratory follow up of patients that undergo treatment, indicating the prescribed drug, adverse effects and time of follow up. PMID:18949153

B, Werner Apt; G, Ingrid Heitmann; L, M Isabel Jercic; M, Leonor Jofré; V, Patricia Muñoz C Del; H, Isabel Noemí; V, Ana M San Martín; P, Jorge Sapunar; H, Marisa Torres; A, Inés Zulantay

2008-10-01

150

Aqueous Extract of Inonotus bliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) Significantly Inhibits the Growth of Sarcoma 180 by Inducing Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat (Hymenochaetaceae) has been widely used as a folk medicine to treat various cancers in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries for literally more than four centuries. However, in spite of its therapeutic significance for cancers, this fungus has not been studied systematically for the mechanisms of antitumor activity. In this study, we report the effects

Caifa Chen; Weifa Zheng; Xiaowen Gao; Xiaoyan Xiang; Dongxu Sun; Jiangchun Wei; Chengcai Chu

2007-01-01

151

Physicochemical Properties of Melanins Produced by the Sterile Form of Inonotus obliquus(“Chagi”) in Natural and Cultivated Fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicochemical properties of pigments isolated from the naturally occurring sterile form of Inonotus obliquus(Fr.) Pil. known as Chagi and comprising the major constituent of the medicine befungin were compared with those of melanins synthesized by this fungus in the culture in order to develop a new medicine. Elemental and functional group analyses, as well as UV-visible, IR, and EPR spectra,

T. A. Kukulyanskaya; N. V. Kurchenko; V. P. Kurchenko; V. G. Babitskaya

2002-01-01

152

Nontimber Forest Products Ecosystem Management Economics Mushrooms andTimber  

E-print Network

Nontimber Forest Products Ecosystem Management Economics Mushrooms andTimber Managing,theAmericanmatsutake (·icholomamagnivelare)isthemost valuable mushroom harvested in the Pacific Northwest becauseit is similar to the, rapidlyincreasingnumbersoftransient mushroom harvesters have collected thismushroomfromreliablyproduc

153

Developmental organization of the mushroom bodies of Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae): insights into mushroom body  

E-print Network

Developmental organization of the mushroom bodies of Thermobia domestica (Zygentoma, Lepismatidae): insights into mushroom body evolution from a basal insect Sarah M. Farris Department of Biology, West The mushroom bodies of the insect brain are sensory integration centers best studied for their role in learning

Farris, Sarah M.

154

Beta-glucans in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible mushrooms contain interesting functional components. In particular beta glucans, homo- and hetero-glucans with ?(1?3), ?(1?4) and ?(1?6) glucosidic linkages, are supposed to be responsible for some healthy properties of mushrooms. In this research the amount of beta glucans in different edible mushroom species has been evaluated and their distribution within the soluble and insoluble fractions of dietary fibre has

Pamela Manzi; Laura Pizzoferrato

2000-01-01

155

[Mushroom poisoning by brunneoincarnata: about two cases].  

PubMed

Amatoxin poisoning constitutes the main cause of death due to mushroom intoxication in Europe. This one was initially reported for the ingestion of Amanita phalloides with frequently fatal outcome. Prognosis of amatoxin poisoning initialy depends on the acute deshydratation and secondarily of the liver failure. Emergency liver transplantation is sometimes necessary. With the knowledge of mushroom, most of them involved other species which can often be linked to edible mushroom. We report a collective intoxication by Lepiota brunneoincarnata. PMID:18440193

Roux, X; Labadie, P; Morand, C; Fontaine, B; Coutant, G

2008-05-01

156

Quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study describes the method of quantitative determination of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied to separate these steroids. The procedure was carried out on a reversed-phase C, column, using a stepwise gradient of water-methanol as mobile phase with the following profile: 0-10 min, 10% water, 90% methanol; 10-40 min, 3% water, 97% methanol. The flow rate was 1.4 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 202 nm. The analysis was completed within 40 min. The results showed that this method has good reproducibility and satisfactory recoveries for the determination of steroids. The relative standard deviations of the peak areas were less than 2.94% (n = 5) for intraday assays. A good linear correlation was obtained in a range of 0.4-4.8 microg. The recoveries of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol were 100.05%-100.72%, 99.31%-101.04%, 97.52%-101.63%, 96.61%-100.08%, 96.21%-100.76% and 100.04%-100.51%, respectively. This method can be applied to evaluate real samples, and it is rapid, accurate and suitable for the quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. PMID:20352924

Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hongyu; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong

2009-11-01

157

Emerging Chagas disease in Amazonian Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Amazon Basin, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is enzootic, involving a variety of wild mammals and at least 10 of the 16 reported silvatic triatomine bug species. Human cases of Chagas disease are increasing, indicating that the disease may be emerging as a wider public health problem in the region: 38 cases from 1969 to 1992, and 167 in the

José Rodrigues Coura; Angela C. V. Junqueira; Octavio Fernandes; Sebastiao A. S. Valente; Michael A. Miles

2002-01-01

158

[Diagnosis and treatment of Chagas disease].  

PubMed

Trypanosoma cruzi infection, or Chagas disease, was discovered more than 100 years ago by Carlos Chagas. Although the infection kills more than 15,000 people each year, it is still classified as a neglected tropical disease. Today, this disease affects eight million people in 21 Latin American countries and, due to immigration, is also present in non-endemic countries. In recent years, the size of the immigrant population with chronic imported forms of Chagas disease has increased in Spain. In addition, several cases of congenital transmission have been reported. Some patients have severe infection and require specialized treatment such as pacemaker implantation or even heart transplantation, representing a considerable clinical, social and economic burden, particularly in areas with a large immigrant population. Since the 1960s, the only drugs available for the etiological treatment of this infection have been benznidazole and nifurtimox. Although new, more effective and better tolerated compounds are urgently needed, treatment with these trypanocidal drugs is recommended in both the acute and chronic stages of Chagas disease. New strategies for diagnosis and infection control in chronically infected patients have recently been reported, allowing the effectiveness of treatments to be assessed. PMID:23453228

Murcia, Laura; Carrilero, Bartolomé; Saura, Daniel; Iborra, M Asunción; Segovia, Manuel

2013-02-01

159

Vitamin D4 in Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown vitamin D compound was observed in the HPLC-UV chromatogram of edible mushrooms in the course of analyzing vitamin D2 as part of a food composition study and confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to be vitamin D4 (22-dihydroergocalciferol). Vitamin D4 was quantified by HPLC with UV detection, with vitamin [3H] itamin D3 as an internal standard. White button, crimini,

Katherine M. Phillips; Ronald L. Horst; Nicholas J. Koszewski; Ryan R. Simon

2012-01-01

160

Mushroom body memoir: from maps to models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic intervention in the fly Drosophila melanogaster has provided strong evidence that the mushroom bodies of the insect brain act as the seat of a memory trace for odours. This localization gives the mushroom bodies a place in a network model of olfactory memory that is based on the functional anatomy of the olfactory system. In the model, complex odour

Martin Heisenberg

2003-01-01

161

Mushroom toxicity in a horse with meningioangiomatosis.  

PubMed

We describe a fatal case of mushroom intoxication in an 18-y-o horse presumably due to Amanita verna. Horses are normally regarded as too fastidious to eat the ill-flavored toadstools. In this case, the horse had a rare benign brain tumor, meningioangiomatosis, which may have altered the horse's normal eating behavior resulting in consumption of the mushrooms. PMID:10839323

Frazier, K; Liggett, A; Hines, M; Styer, E

2000-06-01

162

Insecticidal properties of mushroom and toadstool carpophores  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find compounds with insecticidal or antifeedant properties from mushrooms and toadstools, a wide screening was undertaken using the non-mycophagous Drosophila melanogaster as a model insect. Powdered fruit bodies of edible and poisonous mushrooms were incorporated with the Drosophila's rearing medium, and their development was observed. Among the 175 different species of fungi tested, 79 were found to

Norman Mier; Sandrine Canete; Alain Klaebe; Louis Chavant; Didier Fournier

1996-01-01

163

The cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms.  

PubMed

An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406

Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D

2012-12-01

164

Lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of edible mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most economically-viable processes for the bioconversion of many types of lignocellulosic wastes is represented by edible mushroom cultivation. Lentinula edodes, Volvariella volvacea and Pleurotus sajor-caju are three important commercially cultivated mushrooms which exhibit varying abilities to utilise different lignocellulosics as growth substrate. Examination of the lignocellulolytic enzyme profiles of the three species show this diversity to be

J. A. Buswell; Y. J. Cai; S. T. Chang; J. F. Peberdy; S. Y. Fu; H.-S. Yu

1996-01-01

165

Sterol composition in field-grown and cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Sterols are one of the active classes of compounds in Inonotus obliquus for their effective therapy of many diseases. In field environment, this fungus accumulates large amount of sterols. In cultured mycelia, however, this class of compounds is less accumulated. For analyzing the factors responsible for differing sterol composition, the field-grown and cultured mycelia were extracted with 80% ethanol at room temperature and total sterols were prepared using silicon gel column chromatography followed by identification using either GC-MS or spectroscopic methods. For culturing Inonotus obliquus, the seed culture was grown either in basic medium consisting of glucose (2%), yeast extract (0.5%), KH2PO4 (0.01%), MgSO4.7H20 (0.05%) and distilled water at pH 6.5, or the basic medium supplemented with serial concentrations of AgNO3. The results indicated that field-grown mycelia contained lanosterol and inotodiol (comprised 45. 47% and 25. 36% of the total sterols, respectively) and other 10 sterols (comprising the remaining 30.17%) including ergosterol biosynthetic intermediates such as 24-methylene dihydrolanosterol, 4,4-dimethylfecosterol, 4-methyl fecosterol, fecosterol and episterol. Column chromatography also led to the isolation of lanosterol, Inotodiol, trametenolic acid, foscoparianol B and a new triterpenoid foscoparianol D in field-grown mycelia. In comparison, the cultured mycelia only contained three sterols with ergosterol as the predominant one (82.20%). Lanosterol only accounted for 3.68%. Supplementing Ag+ into the culture at 0.28 micromol x L(-1) greatly enhanced content of lanosterol (accounting for 56.81%) and decreased the content of ergosterol (18.5%) together with the presence of intermediates for ergosterol biosynthesis. These results suggested that the sterol composition in mycelia of the fungus can be diversified by supplementing substances inhibiting enzymatic process towards the synthesis of ergosterol. Harsh growth conditions in field environment (i.e. temperature variation, UV irradiation etc.) can delay the synthesis of ergosterol and hereby diversify the sterol composition in the mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. PMID:17882960

Zheng, Wei-fa; Liu, Tong; Xiang, Xiao-yan; Gu, Qi

2007-07-01

166

New Bioactive Compounds from Korean Native Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are ubiquitous in nature and have high nutritional attributes. They have demonstrated diverse biological effects and therefore have been used in treatments of various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections, and ulcer. In particular, polysaccharides, including ?-glucan, are considered as the major constituents responsible for the biological activity of mushrooms. Although an overwhelming number of reports have been published on the importance of polysaccharides as immunomodulating agents, not all of the healing properties found in these mushrooms could be fully accounted for. Recently, many research groups have begun investigations on biologically active small-molecular weight compounds in wild mushrooms. In this mini-review, both structural diversity and biological activities of novel bioactive substances from Korean native mushrooms are described. PMID:24493936

Kim, Seong-Eun; Hwang, Byung Soon; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, In-Kyoung

2013-01-01

167

Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.  

PubMed

For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. PMID:24125745

El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

2013-12-01

168

Dose due to mushroom ingestion in Spain.  

PubMed

The dose due to ingestion of mushrooms depends on their radioactive content. However, not all the mass of the mushroom ingested is digested and assimilated completely by man. To analyse the degree of assimilation of the radioactive content of mushrooms, we have carried out culture under controlled laboratory conditions for Pleurotus eryngii mushrooms to which we added known activities of 134Cs, 85Sr and 239Pu. We then applied the Van Soest method to the fruiting bodies, which were obtained in order to determine the fraction of these radionuclides associated with the major components of the cell that are assimilable by man. Finally, on the basis of the results, we determined the dose due to 137Cs, 90Sr and (239+240)Pu for several mushroom species collected in different natural and semi-natural ecosystems in Spain. PMID:15367777

Baeza, A; Guillén, F J

2004-01-01

169

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Genetic susceptibility to Chagas disease cardiomyopathy: involvement cardiomyopathy (CCC), an inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy that is, by far, the most important clinical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

170

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Prevention and Control  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Prevention & Control In endemic areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America improved housing and ...

171

Effects of mushroom harvest technique on subsequent American matsutake production  

E-print Network

Effects of mushroom harvest technique on subsequent American matsutake production Daniel L. Luoma a for sustainable mushroom production is uncertain and concerns remain about the cumulative effects of picking mushrooms will reduce subsequent fruiting. Here, we evaluate the effects of several mushroom harvest

172

Common Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Salt Point, California  

E-print Network

Common Mushrooms and Other Fungi of Salt Point, California PP 135 Field Identification of Mushrooms to be used with Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora (Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, Second Edition, 1986). Where the common genera of mushrooms and other fungi found in December near Salt Point, California, and on the UC

California at Berkeley, University of

173

Parental, Personality, and Peer Correlates of Psychoactive Mushroom Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College undergraduates (N=53) reporting use of a hallucinogenic mushroom (Psilocybe) were matched to nonusers. Hallucinogenic mushroom use by men was most associated with peers' mushroom use, whereas mushroom use by women was most associated with parental drug use, especially fathers' marijuana use. Personality measures were secondary in…

Anglin, M. Douglas; And Others

1986-01-01

174

V350 Mushrooms: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly  

Microsoft Academic Search

eating the mushroom, but mushrooms are found in the pet's environment. Clinical signs associated with mushroom poisoning are varied, depending on toxin and dose, and are not unique. There are few laboratories that actually test for the toxins present in mushrooms, and many of the toxins have short half-lives. In addition, specimen preservation is critical to accurate identification by a

Patricia A. Talcott; WA Pullman

175

Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of extending knowledge on chemical and nutritional characteristics of commercial mushrooms widely consumed in Italy, fresh and processed mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Boletus group) were analysed fresh or after cooking. Results show that botanical variety, processing and cooking are all effective determinants of mushroom proximate composition. Dried mushrooms (Boletus group) after cooking show the highest

Pamela Manzi; Altero Aguzzi; Laura Pizzoferrato

2001-01-01

176

Lanostane-type triterpenoids from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus possessing anti-tumor promoting activity.  

PubMed

Two new lanostane-type triterpenoids, 1 and 2 besides two known lanostane-type triterpenoids, 3 and 4 were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be lanosta-8,23E-diene-3beta,22R,25-triol (1) and lanosta-7:9(11),23E-triene-3beta,22R,25-triol (2) by spectral data. These compounds were tested for their anti-tumor-promoting activity using a short-term in vitro assay for EBV-EA activation induced by TPA. Compounds 1, 2 and 4 were stronger than the positive control, oleanolic acid. The most abundant compound 4 was investigated for the inhibitory effect in a two-stage carcinogenesis test on mouse skin using DMBA as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. Compound 4 was found to exhibit the potent anti-tumor promoting activity in the in vivo carcinogenesis test. PMID:18387711

Taji, Sayaka; Yamada, Takeshi; Wada, Shun-Ichi; Tokuda, Harukuni; Sakuma, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko

2008-11-01

177

Physical modifications of polysaccharide from Inonotus obliquus and the antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

Physical modification of polysaccharides exerted better biological properties because of the change of physicochemical properties. Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (IOPS) were modified by acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment in this study. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS and its physical modified products were comparatively investigated by chemical methods, gas chromatography, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron micrograph, circular dichroism spectra, and ferric reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay, respectively. Results showed that physicochemical and antioxidant properties of IOPS were changed after the physical modification of acid, alkali hydrolysis, thermal and ultrasonic treatment. Thermal treated polysaccharide (Th-IOPS) and ultrasonic treated polysaccharide (Ul-IOPS) showed the properties of lower molecular weight distribution, lower intrinsic viscosity, a hyperbranched conformation, and higher antioxidant abilities on ferric-reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity compared with the native polysaccharide IOPS. Th-IOPS and Ul-IOPS might be explored as a novel potential antioxidant for food industry. PMID:23270834

Zhang, Ning; Chen, Haixia; Ma, Lishuai; Zhang, Yu

2013-03-01

178

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol, and other triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

An unusual lanostane-type triterpenoid, spiroinonotsuoxodiol (1), and two lanostane-type triterpenoids, inonotsudiol A (2) and inonotsuoxodiol A (3), were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were determined to be (3S,7S,9R)-3,7-dihydroxy-7(8-->9)abeo-lanost-24-en-8-one (1), lanosta-8,24-dien-3beta,11beta-diol (2), and (22R)-3beta,22-dihydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-11-one (3) on the basis of NMR spectroscopy, including 1D and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC) NMR, and FABMS. Compounds 1-3 showed moderate activity against cultured P388, L1210, HL-60 and KB cells. PMID:20691456

Handa, Noriko; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

2010-10-01

179

Inonotus obliquus protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-05-01

180

Chemical analysis and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia.  

PubMed

Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (IOP40, IOP60 and IOP80) were isolated by using different concentrations of alcohol precipitation from Inonotus obliquus sclerotia. Their physicochemical properties, including total sugar content, protein content, monosaccharide composition and percentage were analyzed. And their in vitro antioxidant capacities were investigated in terms of reducing power assay and scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radicals and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In general, three polysaccharide fractions exhibited increasing antioxidant activity with increasing concentration at the ranges of tested dosage. The orders of reducing power, DPPH-scavenging capacity, H2O2-scavenging capacity, and hydroxyl-scavenging activity were all IOP60>IOP40>IOP80. These findings demonstrated that three polysaccharide fractions extracted from I. obliquus, especially IOP60, could be employed as natural ingredients in functional food and pharmaceutical industry to alleviate the oxidative stress. PMID:24145301

Du, XiuJu; Mu, HongMei; Zhou, Shuai; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, XiaoLi

2013-11-01

181

Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

182

Dynamical tunneling in mushroom billiards  

E-print Network

We study the fundamental question of dynamical tunneling in generic two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems by considering regular-to-chaotic tunneling rates. Experimentally, we use microwave spectra to investigate a mushroom billiard with adjustable foot height. Numerically, we obtain tunneling rates from high precision eigenvalues using the improved method of particular solutions. Analytically, a prediction is given by extending an approach using a fictitious integrable system to billiards. In contrast to previous approaches for billiards, we find agreement with experimental and numerical data without any free parameter.

A. Bäcker; R. Ketzmerick; S. Löck; M. Robnik; G. Vidmar; R. Höhmann; U. Kuhl; H. -J. Stöckmann

2008-01-18

183

Apical aneurysm of Chagas's heart disease.  

PubMed Central

A retrospective study of Chagas's heart disease was carried out by a review of necropsy reports with special reference to the lesion known as the apical aneurysm. It was concluded that this lesion was more frequent in men, was unrelated to age, and was unrelated to heart weight. Patients dying of the cardiac consequences of Chagas's cardiomyopathy were more likely to have an apical aneurysm than those whose death was unrelated to the disease but the mode of death (sudden, or with heart failure) was unconnected with its presence. Transillumination from within the ventricle at necropsy was not only useful in demonstrating the aneurysm but also showed areas of myocardial thinning elsewhere. Thrombosis within the lesion was frequent. The aetiology of the apical aneurysm is discussed and it is concluded that while ischaemia, inflammation, thrombosis, and mechanical factors may produce and localise this lesion, the underlying cause is the basic pathogenetic process-parasympathetic nerve cell destruction. Images PMID:7295439

Oliveira, J S; Mello De Oliveira, J A; Frederigue, U; Lima Filho, E C

1981-01-01

184

Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus BELYU1102 was selected from 12 different strains of Inonotus as a producer of immuno-stimulating polysaccharide. After a batch fermentation of I. obliquus BELYU1102 was carried out in a 300 l pilot vessel, endo-polysaccharide and exo-polysaccharide were both obtained. The proliferation activity of endo-polysaccharide for splenic cells was much higher than the activity of exo-polysaccharide. The active endo-polysaccharide was produced primarily during the late stationary phase. Enhanced proliferation and polyclonal IgM antibody production were observed in B cells by purified water-soluble endo-polysaccharide. Nitrite production and expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and iNOS in macrophages were also enhanced. However, the endo-polysaccharide did not affect the proliferation of T cells, the IL-2 expression of Th1 cells, or the IL-4 expression of Th2 cells. The endo-polysaccharide showed activities similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for B cells and macrophages, but there was a large difference between the two polysaccharides because cellular activations induced by endo-polysaccharide were not affected by polymyxin B, a specific inhibitor of LPS. The endo-polysaccharide appeared to have other cellular binding sites with TLR-4 and did not show a direct toxicity against tumor cells. However, indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation were observed. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of I. obliquus is a candidate for use as an immune response modifier. Submerged mycelial cultures are advantageous for industrial production of polysaccharides. PMID:15970296

Kim, Yong Ook; Han, Sang Bae; Lee, Hong Woen; Ahn, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Yeo Dae; Jung, Joon Ki; Kim, Hwan Mook; Shin, Chul Soo

2005-09-23

185

Use of a Novel Chagas Urine Nanoparticle Test (Chunap) for Diagnosis of Congenital Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Detection of congenital T. cruzi transmission is considered one of the pillars of control programs of Chagas disease. Congenital transmission accounts for 25% of new infections with an estimated 15,000 infected infants per year. Current programs to detect congenital Chagas disease in Latin America utilize microscopy early in life and serology after 6 months. These programs suffer from low sensitivity by microscopy and high loss to follow-up later in infancy. We developed a Chagas urine nanoparticle test (Chunap) to concentrate, preserve and detect T. cruzi antigens in urine for early, non-invasive diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings This is a proof-of-concept study of Chunap for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. Poly N-isopropylacrylamide nano-particles functionalized with trypan blue were synthesized by precipitation polymerization and characterized with photon correlation spectroscopy. We evaluated the ability of the nanoparticles to capture, concentrate and preserve T. cruzi antigens. Urine samples from congenitally infected and uninfected infants were then concentrated using these nanoparticles. The antigens were eluted and detected by Western Blot using a monoclonal antibody against T. cruzi lipophosphoglycan. The nanoparticles concentrate T. cruzi antigens by 100 fold (western blot detection limit decreased from 50 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml). The sensitivity of Chunap in a single specimen at one month of age was 91.3% (21/23, 95% CI: 71.92%–98.68%), comparable to PCR in two specimens at 0 and 1 month (91.3%) and significantly higher than microscopy in two specimens (34.8%, 95% CI: 16.42%–57.26%). Chunap specificity was 96.5% (71/74 endemic, 12/12 non-endemic specimens). Particle-sequestered T. cruzi antigens were protected from trypsin digestion. Conclusion/Significance Chunap has the potential to be developed into a simple and sensitive test for the early diagnosis of congenital Chagas disease. PMID:25275534

Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Sanchez, Gerardo; Valencia Ayala, Edward; Liotta, Lance; Bern, Caryn; Luchini, Alessandra

2014-01-01

186

Comparative antioxidative characteristics of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential antioxidant property of polysaccharide-enriched extracts from the natural fungal sclerotia and the cultured mycelia in submerged fermentation of Inonotus obliquus was evaluated using three antioxidant assays. The extracts from both the natural sclerotia and cultured mycelia including extra- and intra-cellular extracts were effective in scavenging hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and in inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The content and

Xiangqun Xu; Yongde Wu; Hui Chen

2011-01-01

187

Antiviral activity of Inonotus obliquus fungus extract towards infection caused by hepatitis C virus in cell cultures.  

PubMed

Fractions of Inonotus obliquus fungus water extract exhibited a virucidal effect towards hepatitis C virus: it 100-fold reduced its infective properties within 10 min. The antiviral effects of fungus extracts manifested after preventive (24 h before infection) and therapeutic use (during infection of porcine embryo kidney cells). Moreover, the data indicate that the birch fungus extracts inhibit production of infective virus by porcine embryo kidney cells. PMID:22462058

Shibnev, V A; Mishin, D V; Garaev, T M; Finogenova, N P; Botikov, A G; Deryabin, P G

2011-09-01

188

Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from

Yong Ook Kim; Hae Woong Park; Jong Hoon Kim; Jae Young Lee; Seong Hoon Moon; Chul Soo Shin

2006-01-01

189

The elimination of Chagas' disease from Brazil  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY On 9 June 2006 the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) presented the Minister of Health of Brazil with the International Elimination of Transmission of Chagas' Disease Certificate. This act was the culmination of an intensive process that began in 1991 with the Southern Cone Initiative, a joint agreement between the governments of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay and Peru, to control Chagas' disease by the elimination of the main vector, Triatoma infestans. This initiative has been highly successful and the prevalence area of the vector diminished rapidly in the last years. As a consequence, the current seroprevalence in children aged between 0 and 5 years is of the order of 10?5, a clear indication that transmission, if it is occurring, is only accidental. In this review I calculate the basic reproduction number, R0, for Chagas' disease and demonstrate that its relatively low value (1·25) explains why vectorial transmission was interrupted relatively easily. In addition, I used a mathematical model to forecast how long the remaining cases of the disease, as well as the additional vertically transmitted cases will last. PMID:18053273

MASSAD, E.

2008-01-01

190

Poisoning from accidental ingestion of mushrooms.  

PubMed

Poisoning from the accidental ingestion of mushrooms is an uncommon cause of morbidity within Australia and unlike many other countries no deaths have yet been recorded. This review seeks to draw attention to the various syndromes associated with mushroom poisoning and their management, thereby helping to keep our good record intact. Although the number of toxic species is relatively small, the collection and ingestion of field varieties should be left to those absolutely certain of their quest. In cases of poisoning, identification of the offending mushroom is of paramount importance in the management. In suspected or known amatoxin poisoning prompt treatment favourably influences outcome. PMID:8326897

Barbato, M P

1993-06-21

191

Molecular Epidemiologic Source Tracking of Orally Transmitted Chagas Disease, Venezuela  

PubMed Central

Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing. PMID:23768982

Segovia, Maikell; Martinez, Clara E.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londono, Juan C.; Espinosa, Raul; Martinez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D.; de Noya, Belkisyole A.; Miles, Michael A.; Llewellyn, Martin S.

2013-01-01

192

Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin: A possible role in Chagas’ disease autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is the causative agent of Chagas’ disease, an endemic and chronic illness that affects 18 million people in Latin America. The mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis are controversial. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the view that T. cruzi infection elicits severe autoimmune responses in the host, which significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of Chagas

Carolina Hager Ribeiro; Nandy C. López; Galia A. Ramírez; Carolina E. Valck; María Carmen Molina; Lorena Aguilar; Margarita Rodríguez; Ismael Maldonado; Ramón Martínez; Carlos González; Rodrigo Troncoso; Sergio Lavandero; Alexandre R. Gingras; Wilhelm Schwaeble; Arturo Ferreira

2009-01-01

193

Detection of Calcium Transients in Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons with Camgaroo Reporters  

E-print Network

Detection of Calcium Transients in Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons with Camgaroo Reporters Dinghui mushroom bodies using the galactosidase-4 (GAL4) system. Potassium depolar of mushroom body neurons. Acetylcholine applied near the dendrites of the mushroom body neurons induces

Tsien, Roger Y.

194

Mushrooms—Biologically Distinct and Nutritionally Unique  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are fungi, biologically distinct from plant- and animal-derived foods (fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy, protein [meat, fish, poultry, legumes, nuts, and seeds]) that comprise the US Department of Agriculture food patterns operationalized by consumer-focused MyPlate messages. Although mushrooms provide nutrients found in these food groups, they also have a unique nutrient profile. Classified into food grouping systems by their use as a vegetable, mushrooms’ increasing use in main entrées in plant-based diets is growing, supporting consumers’ efforts to follow dietary guidance recommendations. Mushrooms’ nutrient and culinary characteristics suggest it may be time to reevaluate food groupings and health benefits in the context of 3 separate food kingdoms: plants/botany, animals/zoology, and fungi/mycology.

Jo Feeney, Mary; Miller, Amy Myrdal; Roupas, Peter

2014-01-01

195

Spectral properties of Bunimovich mushroom billiards  

E-print Network

Properties of a quantum mushroom billiard in the form of a superconducting microwave resonator have been investigated. They reveal unexpected nonuniversal features such as, e.g., a supershell effect in the level density and a dip in the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution. Theoretical predictions for the quantum properties of mixed systems rely on the sharp separability of phase space - an unusual property met by mushroom billiards. We however find deviations which are ascribed to the presence of dynamic tunneling.

B. Dietz; T. Friedrich; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter; F. Schaefer

2007-03-13

196

Antioxidant properties of several specialty mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four specialty mushrooms are commercially available in Taiwan, including Dictyophora indusiata (basket stinkhorn), Grifola frondosa (maitake), Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane), and Tricholoma giganteum (white matsutake). Methanolic extracts were prepared from these specialty mushrooms and their antioxidant properties were studied. The antioxidant activities at 1.2 mg ml?1 were in the order of basket stinkhorn>lion's mane>maitake>white matsutake. Basket stinkhorn showed an excellent

Jeng-Leun Mau; Hsiu-Ching Lin; Si-Fu Song

2002-01-01

197

Insecticidal properties of mushroom and toadstool carpophores.  

PubMed

In order to find compounds with insecticidal or antifeedant properties from mushrooms and toadstools, a wide screening was undertaken using the non-mycophagous Drosophila melanogaster as a model insect. Powdered fruit bodies of edible and poisonous mushrooms were incorporated with the Drosophila's rearing medium, and their development was observed. Among the 175 different species of fungi tested, 79 were found to inhibit insect development, hence making the isolation of new compounds look hopeful. PMID:8729458

Mier, N; Canete, S; Klaebe, A; Chavant, L; Fournier, D

1996-03-01

198

Modelling mites, moulds and mushroom yields in the Australian Mushroom Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient sustainable mushroom production is dependent on a consistent production of compost that needs to be of a high quality. Unwanted mites and soil fungi, especially Trichoderma species, can reduce yields so it is important to be able to manage this situation. The relationship between mites, fungi and mushroom yields are complex and a Bayesian Belief Network (Norsys Pty Ltd)

A. Shamshad

199

Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: Food function and medicinal effect of mushroom fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of the several thousand species of mushrooms (Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes) on earth, 1500 species are found in Japan. Many of these species are valuable as gene pool sources which can be utilized by biotechnology to develop new foods and new medicines. Many edible mushrooms are now being studied for their nutritional and flavor properties. To utilize the full potential

Takashi Mizuno

1995-01-01

200

Effects of inotodiol extracts from inonotus obliquus on proliferation cycle and apoptotic gene of human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To observe the proliferation inhibition, apoptosis, and cell proliferation cycle of human lung carcinoma cell line A549 treated\\u000a with Inotodiol extracts from Inonotus obliquus and explore the possibility of Inotodiol extracts from Inonotus obliquus as\\u000a a new tumor chemopreventive drug.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Human lung cancer cell line A549 was treated with different concentrations of Inotodiol, the effects of Inotodiol on cell\\u000a apoptosis,

Xiu-hong Zhong; Li-bo Wang; Dong-zhi Sun

2011-01-01

201

Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. Materials and methods. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. Results. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease. PMID:24738834

Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

2014-12-01

202

Toxicological profiles of poisonous, edible, and medicinal mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md Akil; Park, Seung-Chun

2014-09-01

203

Toxicological Profiles of Poisonous, Edible, and Medicinal Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Mushrooms are a recognized component of the human diet, with versatile medicinal properties. Some mushrooms are popular worldwide for their nutritional and therapeutic properties. However, some species are dangerous because they cause toxicity. There are many reports explaining the medicinal and/or toxic effects of these fungal species. Cases of serious human poisoning generally caused by the improper identification of toxic mushroom species are reported every year. Different substances responsible for the fatal signs and symptoms of mushroom toxicity have been identified from various poisonous mushrooms. Toxicity studies of mushroom species have demonstrated that mushroom poisoning can cause adverse effects such as liver failure, bradycardia, chest pain, seizures, gastroenteritis, intestinal fibrosis, renal failure, erythromelalgia, and rhabdomyolysis. Correct categorization and better understanding are essential for the safe and healthy consumption of mushrooms as functional foods as well as for their medicinal use. PMID:25346597

Jo, Woo-Sik; Hossain, Md. Akil

2014-01-01

204

Immunoregulatory networks in human Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, caused by the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, is endemic in all Latin America. Due to the increase in population migration, Chagas disease has spread worldwide and is now considered a health issue not only in endemic countries. While most chronically infected individuals remain asymptomatic, approximately 30% of the patients develop a potentially deadly cardiomyopathy. The exact mechanisms that underlie the establishment and maintenance of the cardiac pathology are not clear. However, there is consistent evidence that immunoregulatory cytokines are critical for orchestrating the immune response and thus influence disease development or control. While the asymptomatic (indeterminate) form represents a state of balance between the host and the parasite, the establishment of the cardiac form represents the loss of this balance. Analysis of data obtained from several studies has led to the hypothesis that the indeterminate form is associated with an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, represented by high expression of IL-10, while cardiac form is associated with a high production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in relation to IL-10, leading to an inflammatory profile. Here, we discuss the immunoregulatory events that might influence disease outcome, as well as the mechanisms that influence the establishment of these complex immunoregulatory networks. PMID:24611805

Dutra, W O; Menezes, C A S; Magalhães, L M D; Gollob, K J

2014-08-01

205

Chagas' Disease: Pregnancy and Congenital Transmission  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is a chronic infection that kills approximately 12,000 people a year. Mass migration of chronically infected and asymptomatic persons has caused globalization of Chagas disease and has made nonvectorial infection, including vertical and blood-borne transmission, more of a threat to human communities than vectorial infection. To control transmission, it is essential to test all pregnant women living in endemic countries and all pregnant women having migrated from, or having lived in, endemic countries. All children born to seropositive mothers should be tested not only within the first month of life but also at ~6 months and ~12 months of age. The diagnosis is made by identification of the parasite in blood before the age of 6 months and by identification of the parasite in blood and/or positive serology after 10 months of age. Follow up for a year is essential as a significant proportion of cases are initially negative and are only detected at a later stage. If the condition is diagnosed and treated early, the clinical response is excellent and the majority of cases are cured. PMID:24949443

Hernandez, Roberto

2014-01-01

206

Chagas disease and globalization of the Amazon.  

PubMed

The increasing number of autochthonous cases of Chagas disease in the Amazon since the 1970s has led to fear that the disease may become a new public health problem in the region. This transformation in the disease's epidemiological pattern in the Amazon can be explained by environmental and social changes in the last 30 years. The current article draws on the sociological theory of perverse effects to explain these changes as the unwanted result of the shift from the "inward" development model prevailing until the 1970s to the "outward" model that we know as globalization, oriented by industrial forces and international trade. The current article highlights the implementation of five new patterns in agriculture, cattle-raising, mining, lumbering, and urban occupation that have generated changes in the environment and the traditional indigenous habitat and have led to migratory flows, deforestation, sedentary living, the presence of domestic animals, and changes in the habitat that facilitate colonization of human dwellings by vectors and the domestic and work-related transmission of the disease. The expansion of Chagas disease is thus a perverse effect of the globalization process in the Amazon. PMID:17308715

Briceño-León, Roberto

2007-01-01

207

Immunostimulating activity by polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-02-01

208

Accumulation of antioxidant phenolic constituents in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds produced by sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus are the active constituents responsible for antioxidant activities. In this study, I. obliquus was grown in a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) to explore how it accumulates phenolic compounds in different culture media and whether these compounds possess antioxidant activities. Phenolic compounds produced by I. obliquus in the control medium consisted of melanins, flavonoids, polyphenols and small phenolics. Their accumulation was affected by adding H(2)O(2) to the medium, where increased levels of total intracellular phenols (TIP) and melanins, but less total extracellular phenol (TEP) occurred. Simultaneous exposure to H(2)O(2) and arbutin resulted in a further increase in TIP production and reduced accumulation of TEP. Both TIP and TEP obtained at different culture ages and media were active in scavenging superoxide anion and DPPH radicals. Therefore, production of phenolic compounds by I. obliquus is enhanced by imposing oxidative stress, which might allow it to be exploited as a reliable source of pharmaceutically important phenolic compounds. PMID:18824349

Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Yao; Miao, Kangjie; Wei, Zhiwen

2009-02-01

209

Anti-inflammatory effects of Inonotus obliquus in colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate.  

PubMed

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 +/- 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-alpha, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

210

Identification of Inonotus obliquus and analysis of antioxidation and antitumor activities of polysaccharides.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus, a wild wood-decay fungus which grows on Betula trees in cool climates, has a variety of biological activities that the scientific community is paying more and more attention to. However, the research work is moving at a snail's pace. The methods of strain identification and the hypha microstructure have not been reported. We isolated one strain of filamentous molds from fruit body which was collected from birch wood on Changbai Mountain, cultivated mycelia on an inclined plane, and examined its micromorphology based on macroscopic examination. The strain was identified as I. obliquus by sequencing its ITS (internal transcribed spacer) domain. We subsequently investigated some of the mycelium polysaccharides' biological activities. The strain used in this study as the producers of antioxidation and anticancer polysaccharides was LNUF008. After fermentation in a 30-L fermenter, mycelia were obtained. The polysaccharides were extracted by transonic recirculation and ethanol precipitation. In order to identify the antioxidation effect, we designed an assay to test the inhibition of endogenous and Fe(2+)-Cys-induced lipid peroxidation as well as ferrous sulfate/ascorbate (Fe(2+)-VC)-induced mitochondrial swelling. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] method was used to study the antiproliferation activity of the polysaccharides on SMMC7721 hepatoma cells. The results indicate that I. obliquus polysaccharides exhibit high antitumor and antioxidation effects. The submerged culture method of growing I. obliquus will enable large-scale production of the polysaccharides. PMID:18795365

Song, Yana; Hui, Jing; Kou, Wei; Xin, Ru; Jia, Fei; Wang, Ning; Hu, Fengqing; Zhang, Huili; Liu, Hongsheng

2008-11-01

211

[Triterpenoids from Inonotus obliquus protect mice against oxidative damage induced by CCl4].  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of lanosterol (1), inotodiol (2) and trametenolic acid (3) from Inonotus obliquus against oxidative damage induced by CCl4 in mice, 1, 2 and 3 (20, 10 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) were respectively administered to mice, once a day for 3 days. Then the mice were induced to oxidative damage by CCl4 on the third day 30 min after the administration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reductive glutathione (GSH) in serum and liver homogenate were determined. And the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum were detected. The results showed that treatment with compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly increase the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX in serum and liver homogenate. Furthermore, the content of GSH in serum and liver homogenate increased and MDA content decreased markedly. In addition, compound 1, 2 and 3 could significantly inhibit the activities of ALT and AST in serum, and decrease the IL-6 concentration in serum remarkably. So, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect mice against oxidative stress injury induced by CCl4. Furthermore, compound 1, 2 and 3 can protect cells from damage through inhibition on ALT, AST and the expression of IL-6. PMID:22812017

Zhao, Fen-Qin; Yan, Lin; Cui, Xian-Hong; Lin, Sheng; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Hui; Kang, Xiao-Yan; Ji, Bian-Sheng

2012-05-01

212

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate  

PubMed Central

A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7?±?1.6?g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-?, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

2010-01-01

213

Involvements of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation in the production of polyphenols by Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) has been evidenced to mediate biosynthesis of polyphenols in Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO regulates their biosynthesis. Here we show that higher cellular NO levels coincided with higher accumulation of S-nitrosothiols (SNO; the products of NO combined with a specific residue in glutathione or proteins) and polyphenols, and higher activity of denitrosylated S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). This homeostasis was breached by GSNOR or TrxR inhibitors. Inhibiting GSNOR boosted TrxR activity, but reduced SNO formation, coinciding with an enhanced production of polyphenols. Likewise, inhibiting TrxR increased GSNOR activity and SNO production, but downregulated accumulation of polyphenols. Inhibiting GSNOR or TrxR also modified the polyphenolic profiles of I. obliquus. Suppressing GSNOR-enhanced biosynthesis of phelligridins C and H, inoscavin C and methyl inoscavin B, but reduced that of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone and methyl davallialactone, the typical polyphenols in I. obliquus. Similarly, downregulating TrxR increased production of phelligridin D, methyl inoscavin A, davallialactone, and methyl davallialactone, but shrinking that of phelligridins C and H, methyl inoscavin B and inoscavin C. Thus, in I. obliquus, the state of S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation affects not only the accumulation of polyphenols, but also their metabolic profiles. PMID:21468702

Zheng, Weifa; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Yuan, Weihua; Dai, Yucheng; Wei, Jiangchun

2011-06-01

214

Immunostimulating Activity by Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-? secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-?/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-? secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-? secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

2011-01-01

215

Production of antioxidant and antitumor metabolites by submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus punctatus.  

PubMed

While Inonotus obliquus produces a diverse range of bioactive metabolites in its natural habitats, it accumulates less in its submerged cultures. We show here that coculture of I. obliquus with Phellinus punctatus resulted in less production of mycelial biomass but an increased accumulation of phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Metabolites increased in production by coculture include phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, inoscavin B, davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-en, lanosta-7,9(11),23-triene-3?,22,25-triol, and inotodisaccharide and melanins. Metabolites from coculture also showed an increased potential for scavenging free radicals and inhibiting the proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Davallialactone, methyl davallialactone, and minor phenolic components are the major contributors for scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radical in monoculture, and phelligridin C, phelligridin H, methyl inoscavin A, inoscavin C, methyl davallialactone, foscoparianol D, and inotodisaccharide are those for scavenging the tested radicals in coculture. Lanostane-type triterpenoids indicated limited roles in scavenging free radicals. Nearly all the detected metabolites correlate positively with inhibiting proliferation of HeLa 229 cells. Thus, coculture of I. obliquus with other fungi seems to be a cost-effective strategy for upregulating biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites. PMID:20830471

Zheng, Weifa; Zhao, Yanxia; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng; Liu, Fuming

2011-01-01

216

Advances in Mushroom Research in the Last Decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary There has been a lot of progress in mushroom science and biotechnology in the last decade. The optimization of PFGE separation of fungal chromosomes allowed the study of the molecular karyotype of mushrooms and the assignment of genes to chromosomes. There are 115 genes encoded from different species of mushrooms. Cross breeding contin- ues to be the principal method,

Leifa Fan; Huijuan Pan; Andrea Thomaz Soccol; Ashok Pandey; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2006-01-01

217

Crocipodin, a benzotropolone pigment from the mushroom Leccinum crocipodium (Boletales)  

E-print Network

Crocipodin, a benzotropolone pigment from the mushroom Leccinum crocipodium (Boletales) Lydia December 2010 Keywords: Crocipodin Mushroom pigment Benzotropolone Heck reaction Bolete a b s t r a c trees. The mushroom is easily recognized by its bright yellow pores and the darkening of its flesh where

Trauner, Dirk

218

Mushrooms: Morphological complexity in the fungi John W. Taylor1  

E-print Network

Mushrooms: Morphological complexity in the fungi John W. Taylor1 and Christopher E. Ellison morphologically complex fungi, the "inky cap" mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea, and illustrates the ac- complishments-assembled and annotated genomes are unicellular (3). Enter C. cin- erea, which develops into a macroscopic mushroom

219

synthesis in the mushroom bodies upon robust and chronic  

E-print Network

synthesis in the mushroom bodies upon robust and chronic developmental expression as one would. A control experiment performed to test the potency of RICINCS in blocking mushroom-body protein synthesis. In addition, the inhibition of KAEDE expression was monitored only in the cell bodies of the mushroom bodies

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

220

Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited Carl P. Dettmann 1  

E-print Network

Open Mushrooms: Stickiness revisited Carl P. Dettmann 1 and Orestis Georgiou 1 1 School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, United Kingdom We investigate mushroom billiards, a class of dynamical a generalized mushroom and using properties of continued fractions, we describe a zero measure set of control

Dettmann, Carl

221

PMB113 California Mushrooms F2007 Course control number 70968  

E-print Network

PMB113 California Mushrooms F2007 Course control number 70968 Credits: 3 Monday 2-5 lab 209 GPBB will be on laboratory work with fresh and dried fungi. Lectures on Wednesday focus on mushroom systematics, collection to cover. Mon 8/27/07 lab Using the microscope, sectioning and examining mushrooms Wed 8/29/07 lect

California at Berkeley, University of

222

Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms

S. P. Wasser

2002-01-01

223

Mushroom poisoning: retrospective analysis of 294 cases  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to present special clinical and laboratory features of 294 cases of mushroom poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this retrospective study, 294 patients admitted to the Pediatric and Adult Emergency, Internal Medicine and ICU Departments of Cumhuriyet University Hospital were investigated. RESULTS Of 294 patients between the ages of 3 and 72 (28.97 ± 19.32), 173 were female, 121 were male and 90 were under the age of 16 years. One hundred seventy-three patients (58.8%) had consumed the mushrooms in the early summer. The onset of mushroom toxicity symptoms was divided into early (within 6 h after ingestion) and delayed (6 h to 20 d). Two hundred eighty-eight patients (97.9%) and six (2.1%) patients had early and delayed toxicity symptoms, respectively. The onset of symptoms was within two hours for 101 patients (34.3%). The most common first-noticed symptoms were in the gastrointestinal system. The patients were discharged within one to ten days. Three patients suffering from poisoning caused by wild mushrooms died from fulminant hepatic failure. CONCLUSION Education of the public about the consumption of mushrooms and education of health personnel working in health centers regarding early treatment and transfer to hospitals with appropriate facilities are important for decreasing the mortality. PMID:20535367

Eren, Sevki Hakan; Demirel, Yeltekin; Ugurlu, Serdal; Korkmaz, Ilhan; Aktas, Can; Guven, Fatma Mutlu Kukul

2010-01-01

224

Special Publication No. 2, A Bibliography On Chagas' Disease (1909-1969)  

E-print Network

-Mazza en la Rep?blica Argentina. (National program for Chagas' disease control in Argentina.) Dia Med., Buenos Aires, 34(13): 277-278, Mar. 12. 1965,- New light on Chagas' disease. (Nuevas luces sobre la enfermedad de Chagas.) Lancet, 1:1150- 1151, May.... Anonymous 1965.- Cardiac nerve lesions in Chagas' disease. (Com- promiso de los nervios card?acos en la enfermedad de Chagas.) Lancet, 2:375-376, Aug. 21. 1966.- Campa?a contra la enfermedad de Chagas. Division de endemias rurales. (Campaign against...

Olivier, Margaret C.; Olivier, Louis J.; Segal, Dorothy B.

1972-01-01

225

Antifungal activity of cysteine, its effect on C-21 oxygenated lanosterol derivatives and other lipids in Inonotus obliquus , in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity of cysteine (2-amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid) on mycelial growth and the production of lanosterol, 3,ß-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, 3,ß-21,dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-diene, trametenolic acid and ergosterol were investigated in solid and liquid cultures of Inonotus obliquus at cysteine concentrations of 0.9 and 9.0 mM by means of thin-layer chromatography densitometry. Cysteine elicited the production of ergosterol in all the cultures and at a concentration of

K. Kahlos; V. H. Tikka

1994-01-01

226

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment Treatment ... patients may be referred to a specialist, such as a cardiologist, gastroenterologist, or infectious disease specialist. In ...

227

American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . Parasites - American Trypanosomiasis (also known as Chagas Disease) Parasites Home Share Compartir Diagnosis Trypansoma ... made after consideration of the patient's clinical findings, as well as by the likelihood of being infected, ...

228

The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy.MethodsData were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for

Marianela Castillo-Riquelme; Felipe Guhl; Brenda Turriago; Nestor Pinto; Fernando Rosas; Mónica Flórez Martínez; Julia Fox-Rushby; Clive Davies; Diarmid Campbell-Lendrum

2008-01-01

229

Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas's disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

Goncalves da Rocha, A.F. (Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

1981-04-01

230

Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scanning in Chagas' disease  

SciTech Connect

Chagas' disease is a serious protozoan infection affecting up to 20% of populations in some endemic areas. Myocarditis and cardiomyopathy occur in 50% of patients who go on to develop chronic Chagas' disease. We have studied a patient with no overt cardiac symptoms who revealed intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m pyrophosphate. The significance of this finding in relation to early detection and progress of therapy is explored.

da Rocha, A.F.; Meguerian, B.A.; Harbert, J.C.

1981-04-01

231

Prizes and parasites: incentive models for addressing Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Recent advances in immunology have provided a foundation of knowledge to understand many of the intricacies involved in manipulating the human response to fight parasitic infections, and a great deal has been learned from malaria vaccine efforts regarding strategies for developing parasite vaccines. There has been some encouraging progress in the development of a Chagas vaccine in animal models. A prize fund for Chagas could be instrumental in ensuring that these efforts are translated into products that benefit patients. PMID:19493074

Crager, Sara E; Price, Matt

2009-01-01

232

[Chagas disease: an emerging public health problem in Italy?].  

PubMed

Chagas' disease is an endemic parasitic illness in the American continent, affecting around 16 to 18 million people. Given that 9.5% of immigrants to Italy are from Latin America and that the infection can be transmitted in non-endemic countries congenitally by organ donations and blood transfusions, Chagas disease should be regarded as an emerging public health problem in Italy. Clinical guidelines as well as health protocols are needed to deal with this rarely recognized disease. PMID:19359818

Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Ciannameo, A; Di Girolamo, C; Milei, J J

2009-03-01

233

NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using 1H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited

Weifa Zheng; Meimei Zhang; Yanxia Zhao; Kangjie Miao; Hong Jiang

2009-01-01

234

Optimization of ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus and evaluation of its anti-tumor activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the use of ultrasonic and microwave has attracted considerable interest as an alternative approach to the traditional extraction methods. In this paper, in order to maximize the yield and purity of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ultrasonic\\/microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) conditions. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for UMAE were

Yiyong Chen; Xiaohong Gu; Sheng-quan Huang; Jinwei Li; Xin Wang; Jian Tang

2010-01-01

235

Nonperiodic echoes from mushroom billiard hats  

E-print Network

Mushroom billiards have the remarkable property to show one or more clear cut integrable islands in one or several chaotic seas, without any fractal boundaries. The islands correspond to orbits confined to the hats of the mushrooms, which they share with the chaotic orbits. It is thus interesting to ask how long a chaotic orbit will remain in the hat before returning to the stem. This question is equivalent to the inquiry about delay times for scattering from the hat of the mushroom into an opening where the stem should be. For fixed angular momentum we find that no more than three different delay times are possible. This induces striking nonperiodic structures in the delay times that may be of importance for mesoscopic devices and should be accessible to microwave experiments.

B. Dietz; T. Friedrich; M. Miski-Oglu; A. Richter; T. H. Seligman; K. Zapfe

2006-11-07

236

[Chagas disease in the Americas: an ecohealth perspective].  

PubMed

The historical processes involved in Chagas disease transmission relate to the patterns and conditions of human settlements, especially in rural areas, due to proximity to forest areas, where both vectors and Trypanosoma cruzi can occur, combined with precarious housing conditions and underlying poverty. However, seasonal and permanent rural-urban migration has played a major role in re-mobilizing vectors, T. cruzi, and Chagas-infected individuals. A new agricultural frontier in the Amazon has led to a new transmission pattern, especially with palm trees located close to houses. Improved blood bank surveillance has decreased transmission by blood transfusions. International migration also plays a role in Chagas disease epidemiology. The United States and Spain, where specific health services for Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment are largely absent, harbor an unknown number of individuals with Chagas, probably infected decades ago. The article discusses major strides in Chagas disease knowledge and control, besides identifying persistent gaps, such as the need for housing improvements, especially in poor rural areas in the Americas. PMID:19287869

Briceño-León, Roberto

2009-01-01

237

Fatal Acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease (CD) or American trypanosomiasis is caused by a hemoflagellate protozoan, Trypanosoma cruzi (TC). This organism has been isolated from more than 100 mammalian species and several insect vectors demonstrating a wide host distribution and low host specificity. Methods A 23 year old male chimpanzee died acutely and a complete necropsy was performed to evaluate gross and microscopic pathologic changes. After observation of trypanosomal amastigotes in the myocardium, PCR and immunohistochemistry was employed to confirm the diagnosis of TC. Results Gross findings were consistent with mild congestive heart failure. Microscopic findings included multifocal myocardial necrosis associated with severe lymphocytic to mixed inflammatory infiltrates, edema, and mild chronic interstitial fibrosis. Multifocal intracytoplasmic amastigotes morphologically consistent with TC were observed in cardiac myofibers. TC was confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first fatal spontaneous case of TC infection in a chimpanzee. PMID:19281482

Bommineni, Yugendar R.; Dick, Edward J.; Estep, J. Scot; Van de Berg, John L.; Hubbard, Gene B.

2009-01-01

238

The Mushroom Genus Laccaria in North America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Botanist Gregory Mueller of The Field Museum (Chicago) has put together this spectacular resource on mushrooms in the genus Laccaria. Complete with a lengthy scientific introduction, the site contains a colorful, photo-illustrated species identification section (20+ species), an evolutionary tree for the genus, a pictorial key to aid in identification, an additional key for identifying Laccaria in Costa Rica, documentation of specimens examined, and a substantial Literature Cited section. For researchers, educators, students, and anyone else interested in these mushrooms, this is an excellent, information-rich, yet fully accessible, resource.

Mueller, Gregory M.

239

Mushroom poisoning: a case report from Jordan.  

PubMed

An eight years male child with his family ate fresh mushroom at lunch time from back garden at their home in a village in the North of Jordan. By the evening approximately six hours later all started feeling nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting they rushed to nearest primary health care center. After getting general medical medication they were transfer to a referral hospital at city of Irbid. The boy got deteriorated with diarrhea in addition to the previous gastrointestinal complains and died on third day. The message from this case is to ascertain in the public opinion that unknown type of mushroom even eaten previously could be poisonous and fetal. PMID:22816180

Shotar, Ali M; Alzyoud, Sukaina A; Samara, Omar; Obeidat, Jamal; Qasaimeh, G R

2012-02-15

240

Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation  

PubMed Central

Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste. PMID:24949264

2014-01-01

241

Enhancement of exo-polysaccharide production and antioxidant activity in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus by lignocellulose decomposition.  

PubMed

We reported that lignocellulose decomposition can be used to facilitate the production of bioactive polysaccharides from submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus. Exo-polysaccharide (EPS) production and antioxidant activity by Inonotus obliquus was enhanced by employing lignocellulose decomposition in a corn straw-containing submerged fermentation. A significant increase in the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity from 1.09 ± 0.01 g/l and 72.3 ± 1.9% in a basal medium to 1.38 ± 0.02 g/l and 82.7 ± 0.5% in a corn straw-containing medium was obtained. A synchronized effect between lignocellulose decomposition and malondialdehyde presenting hydroxyl radical concentration in the fermentation broth was identified. The adding of thiourea, a hydroxyl radical-scavenging reagent, suppressed malondialdehyde generation and lowered the lignocellulose decomposition rate. Correspondingly, the EPS production and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity decreased to 1.26 g/l and 74%. The EPS obtained from the corn straw-containing medium also presented the strongest superoxide radical scavenging activity. The monosaccharide components of the EPS from the corn straw-containing medium are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose, and galactose with molar proportions at 3.0, 3.0, 0.9, 46.6, 11.4, and 35.1%, respectively, which are largely different from the molar proportions of the EPS from the basal medium. PMID:20628784

Chen, Hui; Yan, Mingchao; Zhu, Jinwei; Xu, Xiangqun

2011-02-01

242

Determination of thermal conductivity of shiitake mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bulk thermal conductivity of shiitake mushroom as affected by moisture content and temperature was studied. Measurements were taken of moisture content between 25 and 85% wet basis and the temperature range of 30-90?C. Bulk thermal conductivity was determined using a line heat source probe apparatus. The results revealed that bulk thermal conductivity increased with an increase in moisture content

Hataichanok Kantrong; Ampawan Tansakul; Gauri S. Mittal

243

Micronized coal solves mushroom grower's boiler headaches  

SciTech Connect

A brief account is given of a Utah mushroom grower who has replaced two underfeed stoker-fired boilers requiring 7 attendants by an ultra-fine pulverised coal-fired system. The coal is ground in a proprietary rotary grinder to 80% through a 325-mesh screen. Information is presented on the mill and the special refractory burners required.

Reason, J.

1984-03-01

244

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE DESCRIPTION 2 3.3 CHEMICAL USAGE 4 3.4 WATER USAGE AND DISCHARGE 4 4.0 DETAILS OF SITE INVESTIGATION 5 4.1 SITE LOCATIONS 5 4.2 CHEMICAL USAGE 5 4.3 WASH WATER GENERATION AND DISCHARGE 5 4.4 WATER SAMPLE

245

Antitumor activity of mushroom polysaccharides: a review.  

PubMed

Mushrooms were considered as a special delicacy by early civilizations and valued as a credible source of nutrients including considerable amounts of dietary fiber, minerals, and vitamins (in particularly, vitamin D). Mushrooms are also recognized as functional foods for their bioactive compounds offer huge beneficial impacts on human health. One of those potent bioactives is ?-glucan, comprising a backbone of glucose residues linked by ?-(1?3)-glycosidic bonds with attached ?-(1?6) branch points, which exhibits antitumor and immunostimulating properties. The commercial pharmaceutical products from this polysaccharide source, such as schizophyllan, lentinan, grifolan, PSP (polysaccharide-peptide complex) and PSK (polysaccharide-protein complex), have shown evident clinical results. The immunomodulating action of mushroom polysaccharides is to stimulate natural killer cells, T-cells, B-cells, neutrophils, and macrophage dependent immune system responses via differing receptors involving dectin-1, the toll-like receptor-2 (a class of proteins that play a role in the immune system), scavengers and lactosylceramides. ?-Glucans with various structures present distinct affinities toward these receptors to trigger different host responses. Basically, their antitumor abilities are influenced by the molecular mass, branching configuration, conformation, and chemical modification of the polysaccharides. This review aims to integrate the information regarding nutritional, chemical and biological aspects of polysaccharides in mushrooms, which will possibly be employed to elucidate the correlation between their structural features and biological functions. PMID:22865023

Ren, Lu; Perera, Conrad; Hemar, Yacine

2012-11-01

246

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning: diagnosis and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatotoxic mushroom poisoning (due to Amanita, Lepiota and Galerina species) may be considered as a real medical emergency, since an early diagnosis and immediate treatment are required for a successful outcome. In this review the physio-pathological features and the clinical picture of amatoxin poisonings are described, as the basis for diagnosis and therapeutic decisions. The treatment schedule proposed is analyzed

Josep Piqueras

1989-01-01

247

Induction of cardiac autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: A case for molecular mimicry  

E-print Network

cruzi in Latin America, one third of whom will develop chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC) up. Keywords: Chagas disease cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity, cardiomyocyte, Trypanosoma cruzi, molecular mimicry, nearly 10% of all adult deaths are due to chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC). Clinical

Engman, David M.

248

Chagas disease in Texas: Recognizing the significance and implications of evidence in the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chagas disease is endemic and is recognized as a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Despite the parallels between socio-economic and environmental conditions in Texas and much of Latin America, Chagas disease is not a notifiable human disease in Texas. Based on extensive review of related literature, this paper seeks to recognize the evidence that Chagas Disease is

Elaine Jennifer Hanford; F. Benjamin Zhan; Yongmei Lu; Alberto Giordano

2007-01-01

249

Neurogenesis in adult insect mushroom bodies.  

PubMed

The occurrence of neurogenesis in mushroom bodies of adult insects belonging to several orthopteroid and coleopteran families is described. Using injections of 5-bromo, T2'-deoxyuridine, we showed that neuroblasts, which are progenitors of Kenyon cells during preimaginal instars, continue to divide in adult Acheta domesticus. Their progeny constitute a central column in mushroom body cortices of 3-week-old females. Other Gryllidae, Gryllus bimaculatus and Gryllomorpha dalmatina, show the same pattern of neuroblast activity and migration of their progeny. Immunocytochemical staining of glial cells failed to reveal any immunoreactivity, either in proliferating regions or in the resulting cells. In another orthopteran, Locusta migratoria, discrete clusters of cells, located dorsolateral to the Kenyon cells, incorporated 5-bromo, 2'-deoxyuridine, but we could not detect any neuronal progeny migrating to the mushroom body cortices. These cells were strongly labeled with an antiglial antibody, indicating that the replicating cells are glioblasts rather than neuroblasts. In Periplaneta americana (Dictyoptera), cells replicating their DNA were similarly shown to immunoreact with glial antibodies. In contrast, three coleopterans (Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas species, Harmonia axyridis) have two large neuroblasts located in the middle of the mushroom body cortices. These produce cells which migrate within the group of Kenyon cells, their nuclei having the same shape and size as those of surrounding Kenyon cells. In adult insects, neurogenesis in mushroom bodies occurs in Gryllidae and several coleopteran families, but could not be demonstrated in Dictyoptera and Acrididae. Its occurrence and distribution raise the issue of unexpected plasticity in the adult insect brain. PMID:8835734

Cayre, M; Strambi, C; Charpin, P; Augier, R; Meyer, M R; Edwards, J S; Strambi, A

1996-07-22

250

Chagas disease in Italy: breaking an epidemiological silence.  

PubMed

Chagas disease, a neglected tropical disease that due to population movements is no longer limited to Latin America, threatens a wide spectrum of people(travellers, migrants, blood or organ recipients,newborns, adoptees) also in non-endemic countries where it is generally underdiagnosed. In Italy, the available epidemiological data about Chagas disease have been very limited up to now, although the country is second in Europe only to Spain in the number of residents from Latin American. Among 867 at-risk subjectsscreened between 1998 and 2010, the Centre for Tropical Diseases in Negrar (Verona) and the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit, University of Florence found 4.2% patients with positive serology for Chagas disease (83.4% of them migrants, 13.8% adoptees).No cases of Chagas disease were identified in blood donors or HIV-positive patients of Latin American origin. Among 214 Latin American pregnant women,three were infected (resulting in abortion in one case).In 2005 a case of acute Chagas disease was recorded in an Italian traveller. Based on our observations, we believe that a wider assessment of the epidemiological situation is urgently required in our country and public health measures preventing transmission and improving access to diagnosis and treatment should be implemented. PMID:21944554

Angheben, A; Anselmi, M; Gobbi, F; Marocco, S; Monteiro, G; Buonfrate, D; Tais, S; Talamo, M; Zavarise, G; Strohmeyer, M; Bartalesi, F; Mantella, A; Di Tommaso, M; Aiello, Kh; Veneruso, G; Graziani, G; Ferrari, Mm; Spreafico, I; Bonifacio, E; Gaiera, G; Lanzafame, M; Mascarello, M; Cancrini, G; Albajar-Vinas, P; Bisoffi, Z; Bartoloni, A

2011-01-01

251

Epidemiology of Chagas disease in Europe: many calculations, little knowledge.  

PubMed

Chagas disease and its causative agent Trypanosoma cruzi are endemic in almost all countries in South and Middle America. Currently, there are more than 10 million affected people. It is the most common reason for heart failure and a frequent cause of intestinal problems in Latin America. The phenotype of the Chagas cardiomyopathy is varying. Dilative cardiomyopathy, often accompanied by an apical aneurysm is the most common finding in the end stage heart failure, but rhythm disorders like conduction blocks, ventricular or supraventricular forms of tachycardia or repolarization changes occur as well, mainly in the early stages. Migration of infected people leads to a distribution from the endemic countries to North America and Europe. Although more than 500,000 people of Latin American origin are currently living in Europe, Chagas disease is not considered as a public health problem, yet. Cases of transmission via blood donation, organ transplantation or from mother-to-child are reported for several European countries but there is no database for Germany. Current epidemiological data are mostly available from regional surveys from other countries or are extrapolated. Hence, there is a large variation in the estimated numbers on the incidence of Chagas. Robust and reliable data are lacking. This review gives an overview on the currently available data and calls for a German Chagas surveillance. PMID:23989652

Strasen, Jörn; Williams, Tatjana; Ertl, Georg; Zoller, Thomas; Stich, August; Ritter, Oliver

2014-01-01

252

Income generation from wild mushrooms in marginal rural areas Mattia Cai, Davide Pettenella , Enrico Vidale  

E-print Network

Income generation from wild mushrooms in marginal rural areas Mattia Cai, Davide Pettenella: Wild mushrooms Income generation Rural development North Karelia Harvesting wild edible fungi, international trade in previously unused mushroom resources has increasingly provided rural communities

Pettenella, Davide

253

Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects  

E-print Network

Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects Sarah M adaptive pressures. Convoluted cortical gyri-like structures characterize the mushroom body calyces correlates of this morphology in the Scarabaeidae (scarab beetles). ``Gyrencephalic'' mushroom bodies

Farris, Sarah M.

254

75 FR 62108 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-10-07

255

78 FR 69817 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping order are certain preserved mushrooms, whether imported whole, sliced,...

2013-11-21

256

78 FR 26319 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Rescission of Antidumping...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

2013-05-06

257

77 FR 66580 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from India. The period of review (POR) is...

2012-11-06

258

76 FR 70112 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC). See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-11-10

259

75 FR 16075 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Initiation of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2010-03-31

260

76 FR 12704 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) covering the period February 1...Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19, 1999)...

2011-03-08

261

75 FR 66729 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...mushrooms from the People's Republic of China (PRC) \\1\\ covering the period of review...Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China, 64 FR 8308 (February 19,...

2010-10-29

262

Biologic and Genetics Aspects of Chagas Disease at Endemic Areas  

PubMed Central

The etiologic agent of Chagas Disease is the Trypanosoma cruzi, transmitted through blood-sucking insect vectors of the Triatominae subfamily, representing one of the most serious public health concerns in Latin America. There are geographic variations in the prevalence of clinical forms and morbidity of Chagas disease, likely due to genetic variation of the T. cruzi and the host genetic and environmental features. Increasing evidence has supported that inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are responsible for the generation of the inflammatory infiltrate and tissue damage. Moreover, genetic polymorphisms, protein expression levels, and genomic imbalances are associated with disease progression. This paper discusses these key aspects. Large surveys were carried out in Brazil and served as baseline for definition of the control measures adopted. However, Chagas disease is still active, and aspects such as host-parasite interactions, genetic mechanisms of cellular interaction, genetic variability, and tropism need further investigations in the attempt to eradicate the disease. PMID:22529863

Bellini, Marilanda Ferreira; Silistino-Souza, Rosana; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercilia Vilela; Silva, Ana Elizabete

2012-01-01

263

Interactions of Pseudomonads with Mushrooms and Other Eukaryotic Hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonads are ubiquitous Gram-negative bacteria with the potential to interact with diverse organisms in the environment.\\u000a We are investigating the molecular basis of pathogenesis in mushroom-pathogenic Pseudomonas (NZ strains) and also evaluating\\u000a NZ interactions with other organisms found in the mushroom environment, notably the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the\\u000a amoeba Dictyostelium discoidium. Strain Pseudomonas sp. NZI7 is a tolaasinproducing mushroom

P. Burlinson; J. Knaggs; J. Hodgkin; C. Pears; G. M. Preston

264

Acquired Cell-Mediated Immunodepression in Acute Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

In this study two groups of patients with acute Chagas' disease were identified. Group one consisted of five patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease. These patients showed symptoms and signals of an acute illness, such as high fever and enlarged spleen. One of these patients developed severe myocarditis and heart failure. Group two consisted of seven patients with inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This was a nonclinical entity, not perceived by the patient who did not seek medical care. The diagnosis was made by the shift of a serologic test which indicates the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. The patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease showed positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen. Also, their leukocytes showed significant inhibition of migration in the presence of this antigen. By contrast, the patients with the inapparent acute Chagas' disease did not show positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen and no significant inhibition was observed when their cells migrated in the presence of this antigen. Of interest, none of these patients was capable of developing contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. However, three out of five patients with the apparent acute disease and all the normal control subjects showed positive contact reaction after sensitization to this drug. The results of these experiments would suggest that the thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function is depressed in patients with the clinically inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This immunodepression seems to be acquired in the course of the T. cruzi infection because all patients showed positive delayed-type skin response to at least one ubiquitous microbial extract, thus indicating previously normal T-cell function. We hypothesize that T. cruzi antigens may directly stimulate T cells with the concomitant release of factors that might become supressive for T-cell responses. Furthermore, the suppressive effect might interfere with the T-cell response to other antigens, such as to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. Images PMID:107195

Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Teixeira, Gloria; Macedo, Vanize; Prata, Aluizio

1978-01-01

265

The Costs of Preventing and Treating Chagas Disease in Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to report the costs of Chagas disease in Colombia, in terms of vector disease control programmes and the costs of providing care to chronic Chagas disease patients with cardiomyopathy. Methods Data were collected from Colombia in 2004. A retrospective review of costs for vector control programmes carried out in rural areas included 3,084 houses surveyed for infestation with triatomine bugs and 3,305 houses sprayed with insecticide. A total of 63 patient records from 3 different hospitals were selected for a retrospective review of resource use. Consensus methodology with local experts was used to estimate care seeking behaviour and to complement observed data on utilisation. Findings The mean cost per house per entomological survey was $4.4 (in US$ of 2004), whereas the mean cost of spraying a house with insecticide was $27. The main cost driver of spraying was the price of the insecticide, which varied greatly. Treatment of a chronic Chagas disease patient costs between $46.4 and $7,981 per year in Colombia, depending on severity and the level of care used. Combining cost and utilisation estimates the expected cost of treatment per patient-year is $1,028, whereas lifetime costs averaged $11,619 per patient. Chronic Chagas disease patients have limited access to healthcare, with an estimated 22% of patients never seeking care. Conclusion Chagas disease is a preventable condition that affects mostly poor populations living in rural areas. The mean costs of surveying houses for infestation and spraying infested houses were low in comparison to other studies and in line with treatment costs. Care seeking behaviour and the type of insurance affiliation seem to play a role in the facilities and type of care that patients use, thus raising concerns about equitable access to care. Preventing Chagas disease in Colombia would be cost-effective and could contribute to prevent inequalities in health and healthcare. PMID:19015725

Castillo-Riquelme, Marianela; Guhl, Felipe; Turriago, Brenda; Pinto, Nestor; Rosas, Fernando; Martinez, Monica Florez; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Davies, Clive; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid

2008-01-01

266

Acquired cell-mediated immunodepression in acute Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

In this study two groups of patients with acute Chagas' disease were identified. Group one consisted of five patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease. These patients showed symptoms and signals of an acute illness, such as high fever and enlarged spleen. One of these patients developed severe myocarditis and heart failure. Group two consisted of seven patients with inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This was a nonclinical entity, not perceived by the patient who did not seek medical care. The diagnosis was made by the shift of a serologic test which indicates the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. The patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease showed positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen. Also, their leukocytes showed significant inhibition of migration in the presence of this antigen. By contrast, the patients with the inapparent acute Chagas' disease did not show positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen and no significant inhibition was observed when their cells migrated in the presence of this antigen. Of interest, none of these patients was capable of developing contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. However, three out of five patients with the apparent acute disease and all the normal control subjects showed positive contact reaction after sensitization to this drug. The results of these experiments would suggest that the thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function is depressed in patients with the clinically inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This immunodepression seems to be acquired in the course of the T. cruzi infection because all patients showed positive delayed-type skin response to at least one ubiquitous microbial extract, thus indicating previously normal T-cell function. We hypothesize that T. cruzi antigens may directly stimulate T cells with the concomitant release of factors that might become supressive for T-cell responses. Furthermore, the suppressive effect might interfere with the T-cell response to other antigens, such as to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. PMID:107195

Teixeira, A R; Teixeira, G; Macêdo, V; Prata, A

1978-12-01

267

7" serving prepared in traditional brick oven Pepperoni, Sausage, Ham, Bacon, Hamburger, Mushrooms, Black Olives,  

E-print Network

7" serving prepared in traditional brick oven Pepperoni, Sausage, Ham, Bacon, Hamburger, Mushrooms cheese, spinach, roasted red peppers and onion Supreme Pepperoni, sausage, peppers, onions and mushrooms

Oklahoma, University of

268

Insights into evolution of multicellular fungi from the assembled chromosomes of the mushroom  

E-print Network

Insights into evolution of multicellular fungi from the assembled chromosomes of the mushroom) The mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea is a classic experimental model for multicellular development in fungi because

James, Timothy

269

Fine Structure of Sticky Sets in Mushroom Billiards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider sticky sets in the phase space of circular mushroom billiards, which are referred to in physics literature as MUPOs (marginally unstable periodic orbits). An exact description of the set of parameters (widths of the mushrooms' stems) without or with a finite set of MUPOs is given. It is shown that there exist a continuum of MUPOless parameters. We also estimate from above a number of MUPOs which exist for widths of the mushroom's stem which correspond to rational numbers and present a simple approach for finding mushroom billiards without MUPOs.

Bunimovich, Leonid A.

2013-12-01

270

[The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].  

PubMed

Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients. PMID:11363369

Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

1995-01-01

271

Amanita phalloides-Type Mushroom Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In the fall of 1981 the San Francisco Bay Area Regional Poison Control Center received more than 100 calls regarding wild mushroom ingestion. Ten cases, including three fatalities, had all the features of Amanita phalloides poisoning. Encephalopathy, coma and renal insufficiency occurred in all three patients who died, but did not occur in those who survived. Two of the three patients who died arrived at the hospital late in the course of their illness, and severe gastroenteritis with accompanying dehydration probably contributed to their deaths. The poison control center promoted public awareness of the mushroom hazard through newspaper and television stories and by notifying local health departments. It also has devised a simple form to improve the quality of data collection and to assist in later verification of suspected A phalloides poisoning. PMID:7179945

Healey, Kathy; Woo, Olga F.; Olson, Kent R.; Pond, Susan M.; Seward, James; Becker, Charles E.

1982-01-01

272

Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic ?-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic ?-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

Diao, Bao-Zhong; Jin, Wei-Rong; Yu, Xue-Jing

2014-01-01

273

Mushrooms as Possible Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study is to examine in-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the acetonic and methanolic extracts of the mushrooms Boletus aestivalis, Boletus edulis and Leccinum carpini. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In addition, total content of phenol and flavonoid in extracts were determined as pyrocatechol equivalent, and as rutin equivalent, respectively. As a result of the study acetonic extracts from Boletus edulis was more powerful antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 4.72 ?g/mL which was similar or greater than the standard antioxidants, ascorbic acid (IC50 = 4.22 ?g/mL), BHA (IC50 = 6.42 ?g/mL) and ?-tocopherol (IC50 = 62.43 ?g/mL). Moreover, the tested extracts had effective reducing power. A significant relationship between total phenolic and flavonoid contents and their antioxidative activities was significantly observed. The antimicrobial activity of each extract was estimated by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration by using microdilution plate method against five species of bacteria and five species of fungi. Generally, the tested mushroom extracts had relatively strong antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both extracts related to the tested bacteria and fungi were 1.25 - 10 mg/ mL. The present study shows that tested mushroom species demonstrated a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It suggests that mushroom may be used as good sources of natural antioxidants and for pharmaceutical purposes in treating of various deseases. PMID:24250542

Kosani?, Marijana; Rankovi?, Branislav; Daši?, Marko

2012-01-01

274

Escape time statistics for mushroom billiards  

E-print Network

Chaotic orbits of mushroom billiards display intermittent behaviors. We investigate statistical properties of this system by constructing an infinite partition on the chaotic part of a Poincar\\'e surface which illustrates details of chaotic dynamics. Each piece of the infinite partition has an unique escape time from the half disk region, and from this result it is shown that, for fixed values of the system parameters, the escape time distribution obeys power law $1/t_{\\rm esc}^3$.

T. Miyaguchi

2006-12-27

275

Report of wood decay fungus Inonotus tropicalis (phylum Basidiomycota) from a dog with a granulomatous mediastinal mass.  

PubMed

A 75.9-kg, 3.5-year-old male Irish Wolfhound dog with a 2-3-week history of gagging and eating difficulties was referred to the University of Florida Veterinary Medical Hospital (Gainesville, Florida) for evaluation of a large cranial mediastinal mass suspected to be a thymoma or lymphosarcoma. The patient had 4 months of nearly 10 kg progressive weight loss with severe flank sensitivity and radiographically apparent lumbar vertebral changes interpreted as discospondylitis. Lab work revealed hyperglobulinemia, mild proteinuria, normal T4, negative Brucella canis titer, and negative blood and urine bacterial cultures. A thoracotomy revealed a nonresectable, destructive, space-occupying mediastinal mass resulting in euthanasia without surgical recovery. Biopsies from the mass were collected during surgery for histology. Microscopic examination revealed extensive granulomatous cellulitis and lymphadenitis characterized by central cavitated necrotic areas containing debris and degenerate neutrophils, intermediate zones of fibrovascular proliferation with marked mixed inflammation, peripheral fibrosis, frequent multinucleated macrophages, and scattered mineralization. The necrotic material contained dense mats of 2 µm wide by 8-15 µm long fungal hyphae with parallel walls, acute angle branching, frequent septae, and occasional bulb-like dilations. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region confirmed the presence of a fungus in the Inonotus tropicalis group. Inonotus tropicalis is primarily a wood decay fungus that is found on dead wood from angiosperms in tropical and subtropical habitats. Isolates of the I. tropicalis group have been detected a few times from immunosuppressed human beings with X-linked granulomatous disease. PMID:23929678

Sheppard, Barbara J; McGrath, Elizabeth; Giuffrida, Michelle; Craft, Serena L M; Kung, Chung Yee; Smith, Matthew E

2013-09-01

276

Study of stereospecificity in mushroom tyrosinase.  

PubMed Central

This paper reports experiments on the stereospecificity observed in the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase. Several enantiomorphs of monophenols and o-diphenols were assayed: L-tyrosine, D,L-tyrosine, D-tyrosine; L-alpha-methyltyrosine, D,L-alpha-methyltyrosine; L-dopa, D,L-dopa, D-dopa; L-alpha-methyldopa, D,L-alpha-methyldopa; L-isoprenaline, D,L-isoprenaline and D-isoprenaline. The Vmax values obtained for each series were the same. The electronic densities on the carbon atoms in the meta (C-3) and the para (C-4) positions of the benzene ring were determined by NMR assays. This value is related to the nucleophilic power of the oxygen atom belonging to the hydroxy group, which could explain the Vmax values experimentally obtained for the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase. The spatial orientation of the ring substituents led to lower Km values for L-isomers than for D-isomers. However, the Vmax values were the same for each series of isomers because spatial orientation did not affect the NMR value of C-4. Therefore mushroom tyrosinase showed stereospecificity in its affinity towards its substrates (Km) but not in the transformation reaction rate (Vmax) of these substrates. PMID:9531496

Espín, J C; García-Ruiz, P A; Tudela, J; García-Cánovas, F

1998-01-01

277

Microbial ecology of mushroom casing soils and preharvest strategies to enhance safety and quality of fresh mushrooms.  

E-print Network

??Agaricus bisporus mushrooms of good quality immediately after harvest normally develop brown blotches at retail, even while kept at refrigeration temperatures. The brown blotch discoloration,… (more)

Chikthimmah, Naveen

2006-01-01

278

Chemical constituents of Inonotus obliquus II: a new triterpene, 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3 ? ,21,25-triol-8-ene from sclerotium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new lanostane-type triterpene with a cyclopentanol partial structure in the side chain was isolated from the sclerotium\\u000a of the wood rotting fungusInonotus obliquus along with four known compounds: lanosterol, inotodiol, trametenolic acid, and 3?-hydroxy-8,24-dienlanosta-21,23-lactone. The new compound was determined to be 21,24-cyclopentalanosta-3?,21,25-triol-8-ene by spectroscopic analyses.

Yusoo Shin; Yutaka Tamai; Minoru Terazawa

2001-01-01

279

Vector blood meals and Chagas disease transmission potential, United States.  

PubMed

A high proportion of triatomine insects, vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi trypanosomes, collected in Arizona and California and examined using a novel assay had fed on humans. Other triatomine insects were positive for T. cruzi parasite infection, which indicates that the potential exists for vector transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. PMID:22469536

Stevens, Lori; Dorn, Patricia L; Hobson, Julia; de la Rua, Nicholas M; Lucero, David E; Klotz, John H; Schmidt, Justin O; Klotz, Stephen A

2012-04-01

280

Chronic Chagas’ Heart Disease in the Elderly: A Clinicopathologic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective study of the medical records of our hospital from 1965 to 1985 was carried out to characterize for the first time chronic Chagas’ heart disease in the elderly (more than 70 years old). A total of 25 patients (mean age = 76) were suitable for the study. Congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death, thromboembolism and atypical chest pain

Reinaldo B. Bestetti; Carmen P. Ramos; Renato A. Godoy; Samuel M. Oliveira

1987-01-01

281

Vector Blood Meals and Chagas Disease Transmission Potential, United States  

PubMed Central

A high proportion of triatomine insects, vectors for Trypanosoma cruzi trypanosomes, collected in Arizona and California and examined using a novel assay had fed on humans. Other triatomine insects were positive for T. cruzi parasite infection, which indicates that the potential exists for vector transmission of Chagas disease in the United States. PMID:22469536

Dorn, Patricia L.; Hobson, Julia; de la Rua, Nicholas M.; Lucero, David E.; Klotz, John H.; Schmidt, Justin O.; Klotz, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

282

Chagas disease: control, elimination and eradication. Is it possible?  

PubMed Central

From an epidemiological point of view, Chagas disease and its reservoirs and vectors can present the following characteristics: (i) enzooty, maintained by wild animals and vectors, with broad occurrence from southern United States of America (USA) to southern Argentina and Chile (42ºN 49ºS), (ii) anthropozoonosis, when man invades the wild ecotope and becomes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi from wild animals or vectors or when the vectors and wild animals, especially marsupials, invade the human domicile and infect man, (iii) zoonosis-amphixenosis and exchanged infection between animals and humans by domestic vectors in endemic areas and (iv) zooanthroponosis, infection that is transmitted from man to animals, by means of domestic vectors, which is the rarest situation in areas endemic for Chagas disease. The characteristics of Chagas disease as an enzooty of wild animals and as an anthropozoonosis are seen most frequently in the Brazilian Amazon and in the Pan-Amazon region as a whole, where there are 33 species of six genera of wild animals: Marsupialia, Chiroptera, Rodentia, Edentata (Xenarthra), Carnivora and Primata and 27 species of triatomines, most of which infected with T. cruzi . These conditions place the resident populations of this area or its visitors - tourists, hunters, fishermen and especially the people whose livelihood involves plant extraction - at risk of being affected by Chagas disease. On the other hand, there has been an exponential increase in the acute cases of Chagas disease in that region through oral transmission of T. cruzi , causing outbreaks of the disease. In four seroepidemiological surveys that were carried out in areas of the microregion of the Negro River, state of Amazonas, in 1991, 1993, 1997 and 2010, we found large numbers of people who were serologically positive for T. cruzi infection. The majority of them and/or their relatives worked in piassava extraction and had come into contact with and were stung by wild triatomines in that area. Finally, a characteristic that is greatly in evidence currently is the migration of people with Chagas disease from endemic areas of Latin America to non-endemic countries. This has created a new dilemma for these countries: the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and the onus of controlling donors and treating migrants with the disease. As an enzooty of wild animals and vectors, and as an anthropozoonosis, Chagas disease cannot be eradicated, but it must be controlled by transmission elimination to man. PMID:24402148

Coura, Jose Rodrigues

2013-01-01

283

Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom  

E-print Network

Effects of Thinning Young Forests on Chanterelle Mushroom Production David Pilz, Randy Molina in chanterelle productivity among thinning treatment means disappeared within 6 years. Management implications, nontimber forest products E dible chanterelle mushrooms that grow wild in the moist coniferous forests west

284

Nutrients in edible mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study on various components of nutritional interest, such as water, protein, total amino acids, ash and minerals, in mushrooms of different species (Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus pulmunarius and Lentinula edodes) was carried out. Mushrooms were cultivated on the same compost (wheat straw added with 15% of sugar beet) and analysed immediately after harvest to avoid any interfering

Pamela Manzi; Loretta Gambelli; Stefania Marconi; Vittorio Vivanti; Laura Pizzoferrato

1999-01-01

285

Mushroom crops in relation to weather in the southwestern Yukon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigeous mushroom production in the boreal forest ecosystem varies dramatically from year to year. We tested the hypothesis that the aboveground production of epigeous mushrooms in the Kluane region, Yukon, could be predicted by summer rainfall. There is a single crop in this part of the boreal zone with maximum production during the first 2 weeks of August. We measured

C. J. Krebs; Patrick Carrier; S. Boutin; R. Boonstra; Elizabeth Hofer

2008-01-01

286

Synaptogenesis in the Mushroom Body Calyx During Metamorphosis in the  

E-print Network

Synaptogenesis in the Mushroom Body Calyx During Metamorphosis in the Honeybee Apis mellifera- phosis. We show that synaptogenesis in the mushroom body calycal neuropile starts in early metamorphosis of the adult calyx first appear at stage P8 but remain rare toward the end of metamorphosis. Our observations

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

287

Gene family encoding the major toxins of lethal Amanita mushrooms  

E-print Network

, 2007 (received for review August 6, 2007) Amatoxins, the lethal constituents of poisonous mushrooms -amanitin, an amatoxin, and the related bicyclic heptapeptide phallacidin, a phallotoxin, indicating phalloidin phallotoxin amatoxin Mushrooms in the genus Amanita section Phalloideae ac- count for 90% of all

Bruns, Tom

288

Oyster mushroom cultivation with rice and wheat straw.  

PubMed

Cultivation of the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, on rice and wheat straw without nutrient supplementation was investigated. The effects of straw size reduction method and particle size, spawn inoculation level, and type of substrate (rice straw versus wheat straw) on mushroom yield, biological efficiency, bioconversion efficiency, and substrate degradation were determined. Two size reduction methods, grinding and chopping, were compared. The ground straw yielded higher mushroom growth rate and yield than the chopped straw. The growth cycles of mushrooms with the ground substrate were five days shorter than with the chopped straw for a similar particle size. However, it was found that when the straw was ground into particles that were too small, the mushroom yield decreased. With the three spawn levels tested (12%, 16% and 18%), the 12% level resulted in significantly lower mushroom yield than the other two levels. Comparing rice straw with wheat straw, rice straw yielded about 10% more mushrooms than wheat straw under the same cultivation conditions. The dry matter loss of the substrate after mushroom growth varied from 30.1% to 44.3%. The straw fiber remaining after fungal utilization was not as degradable as the original straw fiber, indicating that the fungal fermentation did not improve the feed value of the straw. PMID:11991077

Zhang, Ruihong; Li, Xiujin; Fadel, J G

2002-05-01

289

Conversion of conifer wastes into edible and medicinal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom-producing white-rot fungi can be used to convert woodwaste into gour- met and medicinal mushrooms. White-rot fungi do not always readily colonize on coni- fer wood because of its extractives content. This study evaluated the resinous extractive content of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda), ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa ), and an un- known species of southern yellow pine before

Suki C. Croan

290

Identification of Amanita mushrooms by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amanita is one of cosmopolitan genera of basidiomycetes. This genus contains some of the most poisonous toadstools, as well as several species of the most favorite edible mushrooms. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of the fruiting bodies of wild growing Amanita mushrooms. The results show that the mushrooms exhibit characteristic spectra, whose strong absorption bands appear at about 1655, 1076, and 1040 cm -1. The vibrational spectra indicate that the main compositions of the Amanita mushrooms are proteins and polysaccharides. The observed spectral differences might be used to discriminate different species of Amanita. It is showed that FTIR spectroscopic method is a valuable tool for rapid and nondestructive identification of Amanita mushrooms.

Zhao, Dezhang; Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

2006-09-01

291

Antioxidant capacity and mineral contents of edible wild Australian mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five selected edible wild Australian mushrooms, Morchella elata, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus eryngii, Cyttaria gunnii, and Flammulina velutipes, were evaluated for their antioxidant capacity and mineral contents. The antioxidant capacities of the methanolic extracts of the dried caps of the mushrooms were determined using a number of different chemical reactions in evaluating multi-mechanistic antioxidant activities. These included the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power, and ferrous ion chelating activity. Mineral contents of the dried caps of the mushrooms were also determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicated that these edible wild mushrooms have a high antioxidant capacity and all, except C. gunnii, have a high level of several essential micro-nutrients such as copper, magnesium, and zinc. It can be concluded that these edible wild mushrooms are good sources of nutritional antioxidants and a number of mineral elements. PMID:22522306

Zeng, X; Suwandi, J; Fuller, J; Doronila, A; Ng, K

2012-08-01

292

Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards Jonathan Andreasen,1  

E-print Network

Marginally Unstable Periodic Orbits in Semiclassical Mushroom Billiards Jonathan Andreasen,1 Hui (Received 25 May 2009; published 8 October 2009) Optical mushroom-shaped billiards offer a unique this property, no other is attracting as much attention as the mushroom-shaped billiards [4]. Mushroom billiards

Cao, Hui

293

EUROGRAPHICS 2004 / M. Alexa and E. Galin Short Presentations Interactive Modeling of Mushrooms  

E-print Network

EUROGRAPHICS 2004 / M. Alexa and E. Galin Short Presentations Interactive Modeling of Mushrooms Lyon 1, France Abstract This paper presents a fast and efficient method for modeling mushrooms and flowers, mushrooms do not exhibit a regular branching structure. Because most mushrooms de- velop only

Boyer, Edmond

294

A Highly Sensitive Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chagas Disease That Utilizes a Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Antigen  

PubMed Central

Improved diagnostic tests for Chagas disease are urgently needed. A new lateral flow rapid test for Chagas disease is under development at PATH, in collaboration with Laboratorio Lemos of Argentina, which utilizes a recombinant antigen for detection of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. To evaluate the performance of this test, 375 earlier characterized serum specimens from a region where Chagas is endemic were tested using a reference test (the Ortho T. cruzi ELISA, Johnson & Johnson), a commercially available rapid test (Chagas STAT-PAK, Chembio), and the PATH–Lemos rapid test. Compared to the composite reference tests, the PATH–Lemos rapid test demonstrated an optimal sensitivity of 99.5% and specificity of 96.8%, while the Chagas STAT-PAK demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.5%. These results indicate that the PATH–Lemos rapid test shows promise as an improved and reliable tool for screening and diagnosis of Chagas disease. PMID:21342808

Barfield, C. A.; Barney, R. S.; Crudder, C. H.; Wilmoth, J. L.; Stevens, D. S.; Mora-Garcia, S.; Yanovsky, M. J.; Weigl, B. H.; Yanovsky, J.

2011-01-01

295

Volatile Components of Ten Frozen Mushrooms (Basidiomycetes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine volatile substances often frozen mushrooms (Grifola frondosa, Clitocybe nebularis, Clitocybe odora, Tricholoma sulfureum, Agaricus bisporus, Amanita ovoidea, Clitopilus prunulus, Hebeloma radicosum, Pholiota apicrea, Boletus satanas, Basidiomycetes) from France have been identified by GC\\/MS. The main components of the fruit bodies were l-octen-3-ol, benzaldehyde, 2-phenylethanol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and (E,Z)-2,4-decadienal. Lysidine, ?-cadinene, cis-sabinene hydrate and trans-sabinene hydrate were identified for the first

Sylvie Rapior; Sophie Cavalié; Patrick Croze; Claude Andary; Yves Pélissier; Jean-Marie Bessière

1996-01-01

296

Chagas Disease, Migration and Community Settlement Patterns in Arequipa, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community. Conclusions/Significance The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent seasonal migration by residents of peri-urban shantytowns provides a path of entry of vectors into these communities. Changing demographic dynamics of traditional towns are also leading to favorable conditions for Chagas disease transmission. Control programs must include surveillance for infestation in communities assumed to be free of vectors. PMID:20016830

Gilman, Robert H.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Levy, Michael Z.

2009-01-01

297

Effects of bioglycans isolated from birch fungi inonotus obliquus on electric activity of venous sinus cells in frog heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioglycans isolated from chaga in a concentration of 0.0001% reduced frequency of action potential in venous sinus cells of\\u000a frog heart during the first 15–30 min of exposure, then this parameter increased by 10% per hour over 3.5 h, and was 41±3\\u000a min?1 from the 4th to the 20th hour of incubation. The frequency of action potentials in heart strips

V. A. Golovko

1999-01-01

298

Antioxidant protective effects of mushroom metabolites.  

PubMed

Global industrialization and agricultural development are related to the release of various pollutants into the environment including huge amounts of free radicals, which are associated with the occurrence of various destructive diseases and disorders. Due to different rates of metabolic activity and oxygen consumption, organisms, organs and tissues have distinct protective antioxidant systems and defence mechanisms. Although numerous synthetic antioxidants can improve defence system capacity, because of their toxic and mutagenic effects as well as rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, preference is given to natural antioxidants. Therefore, studies of metabolites of various fungal species and their activity are currently increasing. Antioxidant features of numerous compounds isolated from mushrooms, such as phenolic compounds, vitamins, polysaccharides, peptides, proteins, organic acids, carotenoids, alkaloids, and nucleotides, have been reported. Chemical composition and antioxidant potential of mushrooms are highly-dependent on species, habitat, phase of life cycle (mycelium, young or mature fruiting body), method of processing, extraction solvent, and extract dose. Although around only 5% of fungal species have been well studied and thousands more species have potential benefit for mankind, reports on the antioxidant potentials of fungi are already numerous and these are the subject of this review. PMID:24083793

Staji?, Mirjana; Vukojevi?, Jelena; Kneževi?, Aleksandar; Lauševi?, Sonja Duleti?; Milovanovi?, Ivan

2013-01-01

299

Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.  

PubMed

Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. PMID:24139877

Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

2013-12-15

300

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, can lead to severe cardiac and gastrointestinal disease. Most persons acquire this infection through contact with vector bugs carrying T. cruzi in endemic areas of Latin America. Infection can also be acquired by congenital, transfusion, transplantation, and foodborne transmission. Although an estimated 300,000 persons with Chagas disease live in the United States, little is known about the burden of chagasic heart disease. It is not known how often congenital or vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi occurs in the United States, although it is known that infected mothers and infected vector bugs are found in this country. Better diagnostic tests and treatment drugs are needed to improve patient care, and research is needed to define transmission risks and develop strategies to prevent new infections and reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24808250

Montgomery, Susan P.; Starr, Michelle C.; Cantey, Paul T.; Edwards, Morven S.; Meymandi, Sheba K.

2014-01-01

301

Therapy of Chagas Disease: Implications for Levels of Prevention  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the evidence supporting the use of etiological treatment for Chagas disease that has changed the standard of care for patients with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the last decades. Implications of this evidence on different levels of prevention as well as gaps in current knowledge are also discussed. In this regard, etiological treatment has shown to be beneficial as an intervention for secondary prevention to successfully cure the infection or to delay, reduce, or prevent the progression to disease, and as primary disease prevention by breaking the chain of transmission. Timely diagnosis during initial stages would allow for the prescription of appropriate therapies mainly in the primary health care system thus improving chances for a better quality of life. Based on current evidence, etiological treatment has to be considered as an essential public health strategy useful to reduce disease burden and to eliminate Chagas disease altogether. PMID:22523499

Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Colantonio, Lisandro; Segura, Elsa Leonor

2012-01-01

302

Precordial chest pain in patients with chronic Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Precordial chest pain affects about 15% to 33% of patients with chronic Chagas disease. In the absence of megaesophagus, it should be ascribed to chronic Chagas heart disease. Precordial chest pain is atypical because it can usually neither be associated to physical exercise nor be alleviated by nitroglycerin. However, in certain circumstances, precordial chest pain can masquerade as acute coronary syndrome. Although obstructive coronary artery disease can occasionally be found, microvascular angina seems to be the mechanism behind such phenomenon. Precordial chest pain not always has a benign clinical course; sometimes, it can herald a dismal prognosis. On the basis of cases previously reported, it seems that nitrates, betablockers and/or calcium channel blockers can be of value in the treatment of this condition. PMID:25127335

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Restini, Carolina Baraldi A

2014-09-20

303

Therapy of chagas disease: implications for levels of prevention.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the evidence supporting the use of etiological treatment for Chagas disease that has changed the standard of care for patients with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the last decades. Implications of this evidence on different levels of prevention as well as gaps in current knowledge are also discussed. In this regard, etiological treatment has shown to be beneficial as an intervention for secondary prevention to successfully cure the infection or to delay, reduce, or prevent the progression to disease, and as primary disease prevention by breaking the chain of transmission. Timely diagnosis during initial stages would allow for the prescription of appropriate therapies mainly in the primary health care system thus improving chances for a better quality of life. Based on current evidence, etiological treatment has to be considered as an essential public health strategy useful to reduce disease burden and to eliminate Chagas disease altogether. PMID:22523499

Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Colantonio, Lisandro; Segura, Elsa Leonor

2012-01-01

304

Clinical importance of toxin concentration in Amanita verna mushroom.  

PubMed

Poisoning from Amanita group of mushrooms comprises approximately 3% of all poisonings in our country and their being responsible for nearly the entire fatal mushroom poisonings makes them important. These mushrooms contain primarily two types of toxins, amatoxins and phallotoxins. Phallotoxins have a more limited toxicity potential and they primarily consist of phalloidin (PHN) and phallacidin (PCN). Amatoxins, on the other hand, are very toxic and they primarily consist of alpha-amanitin (AA), beta-amanitin (BA) and gamma-amanitin (GA). Toxin levels can vary among various species, even among varieties of the same species, of Amanita mushroom family. Revealing the differences between the toxin compositions of the Amanita species that grow in our region may contribute to the clinics of poisonings. Our study aims at showing in detail the toxin levels in various parts of Amanita verna mushroom. A. verna mushrooms needed for toxin analysis were collected from Kozak Plateau near Ayvalik county of Bal?kesir, Turkey in April 2013. The mushrooms were divided into their parts as pileus, gills, stripe and volva. Following the procedures required before the analysis, the AA, BA, GA, PHN and PCN levels were measured using the RP-HPLC method. While the lowest level of amatoxin was in the volva of the mushroom, the highest was measured in the gills. This was followed by pileus and stripe where the levels were close to each other. Similarly, the highest level of phallotoxin was measured in the gills. Gamma toxin and phalloidin were at lower amounts than the other toxins. A. verna is frequently confused with edible mushrooms with white caps due to its macroscopic similarity. If just one of them is eaten by mistake by an adult person with no mushroom experience, it can easily poison them. The amount of amatoxin is more as compared to Amanita phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba. Particularly, the AA and BA levels are approximately three times higher, whereas GA levels are lower. Similarly, the level of PCN is approximately four times higher as compared to A. phalloides and A. phalloides var. alba; by contrast, the level of PNH is about a half of theirs. In summary, it can be said that A. verna is a more toxic mushroom than A. phalloides and has a higher rate of mortality. With our study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations and distribution in A. verna mushrooms were shown in detail for the first time and it would be useful to carry out more similar studies with other members of Amanita family growing in various parts of the world. PMID:24911374

Yilmaz, Ismail; Kaya, Ertugrul; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Bayram, Recep; Surmen, Mustafa Gani; Colakoglu, Serdar

2014-09-01

305

Tolerance of Benznidazole in Treatment of Chagas' Disease in Adults ?  

PubMed Central

Chagas’ disease is an emerging public health problem in areas where the disease is not endemic. Treatment with benznidazole has shown efficacy in the acute stage of the disease, but its efficacy in the chronic stage remains controversial, and unwanted side effects are more frequent and severe in adults than in children. This study describes the profile of side effects of benznidazole in a cohort of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients in a European country. PMID:20823286

Pinazo, Maria-Jesus; Munoz, Jose; Posada, Elizabeth; Lopez-Chejade, Paulo; Gallego, Montserrat; Ayala, Edgar; del Cacho, Elena; Soy, Dolors; Gascon, Joaquim

2010-01-01

306

Pathogenesis of Chagas disease: time to move on  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. The contributions of parasite and immune system for disease pathogenesis remain unresolved and controversial. The possibility that Chagas disease was an autoimmune progression triggered by T. cruzi infection led some to question the benefit of treating chronically T. cruzi-infected persons with drugs. Furthermore, it provided the rationale for not investing in research aimed at a vaccine which might carry a risk of inducing autoimmunity or exacerbating inflammation. This viewpoint was adopted by cash-strapped health systems in the developing economies where the disease is endemic and has been repeatedly challenged by researchers and clinicians in recent years and there is now a considerable body of evidence and broad consensus that parasite persistence is requisite for pathogenesis and that antiparasitic immunity can be protective against T. cruzi pathogenesis without eliciting autoimmune pathology. Thus, treatment of chronically infected patients is likely to yield positive outcomes and efforts to understand immunity and vaccine development should be recognized as a priority area of research for Chagas disease. PMID:22201990

Machado, Fabiana S.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Brant, Fatima; Esper, Lisia; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

2012-01-01

307

Heart transplantation for Chagas cardiomyopathy in the United States.  

PubMed

Since an initial case in 2006, we noted multiple patients undergoing heart transplantation (HTx) for Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC) at our transplant program. The clinical characteristics, laboratory results and outcomes of patients with CC undergoing HTx in the United States have not been reported previously. In 2010, we implemented a systematic screening and management program for patients undergoing HTx for CC. Before HTx, all patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were born in a Chagas disease endemic country were screened for Trypanosoma cruzi (TC) infection with serology. After HTx, monitoring for TC reactivation was performed using clinical visits, echocardiography, endomyocardial biopsy and serial whole blood polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Between June 2006 and January 2012, 11 patients underwent HTx for CC. One patient was empirically treated due to the presence of TC amastigotes in explanted cardiac tissue. Two patients experienced allograft dysfunction due to TC reactivation and three patients experienced subclinical reactivation (positive PCR results), which were treated. Chagas disease is a common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy in patients from endemic countries undergoing HTx at a transplant program in the United States. Reactivation is common after transplantation and can cause adverse outcomes. PMID:24165397

Kransdorf, E P; Czer, L S C; Luthringer, D J; Patel, J K; Montgomery, S P; Velleca, A; Mirocha, J; Zakowski, P C; Zabner, R; Gaultier, C R; Qvarnstrom, Y; Benedict, T; Steurer, F; Bosserman, E; Paddock, C D; Rafiei, M; Kobashigawa, J A

2013-12-01

308

Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from I. obliquus mycelia cultivated in a 300-l pilot fermenter, followed by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Purification was achieved by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical analysis revealed that the purified endo-polysaccharide is an alpha-linked fucoglucomannan with a molecular weight of approximately 1,000 kDa. The anti-cancer activities of the endo-polysaccharide against various types of tumor cells were determined. No direct toxicity against either cancer or normal cells was observed. Intraperitoneal administration of the endo-polysaccharide significantly prolonged the survival rate of B16F10-implanted mice, resulting in a 4.07-fold increase in the survival rate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. After 60 days of feeding, approximately 67% of the initial number of mice survived with no tumor incidence based on macroscopic examination. These results indicate that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating. PMID:16458328

Kim, Yong Ook; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Moon, Seong Hoon; Shin, Chul Soo

2006-05-30

309

Nitric oxide mediates the fungal-elicitor-enhanced biosynthesis of antioxidant polyphenols in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

A fungal elicitor prepared from the cell debris of the plant-pathogenic ascomycete Alternaria alternata induces multiple responses by Inonotus obliquus cells, including an increase in generation of nitric oxide (NO), activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and accumulation of total mycelial phenolic compounds (TMP), but does not trigger production of oxylipins or jasmonic acid (JA). The role of NO in TMP production was investigated via the effects of the NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO) and the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG). TMP profiles were assayed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. Pretreatment of I. obliquus mycelia with cPITO or AG suppressed not only elicitor-enhanced NO generation and PAL activity, but also the elicitor-induced increase in TMP production. This TMP reduction by either a NO scavenger or a NOS inhibitor was reversed by exogenous addition of either a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside, or JA separately. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of TMP profiles showed that the induced TMP were hispidin analogues including inoscavins, phelligridins, davallialactone and methyldavallialactone, which possess high antioxidant activities. Thus, NO mediates an elicitor-induced increase in production of antioxidant polyphenols in I. obliquus via a signalling pathway independent of oxylipins or JA, a mechanism which differs from those in some higher plants. PMID:19556296

Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Zhang, Yanxia; Pan, Shenyuan; Zhang, Meimei; Jiang, Hong

2009-10-01

310

Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%. PMID:20467262

Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

2010-04-01

311

Stimulatory effect of different lignocellulosic materials for phenolic compound production and antioxidant activity from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation.  

PubMed

White-rot fungus Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged culture produces antioxidative phenolic compounds. In this study, addition of lignocellulosic materials into the liquid culture increased the production and antioxidant activity of extra- and intra-cellular phenolic compounds (EPC and IPC, respectively). The production of EPC and IPC was significantly enhanced by wheat straw (by 151.2 and 45.3 %), sugarcane bagasse (by 106.9 and 26.1 %), and rice straw (by 67.6 and 38.9 %). Both of the EPC and IPC extracts from the three substrates showed a higher hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity than those from the control medium. The highly active polyphenols such as tea catechins of epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), and phelligridin G in the EPC extracts increased by 113.1, 75.0, and 86.3 % in the sugarcane bagasse medium. Davallialactone and inoscavin B in the EPC extracts were generated in large amounts in the lignocellulose media but not found in the control medium. The IPC extract from the wheat straw medium had the highest production of EGCG and ECG (17.6 and 18.1 mg/l). The different enhancement among the materials was attributed to the content and degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The different antioxidant activity of the EPC and IPC extracts was related to their phenolic compositions. PMID:23408232

Zhu, Linghui; Xu, Xiangqun

2013-04-01

312

Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident. PMID:24890137

Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

2014-12-01

313

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Hungarian wild-growing mushrooms.  

PubMed

Mushrooms represent a remarkable and yet largely unexplored source of new, biologically active natural products. In this work, we report on the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of 47 wild-growing mushrooms native to Hungary. Aqueous and organic (n-hexane, chloroform, and 50% methanol) extracts of selected mushrooms from different families were screened for their XO inhibitory activities. Among the 188 extracts investigated, the chloroform and 50% methanol fractions proved to be the most effective. Some species exhibited high inhibitory activity, e.g., Hypholoma fasciculare (IC50 ?=67.76 ± 11.05 µg/mL), Suillus grevillei (IC50 ?=13.28 ± 1.58 µg/mL), and Tricholoma populinum (IC50 ?=85.08 ± 15.02 µg/mL); others demonstrated moderate or weak activity. Additional studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the XO inhibitory activity of mushroom extracts. PMID:25098272

Ványolós, Attila; Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Hohmann, Judit

2014-08-01

314

INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR FOURTH FLOOR, SOUTH HALF, LOOKING SOUTH. NOTE MUSHROOM COLUMNS AND CEILING HAS WOODEN NAILERS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, North Armory, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

315

The Edibility and Cultivation of the Oyster Mushroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an enjoyable and fascinating experience that involves the cultivation of oyster mushrooms. By allowing students to participate in this process, the students are able to better understand the biology and utility of fungi. (ZWH)

Brenneman, James; Guttman, Mark C.

1994-01-01

316

Nutritional value of Agaricus sylvaticus: mushroom grown in Brazil.  

PubMed

The bromatological characterization of the Agaricus sylvaticus species (A. sylvaticus), known as the Sun Mushroom and cultivated in Brazil, is necessary to determine substances with pharmacological and nutritional potential, in view its safe use in food and in human medicine. The purpose of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of the A. sylvaticus mushroom grown in Brazil. Mushrooms were obtained in dehydrated form from a producer in Minas Gerais State. Through this study it was able to observe the fungus' rich chemical composition, highlighting the variety and quantity of minerals as well as its high protein content. There are many components of this mushroom that have medicinal properties, which are recognized as excellent antioxidants. Results also proved that the composition of A. sylvaticus presented differences when compared to the chemical composition of other Agaricaceae fungi. PMID:22732967

Vinhal Costa Orsine, J; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Ramírez Asquieri, E

2012-01-01

317

Nutritional attributes of agaricus Bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju mushrooms.  

PubMed

Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus sajor caju mushrooms were procured from the Department of Plant Pathology, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (INDIA) and analysed for various nutritional attributes. The fat and ash content were significantly higher in Agaricus bisporus, whereas, crude fibre and crude protein contents were significantly higher in Pleurotus sajor caju. Total and protein nitrogen was significantly higher in Pleurotus sajor caju than Agaricus bisporus mushroom as a result its true protein content was also significantly higher. No significant differences were found in the energy, carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen contents of both the varieties of mushroom. Both varieties contained low phytic acid and oxalate however, it was significantly higher in Pleurotus sajor caju mushroom. The in vitro protein digestibility of both was not differing significantly. PMID:16859180

Goyal, Rajni; Grewal, R B; Goyal, R K

2006-01-01

318

Mushroom diapirs penetrating overburdens with high effective viscosities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mushroom diapirs have been attributed to retardation of a rising buoyant source by sinking of denser overburden of similar effective viscosity. New physical and numerical models show that mushroom diapirs also form by reactivation of diapirs that have spread and been buried by overburden with higher effective viscosities. Diapirs were previously thought to become balloon shaped when the viscosity ratio (m value) exceeds unity. However, experimental diapirs reactivated after further burial with an m value of 85 were also mushroom shaped, having peripheral skirts that enfold their former overburden. Denser overburden is entrained because the bulb centers rise faster than their peripheries. The formation of mushroom bulbs by reactivation differs from some previous models that assume all the overburden to be in place from the start.

Koyi, Hemin

1991-12-01

319

Ecology and Management of Commercially Harvested Chanterelle Mushrooms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last two decades, the chanterelle mushroom harvest from Pacific Northwest forests has become a multimillion dollar industry, yet managers, harvesters, and scientists lack a current synthesis of information about chanterelles. We define chantere...

D. Pilz, L. Norvell, E. Danell, R. Molina

2003-01-01

320

Evolution of Marine Mushrooms DAVID S. HIBBETT* AND MANFRED BINDER  

E-print Network

Evolution of Marine Mushrooms DAVID S. HIBBETT* AND MANFRED BINDER Biology Department, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610 Fungi make up one of the most diverse, ecologically important groups of eukaryotes. The vast majority of fungi are terrestrial

Hibbett, David S.

321

Productivity and diversity of morel mushrooms in healthy, burned, and insect-damaged forests of northeastern Oregon  

E-print Network

Productivity and diversity of morel mushrooms in healthy, burned, and insect-damaged forests; Mushrooms; Fire; Species diversity; Genetics; Disturbance; Nontimber forest products Forest Ecology- mercially harvested, wild edible mushrooms. In 1992, approximately 590 metric tonnes of morels were har

322

75 FR 18151 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to Final Court...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Amended Final...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from India. EFFECTIVE DATE: April 9...administrative review of certain preserved mushrooms from India covering the period of...

2010-04-09

323

Heart Rate Recovery in Asymptomatic Patients with Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas disease patients with right bundle-branch block (RBBB) have diverse clinical presentation and prognosis, depending on left ventricular (LV) function. Autonomic disorder can be an early marker of heart involvement. The heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise may identify autonomic dysfunction, with impact on therapeutic strategies. This study was designed to assess the HRR after symptom-limited exercise testing in asymptomatic Chagas disease patients with RBBB without ventricular dysfunction compared to patients with indeterminate form of Chagas disease and healthy controls. Methods One hundred and forty-nine subjects divided into 3 groups were included. A control group was comprised of healthy individuals; group 1 included patients in the indeterminate form of Chagas disease; and group 2 included patients with complete RBBB with or without left anterior hemiblock, and normal ventricular systolic function. A symptom-limited exercise test was performed and heart rate (HR) response to exercise was assessed. HRR was defined as the difference between HR at peak exercise and 1 min following test termination. Results There were no differences in heart-rate profile during exercise between healthy individuals and patients in indeterminate form, whereas patients with RBBB had more prevalence of chronotropic incompetence, lower exercise capacity and lower HRR compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. A delayed decrease in the HR after exercise was found in 17 patients (15%), 9% in indeterminate form and 24% with RBBB, associated with older age, worse functional capacity, impaired chronotropic response, and ventricular arrhythmias during both exercise and recovery. By multivariable analysis, the independent predictors of a delayed decrease in the HRR were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.21; p?=?0.010) and presence of RBBB (OR 3.97; 95% CI 1.05 to 15.01; p?=?0.042). Conclusions A small proportion (15%) of asymptomatic Chagas patients had attenuated HRR after exercise, being more prevalent in patients with RBBB compared with patients in indeterminate form and controls. PMID:24979699

de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rocha, Manoel Otavio da Costa; Lima, Marcia Maria de Oliveira; Costa, Henrique Silveira; Sousa, Giovane Rodrigo; Carneiro, Renata de Carvalho Bicalho; Silva, Guilherme Canabrava Rodrigues; Brandao, Fernando Vieira; Kreuser, Lucas Jordan; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho; Nunes, Maria Carmo Pereira

2014-01-01

324

Fatal congenital Chagas' disease in a non-endemic area: a case report  

PubMed Central

The early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease is very important if infected newborns, whether symptomatic or not, are to receive adequate treatment. This paper describes the complications arising in the diagnosis of a newborn with fatal congenital Chagas' disease in Spain, a non-endemic area where visceral leishmaniasis is present. PMID:18992159

Flores-Chavez, Maria; Faez, Yamile; Olalla, Jose M; Cruz, Israel; Garate, Teresa; Rodriguez, Mercedes; Blanc, Pilar; Canavate, Carmen

2008-01-01

325

Fatal congenital Chagas' disease in a non-endemic area: a case report.  

PubMed

The early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease is very important if infected newborns, whether symptomatic or not, are to receive adequate treatment. This paper describes the complications arising in the diagnosis of a newborn with fatal congenital Chagas' disease in Spain, a non-endemic area where visceral leishmaniasis is present. PMID:18992159

Flores-Chávez, María; Faez, Yamile; Olalla, José M; Cruz, Israel; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Blanc, Pilar; Cañavate, Carmen

2008-01-01

326

Small fiber neuropathy in the chronic phase of Chagas disease: a case report.  

PubMed

We describe the occurrence of small fiber neuropathy in a patient affected by Chagas disease in the indeterminate phase. After the exclusion of all the possible etiologies of small fiber neuropathy, the disorder was considered related to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Although a peripheral involvement has been described in Chagas disease, this is the first report of a selective involvement of small fibers. PMID:23475268

Nolano, Maria; Provitera, V; Manganelli, F; Pagano, A; Perretti, A; Santoro, L

2013-06-01

327

P athophysiology of the heart in Chagas' disease: current status and new developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present review we have summarized remarkable historical data on Chagas' disease studies putting special emphasis on histopathological findings and pathogenetic theories as well as recent discoveries based on the use of advanced modern technologies in pathology and immunology. A unified theory that links almost all of these findings is proposed. Chronic cardiac Chagas' disease represents the result of

Maria de Lourdes Higuchi; Luiz Alberto Benvenuti; Marcia Martins Reis; Martin Metzger

328

Declining Wild Mushroom Recognition and Usage in Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declining Wild Mushroom Recognition and Usage in Burkina Faso. Ethnomycological investigation was carried out in Burkina Faso, West Africa, using standardized interviews focused on 40\\u000a representative mushroom species assembled in a traveling herbarium (photographs plus preserved specimens). A total of 540\\u000a informants from 18 localities representing three main ethnic groups—Mòosé, Bobo, and Gouin—were interviewed, though the bulk\\u000a of those interviewed

K. Marie Laure Guissou; Anne Mette Lykke; Philippe Sankara; Sita Guinko

2008-01-01

329

Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of eight mushroom antitumor polysaccharide extracts were investigated using phenazin methosulphate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium system and ascorbic acid-Cu2+-cytochrome C system respectively. The results showed that six of eight mushroom polysaccharide extracts had superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities. The protein content of the polysaccharide extracts appeared to contribute a direct effect on free radical scavenging

F. Liu; V. E. C. Ooi; S. T. Chang

1997-01-01

330

Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0-10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil substrate for different species varied between 10 +/- 3 and 780 +/- 500 ng x g(-1) dry wt (range 2.3-1700). Among edible mushroom species, Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis), Brown Birch Scaber Stalk (Leccinum scabrum), Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), King Bolete (Boletus edulis) and Yellow-cracking Bolete (Xerocomus subtomentosus) contained elevated concentrations of Hg ranging from 1600 +/- 930 to 6800 +/- 4000 ng x g(-1) dry wt in the caps. Concentrations of Hg in the stalks were 2.6 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 1.0 times lower than those in the caps. Some mushroom species investigated had high Hg levels when compared with specimens collected from the background reference sites elsewhere (located far away from the big cities) in northern Poland. Bioconcentration factors of Hg in the caps of Horse Mushroom, Parasol Mushroom and Brown Birch Scaber Stalk were between 150 +/- 58 and 230 +/- 150 ng x g(-1) dry wt, respectively, and for inedible Pestle-shaged Puffball (Claviata excipulformis) was 960 +/- 300 ng x g(-1) dry wt. Linear regression coefficients between Hg in caps and in stalks and Hg soil concentrations showed a positive relationship for A. arvensis and Horse mushroom (p < 0.05) and a negative correlation for the caps of Death Caps (Amanita phalloides) and Woolly Milk Cap (Lactarius torminosus) (p < 0.05), while for other species no clear trend was found. PMID:12623649

Falandysz, J; Gucia, M; Brzostowski, A; Kawano, M; Bielawski, L; Frankowska, A; Wyrzykowska, B

2003-03-01

331

[Mushroom poisoning--the dark side of mycetism].  

PubMed

Most mushroom intoxications become evident within 12 hours with vomiting and diarrhea. They can be divided into incidents with a short latency (less than four hours) and incidents with a long latency (longer than four hours). As a rule of thumb amatoxin poisonings must be considered in case of symptoms appearing with a long latency (8-12-18 h), especially after consumption of non-controlled wild mushrooms. Shorter latencies do not exclude amatoxin poisoning. Large meals of mushrooms, which are rich in chitin, mixed meals and individual factors, may shorten latency and disguise amatoxin poisoning. Any vomiting and diarrhea after mushroom consumption is suspicious. Unless the mushrooms are not to be identified within 30 minutes by an expert, specific treatment for amatoxin poisoning must be started. Identification shall be achieved by macroscopic or microscopic means; and urine analysis for amatoxins are crucial. By commencing treatment before analysis, mortality rates may be as low as 5%. Current standards in amatoxin poisoning treatment can be obtained at the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre (Phone 145), where contacts to mycologists are available as well. Emergency mycologists are listed on the website www.vapko.ch. Of the 18 different syndromes we present the most common and most important in Switzerland. In an overview all of them are listed. Early gastrointestinal syndrome with its short latency of less than 4 h and indigestion with a very variable latency are the most common. Psychotropic symptoms after consumptions of fly agaric and panther cap are rare, in case of psilocybin-containing mushrooms, symptoms are frequent, but hardly ever lead to medical treatment. In case of renal failure and rhabdomyolysis of unknown origin, completing a patient's history by questioning nutritional habits might reveal causal relationship with ingestion of orellanin-containing mushrooms or tricholoma equestre respectively. Mushrooms in the backyard are attractive for children. We discuss possible approaches. PMID:19401986

Flammer, René; Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M

2009-05-01

332

Decolourisation of mushroom farm wastewater by Pleurotus ostreatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushroom production on coffee pulp as substrate generates an intense black residual liquid, which requires suitable treatment.\\u000a In the present study, Pleurotus ostreatus growth in wastewater from mushroom farm was evaluated as a potential biological treatment process for decolourisation as\\u000a well as to obtain biomass (liquid inoculum). Culture medium components affecting mycelial growth were determined, evaluating\\u000a colour removal. Laccase activity

Suyén Rodríguez Pérez; Nora García Oduardo; Rosa C. Bermúdez Savón; Maikel Fernández Boizán; Christopher Augur

2008-01-01

333

Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

2014-07-01

334

Genome sequence of the model mushroom Schizophyllum commune  

SciTech Connect

Much remains to be learned about the biology of mushroom-forming fungi, which are an important source of food, secondary metabolites and industrial enzymes. The wood-degrading fungus Schizophyllum commune is both a genetically tractable model for studying mushroom development and a likely source of enzymes capable of efficient degradation of lignocellulosic biomass. Comparative analyses of its 38.5-megabase genome, which encodes 13,210 predicted genes, reveal the species's unique wood-degrading machinery. One-third of the 471 genes predicted to encode transcription factors are differentially expressed during sexual development of S. commune. Whereas inactivation of one of these, fst4, prevented mushroom formation, inactivation of another, fst3, resulted in more, albeit smaller, mushrooms than in the wild-type fungus. Antisense transcripts may also have a role in the formation of fruiting bodies. Better insight into the mechanisms underlying mushroom formation should affect commercial production of mushrooms and their industrial use for producing enzymes and pharmaceuticals.

Ohm, Robin A.; de Jong, Jan F.; Lugones, Luis G.; Aerts, Andrea; Kothe, Erika; Stajich, Jason E.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Record, Eric; Levasseur, Anthony; Baker, Scott E.; Bartholomew, Kirk A.; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Erdmann, Susann; Fowler, Thomas J.; Gathman, Allen C.; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Knabe, Nicole; Kues, Ursula; Lilly, Walt; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Magnuson, Jon K.; Piumi, Francois; Raudaskoski, Marjatta; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Schwarze, Francis W.; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Horton, J. S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Wosten, Han

2010-09-01

335

Towards a Paradigm Shift in the Treatment of Chronic Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Treatment for Chagas disease with currently available medications is recommended universally only for acute cases (all ages) and for children up to 14 years old. The World Health Organization, however, also recommends specific antiparasite treatment for all chronic-phase Trypanosoma cruzi-infected individuals, even though in current medical practice this remains controversial, and most physicians only prescribe palliative treatment for adult Chagas patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The present opinion, prepared by members of the NHEPACHA network (Nuevas Herramientas para el Diagnóstico y la Evaluación del Paciente con Enfermedad de Chagas/New Tools for the Diagnosis and Evaluation of Chagas Disease Patients), reviews the paradigm shift based on clinical and immunological evidence and argues in favor of antiparasitic treatment for all chronic patients. We review the tools needed to monitor therapeutic efficacy and the potential criteria for evaluation of treatment efficacy beyond parasitological cure. Etiological treatment should now be mandatory for all adult chronic Chagas disease patients. PMID:24247135

Alarcón de Noya, B.; Araujo-Jorge, T.; Grijalva, M. J.; Guhl, F.; López, M. C.; Ramsey, J. M.; Ribeiro, I.; Schijman, A. G.; Sosa-Estani, S.; Torrico, F.; Gascon, J.

2014-01-01

336

Acute chagas disease: new global challenges for an old neglected disease.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

Andrade, Daniela V; Gollob, Kenneth J; Dutra, Walderez O

2014-07-01

337

Tripartite Mushroom Body Architecture Revealed by Antigenic Markers  

PubMed Central

We have explored the organization of the axonal lobes in Drosophila mushroom bodies by using a panel of immunohistochemical markers. These markers consist of antibodies to eight proteins expressed preferentially in the mushroom bodies: DAMB, DCO, DRK, FASII, LEO, OAMB, PKA RII, and RUT. Previous to this work, four axonal lobes, two projecting dorsally (? and ??) and two medially (? and ?), had been described in Drosophila mushroom bodies. However, our analysis of immunohistochemically stained frontal and sagittal sections of the brain revealed three medially projecting lobes. The newly distinguished lobe, which we term ??, lies along the dorsal surface of ?, just posterior to ?. In addition to resolving a fifth lobe, our studies revealed that there are specific lobe sets defined by equivalent marker expression levels. These sets are (1) the ? and ? lobes, (2) the ?? and ?? lobes, and (3) the ? lobe and heel (a lateral projection formed by a hairpin turn of some of the peduncle fibers). All of the markers we have examined are consistent with these three sets. Previous Golgi studies demonstrate that each mushroom body cell projects one axon that branches into a dorsal lobe and a medial lobe, or one unbranched axon that projects medially. Taken together with the lobe sets listed above, we propose that there are three major projection configurations of mushroom body cell axons: (1) one branch in the ? and one in the ? lobe, (2) one branch in the ?? and one in the ?? lobe, and (3) one unbranched axon projecting to the heel and the ? lobe. The fact that these neuron types exhibit differential expression levels of a number of mushroom body genes suggests that they may have corresponding functional differences. These functions may be conserved in the larvae, as several of these genes were expressed in larval and embryonic mushroom bodies as well. The basic mushroom body structure, including the denritic calyx, peduncle, and lobes, was already visible by the late stages of embryogenesis. With new insights into mushroom body organization, and the characterization of markers for developing mushroom bodies, we are beginning to understand how these structures form and function. PMID:10454371

Crittenden, Jill R.; Skoulakis, Efthimios M.C.; Han, Kyung-An; Kalderon, Daniel; Davis, Ronald L.

1998-01-01

338

Nutritional composition and antioxidant activities of 18 different wild Cantharellus mushrooms of northwestern Himalayas.  

PubMed

A total of 18 wild edible mushrooms of Cantharellus species were collected from northwestern Himalayan region of India. The basic composition (moisture, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, crude fat, ash, nitrogen and protein) and amino acid contents (by high-performance liquid chromatography) of these wild edible mushrooms were determined. The macronutrient profile in general revealed that the wild mushrooms were rich sources of protein and carbohydrates, and had low amounts of fat. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity from water and methanolic extracts of these mushrooms were also determined. These wild mushrooms also had significant amount of phenol content and antioxidant capacity. Studies also provide the precise antioxidant status of 18 indigenous species of mushrooms, which can serve as a useful database for the selection of mushrooms for the function of preparation of mushroom-based nutraceutics. PMID:22049158

Kumari, D; Reddy, M S; Upadhyay, R C

2011-12-01

339

[Congenital Chagas-Mazza disease in Salta, Argentina].  

PubMed

A study was carried out on T. cruzi infection in pregnant women in the Guemes area in Salta province; the rate of infection was 12.3%. Of newborn children studied by the microhematocrit technique, 8.8% were diagnosed with Chagas' disease. All of them were treated with benznidazol (5mg/kg/day) for one month; all of them presented anemia, which was interpreted to be an adverse drug reaction. The microhematocrit technique is believed to represent the best option for diagnosis of this disease in newborn children. A diagnostic methodology to follow the course of the infection is proposed. PMID:10881099

Contreras, S; Fernandez, M R; Agüero, F; Desse Desse, J; Orduna, T; Martino, O

1999-01-01

340

Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The target of the present review is to draw attention to many critically important unsolved problems in the future development\\u000a of medicinal mushroom science in the twenty-first century. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. Many, if\\u000a not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and\\u000a cultured broth. The data on mushroom polysaccharides are

Solomon P. Wasser

2011-01-01

341

Mortality Related to Chagas Disease and HIV/AIDS Coinfection in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease in patients with HIV infection represents a potentially serious event with high case fatality rates. This study describes epidemiological and clinical aspects of deaths related to Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection in Brazil, 1999–2007. We performed a descriptive study based on mortality data from the nationwide Mortality Information System. Of a total of about 9 million deaths, Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS were mentioned in the same death certificate in 74 cases. AIDS was an underlying cause in 77.0% (57) and Chagas disease in 17.6% (13). Males (51.4%), white skin color (50%), age group 40–49 years (29.7%), and residents in the Southeast region (75.7%) were most common. Mean age at death was significantly lower in the coinfected (47.1 years [SD ± 14.6]), as compared to Chagas disease deaths (64.1 years [SD ± 14.7], P < 0.001). Considering the lack of data on morbidity related to Chagas disease and AIDS coinfection, the use of mortality data may be an appropriate sentinel approach to monitor the occurrence of this association. Due to the epidemiological transition in Brazil, chronic Chagas disease and HIV/AIDS coinfection will be further complicated and require the development of evidence-based preventive control measures. PMID:22969814

Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Heukelbach, Jorg

2012-01-01

342

When a misperception favors a tragedy: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.  

PubMed

Carlos Chagas, the discoverer of Chagas' disease was nominated to the Nobel Prize in 1921, but none did win the prize in that year. As a leader of a young scientist team, he discovered all aspects of the new disease from 1909 to 1920. It is still obscure why he did not win the Nobel Prize in 1921. Chagas was discarded by Gunnar Hedrèn on April 16, 1921. Hedrèn should have made a written report about the details of his evaluation to the Nobel Committee. However, such a document has not been found in the Nobel Committee Archives. No evidence of detractions made by Brazilian scientists on Chagas was found. Since Chagas nomination was consistent with the Nobel Committee requirements, as seen in the presentation letter by until now unknown Cypriano de Freitas, it become clear that Chagas did not win the Nobel Prize exclusively because the Nobel Committee did not perceive the importance of his discovery. Thus, it would be fair a posthumous Nobel Prize of 1921 to Carlos Chagas. A diploma of the Nobel Prize, as precedent with Dogmack in 1947, would recognize the merit of the scientist who made the most complete medical discovery of all times. PMID:24063910

Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Couto, Lucélio B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

2013-11-20

343

Chagas disease awareness among latin american immigrants living in los angeles, california.  

PubMed

Approximately 300,000 persons have Chagas disease in the United States, although almost all persons acquired the disease in Latin America. We examined awareness of Chagas disease among Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles, California. We surveyed 2,677 persons (age range = 18-60 years) in Los Angeles who resided in Latin America for at least six months. A total of 62% of the participants recalled seeing triatomines in Latin America, and 27% of the participants reported triatomine bites at least once per year while living abroad. A total of 86% of the participants had never heard of Chagas disease. Of persons who had heard of Chagas disease, 81% believed that it was not serious. More than 95% of those who had heard of Chagas disease would want to be tested and treated. Most Latin American immigrants living in Los Angeles recalled exposure to vectors of Chagas disease. However, they have little knowledge of this disease. Increasing awareness of Chagas disease is needed in this high-risk population. PMID:25200261

Sanchez, Daniel R; Traina, Mahmoud I; Hernandez, Salvador; Smer, Aiman M; Khamag, Haneen; Meymandi, Sheba K

2014-11-01

344

Submerged Culture of Mushrooms in Bioreactors - Challenges, Current State-of-the-Art, and Future Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Medicinal mushrooms have profound health-promoting benefits. Recently, a number of substances of mushroom origin have been isolated, identified and shown to have physi- ological activities, such as antitumor, immunomodulating, cardiovascular, antihypercholes- terolemia, antibacterial, antiviral, antiparasitic, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic activities. Currently, commercial products from medicinal mushrooms are mostly obtained through the field-cultivation of the fruiting body. However, in this case

Ya-Jie Tang; Li-Wen Zhu; Hong-Mei Li; Dong-Sheng Li

2007-01-01

345

Growth Promotion of Mycelia of the Matsutake Mushroom Tricholoma matsutake by D-Isoleucine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycelial growth of the Matsutake mushroom (Tri- cholama matsutake) was much slower than that of the other mushroom species. We found that the addition of D-isoleucine to the culture medium strikingly promoted mycelia growth. The other amino acids tested had no effect on this growth promotion. Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) is the most pop- ular and expensive mushroom in Japan. However,

Hirokazu KAWAGISHI; Keiko HAMAJIMA; Ryo TAKANAMI; Tomoyuki NAKAMURA; Yuko SATO; Yukihito AKIYAMA; Masanori SANO; Osamu TANAKA

2004-01-01

346

Investigation on the accuracy of equivalent electric models for mushroom structures  

E-print Network

Investigation on the accuracy of equivalent electric models for mushroom structures Z.Djeffal, H as mushroom structures which present a negative refractive index (NRI) in a very narrow frequency band analytical formulas for the effective material parameters of the unit cell. Keywords- Mushroom; left

347

Developmental and Dominance-Associated Differences in Mushroom Body Structure in the  

E-print Network

Developmental and Dominance-Associated Differences in Mushroom Body Structure in the Paper Wasp of subregions of the mushroom bodies (MB) of female Mischocyttarus mastigophorus queens and workers. We found; division of labor; Kenyon cells; mushroom bodies; neural plasticity INTRODUCTION Division of labor

O'Donnell, Sean

348

American Journal of Botany 84(8): 981991. 1997. FOSSIL MUSHROOMS FROM MIOCENE AND CRETACEOUS  

E-print Network

981 American Journal of Botany 84(8): 981­991. 1997. FOSSIL MUSHROOMS FROM MIOCENE AND CRETACEOUS Two species of fossil mushrooms that are similar to extant Tricholomataceae are described from to hypotheses that the cosmopolitan distributions of certain mushroom taxa could be due to fragmentation

Hibbett, David S.

349

Early Development of Mushroom Bodies in the Brain of the Honeybee Apis mellifera  

E-print Network

Early Development of Mushroom Bodies in the Brain of the Honeybee Apis mellifera as Revealed by Brd Berlin, Germany Abstract In the honeybee the mushroom bodies are prominent neuropil structures arranged as pairs in the dorsal protocerebrum of the brain. Each mushroom body is composed of a medial and a lateral

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

350

Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights Sarah M. Farris*  

E-print Network

Evolution of insect mushroom bodies: old clues, new insights Sarah M. Farris* Department of Biology Received 20 October 2004; accepted 7 January 2005 Abstract The mushroom bodies are a morphologically, of which those of insects are the best described. Insect mushroom bodies are composed of numerous tiny

Farris, Sarah M.

351

Mushroom Body Subdomains in Drosophila: Innate or Learned Representations of Odor  

E-print Network

Minireview Mushroom Body Subdomains in Drosophila: Innate or Learned Representations of Odor for more than a week (>¼of its life span) (Tully et al., 1994). In insect brains, the mushroom bodies (MBs al., 1995) emphasizes the importance of Drosophila as a model organism. Mushroom Body Plasticity

de Belle, J. Steven

352

Integrative Properties of the Pe1 Neuron, a Unique Mushroom Body Output Neuron  

E-print Network

Integrative Properties of the Pe1 Neuron, a Unique Mushroom Body Output Neuron Ju¨rgen Rybak1 Institut fu¨r Neurobiologie Freie Universita¨t Berlin D-14195 Berlin, Germany Abstract A mushroom body extrinsic neuron, the Pe1 neuron, connects the peduncle of the mushroom body (MB) with two areas

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

353

eople have harvested mushrooms from the wild for thousands of years for food and  

E-print Network

1 P eople have harvested mushrooms from the wild for thousands of years for food and medicines. Of the estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, about 10,000 produce the fruiting bodies we call mushrooms. While commercial harvesting of wild mushrooms continues today, most of the world's supply comes from commer- cial

O'Laughlin, Jay

354

MONDAY Sample Halls Menu MAIN MEAL BEEF, MUSHROOM AND ALE PIE  

E-print Network

MONDAY Sample Halls Menu MAIN MEAL BEEF, MUSHROOM AND ALE PIE MAIN MEAL VEGETABLE GOULASH CHILLI CON CARNE MAIN MEAL FIELD MUSHROOM AND VEGETABLE STROGANOFF JACKET POTATO CHOICE OF HOT, SCRAMBLED EGG, TOMATO, MUSHROOMS, SAUT� POTATOES, BAPS, TOAST CEREALS JACKET POTATO FILLING OF CHEFS

Anderson, Jim

355

Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 date of collection  

E-print Network

Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date of collection: Location by: Identified by: Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date of collection) collected by: Identified by: Class collection PMB113 California mushrooms F2007 Species: date

California at Berkeley, University of

356

Ground Plan of the Insect Mushroom Body: Functional and Evolutionary Implications  

E-print Network

Ground Plan of the Insect Mushroom Body: Functional and Evolutionary Implications NICHOLAS J possesses a mushroom body equipped with calyces supplied by olfactory projection neurons. Kenyon cells pro, there is a loss of the antennal lobes and attenuation or loss of the calyces. Such taxa retain mushroom body lobes

Farris, Sarah M.

357

Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe sensu lato (Agaricales)  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Phylogenetic inference and trait evolution of the psychedelic mushroom genus Psilocybe, molecular systematics, psilocybin, psychedelic mushrooms. Résumé : Le genre Psilocybe comporte des espèces and iconic group of mushroom-forming fungi famous for its neurotropic use, especially in sacred religious

Matheny, P. Brandon

358

Subdivision of the drosophila mushroom bodies by enhancer-trap expression patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetically conserved brain centers known as mushroom bodies are implicated in insect associative learning and in several other aspects of insect behavior. Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of mushroom bodies, have been generally considered to be disposed as homogenous arrays. Such a simple picture imposes constraints on interpreting the diverse behavioral and computational properties that mushroom bodies are supposed to

Ming Yao Yang; J. Douglas Armstrong; Ilya Vilinsky; Nicholas J. Strausfeld; Kim Kaiser

1995-01-01

359

Sticky and Non-sticky open Mushrooms {Orestis Georgiou, Carl P. Dettmann} School of Mathematics  

E-print Network

Sticky and Non-sticky open Mushrooms {Orestis Georgiou, Carl P. Dettmann} School of Mathematics and specular reflections from a boundary. The mushroom billiard forms a class of dynam- ical systems for which all MUPOs are destroyed and therefore the system is non-sticky. The open mushroom (billiard

Dettmann, Carl

360

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important ``Big Red Mushroom'' from Southern China  

E-print Network

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important ``Big Red Mushroom'' from Southern China's Republic of China Abstract Background: In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called ``Dahongjun'' or ``Big Red Mushroom'' by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported

James, Timothy

361

Hebbian STDP in mushroom bodies facilitates the synchronous flow of olfactory information in locusts  

E-print Network

LETTERS Hebbian STDP in mushroom bodies facilitates the synchronous flow of olfactory information- formations and decorrelation1­3 from the receptor array to the presumed site of odour learning, the mushroom of the mushroom body. In contrast to projection neurons, Kenyon cells respond very specifically and fire extremely

Laurent, Gilles

362

Limits on Volume Changes in the Mushroom Bodies of the Honey Bee Brain  

E-print Network

Limits on Volume Changes in the Mushroom Bodies of the Honey Bee Brain Susan E. Fahrbach,1,2 Sarah hormone (JH), and is temporally correlated with an increase in the volume of the neuropil of the mushroom expansion and its possible dependence on JH. We stud- ied the volume of the mushroom bodies in adult bees

Robinson, Gene E.

363

77 FR 19620 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC.\\1\\ The...

2012-04-02

364

76 FR 17836 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the PRC. See Notice of...

2011-03-31

365

76 FR 43261 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2011-07-20

366

76 FR 28732 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China...January 31, 2011. See Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of...

2011-05-18

367

77 FR 32941 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Notice of Partial Rescission...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc. (the petitioner), a...

2012-06-04

368

Mushrooms and the Cycle of Life: Integrating Literature and Biology in Secondary Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental lesson is described in which student teachers verbalized preconceptions about a natural object (mushrooms) and completed personal response activities about a poem entitled "Mushrooms." The approach stimulated enhanced awareness of mushrooms and more questions about growth and reproduction. Possible applications in teaching and…

Brinkman, Fred; Mulder, Jan

1996-01-01

369

75 FR 35769 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-533-813] Certain Preserved Mushrooms from India: Notice of Rescission of...antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from India for the period of review...received a timely request from Monterey Mushrooms, Inc., a petitioner and a...

2010-06-23

370

The Effect of Sodium Metabisulphite on the Whiteness and Keeping Quality of Sliced Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium metabisulphite on the whiteness of sliced mushrooms was investigated. Mushrooms soaked whole in 1, 2 or 4 g\\/L sodium metabisulphite for 30 s or 10 min prior to slicing, were no whiter than those soaked in water. The effect of soaking whole mushrooms in 1 g\\/L sodium metabisulphite solution for 10 minutes on the keeping quality

Martine Brennan; Gaëlle Le Port; Annalisa Pulvirenti; Ronan Gormley

1999-01-01

371

Comparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals Widespread  

E-print Network

of mushroom fungi contain master regulatory genes that control recognition between compatible nuclei and reducing the production of self-compatible mating types. Compared to other fungi, mushroom fungi haveComparative Genomics of the Mating-Type Loci of the Mushroom Flammulina velutipes Reveals

James, Timothy

372

Evolution of the Toxins Muscarine and Psilocybin in a Family of Mushroom-Forming Fungi  

E-print Network

Evolution of the Toxins Muscarine and Psilocybin in a Family of Mushroom-Forming Fungi Pawel Mushroom-forming fungi produce a wide array of toxic alkaloids. However, evolutionary analyses aimed, et al. (2013) Evolution of the Toxins Muscarine and Psilocybin in a Family of Mushroom-Forming Fungi

Matheny, P. Brandon

373

Non-volatile taste components of several cultivated mushrooms.  

PubMed

Five species of dried mushrooms are commercially available in China, namely Agrocybe cylindracea, Pleurotus cystidiosus, Agaricus blazei, Pleurotus eryngii, and Coprinus comatus, and their nonvolatile taste components were studied. Trehalose (12.23-301.63mg/g) and mannitol (12.37-152.11mg/g) were considered as the major mushroom sugar/polyol in the five test species. The total free amino acid levels ranged from 4.09 to 22.73mg/g. MSG-like components contents ranged from 0.97 to 4.99mg/g. 5'-Nucleotide levels ranged from 1.68mg/g in P. eryngii to 3.79mg/g in C. comatus. Fumaric acid (96.11mg/g) in P. cystidiosus were significantly higher compared with the other mushrooms, and citric acid (113.13mg/g), as the highest of any organic acid among the five mushrooms, were found in A. blazei. Equivalent umami concentrations values in these five test mushrooms ranged from 11.19 to 88.37g/100g dry weight. A. blazei, C.comatus and A. cylindracea possessed highly strong umami taste. PMID:24054262

Li, Wen; Gu, Zhen; Yang, Yan; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong

2014-01-15

374

Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22216099

Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

375

Advances in Chagas disease drug development: 2009-2010  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The need for better drugs to treat patients with Chagas disease remains urgent. This review summarizes the advancements in drug development over the past two years. Recent Findings Drug development efforts are almost exclusively occurring as preclinical research. The exceptions being Phase I safety studies for the cruzain inhibitor, K-777, and potential Phase II studies for the antifungal drug, posaconazole, and a prodrug of ravuconazole. Several recent laboratory investigations demonstrate anti-T. cruzi activity of novel small molecules in animal models. These include nonpeptidic cruzain inhibitors, novel inhibitors of the sterol 14?-demethylase enzyme, new compounds (arylimidamides) related to pentamidine, derivatives of nifurtimox, compounds using ruthenium complexes, and several natural products. The recent implementation of a high-throughput screen of >300,000 compounds against intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes done at the Broad Institute is an important development, yielding ~300 selective inhibitors, many of which may serve as leads for medicinal chemistry efforts. Summary Progress is slow, but recent advancements in both drug development and advocacy for research on neglected diseases are encouraging. Efforts to define a target product profile and to harmonize methodologies for testing drugs for Chagas disease are described herein. PMID:20885320

Buckner, Frederick S.; Navabi, Nazlee

2013-01-01

376

A Multi-species Bait for Chagas Disease Vectors  

PubMed Central

Background Triatomine bugs are the insect vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. These insects are known to aggregate inside shelters during daylight hours and it has been demonstrated that within shelters, the aggregation is induced by volatiles emitted from bug feces. These signals promote inter-species aggregation among most species studied, but the chemical composition is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present work, feces from larvae of the three species were obtained and volatile compounds were identified by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). We identified five compounds, all present in feces of all of the three species: Triatoma infestans, Panstrongylus megistus and Triatoma brasiliensis. These substances were tested for attractivity and ability to recruit insects into shelters. Behaviorally active doses of the five substances were obtained for all three triatomine species. The bugs were significantly attracted to shelters baited with blends of 160 ng or 1.6 µg of each substance. Conclusions/Significance Common compounds were found in the feces of vectors of Chagas disease that actively recruited insects into shelters, which suggests that this blend of compounds could be used for the development of baits for early detection of reinfestation with triatomine bugs. PMID:24587457

Mota, Theo; Vitta, Ana C. R.; Lorenzo-Figueiras, Alicia N.; Barezani, Carla P.; Zani, Carlos L.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Diotaiuti, Lileia; Jeffares, Lynne; Bohman, Bjorn; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.

2014-01-01

377

Seroepidemiological and clinical study of Chagas' disease in Nicaragua.  

PubMed

With the aim of determining the prevalence, immunological profile, and knowing the electrocardiographic alterations, a clinical and seroepidemiological study of Chagas' disease was performed in three rural settlements located at the North, East and West of Nicaragua. Anti T. cruzi antibodies were searched by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and hemagglutination (IHA) in a total of 803 subjects. Seropositives and the same number of seronegatives, matched by age and sex, were included in a case-control design for the electrocardiographic assessment. Antibody prevalence was 13.1, 4.3 and 3.2% in the respective settlements. In the first two the immunological profile corresponds to that of an endemic zone of long standing, were transmission has decreased, and in the third the pattern is of a zone under control. Electrocardiographic changes compatible with Chagas' disease were found in seropositive individuals, but difference with control group was not statistically significant. It is concluded that the disease is endemic in the three settlements and the clinical aspect requires further evaluation, including additional cardiologic techniques. PMID:8525265

Rivera, T; Palma-Guzman, R; Morales, W

1995-01-01

378

[Chagas disease in a rural area of Northeast Brazil].  

PubMed

A serological and medical survey on Chagas disease was carried out between December 1997 and June 2000 in four villages of the semi-arid rural Northeast Brazil. The average human serological prevalence rate of 11.8% was strongly linked with age: 1.1% for people under 25, 13.7% for people aged of 26 to 49, 29.5% for people aged of 50+. The clinical form was indeterminate for 57% of the infected population, cardiac for 35%, digestive or mixed for 8%. The infected patients under 55 received at home an etiologic treatment with benznidazol. The survey confirms the drastic reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission during the last decades, especially since 25 years. This situation is the result jointly of the antivectorial activities, improvement of education level and changes in the way of life. However Chagas disease is still a serious problem, especially for numerous middle-aged infected adults. The situation could be improved by increasing the serologic screening in the field as well as the counselling and the treatment of the patients. PMID:15462201

Gazin, P; Melo, G; Abuquerque, A; Oliveira, W; Soula, G; Audry, P

2004-08-01

379

Squalene synthase as a target for Chagas disease therapeutics.  

PubMed

Trypanosomatid parasites are the causative agents of many neglected tropical diseases and there is currently considerable interest in targeting endogenous sterol biosynthesis in these organisms as a route to the development of novel anti-infective drugs. Here, we report the first x-ray crystallographic structures of the enzyme squalene synthase (SQS) from a trypanosomatid parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We obtained five structures of T. cruzi SQS and eight structures of human SQS with four classes of inhibitors: the substrate-analog S-thiolo-farnesyl diphosphate, the quinuclidines E5700 and ER119884, several lipophilic bisphosphonates, and the thiocyanate WC-9, with the structures of the two very potent quinuclidines suggesting strategies for selective inhibitor development. We also show that the lipophilic bisphosphonates have low nM activity against T. cruzi and inhibit endogenous sterol biosynthesis and that E5700 acts synergistically with the azole drug, posaconazole. The determination of the structures of trypanosomatid and human SQS enzymes with a diverse set of inhibitors active in cells provides insights into SQS inhibition, of interest in the context of the development of drugs against Chagas disease. PMID:24789335

Shang, Na; Li, Qian; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Li, Jikun; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ren, Feifei; Chen, Chun-Chi; Zhu, Zhen; Galizzi, Melina; Li, Zhu-Hong; Rodrigues-Poveda, Carlos A; Gonzalez-Pacanowska, Dolores; Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria Ulisses; de Souza, Wanderley; Urbina, Julio A; Wang, Andrew H-J; Docampo, Roberto; Li, Kai; Liu, Yi-Liang; Oldfield, Eric; Guo, Rey-Ting

2014-05-01

380

PREPARATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM BAGS Developed by Carolyn Saft, Horticulture Agent II, UF/IFAS Suwannee County Extension  

E-print Network

PREPARATION OF OYSTER MUSHROOM BAGS Developed by Carolyn Saft, Horticulture Agent II, UF tightly. Step 9 - Place filled bag in a cool, dark room. Step 10 - The mycelium of the oyster mushroom) and the mushrooms start to "pin" (mushroom heads start to form), cut small "x"'s all around the bag to allow

Jawitz, James W.

381

Isolation, identification and ecology of Ewingella americana (the causal agent of internal stipe necrosis) from cultivated mushrooms in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal stipe necrosis of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is caused by the bacterium Ewingella americana, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, E. americana was isolated from healthy cultivated button mushrooms grown in New Zealand and from mushrooms showing mild stipe browning.\\u000a E. americana forms a part of the endogenous bacterial population present in mushroom sporocarp tissues. This is the first

Piklu Roy Chowdhury; Judith Pay; Mark Braithwaite

2007-01-01

382

Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field  

SciTech Connect

There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

Rangel, M.E.R. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

1998-12-01

383

Accumulation route and chemical form of mercury in mushroom species  

SciTech Connect

Some papers were published on several species of fungi having more accumulating abilities of mercury than other land plants and a relatively small part of mercury being present as methylmercury in most species (Stegnar et al. 1973, Stijve and Roschnik 1974). But, little information is available regarding the routes of mercury in fungi, and also no report on mercury speciation (chemical form and complexation) in them have been published, apart from methylmercury. In order to evaluate accurately their biological characteristics such as absorption, excretion, accumulation and toxicity (The Task Group on Metal Interaction 1978), the mercury speciation present in mushrooms, regardless of edible or nonedible, should be identified. In this report, we present (1) contents of total and methylmercury in mushrooms near the acetaldehyde factory which had the mounds of sludge containing mercury, (2) data or exposure experiment of mercury vapor to raw mushrooms (Shiitake) on the market, and (3) data on mercury speciation of mercury other than methylmercury.

Minagawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Takizawa, Y.; Tamura, R.; Oshina, T.

1980-09-01

384

Fatty Acid Compositions of Six Wild Edible Mushroom Species  

PubMed Central

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18?:?2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Gunc Ergonul, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergonul, Bulent

2013-01-01

385

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.  

PubMed

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids. PMID:23844377

Günç Ergönül, Pelin; Akata, Ilgaz; Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent

2013-01-01

386

Two Cases of Mushroom Poisoning by Podostroma Cornu-Damae  

PubMed Central

Podostroma cornu-damae is a rare fungus that houses a fatal toxin in its fruit body. In this case report, two patients collected and boiled the wild fungus in water, which they drank for one month. One patient died, presenting with desquamation of the palms and soles, pancytopenia, severe sepsis and multiple organ failure. The other patient recovered after one month of conservative care after admission. We found a piece of Podostroma cornu-damae in the remaining clusters of mushrooms. Mushroom poisoning by Podostroma cornu-damae has never been previously reported in Korea. PMID:23225831

Ahn, Jin Young; Seok, Soon Ja; Song, Je Eun; Choi, Jung Ho; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Chang Oh; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung

2013-01-01

387

MushBase: A Mushroom Information Database Application.  

PubMed

A database application, namely MushBase, has been built based on Microsoft Access in order to store and manage different kinds of data about mushroom biological information of species, strains and their physiological characteristics such as geometries and growth condition(s). In addition, it is also designed to store another group of information that is experimental data about mushroom classification by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). These two groups of information are stored and managed in the way so that it is convenient to retrieve each group of data and to cross-refer between them as well. PMID:24015087

Le, Vang Quy; Lee, Hyun-Sook; Ro, Hyeon-Su

2007-09-01

388

Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.  

PubMed

Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing. PMID:23557365

Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

2013-01-01

389

Ethanol extract of Inonotus obliquus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.  

PubMed

Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes. Extracts and fractions of this fungus have been known to have biological activities, including antimutagenic, anticancer, antioxidative, and immunostimulating effects. Recently, there have been reports that the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the methanol extract of I. obliquus may be due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via the down-regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding activity. However, the effects of I. obliquus on Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation of inflammatory mediator production have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a 70% ethanol extract of I. obliquus (IOE70) showed antioxidative effects. We also tested the ability of the I. obliquus extract to inhibit the inflammatory cascades in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The NO inhibition of IOE70 was better than that of other ethanol extracts from I. obliquus. To investigate the mechanism by which IOE 70 inhibits NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression, we examined the activations of IkappaBalpha, Akt, and c-Jun NH(2) -terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-activated macrophages. IOE70 markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, Akt, and MAPKs in dose-dependent manners in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, these experiments demonstrated that IOE70 inhibition of LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein is mediated by Akt and JNK. Based on our findings, the most likely mechanism that can account for this biological effect of IOE70 involves the inhibition of NF-kappaB through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/IkappaB pathway and the inhibition of JNK activation. Thus, IOE70 might have useful clinical applications in the management of inflammatory diseases and may also be useful as a medicinal food. PMID:17472471

Kim, Ho-Gyoung; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Kim, Chun-Hoi; Shrestha, Bhushan; Chang, Woo-Chul; Lim, So-Yeon; Lee, Won-Ho; Han, Sang-Guk; Lee, Je-O; Lim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Geun-Young; Choi, Sunga; Song, Won O; Sung, Jae-Mo; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woong

2007-03-01

390

Low Prevalence of Chagas Parasite Infection in a Nonhuman Primate Colony in Louisiana  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease, an important cause of heart disease in Latin America, is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which typically is transmitted to humans by triatomine insects. Although autochthonous transmission of the Chagas parasite to humans is rare in the United States, triatomines are common, and more than 20 species of mammals are infected with the Chagas parasite in the southern United States. Chagas disease has also been detected in colonies of nonhuman primates (NHP) in Georgia and Texas, and heart abnormalities consistent with Chagas disease have occurred at our NHP center in Louisiana. To determine the level of T. cruzi infection, we serologically tested 2157 of the approximately 4200 NHP at the center; 34 of 2157 primates (1.6%) tested positive. Presence of the T. cruzi parasite was confirmed by hemoculture in 4 NHP and PCR of the cultured parasites. These results strongly suggest local transmission of T. cruzi, because most of the infected NHP were born and raised at this site. All 3 species of NHP tested yielded infected animals, with significantly higher infection prevalence in pig-tailed macaques, suggesting possible exploration of this species as a model organism. The local T. cruzi strain isolated during this study would enhance such investigations. The NHP at this center are bred for use in scientific research, and the effects of the Chagas parasite on infected primates could confuse the interpretation of other studies. PMID:23043809

Dorn, Patricia L; Daigle, Megan E; Combe, Crescent L; Tate, Ashley H; Stevens, Lori; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M

2012-01-01

391

NMR-based metabonomic analysis on effect of light on production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in submerged cultures of Inonotus obliquus.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the light effect on biosynthesis of antioxidant phenolic compounds by Inonotus obliquus grown in submerged cultures using (1)H NMR spectroscopy combining multivariate pattern recognition strategies. I. obliquus were exposed to a range of light conditions and resultant data were compared to those from field-grown sclerotia and the mycelia grown in daylight. Daylight illumination inhibited biosynthesis of davallialactone and phelligridins and other hispidin analogs. Continuous darkness enhanced the formation of phelligridins, davallialactone and inoscavins. Phelligridins and davallialactone also occurred in the mycelia grown in blue and red light with levels lower than those found in darkness. In addition, polyphenols synthesized under daylight conditions showed less potential antioxidant activity than those determined with other light regimes. These findings demonstrate that light regulates biosynthesis of polyphenols in I. obliquus and their subsequent antioxidant activities, and (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling is a cost-effective approach for evaluating light effects on fungal metabolisms. PMID:19433352

Zheng, Weifa; Zhang, Meimei; Zhao, Yanxia; Miao, Kangjie; Jiang, Hong

2009-10-01

392

Inedible mushrooms: a good source of biologically active substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of our investigation on biologically active substances from inedible mushrooms in Japan, Germany, and Vietnam, we studied the chemical constituents of 22 species belonging to five families: Scutigeraceae, Polyporaceae, Xylariaceae, Thelephoraceae, and Paxillaceae. Various types of chemical substances were purified and characterized based on the modern spectro- scopic methods and also on chemical reactions. These metabolites have

Dang Ngoc Quang; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Yoshinori Asakawa

2006-01-01

393

A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macrolepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters. The

Pavel Kala?; Lubom??r Svoboda

2000-01-01

394

High explosive corner turning performance and the LANL Mushroom test  

SciTech Connect

The Mushroom test is designed to characterize the corner turning performance of a new generation of less insensitive booster explosives. The test is described in detail, and three corner turning figures-of-merit are examined using pure TATB (both Livermore`s Ultrafine and a Los Alamos research blend) and PBX9504 as examples.

Hill, L.G.; Seitz, W.L.; Forest, C.A.; Harry, H.H.

1997-09-01

395

A review of trace element concentrations in edible mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild growing mushrooms have been a popular delicacy in many countries. Some species, mainly from genera Agaricus, Macro- lepiota, Lepista and Calocybe accumulate high levels of cadmium and mercury even in unpolluted and mildly polluted areas. The concentrations of both metals and also of lead increase considerably in the heavily polluted sites, such as in the vicinity of metal smelters.

Pavel Kala; Lubomir Svoboda

2000-01-01

396

Mushroom: a framework for collaboration and interaction across the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the initial design of Mushroom, a framework for collaborative working and user interaction on the Internet. The motivation is to address the issues of support for user interaction, shared resource management and privacy. Mrooms are environments for groups of collaborating and interacting users, whose most significant feature is the boundary, which provides security and integrity guarantees

Tim Kindberg

1996-01-01

397

Preparation and Use of Polish Mushroom Proficiency Testing Materials  

SciTech Connect

Mushroom reference materials have been prepared and characterized for the use in proficiency tests according to a procedure established within the frame of an IAEA Interregional Technical Cooperation Project. The materials were used for conducting the proficiency tests in Poland in 2005-2007. The results obtained by participating laboratories are presented and discussed.

Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Dorodna 16, 03-195 Warsaw (Poland)

2008-08-14

398

Oscillations and Sparsening of Odor Representations in the Mushroom Body  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the insect olfactory system, oscillatory synchronization is functionally relevant and reflects the coherent activation of dynamic neural assemblies. We examined the role of such oscillatory synchronization in information transfer between networks in this system. The antennal lobe is the obligatory relay for olfactory afferent signals and generates oscillatory output. The mushroom body is responsible for formation and retrieval of

Javier Perez-Orive; Ofer Mazor; Glenn C. Turner; Stijn Cassenaer; Rachel I. Wilson; Gilles Laurent

2002-01-01

399

Suillusin, a unique benzofuran from the mushroom Suillus granulatus.  

PubMed

A unique benzofuran named suillusin was isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruiting body of the mushroom Suillus granulatus. Its structure was assigned on the basis of various spectroscopic analyses as a highly substituted novel 1H-cyclopenta[b]benzofuran (1). Suillusin is suggested to be biogenerated from polyporic acid. PMID:11575963

Yun, B S; Kang, H C; Koshino, H; Yu, S H; Yoo, I D

2001-09-01

400

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DRAINING & DRYING BUILDING, REINFORCED CONCRETE MUSHROOM COLUMNS WITH DROP PANELS SUPPORTING DRAINING BINS (IRON VALVES OF DRAINING BINS ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CEILING), VIEW LOOKING WEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand Draining & Drying Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

401

Quantitation of Nine Organic Acids in Wild Mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic acids composition of six wild edible mushroom species (Amanita caesarea, Boletus edulis, Gyroporus castaneus, Lactarius deliciosus, Suillus collinitus, and Xerocomus chrysenteron) was determined by an HPLC-UV detector method. The results showed that all of the samples presented a profile composed of at least five organic acids: citric, ketoglutaric, malic, succinic, and fumaric acids. Several samples also contained oxalic,

Patrícia Valentão; Graciliana Lopes; Miguel Valente; Paula Barbosa; Paula B. Andrade; Branca M. Silva; Paula Baptista; Rosa M. Seabra

2005-01-01

402

[End stage renal disease after ingestion of mushrooms].  

PubMed

This case report describes a 56 year old patient with acute renal failure caused by a mushroom poisoning. Unspecific symptoms like a gastroenteritis followed by kidney insuffiency lead to the diagnosis of an orellanus syndrome. The toxin can be proved by thin layer chromatography in renal biopsy. Fast processing of hemoperfusion may avoid lasting kidney damage and dialysis. PMID:16511691

Fischer, H; Höcherl, E; Franke, J; Mann, J

2006-04-01

403

The Mushroom Curriculum: Using Natural History to Teach Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the development and content of a freshman seminar titled "The Psychology of Mushrooms," which teaches psychology as natural history. This approach allowed the course to proceed from concrete experience to general principals of perception, learning, social, and abnormal psychology. (Author/LS)

Sommer, Robert

1989-01-01

404

Ethanol diminishes the toxicity of the mushroom Amanita phalloides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Survival of mice after lethal doses of a lyophilizate fromAmanita phalloides (‘death cap’) was markedly increased by single doses of ethanol applied 30 min before or 5 min after the mushroom. Hepatic histopathological damage (confluent necrosis) was largley prevented. Acute, but not chronic, consumption of ethanol may thus influence favorably the outcome of death cap poisoning and should be

G. L. Floersheim; L. Bianchi

1984-01-01

405

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun The Commercially Important 'Big Red Mushroom\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Russula is among the most numerous and complex mushroom genera. They form symbiotic associations with a variety of plants such as pines, oaks, spruce, and birches and play vital roles in forest ecosystem. Species in this genus are widely distributed throughout the world, from the tropics to subtropics, temperate regions, and the arctic zone. Intensive studies on this

Mochan Li

2009-01-01

406

Amaninamide, a new toxin of Amanita virosa mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amaninamide, a toxin closely related to the family of amatoxins, was found exclusively inAmanita virosa mushrooms. It differs from the well known toxin ?-amanitin in that it lacks the 6?-hydroxyl group of the tryptophan unit, and from the toxin amanin found inAmanita phalloides by the presence of a carboxamide group instead of a carboxylic acid group.

A. Buku; Th. Wieland; H. Bodenmüller; H. Faulstich

1980-01-01

407

Early detection of amatoxins in human mushroom poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amatoxins were detected radioimmunologically as early as 90–120 min after ingestion in the gastric fluid and urine of a 15-year-old boy who tried to commit suicide by ingestion of wild mushrooms. This early detection of amatoxins in the urine is proof of rapid absorption from the intestinal tract and subsequent excretion by the kidneys in man.

Jiirgen Homann; Peter Rawer; Henning Bleyl; Karl-John Matthes I; Dieter Heinrich

1986-01-01

408

Fatal mushroom poisoning in Barcelona, 1986–1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986–88, 46 poisonings (4 of which were fatal) caused by amatoxin mushroom were reported. The fatalities were males aged between 7 and 65 years. They all had gastrointestinal symptoms and three of the patients died of acute hepatic insufficiency. The fourth died as a result of an intestinal perforation. The clinical and pathological alterations are compared with the findings

P. Sanz; R. Reig; J. Piqueras; G. Marti; J. Corbella

1989-01-01

409

Tocopherols composition of Portuguese wild mushrooms with antioxidant capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant composition and properties of 18 Portuguese wild mushrooms (Clitocybe alexandri, Cortinarius glaucopus, Fistulina hepatica, Hydnum repandum, Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca, Hypholoma capnoides, Laccaria amethystina, Laccaria laccata, Lactarius aurantiacus, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lepista inversa, Lepista sordida, Mycena rosea, Russula delica, Russula vesca, Suillus collinitus, Suillus mediterraneensis, Tricholoma sulphureum) were evaluated, in order to contribute to the overall characterisation of these products. Their

Sandrina A. Heleno; Lillian Barros; Maria João Sousa; Anabela Martins; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2010-01-01

410

Shiitake mushrooms and molecular clocks: historical biogeography of Lentinula  

E-print Network

Shiitake mushrooms and molecular clocks: historical biogeography of Lentinula David S. Hibbett@black.clarku.edu Abstract Aim Fungi make up a large, ecologically important group of eukaryotes that has been neglected is rare in Lentinula. This may also be true in other fungi, which are therefore excellent candidates

Hibbett, David S.

411

Epicuticular lipids induce aggregation in Chagas disease vectors  

PubMed Central

Background The triatomine bugs are vectors of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Aggregation behavior plays an important role in their survival by facilitating the location of refuges and cohesion of aggregates, helping to keep them safely assembled into shelters during daylight time, when they are vulnerable to predators. There are evidences that aggregation is mediated by thigmotaxis, by volatile cues from their faeces, and by hexane-extractable contact chemoreceptive signals from their cuticle surface. The epicuticular lipids of Triatoma infestans include a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, free and esterified fatty acids, alcohols, and sterols. Results We analyzed the response of T. infestans fifth instar nymphs after exposure to different amounts either of total epicuticular lipid extracts or individual lipid fractions. Assays were performed in a circular arena, employing a binary choice test with filter papers acting as aggregation attractive sites; papers were either impregnated with a hexane-extract of the total lipids, or lipid fraction; or with the solvent. Insects were significantly aggregated around papers impregnated with the epicuticular lipid extracts. Among the lipid fractions separately tested, only the free fatty acid fraction promoted significant bug aggregation. We also investigated the response to different amounts of selected fatty acid components of this fraction; receptiveness varied with the fatty acid chain length. No response was elicited by hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), the major fatty acid component. Octadecanoic acid (C18:0) showed a significant assembling effect in the concentration range tested (0.1 to 2 insect equivalents). The very long chain hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) was significantly attractant at low doses (? 1 equivalent), although a repellent effect was observed at higher doses. Conclusion The detection of contact aggregation pheromones has practical application in Chagas disease vector control. These data may be used to help design new tools against triatomine bugs. PMID:19173716

Figueiras, Alicia N Lorenzo; Girotti, Juan R; Mijailovsky, Sergio J; Juarez, M Patricia

2009-01-01

412

Beneficial effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth of Inonotus obliquus in submerged culture on the antioxidant defence system and regeneration of pancreatic ?-cells in experimental diabetes in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antihyperglycaemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of the ethanol extract from the dry matter of a culture broth (DMCB) of Inonotus obliquus were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic mice and the possible mechanism of action was also discussed. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, treatment with the ethanol extract from DMCB of I. obliquus (30 and 60 mg kg body weight (b.w.) for 21

Hong-Yu Xu; Jun-En Sun; Zhen-Ming Lu; Xiao-Mei Zhang; Wen-Fang Dou; Zheng-Hong Xu

2010-01-01

413

Wild Mushroom Extracts as Inhibitors of Bacterial Biofilm Formation  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms can colonize a wide variety of medical devices, putting patients in risk for local and systemic infectious complications, including local-site infections, catheter-related bloodstream infections, and endocarditis. These microorganisms are able to grow adhered to almost every surface, forming architecturally complex communities termed biofilms. The use of natural products has been extremely successful in the discovery of new medicine, and mushrooms could be a source of natural antimicrobials. The present study reports the capacity of wild mushroom extracts to inhibit in vitro biofilm formation by multi-resistant bacteria. Four Gram-negative bacteria biofilm producers (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii) isolated from urine were used to verify the activity of Russula delica, Fistulina hepatica, Mycena rosea, Leucopaxilus giganteus, and Lepista nuda extracts. The results obtained showed that all tested mushroom extracts presented some extent of inhibition of biofilm production. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the microorganism with the highest capacity of biofilm production, being also the most susceptible to the extracts inhibition capacity (equal or higher than 50%). Among the five tested extracts against E. coli, Leucopaxillus giganteus (47.8%) and Mycenas rosea (44.8%) presented the highest inhibition of biofilm formation. The extracts exhibiting the highest inhibitory effect upon P. mirabilis biofilm formation were Sarcodon imbricatus (45.4%) and Russula delica (53.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the microorganism with the lowest susceptibility to mushroom extracts inhibitory effect on biofilm production (highest inhibition—almost 29%, by Russula delica extract). This is a pioneer study since, as far as we know, there are no reports on the inhibition of biofilm production by the studied mushroom extracts and in particular against multi-resistant clinical isolates; nevertheless, other studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action.

Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Lourenço, Inês; Costa, Eduardo; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

2014-01-01

414

Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.  

PubMed

The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor. PMID:25124478

Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

2014-09-01

415

Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Associated with Mushroom Worker’s Lung: An Update on the Clinical Significance of the Importation of Exotic Mushroom Varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis remains an important industrial disease in mushroom workers. It has a significant morbidity, and early diagnosis and removal from exposure to the antigen are critically important in its management. Recently, several new allergens have been described, particularly those from mushroom species originating in the Far East, which are of clinical significance to workers occupationally exposed to such allergens

John E. Moore; Rory P. Convery; B. Cherie Millar; Juluri R. Rao; J. Stuart Elborn

2005-01-01

416

Antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Portuguese wild edible mushrooms methanolic extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial properties of phenolic extracts of Portuguese wild edible mushroom species (Lactarius deliciosus, Sarcodon imbricatus and Tricholoma portentosum) against pathogens were investigated. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were evaluated for the entire mushroom,\\u000a the cap and the stipe, separately; the portion of the mushroom used proved to be influenced in the results obtained, which\\u000a are directly correlated with the

Lillian Barros; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Josiana A. Vaz; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Letícia M. Estevinho

2007-01-01

417

Indian Medicinal Mushrooms as a Source of Antioxidant and Antitumor Agents  

PubMed Central

Medicinal mushrooms occurring in South India namely Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus rimosus, Pleurotus florida and Pleurotus pulmonaris possessed profound antioxidant and antitumor activities. This indicated that these mushrooms would be valuable sources of antioxidant and antitumor compounds. Investigations also revealed that they had significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Thus, Indian medicinal mushrooms are potential sources of antioxidant and anticancer compounds. However, intensive and extensive investigations are needed to exploit their valuable therapeutic use. PMID:18398492

A. Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil; K. Janardhanan, Kainoor

2007-01-01

418

Sterol and vitamin D 2 contents in some wild and cultivated mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of vitamin D2 and sterols in some wild and cultivated mushrooms were determined, and the distribution of these compounds in different parts of the wild mushrooms was evaluated. In addition, the variation in vitamin D2 contents between individual fruiting bodies of wild mushrooms was studied. Vitamin D2 was determined using an HPLC method, including saponification and semipreparative normal-phase

Pirjo Mattila; Anna-Maija Lampi; Riitta Ronkainen; Jari Toivo; Vieno Piironen

2002-01-01

419

Early development of the Drosophila mushroom bodies, brain centres for associative learning and memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the formation of Drosophila mushroom bodies using enhancer detector techniques to visualize specific components of these complex intrinsic brain structures.\\u000a During embryogenesis, neuronal proliferation begins in four mushroom body neuroblasts and the major axonal pathways of the\\u000a mushroom bodies are pioneered. During larval development, neuronal proliferation continues and further axonal projections\\u000a in the pedunculus and lobes are

Marco Tettamanti; J. Douglas Armstrong; Keita Endo; Ming Yao Yang; Katsuo Furukubo-Tokunaga; K. Kaiser; H. Reichert

1997-01-01

420

The inhibitory effects of mushroom extracts on sucrose-dependent oral biofilm formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mushrooms contain large quantities of ?-glucans. Shiitake (Lentinula edodes), Japan’s most popular edible mushroom, has been reported to contain about 6% (weight\\/dried weight) of ?-(1,3)-glucan. This\\u000a glucan is one of the major components of oral biofilm formed by the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. We found that extracts from shiitake and other edible mushrooms could reduce preformed biofilms

Akira Yano; Sayaka Kikuchi; Yoshihisa Yamashita; Yuichi Sakamoto; Yuko Nakagawa; Yasuo Yoshida

2010-01-01

421

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important ``Big Red Mushroom'' from Southern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called “Dahongjun” or “Big Red Mushroom” by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and\\/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure.Methodology and Principal FindingsIn this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five

Mochan Li; Junfeng Liang; Yanchun Li; Bang Feng; Zhu-Liang Yang; Timothy Y. James; Jianping Xu; Simon Joly

2010-01-01

422

Biogenic amines - A possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.  

PubMed

Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis. PMID:25308683

Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

2015-03-15

423

Outbreak of fatal mushroom poisoning with Amanita franchetii and Ramaria rufescens  

PubMed Central

Mushroom poisoning continues to occur worldwide. We report a cluster of sudden death in two villages of the Gan County, Jiangxi Province, People’s Republic of China in September 2005. Extensive investigations on the clinical presentation, epidemiological features, food and water sources have led to the identification of mushroom poisoning. Each of the 10 patients ate wild mushrooms, identified as Amanita franchetii and Ramaria rufescens, and suffered gastrointestinal symptoms prior to sudden deaths. PMID:21686856

Huang, Liang; Liu, Xue Lan; Cao, Chun Shui; Ying, Qing

2009-01-01

424

EFFECT OF PRETREATMENT AND DRYING ON THE QUALITY OF OYSTER MUSHROOMS (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruiting bodies of oyster mushroom were dried by hot-air drying, vacuum-drying and freeze-drying in order to compare food qualities after drying. Prior to drying, mushrooms were subjected to blanching or dipping in sodium metabisulphite solution (1 or 5 g\\/L), or dipping in citric acid solution (1 or 5 g\\/L). Drying of raw mushrooms was taken as a control. Blanching reduced

G. Martínez-Soto; R. Ocanña-Camacho; O. Paredes-López

2001-01-01

425

An Evidence-based Perspective of Coriolus Versicolor (Multicolored Polypore Mushroom) for Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the era of molecularly targeted, rationally designed cancer therapeutics, natural products, especially medicinal mushrooms,\\u000a continue to provide a rich source of anticancer agents. One potent medicinal mushroom extensively used in both traditional\\u000a medicine and modern clinical practice is Coriolus versicolor (alternative names Trametes versicolor, Polyporus versicolor, Polystictus versicolor, multicolored polypore mushroom). In spite of their paucity, available data about

Stanislava Stoši?-Gruji?i?; Sanja Mijatovi?; Danijela Maksimovi?-Ivani?

426

Development, life table and thermal requirement of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Astigmata: Acaridae) on mushrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synanthropic mould mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae infests various stored products, plant seeds and mushroom beds. Its biology was studied under controlled laboratory conditions at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30°C, 70%r.h. and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D)h when reared on button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus and oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae had a significantly shorter developmental time at 25°C when

K. Kheradmand; K. Kamali; Y. Fathipour; E. Mohammadi Goltapeh

2007-01-01

427

Mycorrhizal mushroom diversity and productivity—an indicator of forest health?  

Microsoft Academic Search

• Introduction\\u000a   Fruit-body production of mushrooms is not well understood to date as many factors interact with mushroom growth in nature.\\u000a Weather conditions play a key role, but they do not completely explain the growth and productivity of wild mushrooms. Mycorrhizal\\u000a fungi depend on photosynthetically fixed carbon produced by their associated trees, and the physiological state of host trees\\u000a may

Simon Egli

2011-01-01

428

Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

2014-01-01

429

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach. PMID:24069473

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascon, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Munoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

430

Antibodies to an Epitope from the Cha Human Autoantigen Are Markers of Chagas' Disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas' disease is a prevalent disease in South America that is thought to have an autoimmune etiology. We previously identified human Cha as a new autoantigen recognized by chagasic sera. Those sera recognized an epitope spanning amino acids 120 to 129 of Cha, named R3. In the present study we have used the synthetic R3 peptide for the detection of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies from patients at different stages of Chagas' disease, including a therapeutically treated group. The immunoreactivity with R3 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed 92.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity for Chagas' disease sera. This sensitivity and specificity were higher than for any other autoantigen described to date. No anti-R3 antibodies were detected in sera from Leishmania-infected or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients or healthy controls from the same areas. Moreover, anti-R3 antibody reactivity detected by ELISA correlated with conventional serological tests as indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA assays with Trypanosoma cruzi extracts and other diagnostic tests as indirect hemagglutination. The levels of anti-R3 antibodies increased with progression and symptomatology of Chagas' disease. More interestingly, a statistically significant fall in anti-R3 antibody titer was observed in patients treated with antiparasitic drugs. Those results suggest that the presence of anti-R3 antibodies is a highly specific marker of Chagas' disease and that R3 ELISA could be helpful in the diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. PMID:11687436

Girones, Nuria; Rodriguez, Clara I.; Basso, Beatriz; Bellon, Jose M.; Resino, Salvador; Munoz-Fernandez, M. Angeles; Gea, Susana; Moretti, Edgardo; Fresno, Manuel

2001-01-01

431

Biomedical research and public health in Brazil: the case of Chagas' disease (1909-50).  

PubMed

This article analyses two periods in the history of scientific and social legitimization of American trypanosomiasis or Chagas' disease, discovered in Brazil in 1909 by Carlos Chagas, physician and researcher at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Initially we focus on research during Chagas' lifetime, a phase during which the basic statements of the disease were formulated; then, the action in the 1940s and 1950s by the researchers of the Centro de Estudos e Profilaxia de Moléstia de Chagas, located in Bambui, Minas Gerais, is examined. The validation of knowledge that made the disease a scientifically and socially recognized object occurred through a long process that went beyond not only the event of identification of the new disease but the period in which Chagas and his collaborators broadened their research. Our hypothesis is that the work done at Bambui was responsible for reaching a basic agreement on the pathological specificity and social importance of the disease, and was the basis for its recognition as an important medical problem for Brazilian public health and for its becoming the object of government disease control policy. PMID:14598820

Kropf, Simone P; Azevedo, Nara; Ferreira, Luiz O

2003-04-01

432

Genetic Diversity of Dahongjun, the Commercially Important "Big Red Mushroom" from Southern China  

PubMed Central

Background In southern China, a wild ectomycorrhizal mushroom commonly called “Dahongjun” or “Big Red Mushroom” by the local residents, has been harvested, consumed, and/or exported as an exotic food for many years. Although ecologically and economically important, very little is known about this mushroom, including its diversity and population structure. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we analyzed 122 samples from five local populations representing the known distribution ranges of this mushroom in southern China. We investigated the genetic diversity and geographic structure of this mushroom using sequences from four DNA fragments. Our analyses identified that this mushroom contained at least three divergent lineages: one corresponds to a recently described species Russula griseocarnosa from southern China and the remaining two likely represent two novel species. While these lineages were prominently structured geographically based on ITS sequences, evidence for ancient and/or recent gene flow was also identified within individual lineages. In addition, a local population from Ailaoshan in central Yunnan Province where 85 of our 122 specimens came from showed clear evidence of recombination. Conclusion and Significance The ectomycorrhizal mushroom “Dahongjun” from southern China is a species complex with at least three divergent lineages. These lineages are largely geographically structured and there is evidence for recombination in nature. Our results indicate mature Dahongjun mushrooms with abundant basidiospores are important for the reproduction of this mushroom in nature and that individual populations of this species should be managed separately. PMID:20502696

Li, Mochan; Liang, Junfeng; Li, Yanchun; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu-Liang; James, Timothy Y.; Xu, Jianping

2010-01-01

433

Studies Concerning the Accumulation of Minerals and Heavy Metals in Fruiting Bodies of Wild Mushrooms  

SciTech Connect

The minerals and heavy metals play an important role in the metabolic processes, during the growth and development of mushrooms, when they are available in appreciable concentration. In this work the concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd and Pb were analyzed using the Flame Atomic Absorption spectrometry (FAAS) together with Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) in 3 wild mushrooms species and their growing substrate, collected from various forestry fields in Dambovita County, Romania. The analyzed mushrooms were: Amanita phalloides, Amanita rubescens and Armillariella mellea. The accumulation coefficients were calculated to assess the mobility of minerals and heavy metals from substrate to mushrooms [1].

Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian [Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Popescu, Ion V. [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Sciences Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Valahia University of Targoviste, Multidisciplinary Research Institute for Sciences and Technologies, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania); Academy of Romanian Scientist, Bucharest (Romania); Busuioc, Gabriela [Valahia University of Targoviste, Faculty of Environmental Engineering and Biotechnologies, Environmental Engineering Department, Unirii street, 130082, Targoviste (Romania)

2011-10-03

434

Delignification of wheat straw by Pleurotus spp. under mushroom-growing conditions  

SciTech Connect

Pleurotus sajor-caju, P. sapidus, P. cornucopiae, and P. ostreatus mushrooms were produced on unsupplemented wheat straw. The yield of mushrooms averaged 3.6% (dry-weight basis), with an average 18% straw weight loss. Lignin losses (average, 11%) were lower than cellulose (20%) and hemicellulose (50%) losses. The cellulase digestibility of the residual straw after mushroom harvest was generally lower than that of the original straw. It does not appear feasible to simultaneously produce Pleurotus mushrooms and a highly delignified residue from wheat straw. (Refs. 24).

Tsang, L.J.; Reid, I.D.; Coxworth, E.C.

1987-06-01

435

Diversity, sociobiology and conservation of Lepiotoid and Termitophilous mushrooms of north West India; -.  

E-print Network

??The present study significantly contributes to the taxonomic, nutritional, nutraceutical and chemical characterization of lepiotoid and termitophilous mushrooms from North West India. As many as… (more)

Babita Kumari

2012-01-01

436

Mercury content in mushroom species in the Cordoba area  

SciTech Connect

Numerous investigations have established that fish is the food which shows the highest levels of mercury, thus being the most hazardous for humans. Recently much research has been carried out in several places of Europe on the high capacity of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals. It has been noticed that the various species differ in their tendency to accumulate heavy metals. Two genera in which mercury accumulation was very marked are Agaricus and Lycoperdon. It is suggested that members of the genus Agaricus could be used as indicator organisms in the study of mercury pollution. The object of the present paper is to provide data on the levels of mercury contents in mushroom species collected in the Cordoba area (Spain).

Zurera, G.; Rincon, F.; Arcos, F.; Pozo-Lora, R.

1986-05-01

437

Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology.  

PubMed

Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of free-standing lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

Fischer, Mark W F; Money, Nicholas P

2010-01-01

438

Why mushrooms form gills: efficiency of the lamellate morphology  

PubMed Central

Gilled mushrooms are produced by multiple orders within the Agaricomycetes. Some species form a single array of unbranched radial gills beneath their caps, many others produce multiple files of lamellulae between the primary gills, and branched gills are also common. In this largely theoretical study we modeled the effects of different gill arrangements on the total surface area for spore production. Relative to spore production over a flat surface, gills achieve a maximum 20-fold increase in surface area. The branching of gills produces the same increase in surface area as the formation of freestanding lamellulae (short gills). The addition of lamellulae between every second gill would offer a slightly greater increase in surface area in comparison to the addition of lamellulae between every pair of opposing gills, but this morphology does not appear in nature. Analysis of photographs of mushrooms demonstrates an excellent match between natural gill arrangements and configurations predicted by our model. PMID:20965062

FISCHER, Mark W. F.; MONEY, Nicholas P.

2009-01-01

439

Chemical constituents of the Vietnamese inedible mushroom Xylaria intracolorata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation of the methanolic extract of Vietnamese inedible Xylariaceous mushroom Xylaria intracolorata resulted in the isolation of two new compounds named coloratin A [3,5-dimethoxy-2-(6-oxo-5-pentyl-6H-pyran-3-carbonyl)-benzoic acid] (1) and coloratin B (2-carbomethoxyl-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid) (2). Their structures were elucidated by 2D-NMR, MS, IR, and UV spectroscopy. Coloratin A (1) showed strong antimicrobial activity.

Dang Ngoc Quang; Dang Dinh Bach; Toshihiro Hashimoto; Yoshinori Asakawa

2006-01-01

440

Wild and commercial mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote the use of mushrooms as source of nutrients and nutraceuticals, several experiments were performed in wild and commercial species. The analysis of nutrients included determination of proteins, fats, ash, and carbohydrates, particularly sugars by HPLC-RI. The analysis of nutraceuticals included determination of fatty acids by GC-FID, and other phytochemicals such as tocopherols, by HPLC-fluorescence, and phenolics,

Lillian Barros; Telma Cruz; Paula Baptista; Letícia M. Estevinho; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

2008-01-01

441

A simple mushroom body in an African scarabid beetle.  

PubMed

This account describes novel mushroom body organization in a coleopteran insect, the African fruit chafer Pachnoda marginata. Each of its prominent mushroom bodies possesses a pair of simple calyces comprising two populations of Kenyon cells, the dendrites of which are organized into a central and an annular zone. Kenyon cells of the central zone extend their dendrites downward and toward the perimeter of the calyx. Their axon-like processes in the pedunculus are densely packed to make up a distinctive shaft of neuropil. Toward the front of the brain, the shafts, one from each calyx, bifurcate to provide a pair of subdivisions in the medial and vertical lobes. Dendrites of Kenyon cells supplying the annular zone extend from the calyx perimeter toward its center. Axons from the annular zones of both calyces together provide a sleeve of axons that ensheaths the two shafts. Sleeve axons bifurcate to provide a second pair of divisions in each of the lobes. These arrangements provide each lobe with a discrete representation of the two Kenyon cell populations of the two calyces. Kenyon cells supplying the central zone have dendritic morphologies reminiscent of class II clawed Kenyon cells that supply the gamma lobes in other taxa. Kenyon cells supplying axons to the sleeve are suggestive of class III Kenyon cell morphologies described from cockroaches and termites. Elaborate intrinsic neurons, comparable to exotic intrinsic neurons in the honey bee gamma lobes, have processes that interact with shaft axons. The present observations suggest that mushroom bodies of Pachnoda represent either a basal organization entirely lacking class I Kenyon cells or an evolutionary modification in which there is no clear morphological distinction of class I and II Kenyon cells. In either case, cellular organization in Pachnoda's mushroom body is simple compared with that of other taxa. PMID:15368535

Larsson, Mattias C; Hansson, Bill S; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

2004-10-18

442

Inhibition of the activity of mushroom tyrosinase by alkylbenzoic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibition kinetics of alkylbenzoic acids on the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase have been investigated. The results show that the alkylbenzoic acids assayed can lead to reversible inhibition of the enzyme; furthermore, o-toluic acid and m-toluic acid are mixed-type inhibitors and p-alkylbenzoic acids are uncompetitive inhibitors. The inhibition constants have been determined. For these p-alkylbenzoic acids, the inhibition strength

Xiao-Hong Huang; Qing-Xi Chen; Qin Wang; Kang-Kang Song; Jun Wang; Li Sha; Xiong Guan

2006-01-01

443

Content and bioconcentration of mercury in mushrooms from northern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury (Hg) was quantified using cold vapour-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) in the fruiting bodies of nine edible and five inedible mushrooms and in underlying soil substrate samples. In total, 404 samples comprising caps and stalks and 202 samples of soil substrate (0–10 cm layer) were collected in 1996 from Trójmiejski Landscape Park, northern Poland. Mean Hg concentrations in the soil

J. Falandysz; M. Gucia; A. Brzostowski; M. Kawano; L. Bielawski; A. Frankowska; B. Wyrzykowska

2003-01-01

444

Analysis of the mushroom nephrotoxin orellanine and its glucosides.  

PubMed

Orellanine is a nephrotoxin found in various Cortinaceae mushroom species. Unintentional consumption after these species were confused with edible mushrooms such as Cantharellus tubaeformis has caused several casualties. In this work, a quantitative HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for total orellanine in Cortinarius rubellus, spiked blood plasma, and a mushroom stew prepared from C. tubaeformis with the addition of a single specimen of C. rubellus is presented. The existence of mono- and diglucosylated orellanine in C. rubellus was also proven, although quantitative analysis could not be obtained for the glucosides due to rapid hydrolyzation to orellanine in the extract. Extraction with 3 M HCl or water mainly yielded orellanine, while MeOH or acidified MeOH mainly extracted mono- and diglucosylated orellanine. The highest recovery of total orellanine was obtained with 3 M HCl, which was subsequently used for quantitative analysis. A C?? HPLC column and low pH in the eluents retained all these toxins. Orellanine could be detected at a 4.9 ng/mL level in all extracts, which is well below the threshold for acute toxic effects. Additionally, the fragmentation pattern of orellanine upon electrospray MS/MS was probed. The method described is useful for two important applications. First, it allows quantitative analysis of processed food products that may be contaminated by orellanine from Cortinaceae mushrooms. Second, orellanine is currently being evaluated as a potential cure of metastatic renal cancer, and this work provides a method for monitoring orellanine at low concentrations within the therapeutic interval in blood serum. PMID:23046414

Herrmann, Anders; Hedman, Heidi; Rosén, Johan; Jansson, Daniel; Haraldsson, Börje; Hellenäs, Karl-Erik

2012-10-26

445

Oscillating mushrooms: adiabatic theory for a non-ergodic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Can elliptic islands contribute to sustained energy growth as parameters of a Hamiltonian system slowly vary with time? In this paper we show that a mushroom billiard with a periodically oscillating boundary accelerates the particle inside it exponentially fast. We provide an estimate for the rate of acceleration. Our numerical experiments corroborate the theory. We suggest that a similar mechanism applies to general systems with mixed phase space.

Gelfreich, V.; Rom-Kedar, V.; Turaev, D.

2014-10-01

446

Slippery Scar: A New Mushroom Disease in Auricularia polytricha  

PubMed Central

A new disease, the slippery scar, was investigated in cultivated bags of Auricularia polytricha. This fungus was isolated from the infected mycelia of cultivated bags. Based on morphological observation, rDNA-internal transcribed spacer and 18S sequence analysis, this pathogen was identified as the Ascomycete Scytalidium lignicola. According to Koch's Postulation, the pathogenicity of S. lignicola to the mycelia of A. polytricha was confirmed. The parasitism of this fungus on mushroom mycelia in China has not been reported before. PMID:22870056

Sun, Jie

2012-01-01

447

Trace elements in higher fungi (mushrooms) determined by activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruit bodies of wild-growing higher fungi (macromycetes), commonly called mushrooms, of various genera and species collected in localities with different geochemical features and man-made burden in the Czech Republic were analyzed by different modes of activation analysis. The elements Na, Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ti, V, Mn, Cu, Br, Ba and Dy were determined by short-term instrumental neutron

Z. ?anda; J. Ku?era

2004-01-01

448

Stimulation of Erythrocyte Cell Membrane Scrambling by Mushroom Tyrosinase  

PubMed Central

Background: Mushroom tyrosinase, a copper containing enzyme, modifies growth and survival of tumor cells. Mushroom tyrosinase may foster apoptosis, an effect in part due to interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but are able to undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine-exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signaling involved in the triggering of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i) and activation of sphingomyelinase with subsequent formation of ceramide. The present study explored, whether tyrosinase stimulates eryptosis. Methods: Cell volume has been estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine-exposure from annexin V binding, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of fluorescent antibodies in flow cytometry. Results: A 24 h exposure to mushroom tyrosinase (7 U/mL) was followed by a significant increase of [Ca2+]i, a significant increase of ceramide abundance, and a significant increase of annexin-V-binding. The annexin-V-binding following tyrosinase treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca2+. Tyrosinase did not significantly modify forward scatter. Conclusions: Tyrosinase triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect, at least partially, due to entry of extracellular Ca2+ and ceramide formation. PMID:24647148

Frauenfeld, Leonie; Alzoubi, Kousi; Abed, Majed; Lang, Florian

2014-01-01

449

Bioaccumulation of Hg in the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of utilizing industrial, urban, and other wastes for the growth of a product which is directly edible by humans is fascinating. However, it is possible that many wastes containing toxic substances, for example, heavy metals, could reach the food chain and produce adverse effects on human health. To this end, we studied the possibility of bioaccumulation of Hg by a mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, grown on an artificial compost containing this element. Concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg of Hg as Hg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/.H/sub 2/O were added to three groups of the same compost, successively inoculated with the mycelia of the mushroom. Higher concentrations strongly reduced the growth of the mycelia and therefore were not utilized. The concentrations of Hg in the substrate and in the mushroom were evaluated by AAS. The range of the accumulation factor was found to be 65-140, i.e., very marked. This finding suggests that the cultivation of P. ostreatus on substrates containing Hg from industrial and urban wastes could involve possible risks to human health.

Bressa, G.; Cima, L.; Costa, P.

1988-10-01

450

Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of wild growing mushrooms and toadstools.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been increase of general interest in fungi because of the possible medical applications of their polysaccharide constituents called glucans, some of which are reported to have immunomodulatory properties. Since an extraction method can change the chemical composition of a substance, especially a delicate one such as fungal thallus, it is necessary and useful to know more about the studied matter in advance in order to choose the chemical procedure properly. We demonstrated the usefulness of vibrational spectroscopy in identifying different glucan types in various parts of intact fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycetes. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of spores and fruiting bodies of more than 70 species belonging to 37 different genera of wild growing mushrooms. The list of the bands in 750-950 cm(-1) interval, assigned to alpha- and beta-glucans, is provided for all species studied. Vibrational spectra in the interval 1000-1200 cm(-1) could serve as an indicator of mushroom genus, although particular species cannot be identified spectroscopically. Great similarities in spectra of spores of the same genus, but different species, e.g. Tricholoma album and Trichloma sulphureum, were observed. On the other hand, spectra of cap, stalk and spores of the same mushroom show great differences, indicating variety in the chemical composition of different parts of the same fruiting body. PMID:11789883

Mohacek-Grosev, V; Bozac, R; Puppels, G J

2001-12-01

451

Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of wild growing mushrooms and toadstools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there has been increase of general interest in fungi because of the possible medical applications of their polysaccharide constituents called glucans, some of which are reported to have immunomodulatory properties. Since an extraction method can change the chemical composition of a substance, especially a delicate one such as fungal thallus, it is necessary and useful to know more about the studied matter in advance in order to choose the chemical procedure properly. We demonstrated the usefulness of vibrational spectroscopy in identifying different glucan types in various parts of intact fruiting bodies of Asco- and Basidiomycetes. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used for obtaining vibrational spectra of spores and fruiting bodies of more than 70 species belonging to 37 different genera of wild growing mushrooms. The list of the bands in 750-950 cm -1 interval, assigned to ?- and ?-glucans, is provided for all species studied. Vibrational spectra in the interval 1000-1200 cm -1 could serve as an indicator of mushroom genus, although particular species cannot be identified spectroscopically. Great similarities in spectra of spores of the same genus, but different species, e.g. Tricholoma album and Trichloma sulphureum, were observed. On the other hand, spectra of cap, stalk and spores of the same mushroom show great differences, indicating variety in the chemical composition of different parts of the same fruiting body.

Moha?ek-Grošev, Vlasta; Božac, Romano; Puppels, Gerwin J.

2001-12-01

452

Characterization of pseudomonads isolated from decaying sporocarps of oyster mushroom.  

PubMed

Pleurotus ostreatus is one of the most extensively cultivated mushrooms in the world; however, the success of cultivation often depends on the proliferation of different bacterial pathogens. Pseudomonas tolaasii is thought as the major cause of brown blotch disease of Agaricus bisporus and yellowing of Pleurotus ostreatus. In this study we examined the pathogenicity and assessed the industrial damage causing effect of 41 Pseudomonas strains isolated from deformed, yellowing oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) sporocarps. Identification of the isolates at species level by the partial sequence analysis of the hypervariable region of the rpoB gene revealed nine Pseudomonas sps. We analyzed the presence of the tolaasin gene-cluster, the production of fluorescent pigments, the oxidase- and nitrite reductase activities, the growth at restrictive temperatures and the carbon source utilizing abilities of each strain. Complex lipopeptide production (including tolaasin) was examined with thin layer chromatography and a novel in vitro necrosis-test was developed and evaluated for the investigation of the pathogenic effect of Pseudomonas strains. Our results underline the importance of extracellular enzyme production in the sporocarp decaying process. Strong correlations were found between the secretion of trypsin-like proteases and lipases and the necrotic effect of these bacteria. All the results clearly established that besides Ps. tolaasii, Ps. fluorescens biovar V strains were pathogenic to P. ostreatus and cause serious losses during mushroom production. Our results underline the importance of extracellular enzyme production in the sporocarp decaying process, especially the trypsin-like proteases and lipases. PMID:20627228

Sajben, Eniko; Manczinger, László; Nagy, Adrienn; Kredics, László; Vágvölgyi, Csaba

2011-05-20

453

5-Year analysis of mushroom exposures in California  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate outcomes following toxic mushroom ingestions. Design Retrospective data analysis. Methods We analyzed American Association of Poison Control Center data for California from 1993 through 1997. Results A total of 6,317 exposures occurred during the study period. Most (n = 6,229 [99.7%]) were acute exposures, and the rest (0.3%) were chronic; 87.6% (n = 5,536) were unintentional. Most (n = 4,235 [67.0%]) were in children younger than 6 years, and of these, only 6.0% experienced any clinical effects. The most common symptoms in patients aged 6 years and older were vomiting in 588 patients (28.2%), nausea in 307 patients (14.7%), diarrhea in 263 patients (12.6%), and abdominal pain in 221 patients (10.6%). No effects were seen in 3,131 (49.6% of all patients). Major effects were seen in only 17 patients (0.3%). Only 61 patients (1.0%) were admitted to a critical care unit. Death occurred in a 32-year-old adult who ate foraged mushrooms. Of all patients, 1,375 (21.8%) received no therapy or were observed only. Conclusions Most mushroom exposures were acute and unintentional and occurred in children younger than 6 years. Major toxic reactions or death was uncommon. PMID:11069864

Nordt, Sean Patrick; Manoguerra, Anthony

2000-01-01

454

Ribosomal Biosynthesis of the Cyclic Peptide Toxins of Amanita Mushrooms  

PubMed Central

Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as ?- and ?-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys cross-bridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and phallotoxins are synthesized as proproteins on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The proproteins are 34–35 amino acids in length and have no predicted signal peptides. The genes for ?-amanitin (AMA1) and phallacidin (PHA1) are members of a large family of related genes, characterized by highly conserved amino acid sequences flanking a hypervariable “toxin” region. The toxin regions are flanked by invariant proline (Pro) residues. An enzyme that could cleave the proprotein of phalloidin was purified from the phalloidin-producing lawn mushroom Conocybe apala. The enzyme is a serine protease in the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) subfamily. The same enzyme cuts at both Pro residues to release the linear hepta- or octapeptide. PMID:20564017

Walton, Jonathan D.; Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Luo, Hong

2014-01-01

455

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Mycelial Extracts from Medicinal Mushrooms.  

PubMed

Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (<300 ?g/mL) dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Among them, the chloroform extract from G. lucidum was the most effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 ?g/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases. PMID:25271860

Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

2014-01-01

456

Lack of Segregation between Two Species of Chagas Disease Vectors  

PubMed Central

Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus are relevant Chagas disease vectors. An apparent segregation among these triatomine species inside human households was suggested to rely on mutual repellence between them. However, P. megistus and T. infestans show aggregation responses to chemical signals emitted by the other species. These findings do not rule out the possibility that stimuli other than chemical signals could mediate repellence when these species exploit shelters simultaneously. In the present study, we investigated how P. megistus and T. infestans exploit shelters in controlled laboratory conditions and how insect density and environmental illumination modulate this behavior. We evaluated whether these species aggregate inside shelters or mutually repel each other. Panstrongylus megistus and T. infestans show specific patterns of shelter exploitation, which are differentially affected by insect density and environment illumination. In particular, P. megistus is more sensitive to insect density than T. infestans, whereas T. infestans shows higher sensitivity to illumination than P. megistus. Nevertheless, these species exploit shelters randomly without any apparent repellence. PMID:22764300

Mota, Theo; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo

2012-01-01

457

Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.  

PubMed

Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

2014-08-22

458

A Model for Chagas Disease with Oral and Congenital Transmission  

PubMed Central

This work presents a new mathematical model for the domestic transmission of Chagas disease, a parasitic disease affecting humans and other mammals throughout Central and South America. The model takes into account congenital transmission in both humans and domestic mammals as well as oral transmission in domestic mammals. The model has time-dependent coefficients to account for seasonality and consists of four nonlinear differential equations, one of which has a delay, for the populations of vectors, infected vectors, infected humans, and infected mammals in the domestic setting. Computer simulations show that congenital transmission has a modest effect on infection while oral transmission in domestic mammals substantially contributes to the spread of the disease. In particular, oral transmission provides an alternative to vector biting as an infection route for the domestic mammals, who are key to the infection cycle. This may lead to high infection rates in domestic mammals even when the vectors have a low preference for biting them, and ultimately results in high infection levels in humans. PMID:23840647

Coffield, Daniel J.; Spagnuolo, Anna Maria; Shillor, Meir; Mema, Ensela; Pell, Bruce; Pruzinsky, Amanda; Zetye, Alexandra

2013-01-01

459

American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease) in Central American immigrants.  

PubMed

A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan etiologic agent of American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), among Nicaraguan and Salvadoran immigrants living in the Washington, D.C., area. The serum samples of study subjects were tested for reactivity with T. cruzi antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and also tested for antibody specific for the 72 and 90 kilodalton (kDa) surface glycoproteins of the parasite in an immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis procedure. Xenodiagnosis using reduviid bugs to detect parasites, and clinical evaluations for cardiac and gastrointestinal disease were performed in patients in whom results of both serologic tests were positive. Of 205 subjects studied, 4.9 percent were infected with T. cruzi, and parasites were isolated from 50 percent of those in whom xenodiagnosis was attempted. No significant cardiac or gastrointestinal abnormalities were detected in the six infected patients who were evaluated clinically. These findings suggest that a sizable proportion of persons in this immigrant group are infected with this organism. Thus, routine serologic testing for antibody to T. cruzi may be warranted in immigrants from these countries, especially in view of the potentially serious consequences of infection with this parasite, and also because of the risk of transmission of T. cruzi by blood transfusion. PMID:3107385

Kirchhoff, L V; Gam, A A; Gilliam, F C

1987-05-01

460

Trypanosoma cruzi Antioxidant Enzymes As Virulence Factors in Chagas Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Chagas disease (CD) affects several million people in Latin America and is spreading beyond its classical boundaries due to the migration of infected host and insect vectors, HIV co-infection, and blood transfusion. The current therapy is not adequate for treatment of the chronic phase of CD, and new drugs are warranted. Recent Advances: Trypanosoma cruzi is equipped with a specialized and complex network of antioxidant enzymes that are located at different subcellular compartments which defend the parasite against host oxidative assaults. Recently, strong evidence has emerged which indicates that enzyme components of the T. cruzi antioxidant network (cytosolic and mitochondrial peroxiredoxins and trypanothione synthetase) in naturally occurring strains act as a virulence factor for CD. This precept is recapitulated with the observed increased resistance of T. cruzi peroxirredoxins overexpressers to in vivo or in vitro nitroxidative stress conditions. In addition, the modulation of mitochondrial superoxide radical levels by iron superoxide dismutase (FeSODA) influences parasite programmed cell death, underscoring the role of this enzyme in parasite survival. Critical Issues: The unraveling of the biological significance of FeSODs in T. cruzi programmed cell death in the context of chronic infection in CD is still under examination. Future Directions: The role of the antioxidant enzymes in the pathogenesis of CD, including parasite virulence and persistence, and their feasibility as pharmacological targets justifies further investigation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 723–734. PMID:22458250

Piacenza, Lucia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Alvarez, Maria Noel; Martinez, Alejandra

2013-01-01

461

A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Tissue specimens from 283 principally spontaneously (naturally) desiccated human mummies from coastal and low valley sites in northern Chile and southern Peru were tested with a DNA probe directed at a kinetoplast DNA segment of Trypanosoma cruzi. The time interval spanned by the eleven major cultural groups represented in the sample ranged from approximately 9,000 years B.P. (7050 B.C.) to approximately the time of the Spanish conquest, approximately 450 B.P. ( approximately 1500 A.D.). Forty-one percent of the tissue extracts, amplified by the PCR reacted positively (i.e., hybridized) with the probe. Prevalence patterns demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the individual cultural groups, nor among subgroups compared on the basis of age, sex, or weight of specimen tested. These results suggest that the sylvatic (animal-infected) cycle of Chagas' disease was probably well established at the time that the earliest humans (members of the Chinchorro culture) first peopled this segment of the Andean coast and inadvertently joined the many other mammal species acting as hosts for this parasite. PMID:14766963

Aufderheide, Arthur C; Salo, Wilmar; Madden, Michael; Streitz, John; Buikstra, Jane; Guhl, Felipe; Arriaza, Bernardo; Renier, Colleen; Wittmers, Lorentz E; Fornaciari, Gino; Allison, Marvin

2004-02-17

462

Advances and challenges towards a vaccine against Chagas disease  

PubMed Central

Chagas disease is major public health problem, affecting nearly 10 million people, characterized by cardiac alterations leading to congestive heart failure and death of 20-40% of the patients infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite responsible for the disease. A vaccine would be key to improve disease control and we review here the recent advances and challenges of a T. cruzi vaccine. There is a growing consensus that a protective immune response requires the activation of a Th1 immune profile, with the stimulation of CD8+ T cells. Several vacines types, including recombinant proteins, DNA and viral vectors, as well as heterologous prime-boost combinations, have been found immunogenic and protective in mouse models, providing proof-of-concept data on the feasibility of a preventive or therapeutic vaccine to control a T. cruzi infection. However, several challenges such as better end-points, safety issues and trial design need to be addressed for further vaccine development to proceed. PMID:22048121

Quijano-Hernandez, Israel

2011-01-01

463

Congenital Chagas disease: time to screen pregnant women?  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Bua J, Volta BJ, Velazquez EB et al. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: quantification of parasite burden in mothers and their children by parasite DNA amplification. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 106(10), 623-628 (2012). The congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi has gained epidemiological importance because it is partially responsible for the spread of Chagas disease worldwide. The feasibility of a cure when infected children are treated early makes the detection of congenital infection a valuable goal toward the control of the disease. Here, the authors review and discuss the findings of Bua et al., who quantified the parasitemia of infected women and their newborns by quantitative PCR. The authors demonstrate that the maternal parasite burden is directly related to the risk of neonatal infection. This study points out the importance of a quantitative screen for T. cruzi in pregnant women who live in, or have traveled to, endemic areas for improving the diagnosis of infected newborns and providing prompt treatment. PMID:23241184

Sesti-Costa, Renata; Silva, João S; Gutierrez, Fredy R S

2012-11-01

464

A three-dimensional multi-agent-based model for the evolution of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

A better understanding of Chagas' disease is important because the knowledge about the progression and the participation of the different types of cells in this disease are still lacking. To clarify this system, the kinetics of inflammatory cells and parasite nests was shown in an experiment. Using this experimental data, we have developed a three-dimensional multi-agent-based computational model for the evolution of Chagas' disease. Our model includes five different types of agents: inflammatory cell, fibrosis, cardiomyocyte, fibroblast, and Trypanosoma cruzi. Fibrosis is fixed and the other types of agents can move through the empty space. They move randomly by using the Moore neighborhood. This model reproduces the acute and chronic phases of Chagas' disease and the volume occupied by all different types of cells in the cardiac tissue. PMID:20347006

Galvão, Viviane; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas

2010-06-01

465

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi) and HIV co-infection in Colombia.  

PubMed

Chagas disease is a complex zoonotic pathology caused by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite presents remarkable genetic variability and has been grouped into six discrete typing units (DTUs). The association between the DTUs and clinical outcome remains unknown. Chagas disease and co-infection with HIV/AIDS has been reported widely in Brazil and Argentina. Herein, we present the molecular analyses from a Chagas disease patient with HIV/AIDS co-infection in Colombia who presented severe cardiomyopathy, pleural effusion, and central nervous system involvement. A mixed infection by T. cruzi genotypes was detected. We suggest including T. cruzi in the list of opportunistic pathogens for the management of HIV patients in Colombia. The epidemiological implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:25080354

Hernández, Carolina; Cucunubá, Zulma; Parra, Edgar; Toro, German; Zambrano, Pilar; Ramírez, Juan David

2014-09-01

466

76 FR 66686 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration [A-570-851] Certain Preserved Mushrooms From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time...review of the antidumping duty order on certain preserved mushrooms from the People's Republic of China, covering the...

2011-10-27

467

Constructing a Wild Mushroom Panopticon: The Extension of Nation-State Control over the Forest Understory in Oregon, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructing a Wild Mushroom Panopticon: The Extension of Nation-State Control over the Forest Understory in Oregon, USA. For most of the 20th century, wild mushrooms on national forests in the United States fell under a de facto open-access management regime. As\\u000a consumer demand for wild mushrooms increased, a nation-state wild mushroom management regime based on the use of disciplinary\\u000a power

Rebecca J. McLain

2008-01-01

468

Epidemiology of Mortality Related to Chagas' Disease in Brazil, 1999-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Chagas' disease is an important neglected public health problem in many Latin American countries, but population-based epidemiological data are scarce. Here we present a nationwide analysis on Chagas-associated mortality, and risk factors for death from this disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed all death certificates of individuals who died between 1999 and 2007 in Brazil, based on the nationwide Mortality Information System (a total of 243 data sets with about 9 million entries). Chagas' disease was mentioned in 53,930 (0.6%) of death certificates, with 44,537 (82.6%) as an underlying cause and 9,387 (17.4%) as an associated cause of death. Acute Chagas' disease was responsible for 2.8% of deaths. The mean standardized mortality rate was 3.36/100.000 inhabitants/year. Na